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Sample records for meningococcal capsular polysaccharide

  1. Protection by meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA-specific antibodies and a serogroup B capsular polysaccharide-specific antibody in complement-sufficient and C6-deficient infant rats.

    Toropainen, Maija; Saarinen, Leena; Vidarsson, Gestur; Käyhty, Helena

    2006-05-01

    The relative contributions of antibody-induced complement-mediated bacterial lysis and antibody/complement-mediated phagocytosis to host immunity against meningococcal infections are currently unclear. Further, the in vivo effector functions of antibodies may vary depending on their specificity and Fc heavy-chain isotype. In this study, a mouse immunoglobulin G2a (mIgG2a) monoclonal antibody (MN12H2) to meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA (P1.16), its human IgG subclass derivatives (hIgG1 to hIgG4), and an mIgG2a monoclonal antibody (Nmb735) to serogroup B capsular polysaccharide (B-PS) were evaluated for passive protection against meningococcal serogroup B strain 44/76-SL (B:15:P1.7,16) in an infant rat infection model. Complement component C6-deficient (PVG/c-) rats were used to assess the importance of complement-mediated bacterial lysis for protection. The PorA-specific parental mIgG2a and the hIgG1 to hIgG3 derivatives all induced efficient bactericidal activity in vitro in the presence of human or infant rat complement and augmented bacterial clearance in complement-sufficient HsdBrlHan:WIST rats, while the hIgG4 was unable to do so. In C6-deficient PVG/c- rats, lacking complement-mediated bacterial lysis, the augmentation of bacterial clearance by PorA-specific mIgG2a and hIgG1 antibodies was impaired compared to that in the syngeneic complement-sufficient PVG/c+ rat strain. This was in contrast to the case for B-PS-specific mIgG2a, which conferred similar protective activity in both rat strains. These data suggest that while anti-B-PS antibody can provide protection in the infant rats without membrane attack complex formation, the protection afforded by anti-PorA antibody is more dependent on the activation of the whole complement pathway and subsequent bacterial lysis.

  2. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    Stephens, David S [Stone Mountain, GA; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K [Kensington, MD; Tzeng, Yih-Ling [Atlanta, GA; Datta, Anup K [San Diego, CA; Carlson, Russell W [Athens, GA

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  3. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  4. Protection against Escherichia coli K1 infection in newborn rats by antibody to K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen.

    Bortolussi, R; Ferrier, P

    1980-01-01

    The protective value of antibody to the K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen of Escherichia coli was investigated in a newborn rat model of E. coli K1 infection. Pregnant rats were immunized intravenously with E. coli, and the agglutinating titer to meningococcal group B polysaccharide, which is identical to K1 polysaccharide, was measured in the serum of rats and their offspring. Convalescent serum from rat mothers showed an increased antibody titer in animals injected twice but not once with ...

  5. Visualization of capsular polysaccharide induction in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Bellenberg, S.; Leon Morales, C.F.; Sand, W.; Vera, M.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) are of fundamental importance for attachment to metal sulfides, biofilm formation and leaching efficiency of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. In this work we have visualized the capsular polysaccharides (CPS) of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 using the

  6. Vaccines for the prevention of meningococcal capsular group B disease: What have we recently learned?

    Findlow, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a feared and devastating cause of sepsis and meningitis. Disease incidence is highest among infants and children although a significant burden of disease is experienced by adolescents, young adults and those with specific risk-factors. Prevention of disease against capsular groups A, C, W and Y; 4 of the 5 most pathogenic groups is achievable using capsular polysaccharide vaccines. It has only recently been possible to provide protection against capsular group B (MenB) strains following the licensure of a 4 component group B vaccine (4CMenB) in Europe in 2013. Following licensure, 4CMenB has been used in specific at-risk groups and in response to outbreaks of MenB disease. The largest outbreak interventions have been in students at 2 universities in the United States and for all individuals aged 2 months to 20 years of age in Quebec, Canada. The vaccine was recommended in February 2014 for implementation into the UK infant schedule at 2, 4 and 12 months of age, although it has taken over 12 months to resolve procurement discussions to enable implementation. The UK recommendation incorporates prophylactic paracetamol with infant doses when 4CMenB is administered concomitantly with routine vaccines. This is based on recent data demonstrating the ability of paracetamol to reduce fever rates to background levels without impacting immunogenicity. Post-implementation surveillance will be important to provide vaccine efficacy data as this was not possible to determine in pre-licensure studies due to the relative infrequency of MenB cases.

  7. Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide.

    Michael T Karwacki

    Full Text Available Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications.

  8. Protection by meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA-specific antibodies and a serogroup B capsular polysaccharide-specific antibody in complement-sufficient and C6-deficient infant rats

    Toropainen, Maija; Saarinen, Leena; Vidarsson, Gestur; Käyhty, Helena

    2006-01-01

    The relative contributions of antibody-induced complement-mediated bacterial lysis and antibody/complement-mediated phagocytosis to host immunity against meningococcal infections are currently unclear. Further, the in vivo effector functions of antibodies may vary depending on their specificity and

  9. High-dimensional assessment of B-cell responses to quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate and plain polysaccharide vaccine.

    O'Connor, Daniel; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Amber J; Snape, Matthew D; Ramasamy, Maheshi N; Kelly, Dominic F; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-01-30

    Neisseria meningitidis is a globally important cause of meningitis and septicaemia. Twelve capsular groups of meningococci are known, and quadrivalent vaccines against four of these (A, C, W and Y) are available as plain-polysaccharide and protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. Here we apply contemporary methods to describe B-cell responses to meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. Twenty adults were randomly assigned to receive either a meningococcal plain-polysaccharide or conjugate vaccine; one month later all received the conjugate vaccine. Blood samples were taken pre-vaccination and 7, 21 and 28 days after vaccination; B-cell responses were assessed by ELISpot, serum bactericidal assay, flow cytometry and gene expression microarray. Seven days after an initial dose of either vaccine, a gene expression signature characteristic of plasmablasts was detectable. The frequency of newly generated plasma cells (CXCR3 + HLA-DR + ) and the expression of transcripts derived from IGKC and IGHG2 correlated with immunogenicity. Notably, using an independent dataset, the expression of glucosamine (N-acetyl)-6-sulfatase was found to reproducibly correlate with the magnitude of immune response. Transcriptomic and flow cytometric data revealed depletion of switched memory B cells following plain-polysaccharide vaccine. These data describe distinct gene signatures associated with the production of high-avidity antibody and a plain-polysaccharide-specific signature, possibly linked to polysaccharide-induced hyporesponsiveness.

  10. The capsular group B meningococcal vaccine, 4CMenB : clinical experience and potential efficacy.

    Rollier, Christine S; Dold, Christina; Marsay, Leanne; Sadarangani, Manish; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Capsular group B meningococcal disease is a leading cause of childhood meningitis and septicaemia. Up to 10% of sufferers die, and sequelae remain in > 30% of survivors. A vaccine, four component meningococcal group B ( 4CMenB ), designed with the aim to induce broad coverage against this highly variable bacterium, has been licensed in countries including in the European Union, Canada and Australia. Immunogenicity and safety data, published in peer-reviewed literature between 2004 and 2014, are presented in the context of the recent recommendation for the use of the vaccine in infants in the UK. 4CMenB induces significant reactogenicity when administered with routine infant vaccines, in particular with respect to fever rates. Fevers can be somewhat reduced using paracetamol. The efficacy of the vaccine is unknown but has been extrapolated from effectiveness data obtained from use of one of its components in New Zealand, immunogenicity data from clinical trials and estimation of coverage from in vitro studies. These data suggest that the vaccine will prevent a proportion of invasive meningococcal disease cases in infants and young children. Implementation and well-planned post-marketing surveillance will address uncertainties over field effectiveness.

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of meningococcal A and C polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in adults.

    Anderson, E L; Bowers, T; Mink, C M; Kennedy, D J; Belshe, R B; Harakeh, H; Pais, L; Holder, P; Carlone, G M

    1994-01-01

    A meningococcal vaccine containing group A and C polysaccharides conjugated to CRM197 was evaluated in 50 adults. Vaccinees were entered into one of five groups: 30 adults received a single dose of either 22, 11, or 5.5 micrograms of the conjugated A-C vaccine; 10 received an approved meningococcal vaccine; and 10 received saline injections. Local and systemic reactions to vaccines were recorded, and immune responses were determined. The experimental meningococcal vaccine was well tolerated, ...

  12. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants

    Kristensen, Kim; Gyhrs, A; Lausen, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (HibCP-TT) in preterm infants. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five healthy preterm infants with gestational ages (GA) from 27 to 36 weeks and birth weights from...

  13. Meningococcal Disease in China

    Zhujun Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitides is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis. The epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease varies in different countries and regions. This review summarizes the available data from China describing the burden of meningococcal disease, N. meningitidis serogroups, and vaccination programs. Meningococcal serogroup A (MenA was predominant for several decades in China. However, since 2000, invasive meningococcal disease caused by MenC, MenW, or MenB has increased. MenC, belonging to a hyperinvasive clonal sequence type ST-4821 (CC4821, emerged in Anhui Province and was subsequently disseminated over two-thirds of all Chinese provinces. Serogroup W (CC11 is endemic and causes death. Serogroup B (CC4821 originated from serogroup C (CC4821 via a capsular switching mechanism. Polysaccharide A and C meningococcal vaccines have been introduced into national routine immunization programs and have effectively reduced invasive meningococcal disease. However, the vaccination strategy must be revised based on the epidemic trends in meningococcal disease in China.

  14. Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide in MHC Class II tubules.

    Tom Li Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. However, the capsular polysaccharide Sp1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 has been shown to activate CD4(+ T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II-dependent manner. The mechanism of carbohydrate presentation to CD4(+ T cells is unknown. We show in live murine dendritic cells (DCs that Sp1 translocates from lysosomal compartments to the plasma membrane in MHCII-positive tubules. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. In DM-deficient mice, retrograde transport of Sp1/MHCII complexes resulting in T cell-dependent immune responses to the polysaccharide in vitro and in vivo is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the capacity of a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen to use DC tubules as a vehicle for its transport as an MHCII/saccharide complex to the cell surface for the induction of T cell activation. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens.

  15. Effects of light wavelengths on extracellular and capsular polysaccharide production by Nostoc flagelliforme.

    Han, Pei-pei; Sun, Ying; Jia, Shi-ru; Zhong, Cheng; Tan, Zhi-lei

    2014-05-25

    The influences of different wavelengths of light (red 660nm, yellow 590nm, green 520nm, blue 460nm, purple 400nm) and white light on extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) production by Nostoc flagelliforme in liquid culture were demonstrated in this study. The results showed that, compared with white light, red and blue lights significantly increased both EPS and CPS production while yellow light reduced their production; purple and green lights stimulated EPS production but inhibited CPS formation. Nine constituent monosaccharides and one uronic acid were detected in both EPS and CPS, and their ratios showed significant differences among treatment with different light wavelengths. However, the advanced structure of EPS and CPS from various light conditions did not present obvious difference through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization. These findings establish a basis for development of high-yielding polysaccharide production process and understanding their regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus of Porphyromonas gingivalis and development of a K1-specific polymerase chain reaction-based serotyping assay

    Brunner, J.; Crielaard, W.; Winkelhoff A.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative obligate anaerobe that is strongly associated with severe periodontitis. Previous reports showed an association of P. gingivalis capsular polysaccharide with virulence. The K1 capsular polysaccharide was found to be more

  17. A medically relevant capsular polysaccharide in Acinetobacter baumannii is a potential vaccine candidate.

    Yang, Feng-Ling; Lou, Tze-Chi; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Wu, Wan-Ling; Chern, Jeffy; Lee, Yi-Tzu; Chen, Shui-Tsung; Zou, Wei; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2017-03-07

    Concerns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection have increased due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance. In the present study, we determined the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) structure of A. baumannii SK44, a clinical isolate from Taiwan, to consist of pentasaccharide repeats. We found that CPS-induced antibody provided 55% protection against challenge in an animal model. The CPS-specific antibody reacted with the surface components of about 62% clinical isolates (342/554 strains) from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by dot-immunoassay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of positive strains showed the antibody covered different clonalites of A. baumannii clinical isolates. Meanwhile, using the CPS antibody as a probe, we found a number of outer membrane proteins bound to the antibody, including OmpA/motB, TonB-dependent receptor, and Omp38, indicating their association with CPS. These results might lead to the use of the capsular polysaccharide as a vaccine to prevent A. baumannii infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Campylobacter jejuni cocultured with epithelial cells reduces surface capsular polysaccharide expression.

    Corcionivoschi, N

    2012-02-01

    The host cell environment can alter bacterial pathogenicity. We employed a combination of cellular and molecular techniques to study the expression of Campylobacter jejuni polysaccharides cocultured with HCT-8 epithelial cells. After two passages, the amount of membrane-bound high-molecular-weight polysaccharide was considerably reduced. Microarray profiling confirmed significant downregulation of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) locus genes. Experiments using conditioned media showed that sugar depletion occurred only when the bacterial and epithelial cells were cocultured. CPS depletion occurred when C. jejuni organisms were exposed to conditioned media from a different C. jejuni strain but not when exposed to conditioned media from other bacterial species. Proteinase K or heat treatment of conditioned media under coculture conditions abrogated the effect on the sugars, as did formaldehyde fixation and cycloheximide treatment of host cells or chloramphenicol treatment of the bacteria. However, sugar depletion was not affected in flagellar export (fliQ) and quorum-sensing (luxS) gene mutants. Passaged C. jejuni showed reduced invasiveness and increased serum sensitivity in vitro. C. jejuni alters its surface polysaccharides when cocultured with epithelial cells, suggesting the existence of a cross talk mechanism that modulates CPS expression during infection.

  19. Global epidemiology of capsular group W meningococcal disease (1970-2015): Multifocal emergence and persistence of hypervirulent sequence type (ST)-11 clonal complex.

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-03-18

    Following an outbreak in Mecca Saudi Arabia in 2000, meningococcal strains expressing capsular group W (W) emerged as a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) worldwide. The Saudi Arabian outbreak strain (Hajj clone) belonging to the ST-11 clonal complex (cc11) is similar to W cc11 causing occasional sporadic disease before 2000. Since 2000, W cc11 has caused large meningococcal disease epidemics in the African meningitis belt and endemic disease in South America, Europe and China. Traditional molecular epidemiologic typing suggested that a majority of current W cc11 burden represented global spread of the Hajj clone. However, recent whole genome sequencing (WGS) analyses revealed significant genetic heterogeneity among global W cc11 strains. While continued spread of the Hajj clone occurs in the Middle East, the meningitis belt and South Africa have co-circulation of the Hajj clone and other unrelated W cc11 strains. Notably, South America, the UK, and France share a genetically distinct W cc11 strain. Other W lineages persist in low numbers in Europe, North America and the meningitis belt. In summary, WGS is helping to unravel the complex genomic epidemiology of group W meningococcal strains. Wider application of WGS and strengthening of global IMD surveillance is necessary to monitor the continued evolution of group W lineages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Vi capsular polysaccharide enables Salmonella enterica serovar typhi to evade microbe-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Tamding Wangdi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi causes typhoid fever, a disseminated infection, while the closely related pathogen S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is associated with a localized gastroenteritis in humans. Here we investigated whether both pathogens differ in the chemotactic response they induce in neutrophils using a single-cell experimental approach. Surprisingly, neutrophils extended chemotactic pseudopodia toward Escherichia coli and S. Typhimurium, but not toward S. Typhi. Bacterial-guided chemotaxis was dependent on the presence of complement component 5a (C5a and C5a receptor (C5aR. Deletion of S. Typhi capsule biosynthesis genes markedly enhanced the chemotactic response of neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, deletion of capsule biosynthesis genes heightened the association of S. Typhi with neutrophils in vivo through a C5aR-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of the virulence-associated (Vi capsular polysaccharide of S. Typhi obstructs bacterial-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

  1. Use of a booster dose of capsular group C meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine to demonstrate immunologic memory in children primed with one or two vaccine doses in infancy.

    Pace, David; Khatami, Ameneh; Attard-Montalto, Simon; Voysey, Merryn; Finn, Adam; Faust, Saul N; Heath, Paul T; Borrow, Ray; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-12-07

    Use of a polysaccharide vaccine challenge to demonstrate immunologic memory after priming with capsular group C meningococcal conjugate vaccines (MenCC) risks induction of immunologic hyporesponsiveness. For this reason, MenCC vaccines are now used as probes of immunologic memory, however, no studies have demonstrated their ability to distinguish primed from unprimed children. This study was part of a randomised controlled trial investigating the immunogenicity of a booster dose of the combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and MenC-tetanus toxoid vaccine (Hib-MenC-TT) in infants receiving reduced dose MenCC vaccine priming schedules (one MenC-CRM/MenC-TT or two MenC-CRM vaccine doses) compared with an unprimed group. Antibody kinetics were studied in a subset of 269 children by measuring changes in the MenC serum bactericidal antibody, using rabbit complement, (MenC rSBA) titres and MenC specific IgG memory B-cells before and at 6 and 28days following the 12month booster vaccination. At 6days after the 12monthMenCC vaccine, the rise in MenC rSBA titres and MenC specific IgG memory B-cells of the primed groups were significantly higher than the infant MenCC naïve group. Participants primed with one MenC-TT dose had the highest increase in MenC rSBA titres compared with all other groups. The MenC rSBA titres at the 28th compared with the 6th day after boosting was significantly higher in those primed with a single MenC-TT/MenC-CRM vaccine in infancy compared with those who were not primed or who were primed with two doses of the MenC-CRM vaccine. Immunologic memory can be demonstrated by a MenCC booster vaccination but is affected by the type and number of MenCC doses used for infant priming. The MenC rSBA responses can be used to demonstrate successful immunologic priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation of a bacteriophage specific for a new capsular type of Klebsiella pneumoniae and characterization of its polysaccharide depolymerase.

    Chun-Ru Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant infections. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS is an important virulence factor of K. pneumoniae. With 78 capsular types discovered thus far, an association between capsular type and the pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae has been observed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate an initially non-typeable K. pneumoniae UTI isolate NTUH-K1790N, the cps gene region was sequenced. By NTUH-K1790N cps-PCR genotyping, serotyping and determination using a newly isolated capsular type-specific bacteriophage, we found that NTUH-K1790N and three other isolates Ca0507, Ca0421 and C1975 possessed a new capsular type, which we named KN2. Analysis of a KN2 CPS(- mutant confirmed the role of capsule as the target recognized by the antiserum and the phage. A newly described lytic phage specific for KN2 K. pneumoniae, named 0507-KN2-1, was isolated and characterized using transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequencing of 0507-KN2-1 revealed a 159 991 bp double-stranded DNA genome with a G+C content of 46.7% and at least 154 open reading frames. Based on its morphological and genomic characteristics, 0507-KN2-1 was classified as a member of the Myoviridae phage family. Further analysis of this phage revealed a 3738-bp gene encoding a putative polysaccharide depolymerase. A recombinant form of this protein was produced and assayed to confirm its enzymatic activity and specificity to KN2 capsular polysaccharides. KN2 K. pneumoniae strains exhibited greater sensitivity to this depolymerase than these did to the cognate phage, as determined by spot analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report that a group of clinical strains possess a novel Klebsiella capsular type. We identified a KN2-specific phage and its polysaccharide depolymerase, which could be used for efficient capsular typing. The lytic phage and depolymerase also have potential as

  3. Impact of 4 Lactobacillus plantarum capsular polysaccharide clusters on surface glycan composition and host cell signaling

    Remus Daniela M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial cell surface-associated polysaccharides are involved in the interactions of bacteria with their environment and play an important role in the communication between pathogenic bacteria and their host organisms. Cell surface polysaccharides of probiotic species are far less well described. Therefore, improved knowledge on these molecules is potentially of great importance to understand the strain-specific and proposed beneficial modes of probiotic action. Results The Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 genome encodes 4 clusters of genes that are associated with surface polysaccharide production. Two of these clusters appear to encode all functions required for capsular polysaccharide formation (cps2A-J and cps4A-J, while the remaining clusters are predicted to lack genes encoding chain-length control functions and a priming glycosyl-transferase (cps1A-I and cps3A-J. We constructed L. plantarum WCFS1 gene deletion mutants that lack individual (Δcps1A-I, Δcps2A-J, Δcps3A-J and Δcps4A-J or combinations of cps clusters (Δcps1A-3J and Δcps1A-3I, Δcps4A-J and assessed the genome wide impact of these mutations by transcriptome analysis. The cps cluster deletions influenced the expression of variable gene sets in the individual cps cluster mutants, but also considerable numbers of up- and down-regulated genes were shared between mutants in cps cluster 1 and 2, as well as between mutant in cps clusters 3 and 4. Additionally, the composition of overall cell surface polysaccharide fractions was altered in each mutant strain, implying that despite the apparent incompleteness of cps1A-I and cps3A-J, all clusters are active and functional in L. plantarum. The Δcps1A-I strain produced surface polysaccharides in equal amounts as compared to the wild-type strain, while the polysaccharides were characterized by a reduced molar mass and the lack of rhamnose. The mutants that lacked functional copies of cps2A-J, cps3A-J or cps4A

  4. Synthesis and immunological evaluation of protein conjugates of Neisseria meningitidis X capsular polysaccharide fragments

    Laura Morelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine to prevent infections from the emerging Neisseria meningitidis X (MenX is becoming an urgent issue. Recently MenX capsular polysaccharide (CPS fragments conjugated to CRM197 as carrier protein have been confirmed at preclinical stage as promising candidates for vaccine development. However, more insights about the minimal epitope required for the immunological activity of MenX CPS are needed. We report herein the chemical conjugation of fully synthetic MenX CPS oligomers (monomer, dimer, and trimer to CRM197. Moreover, improvements in some crucial steps leading to the synthesis of MenX CPS fragments are described. Following immunization with the obtained neoglycoconjugates, the conjugated trimer was demonstrated as the minimal fragment possessing immunogenic activity, even though significantly lower than a pentadecamer obtained from the native polymer and conjugated to the same protein. This finding suggests that oligomers longer than three repeating units are possibly needed to mimic the activity of the native polysaccharide.

  5. Evidence for covalent attachment of phospholipid to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Kuo, J.S.; Doelling, V.W.; Graveline, J.F.; McCoy, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Cells of Haemophilus influenzae type b were grown in a liquid medium containing [ 3 H]palmitate or [ 14 C]ribose or both for two generations of exponential growth. Radiolabeled type-specific capsular polysaccharide, polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP), was purified from the culture supernatant by Cetavlon precipitation, ethanol fractionation, and hydroxylapatite and Sepharose 4B chromatography. The doubly labeled ( [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 14 C]ribose) PRP preparation was found to coelute in a single peak from a Sepharose 4B column, suggesting that both precursors were incorporated into the purified PRP. A singly labeled ( [ 3 H]palmitate) purified PRP preparation was found to be quantitatively immune precipitated by human serum containing antibody against PRP. Only after acid, alkaline, or phospholipase A2 treatment of PRP labeled with [ 3 H]palmitate or [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 14 C]ribose followed by chloroform-methanol extraction could most of the 3 H-radioactivity be recovered in the organic phase. The chloroform-soluble acid-hydrolyzed or phospholipase A2-treated product was identified as palmitic acid after thin-layer chromatography. These results strongly suggest that a phospholipid moiety is covalently associated with the H. influenzae type b polysaccharide PRP

  6. Persistence of immunity after vaccination with a capsular group B meningococcal vaccine in 3 different toddler schedules.

    Sadarangani, Manish; Sell, Tim; Iro, Mildred A; Snape, Matthew D; Voysey, Merryn; Finn, Adam; Heath, Paul T; Bona, Gianni; Esposito, Susanna; Diez-Domingo, Javier; Prymula, Roman; Odueyungbo, Adefowope; Toneatto, Daniela; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-10-16

    One schedule for the capsular group B meningococcal vaccine 4CMenB is 2 doses that are administered 2 months apart for children aged 12-23 months, with a booster dose 12-24 months later. Our objective was to provide data on persistence of human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) titres in children up to 4 years of age after initial doses at 12-24 months, and immunogenicity of a booster dose at 48 months of age compared with vaccine-naive children. Children previously immunized, as part of a randomized controlled trial, with 2 doses of 4CMenB vaccine at 12-24 months of age received a booster at 4 years of age. Vaccine-naive age-matched toddlers received 2 doses of 4CMenB. Human serum bactericidal antibody titres against reference strains H44/76, 5/99, NZ98/254 and M10713 were evaluated before and after innoculation with 4CMenB vaccine in 4-year-old children. Of 332 children in the study, 123 had previously received 4CMenB and 209 were vaccine-naive controls. Before the booster, the proportions of participants (previously vaccinated groups compared with controls) with hSBA titres of 1:5 or more were as follows: 9%-11% v. 1% (H44/76), 84%-100% v. 4% (5/99), 0%-18% v. 0% (NZ98/254) and 59%-60% v. 60% (M10713). After 1 dose of 4CMenB in previously immunized children, the proportions of participants achieving hSBA titres of 1:5 or more were 100% (H44/76 and 5/99), 70%-100% (NZ98/254) and 90%-100% (M10713). We found that waning of hSBA titres by 4 years of age occurred after 2 doses of 4CMenB vaccine administered at 12-24 months, and doses at 12-24 months have a priming effect on the immune system. A booster may be necessary to maintain hSBA titres of 1:5 or more among those children with increased disease risk. Trial registration : ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01717638. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  7. Functions of some capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH K-2044.

    Jin-Yuan Ho

    Full Text Available The growing number of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, commonly acquired in hospitals, has drawn great concern. It has been shown that the K1 and K2 capsular serotypes are the most detrimental strains, particularly to those with diabetes. The K1 cps (capsular polysaccharide locus in the NTUH-2044 strain of the pyogenic liver abscess (PLA K. pneumoniae has been identified recently, but little is known about the functions of the genes therein. Here we report characterization of a group of cps genes and their roles in the pathogenesis of K1 K. pneumoniae. By sequential gene deletion, the cps gene cluster was first re-delimited between genes galF and ugd, which serve as up- and down-stream ends, respectively. Eight gene products were characterized in vitro and in vivo to be involved in the syntheses of UDP-glucose, UDP-glucuronic acid and GDP-fucose building units. Twelve genes were identified as virulence factors based on the observation that their deletion mutants became avirulent or lost K1 antigenicity. Furthermore, deletion of kp3706, kp3709 or kp3712 (ΔwcaI, ΔwcaG or Δatf, respectively, which are all involved in fucose biosynthesis, led to a broad range of transcriptional suppression for 52 upstream genes. The genes suppressed include those coding for unknown regulatory membrane proteins and six multidrug efflux system proteins, as well as proteins required for the K1 CPS biosynthesis. In support of the suppression of multidrug efflux genes, we showed that these three mutants became more sensitive to antibiotics. Taken together, the results suggest that kp3706, kp3709 or kp3712 genes are strongly related to the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae K1.

  8. Anti-biofilm activity: a function of Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide.

    Marina Dos Santos Goncalves

    Full Text Available Competition and cooperation phenomena occur within highly interactive biofilm communities and several non-biocides molecules produced by microorganisms have been described as impairing biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the anti-biofilm capacities of an ubiquitous and biofilm producing bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cell-free supernatant from K. pneumoniae planktonic cultures showed anti-biofilm effects on most Gram positive bacteria tested but also encompassed some Gram negative bacilli. The anti-biofilm non-bactericidal activity was further investigated on Staphylococcus epidermidis, by determining the biofilm biomass, microscopic observations and agglutination measurement through a magnetic bead-mediated agglutination test. Cell-free extracts from K. pneumoniae biofilm (supernatant and acellular matrix also showed an influence, although to a lesser extend. Chemical analyses indicated that the active molecule was a high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of five monosaccharides: galactose, glucose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and glucosamine and the main following sugar linkage residues [→ 2-α-L-Rhap-(1 →]; [→ 4-α-L-Rhap-(1 →]; [α-D-Galp-(1 →]; [→ 2,3-α-D-Galp-(1 →]; [→ 3-β-D-Galp-(1 →] and, [→ 4-β-D-GlcAp-(1 →]. Characterization of this molecule indicated that this component was more likely capsular polysaccharide (CPS and precoating of abiotic surfaces with CPS extracts from different serotypes impaired the bacteria-surface interactions. Thus the CPS of Klebsiella would exhibit a pleiotropic activity during biofilm formation, both stimulating the initial adhesion and maturation steps as previously described, but also repelling potential competitors.

  9. Development of capsular polysaccharide-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders

    Mary N Burtnick

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders respectively, cause severe disease in humans and animals and are considered potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism. Diagnosis and treatment of infections caused by these pathogens can be challenging and, in the absence of chemotherapeutic intervention, acute disease is frequently fatal. At present, there are no human or veterinary vaccines available for immunization against these emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases. One of the long term objectives of our research, therefore, is to identify and characterize protective antigens expressed by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and use them to develop efficacious vaccine candidates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 6-deoxy-heptan capsular polysaccharide (CPS expressed by these bacterial pathogens is both a virulence determinant and a protective antigen. Consequently, this carbohydrate moiety has become an important component of the various subunit vaccines that we are currently developing in our laboratory. In the present study, we describe a reliable method for isolating CPS antigens from O-polysaccharide deficient strains of B. pseudomallei; including a derivative of the select agent excluded strain Bp82. Utilizing these purified CPS samples, we also describe a simple procedure for covalently linking these T-cell independent antigens to carrier proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that high titer IgG responses can be raised against the CPS component of such constructs. Collectively, these approaches provide a tangible starting point for the development of novel CPS-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders.

  10. History of meningococcal vaccines and their serological correlates of protection.

    Vipond, Caroline; Care, Rory; Feavers, Ian M

    2012-05-30

    For over a hundred years Neisseria meningitidis has been known to be one of the major causes of bacterial meningitis. However, effective vaccines were not developed until the latter part of the 20th century. The first of these were based on purified high molecular weight capsular polysaccharides and more recently the development of glycoconjugate vaccines has made paediatric immunisation programmes possible. The prevention of group B meningococcal disease has remained a challenge throughout this period. This review charts the history of the development of meningococcal vaccines and the importance of serological correlates of protection in their evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Capsular Polysaccharide Interferes with Biofilm Formation by Pasteurella multocida Serogroup A

    Briana Petruzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is an important multihost animal and zoonotic pathogen that is capable of causing respiratory and multisystemic diseases, bacteremia, and bite wound infections. The glycosaminoglycan capsule of P. multocida is an essential virulence factor that protects the bacterium from host defenses. However, chronic infections (such as swine atrophic rhinitis and the carrier state in birds and other animals may be associated with biofilm formation, which has not been characterized in P. multocida. Biofilm formation by clinical isolates was inversely related to capsule production and was confirmed with capsule-deficient mutants of highly encapsulated strains. Capsule-deficient mutants formed biofilms with a larger biomass that was thicker and smoother than the biofilm of encapsulated strains. Passage of a highly encapsulated, poor-biofilm-forming strain under conditions that favored biofilm formation resulted in the production of less capsular polysaccharide and a more robust biofilm, as did addition of hyaluronidase to the growth medium of all of the strains tested. The matrix material of the biofilm was composed predominately of a glycogen exopolysaccharide (EPS, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and enzymatic digestion. However, a putative glycogen synthesis locus was not differentially regulated when the bacteria were grown as a biofilm or planktonically, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Therefore, the negatively charged capsule may interfere with biofilm formation by blocking adherence to a surface or by preventing the EPS matrix from encasing large numbers of bacterial cells. This is the first detailed description of biofilm formation and a glycogen EPS by P. multocida.

  12. Protection against Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Infection Using a Capsular Polysaccharide Glycoconjugate Vaccine

    Calzas, Cynthia; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Neubauer, Axel; Kempker, Jennifer; Roy, René; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an encapsulated bacterium and one of the most important bacterial pathogens in the porcine industry. Despite decades of research for an efficient vaccine, none is currently available. Based on the success achieved with other encapsulated pathogens, a glycoconjugate vaccine strategy was selected to elicit opsonizing anti-capsular polysaccharide (anti-CPS) IgG antibodies. In this work, glycoconjugate prototypes were prepared by coupling S. suis type 2 CPS to tetanus toxoid, and the immunological features of the postconjugation preparations were evaluated in vivo. In mice, experiments evaluating three different adjuvants showed that CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) induces very low levels of anti-CPS IgM antibodies, while the emulsifying adjuvants Stimune and TiterMax Gold both induced high levels of IgGs and IgM. Dose-response trials comparing free CPS with the conjugate vaccine showed that free CPS is nonimmunogenic independently of the dose used, while 25 μg of the conjugate preparation was optimal in inducing high levels of anti-CPS IgGs postboost. With an opsonophagocytosis assay using murine whole blood, sera from immunized mice showed functional activity. Finally, the conjugate vaccine showed immunogenicity and induced protection in a swine challenge model. When conjugated and administered with emulsifying adjuvants, S. suis type 2 CPS is able to induce potent IgM and isotype-switched IgGs in mice and pigs, yielding functional activity in vitro and protection against a lethal challenge in vivo, all features of a T cell-dependent response. This study represents a proof of concept for the potential of glycoconjugate vaccines in veterinary medicine applications against invasive bacterial infections. PMID:27113360

  13. Antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus Serotype 8 Capsular Polysaccharide React with and Protect against Serotype 5 and 8 Isolates

    Park, Saeyoung; Gerber, Sabina; Lee, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    Most Staphylococcus aureus isolates produce either a serotype 5 (CP5) or 8 (CP8) capsular polysaccharide, and the CP antigens are targets for vaccine development. Since CP5 and CP8 have similar trisaccharide repeating units, it is important to identify an epitope shared by both CP5 and CP8. To characterize cross-reactivity between CP5 and CP8, the immunogenicity of CP5 and CP8 conjugate vaccines in mice and rabbits was evaluated by serological assays. Immune sera were also tested for function...

  14. Quantitative determination of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide serotype 14 using a modification of phenol-sulfuric acid method.

    Cuesta, Gabriela; Suarez, Norma; Bessio, Maria I; Ferreira, Fernando; Massaldi, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 14, is part of every pneumococcal vaccine presently in the market or under development. A strategy for the quantitative determination of this polysaccharide by the phenol-sulfuric acid method is described. The modality of acid addition is shown to be the critical step for obtaining reproducible test results between different technicians. Raising the incubation temperature above 80 degrees C increased the consistency of the method by more than 60% regardless of the acid addition modality, but at the expense of some loss of sensitivity. Incubation at 110 degrees C was found necessary to obtain reproducible results within 3% for this technique, which was used to follow the enrichment of the polysaccharide during the last steps of purification. A model mixture of the component polysaccharide sugars provided an adequate and economic standard to construct the calibration curve for this assay, with absorbance reading either in the reaction tubes or in a microplate. A similar procedure may be applied to the determination of other bacterial polysaccharides as well.

  15. Structure of the neutral capsular polysaccharide of Acinetobacter baumannii NIPH146 that carries the KL37 capsule gene cluster.

    Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shneider, Mikhail M; Kenyon, Johanna J; Shashkov, Alexander S; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-09-02

    Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii NIPH146, and the following structure of branched pentasaccharide repeating unit was established by sugar analyses along with 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy: In comparison to most other known capsular polysaccharides of A. baumannii, the CPS studied is neutral and lacks any specific monosaccharide component. The synthesis, assembly and export of this structure could be attributed to genes in a novel capsule biosynthesis gene cluster, designated KL37, which was found in the NIPH146 genome. The CPS of A. baumannii NIPH146 shares the α-d-Galp-(1→6)-β-d-Glcp-(1→3)-d-GalpNAc-(1→ trisaccharide fragment with the CPS units of several A. baumannii strains, including ATCC 17978 and LUH 5537 that carry the KL3 and KL22 gene clusters, respectively. KL37 contains two genes for glycosyltransferases that are related to two glycosyltransferase genes present in both KL3 and KL22, and the encoded proteins could be tentatively assigned to linkages between sugars in the CPS repeat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Could the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) control Neisseria meningitidis capsular group X outbreaks in Africa?

    Hong, Eva; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Comanducci, Maurizio; Brunelli, Brunella; Dull, Peter; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2013-02-04

    A new vaccine, 4CMenB, is composed of surface proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and is aimed to target serogroup B (MenB) isolates. The vaccine components are present in meningococcal isolates of other serogroups allowing potential use against meningococcal isolates belonging to non-B serogroups. Isolates of serogroup X (MenX) have been emerged in countries of the African meningitis belt. 4CMenB may offer a vaccine strategy against these isolates as there is no available capsule-based vaccine against MenX. We used the Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) to determine presence, diversity and levels of expression of 4CMenB antigens among 9 MenX isolates from several African countries in order to estimate the potential coverage of MenX by the 4CMenB vaccine. We performed bactericidal assays against these isolates, using pooled sera from 4CMenB-vaccinated infants, adolescents and adults. The African MenX isolates belonged to the same genotype but showed variation in the vaccine antigens. MATS data and bactericidal assays suggest coverage of the 9 African MenX isolates by 4CMenB but not of two unrelated MenX isolates from France. 4CMenB vaccine can be considered for further investigation to control MenX outbreaks in Africa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Opsonization of Cryptococcus neoformans by a family of isotype-switch variant antibodies specific for the capsular polysaccharide.

    Schlageter, A M; Kozel, T R

    1990-06-01

    A family of immunoglobulin isotype-switch variants was isolated by sib selection from a murine hybridoma which produced an immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1) antibody specific for the capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans. Antibodies of the IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b isotypes had similar serotype specificity patterns in double immunodiffusion assays which used polysaccharides of the four cryptococcal serotypes as antigens. A quantitative difference in the ability of the isotypes to form a precipitate with the polysaccharide was observed in a double immunodiffusion assay and confirmed in a quantitative precipitin assay. The relative precipitating activity of the antibodies was IgG2a greater than IgG1 much greater than IgG2b. Analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the reactivity of the three isotypes with cryptococcal polysaccharide showed identical titers and slopes, suggesting that the variable region of the class-switch antibodies was unaltered. This system allowed us to examine the effect of the Fc portion of the antibody on opsonization of encapsulated cryptococci. Yeast cells were precoated with antibodies of each isotype and incubated with murine macrophages or cultured human monocytes. Antibodies of all three isotypes exhibited a dose-dependent opsonization for phagocytosis by both human and murine phagocytes. The relative opsonic activity of the antibodies was IgG2a greater than IgG1 greater than IgG2b.

  18. Impact of 4 Lactobacillus plantarum capsular polysaccharide clusters on surface glycan composition and host cell signaling

    Remus, D.M.; Kranenburg, van R.; Swam, van I.I.; Taverne, N.; Bongers, R.S.; Wels, M.; Wells, J.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Bacterial cell surface-associated polysaccharides are involved in the interactions of bacteria with their environment and play an important role in the communication between pathogenic bacteria and their host organisms. Cell surface polysaccharides of probiotic species are far less well

  19. Autologous albumin enhances the humoral immune response to capsular polysaccharide covalently co-attached to bacteria-sized latex beads

    Colino, Jesus; Duke, Leah; Snapper, Clifford M.

    2014-01-01

    Abundant autologous proteins, like serum albumin, should be immunologically inert. However, individuals with no apparent predisposition to autoimmune disease can develop immune responses to autologous therapeutic proteins. Protein aggregation is a potential major trigger of these responses. Adsorption of proteins to particles provides macromolecular size and may generate structural changes in the protein, resembling aggregation. Using aldehyde/sulfate latex beads coated with murine serum albumin (MSA), we found that mice mounted MSA-specific IgG responses that were dependent on CD4+ T cells. IgG were specific for MSA adsorbed to solid surfaces and non-cross-reactive with human, bovine or pig albumins. T cells induced in response to MSA, augmented the primary and induced boosted secondary IgG and IgM responses specific for the T cell-independent antigen, capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 (PPS14), when the latter was attached to the same bead. Similar to the anti-MSA IgG response, the boosted PPS14-specific IgG secondary response was CD4+ T cell-dependent, displayed a typical carrier effect, and was enhanced by, but did not require, Toll-like receptor stimulation. These results provide a potential mechanism for the induction of responses to autoantigens unable to induce specific T cell responses, and provide new insights into polysaccharide-specific immunity. PMID:24481921

  20. Capsular polysaccharide typing of domestic mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus strains and its potential exploration of bovine mastitis vaccine development. I. Capsular polysaccharide typing, isolation and purification of the strains.

    Han, H R; Pak, S I; Kang, S W; Jong, W S; Youn, C J

    2000-06-01

    One hundred seven isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis were investigated for colony morphology in serum-soft agar (SSA), autoagglutination in salt, and capsular serotype. Capsular polysaccharide (CP) was purified and quantified from the extracts of clinical isolates. Overall, 89 isolates (83.2%) were diffuse in the SSA, without any difference in the proportion of diffuse colony between type 5 and type 8 strains. Some strains exhibited compact colonies in the SSA and expressed CP as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating that compact morphology does not exclude encapsulation. The majority of the strains (11/12) showed autoagglutination in the salt aggregation test. The serotype 336 accounted for 46.7% of the isolates followed by serotype 5 (12.1%) and serotype 8 (12.1%). Particularly, twenty-six (24.3%) isolates reacted with two serotypes; 7 for type 8/336 and 19 for type 5/336. Five isolates (4.7%) were nontypeable with monoclonal antibodies specific for CP serotype 5, 8, or 336. The CP concentration in culture supernatants varied with the serotypes, and the total amount of CP produced by cells grown in a liquid medium was much less than that produced by cells grown on a solid medium. The Western blotting indicated that the CP bands of S. aureus serotype 5 and 8 were ranged in the molecular mass of 58-84 kilodalton (kDa), with additional bands in the region of approximately >/= 48 or

  1. Binding of purified and radioiodinated capsular polysaccharides from Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A strains to capsule-free mutants

    Small, J.M.; Mitchell, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    Strains 6, 15, 98, 110, and 145 of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A vary in capsule size, animal virulence, and susceptibility to in vitro phagocytosis. The isolated capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) differ in monosaccharide composition ratios and molecular size, as determined by gel filtration. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the binding of CPSs to capsule-free mutants of C. neoformans and to examine CPSs from these strains for differences in their ability to bind, to determine whether such differences might explain the variation in the pathobiology of these strains. CPSs were partially periodate oxidized, tyraminated, iodinated with 125 I, and used in binding studies with two capsule-free mutants of C. neoformans, strain 602 and Cap59. Binding was specific for yeast species and for polysaccharide and was saturable, which is consistent with a receptor-mediated mechanism of attachment. Binding occurred rapidly and was only slowly reversible. Binding was also independent of pH from pH 5.5 to 8, of cation concentrations, and of competition by sugars up to 1.0 M concentrations. Only a portion of CPS was capable of binding, and strains varied in the extent to which their CPS bound. CPS-15-IV (peak IV was the major polysaccharide peak on DEAE-cellulose chromatography of CPS from strain 15) had the highest proportion of binding (40%), followed by CPS from strains 98, 6, 145, 110, and 15-III (peak III was an earlier eluting fraction of CPS from strain 15). The CPSs differed similarly in their ability to competitively inhibit binding. Treatment of CPS, but not yeast cells, with proteinase XIV abolished binding without altering the CPS gross structure. Treatment of yeast cells with proteases, heat, or formaldehyde did not alter binding, and both strain 602 and Cap59 bound CPS similarly. Binding to encapsulated yeast cells was minimal

  2. Homologous overexpression of RfaH in E. coli K4 improves the production of chondroitin-like capsular polysaccharide.

    Cimini, Donatella; De Rosa, Mario; Carlino, Elisabetta; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2013-05-09

    Glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid, heparin, and chondroitin sulfate, are among the top ranked products in industrial biotechnology for biomedical applications, with a growing world market of billion dollars per year. Recently a remarkable progress has been made in the development of tailor-made strains as sources for the manufacturing of such products. The genetic modification of E. coli K4, a natural producer of chondroitin sulfate precursor, is challenging considering the lack of detailed information on its genome, as well as its mobilome. Chondroitin sulfate is currently used as nutraceutical for the treatment of osteoarthritis, and several new therapeutic applications, spanning from the development of skin substitutes to live attenuated vaccines, are under evaluation. E. coli K4 was used as host for the overexpression of RfaH, a positive regulator that controls expression of the polysaccharide biosynthesis genes and other genes necessary for the virulence of E. coli K4. Various engineering strategies were compared to investigate different types of expression systems (plasmid vs integrative cassettes) and integration sites (genome vs endogenous mobile element). All strains analysed in shake flasks on different media showed a capsular polysaccharide production improved by 40 to 140%, compared to the wild type, with respect to the final product titer. A DO-stat fed-batch process on the 2L scale was also developed for the best performing integrative strain, EcK4r3, yielding 5.3 g ∙ L(-1) of K4 polysaccharide. The effect of rfaH overexpression in EcK4r3 affected the production of lipopolysaccharide and the expression of genes involved in the polysaccharide biosynthesis pathway (kfoC and kfoA), as expected. An alteration of cellular metabolism was revealed by changes of intracellular pools of UDP-sugars which are used as precursors for polysaccharide biosynthesis. The present study describes the identification of a gene target and the application of a

  3. Structural determination of Streptococcus pneumoniae repeat units in serotype 41A and 41F capsular polysaccharides to probe gene functions in the corresponding capsular biosynthetic loci

    Petersen, Bent O.; Skovsted, Ian C.; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-01-01

    (1) by anambitionto help close the remaining gaps in S. pneumoniaecapsular polysaccharide structures, and (2)by the attempt to derive functional annotationsof carbohydrate active enzymes in the biosynthesis of bacterial polysaccharides from the determined structures. Anactivitypresent in 41F...

  4. Surface-bound capsular polysaccharide of type Ia group B Streptococcus mediates C1 binding and activation of the classic complement pathway

    Levy, N.J.; Kasper, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The role of surface-bound type Ia group B Streptococcus (GBS) capsular polysaccharide in anti-body-independent binding of C1 and activation of the classic component pathway was investigated. In a radiolabeled bacterial-polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) association assay, a measure of bacterial opsonization, preincubation of 3 H-type Ia GBS with purified F(ab') 2 to the organism blocked the association of the bacteria with PMN', and the inhibitory effect was dose dependent. The specificity of F(ab') 2 blocking was shown after adsorption of F(ab') 2 with type Ia polysaccharide-sensitized erythrocytes. Polysaccharide-adsorbed F(ab') 2 had a 70% decrease in ability to block the association of bacteria with PMN. Neuraminidase digestion removed 80% of the terminal sialic acid residues from the native polysaccharide. These neuraminidase-digested organisms had a 72% decrease in binding and transfer of purified C1 compared with non-enzyme-treated organisms. Type Ia capsular polysaccharide bound to sheep erythrocytes promoted classic complement pathway-mediated hemolysis of the cells. The role of C1 inhibitor (INH) in modulation of C1 activation by the organisms was investigated. The possibility existed that the C1 INH could be bound by the bacteria, allowing C1 activation to occur in the fluid phase. The inhibitor was purified from human serum, and its activity was measured before and after incubation with type Ia GBS. The organisms had no effect on C1 INH activity. Thus surface-bound capsular polysacchardie of type Ia GBS mediates C1 binding and classic pathway activation, and this does not involve the C1 INH

  5. Effect of growth conditions on production of rhamnose-containing cell wall and capsular polysaccharides by strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus.

    Wicken, A J; Ayres, A; Campbell, L K; Knox, K W

    1983-01-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus possessing two cell wall polysaccharides, a hexosamine-containing H-polysaccharide and a rhamnose-containing R-polysaccharide, were examined for the effect of growth conditions on the production of these two components. In strain NCTC 6375, R- and H-polysaccharides accounted for an estimated 44 and 20%, respectively, of the cell wall for organisms grown in batch culture with glucose as the carbohydrate source. Growth on fructose-containing media reduced the amount of R-polysaccharide by approximately 50% without affecting the amount of H-polysaccharide. Subculture of fructose-grown organisms in glucose restored the original proportions of the two polysaccharides. Galactose- and sucrose-grown cells behaved similarly to glucose-grown cells with respect to polysaccharide production, whereas growth in rhamnose or ribose showed values close to those for fructose-grown cells. Continuous culture of strain NCTC 6375 for more than 100 generations showed a gradual and irreversible reduction of the R-polysaccharide to less than 5% of the cell wall and an increase of the H-polysaccharide to 40% of the cell wall. Other type culture strains of L. casei subsp. rhamnosus, NCIB 7473 and ATCC 7469, behaved similarly in batch and continuous culture. In contrast, strains of L. casei subsp. rhamnosus isolated at the Institute of Dental Research showed phenotypic stability with respect to the relative proportions of R- and H-polysaccharides in both batch and continuous culture. Changes in polysaccharide composition of type culture strains were also mirrored in changes in the immunogenicity of the two components and resistance to the rate of enzymic lysis of whole organisms. For L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strain NCTC 10302 the R-polysaccharide is present entirely as capsular material. The amount of R-polysaccharide produced was also markedly dependent on the carbohydrate component of the medium in batch culture and both dilution rate and

  6. Meningococcal X polysaccharide quantification by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography using synthetic N-acetylglucosamine-4-phosphate as standard.

    Micoli, F; Adamo, R; Proietti, D; Gavini, M; Romano, M R; MacLennan, C A; Costantino, P; Berti, F

    2013-11-15

    A method for meningococcal X (MenX) polysaccharide quantification by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) is described. The polysaccharide is hydrolyzed by strong acidic treatment, and the peak of glucosamine-4-phosphate (4P-GlcN) is detected and measured after chromatography. In the selected conditions of hydrolysis, 4P-GlcN is the prevalent species formed, with GlcN detected for less than 5% in moles. As standard for the analysis, the monomeric unit of MenX polysaccharide, N-acetylglucosamine-4-phosphate (4P-GlcNAc), was used. This method for MenX quantification is highly selective and sensitive, and it constitutes an important analytical tool for the development of a conjugate vaccine against MenX. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of Streptococcus pneumoniae OM001 operon in capsular polysaccharide production, virulence and survival in human saliva.

    Ahmad, Zuleeza; Harvey, Richard M; Paton, James C; Standish, Alistair J; Morona, Renato

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia in all ages worldwide, and with ever-increasing antibiotic resistance, the understanding of its pathogenesis and spread is as important as ever. Recently, we reported the presence of a Low Molecular Weight Tyrosine Phosphatase (LMWPTP) Spd1837 in the pneumococcus. This protein is encoded in an operon, OM001 with two other genes, with previous work implicating this operon as important for pneumococcal virulence. Thus, we set out to investigate the role of the individual genes in the operon during pneumococcal pathogenesis. As LMWPTPs play a major role in capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis in many bacteria, we tested the effect of mutating spd1837 and its adjacent genes, spd1836 and spd1838 on CPS levels. Our results suggest that individual deletion of the genes, including the LMWPTP, did not modulate CPS levels, in multiple conditions, and in different strain backgrounds. Following in vivo studies, Spd1836 was identified as a novel virulence factor during pneumococcal invasive disease, in both the lungs and blood, with this protein alone responsible for the effects of operon's role in virulence. We also showed that a deletion in spd1836, spd1838 or the overall OM001 operon reduced survival in human saliva during the conditions that mimic transmission compared to the wildtype strain. With studies suggesting that survival in human saliva may be important for transmission, this study identifies Spd1836 and Spd1838 as transmission factors, potentially facilitating the spread of the pneumococcus from person to person. Overall, this study hopes to further our understanding of the bacterial transmission that precedes disease and outbreaks.

  8. Mouse dendritic cells pulsed with capsular polysaccharide induce resistance to lethal pneumococcal challenge: roles of T cells and B cells.

    Noam Cohen

    Full Text Available Mice are exceedingly sensitive to intra-peritoneal (IP challenge with some virulent pneumococci (LD50 = 1 bacterium. To investigate how peripheral contact with bacterial capsular polysaccharide (PS antigen can induce resistance, we pulsed bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDC of C57BL/6 mice with type 4 or type 3 PS, injected the BMDC intra-foot pad (IFP and challenged the mice IP with supra-lethal doses of pneumococci. We examined the responses of T cells and B cells in the draining popliteal lymph node and measured the effects on the bacteria in the peritoneum and blood. We now report that: 1 The PS co-localized with MHC molecules on the BMDC surface; 2 PS-specific T and B cell proliferation and IFNγ secretion was detected in the draining popliteal lymph nodes on day 4; 3 Type-specific resistance to lethal IP challenge was manifested only after day 5; 4 Type-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in the sera of only some of the mice, but B cells were essential for resistance; 5 Control mice vaccinated with a single injection of soluble PS did not develop a response in the draining popliteal lymph node and were not protected; 6 Mice injected with unpulsed BMDC also did not resist challenge: In unprotected mice, pneumococci entered the blood shortly after IP inoculation and multiplied exponentially in both blood and peritoneum killing the mice within 20 hours. Mice vaccinated with PS-pulsed BMDC trapped the bacteria in the peritoneum. The trapped bacteria proliferated exponentially IP, but died suddenly at 18-20 hours. Thus, a single injection of PS antigen associated with intact BMDC is a more effective vaccine than the soluble PS alone. This model system provides a platform for studying novel aspects of PS-targeted vaccination.

  9. Structural studies of some bacterial capsular polysaccharides from the family enterobacteriaceae: Klebsiella serotypes K79 and K35 and Escherichia coli serotype K44

    Lim, A.V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques of sugar analysis, methylation, chromic acid oxidation, deamination, base-catalyzed uronic acid degradation, Smith degradation and partial hydrolysis were used in the structural elucidation of bacterial capsular polysaccharides. Methods such as gas-liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gel permeation, ion-exchange and paper-chromatography were used to isolate and characterize oligosaccharides obtained from degradative procedures. N.m.r. spectroscopy (/sup 1/H and /sup 13/C) was widely used in the characterization of the polysaccharides and of derived poly- and oligo-saccharides. In a few instances, n.m.r. spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to delineate the sequence of the sugars in the structure of the poly- and oligo-saccharides. The bacteriophage-induced depolymerizations of the capsular polysaccharides of Klebsiella K79 and E. coli K44 are also reported in this thesis. The sum of these experiments demonstrated that the endoglycanase associated with Klebsiella Phi 79 had ..beta..-galactosidase activity. The endoglycanase from E. coli Phi 44 exhibited ..beta..-N-acetyl-galactosaminidase activity which is novel, in that it is the first reported action of this nature in the bacteriophages isolated for the species E. coli.

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide CRM conjugate vaccine in infants and toddlers.

    Tregnaghi, Miguel; Lopez, Pio; Stamboulian, Daniel; Graña, Gabriela; Odrljin, Tatjana; Bedell, Lisa; Dull, Peter M

    2014-09-01

    This phase III study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, administered with routine vaccines starting at 2 months of age. Healthy infants received MenACWY-CRM in a two- or three-dose primary infant series plus a single toddler dose. In addition, a two-dose toddler catch-up series was evaluated. Immune responses to MenACWY-CRM were assessed for serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA). Reactogenicity and safety results were collected systematically. After a full infant/toddler series or two-dose toddler catch-up series, MenACWY-CRM elicited immune responses against the four serogroups in 94-100% of subjects. Noninferiority of the two- versus three-dose MenACWY-CRM infant dosing regimen was established for geometric mean titers for all serogroups. Following the three-dose infant primary series, 89-98% of subjects achieved an hSBA ≥ 8 across all serogroups. Immune responses to concomitant routine vaccines given with MenACWY-CRM were noninferior to responses to routine vaccines alone, except for pertactin after the two-dose infant series. Noninferiority criteria were met for all concomitant antigens after the three-dose infant series. MenACWY-CRM vaccination regimens in infants and toddlers were immunogenic and well tolerated. No clinically meaningful effects of concomitant administration with routine infant and toddler vaccines were observed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Peptidoglycan Association of Murein Lipoprotein Is Required for KpsD-Dependent Group 2 Capsular Polysaccharide Expression and Serum Resistance in a Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolate.

    Diao, Jingyu; Bouwman, Catrien; Yan, Donghong; Kang, Jing; Katakam, Anand K; Liu, Peter; Pantua, Homer; Abbas, Alexander R; Nickerson, Nicholas N; Austin, Cary; Reichelt, Mike; Sandoval, Wendy; Xu, Min; Whitfield, Chris; Kapadia, Sharookh B

    2017-05-23

    Murein lipoprotein (Lpp) and peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (Pal) are major outer membrane lipoproteins in Escherichia coli Their roles in cell-envelope integrity have been documented in E. coli laboratory strains, and while Lpp has been linked to serum resistance in vitro , the underlying mechanism has not been established. Here, lpp and pal mutants of uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073 showed reduced survival in a mouse bacteremia model, but only the lpp mutant was sensitive to serum killing in vitro The peptidoglycan-bound Lpp form was specifically required for preventing complement-mediated bacterial lysis in vitro and complement-mediated clearance in vivo Compared to the wild-type strain, the lpp mutant had impaired K2 capsular polysaccharide production and was unable to respond to exposure to serum by elevating capsular polysaccharide amounts. These properties correlated with altered cellular distribution of KpsD, the predicted outer membrane translocon for "group 2" capsular polysaccharides. We identified a novel Lpp-dependent association between functional KpsD and peptidoglycan, highlighting important interplay between cell envelope components required for resistance to complement-mediated lysis in uropathogenic E. coli isolates. IMPORTANCE Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates represent a significant cause of nosocomial urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Many UPEC isolates are resistant to serum killing. Here, we show that a major cell-envelope lipoprotein (murein lipoprotein) is required for serum resistance in vitro and for complement-mediated bacterial clearance in vivo This is mediated, in part, through a novel mechanism by which murein lipoprotein affects the proper assembly of a key component of the machinery involved in production of "group 2" capsules. The absence of murein lipoprotein results in impaired production of the capsule layer, a known participant in complement resistance. These results demonstrate an important role for

  12. Three-dimensional structure of Wza, the protein required for translocation of group 1 capsular polysaccharide across the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.

    Beis, Konstantinos; Collins, Richard F; Ford, Robert C; Kamis, Alhaji B; Whitfield, Chris; Naismith, James H

    2004-07-02

    Wza is a highly conserved multimeric outer membrane protein complex required for the surface expression of the serotype K30 group 1 capsular polysaccharide in Escherichia coli. Here we present the first three-dimensional structure of this type of polysaccharide exporter at a 15.5-A resolution obtained using single particle averaging on a dataset of cryo-negatively stained protein. Previous structural studies on purified Wza have revealed a homo-oligomeric ring structure that is most probably composed of eight subunits. Symmetry analysis of the three-dimensional structure combined with biochemical two- and three-dimensional crystallographic data strongly suggest that Wza is an octameric complex with a C4 quasi-rotational symmetry and is organized as a tetramer of dimeric subunits. Wza is best described as a stack of two 4-A high rings with differing diameters providing a mushroom-like aspect from the side. The larger ring has a distinctive square shape with a diameter of 115 A, whereas the smaller is almost circular with a diameter of 90 A. In the center of the complex and enclosed by the four symmetrical arms is a small elliptical cagelike cavity of approximately 40 A in diameter. The central cavity is effectively sealed at the top and bottom of the complex but has small inter-arm holes when viewed from the side. We discuss the structure of this complex and implications in the surface translocation of cell-surface polysaccharide.

  13. Preventing secondary cases of invasive meningococcal capsular group B (MenB) disease using a recently-licensed, multi-component, protein-based vaccine (Bexsero(®)).

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Cordery, Rebecca; Mandal, Sema; Christensen, Hannah; Campbell, Helen; Borrow, Ray; Ramsay, Mary E

    2014-11-01

    To assess the potential use of a protein-based meningococcal group B (MenB) vaccine (Bexsero(®)) in addition to antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for preventing secondary cases. Published studies on the risk of secondary meningococcal infections were used to estimate the numbers needed to vaccinate (NNV) with Bexsero(®) to prevent a secondary case in household and educational settings. Most secondary cases occur within a few days of diagnosis in the index case. Unlike conjugate vaccines, early protection offered after a single dose of Bexsero(®) is likely to be low, particularly in young children, who are at higher risk of secondary infection. NNV was dependent on predicted meningococcal strain coverage, estimated onset of protection after one Bexsero(®) dose and estimated vaccine efficacy. Even in the most favourable scenario where we assume the vaccine is administered within 4 days of the index case and prevents 90% of cases occurring after 14 days, the NNV for household contacts was >1000. NNV in educational settings was much higher. The estimated NNV should be taken into account when deciding policy to recommend Bexsero(®) for close contacts of single cases in household or educational settings. Bexsero(®) may have a protective role in clusters and outbreaks. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A simplification of the enzyme-linked immunospot technique. Increased sensitivity for cells secreting IgG antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide

    Barington, T; Sparholt, S; Juul, L

    1992-01-01

    A simplified enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) technique is described for the detection of cells secreting antibodies to tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) or Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (PRP). By combining the cell suspension with the enzyme-linked secondary...... antibodies in one incubation, the second incubation and washing procedure could be omitted from the original technique. The simplified assay had the same sensitivity for anti-TT and anti-DT spot-forming cells as the ordinary ELISPOT assay. The IgG anti-PRP spots were, however, improved both in quality...... and in quantity (median: 40% more spots), while the detection of IgM and IgA anti-PRP spot-forming cells was the same in the two techniques. This simplified technique can probably also be used to save time in other antigen systems and should be considered when designing ELISPOT assays for the detection...

  15. Relation between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay for detection of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Kristensen, K.; Weis Bentzon, M.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide (PRP) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is important because vaccines inducing such antibodies are now available. We developed and evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of these antibodies based on direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP. The assay fulfilled the requirements for parallel line assays; it was sensitive, specific, and reproducible with a coefficient of variation between days of 19%. Results from the ELISA were compared with results from radioimmunoassay and a correlation coefficient of 0.93 was found. Results obtained by the two methods were proportional and the relation was indepenedent of the antibody level. The relation between them was also unaffected by the contribution of different antibody isotypes, indicating that these were measured to the same extent by both methods. ELISA employing direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP represents a useful alternative for detection of antibodies when studying immunogenicity of Hib vaccines. (au)

  16. Structures of the K35 and K15 capsular polysaccharides of Acinetobacter baumannii LUH5535 and LUH5554 containing amino and diamino uronic acids.

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Liu, Bin; Kenyon, Johanna J; Popova, Anastasiya V; Shneider, Mikhail M; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Wang, Lei; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2017-08-07

    Capsular polysaccharides were isolated from A. baumannii LUH5535 (K35 CPS) and LUH5554 (K15 CPS) and studied by 1D and 2D 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The CPSs were found to consist of linear tetrasaccharide repeats (K units) containing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galacturonic acid (K35) or 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-deoxy-d-glucuronic acid (K15) and 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-d-glucose (both CPSs). The K35 unit includes three O-acetyl groups on different GalNAcA residues. A. baumannii LUH5535 and LUH5554 carry the KL35 and KL15 gene clusters, respectively, and putatively assigned functions of genes in these clusters were consistent with the CPS structures established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Related structures of neutral capsular polysaccharides of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates that carry related capsule gene clusters KL43, KL47, and KL88.

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Kenyon, Johanna J; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shneider, Mikhail M; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-11-29

    Capsular polysaccharides were recovered from four Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, and the following related structures of oligosaccharide repeating units were established by sugar analyses along with 1D and 2D 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy: NIPH 60 and LUH5544 (K43) NIPH 601 (K47) The K locus for capsule biosynthesis in the genome sequences available for NIPH 60 and LUH5544, designated KL43, was found to be related to gene clusters KL47 in NIPH 601 and KL88 in LUH5548. The three clusters share most gene content differing in only a small portion that includes an additional glycosyltransferase genes in KL47 and KL88, as well as genes encoding distinct Wzy polymerases that were found to form the same α-d-GlcpNAc-(1 → 6)-α-d-GlcpNAc linkage in K43 and K47. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Meningitis - meningococcal

    Meningococcal meningitis; Gram negative - meningococcus ... Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis (also known as meningococcus). Meningococcus is the most common cause ...

  19. Meningococcal group B vaccines.

    Findlow, Jamie

    2013-06-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a devastating and feared infection with a significant morbidity and mortality profile. The successful impact of meningococcal capsular group C glyconconjugate vaccines introduced into the UK infant immunization schedule in 1999, has resulted in >80% of disease now being attributable to meningococcal capsular group B (MenB). MenB glyconconjugate vaccines are not immunogenic and hence, vaccine design has focused on sub-capsular antigens. Recently, a four component vaccine to combat MenB disease (4CMenB) has progressed through clinical development and was approved by the European Medicines Agency at the end of 2012. This vaccine has proven safe and immunogenic and has been predicted to provide protection against ~73% of the MenB disease from England and Wales. Recommendation/implementation of the vaccine into the UK infant schedule is currently being evaluated. 4CMenB has the potential to provide protection against a significant proportion of MenB disease in the UK which is currently unpreventable.

  20. Immunization and chemical conjugation of Bm95 obtained from Pichia pastoris enhances the immune response against vaccinal protein and Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide

    Rodriguez-Valle M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Rodriguez-Valle,1 Leonardo Canan-Hadden,2 Olivia Niebla2 1Animal Biotechnology Division, 2Analytical Division, Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba Abstract: The ectoparasite Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes severe economic losses to the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions, and transmits endoparasites, such as Babesia bovis. The glycoprotein Bm95 is homologous to Bm86, a surface membrane protein of gut epithelial cells in R. microplus, and has been shown to efficiently control this ectoparasite in regions of the Americas. The immunostimulant properties of Bm86 have already been demonstrated after its coinjection with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. This study evaluated the carrier and immunostimulant properties of Bm95 using low immunogenic Neisseria meningitidis capsular C polysaccharide (Men CpS and HBsAg. We produced two polysaccharide-Bm95 conjugates by carbodiimide (MenCpSBm-c and reductive amination (MenCpSBm-ra methods. These conjugates were characterized and evaluated in mice. Antibody titers against Men CpS were significantly higher in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra (2,350±250, P<0.01 than in those immunized with MenCpSBm-c (250±75 or Men CpS (570±104. The study data indicate effective immunological memory after booster inoculation in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra. Additionally, significant humoral immunity against HBsAg was documented in mice coimmunized via the intranasal route with recombinant Bm95 (11,400±345 and HBsAg (128,000±250 compared with mice immunized only with HBsAg (400±40 or Bm95 (5,461±150, P<0.01. In conclusion, the immunostimulatory properties of recombinant Bm95 make it a useful element for developing safer conjugated vaccines against bacterial pathogens and for evaluation against ticks and tick-borne diseases in the context of a polyvalent veterinary vaccine. Keywords: glycoconjugate, Bm86

  1. Immunogenicity of fractional doses of tetravalent a/c/y/w135 meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine: results from a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial in Uganda.

    Philippe J Guerin

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A is the main causative pathogen of meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. In recent years, serogroup W135 has also been the cause of epidemics. Mass vaccination campaigns with polysaccharide vaccines are key elements in controlling these epidemics. Facing global vaccine shortage, we explored the use of fractional doses of a licensed A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine.We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority trial in 750 healthy volunteers 2-19 years old in Mbarara, Uganda, to compare the immune response of the full dose of the vaccine versus fractional doses (1/5 or 1/10. Safety and tolerability data were collected for all subjects during the 4 weeks following the injection. Pre- and post-vaccination sera were analyzed by measuring serum bactericidal activity (SBA with baby rabbit complement. A responder was defined as a subject with a > or =4-fold increase in SBA against a target strain from each serogroup and SBA titer > or =128. For serogroup W135, 94% and 97% of the vaccinees in the 1/5- and 1/10-dose arms, respectively, were responders, versus 94% in the full-dose arm; for serogroup A, 92% and 88% were responders, respectively, versus 95%. Non-inferiority was demonstrated between the full dose and both fractional doses in SBA seroresponse against serogroups W135 and Y, in total population analysis. Non-inferiority was shown between the full and 1/5 doses for serogroup A in the population non-immune prior to vaccination. Non-inferiority was not shown for any of the fractionate doses for serogroup C. Safety and tolerability data were favourable, as observed in other studies.While the advent of conjugate A vaccine is anticipated to largely contribute to control serogroup A outbreaks in Africa, the scale-up of its production will not cover the entire "Meningitis Belt" target population for at least the next 3 to 5 years. In view of the current shortage of meningococcal vaccines for Africa

  2. [Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to Salmonella Typhi lipopolysaccharide O and capsular polysaccharide Vi antigens in persons from outbreak of typhoid fever].

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Kałużewski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either isolation of S. Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of serum antibodies in the Widal test or the passive hemagglutination assay (PHA). In this study we evaluated the usefulness of ELISA for detection of antibodies to S. Typhi lipopolysaccharide O and capsular polysaccharide Vi antigens in the sera of persons from outbreak of typhoid fever. Fifteen serum samples from patients with laboratory confirmed typhoid fever and 140 sera from persons suspected for contact with typhoid fever patients from outbreak in 1974/75 in Poland were tested by ELISA. Additionally, as the control group, we tested 115 sera from blood donors for the presence of S. Typhi anti-LPS and anti-Vi antibodies. Anti-LPS and anti-Vi antibodies were detected in 80% and 53.3% of sera obtained from patients with laboratory confirmed typhoid fever, respectively. The high percentages of positive results in ELISA were also noted in the group of persons suspected for contact with typhoid fever patients (51.4% and 45%) but not in the group of blood donors (7.8% and 6.1%, respectively). The ELISA could be a useful tool for the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in patients who have clinical symptoms but are culture negative, especially during massive outbreaks of typhoid fever.

  3. Capsular Polysaccharide is a Main Component of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in the Pathogen-Induced Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Sheep Airway Epithelial Cells.

    Jiang, Zhongjia; Song, Fuyang; Li, Yanan; Xue, Di; Deng, Guangcun; Li, Min; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae ( M. ovipneumoniae ) is characterized as an etiological agent of primary atypical pneumonia that specifically infects sheep and goat. In an attempt to better understand the pathogen-host interaction between the invading M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells, we investigated the host inflammatory responses against capsular polysaccharide (designated as CPS) of M. ovipneumoniae using sheep bronchial epithelial cells cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI) model. Results showed that CPS derived from M. ovipneumoniae could activate toll-like receptor- (TLR-) mediated inflammatory responses, along with an elevated expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κ B), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) as well as various inflammatory-associated mediators, representatively including proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL1 β , TNF α , and IL8, and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL10 and TGF β of TLR signaling cascade. Mechanistically, the CPS-induced inflammation was TLR initiated and was mediated by activations of both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signaling pathways. Of importance, a blockage of CPS with specific antibody led a significant reduction of M. ovipneumoniae -induced inflammatory responses in sheep bronchial epithelial cells. These results suggested that CPS is a key virulent component of M. ovipneumoniae , which may play a crucial role in the inflammatory response induced by M. ovipneumoniae infections.

  4. Capsular Polysaccharide is a Main Component of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in the Pathogen-Induced Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Sheep Airway Epithelial Cells

    Zhongjia Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae is characterized as an etiological agent of primary atypical pneumonia that specifically infects sheep and goat. In an attempt to better understand the pathogen-host interaction between the invading M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells, we investigated the host inflammatory responses against capsular polysaccharide (designated as CPS of M. ovipneumoniae using sheep bronchial epithelial cells cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI model. Results showed that CPS derived from M. ovipneumoniae could activate toll-like receptor- (TLR- mediated inflammatory responses, along with an elevated expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, activator protein-1 (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 as well as various inflammatory-associated mediators, representatively including proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL1β, TNFα, and IL8, and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL10 and TGFβ of TLR signaling cascade. Mechanistically, the CPS-induced inflammation was TLR initiated and was mediated by activations of both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signaling pathways. Of importance, a blockage of CPS with specific antibody led a significant reduction of M. ovipneumoniae-induced inflammatory responses in sheep bronchial epithelial cells. These results suggested that CPS is a key virulent component of M. ovipneumoniae, which may play a crucial role in the inflammatory response induced by M. ovipneumoniae infections.

  5. Acinetobacter baumannii isolate BAL_212 from Vietnam produces the K57 capsular polysaccharide containing a rarely occurring amino sugar N-acetylviosamine.

    Kenyon, Johanna J; Kasimova, Anastasiya A; Shashkov, Alexander S; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2018-02-01

    The structures of capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) produced by different Acinetobacter baumannii strains have proven to be invaluable in confirming the role of specific genes in the synthesis of rare sugars through the correlation of genetic content at the CPS biosynthesis locus with sugars found in corresponding CPS structures. A module of four genes (rmlA, rmlB, vioA and vioB) was identified in the KL57 capsule biosynthesis gene cluster of A. baumannii isolate BAL_212 from Vietnam. These genes were predicted to direct the synthesis of 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (N-acetylviosamine, d-Qui4NAc) and the K57 CPS was found to contain this monosaccharide. The K57 structure was determined and, in addition to d-Qui4NAc, included three N-acetylgalactosamine residues in the main chain, with a single glucose side branch. The KL57 gene cluster has not been found in any other A. baumannii genomes, but the rmlA-rmlB-vioA-vioB module is present in the KL119 gene cluster that would likely produce a d-Qui4NAc-containing CPS.

  6. The Capsular Polysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei Contributes to Survival in Serum by Reducing Complement Factor C3b Deposition

    Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shauna L.; DeVinney, Rebekah; Woods, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei produces an extracellular polysaccharide capsule -3)-2-O-acetyl-6-deoxy-β-d-manno-heptopyranose-(1- which has been shown to be an essential virulence determinant. The addition of purified capsule was shown to increase the virulence of a capsule mutant strain in the Syrian hamster model of acute melioidosis. An increase in the number of wild-type B. pseudomallei cells in the blood was seen by 48 h, while the number of capsule mutant cells in the blood declined by 48 h...

  7. Meningococcal polysaccharide A O-acetylation levels do not impact the immunogenicity of the quadrivalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: results from a randomized, controlled phase III study of healthy adults aged 18 to 25 years.

    Lupisan, Socorro; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Sosa, Nestor; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Bianco, Véronique; Baine, Yaela; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we compared the immunogenicities of two lots of meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) that differed in serogroup A polysaccharide (PS) O-acetylation levels and evaluated their immunogenicities and safety in comparison to a licensed ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (Men-PS). In this phase III, partially blinded, controlled study, 1,170 healthy subjects aged 18 to 25 years were randomized (1:1:1) to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT lot A (ACWY-A) (68% O-acetylation), MenACWY-TT lot B (ACWY-B) (92% O-acetylation), or Men-PS (82% O-acetylation). Immunogenicity was evaluated in terms of serum bactericidal activity using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit serum bactericidal activity [rSBA]). Solicited symptoms, unsolicited adverse events (AEs), and serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded. The immunogenicities, in terms of rSBA geometric mean titers, were comparable for both lots of MenACWY-TT. The vaccine response rates across the serogroups were 79.1 to 97.0% in the two ACWY groups and 73.7 to 94.1% in the Men-PS group. All subjects achieved rSBA titers of ≥1:8 for all serogroups. All subjects in the two ACWY groups and 99.5 to 100% in the Men-PS group achieved rSBA titers of ≥1:128. Pain was the most common solicited local symptom and was reported more frequently in the ACWY group (53.9 to 54.7%) than in the Men-PS group (36.8%). The most common solicited general symptoms were fatigue and headache, which were reported by 28.6 to 30.3% and 26.9 to 31.0% of subjects, respectively. Two subjects reported SAEs; one SAE was considered to be related to vaccination (blighted ovum; ACWY-B group). The level of serogroup A PS O-acetylation did not affect vaccine immunogenicity. MenACWY-TT (lot A) was not inferior to Men-PS in terms of vaccine response and was well tolerated.

  8. Cross-protection in Neisseria meningitidis serogroups Y and W polysaccharides: A comparative conformational analysis.

    Kuttel, Michelle M; Timol, Zaheer; Ravenscroft, Neil

    2017-06-29

    The capsular polysaccharide is the main virulence factor in meningococcus. The capsular polysaccharides for meningococcal serogroups Y and W are almost identical polymers of hexose-sialic acid, suggesting the possibility of cross-protection between group Y and W vaccines. However, early studies indicated that they elicit different levels of cross-protection. Here we explore the conformations of the meningococcal Y and W polysaccharides with molecular dynamics simulations of three repeating unit oligosaccharide strands. We find differences in Y and W antigen conformation: the Y polysaccharide has a single dominant conformation, whereas W exhibits a family of conformations including the Y conformation. This result is supported by our NMR NOESY analysis, which indicates key close contacts for W that are not present in Y. These conformational differences provide an explanation for the different levels of cross-protection measured for the Y and W monovalent vaccines and the high group W responses observed in HibMenCY-TT vaccinees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-covalent association of protein and capsular polysaccharide on bacteria-sized latex beads as a model for polysaccharide-specific humoral immunity to intact Gram-positive extracellular bacteria1

    Colino, Jesus; Duke, Leah; Snapper, Clifford M.

    2013-01-01

    Intact Streptococcus pneumoniae, expressing type 14 capsular polysaccharide (PPS14) and type III Streptococcus agalactiae containing a PPS14 core capsule identical to PPS14, exhibit non-covalent associations of PPS14 and bacterial protein, in contrast to soluble covalent conjugates of these respective antigens. Both bacteria and conjugates induce murine PPS14-specific IgG responses dependent on CD4+ T cells. Further, secondary immunization with conjugate and S. agalactiae, although not S. pneumoniae, results in a boosted response. However, in contrast to conjugate, PPS14-specific IgG responses to bacteria lack affinity maturation, utilize the 44.1-idiotype and are dependent on marginal zone B cells. To better understand the mechanism underlying this dichotomy we developed a minimal model of intact bacteria in which PPS14 and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) were stably attached to 1 μm (bacteria-sized) latex beads, but not directly linked to each other, in contrast to PPS14-PspA conjugate. PPS14+[PspA] beads, similar to conjugate, induced in mice boosted PPS14-specific IgG secondary responses, dependent on T cells and ICOS-dependent costimulation, and in which priming could be achieved with PspA alone. In contrast to conjugate, but similar to intact bacteria, the primary PPS14-specific IgG response to PPS14+[PspA] beads peaked rapidly, with the secondary response highly enriched for the 44.1-idiotype and lacking affinity maturation. These results demonstrate that non-covalent association in a particle, of polysaccharide and protein, recapitulates essential immunologic characteristics of intact bacteria that are distinct from soluble covalent conjugates of these respective antigens. PMID:23926322

  10. Measurement of the IgG2 response to Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides may identify an antibody deficiency in individuals referred for immunological investigation.

    Parker, Antony; Irure Ventura, Juan; Sims, Dawn; Echeverría de Carlos, Ainara; Gómez de la Torre, Ricardo; Tricas Aizpún, Lourdes; Ocejo-Vinyals, J Gonzalo; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Wallis, Gregg; Harding, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    IgG2 is the most efficient subclass for providing protection against pneumococcal pathogens. We hypothesised that some individuals may be unable to mount an effective pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) IgG2 response despite having a normal PCP IgG concentration (PCP IgG2 deficient). The median pre-vaccination PCP IgG2 concentration was significantly lower in individuals referred for immunological investigation compared to healthy controls (2.8 mg/L range, 95% CI 1.1-88 vs. 29.5mg/L, 95% CI 13.5-90, p = 0.0002). PCP IgG:IgG2 ratios were significantly higher for the referral population than for healthy controls suggesting the increased production of PCP specific subclasses other than IgG2. The percentage of individuals with PCP IgG2 deficiency was significantly higher in referral groups compared to controls (31% vs. 5%; p = 0.0009) and in an individual with PCP IgG2 deficiency, the balance of PCP specific IgG subclass antibodies post vaccination changed from IgG2>IgG1>IgG3>IgG4 to IgG1>IgG3>IgG2>IgG4. The median PCP IgG2 concentration in those with PCP IgG2 deficiency was significantly lower in the referral groups compared to controls (7.8 mg/L, 95% CI 1.1-12 vs. 12.7 mg/L, 95% CI 11.8-13.1; p = 0.006). The data suggests a defect in the production PCP IgG2 may be present in individuals with normal PCP IgG referred for immunological investigation.

  11. K19 capsular polysaccharide of Acinetobacter baumannii is produced via a Wzy polymerase encoded in a small genomic island rather than the KL19 capsule gene cluster.

    Kenyon, Johanna J; Shneider, Mikhail M; Senchenkova, Sofya N; Shashkov, Alexander S; Siniagina, Maria N; Malanin, Sergey Y; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-08-01

    Polymerization of the oligosaccharides (K units) of complex capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) requires a Wzy polymerase, which is usually encoded in the gene cluster that directs K unit synthesis. Here, a gene cluster at the Acinetobacter K locus (KL) that lacks a wzy gene, KL19, was found in Acinetobacter baumannii ST111 isolates 28 and RBH2 recovered from hospitals in the Russian Federation and Australia, respectively. However, these isolates produced long-chain capsule, and a wzy gene was found in a 6.1 kb genomic island (GI) located adjacent to the cpn60 gene. The GI also includes an acetyltransferase gene, atr25, which is interrupted by an insertion sequence (IS) in RBH2. The capsule structure from both strains was →3)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→4)-α-d-GalpNAcA-(1→3)-β-d-QuipNAc4NAc-(1→, determined using NMR spectroscopy. Biosynthesis of the K unit was inferred to be initiated with QuiNAc4NAc, and hence the Wzy forms the β-(1→3) linkage between QuipNAc4NAc and GalpNAc. The GalpNAc residue is 6-O-acetylated in isolate 28 only, showing that atr25 is responsible for this acetylation. The same GI with or without an IS in atr25 was found in draft genomes of other KL19 isolates, as well as ones carrying a closely related CPS gene cluster, KL39, which differs from KL19 only in a gene for an acyltransferase in the QuiNAc4NR synthesis pathway. Isolates carrying a KL1 variant with the wzy and atr genes each interrupted by an ISAba125 also have this GI. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of genes involved in capsule biosynthesis normally found at the KL located elsewhere in A. baumannii genomes.

  12. Acinetobacter baumannii K11 and K83 capsular polysaccharides have the same 6-deoxy-l-talose-containing pentasaccharide K units but different linkages between the K units.

    Kenyon, Johanna J; Shashkov, Alexander S; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Shneider, Mikhail M; Liu, Bin; Popova, Anastasiya V; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Wang, Lei; Knirel, Yuriy A; Hall, Ruth M

    2017-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii produces a variety of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) via genes located at the chromosomal K locus and some KL gene clusters include genes for the synthesis of specific sugars. The structures of K11 and K83 CPS produced by isolates LUH5545 and LUH5538, which carry related KL11a and KL83 gene clusters, respectively, were established by sugar analysis and one- and two-dimensional 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Both CPS contain l-rhamnose (l-Rha) and 6-deoxy-l-talose (l-6dTal), and both KL gene clusters include genes for dTDP-l-Rhap synthesis and a tle (talose epimerase) gene encoding an epimerase that converts dTDP-l-Rhap to dTDP-l-6dTalp. The K11 and K83 repeat units are the same pentasaccharide, consisting of d-glucose, l-Rha, l-6dTal, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, except that l-6dTal is 2-O-acetylated in K83. However, the K units are linked differently, with l-Rha in the main chain in K11, but as a side-branch in K83. KL11 and KL83 encode unrelated Wzy polymerases that link the K units together and different acetyltransferases, though only Atr8 from KL83 is active. The substrate specificity of each Wzy polymerase was assigned, and the functions of all glycosyltransferases were predicted. The CPS structures produced by three closely related K loci, KL29, KL105 and KL106, were also predicted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of genes required for the biosynthesis of type 1 capsular polysaccharide in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Lin, W S; Cunneen, T; Lee, C Y

    1994-11-01

    We previously cloned a 19.4-kb DNA region containing a cluster of genes affecting type 1 capsule production from Staphylococcus aureus M. Subcloning experiments showed that these capsule (cap) genes are localized in a 14.6-kb region. Sequencing analysis of the 14.6-kb fragment revealed 13 open reading frames (ORFs). Using complementation tests, we have mapped a collection of Cap- mutations in 10 of the 13 ORFs, indicating that these 10 genes are involved in capsule biosynthesis. The requirement for the remaining three ORFs in the synthesis of the capsule was demonstrated by constructing site-specific mutations corresponding to each of the three ORFs. Using an Escherichia coli S30 in vitro transcription-translation system, we clearly identified 7 of the 13 proteins predicted from the ORFs. Homology search between the predicted proteins and those in the data bank showed very high homology (52.3% identity) between capL and vipA, moderate homology (29% identity) between capI and vipB, and limited homology (21.8% identity) between capM and vipC. The vipA, vipB, and vipC genes have been shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of Salmonella typhi Vi antigen, a homopolymer polysaccharide consisting of N-acetylgalactosamino uronic acid, which is also one of the components of the staphylococcal type 1 capsule. The homology between these sets of genes therefore suggests that capL, capI, and capM may be involved in the biosynthesis of amino sugar, N-acetylgalactosamino uronic acid. In addition, the search showed that CapG aligned well with the consensus sequence of a family of acetyltransferases from various prokaryotic organisms, suggesting that CapG may be an acetyltransferase. Using the isogenic Cap- and Cap+ strains constructed in this study, we have confirmed that type 1 capsule is an important virulence factor in a mouse lethality test.

  14. An OMV Vaccine Derived from a Capsular Group B Meningococcus with Constitutive FetA Expression: Preclinical Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Toxicity.

    Gunnstein Norheim

    Full Text Available Following the introduction of effective protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against capsular group C meningococcal disease in Europe, meningococci of capsular group B remain a major cause of death and can result in debilitating sequelae. The outer membrane proteins PorA and FetA have previously been shown to induce bactericidal antibodies in humans. Despite considerable antigenic variation among PorA and FetA OMPs in meningococci, systematic molecular epidemiological studies revealed this variation is highly structured so that a limited repertoire of antigenic types is congruent with the hyperinvasive meningococcal lineages that have caused most of the meningococcal disease in Europe in recent decades. Here we describe the development of a prototype vaccine against capsular group B meningococcal infection based on a N. meningitidis isolate genetically engineered to have constitutive expression of the outer membrane protein FetA. Deoxycholate outer membrane vesicles (dOMVs extracted from cells cultivated in modified Frantz medium contained 21.8% PorA protein, 7.7% FetA protein and 0.03 μg LPS per μg protein (3%. The antibody response to the vaccine was tested in three mouse strains and the toxicological profile of the vaccine was tested in New Zealand white rabbits. Administration of the vaccine, MenPF-1, when given by intramuscular injection on 4 occasions over a 9 week period, was well tolerated in rabbits up to 50 μg/dose, with no evidence of systemic toxicity. These data indicated that the MenPF-1 vaccine had a toxicological profile suitable for testing in a phase I clinical trial.

  15. New recombinant vaccines for the prevention of meningococcal B disease

    Taha MK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Ala-Eddine DeghmaneInstitut Pasteur, Unit of Invasive Bacterial Infections and National Reference Center for Meningococci, Paris, FranceAbstract: Meningococcal disease is a life-threatening invasive infection (mainly septicemia and meningitis that occurs as epidemic or sporadic cases. The causative agent, Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus, is a capsulated Gram-negative bacterium. Current vaccines are prepared from the capsular polysaccharides (that also determine serogroups and are available against strains of serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 that show variable distribution worldwide. Plain polysaccharide vaccines were first used and subsequently conjugate vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity were introduced. The capsular polysaccharide of meningococcal serogroup B is poorly immunogenic due to similarity to the human neural cells adhesion molecule. Tailor-made, strain-specific vaccines have been developed to control localized and clonal outbreaks due to meningococci of serogroup B but no “universal” vaccine is yet available. This unmet medical need was recently overcome using several subcapsular proteins to allow broad range coverage of strains and to reduce the risk of escape variants due to genetic diversity of the meningococcus. Several vaccines are under development that target major or minor surface proteins. One vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis, under registration, is a multicomponent recombinant vaccine that showed an acceptable safety profile and covers around 80% of the currently circulating serogroup B isolates. However, its reactogenicity in infants seems to be high and the long term persistence of the immune response needs to be determined. Its activity on carriage, and therefore transmission, is under evaluation. Indirect protection is expected through restricting strain circulation and acquisition. This vaccine covers the circulating strains according to the presence of the targeted antigens in the

  16. Enter B and W: two new meningococcal vaccine programmes launched

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Ramsay, Mary; Borrow, Ray; Riordan, Andrew; Watson, John M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the UK became the first country in the world to have a comprehensive routine meningococcal vaccine programme targeting all of the main capsular groups of N. meningitidis. 1 An infant vaccine programme against meningococcal capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) was launched from 1st September with an aim to reduce endemic MenB disease in early childhood. On 1st August 2015, an adolescent programme against groups A, C, W and Y meningococci (MenACWY) was rolled out to halt a gr...

  17. Kinetics of antibody responses after primary immunization with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine or secondary immunization with either conjugate or polysaccharide vaccine in adults

    de Voer, Richarda M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Engels, Carla W. A. M.; Schepp, Rutger M.; van de Kassteele, Jan; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Berbers, Guy A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccine is administered as a single dose at 14 months. We evaluated the kinetics of isotype-specific antibodies in adults (n = 21) after primary immunization with MenCC or secondary immunization with MenCC or plain MenC

  18. Cryptococcal capsular glucuronoxylomannan reduces ischaemia-related neutrophil influx

    Ellerbroek, PM; Schoemaker, RG; van Veghel, R; Hoepelman, AIM; Coenjaerts, FEJ

    Background The capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) of Cryptococcus neoformans interferes with the chemotaxis and transendothelial migration of neutrophils. Intravenous administration of purified GXM has been shown to reduce the influx of inflammatory cells in an animal model of

  19. Vaccines for prevention of group B meningococcal disease: Not your father's vaccines.

    Harrison, Lee H

    2015-11-27

    For decades, there was no licensed vaccine for prevention of endemic capsular group B meningococcal disease, despite the availability of vaccines for prevention of the other most common meningococcal capsular groups. Recently, however, two new vaccines have been licensed for prevention of group B disease. Although immunogenic and considered to have an acceptable safety profile, there are many scientific unknowns about these vaccines, including effectiveness against antigenically diverse endemic meningococcal strains; duration of protection; whether they provide any herd protection; and whether there will be meningococcal antigenic changes that will diminish effectiveness over time. In addition, these vaccines present societal dilemmas that could influence how they are used in the U.S., including high vaccine cost in the face of a historically low incidence of meningococcal disease. These issues are discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Virulence of six capsular serotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in a mouse model

    Laine, ML; van Winkelhoff, AJ

    1998-01-01

    Capsular structures of Porphyromonas gingivalis have been correlated to the pathogenicity in animal models. Six polysaccharide capsular serotypes have recently been described in P. gingivalis. In the present study, virulence of the P. gingivalis strains of the six capsular serotypes was compared

  1. Enter B and W: two new meningococcal vaccine programmes launched.

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Ramsay, Mary; Borrow, Ray; Riordan, Andrew; Watson, John M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the UK became the first country in the world to have a comprehensive routine meningococcal vaccine programme targeting all of the main capsular groups of N. meningitidis. 1 An infant vaccine programme against meningococcal capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) was launched from 1st September with an aim to reduce endemic MenB disease in early childhood. On 1st August 2015, an adolescent programme against groups A, C, W and Y meningococci (MenACWY) was rolled out to halt a growing outbreak of capsular group W disease (MenW) caused by a hypervirulent clone of N. meningitidis, in addition to maintaining control against MenC disease provided by the current adolescent programme. 2. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Acinetobacter baumannii K13 and K73 capsular polysaccharides differ only in K-unit side branches of novel non-2-ulosonic acids: di-N-acetylated forms of either acinetaminic acid or 8-epiacinetaminic acid.

    Kenyon, Johanna J; Kasimova, Anastasiya A; Notaro, Anna; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Speciale, Immacolata; Shashkov, Alexander S; De Castro, Cristina; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2017-11-27

    Structures of capsular polysaccharides of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates carrying KL13 and KL73 gene clusters were established. The closely related KL73 and KL13 gene clusters differ only by one gene in the module responsible for synthesis of the non-2-ulosonic acids. The K13 and K73 polysaccharides differ only in a single side-chain sugar, which is either 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-l-glycero-l-altro- or -d-glycero-l-altro-non-2-ulosonic acid [di-N-acetylated forms of acinetaminic acid (Aci5Ac7Ac) or 8-epiacinetaminic acid (8eAci5Ac7Ac), respectively]. The KL13 also is closely related to the KL12 gene cluster, which contains a different wzy gene encoding the K unit polymerase. Accordingly, the otherwise near identical K units are linked differently via an α-d-FucpNAc-(1 → 4)-d-Galp linkage in K13 and K73 or an α-d-FucpNAc-(1 → 3)-d-GalpNAc linkage in K12. This finding confirms the predicted substrate of the ItrB3 initiating transferase as d-FucpNAc. Glycosyltransferases predicted to catalyse the linkage of d-Galp or d-GalpNAc to l-FucpNAc in the growing K13 and K73 or K12 units, respectively, differ by only two amino acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Meningococcal B vaccine. An immunogenic vaccine possibly useful during outbreaks.

    2014-09-01

    Invasive meningococcal infections can be life-threatening and cause severe sequelae. Antibiotic therapy is only partially effective. Bexsero is the first meningococcal B vaccine to be approved in the European Union. It contains four capsular antigens from various strains of group B meningococci. Clinical trials of this meningococcal B vaccine did not assess clinical protection. Two immunogenicity studies in adults, one in adolescents and six in infants, are available. They established the immunogenicity of the meningococcal B vaccine, determined age-appropriate vaccination schedules, and verified that concomitant administration of other vaccines did not undermine its immunogenicity. In the absence of relevant clinical trials, an in vitro study showed that sera from vaccinated individuals were likely to have bactericidal activity against 85% of 200 invasive meningococcal B strains isolated in France in 2007-2008. The meningococcal B vaccine provoked local adverse effects in most vaccinees, including local erythema, induration and pain. Fever occurred in about half of vaccinated children. Six cases of Kawasaki syndrome have been reported in children who received the vaccine, compared to only one case in control groups. In practice, the harm-benefit balance of this meningococcal B vaccine justify using it during outbreaks, provided the outbreak strain is covered by the vaccine antigens. Vaccinees should be enrolled in studies designed to evaluate clinical efficacy and to better determine the risk of Kawasaki syndrome.

  4. Immunochemical studies and genetic background of two Neisseria meningitidis isolates expressing unusual capsule polysaccharide antigens with specificities of both serogroup Y and W135.

    Tsang, Raymond S W; Tsai, Chao Ming; Henderson, Averil M; Tyler, Shaun; Law, Dennis K S; Zollinger, Wendell; Jamieson, Frances

    2008-03-01

    We described 2 unusual Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from epidemiologically unrelated invasive meningococcal disease cases in Ontario, Canada. Both isolates have features typical of serogroup Y N. meningitidis: are of serotype 2c, are of the multi-locus sequence types typical of the serogroup Y strains in Canada, and are genotyped as serogroup Y based on a previously described PCR-ELISA method that detects the serogroup-Y-specific siaD gene. However, both strains were poly-agglutinable in both anti-Y and anti-W135 antisera. Further studies on 1 of these 2 isolates showed the presence of glucose and galactose as well as sialic acids in its purified capsular polysaccharide, suggesting the presence of both serogroup Y and serogroup W135 polysaccharides. Rabbit antisera produced to this strain contained antibodies to both purified serogroup Y and serogroup W135 capsular polysaccharides. Absorption experiments with either serogroup Y or serogroup W135 bacteria confirmed the presence of antibodies to these 2 different polysaccharides. DNA sequencing of the cps operon from both isolates revealed a siaD gene with 99.7% homology to the published siaD sequence from a serogroup Y strain but with 3 point mutations that all resulted in amino acid changes. How these strains may affect results of routine surveillance, PCR diagnosis, and immuno-protection by vaccination are discussed.

  5. Meningococcal disease serogroup C

    Cuevas IE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Félix O Dickinson1, Antonio E Pérez1, Iván E Cuevas21Department of Epidemiology, “Pedro Kourí” Institute, Havana, Cuba; 2Pharmacovigilance Group, Finlay Institute, Havana, CubaAbstract: Despite current advances in antibiotic therapy and vaccines, meningococcal disease serogroup C (MDC remains a serious threat to global health, particularly in countries in North and Latin America, Europe, and Asia. MDC is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and neurological sequelae and it is a heavy economic burden. At the individual level, despite advances in antibiotics and supportive therapies, case fatality rate remains nearly 10% and severe neurological sequelae are frequent. At the population level, prevention and control of infection is more challenging. The main approaches include health education, providing information to the public, specific treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and the use of vaccines. Plain and conjugate meningococcal C polysaccharide vaccines are considered safe, are well tolerated, and have been used successfully for over 30 years. Most high-income countries use vaccination as a part of public health strategies, and different meningococcal C vaccination schedules have proven to be effective in reducing incidence. This is particularly so with conjugate vaccines, which have been found to induce immunogenicity in infants (the age group with the highest incidence rates of disease, stimulate immunologic memory, have longer effects, not lead to hyporesponsiveness with repeated dosing, and decrease acquisition of nasopharyngeal carriage, inducing herd immunity. Antibiotics are considered a cornerstone of MDC treatment and must be administered empirically as soon as possible. The choice of which antibiotic to use should be made based on local antibiotic resistance, availability, and circulating strains. Excellent options for a 7-day course are penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and

  6. Survival and interaction of Escherichia coli O104:H4 on Arabidopsis thaliana and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in comparison to E. coli O157:H7: Influence of plant defense response and bacterial capsular polysaccharide.

    Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

    2018-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has been associated with illnesses and outbreaks linked to fresh vegetables, prompting a growing public health concern. Most studies regarding interactions of STEC on fresh produce focused on E. coli O157:H7. Limited information is available about survival or fitness of E. coli O104:H4, non-O157 pathogen that was linked to one of the largest outbreaks of hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2011. In this study, survival of E. coli O104:H4 was evaluated on Arabidopsis thaliana plant and lettuce for 5 days compared with E. coli O157:H7, and expression of pathogenesis-realted gene (PR1; induction of plant defense response) was examined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR, and potential influence of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) on the bacterial fitness on plant was investigated. Populations of E. coli O104:H4 strains (RG1, C3493, and LpfA) on Arabidopsis and lettuce were significantly (P E. coli O157:H7 strains (7386 and sakai) at day 5 post-inoculation, indicating E. coli O104:H4 may have better survival ability on the plants. In addition, the E. coli O104:H4 strains produced significantly (P E. coli O157:H7 strains. RG1 strain (1.5-fold) initiated significantly (P E. coli O157:H7 strains 7386 (2.9-fold) and sakai (2.7-fold). Collectively, the results in this study suggests that different level of CPS production and plant defense response initiated by each STEC strain might influence the bacterial survival or persistence on plants. The present study provides better understanding of survival behavior of STEC, particularly E. coli O104:H4, using a model plant and vegetable under pre-harvest conditions with plant defense response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The KL24 gene cluster and a genomic island encoding a Wzy polymerase contribute genes needed for synthesis of the K24 capsular polysaccharide by the multiply antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate RCH51.

    Kenyon, Johanna J; Kasimova, Anastasiya A; Shneider, Mikhail M; Shashkov, Alexander S; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2017-03-01

    The whole-genome sequence of the multiply antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate RCH51 belonging to sequence type ST103 (Institut Pasteur scheme) revealed that the set of genes at the capsule locus, KL24, includes four genes predicted to direct the synthesis of 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose (d-Fuc3NAc), and this sugar was found in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). One of these genes, fdtE, encodes a novel bifunctional protein with an N-terminal FdtA 3,4-ketoisomerase domain and a C-terminal acetyltransferase domain. KL24 lacks a gene encoding a Wzy polymerase to link the oligosaccharide K units to form the CPS found associated with isolate RCH51, and a wzy gene was found in a small genomic island (GI) near the cpn60 gene. This GI is in precisely the same location as another GI carrying wzy and atr genes recently found in several A. baumannii isolates, but it does not otherwise resemble it. The CPS isolated from RCH51, studied by sugar analysis and 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, revealed that the K unit has a branched pentasaccharide structure made up of Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc residues with d-Fuc3NAc as a side branch, and the K units are linked via a β-d-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-β-d-Galp linkage formed by the Wzy encoded by the GI. The functions of the glycosyltransferases encoded by KL24 were assigned to formation of specific bonds. A correspondence between the order of the genes in KL24 and other KL and the order of the linkages they form was noted, and this may be useful in future predictions of glycosyltransferase specificities.

  8. Acinetobacter baumannii K27 and K44 capsular polysaccharides have the same K unit but different structures due to the presence of distinct wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters.

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Kenyon, Johanna J; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Shneider, Mikhail M; Popova, Anastasiya V; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), from Acinetobacter baumannii isolates 1432, 4190 and NIPH 70, which have related gene content at the K locus, were examined, and the chemical structures established using 2D(1)H and(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The three isolates produce the same pentasaccharide repeat unit, which consists of 5-N-acetyl-7-N-[(S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl] (major) or 5,7-di-N-acetyl (minor) derivatives of 5,7-diamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic (legionaminic) acid (Leg5Ac7R), D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. However, the linkage between repeat units in NIPH 70 was different to that in 1432 and 4190, and this significantly alters the CPS structure. The KL27 gene cluster in 4190 and KL44 gene cluster in NIPH 70 are organized identically and contain lga genes for Leg5Ac7R synthesis, genes for the synthesis of the common sugars, as well as anitrA2 initiating transferase and four glycosyltransferases genes. They share high-level nucleotide sequence identity for corresponding genes, but differ in the wzy gene encoding the Wzy polymerase. The Wzy proteins, which have different lengths and share no similarity, would form the unrelated linkages in the K27 and K44 structures. The linkages formed by the four shared glycosyltransferases were predicted by comparison with gene clusters that synthesize related structures. These findings unambiguously identify the linkages formed by WzyK27 and WzyK44, and show that the presence of different wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters changes the structure of the CPS. This may affect its capacity as a protective barrier for A. baumannii. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.

    Lee, Hoan Jong; Chung, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Woo Joo; Hong, Young Jin; Choi, Kyong Min; Lee, Jina; Oh, Chi Eun; Welsch, Jo Anne; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Hong, Ki Bae; Dagnew, Alemnew F; Bock, Hans; Dull, Peter M; Odrljin, Tatjana

    2014-11-01

    This phase III placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of MenACWY-CRM vaccination in healthy Korean adolescents and adults. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination against all four meningococcal serogroups. The IgG concentration specific for serogroup W capsular polysaccharide was measured in a subset of subjects in a post-hoc analysis. Adverse reactions were monitored throughout the study. Four hundred and fifty subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive MenACWY-CRM (N=297) or a saline placebo (N=153). MenACWY-CRM induced a good immune response against all four serogroups, with seroprotection rates (hSBA titers ≥8) of 79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Seroresponse rates were high for serogroups A, C, and Y, i.e. 76%, 86%, and 69%, respectively; the rate for serogroup W was 28%. MenACWY-CRM vaccine induced serum bactericidal antibodies against all four serogroups in a majority of subjects regardless of their baseline hSBA titers. MenACWY-CRM was generally well tolerated with most reactions being transient and mild to moderate in severity. Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects) and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107) against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  10. Evidence for Rare Capsular Switching in Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    Martins, Elisabete Raquel; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário

    2010-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule is a major antigenic factor in Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococcus [GBS]). Previous observations suggest that exchange of capsular loci is likely to occur rather frequently in GBS, even though GBS is not known to be naturally transformable. We sought to identify and characterize putative capsular switching events, by means of a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods, including pulsed-field gel electrophoretic profiling, multilocus sequence typing, and surface protein and pilus gene profiling. We show that capsular switching by horizontal gene transfer is not as frequent as previously suggested. Serotyping errors may be the main reason behind the overestimation of capsule switching, since phenotypic techniques are prone to errors of interpretation. The identified putative capsular transformants involved the acquisition of the entire capsular locus and were not restricted to the serotype-specific central genes, the previously suggested main mechanism underlying capsular switching. Our data, while questioning the frequency of capsular switching, provide clear evidence for in vivo capsular transformation in S. agalactiae, which may be of critical importance in planning future vaccination strategies against this pathogen. PMID:20023016

  11. Plasma and memory B-cell kinetics in infants following a primary schedule of CRM 197-conjugated serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    Kelly, Dominic F; Snape, Matthew D; Perrett, Kirsten P; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Lewis, Susan; Blanchard Rohner, Geraldine; Jones, Meryl; Yu, Ly-Mee; Pollard, Andrew J

    2009-05-01

    The induction of persistent protective levels of pathogen-specific antibody is an important goal of immunization against childhood infections. However, antibody persistence is poor after immunization in infancy versus later in life. Serogroup C meningococci (MenC) are an important cause of bacteraemia and meningitis in children. The use of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against MenC has been associated with a significant decline in the incidence of invasive disease. However, vaccine effectiveness is negligible by more than 1 year after a three-dose priming series in infancy and corresponds to a rapid decline in antibody following an initial immune response. The cellular mechanisms underlying the generation of persistent antibody in this age group are unclear. An essential prelude to larger studies of peripheral blood B cells is an understanding of B-cell kinetics following immunization. We measured MenC- and diphtheria-specific plasma and memory B-cell kinetics in infants receiving a CRM(197) (cross-reactive material; mutant diphtheria toxoid)-conjugated MenC vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Plasma cell responses were more delayed after the first dose when compared with the rapid appearance of plasma cells after the third dose. Memory B cells were detectable at all time-points following the third dose as opposed to the low frequency seen following a first dose. This study provides data on B-cell kinetics following a primary schedule of immunization in young infants upon which to base further studies of the underlying cellular mechanism of humoral immunity.

  12. Differential cytokine expression by human dendritic cells in response to different Porphyromonas gingivalis capsular serotypes

    Vernal, Rolando; León, Rubén; Silva, Augusto; van Winkelhoff, Arie J; Garcia-Sanz, Jose A; Sanz, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Capsular polysaccharides play an important role in the virulence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In Porphyromonas gingivalis, six serotypes have been described based on capsular antigenicity and its pathogenicity has been correlated both in vitro and in animal models. This study

  13. The next chapter for group B meningococcal vaccines.

    Wang, N Y; Pollard, A J

    2018-02-01

    The majority of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in the developed world is caused by capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis, however success with vaccination against organisms bearing this capsule has previously been restricted to control of geographically limited clonal outbreaks. As we enter a new era, with the first routine program underway to control endemic group B meningococcal disease for infants in the UK, it is timely to review the key landmarks in group B vaccine development, and discuss the issues determining whether control of endemic group B disease will be achieved. Evidence of a reduction in carriage acquisition of invasive group B meningococcal strains, after vaccination among adolescents, is imperative if routine immunization is to drive population control of disease beyond those who are vaccinated (i.e. through herd immunity). The need for multiple doses to generate a sufficiently protective response and reactogenicity remain significant problems with the new generation of vaccines. Despite these limitations, early data from the UK indicate that new group B meningococcal vaccines have the potential to have a major impact on meningococcal disease, and to provide new insight into how we might do better in the future.

  14. Meningococcal groups C and Y and haemophilus B tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT; MenHibrix(®)): a review.

    Perry, Caroline M

    2013-05-01

    The meningococcal groups C and Y and Haemophilus b (Hib) tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) contains Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C and Y capsular polysaccharide antigens, and Hib capsular polysaccharide [polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP)]. The HibMenCY-TT vaccine is available in the USA for use as active immunization to prevent invasive disease caused by N. meningitidis serogroups C (MenC) and Y (MenY), and Hib in children 6 weeks-18 months of age. HibMenCY-TT is the first meningococcal vaccine available for use in the USA that can be administered to infants as young as 6 weeks of age. In a randomized, controlled, phase III clinical trial, the HibMenCY-TT vaccine, administered to infants at 2, 4, 6 and 12-15 months of age, was immunogenic against MenC and MenY, and met the prespecified criteria for immunogenicity. Anti-PRP antibodies, which have been shown to correlate with protection against Hib invasive disease, were also induced in the infants who received the HibMenCY-TT vaccine, with induced levels of this antibody noninferior to those occurring in the control group of infants who received a Hib tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months and a single dose of Hib conjugated to N. meningitidis outer membrane protein at 12-15 months. In several randomized, controlled clinical trials, HibMenCY-TT was coadministered with vaccines that are routinely administered to infants and toddlers in the USA. These vaccines included: diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, hepatitis B (recombinant) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined; 7-valent Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide conjugate vaccine; measles, mumps and rubella vaccine; and varicella vaccine. Coadministration of these vaccines did not interfere with the immunogenicity of the HibMenCY-TT vaccine. Similarly, immune responses to the coadministered vaccines were not affected by the HibMenCY-TT vaccine. The tolerability profile of the Hib

  15. Meningococcal disease in the Middle East and Africa: Findings and updates from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    Borrow, Ray; Caugant, Dominique A; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Christensen, Hannah; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Findlow, Jamie; Glennie, Linda; Von Gottberg, Anne; Kechrid, Amel; Vázquez Moreno, Julio; Razki, Aziza; Smith, Vincent; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Tali-Maamar, Hassiba; Zerouali, Khalid

    2017-07-01

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) has recently considered current issues in Middle Eastern and African countries, and produced two recommendations: (i) that vaccination of attendees should be considered for some types of mass-gathering events, as some countries mandate for the Hajj, and (ii) vaccination of people with human immunodeficiency virus should be used routinely, because of increased meningococcal disease (MD) risk. Differences exist between Middle Eastern and African countries regarding case and syndrome definitions, surveillance, and epidemiologic data gaps. Sentinel surveillance provides an overview of trends and prevalence of different capsular groups supporting vaccine selection and planning, whereas cost-effectiveness decisions require comprehensive disease burden data, ideally counting every case. Surveillance data showed importance of serogroup B MD in North Africa and serogroup W expansion in Turkey and South Africa. Success of MenAfriVac ® in the African "meningitis belt" was reviewed; the GMI believes similar benefits may follow development of a low-cost meningococcal pentavalent vaccine, currently in phase 1 clinical trial, by 2022. The importance of carriage and herd protection for controlling invasive MD and the importance of advocacy and awareness campaigns were also highlighted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    ... Zika Travel Information World Map of Zika Country Classification Technical Guidance Risk of Zika Virus at Your ... Meningococcal meningitis is characterized by sudden onset of headache, fever, and stiffness of the neck, sometimes accompanied ...

  17. Factors contributing to the immunogenicity of meningococcal conjugate vaccines

    Bröker, Michael; Berti, Francesco; Costantino, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Various glycoprotein conjugate vaccines have been developed for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease, having significant advantages over pure polysaccharide vaccines. One of the most important features of the conjugate vaccines is the induction of a T-cell dependent immune response, which enables both the induction of immune memory and a booster response after repeated immunization. The nature of the carrier protein to which the polysaccharides are chemically linked, is often regarded as the main component of the vaccine in determining its immunogenicity. However, other factors can have a significant impact on the vaccine's profile. In this review, we explore the physico-chemical properties of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which can significantly contribute to the vaccine's immunogenicity. We demonstrate that the carrier is not the sole determining factor of the vaccine's profile, but, moreover, that the conjugate vaccine's immunogenicity is the result of multiple physico-chemical structures and characteristics. PMID:26934310

  18. Laboratory Predictors of Meningococcal Disease And Vaccination in Children: studies on the host immune response against Neisseria meningitidis

    C.L. Vermont (Clementien)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Neisseria meningitidis is a gram-negative diplococcus which was first identified by Anton Weichselbaum in 1887. Strains of N. meningitidis can be classified into serogroups based upon the different composition of its capsular polysaccharide. Thirteen serogroups

  19. Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines: What You Need to Know (VIS) Page Content ... to help protect against serogroup B . Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines There are two kinds of meningococcal vaccines licensed ...

  20. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    ... previous dose of meningococcal vaccine, to the DTaP vaccine , or to latex If your child has a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome (a disease of the nervous system that causes progressive weakness), talk to your doctor about whether the vaccines are a good idea. Caring for Your Child ...

  1. Vaccine prevention of meningococcal disease in Africa: Major advances, remaining challenges.

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Harrison, Lee H

    2017-12-06

    Africa historically has had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease with high endemic rates and periodic epidemics. The meningitis belt, a region of sub-Saharan Africa extending from Senegal to Ethiopia, has experienced large, devastating epidemics. However, dramatic shifts in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease have occurred recently. For instance, meningococcal capsular group A (NmA) epidemics in the meningitis belt have essentially been eliminated by use of conjugate vaccine. However, NmW epidemics have emerged and spread across the continent since 2000; NmX epidemics have occurred sporadically, and NmC recently emerged in Nigeria and Niger. Outside the meningitis belt, NmB predominates in North Africa, while NmW followed by NmB predominate in South Africa. Improved surveillance is necessary to address the challenges of this changing epidemiologic picture. A low-cost, multivalent conjugate vaccine covering NmA and the emergent and prevalent meningococcal capsular groups C, W, and X in the meningitis belt is a pressing need.

  2. Emergence and control of epidemic meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Mohammed, Idris; Iliyasu, Garba; Habib, Abdulrazaq Garba

    2017-02-01

    For more than a century, meningitis epidemics have regularly recurred across sub-Saharan Africa, involving 19 contiguous countries that constitute a 'meningitis belt' where historically the causative agent has been serogroup A meningococcus. Attempts to control epidemic meningococcal meningitis in Africa by vaccination with meningococcal polysaccharide (PS) vaccines have not been successful. This is largely because PS vaccines are poorly immunogenic in young children, do not induce immunological memory, and have little or no effect on the pharyngeal carriage. Meningococcal PS-protein conjugate vaccines overcome these deficiencies. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine against serotype A (MenAfriVac) was developed between 2001 and 2009 and deployed in 2010. So far, 262 million individuals have been immunized across the meningitis belt. The public health benefits of MenAfriVac have already been demonstrated by a sharp decline in reported cases of meningococcal disease in the countries where it has been introduced. However, serogroup replacement following mass meningitis vaccination has been noted, and in 2015 an epidemic with a novel strain of serogroup C was recorded in Niger and Nigeria for the first time since 1975. This has posed a serious challenge toward elimination of meningococcal meningitis epidemics in the African. For an effective control of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt, there is a need for an effective surveillance system, provision of rapid antigen detection kits as well as affordable vaccine that provides protection against the main serogroups causing meningitis in the sub-region.

  3. Identification of new meningococcal serogroup B surface antigens through a systematic analysis of neisserial genomes.

    Pajon, Rolando; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; Climent, Yanet; Sardiñas, Gretel; García, Darién; Perera, Yasser; Llanes, Alejandro; Delgado, Maité; Cobas, Karem; Caballero, Evelin; Taylor, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Gorringe, Andrew

    2009-12-11

    The difficulty of inducing an effective immune response against the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B capsular polysaccharide has lead to the search for vaccines for this serogroup based on outer membrane proteins. The availability of the first meningococcal genome (MC58 strain) allowed the expansion of high-throughput methods to explore the protein profile displayed by N. meningitidis. By combining a pan-genome analysis with an extensive experimental validation to identify new potential vaccine candidates, genes coding for antigens likely to be exposed on the surface of the meningococcus were selected after a multistep comparative analysis of entire Neisseria genomes. Eleven novel putative ORF annotations were reported for serogroup B strain MC58. Furthermore, a total of 20 new predicted potential pan-neisserial vaccine candidates were produced as recombinant proteins and evaluated using immunological assays. Potential vaccine candidate coding genes were PCR-amplified from a panel of representative strains and their variability analyzed using maximum likelihood approaches for detecting positive selection. Finally, five proteins all capable of inducing a functional antibody response vs N. meningitidis strain CU385 were identified as new attractive vaccine candidates: NMB0606 a potential YajC orthologue, NMB0928 the neisserial NlpB (BamC), NMB0873 a LolB orthologue, NMB1163 a protein belonging to a curli-like assembly machinery, and NMB0938 (a neisserial specific antigen) with evidence of positive selection appreciated for NMB0928. The new set of vaccine candidates and the novel proposed functions will open a new wave of research in the search for the elusive neisserial vaccine.

  4. Genomic Investigation Reveals Highly Conserved, Mosaic, Recombination Events Associated with Capsular Switching among Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Sequence Type (ST)-11 Strains.

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Krauland, Mary G; Fernandez, Jorge O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hiller, N Luisa; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-07-03

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningococcal disease globally. Sequence type (ST)-11 clonal complex (cc11) is a hypervirulent meningococcal lineage historically associated with serogroup C capsule and is believed to have acquired the W capsule through a C to W capsular switching event. We studied the sequence of capsule gene cluster (cps) and adjoining genomic regions of 524 invasive W cc11 strains isolated globally. We identified recombination breakpoints corresponding to two distinct recombination events within W cc11: A 8.4-kb recombinant region likely acquired from W cc22 including the sialic acid/glycosyl-transferase gene, csw resulted in a C→W change in capsular phenotype and a 13.7-kb recombinant segment likely acquired from Y cc23 lineage includes 4.5 kb of cps genes and 8.2 kb downstream of the cps cluster resulting in allelic changes in capsule translocation genes. A vast majority of W cc11 strains (497/524, 94.8%) retain both recombination events as evidenced by sharing identical or very closely related capsular allelic profiles. These data suggest that the W cc11 capsular switch involved two separate recombination events and that current global W cc11 meningococcal disease is caused by strains bearing this mosaic capsular switch. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Meningococcal Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment

    ... of limb(s), deafness, nervous system problems, or brain damage. Top of Page Related Links Meningococcal Vaccination Preteen Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis ...

  6. A structural investigation of the capsular antigens of some Klebsiella and E. coli serotypes

    Parolis, L.A.S.

    1985-11-01

    The work described in this thesis forms part of a program concerned with the study of exocellular capsular polysaccharides of some Enterobacteriaceae. 1 H- and 13 C-n.m.r. spectroscopy have been used in this study. Klebsiella and Escherichia coli are of interest because they are often pathogenic to man; E. coli are commensal bacteria as well as opportunistic pathogens. The bacterial capsule is the first line of defence of the bacterial cell against attack by the host's immunological defences and administered antibiotics, and thus knowledge of its composition and characteristics is of importance in devising ways of combating infection by these organisms. The structure of the capsular polysaccharide has been investigated employing a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods. Several oligo-saccharides were isolated and characterized by high resolution 1 H-n.m.r. spectroscopy and methylation analysis. The E. coli group of bacteria possesses seventy-four recognized polysaccharide capsules and the structures of approximately twenty percent of these have been reported. The emphasis of this research group is centered on the elucidation of the structures of E. coli capsules. The acidic capsular polysaccharide isolated from E. coli K9 has been investigated using the techniques of methylation analysis periodate oxidation, bacteriophage degradation and n.m.r. spectroscopy. This thesis however represents a transition period in the study of Enterobacteriaceae capsular polysaccharides and so includes the structure elucidation of two Klebsiella polysaccharides, that of the K14 and K68 serotypes, and one E. coli polysaccharide, that of the K9 serotype. Bacteriophage-borne enzyme degradations of Klebsiella K14 and E. coli K9 polysaccharides have been performed and are presented. The thesis also includes a comparative study of the 0-specific side-chains of the lipo-polysaccharides of E. coli 09 and 09a serogroups

  7. The role of economic evaluation in vaccine decision making : Focus on meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine

    Welte, R.; Trotter, C.L.; Edmunds, W.J.; Postma, Maarten; Beutels, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several countries have experienced increases in the incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease. It can be controlled with older polysaccharide vaccines and particularly the recently developed conjugate vaccines. For 21 developed countries, we investigated the role that economic

  8. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine.

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-06-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%.

  9. Structural studies on some capsular antigens from Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella

    Anderson, A N

    1987-12-01

    A review of the structural studies of bacterial capsular polysaccharides (K-antigens) from Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Klebsiella is presented. There is a general trend in the structural elucidation of polysaccharides towards the analysis of higher oligosaccharides. This trend has been facilitated by advances in modern instrumental techniques for the analysis of oligosaccharides, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structural elucidations of the capsular polysaccharides from E. Coli K37 and K55, and Klebsiella K39 are reported. This elucidation of K-antigens provides an insight into the response of mammalian immune systems to antigenic stimuli. The usefulness of bacteriophage degradation as a technique for the structural elucidation of polysaccharides containing repeating unit structures is emphasized. The bacteriophage degradation of E. coli K55 polysaccharide illustrates that bacteriophage-borne enzymes may be used to degrade chemically related carbohydrate materials. The bacteriophage technique for the structural elucidation of the Klebsiella K39 polysaccharide also illustrates the advantages of this technique where the polysaccharide contains labile glycosidic bonds which are readily cleaved during standard chemical analysis. The enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides allows high yields of specific oligosaccharides to be recovered. The feasibility of analysing small amounts of carbohydrate material has become realistic due to improved instrumental capabilities. At the same time, more detailed information concerning the fine structure of known carbohydrate materials can be elucidated. 421 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Effect of a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY glycoconjugate or a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine on meningococcal carriage: an observer-blind, phase 3 randomised clinical trial.

    Read, Robert C; Baxter, David; Chadwick, David R; Faust, Saul N; Finn, Adam; Gordon, Stephen B; Heath, Paul T; Lewis, David J M; Pollard, Andrew J; Turner, David P J; Bazaz, Rohit; Ganguli, Amitava; Havelock, Tom; Neal, Keith R; Okike, Ifeanyichukwu O; Morales-Aza, Begonia; Patel, Kamlesh; Snape, Matthew D; Williams, John; Gilchrist, Stefanie; Gray, Steve J; Maiden, Martin C J; Toneatto, Daniela; Wang, Huajun; McCarthy, Maggie; Dull, Peter M; Borrow, Ray

    2014-12-13

    B vaccination resulted in significantly lower carriage of any meningococcal strain (18·2% [95% CI 3·4-30·8] carriage reduction), capsular groups BCWY (26·6% [10·5-39·9] carriage reduction), capsular groups CWY (29·6% [8·1-46·0] carriage reduction), and serogroups CWY (28·5% [2·8-47·5] carriage reduction) compared with control vaccination. Significantly lower carriage rates were also noted in the MenACWY-CRM group compared with controls: 39·0% (95% CI 17·3-55·0) carriage reduction for serogroup Y and 36·2% (15·6-51·7) carriage reduction for serogroup CWY. Study vaccines were generally well tolerated, with increased rates of transient local injection pain and myalgia in the 4CMenB group. No safety concerns were identified. Although we detected no significant difference between groups at 1 month after vaccine course, MenACWY-CRM and 4CMenB vaccines reduced meningococcal carriage rates during 12 months after vaccination and therefore might affect transmission when widely implemented. Novartis Vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Invasive Meningococcal Men Y Disease

    2012-04-18

    Dr. Leonard Mayer, a public health microbiologist at CDC, discusses invasive meningococcal disease.  Created: 4/18/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  12. Genetic analysis of the capsular biosynthetic locus from all 90 pneumococcal serotypes.

    Stephen D Bentley

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Several major invasive bacterial pathogens are encapsulated. Expression of a polysaccharide capsule is essential for survival in the blood, and thus for virulence, but also is a target for host antibodies and the basis for effective vaccines. Encapsulated species typically exhibit antigenic variation and express one of a number of immunochemically distinct capsular polysaccharides that define serotypes. We provide the sequences of the capsular biosynthetic genes of all 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and relate these to the known polysaccharide structures and patterns of immunological reactivity of typing sera, thereby providing the most complete understanding of the genetics and origins of bacterial polysaccharide diversity, laying the foundations for molecular serotyping. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a complete repertoire of capsular biosynthetic genes has been available, enabling a holistic analysis of a bacterial polysaccharide biosynthesis system. Remarkably, the total size of alternative coding DNA at this one locus exceeds 1.8 Mbp, almost equivalent to the entire S. pneumoniae chromosomal complement.

  13. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  14. A first meningococcal meningitis case caused by serogroup Ⅹ Neisseria meningitidis strains in China

    CHEN Chao; UANG Ying-chun; ZHANG Tie-gang; HE Jing-guo; WU Jiang; CHEN Li-juan; LIU Jun-feng; PANG Xing-huo; YANG Jie; SHAO Zhu-jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis and classified into 13 serogroups based on the immunological reactivity of the capsular polysaccharide.1 Serogroups A,B,C,W135 and Y are the most common causes of meningitis.2

  15. Prospects for eradication of meningococcal disease

    Nadel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia remain a serious global health threat. This review focuses on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease following the recent implementation of effective vaccines and the potential utility of a vaccine against serogroup B meningococcus.

  16. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  17. Can we control all-cause meningococcal disease in Europe?

    Sadarangani, M; Pollard, A J

    2016-12-01

    Invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis is potentially devastating, with a case fatality rate of 5-15% and high rates of significant sequelae among survivors after septicaemia or meningitis. Capsular group C (MenC) conjugate vaccines have been highly successful in achieving control of MenC disease across Europe, and some countries have also introduced quadrivalent MenACWY conjugate vaccines to reduce disease caused by groups A, W and Y in addition to C. These vaccines putatively elicit protective levels of bactericidal antibodies in all age groups, induce immunologic memory and reduce nasopharyngeal carriage, thereby leading to herd protection. Protein-based meningococcal vaccines based on subcapsular components, and designed primarily to target capsular group B (MenB) disease, have recently been licensed. These vaccines are highly immunogenic in infants and adolescents, inducing bactericidal antibodies against strains expressing high levels of vaccine antigens which are identical to the variants present in the vaccines. Effectiveness of these vaccines at a population level will be determined by whether vaccine-induced antibodies provide cross-protection against variants of the vaccine antigens present on the surface of the diverse collection of circulating invasive strains. The level of serum bactericidal activity induced against strains also seems to depend on the level of expression of the vaccine antigens. The duration of protection and the impact on carriage of meningococci will have a major bearing on the overall effectiveness of the programme. In September 2015 the UK became the first country to introduce the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) into a national routine immunization schedule, and data on the effectiveness of this programme are anticipated in the next few years. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine (MenB)

    What are meningococcal group B vaccines?Two serogroup B meningococcal group B vaccines (Bexsero and Trumenba) have been licensed by the Food and Drug ... Who should not get meningococcal group B vaccine or should wait?Tell the person ... you the vaccine:If you have any severe, life-threatening allergies. ...

  19. Acute meningococcal disease in children and adolescents

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Steensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is a rapidly progressing infection, which continues to cause deaths among children and adolescents. In this review, clinical signs and initial treatment of acute childhood meningococcal disease is described. Operational flow charts have been developed for assessment of non......-blanching rash and initial treatment of meningococcal disease....

  20. Radioimmunoassay of capsular polysaccaride antigens of groups A and C meningococci and Haemophilus influenza type b in cerebrospinal fluid

    Kaeyhty, H.; Maekelae, P.H.; Ruoslahti, E.

    1977-01-01

    Sensitive radioimmunoassays capable of measuring 0.5 ng/ml of the Haemophilus influenza type b polysaccharide and 2 ng/ml of the groups A and C meningococcal polysaccharides were developed and used to detect these substances in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Polysaccharide of the causative agent was detected in the CSF of 14 out of 15 patients with Haemophilus influenza type b meningitis, in 18 out of 23 patients with group A, and in two out of four patients with group C meningococcal meningitis. In some cases the antigen could be detected even after three days of antibacterial treatment. No false positive reactions were seen. The assay procedure could be shortened to approximately three hours. These assays could be useful in routine diagnostic work and epidemiological investigations. (author)

  1. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  2. The Pneumococcal Serotype 15C Capsule Is Partially O-Acetylated and Allows for Limited Evasion of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine-Elicited Anti-Serotype 15B Antibodies

    Spencer, Brady L.; Shenoy, Anukul T.; Orihuela, Carlos J.; Nahm, Moon H.

    2017-01-01

    As a species, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) utilizes a diverse array of capsular polysaccharides to evade the host. In contrast to large variations in sugar composition and linkage formation, O-acetylation is a subtle capsular modification that nonetheless has a large impact on capsular shielding and recognition of the capsule by vaccine-elicited antibodies. Serotype 15B, which is included in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), carries the putative O-acety...

  3. Global practices of meningococcal vaccine use and impact on invasive disease

    Ali, Asad; Jafri, Rabab Zehra; Messonnier, Nancy; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Durrheim, David; Eskola, Juhani; Fermon, Florence; Klugman, Keith P; Ramsay, Mary; Sow, Samba; Zhujun, Shao; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abramson, Jon

    2014-01-01

    A number of countries now include meningococcal vaccines in their routine immunization programs. This review focuses on different approaches to including meningococcal vaccines in country programs across the world and their effect on the burden of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) as reflected by pre and post-vaccine incidence rates in the last 20 years. Mass campaigns using conjugated meningococcal vaccines have lead to control of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the UK, Canada, Australia, Spain, Belgium, Ireland, and Iceland. Serogroup B disease, predominant in New Zealand, has been dramatically decreased, partly due to the introduction of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine. Polysaccharide vaccines were used in high risk people in Saudi Arabia and Syria and in routine immunization in China and Egypt. The highest incidence region of the meningitis belt initiated vaccination with the serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010 and catch-up vaccination is ongoing. Overall results of this vaccine introduction are encouraging especially in countries with a moderate to high level of endemic disease. Continued surveillance is required to monitor effectiveness in countries that recently implemented these programs. PMID:24548156

  4. Prevention of posterior capsular opacification

    Nibourg, Lisanne M; Gelens, Edith; Kuijer, Roelof; Hooymans, Johanna Mm; van Kooten, Theo G; Koopmans, Steven A

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is a common complication of cataract surgery. The development of PCO is due to a combination of the processes of proliferation, migration, and transdifferentiation of residual lens epithelial cells (LECs) on the lens capsule. In the past decades, various forms

  5. Bacterial Meningitis in Brazil: Baseline Epidemiologic Assessment of the Decade Prior to the Introduction of Pneumococcal and Meningococcal Vaccines.

    Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis is associated with significant burden in Brazil. In 2010, both 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and meningococcal capsular group C conjugate vaccine were introduced into the routine vaccination schedule. Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine was previously introduced in 1999. This study presents trends in demographics, microbiological characteristics and seasonality patterns of bacterial meningitis cases in Brazil from 2000 to 2010.All meningitis cases confirmed by clinical and/or laboratory criteria notified to the national information system for notifiable diseases between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. Proportions of bacterial meningitis cases by demographic characteristics, criteria used for confirmation and etiology were calculated. We estimated disease rates per 100,000 population and trends for the study period, with emphasis on H. influenzae, N. meningitidis and S. pneumoniae cases. In the decade, 341,805 cases of meningitis were notified in Brazil. Of the 251,853 cases with defined etiology, 110,264 (43.8% were due to bacterial meningitis (excluding tuberculosis. Of these, 34,997 (31.7% were due to meningococcal disease. The incidence of bacterial meningitis significantly decreased from 3.1/100,000 population in 2000-2002 to 2.14/100,000 in 2009-2010 (p<0.01. Among cases of meningococcal disease, the proportion of those associated with group C increased from 41% in 2007 to 61.7% in 2010, while the proportion of group B disease progressively declined. Throughout the study period, an increased number of cases occurred during winter.Despite the reduction in bacterial meningitis incidence during the last decade, it remains a significant healthcare issue in Brazil. Meningococcal disease is responsible for the majority of the cases with group C the most common capsular type. Our study demonstrates the appropriateness of introduction of meningococcal vaccination in Brazil. Furthermore, this study provides a baseline

  6. 2010 FIFA world cup South Africa: travel health issues and new options for protection against meningococcal disease.

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Bröker, Michael; Worth, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    The public health implications of large crowds gathering at a range of key global events should never be underestimated. This is especially the case with the upcoming 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa programme where thousands of local and travelling spectators, players and officials from all over the world will be present. Although meningococcal disease contracted whilst actually travelling is relatively rare, any travel health risk assessment should involve consideration of potential exposure to and transmission of this disease where crowding occurs. In South Africa, for reasons not completely understood, the incidence of meningococcal disease is higher than in most European countries. Whilst the currently available polysaccharide vaccines can help protect travellers against meningococcal disease there are some well recognised limitations of such vaccines. These can, however, be overcome with the use of newly developed conjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines. A quadrivalent conjugate vaccine should be the first choice for travellers to areas in which the risk of exposure to meningococcal disease is significant. The conjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine should be recommended for all those attending or playing in the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa as well as similar global and regional events.

  7. Distribution of capsular and surface polysaccharide serotypes of Staphylococcus aureus

    von Eiff, Christof; Taylor, Kimberly L; Mellmann, Alexander; Fattom, Ali I; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    Because of its ability to cause serious and fatal infections, Staphylococcus aureus remains one of the most feared microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has long been a common pathogen in healthcare facilities, but within the past decade, it has emerged as a problematic pathogen in

  8. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  9. A structural study of the capsular antigens of Escherichia coli K36 and Klebsiella K68

    Stanley, S.M.R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis discusses the structural study of the capsular antigens of the bacteria, Escherichia coli K36 and Klebsiella K68. In the elucidation of bacterial polysaccharides chemically based analytical procedures and instrumental analytical techniques were used. Nuclear magnetic resonance is a powerful tool for obtaining structural information on poly-, oligo- and di-saccharides and a detailed discussion of this technique, and the results obtained in this study, is given

  10. The meningococcal antibody test: how useful in the diagnosis of meningococcal disease?

    Weis, N; Berthelsen, L; Wachmann, H

    2005-01-01

    Based on 9257 [correction] blood samples received from 7365 patients with a request for a meningococcal antibody test (MAT) during a 10-year period (1986-1995), the usefulness of the test in the diagnosis of meningococcal disease was assessed. Of 635 patients with culture-confirmed meningococcal ...

  11. Management of subluxated capsular bag-fixated intraocular lenses using a capsular anchor

    Ton, Yokrat; Naftali, Modi; Lapid Gortzak, Ruth; Assia, Ehud I.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the use of the capsular anchor (AssiAnchor) to manage a subluxated intraocular lens (IOL) in the capsular bag. The anchor comprises 2 prongs that hold the anterior lens capsule and a central rod that is sutured to the scleral wall, enabling centration of the IOL-capsular bag complex. Six

  12. Critical appraisal of a quadrivalent CRM197 conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C W-135 and Y (Menveo®) in the context of treatment and prevention of invasive disease

    Bröker, Michael; Cooper, Brian; DeTora, Lisa M; Stoddard, Jeffrey J

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, invasive meningococcal disease affects about 500,000 people annually. Case fatality in developed countries averages 10%, and higher rates are reported in less prosperous regions. According to the World Health Organization, the most important pathogenic serogroups are A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y. Clinical features of invasive meningococcal disease make diagnosis and management difficult. Antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis after exposure and for treatment of invasive meningococcal disease cases; however, resistant strains may be emerging. Vaccines are generally regarded as the best preventative measure for invasive meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y using protein conjugation technology have clear advantages over older plain polysaccharide formulations without a protein component. The first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the US in 2005. More recently, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo®) was licensed in Europe, the US, the Middle East, and Latin America. MenACWY-CRM uses cross-reactive material 197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, as the carrier protein. MenACWY-CRM offers robust immunogenicity in all age groups, with a tolerability profile similar to that of a plain polysaccharide vaccine. Given its potential for protecting persons from infancy to old age, MenACWY-CRM offers the opportunity to protect broad populations against invasive meningococcal disease. The most optimal strategy for use of the vaccine has to be assessed country by country on the basis of local epidemiology, individual health care systems, and need. PMID:21904459

  13. Critical appraisal of a quadrivalent CRM(197) conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C W-135 and Y (Menveo) in the context of treatment and prevention of invasive disease.

    Bröker, Michael; Cooper, Brian; Detora, Lisa M; Stoddard, Jeffrey J

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, invasive meningococcal disease affects about 500,000 people annually. Case fatality in developed countries averages 10%, and higher rates are reported in less prosperous regions. According to the World Health Organization, the most important pathogenic serogroups are A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y. Clinical features of invasive meningococcal disease make diagnosis and management difficult. Antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis after exposure and for treatment of invasive meningococcal disease cases; however, resistant strains may be emerging. Vaccines are generally regarded as the best preventative measure for invasive meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y using protein conjugation technology have clear advantages over older plain polysaccharide formulations without a protein component. The first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the US in 2005. More recently, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo(®)) was licensed in Europe, the US, the Middle East, and Latin America. MenACWY-CRM uses cross-reactive material 197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, as the carrier protein. MenACWY-CRM offers robust immunogenicity in all age groups, with a tolerability profile similar to that of a plain polysaccharide vaccine. Given its potential for protecting persons from infancy to old age, MenACWY-CRM offers the opportunity to protect broad populations against invasive meningococcal disease. The most optimal strategy for use of the vaccine has to be assessed country by country on the basis of local epidemiology, individual health care systems, and need.

  14. Acute meningococcal disease in children and adolescents

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Steensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is a rapidly progressing infection, which continues to cause deaths among children and adolescents. In this review, clinical signs and initial treatment of acute childhood meningococcal disease is described. Operational flow charts have been developed for assessment of non...

  15. Antibiotic modulation of capsular exopolysaccharide and virulence in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Edward Geisinger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing importance due to its propensity for intractable multidrug-resistant infections in hospitals. All clinical isolates examined contain a conserved gene cluster, the K locus, which determines the production of complex polysaccharides, including an exopolysaccharide capsule known to protect against killing by host serum and to increase virulence in animal models of infection. Whether the polysaccharides determined by the K locus contribute to intrinsic defenses against antibiotics is unknown. We demonstrate here that mutants deficient in the exopolysaccharide capsule have lowered intrinsic resistance to peptide antibiotics, while a mutation affecting sugar precursors involved in both capsule and lipopolysaccharide synthesis sensitizes the bacterium to multiple antibiotic classes. We observed that, when grown in the presence of certain antibiotics below their MIC, including the translation inhibitors chloramphenicol and erythromycin, A. baumannii increases production of the K locus exopolysaccharide. Hyperproduction of capsular exopolysaccharide is reversible and non-mutational, and occurs concomitantly with increased resistance to the inducing antibiotic that is independent of the presence of the K locus. Strikingly, antibiotic-enhanced capsular exopolysaccharide production confers increased resistance to killing by host complement and increases virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection. Finally, we show that augmented capsule production upon antibiotic exposure is facilitated by transcriptional increases in K locus gene expression that are dependent on a two-component regulatory system, bfmRS. These studies reveal that the synthesis of capsule, a major pathogenicity determinant, is regulated in response to antibiotic stress. Our data are consistent with a model in which gene expression changes triggered by ineffectual antibiotic treatment cause A. baumannii to transition

  16. Critical appraisal of a quadrivalent CRM197 conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C W-135 and Y (Menveo® in the context of treatment and prevention of invasive disease

    Bröker M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Bröker, Brian Cooper, Lisa M DeTora, Jeffrey J StoddardGlobal Medical Affairs, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Marburg, Germany, and Cambridge, MA, USAAbstract: Worldwide, invasive meningococcal disease affects about 500,000 people annually. Case fatality in developed countries averages 10%, and higher rates are reported in less prosperous regions. According to the World Health Organization, the most important pathogenic serogroups are A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y. Clinical features of invasive meningococcal disease make diagnosis and management difficult. Antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis after exposure and for treatment of invasive meningococcal disease cases; however, resistant strains may be emerging. Vaccines are generally regarded as the best preventative measure for invasive meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y using protein conjugation technology have clear advantages over older plain polysaccharide formulations without a protein component. The first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D was licensed in the US in 2005. More recently, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo® was licensed in Europe, the US, the Middle East, and Latin America. MenACWY-CRM uses cross-reactive material 197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, as the carrier protein. MenACWY-CRM offers robust immunogenicity in all age groups, with a tolerability profile similar to that of a plain polysaccharide vaccine. Given its potential for protecting persons from infancy to old age, MenACWY-CRM offers the opportunity to protect broad populations against invasive meningococcal disease. The most optimal strategy for use of the vaccine has to be assessed country by country on the basis of local epidemiology, individual health care systems, and need.Keywords: invasive meningococcal disease, quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Neisseria meningitidis

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM in healthy Korean adolescents and adults

    Hoan Jong Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107 against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  18. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease

    Nelson Christopher B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%. Deliverability

  19. Visualization of bacterial polysaccharides by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Wolanski, B S; McAleer, W J; Hilleman, M R

    1983-04-01

    Highly purified capsular polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis groups A, B, and C have been visualized by high resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). Spheroidal macromolecules approximately 200 A in diameter are characteristic of the Meningococcus A and C polysaccharides whereas filaments that are 400-600 A in length are found in Meningococcus B polysaccharide preparations. Filaments are occasionally found associated with the spheroidal Meningococcus A and C polysaccharides and it is proposed that these structures are composed of a long (1-4 microns) filament or filaments that are arranged in spheroidal molecules or micelles of high molecular weight. The Meningococcus B polysaccharide, by contrast, is a short flexuous filament or strand of relatively low molecular weight. A relationship between morphology and antigenicity is proposed.

  20. [Meningococcal disease: frequently asked questions].

    Cofré, José

    2012-12-01

    On account of an increase of serogroup W135 meningococcal disease (M.D.) observed in Santiago, Chile, during last two years the medical community has experienced an avidity to update their knowledge about M.D. treatment and its prevention. In a queries and answers mode, the following topics on M.D. are presented: nasopharyngeal carriage and its importance, immunity and protection against the disease, reasons to choice ceftriaxone as the first line antibiotic in treatment, rationality and indications of chemoprophylaxis, fundamentals and advantages of conjugate vaccines, its indications, schedules, contraindications and decisions making in public health.

  1. Streptococcus iniae cpsG alters capsular carbohydrate composition and is a cause of serotype switching in vaccinated fish.

    Heath, Candice; Gillen, Christine M; Chrysanthopoulos, Panagiotis; Walker, Mark J; Barnes, Andrew C

    2016-09-25

    Streptococcus iniae causes septicaemia and meningitis in marine and freshwater fish wherever they are farmed in warm-temperate and tropical regions. Although serotype specific, vaccination with bacterins (killed bacterial cultures) is largely successful and vaccine failure occurs only occasionally through emergence of new capsular serotypes. Previously we showed that mutations in vaccine escapes are restricted to a limited repertoire of genes within the 20-gene capsular polysaccharide (cps) operon. cpsG, a putative UDP-galactose 4-epimerase, has three sequence types based on the insertion or deletion of the three amino acids leucine, serine and lysine in the substrate binding site of the protein. To elucidate the role of cpsG in capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis and capsular composition, we first prepared isogenic knockout and complemented mutants of cpsG by allelic exchange mutagenesis. Deletion of cpsG resulted in changes to colony morphology and cell buoyant density, and also significantly decreased galactose content relative to glucose in the capsular polysaccharide as determined by GC-MS, consistent with epimerase activity of CpsG. There was also a metabolic penalty of cpsG knockout revealed by slower growth in complex media, and reduced proliferation in whole fish blood. Moreover, whilst antibodies raised in fish against the wild type cross-reacted in whole cell and cps ELISA, they did not cross-opsonise the mutant in a peripheral blood neutrophil opsonisation assay, consistent with reported vaccine escape. We have shown here that mutation in cpsG results in altered CPS composition and this in turn results in poor cross-opsonisation that explains some of the historic vaccination failure on fish farms in Australia. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Invasive meningococcal disease in children in Ireland, 2001-2011.

    Ó Maoldomhnaigh, Cilian

    2016-12-01

    In 1999, invasive meningococcal disease was hyperendemic in Ireland at 14.75\\/100 000 population, with 60% group B and 30% group C diseases. National sepsis guidelines and meningococcal C vaccines were introduced in 2000. Despite a spontaneous decline in group B infection, invasive meningococcal disease remains a leading cause of sepsis. This study characterises the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in children in Ireland since the introduction of meningococcal C vaccine and reviews its clinical presentation, hospital course and outcome in anticipation of meningococcal B vaccine introduction.

  3. Emerging clinical experience with vaccines against group B meningococcal disease.

    Wilkins, A L; Snape, M D

    2017-08-01

    The prevention of paediatric bacterial meningitis and septicaemia has recently entered a new era with the availability of two vaccines against capsular group B meningococcus (MenB). Both of these vaccines are based on sub-capsular proteins of the meningococcus, an approach that overcomes the challenges set by the poorly immunogenic MenB polysaccharide capsule but adds complexity to predicting and measuring the impact of their use. This review describes the development and use of MenB vaccines to date, from the use of outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines in MenB outbreaks around the world, to emerging evidence on the effectiveness of the newly available vaccines. While recent data from the United Kingdom supports the potential for protein-based vaccines to provide direct protection against MenB disease in immunised children, further research is required to understand the breadth and duration of this protection. A more detailed understanding of the impact of immunisation with these vaccines on nasopharyngeal carriage of the meningococcus is also required, to inform both their potential to induce herd immunity and to preferentially select for carriage of strains not susceptible to vaccine-induced antibodies. Although a full understanding of the potential impact of these vaccines will only be possible with this additional information, the availability of new tools to prevent the devastating effect of invasive MenB disease is a significant breakthrough in the fight against childhood sepsis and meningitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    Miller, Jacqueline M.; Mesaros, Narcisa; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Baine, Yaela

    2011-01-01

    Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles. PMID:21991444

  5. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    Jacqueline M. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles.

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Meningococcal to Pertussis

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Meningococcal to Pertussis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Meningococcal disease to Pertussis

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Meningococcal disease to Pertussis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Lyme disease to Meningococcal

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Lyme disease to Meningococcal - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Lyme disease to Meningococcal

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Lyme disease to Meningococcal - 2014In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases...

  10. NNDSS - Table II. Lyme disease to Meningococcal

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Lyme disease to Meningococcal - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  11. Effect of a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) on serogroup A meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad: a community study [corrected].

    Daugla, D M; Gami, J P; Gamougam, K; Naibei, N; Mbainadji, L; Narbé, M; Toralta, J; Kodbesse, B; Ngadoua, C; Coldiron, M E; Fermon, F; Page, A-L; Djingarey, M H; Hugonnet, S; Harrison, O B; Rebbetts, L S; Tekletsion, Y; Watkins, E R; Hill, D; Caugant, D A; Chandramohan, D; Hassan-King, M; Manigart, O; Nascimento, M; Woukeu, A; Trotter, C; Stuart, J M; Maiden, McJ; Greenwood, B M

    2014-01-04

    A serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was licensed in India in 2009, and pre-qualified by WHO in 2010, on the basis of its safety and immunogenicity. This vaccine is now being deployed across the African meningitis belt. We studied the effect of PsA-TT on meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad during a serogroup A meningococcal meningitis epidemic. We obtained data for the incidence of meningitis before and after vaccination from national records between January, 2009, and June, 2012. In 2012, surveillance was enhanced in regions where vaccination with PsA-TT had been undertaken in 2011, and in one district where a reactive vaccination campaign in response to an outbreak of meningitis was undertaken. Meningococcal carriage was studied in an age-stratified sample of residents aged 1-29 years of a rural area roughly 13-15 and 2-4 months before and 4-6 months after vaccination. Meningococci obtained from cerebrospinal fluid or oropharyngeal swabs were characterised by conventional microbiological and molecular methods. Roughly 1·8 million individuals aged 1-29 years received one dose of PsA-TT during a vaccination campaign in three regions of Chad in and around the capital N'Djamena during 10 days in December, 2011. The incidence of meningitis during the 2012 meningitis season in these three regions was 2·48 per 100,000 (57 cases in the 2·3 million population), whereas in regions without mass vaccination, incidence was 43·8 per 100,000 (3809 cases per 8·7 million population), a 94% difference in crude incidence (pvaccinated regions. 32 serogroup A carriers were identified in 4278 age-stratified individuals (0·75%) living in a rural area near the capital 2-4 months before vaccination, whereas only one serogroup A meningococcus was isolated in 5001 people living in the same community 4-6 months after vaccination (adjusted odds ratio 0·019, 95% CI 0·002-0·138; p<0·0001). PSA-TT was highly

  12. Capsular phimosis with complete occlusion of the anterior capsular opening after intact continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis

    Al-Kharashi, Soliman A.; Al-Obailan, Majed

    2009-01-01

    Shrinkage and whitening of the anterior capsule opening - capsular contraction syndrome - is a well-known complication after continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis. A 72-year-old women underwent continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis, phacoemulsification, and implantation of posterior chamber intraocular lens with polymethylmethacrylate haptics. Four months postoperatively, the patient reported deterioration in visual acuity that was resulted due to complete occlusion of anterior capsular opening by fibrotic tissue. The fibrous membrane was excised surgically in capsulorrhexis fashion. (author)

  13. Primary Meningococcal Polyarthritis in an Adult Woman

    José Celso Giordan Cavalcanti Sarinho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary joint infection caused by the Gram-negative bacteria Neisseria meningitidis is rare. Normally, joint involvement comes secondary to meningitis or severe sepsis caused by this agent. When primary arthritis is seen, monoarthritis is the most common presentation. A meningococcal polyarthritis is described in less than 10 case reports according to current literature. This case report aims to briefly review this rare clinical event in an adult woman with no previous history of rheumatological disease. Early diagnosis of polyarthritis caused by meningococcal bacteria usually present a good prognosis when properly treated.

  14. [Capsular retensioning in anterior unidirectional glenohumeral instability].

    Benítez Pozos, Leonel; Martínez Molina, Oscar; Castañeda Landa, Ezequiel

    2007-01-01

    To present the experience of the Orthopedics Service PEMEX South Central Hospital in the management of anterior unidirectional shoulder instability with an arthroscopic technique consisting of capsular retensioning either combined with other anatomical repair procedures or alone. Thirty-one patients with anterior unidirectional shoulder instability operated-on between January 1999 and December 2005 were included. Fourteen patients underwent capsular retensioning and radiofrequency, and in 17 patients, capsular retensioning was combined with suture anchors. Patients with a history of relapsing glenohumeral dislocations and subluxations, with anterior instability with or without associated Bankart lesions were selected; all of them were young. The results were assessed considering basically the occurrence of instability during the postoperative follow-up. No cases of recurring instability occurred. Two cases had neuroma and one experienced irritation of the suture site. Six patients had residual limitation of combined lateral rotation and abduction movements, of a mean of 10 degrees compared with the healthy contralateral side. The most frequent incident was the leak of solutions to the soft tissues. Capsular retensioning, whether combined or not with other anatomical repair techniques, has proven to result in a highly satisfactory rate of glenohumeral stabilization in cases of anterior unidirectional instabilities. The arthroscopic approach offers the well-known advantages of causing less damage to the soft tissues, and a shorter time to starting rehabilitation therapy and exercises.

  15. Anterior capsular rupture following blunt ocular injury

    Gremida, Anas; Kassem, Iris; Traish, Aisha

    2011-01-01

    Summary A 10-year-old boy suffered a large, oblique anterior capsular tear following blunt injury to his right eye. The boy was followed daily for hyphema resolution and progressive traumatic cataract formation. After the hyphema had resolved, the lens was removed using an anterior approach and an intraocular lens was placed with excellent visual outcome. PMID:23362402

  16. Capsular glucan and intracellular glycogen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: biosynthesis and impact on the persistence in mice

    Sambou, Tounkang; Dinadayala, Premkumar; Stadthagen, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacterial species produce large amounts of a glycogen-like alpha-glucan that represents the major polysaccharide of their outermost capsular layer. To determine the role of the surface-exposed glucan in the physiology and virulence of these bact......Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacterial species produce large amounts of a glycogen-like alpha-glucan that represents the major polysaccharide of their outermost capsular layer. To determine the role of the surface-exposed glucan in the physiology and virulence...... of these bacteria, orthologues of the glg genes involved in the biosynthesis of glycogen in Escherichia coli were identified in M. tuberculosis H37Rv and inactivated by allelic replacement. Biochemical analyses of the mutants and complemented strains indicated that the synthesis of glucan and glycogen involves...... the alpha-1,4-glucosyltransferases Rv3032 and GlgA (Rv1212c), the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase GlgC (Rv1213) and the branching enzyme GlgB (Rv1326c). Disruption of glgC reduced by half the glucan and glycogen contents of M. tuberculosis, whereas the inactivation of glgA and Rv3032 affected the production...

  17. Management of subluxated capsular bag-fixated intraocular lenses using a capsular anchor.

    Ton, Yokrat; Naftali, Modi; Gortzak, Ruth Lapid; Assia, Ehud I

    2016-05-01

    We describe the use of the capsular anchor (AssiAnchor) to manage a subluxated intraocular lens (IOL) in the capsular bag. The anchor comprises 2 prongs that hold the anterior lens capsule and a central rod that is sutured to the scleral wall, enabling centration of the IOL-capsular bag complex. Six pseudophakic patients presenting with subluxated posterior chamber IOLs in the capsular bag were operated on using the device. The anchor was used successfully in all cases, although in 2 cases only 1 prong was placed under the capsulorhexis edge. In 1 eye, 2 anchors were used 1 month apart following repeated traumatic zonular injury. The capsular bag holding the IOL remained centered and stable throughout the follow-up period. The anchoring device, which was originally designed to preserve the lens capsule and stabilize subluxated crystalline lenses, can also be used to treat subluxation of a capsular bag-fixated IOL. Dr. Assia is the inventor of the AssiAnchor, has a licensed patent of the anchor, and is consultant to Hanita Lenses. Dr. Lapid-Gortzak is a consultant to and speaker for Alcon Surgical, Inc., Hanita Lenses, Orca Surgical, and Sanoculis Ltd.; a speaker for Santen; and a consultant to Icon. Drs. Ton and Naftali have no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of meningococcal polymerase chain reaction testing on laboratory confirmation of invasive meningococcal disease.

    Drew, Richard J

    2012-03-01

    Laboratory methods of diagnosis were examined for 266 children with invasive meningococcal disease. Seventy-five (36%) of 207 cases with bloodstream infection had both positive blood culture and blood meningococcal polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 130 (63%) negative blood culture and positive blood PCR, and 2 (1%) had positive blood culture and negative blood PCR. Sixty-three percent of cases were diagnosed by PCR alone.

  19. Does Dexamethasone Helps in Meningococcal Sepsis?

    Tolaj, Ilir; Ramadani, Hamdi; Mehmeti, Murat; Gashi, Hatixhe; Kasumi, Arbana; Gashi, Visar; Jashari, Haki

    2017-06-01

    Prompt recognition and aggressive early treatment are the only effective measures against invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). Anti-inflammatory adjunctive treatment remains controversial and difficult to assess in patients with IMD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DXM) as adjunctive treatment in different clinical forms of IMD, and attempt to answer if DXM should be routinely used in the treatment of IMD. In this non-interventional clinical study (NIS), 39 patients with meningococcal septicaemia with or without of meningitis were included, and compared regarding the impact of dexamethasone (DXM), as an adjunctive treatment, on the outcome of IMD. SPSS statistics is used for statistical processing of data. Thirty (76.9%) patients with IMD had sepsis and meningitis, and 9 (23.1%) of them had sepsis alone. Dexamethasone was used in 24 (61.5%) cases, in both clinical groups. The overall mortality rate was 10.3%. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 6 patients (15.4%), arthritis in 3 of them (7.7%), and subdural effusion in one patient (2.6%). The data showed a significant statistical difference on the length of hospitalization, and WBC normalization in groups of patients treated with DXM. The use of DXM as adjunctive therapy in invasive meningococcal disease has a degree of proven benefits and no harmful effects. In fighting this very dangerous and complex infection, even a limited benefit is sufficient to recommend the use of DXM as adjunctive treatment in invasive meningococcal disease.

  20. Endophthalmitis in a Child with Meningococcal Meningitis

    most obvious abnormality was that the left eye, entirely normal six hours previously, was completely opaque and appeared to be filled with thick white material. A lumbar puncture was performed, yielding cloudy CSF and, based on the microscopy and Gram stain appearance, a diagno- sis of meningococcal meningitis was ...

  1. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... advice from your health care provider. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining around ...

  2. Meningococcal disease and future drug targets

    Gammelgaard, L K; Colding, H; Hartzen, S H

    2011-01-01

    recent data and current knowledge on molecular mechanisms of meningococcal disease and explains how host immune responses ultimately may aggravate neuropathology and the clinical prognosis. Within this context, particular importance is paid to the endotoxic components that provide potential drug targets...... for novel neuroprotective adjuvants, which are needed in order to improve the clinical management of meningoencephalitis and patient prognosis....

  3. Meningococcal Immunizations for Preteens and Teens

    2015-08-11

    This podcast provides information about vaccine recommendations to help prevent meningococcal disease in preteens and teens.  Created: 8/11/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 8/11/2015.

  4. Complement pathways and meningococcal disease : diagnostic aspects

    Sjöholm, A G; Truedsson, L; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    2001-01-01

    Complement is an immunological effector system that bridges innate and acquired immunity in several ways. There is a striking association between susceptibility to meningococcal disease and various forms of complement deficiency (1,2). In defense against bacterial infection, the most important fu...

  5. Atypical meningococcal meningitis with rashless presentation:A case report

    Sunita; Singh Manpreet; Kapoor Dheeraj

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is the major health problem in developing world. The clinical presentation is varied, ranging from transient fever and bacteraemia to fulminant disease with death ensuing within hours of the onset of clinical symptoms. The classical clinical manifestations of meningococcal disease have been well described, but atypical presentations if unrecognized, may lead to a delay in treatment and fatal outcome. We here report a case presented with atypical presentation of meningococcal meningitis without classical rash, which was diagnosed and managed successfully.

  6. Roentgenologic diagnostics of capsular ligament lesions

    Wirth, C.J.; Jaeger, M.

    1981-10-01

    The X-ray diagnostic is of obvious importance and relevance in the detection of acute or old capsular ligament lesions of the limb joint. On the one hand it serves as the plain radiograph (roentgenogram without contrast medium) for the assessment of osseous secondary lesions, for the documentation of luxationary positions of the joint partners, and in old capsular ligament lesions for the detection of an already existing arthrosis. On the other hand the X-ray images are of main importance, which are made from the hand-held limb in order to permit a comparison of the two sides, and which beyond the clinical detection of a joint instability indicate the extent and the direction of this instability and which also document it, and which allow in adolescents to recognize a separation of the epiphysis as an alternative to the capsular ligament rupture. Only in particular cases arthrography can provide some additional information, so for example in the case of an isolated syndesmosis rupture, ruptures of the rosette of the rotator muscle or of a damaged triangular disk in the hand. Angiography is only required in cases of traumatic luxations of the knee in order to exclude an intimal lesion of the popliteal artery.

  7. Does Dexamethasone Helps in Meningococcal Sepsis?

    Tolaj, Ilir; Ramadani, Hamdi; Mehmeti, Murat; Gashi, Hatixhe; Kasumi, Arbana; Gashi, Visar; Jashari, Haki

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Prompt recognition and aggressive early treatment are the only effective measures against invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). Anti-inflammatory adjunctive treatment remains controversial and difficult to assess in patients with IMD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DXM) as adjunctive treatment in different clinical forms of IMD, and attempt to answer if DXM should be routinely used in the treatment of IMD. Methods: In this non-interventional cl...

  8. Does Dexamethasone Helps in Meningococcal Sepsis?

    Tolaj, Ilir; Ramadani, Hamdi; Mehmeti, Murat; Gashi, Hatixhe; Kasumi, Arbana; Gashi, Visar; Jashari, Haki

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Prompt recognition and aggressive early treatment are the only effective measures against invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). Anti-inflammatory adjunctive treatment remains controversial and difficult to assess in patients with IMD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DXM) as adjunctive treatment in different clinical forms of IMD, and attempt to answer if DXM should be routinely used in the treatment of IMD. Methods: In this non-interventional clinical study (NIS), 39 patients with meningococcal septicaemia with or without of meningitis were included, and compared regarding the impact of dexamethasone (DXM), as an adjunctive treatment, on the outcome of IMD. SPSS statistics is used for statistical processing of data. Results: Thirty (76.9%) patients with IMD had sepsis and meningitis, and 9 (23.1%) of them had sepsis alone. Dexamethasone was used in 24 (61.5%) cases, in both clinical groups. The overall mortality rate was 10.3%. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 6 patients (15.4%), arthritis in 3 of them (7.7%), and subdural effusion in one patient (2.6%). The data showed a significant statistical difference on the length of hospitalization, and WBC normalization in groups of patients treated with DXM. Conclusion: The use of DXM as adjunctive therapy in invasive meningococcal disease has a degree of proven benefits and no harmful effects. In fighting this very dangerous and complex infection, even a limited benefit is sufficient to recommend the use of DXM as adjunctive treatment in invasive meningococcal disease. PMID:28974828

  9. Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Cuba, 1983- 2006

    Antonio E. Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD is a worldwide health problem. In Cuba, vaccination against meningococcal B-C has been carried out since 1989. The study aimed at describing the epidemiology of IMD in Cuba from 1983 to 2006 and at contributing to the immunization strategy. A descriptive and analytical study was carried out. Epidemiological data was obtained from the National Surveillance System at the Institute "Pedro Kourí". More than 1 000 cases were reported in 1986 and the overall incidence was above 10/100 000 inhabitants. Since 1989 a remarkable and continuous decline in the incidence was observed. In the last nine years a strong association of IMD to boarding school students (OR=9.4; confidence interval 95%: 5.1-17.4, recluses (OR=5.9; CI 95%: 1.5 -24.3 and day students (OR=3.9; CI 95%: 2.8-5.6 was observed. Housewife (OR=4.9; CI 95%: 1.9-12.4 and pensioned (OR=4.5; CI 95%: 1.2-16.8 showed association with mortality. Previous vaccination was a protective factor against morbidity (OR=0.6; CI 95%: 0.4-1.0 and mortality (OR=0.4; CI 95%: 0.2-0.9 by IMD. Neisseria meningitidis B4:P1.15 was the main circulating strain. Incidence of IMD declined markedly in Cuba by using group BC strain-specific meningococcal vaccine.

  10. Upper respiratory tract infection, heterologous immunisation and meningococcal disease

    Scholten, R. J.; Bijlmer, H. A.; Tobi, H.; Dankert, J.; Bouter, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an episode of upper respiratory tract infection or heterologous immunisation is a predisposing factor for the occurrence of meningococcal disease, data from 377 cases of meningococcal disease and their household contacts (n = 1124) were analysed by conditional logistic

  11. Meningococcal meningitis C in Tamil Nadu, public health perspectives.

    David, Kirubah Vasandhi; Pricilla, Ruby Angeline; Thomas, Beeson

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis has rarely been reported in Tamil Nadu. We report here two children diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, on May 2014. The causative strain was Neisseria meningitidis serotype C. The role of the primary care physician in early diagnosis, appropriate referral, and preventive measures of this disease to the immediate family and community is stressed.

  12. [Vaccinal strategies in response to new epidemiological challenges in 2010. Reasonable hope for a "B" meningococcal vaccine].

    Nicolas, P

    2010-08-01

    In 2010, vaccines have achieved good effectiveness against invasive meningococcal infection. Development of monovalent and bivalent polysaccharide (PS) vaccines in the 70s and later of tetravalent PS vaccine (ACWY) was followed by development in 2003 of a trivalent ACW vaccine in response to the W135 or mixed A/W135 epidemics that appeared in Africa. More recently PS-conjugated vaccines have shown numerous advantages in comparison with PS vaccines. Mass vaccination campaigns with the C-conjugated vaccine have almost completely eradicated group C meningitis in the UK. It is hoped that introduction of the A-conjugated vaccine MenAfriVac in Africa at the end of year 2010 will end group A meningococcal epidemics in the meningitis belt. The problem of group B meningococcal meningitis has not been completely resolved. For the B strain that has been implicated in hyperendemic waves, a protein vaccine has been produced from outer membrane vesicles (OMV). Use of OMV vaccines achieved good results in Norway and recently in New Zealand. The Norwegian vaccine was also used in Normandy since the strain responsible for the Norman epidemic showed the same PorA as the Norwegian strain. In this regard, a major limitation for OMV vaccines is that they are effective only against the immuno-dominant porin A protein. Current efforts to develop a vaccine against group B meningococci causing sporadic cases are promising. Research is being focused on a blend of surface proteins targeting most of circulating isolates. Field tests will be carried out in the next years, but it is probable that the efficacy of these vaccines will be short-lived since meningococcal antigens vary over time.

  13. Comparative genome analysis of novel Podoviruses lytic for hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae of K1, K2, and K57 capsular types.

    Solovieva, Ekaterina V; Myakinina, Vera P; Kislichkina, Angelina A; Krasilnikova, Valentina M; Verevkin, Vladimir V; Mochalov, Vladimir V; Lev, Anastasia I; Fursova, Nadezhda K; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V

    2018-01-02

    Hypermucoviscous (HV) strains of capsular types K1, K2 and K57 are the most virulent representatives of the Klebsiella pneumoniae species. Eight novel bacteriophages lytic for HV K. pneumoniae were isolated and characterized. Three bacteriophages, KpV41, KpV475, and KpV71 were found to have a lytic activity against mainly K. pneumoniae of capsular type K1. Two phages, KpV74, and KpV763 were lytic for K2 capsular type K. pneumoniae, and the phage KpV767 was specific to K57-type K. pneumoniae only. Two more phages, KpV766, and KpV48 had no capsular specificity. The phage genomes consist of a linear double-stranded DNA of 40,395-44,623bp including direct terminal repeats of 180-246 bp. The G + C contents are 52.3-54.2 % that is slightly lower than that of genomes of K. pneumoniae strains being used for phage propagation. According to the genome structures, sequence similarity and phylogenetic data, the phages are classified within the genus Kp32virus and Kp34virus of subfamily Autographivirinae, family Podoviridae. In the phage genomes, genes encoding proteins with putative motifs of polysaccharide depolymerase were identified. Depolymerase genes of phages KpV71 and KpV74 lytic for hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae of K1 and K2 capsular type, respectively, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant gene products were purified. The specificity and polysaccharide-degrading activity of the recombinant depolymerases were demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Capsular Sialyltransferase Specificity Mediates Different Phenotypes in Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus

    David Roy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The capsular polysaccharide (CPS represents a key virulence factor for most encapsulated streptococci. Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus (GBS are both well-encapsulated pathogens of clinical importance in veterinary and/or human medicine and responsible for invasive systemic diseases. S. suis and GBS are the only Gram-positive bacteria which express a sialylated CPS at their surface. An important difference between these two sialylated CPSs is the linkage between the side-chain terminal galactose and sialic acid, being α-2,6 for S. suis but α-2,3 for GBS. It is still unclear how sialic acid may affect CPS production and, consequently, the pathogenesis of the disease caused by these two bacterial pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of sialic acid and the putative effect of sialic acid linkage modification in CPS synthesis using inter-species allelic exchange mutagenesis. To this aim, a new molecular biogenetic approach to express CPS with modified sialic acid linkage was developed. We showed that sialic acid (and its α-2,6 linkage is crucial for S. suis CPS synthesis, whereas for GBS, CPS synthesis may occur in presence of an α-2,6 sialyltransferase or in absence of sialic acid moiety. To evaluate the effect of the CPS composition/structure on sialyltransferase activity, two distinct capsular serotypes within each bacterial species were compared (S. suis serotypes 2 and 14 and GBS serotypes III and V. It was demonstrated that the observed differences in sialyltransferase activity and specificity between S. suis and GBS were serotype unrestricted. This is the first time that a study investigates the interspecies exchange of capsular sialyltransferase genes in Gram-positive bacteria. The obtained mutants represent novel tools that could be used to further investigate the immunomodulatory properties of sialylated CPSs. Finally, in spite of common CPS structural characteristics and similarities in the cps loci, sialic acid exerts

  15. Group B meningococcal vaccine science and policy.

    Drysdale, Simon B; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    Capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. A new vaccine (4CMenB) has recently been developed which was found to have an acceptable safety profile in clinical studies and to be immunogenic. This review examines the evidence supporting the licensure of the 4CMenB vaccine and discusses recommendations for its use. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tipificación capsular mediante PCR de aislamientos de Haemophilus influenzae no tipificables por aglutinación PCR-based capsular typing of Haemophilus influenzae isolates non-typeable by agglutination

    G. Weltman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae es reconocido como un agente patógeno responsable de infecciones localizadas y sistémicas. Se han descrito 6 tipos de polisacáridos capsulares antigénicamente distintos (a, b, c, d, e, y f que se pueden identificar por aglutinación en lámina con antisueros específicos. También existen cepas no capsuladas (NC fenotípicamente no tipificables (NT. La introducción de la vacuna conjugada produjo una marcada disminución de las enfermedades invasivas causadas por H. influenzae tipo b. En este contexto, la tipificación capsular mediante PCR es el método más apropiado para distinguir las cepas no capsuladas de las mutantes b deficientes en cápsula (b- y detectar la presencia de cepas pertenecientes a otros serotipos que no puedan ser tipificables por aglutinación. Se determinó el genotipo capsular a 38 aislamientos de Haemophilus influenzae no tipificables por aglutinación, derivados al servicio de Bacteriología Clínica del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" en el período 2002-2004. El 78,9% de los aislamientos provenían de hemocultivos y la mayor parte de ellos estaban asociados a foco respiratorio. El 100% de los aislamientos fueron identificados como H. influenzae no capsulados mediante la técnica de PCR.Haemophilus influenzae is recognized as a pathogenic agent responsible of localized and systemic infections. Six antigenically different capsular polysaccharide types have been described (a, b, c, d, e, and f which can be identified by slide agglutination with specific antisera. Besides there are non capsulated strains that cannot be typed by slide agglutination. The introduction of the conjugated vaccine produced an important reduction of invasive diseases caused by H. influenzae type b. Capsular typing by PCR is the most appropriated method for distinguishing non capsulated strains from capsule deficient type b mutants (b- and for detecting strains of other serotypes that cannot be detected by slide

  17. [Surgical solutions to luxation of the IOL--capsular bag--capsular tension ring complex].

    Berthout, A; Turut, P; Taboureau, E; Denimal, F; Milazzo, S

    2007-02-01

    The spontaneous luxation of the intraocular lens-capsular bag-capsular tension ring complex is a serious but fortunately rare complication. The authors report a combined surgical procedure to reposition the complex in a patient who was operated on for bilateral lens subluxation 4 years before and whose enophthalmia made surgery difficult. Two surgical techniques can be considered to reposition the complex and avoid explantation. The McCannel modified stitch can capture the complex with the help of a transcorneal point and then a transscleral suture on the 12 o'clock meridian, despite the enophthalmia of the patient; the Moreno transscleral stitch. Both techniques suture the complex to the ciliary sulcus. Moreno's technique is easy and safe for the endothelium and must therefore be attempted first. In case of failure, the McCannel modified stitch remains a useful and satisfying procedure allowing transscleral fixation of the complex to the sulcus at the cost of a minimal corneal trauma.

  18. Whiplash causes increased laxity of cervical capsular ligament.

    Ivancic, Paul C; Ito, Shigeki; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Rubin, Wolfgang; Coe, Marcus P; Ndu, Anthony B; Carlson, Erik J; Panjabi, Manohar M

    2008-02-01

    Previous clinical studies have identified the cervical facet joint, including the capsular ligaments, as sources of pain in whiplash patients. The goal of this study was to determine whether whiplash caused increased capsular ligament laxity by applying quasi-static loading to whiplash-exposed and control capsular ligaments. A total of 66 capsular ligament specimens (C2/3 to C7/T1) were prepared from 12 cervical spines (6 whiplash-exposed and 6 control). The whiplash-exposed spines had been previously rear impacted at a maximum peak T1 horizontal acceleration of 8 g. Capsular ligaments were elongated at 1mm/s in increments of 0.05 mm until a tensile force of 5 N was achieved and subsequently returned to neutral position. Four pre-conditioning cycles were performed and data from the load phase of the fifth cycle were used for subsequent analyses. Ligament elongation was computed at tensile forces of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 N. Two factor, non-repeated measures ANOVA (Pwhiplash-exposed and control groups and between spinal levels. Average elongation of the whiplash-exposed capsular ligaments was significantly greater than that of the control ligaments at tensile forces of 0 and 5 N. No significant differences between spinal levels were observed. Capsular ligament injuries, in the form of increased laxity, may be one component perpetuating chronic pain and clinical instability in whiplash patients.

  19. The cost-effectiveness of alternative vaccination strategies for polyvalent meningococcal vaccines in Burkina Faso: A transmission dynamic modeling study.

    Yaesoubi, Reza; Trotter, Caroline; Colijn, Caroline; Yaesoubi, Maziar; Colombini, Anaïs; Resch, Stephen; Kristiansen, Paul A; LaForce, F Marc; Cohen, Ted

    2018-01-01

    The introduction of a conjugate vaccine for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis has dramatically reduced disease in the African meningitis belt. In this context, important questions remain about the performance of different vaccine policies that target remaining serogroups. Here, we estimate the health impact and cost associated with several alternative vaccination policies in Burkina Faso. We developed and calibrated a mathematical model of meningococcal transmission to project the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and costs associated with the current Base policy (serogroup A conjugate vaccination at 9 months, as part of the Expanded Program on Immunization [EPI], plus district-specific reactive vaccination campaigns using polyvalent meningococcal polysaccharide [PMP] vaccine in response to outbreaks) and three alternative policies: (1) Base Prime: novel polyvalent meningococcal conjugate (PMC) vaccine replaces the serogroup A conjugate in EPI and is also used in reactive campaigns; (2) Prevention 1: PMC used in EPI and in a nationwide catch-up campaign for 1-18-year-olds; and (3) Prevention 2: Prevention 1, except the nationwide campaign includes individuals up to 29 years old. Over a 30-year simulation period, Prevention 2 would avert 78% of the meningococcal cases (95% prediction interval: 63%-90%) expected under the Base policy if serogroup A is not replaced by remaining serogroups after elimination, and would avert 87% (77%-93%) of meningococcal cases if complete strain replacement occurs. Compared to the Base policy and at the PMC vaccine price of US$4 per dose, strategies that use PMC vaccine (i.e., Base Prime and Preventions 1 and 2) are expected to be cost saving if strain replacement occurs, and would cost US$51 (-US$236, US$490), US$188 (-US$97, US$626), and US$246 (-US$53, US$703) per DALY averted, respectively, if strain replacement does not occur. An important potential limitation of our study is the simplifying assumption that all

  20. Invasive meningococcal disease in children in Jerusalem

    STEIN-ZAMIR, C.; ABRAMSON, N.; ZENTNER, G.; SHOOB, H.; VALINSKY, L.; BLOCK, C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of childhood meningitis and septicaemia. Between 1999 and 2005, 133 invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) cases occurred in Jerusalem, 112 (84·2%) of them in children aged 0–14 years. The annual incidence rate in Jerusalem was higher than the national average (2·45±0·6 vs. 1·13±0·16/100 000 population, P=0·002). Most of the children (82·1%) were from low socio-economic Arab and Jewish ultra-orthodox communities; mortality was higher among Arab than Jewish children (1·3 vs. 0·22/100 000 person-years, P=0·004). A cluster of 10 children with severe meningococcal sepsis (three fatalities) emerged in the winter of 2003–2004. Compared to the other 102 cases in 1999–2005 both meningococcaemia (100% vs. 51%, P=0·003) and mortality (30% vs. 6·9%, P=0·014) rates were higher. Serogroup B comprised 77·6% of the bacterial isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed considerable variability among cluster isolates, but significant resemblance in Arab cases throughout 1999–2005. The increased susceptibility of specific sub-populations to IMD necessitates further evaluation. PMID:17662169

  1. Meningococcal vaccination for international travellers from Greece visiting developing countries.

    Pavli, Androula; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Smeti, Paraskevi; Maltezou, Helena C

    2016-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis is a serious disease. Travel-associated infection for the general traveller is low; however regular epidemics in indigenous population, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to assess meningococcal vaccination for international travellers from Greece. A prospective questionnaire-based study was conducted during 2009-2013. A total of 5283 travellers were studied (median age: 39.2 years); Meningococcal tetravalent vaccine (A,C,W135,Y) was delivered to 1150 (21.8%) of them. Of those who travelled to the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa, 73.1% and 21.2% received meningococcal vaccine, respectively. Of those travellers who travelled to sub-Saharan Africa from November to June and from July to October, 22.1% and 20.6% were vaccinated with meningococcal vaccine, respectively. Of all travellers who travelled for travelled for recreation, and 13.8% of those who travelled for work. Of travellers who stayed in urban, in rural, and in urban and rural areas, 32%, 11.6% and 12.7% were vaccinated, respectively. Meningococcal vaccine was delivered to 29.2%, 21.1%, 19.4% and 5.1% of those who stayed in hotels, at local people's home, in camps, and on ships, respectively. The association of meningococcal vaccine administration with the destination, duration and purpose of travel, area of stay and type of accommodation was statistically significant. There is a need to improve meningococcal vaccine recommendations for travellers from Greece, particularly for high risk populations, such as VFRs, business travellers and those visiting sub-Saharan Africa especially during the dry season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  3. Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccine (MenB) - What you need to know

    ... disabilities such as hearing loss, brain damage, kidney damage, amputations, nervous system problems, or severe scars from skin grafts. Serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines can help prevent meningococcal disease caused by serogroup ...

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, compared with licensed vaccines in adults in Latin America.

    Stamboulian, D; Lopardo, G; Lopez, P; Cortes-Barbosa, C; Valencia, A; Bedell, L; Karsten, A; Dull, P M

    2010-10-01

    This study compared the investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with licensed quadrivalent polysaccharide (MPSV4) and conjugate (MenACWY-D) meningococcal vaccines. In this phase III multicenter study, 2505 adults (aged 19-55 years) were randomized to receive either MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-D, and 326 adults (aged 56-65 years) were randomized to receive either MenACWY-CRM or MPSV4. Sera obtained pre-vaccination and at 1-month post-vaccination were tested for serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) for immunogenicity non-inferiority and superiority analyses. The vaccines in all groups were well tolerated. In the 19-55 years age group, post-vaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) were consistently higher for MenACWY-CRM than for MenACWY-D for all four serogroups. MenACWY-CRM was non-inferior to MenACWY-D for all serogroups, and superior for serogroup Y. In the 56-65 years age group, post-vaccination GMTs were 1.2- to 5.4-fold higher for MenACWY-CRM than for MPSV4 for the four serogroups. MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated and immunogenic in adults aged 19-65 years, with at least non-inferior immunogenicity compared with the currently licensed meningococcal vaccines. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Meningococcal factor H binding proteins in epidemic strains from Africa: implications for vaccine development.

    Rolando Pajon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Factor H binding protein (fHbp is an important antigen for vaccines against meningococcal serogroup B disease. The protein binds human factor H (fH, which enables the bacteria to resist serum bactericidal activity. Little is known about the vaccine-potential of fHbp for control of meningococcal epidemics in Africa, which typically are caused by non-group B strains.We investigated genes encoding fHbp in 106 serogroup A, W-135 and X case isolates from 17 African countries. We determined complement-mediated bactericidal activity of antisera from mice immunized with recombinant fHbp vaccines, or a prototype native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV vaccine from a serogroup B mutant strain with over-expressed fHbp. Eighty-six of the isolates (81% had one of four prevalent fHbp sequence variants, ID 4/5 (serogroup A isolates, 9 (W-135, or 74 (X in variant group 1, or ID 22/23 (W-135 in variant group 2. More than one-third of serogroup A isolates and two-thirds of W-135 isolates tested had low fHbp expression while all X isolates tested had intermediate or high expression. Antisera to the recombinant fHbp vaccines were generally bactericidal only against isolates with fHbp sequence variants that closely matched the respective vaccine ID. Low fHbp expression also contributed to resistance to anti-fHbp bactericidal activity. In contrast to the recombinant vaccines, the NOMV fHbp ID 1 vaccine elicited broad anti-fHbp bactericidal activity, and the antibodies had greater ability to inhibit binding of fH to fHbp than antibodies elicited by the control recombinant fHbp ID 1 vaccine.NOMV vaccines from mutants with increased fHbp expression elicit an antibody repertoire with greater bactericidal activity than recombinant fHbp vaccines. NOMV vaccines are promising for prevention of meningococcal disease in Africa and could be used to supplement coverage conferred by a serogroup A polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine recently introduced in some sub

  6. Whiplash causes increased laxity of cervical capsular ligament

    Ivancic, Paul C.; Ito, Shigeki; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Rubin, Wolfgang; Coe, Marcus P.; Ndu, Anthony B.; Carlson, Erik J.; Panjabi, Manohar M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous clinical studies have identified the cervical facet joint, including the capsular ligaments, as sources of pain in whiplash patients. The goal of this study was to determine whether whiplash caused increased capsular ligament laxity by applying quasi-static loading to whiplash-exposed and control capsular ligaments. Methods A total of 66 capsular ligament specimens (C2/3 to C7/T1) were prepared from 12 cervical spines (6 whiplash-exposed and 6 control). The whiplash-exposed spines had been previously rear impacted at a maximum peak T1 horizontal acceleration of 8 g. Capsular ligaments were elongated at 1 mm/s in increments of 0.05 mm until a tensile force of 5 N was achieved and subsequently returned to neutral position. Four pre-conditioning cycles were performed and data from the load phase of the fifth cycle were used for subsequent analyses. Ligament elongation was computed at tensile forces of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 N. Two factor, non-repeated measures ANOVA (Pwhiplash-exposed and control groups and between spinal levels. Findings Average elongation of the whiplash-exposed capsular ligaments was significantly greater than that of the control ligaments at tensile forces of 0 and 5 N. No significant differences between spinal levels were observed. Interpretation Capsular ligament injuries, in the form of increased laxity, may be one component perpetuating chronic pain and clinical instability in whiplash patients. PMID:17959284

  7. Prevalence and sequence variations of the genes encoding the five antigens included in the novel 5CVMB vaccine covering group B meningococcal disease.

    Jacobsson, Susanne; Hedberg, Sara Thulin; Mölling, Paula; Unemo, Magnus; Comanducci, Maurizio; Rappuoli, Rino; Olcén, Per

    2009-03-04

    During the recent years, projects are in progress for designing broad-range non-capsular-based meningococcal vaccines, covering also serogroup B isolates. We have examined three genes encoding antigens (NadA, GNA1030 and GNA2091) included in a novel vaccine, i.e. the 5 Component Vaccine against Meningococcus B (5CVMB), in terms of gene prevalence and sequence variations. These data were combined with the results from a similar study, examining the two additional antigens included in the 5CVMB (fHbp and GNA2132). nadA and fHbp v. 1 were present in 38% (n=36), respectively 71% (n=67) of the isolates, whereas gna2132, gna1030 and gna2091 were present in all the Neisseria meningitidis isolates tested (n=95). The level of amino acid conservation was relatively high in GNA1030 (93%), GNA2091 (92%), and within the main variants of NadA and fHbp. GNA2132 (54% of the amino acids conserved) appeared to be the most diversified antigen. Consequently, the theoretical coverage of the 5CVMB antigens and the feasibility to use these in a broad-range meningococcal vaccine is appealing.

  8. Bactericidal antibody against a representative epidemiological meningococcal serogroup B panel confirms that MATS underestimates 4CMenB vaccine strain coverage.

    Frosi, Giacomo; Biolchi, Alessia; Lo Sapio, Morena; Rigat, Fabio; Gilchrist, Stefanie; Lucidarme, Jay; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Medini, Duccio

    2013-10-09

    4CMenB (Bexsero), a vaccine developed against invasive meningococcal disease caused by capsular group B strains (MenB), was recently licensed for use by the European Medicines Agency. Assessment of 4CMenB strain coverage in specific epidemiologic settings is of primary importance to predict vaccination impact on the burden of disease. The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) was developed to predict 4CMenB strain coverage, using serum bactericidal antibody assay with human complement (hSBA) data from a diverse panel of strains not representative of any specific epidemiology. To experimentally validate the accuracy of MATS-based predictions against strains representative of a specific epidemiologic setting. We used a stratified sampling method to identify a representative sample from all MenB disease isolates collected from England and Wales in 2007-2008, tested the strains in the hSBA assay with pooled sera from infant and adolescent vaccinees, and compared these results with MATS. MATS predictions and hSBA results were significantly associated (P=0.022). MATS predicted coverage of 70% (95% CI, 55-85%) was largely confirmed by 88% killing in the hSBA (95% CI, 72-95%). MATS had 78% accuracy and 96% positive predictive value against hSBA. MATS is a conservative predictor of strain coverage by the 4CMenB vaccine in infants and adolescents. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenges and Opportunities While Developing a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine Within a Product Development Partnership: A Manufacturer's Perspective From the Serum Institute of India

    Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Socquet, Muriel; Jadhav, Suresh S.; Kapre, Subhash V.; LaForce, F. Marc; Poonawalla, Cyrus S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2002, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) chose the Serum Institute of India, Ltd (SIIL), as its manufacturing partner to establish a product development partnership (PDP) with the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP). MVP was a collaboration between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop meningococcal conjugate vaccines for sub-Saharan Africa. Method. From the outset, SIIL recognized that a partnership with MVP carried some risk but also offered important opportunities for accessing new conjugate vaccine technology and know-how. Over 3 years, SIIL successfully accepted technology transfer for the group A meningococcal polysaccharide from SynCo Bio Partners and a conjugation method from the US Food and Drug Administration. Results. SIIL successfully scaled up production of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine that used SIIL tetanus toxoid as the carrier protein. Phase 1 studies began in India in 2005, followed by phase 2/3 studies in Africa and India. A regulatory dossier was submitted to the Indian authorities in April 2009 and WHO in September 2009. Export license was granted in December 2009, and WHO prequalification was obtained in June 2010. Vaccine was introduced at public scale in Burkina Faso that December. The group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was named MenAfriVac, and is the first internationally qualified vaccine developed outside of big pharma. Conclusions. The project proved to be a sound investment for SIIL and is a concrete example of the potential for PDPs to provide needed products for resource-poor countries. PMID:26553678

  10. Meningococcal serogroup C immunogenicity, antibody persistence and memory B-cells induced by the monovalent meningococcal serogroup C versus quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup ACWY conjugate booster vaccine: A randomized controlled trial.

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Knol, Mirjam J; Stoof, Susanne P; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2017-08-24

    Adolescents are considered the key transmitters of meningococci in the population. Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) antibody levels wane rapidly after MenC conjugate vaccination in young children, leaving adolescents with low antibody levels. In this study, we compared MenC immune responses after booster vaccination in adolescence with either tetanus toxoid conjugated MenC (MenC-TT) or MenACWY (MenACWY-TT) vaccine, and aimed to establish an optimal age for this booster. Healthy 10-, 12-, and 15-year-olds, who received a single dose of MenC-TT vaccine in early childhood, were randomized to receive MenC-TT or MenACWY-TT vaccine. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) titers, MenC polysaccharide (PS) specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 and MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B-cells were determined before, one month and one year after the booster. Non-inferiority was tested by comparing geometric mean titers (GMTs) between vaccinees at one year. Of 501 participants, 464 (92.6%) were included in the 'according to protocol' cohort analysis. At one month, all participants developed high MenC rSBA titers (>24,000 in all groups) and MenC-PS-specific IgG levels. Non-inferiority was not demonstrated one year after the booster with higher MenC GMTs after the monovalent vaccine, but 462/464 (99.6%) participants maintained protective MenC rSBA titers. IgG levels mainly consisted of IgG1, but similar levels of increase were observed for IgG1 and IgG2. Both vaccines induced a clear increase in the number of circulating MenC-PS specific IgG and IgA memory B-cells. Between one month and one year, the highest antibody decay rate was observed in the 10-year-olds. Both MenC-TT and MenACWY-TT vaccines induced robust protective MenC immune responses after the booster vaccination, although non-inferiority could not be demonstrated for the MenACWY-TT vaccine after one year. Our results underline the importance of optimal timing of a meningococcal booster vaccination to protect against MenC disease

  11. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  12. Capsular Outcomes After Pediatric Cataract Surgery Without Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Tan, Xuhua; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Tang, Xiangchen; Luo, Lixia; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate capsular outcomes 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation via qualitative classification and quantitative measurement. This study is a cross-sectional study that was approved by the institutional review board of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China. Digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs of 329 aphakic pediatric eyes were obtained 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation. Capsule digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs were divided as follows: anterior capsule opening area (ACOA), posterior capsule opening area (PCOA), and posterior capsule opening opacity (PCOO). Capsular outcomes were qualitatively classified into 3 types based on the PCOO: Type I—capsule with mild opacification but no invasion into the capsule opening; Type II—capsule with moderate opacification accompanied by contraction of the ACOA and invasion to the occluding part of the PCOA; and Type III—capsule with severe opacification accompanied by total occlusion of the PCOA. Software was developed to quantitatively measure the ACOA, PCOA, and PCOO using standardized DCRPs. The relationships between the accurate intraoperative anterior and posterior capsulorhexis sizes and the qualitative capsular types were statistically analyzed. The DCRPs of 315 aphakic eyes (95.8%) of 191 children were included. Capsular outcomes were classified into 3 types: Type I—120 eyes (38.1%); Type II—157 eyes (49.8%); Type III—38 eyes (12.1%). The scores of the capsular outcomes were negatively correlated with intraoperative anterior capsulorhexis size (R = −0.572, P PCOA increased in size from Type I to Type II, and the PCOO increased from Type II to Type III (all P < 0.05). Capsular outcomes after pediatric cataract surgery can be qualitatively classified and quantitatively measured by acquisition, division

  13. Meningococcal disease in the Asia-Pacific region: Findings and recommendations from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    Borrow, Ray; Lee, Jin-Soo; Vázquez, Julio A; Enwere, Godwin; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Kamiya, Hajime; Kim, Hwang Min; Jo, Dae Sun

    2016-11-21

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is a global expert group that includes scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with a wide range of specialties. The purpose of the Initiative is to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease (MD) through education, research, and cooperation. The first Asia-Pacific regional meeting was held in November 2014. The GMI reviewed the epidemiology of MD, surveillance, and prevention strategies, and outbreak control practices from participating countries in the Asia-Pacific region.Although, in general, MD is underreported in this region, serogroup A disease is most prominent in low-income countries such as India and the Philippines, while Taiwan, Japan, and Korea reported disease from serogroups C, W, and Y. China has a mixed epidemiology of serogroups A, B, C, and W. Perspectives from countries outside of the region were also provided to provide insight into lessons learnt. Based on the available data and meeting discussions, a number of challenges and data gaps were identified and, as a consequence, several recommendations were formulated: strengthen surveillance; improve diagnosis, typing and case reporting; standardize case definitions; develop guidelines for outbreak management; and promote awareness of MD among healthcare professionals, public health officials, and the general public. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Changes in lens stiffness due to capsular opacification in accommodative lens refilling

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van Kooten, Theo G.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    Accommodation may be restored to presbyopic lenses by refilling the lens capsular bag with a soft polymer. After this accommodative lens refilling prevention of capsular opacification is a requirement, since capsular opacification leads to a decreased clarity of the refilled lens. It has been

  15. Meningococcal disease, a clinical and epidemiological review.

    Batista, Rodrigo Siqueira; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Dutra Gazineo, Jorge Luiz; Balbino Miguel, Paulo Sérgio; Santana, Luiz Alberto; Oliveira, Lisa; Geller, Mauro

    2017-11-01

    Meningococcal disease is the acute infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis, which has humans as the only natural host. The disease is widespread around the globe and is known for its epidemical potential and high rates of lethality and morbidity. The highest number of cases of the disease is registered in the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa. In Brazil, it is endemic with occasional outbreaks, epidemics and sporadic cases occurring throughout the year, especially in the winter. The major epidemics of the disease occurred in Brazil in the 70's caused by serogroups A and C. Serogroups B, C and Y represent the majority of cases in Europe, the Americas and Australia. However, there has been a growing increase in serogroup W in some areas. The pathogen transmission happens for respiratory route (droplets) and clinically can lead to meningitis and sepsis (meningococcemia). The treatment is made with antimicrobial and supportive care. For successful prevention, we have some measures like vaccination, chemoprophylaxis and droplets' precautions. In this review, we have described and clarify clinical features of the disease caused by N. meningitidis regarding its relevance for healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. O-sulfated bacterial polysaccharides with low anticoagulant activity inhibit metastasis.

    Borgenström, Marjut; Wärri, Anni; Hiilesvuo, Katri; Käkönen, Rami; Käkönen, Sanna; Nissinen, Liisa; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Marjamäki, Anne; Vlodavsky, Israel; Naggi, Annamaria; Torri, Giangiacomo; Casu, Benito; Veromaa, Timo; Salmivirta, Markku; Elenius, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    Heparin-like polysaccharides possess the capacity to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, heparanase-mediated cancer cell invasion, and cancer cell adhesion to vascular endothelia via adhesion receptors, such as selectins. The clinical applicability of the antitumor effect of such polysaccharides, however, is compromised by their anticoagulant activity. We have compared the potential of chemically O-sulfated and N,O-sulfated bacterial polysaccharide (capsular polysaccharide from E. COLI K5 [K5PS]) species to inhibit metastasis of mouse B16-BL6 melanoma cells and human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in two in vivo models. We demonstrate that in both settings, O-sulfated K5PS was a potent inhibitor of metastasis. Reducing the molecular weight of the polysaccharide, however, resulted in lower antimetastatic capacity. Furthermore, we show that O-sulfated K5PS efficiently inhibited the invasion of B16-BL6 cells through Matrigel and also inhibited the in vitro activity of heparanase. Moreover, treatment with O-sulfated K5PS lowered the ability of B16-BL6 cells to adhere to endothelial cells, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and P-selectin, but not to E-selectin. Importantly, O-sulfated K5PSs were largely devoid of anticoagulant activity. These findings indicate that O-sulfated K5PS polysaccharide should be considered as a potential antimetastatic agent.

  17. [Detection of putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in Azospirillum brasilense strains from serogroups I and II].

    Petrova, L P; Prilipov, A G; Katsy, E I

    2017-01-01

    It is known that in Azospirillum brasilense strains Sp245 and SR75 included in serogroup I, the repeat units of their O-polysaccharides consist of five residues of D-rhamnose, and in strain SR15, of four; and the heteropolymeric O-polysaccharide of A. brasilense type strain Sp7 from serogroup II contains not less than five types of repeat units. In the present work, a complex of nondegenerate primers to the genes of A. brasilense Sp245 plasmids AZOBR_p6, AZOBR_p3, and AZOBR_p2, which encode putative enzymes for the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide and O-polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharide, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides, was proposed. By using the designed primers, products of the expected sizes were synthesized in polymerase chain reactions on genomic DNA of A. brasilense Sp245, SR75, SR15, and Sp7 in 36, 29, 23, and 12 cases, respectively. As a result of sequencing of a number of amplicons, a high (86–99%) level of identity of the corresponding putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in three A. brasilense strains from serogroup I was detected. In a blotting-hybridization reaction with the biotin-labeled DNA of the A. brasilense gene AZOBR_p60122 coding for putative permease of the ABC transporter of polysaccharides, localization of the homologous gene in ~120-MDa plasmids of the bacteria A. brasilense SR15 and SR75 was revealed.

  18. Using polysaccharides against cancer

    E. Azarnoosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Nowadays cancer is one of the most important concerns of the society. The adverse effects of common therapeutics and resistance of some cancerous cells to treatment have brought the necessity of new approaches towards the issue. Polysaccharides are a group of carbohydrates found in natural sources. In the present article, our goal was to show the positive effects of carbohydrates (especially polysaccharides in cancer treatment, based on literature review. Methods: The literature review was carried out between 1990 and 2017 inclusive using the following search terms: cancer, carbohydrate and polysaccharide and was performed with use of Google scholar, Medline, Scopus, PubMed, Elsevier and other similar data banks, related to medicine and pharmaceutical fields. Results: Plants like Lyceum barbarum, Astragalus membrannceous, Panax ginseng, and Antrodia camphorate have been studied with promising effects in combating cancerous cells. The polysaccharides from these plants have benefits with numerous mechanisms such as apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-proliferation, immunomodulation, tumor suppression, and increase in macrophage activity. Other studies showed over 200 mushrooms with anticancer effects, especially basidiomycetes (e.g. Ganoderma lucidum. Sulfated polysaccharides found in sea and animals or even a few bacteria like E. coli showed to be useful in cancer. Conclusion: Scientists are realizing the importance of natural drugs and polysaccharide as good and available sources that could give a bright future for prevention, cure and palliative therapy in cancer.

  19. A randomized study to assess the immunogenicity, antibody persistence and safety of a tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in children aged 2–10 years

    Vesikari, Timo; Forstén, Aino; Boutriau, Dominique; Bianco, Véronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of meningococcal diseases is high in children, and effective vaccines are needed for this age group. In this phase II, open, controlled study, 309 children aged 2–10 y from Finland were randomized (3:1) into two parallel groups to receive one dose of meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT group; n = 231) or a licensed meningococcal ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (Men-PS group; n = 78). Serum bactericidal activity using rabbit complement (rSBA) was evaluated up to three years post-vaccination. Exploratory comparisons suggested that rSBA vaccine response rates and geometric mean titers (GMTs) for each serogroup at one month post-vaccination and rSBA GMTs for serogroups A, W-135 and Y up to three years post-vaccination were higher in the ACWY-TT compared with Men-PS group, but did not detect any difference between groups in terms of rSBA-MenC GMTs at three years post-vaccination; this is explained by the higher proportion of children from the Men-PS group who were excluded because they were re-vaccinated with a monovalent meningococcal serogroup C vaccine due to loss of protective antibody levels against this serogroup. Although there was a higher incidence of local reactogenicity in the ACWY-TT group, general and unsolicited symptoms reporting rates were comparable in both groups. This study showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile in children aged 2–10 y. MenACWY-TT induced higher functional antibody titers for all serogroups, which persisted longer for serogroups A, W-135 and Y, than the MenACWY polysaccharide vaccine. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00427908. PMID:23032168

  20. Multicentre study on capsular closure versus non-capsular closure during hip arthroscopy in Danish patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI)

    Dippmann, Christian; Kraemer, Otto; Lund, Bent

    2018-01-01

    in patients without additional risk factors for instability such as hypermobility or dysplasia of the hip. We hypothesised that capsular closure will lead to a superior outcome in hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) compared with non-capsular closure. METHODS AND ANALYSIS...... years and FAIS according to the Warwick agreement. Exclusion criteria are: previous hip surgery in either hip, previous conditions of Legg-Calvé-Perthes or slipped capital femoral epiphysis, malignant disease, recent hip or pelvic fractures, arthritis, Ehlers-Danlos or Marfan disease, recent (within 6...

  1. MR imaging findings of renal capsular leiomyoma : a case report

    Yang, Dal Mo; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Chung, Jin Woo; Cho, Hyun I; Lee, Jong Bouk [Gachon Medical college Gil Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    In the literature, descriptions of the MR findings of renal leiomyoma are rare. We present the MR findings of a capsular leiomyoma of the kidney in which hypointensity relative to normal renal parenchyma was seen on both T1-and T2-weighted MR images.

  2. MR imaging findings of renal capsular leiomyoma : a case report

    Yang, Dal Mo; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Chung, Jin Woo; Cho, Hyun I; Lee, Jong Bouk

    1999-01-01

    In the literature, descriptions of the MR findings of renal leiomyoma are rare. We present the MR findings of a capsular leiomyoma of the kidney in which hypointensity relative to normal renal parenchyma was seen on both T1-and T2-weighted MR images

  3. Effect of ropy and capsular exopolysaccharides producing strain of ...

    The contribution of selected ropy and capsular Lactobacillus plantarum 162RM on texture of fermented milk as well as on the functionality of kareish cheese was established in this study. The cell suspension of this strain was used in combination with commercial starter cultures MY900 (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.

  4. Open capsular shift for multi directional shoulder instability.

    Tankeren, E. van; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Loon, C. van

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the outcome of open antero-inferior capsular shift in 17 patients with multidirectional instability of the shoulder who failed to respond to conservative treatment. Six shoulders presented with secondary impingement syndrome and 11 with involuntary instability. The mean duration of

  5. Evolution of Sequence Type 4821 Clonal Complex Meningococcal Strains in China from Prequinolone to Quinolone Era, 1972–2013

    Guo, Qinglan; Mustapha, Mustapha M.; Chen, Mingliang; Qu, Di; Zhang, Xi; Harrison, Lee H.

    2018-01-01

    The expansion of hypervirulent sequence type 4821 clonal complex (CC4821) lineage Neisseria meningitidis bacteria has led to a shift in meningococcal disease epidemiology in China, from serogroup A (MenA) to MenC. Knowledge of the evolution and genetic origin of the emergent MenC strains is limited. In this study, we subjected 76 CC4821 isolates collected across China during 1972–1977 and 2005–2013 to phylogenetic analysis, traditional genotyping, or both. We show that successive recombination events within genes encoding surface antigens and acquisition of quinolone resistance mutations possibly played a role in the emergence of CC4821 as an epidemic clone in China. MenC and MenB CC4821 strains have spread across China and have been detected in several countries in different continents. Capsular switches involving serogroups B and C occurred among epidemic strains, raising concerns regarding possible increases in MenB disease, given that vaccines in use in China do not protect against MenB. PMID:29553310

  6. Global epidemiology of serogroup B meningococcal disease and opportunities for prevention with novel recombinant protein vaccines.

    Villena, Rodolfo; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Torres, Juan P; Finn, Adam; O'Ryan, Miguel

    2018-04-18

    Meningococcal disease (MD) is a major cause of meningitis and sepsis worldwide, with a high case fatality rate and frequent sequelae. Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, W, X and Y are responsible for most of these life-threatening infections, and its unpredictable epidemiology can cause outbreaks in communities, with significant health, social and economic impact. Currently, serogroup B is the main cause of MD in Europe and North America and one of the most prevalent serogroups in Latin America. Mass vaccination strategies using polysaccharide vaccines have been deployed since the 1970s and the use of conjugate vaccines has controlled endemic and epidemic disease caused by serogroups A, C, W and Y and more recently serogroup B using geographically-specific outer membrane vesicle based vaccines. Two novel protein-based vaccines are a significant addition to our armamentarium against N. meningitidis as they provide broad coverage against highly diverse strains in serogroup B and other groups. Early safety, effectiveness and impact data of these vaccines are encouraging. These novel serogroup B vaccines should be actively considered for individuals at increased risk of disease and to control serogroup B outbreaks occurring in institutions or specific regions, as they are likely to save lives and prevent severe sequelae. Incorporation into national programs will require thorough country-specific analysis.

  7. Meningococcal Disease: Information for Teens and College Students

    ... booster. Unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated first-year college students living in residence halls should receive 1 dose of MCV4. Teens who are unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated may need to receive an MCV4 if they travel to areas with high rates of meningococcal disease, ...

  8. An outbreak of meningococcal meningitis in Gauteng, Spring 1996 ...

    Objective. To describe a Neisseri.a meningitidis outbreak in Gauteng during the period 1 July to 31 December 1996. Design. A descriptive study. Setting. Patients with meningococcal meningitis in Gauteng who had been diagnosed by laboratory means, or notified during the period 1 July to 31 December 1996.

  9. Effects of meteorological factors on the incidence of meningococcal ...

    Background and Objectives: Substantial climate changes have led to the emergence and re-emergence of various infectious diseases worldwide, presenting an imperative need to explore the effects of meteorological factors on serious contagious disease incidences such as that of meningococcal meningitis (MCM).

  10. Trends in Meningococcal Meningitis Over the Past Twelve Years at ...

    Aim: To determine the trends in the occurrence of meningococcal meningitis at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria, as well as the antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: The results of all cerebrospinal fluid samples received by the microbiology laboratory (UNTH), Enugu ...

  11. Risk factors for meningococcal disease in Cape Town | Moodley ...

    Objective. To determine the risk factors associated with meningococcal disease among children living in Cape Town. Design. A case-control study was conducted from October 1993 to January 1995. Setting. The study population consisted of all children tmder the age of 14 years who were resident in the Cape Town ...

  12. Immunogenicity of meningococcal PorA antigens in OMV vaccines

    Luijkx, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    For the prevention of meningococcal infection caused by group B meningococci, the Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI) has developed a hexavalent Porin A (PorA) based Outer Membrane Vesicle (OMV) vaccine (Hexamen). In various clinical studies with HexaMen, differences in the immune responses to the

  13. Immunological properties of meningococcal lipopolysaccharide from serogroups A, B & C

    Jensen, T J; Kharazmi, A; Shand, G

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and compare the oxidative burst, chemotaxis and cytokine production of human white blood cells, stimulated with meningococcal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from three different serogroups (A, B and C) of Neisseria meningitidis, and to evaluate whether...

  14. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in meningococcal sepsis. Case 7

    Zeerleder, S.; Zürcher Zenklusen, R.; Hack, C. E.; Wuillemin, W. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a man (age: 49 years), who died from severe meningococcal sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and extended skin necrosis. We discuss in detail the pathophysiology of the activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during sepsis.

  15. Vaccine Preventability of Meningococcal Clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany

    Elias, Johannes; Schouls, Leo M.; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C.; Martin, Diana R.; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city

  16. [Invasive meningococcal disease in Navarra in the era of a meningococcal C vaccine].

    Morales, Desirée; Moreno, Laura; Herranz, Mercedes; Bernaola, Enrique; Martínez-Baz, Iván; Castilla, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Systematic childhood vaccination against meningococcus C has had a considerable impact on meningococcal invasive disease (MID). The aim of this study is to perform an analysis on the epidemiology, the clinical features, and the factors associated with a worse prognosis of MID, in the era of a meningococcal C vaccine. The study included confirmed cases of MID in children less than 15 years of age in Navarra, Spain, between 2008 and 2014. The risk of death or permanent sequelae was evaluated according to the presence of clinical features and analytical parameters at diagnosis. The average annual incidence was 7.9 cases per 100,000 children, with the highest attack rate in children < 1 year. Of 53 cases analysed, 87% were due to meningococcus B. Fever (100%), rash (91%), and elevation of procalcitonin (94%) were the most frequent findings at diagnosis. Some sign of shock was observed in 70% upon arrival at the hospital. The case-fatality rate was 3.8% and 10 % survived with permanent sequelae. Glasgow coma scale < 15 (odds ratio [OR]= 9.2), seizure (OR=8.3), sepsis without meningitis (OR=9.1), thrombocytopenia (OR=30.5), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (OR= 10.9) showed a greater association with a worse prognosis. The MID continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Therefore, new advances are needed in the prevention, early diagnosis, and detection of the factors associated with poor prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of bacterial polysaccharides

    Ellwood, D C; Evans, C G.T.; Yeo, R G

    1978-06-01

    A process for the biochemical synthesis of polysaccharides comprises growing polysaccharide-producing bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas in a single stage continuous culture in a chemically-defined medium. The term chemically-defined medium denotes a culture medium wherein nutrients other than carbon are provided as inorganic salts or single organic compounds of known molecular structure rather than as complex naturally-derived mixtures. Normally the only organic component of the chemically-defined medium will be a conventional carbon source such as a carbohydrate, especially glucose, or glycerol. Preferably the medium should contain only one nitrogen source, since the use of multiple nitrogen sources, as present in complex media, appears to promote changes in the nature of the culture resulting in loss of polysaccharide production. 22 claims.

  18. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics

    Matutano, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [fr

  19. Determination of saccharide content in pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines by GC-MSD.

    Kim, John S; Laskowich, Erin R; Arumugham, Rasappa G; Kaiser, Raymond E; MacMichael, Gregory J

    2005-12-15

    A simple and sensitive gas chromatographic method was designed for quantitative analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides, activated polysaccharides, and polysaccharide conjugates. Pneumococcal serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F polysaccharide or conjugate were subjected to methanolysis in 3N hydrochloric acid in methanol followed by re-N-acetylation and trimethylsilylation. Derivatized samples were chromatographed and detected using gas chromatography with mass selective detector. Gas chromatographic results were compared with colorimetric values with agreement of 92 to 123% over the range of all samples tested. Monosaccharides released during methanolysis included hexoses, uronic acids, 6-deoxy-hexoses, amino sugars, and alditols. Quantitative recovery of monosaccharides was achieved for all serotypes by the use of a single methanolysis, derivatization, and chromatography procedure. Response factors generated from authentic monosaccharide standards were used for quantitation of pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates with confirmation of peak assignments by retention time and mass spectral analysis. This method allows saccharide quantitation in multivalent pneumococcal vaccine intermediates and final drug products with low-level detection (10 pg) and peak purity.

  20. Uptake of meningococcal conjugate vaccine among adolescents in large managed care organizations, United States, 2005: Demand, supply and seasonality

    Wortley Pascale M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In February 2005, the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended the new meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4 for routine use among 11- to 12-year-olds (at the preadolescent health-care visit, 14- to 15-year-olds (before high-school entry, and groups at increased risk. Vaccine distribution started in March; however, in July, the manufacturer reported inability to meet demand and widespread MCV4 shortages were reported. Our objectives were to determine early uptake patterns among target (11-12 and 14-15 year olds and non-target (13- plus 16-year-olds age groups. A post hoc analysis was conducted to compare seasonal uptake patterns of MCV4 with polysaccharide meningococcal (MPSV4 and tetanus diphtheria (Td vaccines. Methods We analyzed data for adolescents 11-16 years from five managed care organizations participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD. For MCV4, we estimated monthly and cumulative coverage during 2005 and calculated risk ratios. For MPSV4 and Td, we combined 2003 and 2004 data and compared their seasonal uptake patterns with MCV4. Results Coverage for MCV4 during 2005 among the 623,889 11-16 years olds was 10%. Coverage for 11-12 and 14-15 year olds was 12% and 11%, respectively, compared with 8% for 13- plus 16-year-olds (p Conclusion A surge in vaccine uptake between June and August was observed among adolescents for MCV4, MPSV4 and Td vaccines. The increase in summer-time vaccinations and vaccination of non-targeted adolescents coupled with supply limitations likely contributed to the reported shortages of MCV4 in 2005.

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of meningococcal ACWY CRM197-conjugate vaccine in children, adolescents and adults in Russia.

    Ilyina, Natalia; Kharit, Susanna; Namazova-Baranova, Leila; Asatryan, Asmik; Benashvili, Mayya; Tkhostova, Elmira; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial invasive infections in people aged safety of the quadrivalent meningococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine MenACWY when administered to healthy Russian subjects aged 2 years and above. A total of 197 subjects were immunized with a single dose of the vaccine, and serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity was measured pre and 1-month post-vaccination with human complement (hSBA) serum titers. Regardless of baseline serostatus, 1 month after a single dose of MenACWY-CRM197 85% (95%CI, 79-90%) of subjects showed serologic response against serogroup A, 74% (67-80%) against serogroup C, 60% (53-67%) against serogroup W, and 83% (77-88%) against serogroup Y. The percentage of subjects with hSBA titers ≥ 1:8 1 month after vaccination was 89% (83-93%) against serogroup A, 84% (78-89%) against serogroup C, 97% (93-99%) against serogroup W, and 88% (82-92%) against serogroup Y. Comparable results were obtained across all subjects: children (2 to 10 years), adolescents (11 to 17 years), and adults (≥18 years). The MenACWY-CRM197 vaccine showed an acceptable safety profile and was well tolerated across all age groups, with no serious adverse events or deaths reported during the study. In conclusion, a single dose of meningococcal MenACWY-CRM197 vaccine is immunogenic and has an acceptable safety profile, provides a broad protection against the most frequent epidemic serogroups, and is a suitable alternative to currently available unconjugated monovalent or bivalent polysaccharide vaccines in Russia.

  2. Two-year outcomes of open shoulder anterior capsular reconstruction for instability from severe capsular deficiency.

    Dewing, Christopher B; Horan, Marilee P; Millett, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    To document outcomes after anterior capsulolabral reconstruction for recurrent shoulder instability in 15 patients (20 shoulders) who have had multiple failed stabilizations or collagen disorders. Twenty shoulders with recurrent instability underwent revision stabilization with allograft reconstruction of anterior capsulolabral structures, which re-creates the labrum and capsular ligaments. The patients comprised 3 men and 12 women (mean age, 26 years [range, 18 to 38 years]) in whom multiple prior repairs failed and who had disability from continued pain and instability. Patients could choose to undergo either arthrodesis or salvage allograft reconstruction or to live with permanent disability. Of the patients, 5 had Ehlers-Danlos syndrome whereas 10 had hyperlaxity syndromes without genetic confirmation. Failure was defined as further instability surgery. Pain, shoulder function, instability (dislocations/subluxation), and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores were documented. At follow-up, 9 of 20 shoulders (45%) remained stable. Recurrent instability was reported in 5 shoulders (25%), but the patients chose not to undergo further surgery. In the 14 shoulders without further stabilization (nonfailures), the mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score increased 43 points at a mean of 3.8 years (range, 2 to 6 years) postoperatively (P failed by progressing to instability surgery at a mean of 8.6 months (range, 2.8 to 24 months). In the 6 shoulders that failed, the mean number of prior surgeries was 8 (range, 3 to 15) compared with a mean of 4 prior surgeries (range, 1 to 16) for the 9 nonfailures. Treating patients in whom multiple stabilizations have failed remains challenging. In our series 9 shoulders (45%) remained completely stable at 3.8 years. Recurrent instability (3 reinjuries) requiring further stabilization occurred in 6 (30%). Subsequent treatment for non-instability reasons was performed in 3 (15%). Instability was reported but revision

  3. Pros and cons of vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel; Domínguez García, Ángela

    2018-02-09

    A vaccine has recently been approved in the EU against meningococcal serogroup B, the main cause of meningococcal disease. There is a fierce debate about the decision regarding a universal vaccination in infants older than 2 months, as recommended by the majority of scientific societies. In western Europe the only country to have included the universal vaccination is the United Kingdom, with a lower incidence of the disease than Ireland. Other countries have also adopted it, such as the Czech Republic, Cuba and certain regions of Italy. Numerous cost-effectiveness studies have been published regarding the vaccination with different assumptions, which have supported the decision not to implant the universal vaccination because it exceeds the will to pay for a health benefit. We discuss the pros and cons of the universal vaccination against meningococcal B, recommended by the Sociedad Española de Pediatría (Spanish Society of Paediatrics), which as yet has not been implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of hip joint position and intra-capsular volume on hip joint intra-capsular pressure: a human cadaveric model

    Tse Paul

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in hip intra-capsular pressure has been implicated in various hip pathologies, such as avascular necrosis complicating undisplaced femoral neck fracture. Our study aimed at documenting the relationship between intra-capsular volume and pressure in various hip positions. Methods Fifty-two cadaveric hips were studied. An electronic pressure-monitoring catheter recorded the intra-capsular hip pressure after each instillation of 2 ml of normal saline and in six hip positions. Results In neutral hip position, the control position for investigation, intra-capsular pressure remained unchanged when its content was below 10 ml. Thereafter, it increased exponentially. When the intra-capsular volume was 12 ml, full abduction produced a 2.1-fold increase (p = 0.028 of the intra-capsular hip joint pressure; full external rotation and full internal rotation increased the pressure by at least 4-fold (p Conclusion Intra-capsular pressure increases with its volume, but with a wide variation with different positions. It would be appropriate to recommend that hips with haemarthrosis or effusion should be positioned in 45-degree flexion.

  5. Evidence for an intact polysaccharide capsule in Bordetella pertussis.

    Neo, YiLin; Li, Rui; Howe, Josephine; Hoo, Regina; Pant, Aakanksha; Ho, SiYing; Alonso, Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Polysaccharide capsules contribute to the pathogenesis of many bacteria species by providing resistance against various defense mechanisms. The production of a capsule in Bordetella pertussis, the etiologic agent of whooping cough, has remained controversial; earlier studies reported this pathogen as a capsulated microorganism whereas the recent B. pertussis genome analysis revealed the presence of a truncated capsule locus. In this work, using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining approaches, we provide a formal evidence for the presence of an intact microcapsule produced at the surface of both laboratory strain and clinical isolates of B. pertussis. In agreement with previous studies, we found that the capsule is optimally produced in avirulent phase. Unexpectedly, the presence of the capsule was also detected at the surface of virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Consistently, a substantial transcriptional activity of the capsule operon was detected in virulent phase, suggesting that the capsular polysaccharide may play a role during pertussis pathogenesis. In vitro assays indicated that the presence of the capsule does not affect B. pertussis adherence to mammalian cells and does not further protect the bacterium from phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing or antimicrobial peptide attack. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. [Study on immunogenicity of group A and group C meningococcal conjugate vaccine with coupling group B meningococcal outer membrane protein].

    Ma, Fu-Bao; Tao, Hong; Wang, Hong-Jun

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the Immunogenicity of Group A and Group C Meningococcal conjugate Vaccine with coupling Group B Meningococcal Outer Membrane Protein (Men B-OMP). 458 healthy children aged 3-5 months, 6-23 months, 2-6 years and 7-24 years were given the Groups A and C conjugate Vaccine with MenB-OMP or other vaccine as control group to measure the pre-and post-vaccination Men A and C and B by Serum Bactericidal Assay (SBA) in the double-blind randomized controlled trial. 97.65%-100% were 4 times or greater increase in SBA titer for the healthy children given the Groups A and C conjugate Vaccine with MenB-OMP, The geometric mean titer of SBA were 1:194-1:420, which significantly higber than controls. The Group A and C conjugate Vaccine with MenB-OMP was safe and well immunogenic.

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of a four-component meningococcal group B vaccine (4CMenB) and a quadrivalent meningococcal group ACWY conjugate vaccine administered concomitantly in healthy laboratory workers.

    Findlow, Jamie; Bai, Xilian; Findlow, Helen; Newton, Emma; Kaczmarski, Ed; Miller, Elizabeth; Borrow, Ray

    2015-06-26

    Safety precautions for laboratory staff working with meningococci should primarily rely on laboratory procedures preventing exposure to aerosols containing viable meningococci. Despite this, vaccination is a key component of protection in the occupational setting. In the UK in 2009, there were no licensed vaccines for meningococcal capsular group B or conjugate vaccines for capsular groups A, C, W and Y. We therefore undertook a Phase II trial in laboratory workers to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of a four component group B vaccine (4CMenB) and a quadrivalent group A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine (ACWY-CRM). Enrolment was open to staff aged 18-65 years at the Public Health Laboratory, Manchester who may have had a potential occupational exposure risk to meningococci. 4CMenB was administered at 0, 2 and 6 months in the non-dominant arm and ACWY-CRM concomitantly at 0 months in the dominant arm. Pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were taken and analysed by the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay against A, C, W and Y strains and a panel of seven diverse group B strains. Diary cards were used to record any local and systemic reactions following each vaccination. In total, 38 staff were enrolled and received initial vaccinations with 31 completing the trial per protocol. Both vaccines were proven safe, with local reactogenicity being more commonly reported following 4CMenB than ACWY-CRM. High proportions of subjects had putative protective SBA titres pre-vaccination, with 61-84 and 61-87% protected against A, C, W and Y strains and diverse MenB strains, respectively. Post-vaccination, SBA titres increased with 95-100 and 90-100% of subjects with protective SBA titres against A, C, W and Y strains and diverse MenB strains, respectively. These data suggest that 4CMenB and ACWY-CRM are safe when administered concomitantly and have the potential to enhance protection for laboratory workers. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00962624. Crown

  8. Meningococcal disease awareness and meningoccocal vaccination among Greek students planning to travel abroad.

    Pavli, Androula; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Maltezou, Helena C

    2017-06-09

    Objective Students living in dormitories are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Our aim was to evaluate Greek students planning to study abroad about their level of meningococcal disease awareness and attitudes and practices towards meningococcal vaccination. Methods We studied 231 Greek ERASMUS students using a questionnaire. Results Students had a mean number of 4.1 correct answers out of six questions. In particular 66.5% 79.3%, 72.3% and 82.3% of them answered correctly about the etiology, transmission, epidemiology and treatment of meningococcal disease, respectively. Only 23.4% were vaccinated, whereas 14.7% were planning to do so in the near future. Students who answered correctly ≥5 questions were more likely to be male, vaccinated against meningococcal meningitis and science students. Conclusion We found an overall good level of knowledge about meningococcal disease among Greek students planning to study or already studying abroad. Knowledge about meningococcal disease was associated with vaccine uptake. However, vaccination rate against meningococcal disease was low.

  9. Changing epidemiology of Infant Meningococcal Disease after the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C vaccine in Italy, 2006-2014.

    Stefanelli, P; Fazio, C; Neri, A; Boros, S; Renna, G; Pompa, M G

    2015-07-17

    In Italy, the incidence of Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) was around 0.28 per 100,000 over the last years. Since the risk IMD is usually high among infants aged less than 1 year, we decided to evaluate the trend of IMD cases reported between 2006 and 2014 in this age group. In particular, the study aim was to describe the main characteristics of IMD cases in infants following the introduction of MCC vaccine (2005) and to estimate the number of cases which are potentially preventable through early vaccination. The National Surveillance System of Bacterial Meningitis was established in 1994 and in 2007 was extended to all invasive bacterial diseases. Clinical data and isolates and/or clinical samples are collected from hospitalized patients throughout the country. IMD cases are reported by clinicians to the local health authorities, and samples are sent to the Reference Laboratory at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità for further characterization and storage at -80°C. In particular, serogroup identification is obtained by agglutination with commercial antisera or by multiplex PCR. The annual incidence for infants B was more frequently detected among infants aged B was the most commonly detected over time. The long-term impact of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine and the effect of the introduction of meningococcal B vaccination among infants need to be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neisseria meningitidis Group A IgG1 and IgG2 Subclass Immune Response in African Children Aged 12–23 Months Following Meningococcal Vaccination

    Holme, Daniel; Findlow, Helen; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Carlone, George; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT, was licensed in 2010 and was previously studied in a phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate its safety and immunogenicity in African children 12–23 months of age. Methods. Subjects received either PsA-TT; meningococcal group A, C, W, Y polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY); or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib-TT). Forty weeks following primary vaccination, the 3 groups were further randomized to receive either PsA-TT, one-fifth dose of PsACWY, or Hib-TT. Group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response was characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The predominant IgG subclass response, regardless of vaccine, was IgG1. One month following primary vaccination, the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG1 and IgG2 in the PsA-TT group were 21.73 µg/mL and 6.27 µg/mL, whereas in the PsACWY group the mean GMCs were 2.01 µg/mL and 0.97 µg/mL, respectively (P Group A–specific IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs remained greater in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group 40 weeks following primary vaccination (P vaccines. Conclusions. Vaccination of African children aged 12–24 months with either PsA-TT or PsACWY elicited a predominantly IgG1 response. The IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio decreased following successive vaccination with PsACWY, indicating a shift toward IgG2, suggestive of the T-cell–independent immune response commonly associated with polysaccharide antigens. Clinical Trials Registration. SRCTN78147026. PMID:26553689

  11. A huge renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma

    Lal Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A huge left renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma presented in a patient as an abdominal mass. Computed tomography displayed a large heterogeneous retro-peritoneal mass in the left side of the abdomen with inferior and medial displacement as well as loss of fat plane with the left kidney. Surgical exploration revealed a capsulated mass that was tightly adherent to the left kidney; therefore, total tumor resection with radical left nephrectomy was performed. Histopathology ultimately confirmed the benign nature of the mass. This is the largest leiomyoma reported in literature to the best of our knowledge.

  12. New techniques for evaluating the gastrointestinal tract: capsular endoscopy

    A E Karateyev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a procedure for capsular endoscopy (CE, a new high-technology method of evaluating the small bowel, and reports on its use in rheumatological care. Small bowel involvement is noted to be frequently encountered in rheumatic diseases, such as Behcet's disease, diffuse scleroderma, and seronegative spondylitis. According to the data of clinical trials, CE is effective in timely detecting this visceral abnormality. At the same time, CE is actually the only accurate method of diagnosing drug-induced enteropathy, a potentially menacing disease that frequently occurs with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  13. Retro-aortic, left inferior renal capsular vein

    Umberto G Rossi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In our case report, abdominal multi-detector computed tomography was used for the pre-operative anatomy evaluation in a living kidney donor. The early phase of the test revealed normal kidneys in the donor. The vascular phase detected a venous variant on the left side: An inferior renal capsular vein, which had a loop and a retro-aortic course. This preoperative knowledge was crucial for the laparoscopic nephrectomy as a surgical procedure for harvesting kidney from the living donor.

  14. [Phacoemulsification of subluxated lens with capsular tension ring implantation].

    Dorecka, Mariola; Rokicki, Wojciech; Nita, Malgorzata; Krysik, Katarzyna; Nita, Ewa; Sikorska, Aleksandra; Romaniuk, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate long term results of phacoemulsification with PC IOL and capsular tension ring (CTR) implantation in lens subluxation. The study comprised of 134 patients--146 eyes with subluxated lens. In all cases phacoemulsification with PC IOL and CTR implantation was performed. No intaroperative complications has occured. Postoperative complications included: inflammation in the anterior chamber in 3 eyes (2.1%), retinal detachment in 2 eyes (1.4%). In all cases there was no PC IOL decentration. (1) CTR facilitates phacoemulsification with PC IOL implantation in lens subluxation. (2) Phacoemulsification of subluxated lens with PC IOL and CTR implantation seems to be safe and effective procedure.

  15. Meningococcal B Vaccine Failure With a Penicillin-Resistant Strain in a Young Adult on Long-Term Eculizumab.

    Parikh, Sydel R; Lucidarme, Jay; Bingham, Coralie; Warwicker, Paul; Goodship, Tim; Borrow, Ray; Ladhani, Shamez N

    2017-09-01

    We describe a case of invasive meningococcal disease due to a vaccine-preventable and penicillin-resistant strain in a fully immunized young adult on long-term complement inhibitor therapy and daily penicillin chemoprophylaxis. Eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human complement C5 protein and inhibits the terminal complement pathway. It is currently recommended for the treatment of complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathies. An unwanted complication of inhibiting complement, however, is an increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease. Here, we report the first case of meningococcal group B vaccine failure in a young adult receiving eculizumab for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. She developed invasive meningococcal disease due to a vaccine-preventable and penicillin-resistant meningococcal group B strain 4 months after receiving 2 doses of meningococcal group B vaccine while on oral penicillin prophylaxis against meningococcal infection. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. DETECTION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL CAPSULAR ANTIGEN IN THE PRESENCE OF PENICILLIN IN-VITRO

    HOLLOWAY, Y; BOERSMA, WG; KUTTSCHRUTTER, H; SNIJDER, JAM

    1993-01-01

    Eight strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were tested in vitro for their ability to produce capsular antigen in the presence of penicillin. It was found that, provided 10(6) to 10(7) pneumococci/ml were present, capsular antigen could be detected during the 72 h in which the experiment was

  17. Electrospinning of Xanthan Polysaccharide

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Faralli, Adele; Ndoni, Sokol

    2017-01-01

    .5 to 2.5 wt/vol%). The correlation between the concentration and the rheological properties of xanthan solutions, with the morphology of the nanofibers is investigated. At the polysaccharide concentrations where nanofiber formation is observed, an increase of the elastic modulus and first normal stress...... differences is observed. The typical “weak gel-like” and thixotropic properties known for aqueous xanthan solutions, are not observed for the xanthan solutions in formic acid. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic and circular dichroism studies verify that an esterification reaction takes place, where...

  18. Polysaccharides from Extremophilic Microorganisms

    Nicolaus, B.; Moriello, V. Schiano; Lama, L.; Poli, A.; Gambacorta, A.

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter-1 was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different α-D-mannoses and three different β-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different α-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  19. Why Were Polysaccharides Necessary?

    Tolstoguzov, Vladimir

    2004-12-01

    The main idea of this paper is that the primordial soup may be modelled by food systems whose structure-property relationship is based on non-specific interactions between denatured biopolymers. According to the proposed hypothesis, polysaccharides were the first biopolymers that decreased concentration of salts in the primordial soup, `compatibilised' and drove the joint evolution of proto-biopolymers. Synthesis of macromolecules within the polysaccharide-rich medium could have resulted in phase separation of the primordial soup and concentration of the polypeptides and nucleic acids in the dispersed phase particles. The concentration of proto-biopolymer mixtures favoured their cross-linking in hybrid supermacromolecules of conjugates. The cross-linking of proto-biopolymers could occur by hydrophobic, electrostatic interactions, H-bonds due to freezing aqueous mixed biopolymer dispersions and/or by covalent bonds due to the Maillard reaction. Cross-linking could have increased the local concentration of chemically different proto-biopolymers, fixed their relative positions and made their interactions reproducible. Attractive-repulsive interactions between cross-linked proto-biopolymer chains could develop pairing of the monomer units, improved chemical stability (against hydrolysis) and led to their mutual catalytic activity and coding. Conjugates could probably evolve to the first self-reproduced entities and then to specialized cellular organelles. Phase separation of the primordial soup with concentration of conjugates in the dispersed particles has probably resulted in proto-cells.

  20. Invasive meningococcal disease without meningitis: a forgotten diagnosis

    Walayat S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Saqib Walayat,1 Nooreen Hussain,1 Abdullah H Malik,1 Elsa Vazquez-Melendez,1 Bhagat S Aulakh,2 Teresa Lynch1 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL, USA; 2Department of Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL, USA Abstract: Neisseria meningitidis, a Gram-negative diplococcus, is an uncommon cause of pneumonia. There have been only about 344 cases reported worldwide from 1906 to 2015. To our knowledge, there have been only 3 cases reported in the USA in the past 2 decades. We present a case of a 72-year-old male with a past medical history of severe COPD, obstructive sleep apnea, and stage I lung cancer status post-stereotactic body radiation therapy 1 year ago, who was admitted with a 6-day history of productive cough with yellowish sputum, shortness of breath, extreme myalgias, and fatigue. Chest X-ray revealed an infiltrative process in the left lower lung field and left-sided pleural effusion. Blood cultures grew beta-lactamase-negative N. meningitidis after 24 hours. Our patient was initially treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which were later switched to amoxicillin to complete a total of 14 days of antibiotics. Diagnosing meningococcal pneumonia requires a high level of suspicion, as sputum cultures may be falsely positive due to asymptomatic carriage of the organism in the upper respiratory tract in up to 10% of outpatient population. We highlight this case as early recognition and treatment is critical. The case fatality rate for N. meningitidis pneumonia has been reported to be higher compared with meningococcal meningitis. Keywords: Neisseria meningitidis, pneumonia, invasive meningococcal pneumonia, sepsis

  1. A Rare Case of Primary Meningococcal Myopericarditis in a 71-Year-Old Male

    Odilia I. Woudstra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of primary meningococcal C pericarditis with myocardial involvement in a 71-year-old male that is thus far the oldest patient with isolated meningococcal pericardial disease and only the third patient with primary meningococcal myopericarditis described in English literature. Our patient was successfully treated by full sternotomy and surgical drainage combined with intravenous ceftriaxone. Mild symptoms unresponsive to anti-inflammatory treatment and leukocytosis may guide clinicians towards the correct diagnosis. It is important to recognize this cause of pericarditis as the relatively mild clinical presentation may rapidly progress into tamponade and right-sided heart failure.

  2. Effective Use of a Silicone-induced Capsular Flap in Secondary Asian Rhinoplasty

    Jae Yong Jeong, MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Performing secondary rhinoplasty in patients who underwent primary rhinoplasty using a silicone implant is difficult due to thinning of nasal skin and formation of a capsule. Excess capsule formation can cause capsular contracture, resulting in short nose deformity or implant deviation, migration, or implant demarcation. Revision rhinoplasty using a capsular flap, dorsal silicone implant, and tip plasty was performed in 95 Korean patients (91 women and 4 men; mean age, 27 years who previously underwent primary augmentation rhinoplasty using silicone implants. The capsular flap was composed by creating a dual plane above the anterior capsule and below the posterior capsule. The existing silicone implant was removed, and a new silicone implant was placed under the posterior capsule. The patients were followed up for 6 months to 4 years (mean, 31.7 months. Of the 95 patients who underwent secondary augmentation rhinoplasty using a capsular flap, 88 patients (92.6% showed satisfactory results. There was no hematoma or nasal skin vascular compromise. There was no visible or palpable capsule resorption or recurrent capsular contracture. Early implant malpositioning (within 30 days postoperatively was observed in 4 patients, and tip shape dissatisfaction (within 60 days postoperatively was reported by 3 patients. Four patients underwent revision surgery and had successful outcomes. Nasal augmentation using a silicone implant and capsular flap in secondary rhinoplasty avoids complications caused by removal of the capsule. Recurrent capsule formation or clinically noticeable resorption of the capsular flap was not observed in this study.

  3. Analysis of hepatic capsular enhancement mimicking the Fitz-hugh-curtis syndrome on a multidetector computed tomography

    Park, Ji Sang; Park, Seong Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Boem Ha; Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lim, Hoon

    2008-01-01

    To determine the associated diseases causing hepatic capsular enhancement and analyze the relationship of the capsular enhancement patterns as a function of the associated diseases. We retrospectively reviewed 797 patients having undergone arterial phase abdominal CT scans. Among these images, 47 patients showed hepatic capsular enhancement (13 men and 34 women; mean age: 53.1; age range: 5-91 years). We investigated if there was a correlation between the pattern of hepatic capsular enhancement and cause of disease. When the hepatic capsular enhancement was found to persist until the portal phase, the symptom duration was evaluated. Hepatic capsular enhancements were presented in 5.9% (47/797) of the arterial phase abdominal CT scans. Six patients (12.8%) were diagnosed with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. The other causes of hepatic capsular enhancement included 20 cases of inflammation, 13 cases of malignancy, and 8 cases of other diseases. The extent of the hepatic capsular enhancement was not significantly different among the causes of disease. In thirty two of 47 patients (68.1%), hepatic capsular enhancement persisted until the portal phase images. Hepatic capsular enhancement on an arterial phase is a nonspecific imaging finding observed in the Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome as well as a variety of other diseases. A CT is useful in finding the hepatic capsular enhancement and determining the accompanying disease

  4. Atypical clinical presentation of meningococcal meningitis: a case report.

    Izzo, Ilaria; Pileri, Paola; Merello, Maria; Gnesin, Paolo; Cogi, Enrico; Aggiusti, Carlo; Giacomelli, Laura; Ettori, Stefano; Colombini, Paolo; Collidá, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    A young woman was examined in the Emergency Department for fever, pharyngitis and widespread petechial rash. Physical examination, including neurological evaluation, did not show any other abnormalities. Chest X-ray was negative. Blood exams showed leukocytosis and CPR 20 mg/dL (nvpetechial rash evidence, lumbar puncture was performed. CSF was opalescent; physico-chemical examination showed: total proteins 2.8 (nv 0.15-0.45), glucose 5 (nv 59-80), WBC 7600/μL (nv 0-4/ μL). In the hypothesis of meningococcal meningitis, antimicrobial therapy was started. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for N. meningitidis. During the first hours the patient experienced hallucinations and mild psychomotor agitation, making a spontaneous recovery. A brain MRI showed minimal extra-axial inflammatory exudates. She was discharged after 10 days in good condition. We underline the need to consider meningococcal meningitis diagnosis when any suggestive symptom or sign is present, even in the absence of the classic meningitis triad, to obtain earlier diagnosis and an improved prognosis.

  5. [Cause analysis and management of severe dislocated or subluxated intraocular lenses in the capsular bag].

    Wang, Wen-qing; Jia, Li-Li; Lu, Bin; Fang, Jian; Chen, Ying

    2006-05-01

    To analyze the causes of severe dislocated and subluxated intraocular lenses (IOL) in capsular bag and the relevancy with abnormal capsular constitution. The abnormality of capsular and the position of IOL were retrospectively analyzed by slit lamp and microscope in dilated pupil. Surgeries were performed in all of 31 cases in order to exchange or reposit the dislocated or subluxated lOL. Among 31 cases, there were 20 cases with the dislocated or subluxated IOL in the earlier postoperative period and 11 cases in the later postoperative period. The subluxated IOL in 5 cases (16.1%) were caused by the large rupture of the posterior capsular, and by the rupture of the posterior capsular in 9 cases (29.0%). A upward subluxated IOL developed in one case (3.2%) as the result of small rupture in the equater capsular. The subluxatd IOL in the anterior chamber in two cases (6.5%) was induced by the radial rupture of residual anterior capsular. The size of the IOLs in 2 cases were not matched to the diameter of the capsule bag. The dislocated IOL into the vitreous in 2 cases was caused by the rupture of the superior capsular. The subluxated IOL in 2 cases (6.5%) was caused by the zonal finers rupture due to trauma. The severe disfiguration of the IOL haptic was found in one case. The dislocated IOL in 6 cases (19.4%) was caused by asymmetric capsular shrinkage. A subluxated IOL in one case was resulted from the zonular defects with pseudoexfoliation syndrome. The postoperative corrected visual acuity was 0.5 - 1.0 in 24 eyes, 0.1 - 0.4 in 6 eyes, and 0.05 in one eye. There are several causes for the dislocated or subluxated IOL. The correction of the IOL position should depend on the cause for the dislocated or subluxated IOL.

  6. Pre-admission antibiotics for suspected cases of meningococcal disease.

    Sudarsanam, Thambu D; Rupali, Priscilla; Tharyan, Prathap; Abraham, Ooriapadickal Cherian; Thomas, Kurien

    2017-06-14

    Meningococcal disease can lead to death or disability within hours after onset. Pre-admission antibiotics aim to reduce the risk of serious disease and death by preventing delays in starting therapy before confirmation of the diagnosis. To study the effectiveness and safety of pre-admission antibiotics versus no pre-admission antibiotics or placebo, and different pre-admission antibiotic regimens in decreasing mortality, clinical failure, and morbidity in people suspected of meningococcal disease. We searched CENTRAL (6 January 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 6 January 2017), Embase (1980 to 6 January 2017), Web of Science (1985 to 6 January 2017), LILACS (1982 to 6 January 2017), and prospective trial registries to January 2017. We previously searched CAB Abstracts from 1985 to June 2015, but did not update this search in January 2017. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing antibiotics versus placebo or no intervention, in people with suspected meningococcal infection, or different antibiotics administered before admission to hospital or confirmation of the diagnosis. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data from the search results. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous data. We included only one trial and so did not perform data synthesis. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We found no RCTs comparing pre-admission antibiotics versus no pre-admission antibiotics or placebo. We included one open-label, non-inferiority RCT with 510 participants, conducted during an epidemic in Niger, evaluating a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone versus a single dose of intramuscular long-acting (oily) chloramphenicol. Ceftriaxone was not inferior to chloramphenicol in reducing mortality (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.56; N = 503; 308 confirmed meningococcal meningitis; 26 deaths; moderate-quality evidence), clinical failures (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.32 to

  7. Anterior capsular support for posterior chamber intraocular lenses following vitreous loss in endocapsular surgery

    Jacob Pushpa

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We used anterior capsular support for posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs in fourteen eyes with large posterior capsular ruptures. An endocapsular technique preserved the anterior capsule and facilitated implantation. With a median follow up of 8.5 months, all patients had a visual acuity of 6/9 or better. One lens was lost in the vitreous and one patient had a clinically significant cystoid macular edema. In the event of a posterior capsular rupture we suggest this technique as an alternative to anterior chamber or scleral-fixated lenses

  8. Decreased expression of serum and microvascular vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in meningococcal sepsis*.

    Flier, M. van der; Baerveldt, E.M.; Miedema, A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Hazelzet, J.A.; Emonts, M.; Groot, R. de; Prens, E.P.; Vught, A.J. van; Jansen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the skin microvessel expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and serum-soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 levels in children with meningococcal sepsis. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Two tertiary academic children hospital PICUs.

  9. Need for optimisation of immuniastion strategeis targeting Invasive Meningococcal Disease in the netherlands

    Bousema, J.C.M.; Ruitenberg, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a severe bacterial infectious disease with high mortality and morbidity rates worldwide. In recent years, industrialised countries have implemented vaccines targeting IMD in their National Immunisation Programmes (NIPs). In 2002, the Netherlands successfully

  10. Meningococcal outer membrane vesicle composition-dependent activation of the innate immune response

    Zariri, Afshin; Beskers, Joep; van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Bindels, Tim H E; van Riet, Elly; van Putten, Jos P M; van der Ley, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Meningococcal outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have been extensively investigated and successfully implemented as vaccines. They contain pathogen associated molecular patterns including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capable of triggering innate immunity. However, Neisseria meningitidis contains an

  11. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  12. Effectiveness of antibiotics given before admission in reducing mortality from meningococcal disease: systematic review.

    Hahné, Susan J M; Charlett, André; Purcell, Bernadette; Samuelsson, Susanne; Camaroni, Ivonne; Ehrhard, Ingrid; Heuberger, Sigrid; Santamaria, Maria; Stuart, James M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for effectiveness of treatment with antibiotics before admission in reducing case fatality from meningococcal disease. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane register of trials and systematic reviews, database of abstracts of reviews of effectiveness,

  13. Consensus recommendation for meningococcal disease prevention for Hajj and Umra pilgrimage/travel medicine.

    Shibl, A; Tufenkeji, H; Khalil, M; Memish, Z

    2013-04-01

    The Islamic Hajj to Makkah (Mecca) has been associated with outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease and the global spread of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W-135. For Hajj pilgrims the quadrivalent vaccination against serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y is a mandatory requirement. Novel conjugate vaccines may provide benefits for the community by reduction of carriage. With the introduction of the new generation of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (Menveo, Menactra, and others pending license) and their recent implementation in Saudi Arabia, experts from 11 countries in the Middle East region met at a Meningococcal Leadership Forum (MLF), in Dubai in May 2010 to exchange opinions on meningococcal disease and prevention strategies. These experts discussed the importance of introducing conjugate vaccines for pilgrims and travellers, and elaborated a consensus recommendation to support healthcare professionals and decision-makers.

  14. MRI evaluation and follow-up of bone necrosis after meningococcal infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Damry, N.; Schurmans, T.; Perlmutter, N.

    1993-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a serious complication of meningococcal septicaemia. It often results in infarction of various tissues namely the skin, adrenal glands, kidneys, brain and, much less commonly, bones. We describe a patient who presented bone lesions after meningococcal septicaemia. In addition to plain radiography and scintigraphy the lesions were evaluated with MRI and have proved to be extensive and still progressive, approxximately 18 months after the onset of the disease. (orig.)

  15. Risk and protective factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents: matched cohort study

    Tully, Joanna; Viner, Russell M; Coen, Pietro G; Stuart, James M; Zambon, Maria; Peckham, Catherine; Booth, Clare; Klein, Nigel; Kaczmarski, Ed; Booy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine biological and social risk factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents. Design: Prospective, population based, matched cohort study with controls matched for age and sex in 1:1 matching. Controls were sought from the general practitioner. Setting: Six contiguous regions of England, which represent some 65% of the country’s population. Participants: 15-19 year olds with meningococcal disease recruited at hospital admission in six regions (repr...

  16. Changes in the evolution of meningococcal disease, 2001-2008, Catalonia (Spain).

    Martínez, Ana I; Dominguez, Angela; Oviedo, Manuel; Minguell, Sofia; Jansa, Josep M; Codina, Gemma; Vazquez, Julio A

    2009-05-26

    Reported cases of meningococcal disease between 1997 and 2008 were analyzed to determine the evolution after the introduction of a conjugated vaccine. In case-fatality-rate increased only in serogroup B (3% and 7.4%, p=0.026). Serosubtype P1.15 was the most frequent in serogroup B (31%), mainly associated with serotype 4 (80%), and in serogroup C subtype P1.5 (36%), with serosubtype 2a (86%). Exhaustive surveillance of circulating meningococcal strains is essential.

  17. A Seroepidemiological Study of Serogroup A Meningococcal Infection in the African Meningitis Belt.

    Olivier Manigart

    Full Text Available The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection. Meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high in each country but showed heterogeneity across the meningitis belt. The geometric mean concentration (GMC was highest in Ghana (9.09 μg/mL [95% CI 8.29, 9.97] and lowest in Ethiopia (1.43 μg/mL [95% CI 1.31, 1.57] on the margins of the belt. The force of infection was lowest in Ethiopia (λ = 0.028. Variables associated with a concentration above the putative protective level of 2 μg/mL were age, urban residence and a history of recent vaccination with a meningococcal vaccine. Prior to vaccination with the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high across the African meningitis belt and yet the region remained susceptible to epidemics.

  18. Computer simulation and experimental study of the polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245

    Arefeva, Oksana A.; Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the conformational properties and molecular dynamics of polysaccharides by using molecular modeling methods. Theoretical and experimental results of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interactions are described.

  19. A case report of intraocular lens luxation with the capsular bag after vitrectomy.

    Kawai, Kenji; Bando, Masayasu; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Kenji

    2004-04-01

    We experienced a case of intraocular lens (IOL) luxation with the capsular bag after vitrectomy. The case was a 66-year-old female in whom an IOL was implanted one year after surgery for giant tear retinal detachment using silicone oil. Four years after the implantation surgery, the patient suffered subluxation of the IOL with the capsular bag. Examinations of the luxated IOL with the capsular bag using a stereoscopic microscope confirmed the presence of silicone oil droplets between the capsule and the IOL. Adhesion of vitreous body residues was observed in the capsule. Luxation of the IOL was thought to be connected with chronic inflammation resulting from the use of silicone oil and repeated vitrectomy. In addition to examining pathological findings of luxated IOL, it would also be important in the future to identify the pathology of the capsular bag.

  20. Genotypic and phenotypic detection of capsular polysaccharides in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections in Argentina

    C. Camussone

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (n=157 isolated from intramammary infections in Argentine dairy areas were evaluated for presence of cap5 and cap8 loci. Isolates carrying cap5 and cap8 were serotyped using specific antisera. Sixty four percent of the isolates were genotyped as cap5 or cap8 and 50% of them expressed CP5 or 8.

  1. Fine specificity and cross-reactions of monoclonal antibodies to group B streptococcal capsular polysaccharide type III

    Pincus, Seth H; Moran, Emily; Maresh, Grace

    2012-01-01

    ) is considered the dominant "protective" immune mediator. Here we study the fine specificity and potential host reactivity of a panel of well-characterized murine monoclonal Abs against the type III CPS by examining the binding of the Abs to intact and neuraminidase-digested GBS, purified CPS, synthetic...

  2. Efficacy of hemostatic matrix and microporous polysaccharide hemospheres.

    Lewis, Kevin M; Atlee, Holly; Mannone, Angela; Lin, Lawrence; Goppelt, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Microporous Polysaccharide Hemospheres (MPH) are a new plant-derived polysaccharide powder hemostat. Previous studies investigated MPH as a replacement to nonflowable hemostatic agents of different application techniques (e.g., oxidized cellulose, collagen); therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if MPH is a surrogate for flowable hemostatic agents of similar handling and application techniques, specifically a flowable thrombin-gelatin hemostatic matrix. Hemostatic efficacy was compared using a heparinized porcine abrasion model mimicking a capsular tear of a parenchymal organ. MPH (ARISTA, 1 g) and hemostatic matrix (Floseal, 1 mL) were applied, according to a randomized scheme, to paired hepatic abrasions (40 lesions per group). Hemostatic success, control of bleeding, and blood loss were assessed 2, 5, and 10 min after treatment. Hemostatic success and control of bleeding were analyzed using odds ratios and blood loss using mean differences. Hemostatic matrix provided superior hemostatic success relative to MPH at 5 (odds ratio: 0.035, 95% confidence interval: 0.004-0.278) and 10 min (0.032, 0.007-0.150), provided superior control of bleeding at 5 (0.006, <0.001-0.037) and 10 min (0.009, 0.001-0.051), and had significantly less blood loss at 5 (mean difference: 0.3118 mL/min, 95% confidence interval: 0.0939-0.5296) and 10 min (0.5025, 0.2489-0.7561). These findings corroborate other MPH investigations regarding its low-level efficacy and suggest that MPH is not an appropriate surrogate for hemostatic matrix despite similar application techniques. The lack of a procoagulant within MPH may likely be the reason for its lower efficacy and need for multiple applications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report

    Hyung Bin Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

  4. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature

    Ascaso, Francisco J.; Huerva, Valent?n; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-t...

  5. Surgical management of spontaneous in-the-bag intraocular lens and capsular tension ring complex dislocation

    Uzeyir Gunenc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique to manage late spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL and capsular tension ring (CTR dislocation within the intact capsular bag. The subluxated IOL and CTR complex can be positioned in a closed chamber and fixed to the pars plana at both 3 and 9 o′clock quadrants with the presented ab externo direct scleral suturation technique which provides an easy, safe and effective surgical option for such cases.

  6. Biochemical And Genetic Modification Of Polysaccharides

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.; Richards, Gil F.

    1993-01-01

    Bacteriophages producing endopolysaccharase-type enzymes used to produce, isolate, and purify high yields of modified polysaccharides from polysaccharides produced by, and incorporated into capsules of, certain bacteria. Bacteriophages used in conversion of native polysaccharide materials into polymers of nearly uniform high molecular weight or, alternatively, into highly pure oligosaccharides. Also used in genetic selection of families of polysaccharides structurally related to native polysaccharide materials, but having altered properties. Resulting new polysaccharides and oligosaccharides prove useful in variety of products, including pharmaceutical chemicals, coating materials, biologically active carbohydrates, and drag-reducing additives for fluids.

  7. A Bivalent Meningococcal B Vaccine in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Ostergaard, Lars; Vesikari, Timo; Absalon, Judith; Beeslaar, Johannes; Ward, Brian J; Senders, Shelly; Eiden, Joseph J; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; York, Laura J; Jones, Thomas R; Harris, Shannon L; O'Neill, Robert; Radley, David; Maansson, Roger; Prégaldien, Jean-Louis; Ginis, John; Staerke, Nina B; Perez, John L

    2017-12-14

    MenB-FHbp is a licensed meningococcal B vaccine targeting factor H-binding protein. Two phase 3 studies assessed the safety of the vaccine and its immunogenicity against diverse strains of group B meningococcus. We randomly assigned 3596 adolescents (10 to 18 years of age) to receive MenB-FHbp or hepatitis A virus vaccine and saline and assigned 3304 young adults (18 to 25 years of age) to receive MenB-FHbp or saline at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Immunogenicity was assessed in serum bactericidal assays that included human complement (hSBAs). We used 14 meningococcal B test strains that expressed vaccine-heterologous factor H-binding proteins representative of meningococcal B epidemiologic diversity; an hSBA titer of at least 1:4 is the accepted correlate of protection. The five primary end points were the proportion of participants who had an increase in their hSBA titer for each of 4 primary strains by a factor of 4 or more and the proportion of those who had an hSBA titer at least as high as the lower limit of quantitation (1:8 or 1:16) for all 4 strains combined after dose 3. We also assessed the hSBA responses to the primary strains after dose 2; hSBA responses to the 10 additional strains after doses 2 and 3 were assessed in a subgroup of participants only. Safety was assessed in participants who received at least one dose. In the modified intention-to-treat population, the percentage of adolescents who had an increase in the hSBA titer by a factor of 4 or more against each primary strain ranged from 56.0 to 85.3% after dose 2 and from 78.8 to 90.2% after dose 3; the percentages of young adults ranged from 54.6 to 85.6% and 78.9 to 89.7%, after doses 2 and 3, respectively. Composite responses after doses 2 and 3 in adolescents were 53.7% and 82.7%, respectively, and those in young adults were 63.3% and 84.5%, respectively. Responses to the 4 primary strains were predictive of responses to the 10 additional strains. Most of those who received Men

  8. A decade of invasive meningococcal disease surveillance in Poland.

    Anna Skoczyńska

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading etiologic agent of severe invasive disease. The objective of the study was to characterise invasive meningococcal disease (IMD epidemiology in Poland during the last decade, based on laboratory confirmed cases.The study encompassed all invasive meningococci collected between 2002 and 2011 in the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The isolates were re-identified and characterised by susceptibility testing, MLST analysis, porA and fetA sequencing. A PCR technique was used for meningococcal identification directly from clinical materials.In the period studied, 1936 cases of IMD were confirmed, including 75.6% identified by culture. Seven IMD outbreaks, affecting mostly adolescents, were reported; all were caused by serogroup C meningococci of ST-11. The highest incidence was observed among children under one year of age (15.71/100,000 in 2011. The general case fatality rate in the years 2010-2011 was 10.0%. Meningococci of serogroup B, C, Y and W-135 were responsible for 48.8%, 36.6%, 1.2% and 1.2% of cases, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and 84.2% were susceptible to penicillin. MLST analysis (2009-2011 revealed that among serogroup B isolates the most represented were clonal complexes (CC ST-32CC, ST-18CC, ST-41/44CC, ST-213CC and ST-269CC, and among serogroup C: ST-103CC, ST-41/44CC and ST-11CC.The detection of IMD in Poland has changed over time, but observed increase in the incidence of the disease was mostly attributed to changes in the surveillance system including an expanded case definition and inclusion of data from non-culture diagnostics.

  9. Unusual initial abdominal presentations of invasive meningococcal disease.

    Guiddir, Tamazoust; Gros, Marion; Hong, Eva; Terrade, Aude; Denizon, Mélanie; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2018-03-28

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is recognized as septicemia and/or meningitis. However, early symptoms may vary and are frequently nonspecific. Early abdominal presentations have been increasingly described. We aimed to explore a large cohort of patients with initial abdominal presentations for association with particular meningococcal strains. Confirmed IMD cases in France between 1991-2016 were screened for the presence within the 24 hours before diagnosis of at least one of the following criteria (1) abdominal pain, (2) gastro-enteritis with diarrhea and vomiting, (3) diarrhea only. Whole genome sequencing was performed on all cultured isolates. We identified 105 cases (median age 19 years) of early abdominal presentations with a sharp increase since 2014. Early abdominal pain alone was the most frequent symptom (n=67, 64%), followed by gastro-enteritis (n=26, 25%) and diarrhea alone (n=12, 11%). Twenty patients (20%) had abdominal surgery. A higher case fatality rate (24%) was observed in these cases compared to 10.4% in all IMD in France (p=0.007) with high levels of inflammation markers in the blood. Isolates of group W were significantly more predominant in these cases compared to all IMD. Most of these isolates belonged to clonal complex ST-11 (cc11) of the sublineages of the South American-UK strain. Abdominal presentations are frequently provoked by hyperinvasive isolates of meningococci. Delay in the management of these cases and the virulence of the isolates may explain the high fatality rate. Rapid recognition is a key element to improve their management.

  10. Encefalomielite disseminada aguda e vacinação antimeningocócica A e C: relato de caso Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: association with meningococcal A and C vaccine: case report

    Marco O. Py

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem o caso clínico de paciente do sexo feminino, de 25 anos, que desenvolveu encefalomielite aguda disseminada (EDA iniciando-se cinco dias após vacinação para meningococcus A e C (Pasteur-Meríeux na campanha de vacinação realizada em dezembro de 1995 na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Houve excelente resposta clínica e neurorradiológica após tratamento com corticosteróides em altas doses (pulsoterapia. Não foram encontrados relatos sobre a associação entre a vacina antimeningocócica e a EDA. A associação entre EDA e leptospirose ou infecções por Mycoplasma sugerem porém que a síndrome pode ser precipitada não só por viroses ou vacinação antiviral como também pela exposição do organismo a proteínas e polissacarídeos de bactérias.A 25-year-old woman developed acute disseminated post-vaccinal encephalomyelitis (ADEM following vaccination with A plus C meningococcal vaccine (Pasteur-Merieux. Fast disappearance of symptoms and gradual resolution of MR1 demyelinating lesions occurred after steroid treatment with high doses of intravenous methylprednisolone. To our knowledge, ADEM has not been previously described in association with meningococcal vaccine. Although most cases of ADEM occur following viral infections and vaccination, the syndrome has previously been related to leptospirosis and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. This suggests that it may also be related to exposure to polysaccharide-protein vaccines such as the Group A plus Group C meningococcal vaccine.

  11. Radiation processing of polysaccharides

    2004-11-01

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in polymeric materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic polymers can be attributed to two reasons namely, their ease of processing in various shapes and sizes, and secondly, most of these polymers undergo crosslinking reaction upon exposure to radiation. In recent years, natural polymers are being looked at with renewed interest because of their unique characteristics, such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and easy availability. Traditionally, the commercial exploitation of natural polymers like carrageenans, alginates or starch etc. has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge - demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology, which is acting as a locomotive for further scientific research in their structure-function relationship. Selected success stories concerning radiation processed natural polymers and application of their derivatives in the health care products industries and agriculture are reported. This publication will be of interest to individuals at nuclear institutions worldwide that have programmes of R and D and applications in radiation processing technologies. New developments in radiation processing of polymers and other natural raw materials give insight into converting them into useful products for every day life, human health and environmental remediation. The book will also be of interest to other field specialists, readers including managers and decision makers in industry (health care, food and agriculture) helping them to understand the important role of radiation processing technology in polysaccharides

  12. Isolated posterior capsular rupture following blunt head trauma

    Mansour AM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mansour, Mahmoud O Jaroudi, Rola N Hamam, Fadi C Maalouf Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract: Closed-globe traumatic cataract is not uncommon in males in the pediatric age group. However, there is a relative paucity of literature on isolated posterior lens capsule rupture associated with closed-globe traumatic cataract. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with white cataract 1 day after blunt trauma to the forehead associated with posterior capsular rupture that was detected by B-scan ultrasonography preoperatively. No stigmata of trauma outside the posterior capsule could be detected by slit-lamp exam, funduscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implant was performed 24 hours after trauma, with the patient achieving 6/6 visual acuity 1 week and 6 months after surgery. Our case is unique, being the youngest (amblyogenic age to be reported, with prompt surgical intervention, and with no signs of trauma outside the posterior capsule. Keywords: posterior capsule rupture, forehead trauma, traumatic cataract, pediatric cataract

  13. From tailor-made to ready-to-wear meningococcal B vaccines: longitudinal study of a clonal meningococcal B outbreak.

    Caron, François; du Châtelet, Isabelle Parent; Leroy, Jean-Philippe; Ruckly, Corinne; Blanchard, Myriam; Bohic, Nicole; Massy, Nathalie; Morer, Isabelle; Floret, Daniel; Delbos, Valérie; Hong, Eva; Révillion, Martin; Berthelot, Gilles; Lemée, Ludovic; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Bénichou, Jacques; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2011-06-01

    Outer-membrane-vesicle vaccines for meningococcal B outbreaks are complex and time consuming to develop. We studied the use of already available vaccine to control an outbreak caused by a genetically close strain. From 2006 to 2009, all individuals younger than 20 years living in the region of Normandy, France, in which an outbreak caused by a B:14:P1.7,16 strain occurred, were eligible to receive MenBvac, a Norwegian vaccine designed 20 years earlier against a strain sharing the same serosubtype (B:15:P1.7,16). The immunogenicity (in a randomly selected cohort of 400 children aged 1-5 years), safety, and epidemiological effect of the vaccination were assessed. 26,014 individuals were eligible to receive the vaccine. Shortage of vaccine production prompted start of the campaign in the highest incidence groups (1-5 years). 16,709 (64%) received a complete vaccination schedule of whom 13,589 (81%) received a 2+1 dose schedule (week 0, week 6, and month 8). At 6 weeks after the third dose, of 235 vaccinees for whom samples were available, 206 (88%) had a seroresponse, and 108 (56 %) of 193 had a seroresponse at 15 months. These results were similar to those described for tailor-made vaccines and their homologous strain. Only previously described adverse effects occurred. The incidence of B:14:P1.7,16 cases decreased significantly in the vaccine targeted population after the primary vaccination period (from 31·6 per 100,000 to 5·9 per 100,000; p=0·001). The ready-to-wear approach is reliable if epidemic and vaccine strains are genetically close. Other meningococcal B clonal outbreaks might benefit from this strategy; and previously described outer-membrane-vesicle vaccines can be effective against various strains. French Ministry of Health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent meningococcal serogroup A, W and Y immune responses following immunization with quadrivalent meningococcal A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine: Optimal age for vaccination.

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2017-01-01

    Recently the incidence of meningococcal serogroup Y (MenY) and in particular serogroup W (MenW) invasive disease has risen in several European countries, including the Netherlands. Adolescents are a target group for primary prevention through vaccination to protect against disease and reduce

  15. Adolescent meningococcal serogroup A, W and Y immune responses following immunization with quadrivalent meningococcal A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine : Optimal age for vaccination

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B.; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Berbers, Guy A M

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently the incidence of meningococcal serogroup Y (MenY) and in particular serogroup W (MenW) invasive disease has risen in several European countries, including the Netherlands. Adolescents are a target group for primary prevention through vaccination to protect against disease and

  16. Pathophysiological aspects of hyperglycemia in children with meningococcal sepsis and septic shock: A prospective, observational cohort study

    J.J. Verhoeven (Jennifer)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of hyperglycemia and insulin response in critically ill children with meningococcal disease in the intensive care unit of an academic children's hospital.Methods: Seventy-eight children with meningococcal disease

  17. Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in the Netherlands, 1960-2012: an analysis of national surveillance data

    Bijlsma, Merijn W.; Bekker, Vincent; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van de Beek, Diederik; van der Ende, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data for invasive meningococcal disease is essential for public health policy and vaccine development. We analysed national surveillance data from the Netherlands for PorA coverage of two PorA-based meningococcal serogroup B vaccines to describe the epidemiology of invasive

  18. Overcoming the Odds: Long-term psychosocial outcomes in survivors of meningococcal septic shock in childhood, and in their parents

    L.C.A.C. Vermunt (Lindy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSeptic shock, caused by Neisseria meningitidis with petechiae and/or purpura, also called Meningococcal Septic Shock (MSS), is the most serious form of meningococcal infection in early childhood. MSS is a life-threatening illness in mostly previously healthy children, with an unexpected

  19. Meningococcal serogroup A, C, W₁₃₅ and Y conjugated vaccine: a cost-effectiveness analysis in the Netherlands

    Hepkema, Hiltsje; Pouwels, Koen B.; van der Ende, Arie; Westra, Tjalke A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC) was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W135,Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was licensed for use in

  20. Meningococcal Serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y Conjugated Vaccine : A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in the Netherlands

    Hepkema, Hiltsje; Pouwels, Koen B.; van der Ende, Arie; Westra, Tjalke A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC) was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W-135, Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was

  1. Deteccion de antigeno del polisacarido capsular de Cryptococcus neoformans en pacientes con SIDA y neurocriptococosis en São Paulo, Brasil

    B. Calvo

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Antígeno del polisacárido capsular (Ag PC de Cryptococcus neoformans fue detectado por la técnica de aglutinación de latex (AL en LCR y suero de pacientes con Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA y primer episodio de neurocriptococosis, usando como patrón el examen micológico (examen directo y cultivo de LCR. Se obtuvo una sensibilidad del 100% de AL para detectar AgPC de C. neoformans, el cual por su rápidez permite tratamiento específico precoz. Títulos iniciales de AgPC de la levadura en esos pacientes pueden ser > 1.000.000, pareciendo que cuando esos títulos están presentes en suero, se relacionan con mortalidad durante el tratamiento. En los pacientes que sobrevivieron se observó que el examen micológico directo y AgPC de C. neoformans, en LCR y suero, permanecen positivos aún después de tratamiento y mejoría clínica del paciente.Capsular polysaccharide antigen (AgPC of Cryptococcus neoformans was detected by latex agglutination technique (LA in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with AIDS during their first central nervous system manifestation of the disease. Direct mycological examination and culture were used as controls. Sensitivity was 100% by LA allowing an early specific treatment of cryptococcosis. Initial titres of AgPC in such patients can be > 1000000 and it appears that when such titres are present in the serum they are related to mortality during treatment. Surviving patients showed positivity of the direct mycological examination and AgPC of C. neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid and sera even after treatment and clinical recovery.

  2. Rapid analysis of rearranged kappa light chain genes of circulating polysaccharide-specific B lymphocytes by means of immunomagnetic beads and the polymerase chain reaction

    Hougs, L; Barington, T; Madsen, HO

    1993-01-01

    reaction (PCR) using in addition a degenerate kappa light chain signal peptide region primer. The PCR product was cloned into the M13mp18 phage. The cloning efficiency was 100-600 clones/ml of blood. Of the 86 clones sequenced, 90% represented rearranged kappa light chain genes from different antibody...... of the B lymphocytes activated in vivo. Here, we present a method for rapid analysis of the rearranged kappa light chain genes used by human circulating antigen-specific B lymphocytes. After vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) conjugated with protein, the Hib...

  3. Polysaccharides in Human Health Care

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides are abundant natural polymers found in plants, animals and microorganisms with exceptional properties and essential roles to sustain life. They are well known for their high nutritive value and the positive effects on our immune and digestive functions and detoxification system. The

  4. Meningococcal meningitis: clinical and laboratorial characteristics, fatality rate and variables associated with in-hospital mortality

    Vanessa L. Strelow

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Meningococcal meningitis is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with meningococcal meningitis, and to identify associated factors with mortality. This was a retrospective study, between 2006 and 2011, at a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with mortality. We included 316 patients. The median age was 16 years (IQR: 7–27 and 60% were male. The clinical triad: fever, headache and neck stiffness was observed in 89% of the patients. The cerebrospinal triad: pleocytosis, elevated protein levels and low glucose levels was present in 79% of patients. Factors associated with mortality in the multivariate model were age above 50 years, seizures, tachycardia, hypotension and neck stiffness. The classic clinical and laboratory triads of meningococcal meningitis were variable. The fatality rate was low. Age, seizures and shock signs were independently associated with mortality.

  5. [Epidemiology of the meningococcal disease in Catalonia before and after vaccination against serogroup C].

    Martínez, Ana I; Domínguez, Angela; Oviedo, Manuel; Minguell, Sofía; Jansà, Josep M; Codina, Gemma; Vázquez, Julio A

    2009-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a serious public health problem worldwide. In Catalonia, after implementing the vaccination program, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by meningococcus C. Reported cases of meningococcal disease between 1997 and 2008 were analyzed to determine the evolution after the introduction of a conjugated vaccine in Catalonia. In case-fatality-rate increased only in serogroup B (3% and 7.4%). Serosubtype P1.15was the most frequent in serogroup B (31%), mainly associated with serotype 4 (80%), and in serogroup C subtype P1.5 (36%), with serotype 2a (86%). During 2008, 5 apparently unrelated cases of B:2a:P1.5 were identified in the same geographic area, with a case-fatality-rate of 80%. Exhaustive surveillance of circulating meningococcal strains is essential.

  6. Systemic meningococcal disease in children: survival analysis, Arkhangelsk region, Northwest Russia, 1991–2011

    O. V. Samodova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic meningococcal infection requires prompt and adequate medical care. It is considered as unpredictable disease due to extreme severity of a patient’s condition and high risk for fatal outcome. Survival of the children with systemic meningococcal infection was studied. Retrospective cohort includes all cases of systemic meningococcal disease in children arose in Arkhangelsk region in 1991–2011. Rate of fatal outcomes was high (41%. All death cases occurred during first three days of illness. Survival of the patient with correct pre-admission diagnosis was higher in comparison with initially undiagnosed cases. Survival functions were influenced by form of the disease and presence of septic shock. The usage of intramuscular injection of glucocorticoids on pre-admission stage according to the common recommendations did not improve the outcome.

  7. Dexamethasone as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of invasive meningococcal diseases.

    Tolaj, Ilir; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Qehaja, Emine; Tolaj, Jasmina; Doda-Ejupi, Teuta; Mehmeti, Murat

    2010-01-01

    With this study we want to evaluate the role of dexamethasone adjuvant treatment in different clinical forms of invasive meningococcal diseases. WORK METHODS: This was a randomized, open label trial that was conducted in 147 individuals with meningococcal sepsis. All of the cases have been divided in two groups: (1) Cases with meningococcal disease and CNS infection, and (2) Cases with meningococcal disease and no affection of the CNS. Cases from both groups were treated with dexamethasone, 0.15 mg/kg, every 6 h, for 4 (four) days, as adjuvant therapy. Cases which were not treated with dexamethasone were used as control group. From overall number of cases, in 130 of them, the meningococcal disease was accompanied with meningitis; in other 17 cases only signs of sepsis were present. In both clinical forms, the dexamethasone was used in 92 cases. The higher mortality rate is registered among the cases without meningitis, 17.65%, compared with 6.92% which is registered among cases with meningitis. The overall mortality rate among all cases was 8.2%. The significant difference was recorded only on CSF sugar level between two groups (treated or not with dexamethasone) on the day 1-4 of the hospitalization. Our epidemiological data are in correlation with data from other epidemiological studies. Most of the cases 69.4%, were more than 12 hours sick at home before the hospitalization, 7.5 % of cases were hospitalized within 12 hours from the onset of the diseases, while 23.1% of cases data are missing. This is in correlation with similar data from other studies. Dexamethasone has a limited effect on outcome of the invasive meningococcal disease. Dexamethasone had some effect only during the days of administration in cases with clinical form of sepsis with meningitis, by normalizing the values of CSF sugar earlier.

  8. Risk and protective factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents: matched cohort study.

    Tully, Joanna; Viner, Russell M; Coen, Pietro G; Stuart, James M; Zambon, Maria; Peckham, Catherine; Booth, Clare; Klein, Nigel; Kaczmarski, Ed; Booy, Robert

    2006-02-25

    To examine biological and social risk factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents. Prospective, population based, matched cohort study with controls matched for age and sex in 1:1 matching. Controls were sought from the general practitioner. Six contiguous regions of England, which represent some 65% of the country's population. 15-19 year olds with meningococcal disease recruited at hospital admission in six regions (representing 65% of the population of England) from January 1999 to June 2000, and their matched controls. Blood samples and pernasal and throat swabs were taken from case patients at admission to hospital and from cases and matched controls at interview. Data on potential risk factors were gathered by confidential interview. Data were analysed by using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. 144 case control pairs were recruited (74 male (51%); median age 17.6). 114 cases (79%) were confirmed microbiologically. Significant independent risk factors for meningococcal disease were history of preceding illness (matched odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 5.9), intimate kissing with multiple partners (3.7, 1.7 to 8.1), being a university student (3.4, 1.2 to 10) and preterm birth (3.7, 1.0 to 13.5). Religious observance (0.09, 0.02 to 0.6) and meningococcal vaccination (0.12, 0.04 to 0.4) were associated with protection. Activities and events increasing risk for meningococcal disease in adolescence are different from in childhood. Students are at higher risk. Altering personal behaviours could moderate the risk. However, the development of further effective meningococcal vaccines remains a key public health priority.

  9. Terminal Complement Blockade after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Is Safe without Meningococcal Vaccination.

    Jodele, Sonata; Dandoy, Christopher E; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Myers, Kasiani C; El-Bietar, Javier; Nelson, Adam; Wallace, Gregory; Teusink-Cross, Ashley; Davies, Stella M

    2016-07-01

    Eculizumab inhibits terminal complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and is now used as a first-line therapy in these diseases. Eculizumab is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) because of an increased risk of meningococcal infections in persons without adequate functional complement. Administration of meningococcal vaccine is required at least 2 weeks before administering the first dose of eculizumab, and this advice is included in the product label. Eculizumab use for treatment of TMA in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients brings a significant dilemma regarding REMS required meningococcal vaccination. TMA after HSCT usually occurs within the first 100 days after transplantation when patients are severely immunocompromised and are not able to mount a response to vaccines. We evaluated 30 HSCT recipients treated with eculizumab for high-risk TMA without meningococcal vaccine. All patients received antimicrobial prophylaxis adequate for Neisseria meningitides during eculizumab therapy and for 8 weeks after discontinuation of the drug. Median time to TMA diagnosis was 28 days after transplant (range, 13.8 to 48.5). Study subjects received a median of 14 eculizumab doses (range, 2 to 38 doses) for HSCT-associated TMA therapy. There were no incidences of meningococcal infections. The incidences of bacterial and fungal bloodstream infections were similar in patients treated with eculizumab (n = 30) as compared with those with HSCT-associated TMA who did not receive any complement blocking therapy (n = 39). Our data indicate that terminal complement blockade in the early post-transplant period can be performed without meningococcal vaccination while using appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis until complement

  10. Risk and protective factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents: matched cohort study

    Tully, Joanna; Viner, Russell M; Coen, Pietro G; Stuart, James M; Zambon, Maria; Peckham, Catherine; Booth, Clare; Klein, Nigel; Kaczmarski, Ed; Booy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine biological and social risk factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents. Design Prospective, population based, matched cohort study with controls matched for age and sex in 1:1 matching. Controls were sought from the general practitioner. Setting Six contiguous regions of England, which represent some 65% of the country's population. Participants 15-19 year olds with meningococcal disease recruited at hospital admission in six regions (representing 65% of the population of England) from January 1999 to June 2000, and their matched controls. Methods Blood samples and pernasal and throat swabs were taken from case patients at admission to hospital and from cases and matched controls at interview. Data on potential risk factors were gathered by confidential interview. Data were analysed by using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. Results 144 case control pairs were recruited (74 male (51%); median age 17.6). 114 cases (79%) were confirmed microbiologically. Significant independent risk factors for meningococcal disease were history of preceding illness (matched odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 5.9), intimate kissing with multiple partners (3.7, 1.7 to 8.1), being a university student (3.4, 1.2 to 10) and preterm birth (3.7, 1.0 to 13.5). Religious observance (0.09, 0.02 to 0.6) and meningococcal vaccination (0.12, 0.04 to 0.4) were associated with protection. Conclusions Activities and events increasing risk for meningococcal disease in adolescence are different from in childhood. Students are at higher risk. Altering personal behaviours could moderate the risk. However, the development of further effective meningococcal vaccines remains a key public health priority. PMID:16473859

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Indian children aged 2-10 years: a phase II/III double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Bavdekar, Ashish; Pandit, Anand; Juvekar, Sanjay; Patil, Malini; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Tang, Yuxiao; Marchetti, Elisa; Martellet, Lionel; Findlow, Helen; Elie, Cheryl; Parulekar, Varsha; Plikaytis, Brian; Borrow, Ray; Carlone, George; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Goel, Akshay; Suresh, Karupothula; Beri, Suresh; Kapre, Subhash; Jadhav, Suresh; Preaud, Jean-Marie; Viviani, Simonetta; LaForce, F Marc

    2012-10-05

    This study compares the immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac™, Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune) against the meningococcal group A component of a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY, Mencevax ACWY(®), GSK, Belgium) 28 days after vaccination in Indian children. This double-blind, randomized, controlled study included 340 Indian children aged 2-10 years enrolled from August to October 2007; 169 children received a dose of PsA-TT while 171 children received a dose of PsACWY. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that 95.2% of children in PsA-TT group had a ≥4-fold response in serum bactericidal titers (rSBA) 28 days post vaccination as compared to 78.2% in the PsACWY group. A significantly higher rSBA GMT (11,209, 95%CI 9708-12,942) was noted in the PsA-TT group when compared to PsACWY group (2838, 95%CI 2368-3401). Almost all children in both vaccine groups had a ≥4-fold response in group A-specific IgG concentration but the IgG GMC was significantly greater in the PsA-TT group (89.1 μg/ml, 95%CI 75.5-105.0) when compared to the PsACWY group (15.3 μg/ml, 95%CI 12.3-19.2). Local and systemic reactions during the 4 days after immunization were similar for both vaccine groups except for tenderness (30.2% in PsA-TT group vs 12.3% in PsACWY group). None of the adverse events or serious adverse events was related to the study vaccines. We conclude that MenAfriVac™ is well tolerated and significantly more immunogenic when compared to a licensed polysaccharide vaccine, in 2-to-10-year-old Indian children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Renal Capsular Leiomyoma: Report of a Case with Unusual CT Appearance

    Mak, C.W.; Chou, C.K.; Tzeng, W.S.

    2006-01-01

    Clinically symptomatic renal capsular leiomyomas are rare. Previous research has shown that these tumors are usually well-defined cystic lesions, solid lesions, or a mixture of the two. We report an unusual case of renal capsular leiomyoma which was well defined by ultrasonography, but lacked a well-defined edge in CT. The reason for the absence of a well-defined tumor edge is probably due to degeneration in certain parts of the tumor resulting in a different degree of enhancement. Thus, the possibility of renal capsular leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis whenever a renal mass is found, especially when either CT or ultrasonography shows that the tumor has a smooth, well-defined contour

  13. Renal Capsular Leiomyoma: Report of a Case with Unusual CT Appearance

    Mak, C.W.; Chou, C.K.; Tzeng, W.S. [Chi-Mei Medical Center, Yung-Kang Campus, Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-09-15

    Clinically symptomatic renal capsular leiomyomas are rare. Previous research has shown that these tumors are usually well-defined cystic lesions, solid lesions, or a mixture of the two. We report an unusual case of renal capsular leiomyoma which was well defined by ultrasonography, but lacked a well-defined edge in CT. The reason for the absence of a well-defined tumor edge is probably due to degeneration in certain parts of the tumor resulting in a different degree of enhancement. Thus, the possibility of renal capsular leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis whenever a renal mass is found, especially when either CT or ultrasonography shows that the tumor has a smooth, well-defined contour.

  14. A comparison of meningococcal carriage by pregnancy status

    Knudtson Eric J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neisseria meningitidis is the second leading cause of invasive meningitis. A prerequisite for infection is colonization of the nasopharynx, and asymptomatic carrier rates are widely reported in the range of 10-15%. Recent reports have indicated an increased likelihood that a pediatric admission for Neisseria meningitidis will have a mother who is pregnant in the home. We hypothesized that this association may relate to immunologic changes in pregnancy leading to higher carrier rates. We compared the carrier status by performing nasopharyngeal swabs for Neisseria meningitidis in 100 pregnant and 99 non-pregnant women. Average age of the participants was 28.9 +/- 6.7 years. The average gestational age at specimen collection was 27.5 +/- 9.4 weeks. Non pregnant women were significantly more likely to use tobacco (38% vs 24%, p The meningococcal carrier rate in our population is well below what is widely reported in the literature. Assuming a 1% carrier rate in the pregnant group and a 0.5% carrier rate in the non pregnant group, 4,763 patients would be required to detect a difference of this magnitude, given 80% power and an alpha of 0.05.

  15. Chronic meningococcemia: a rare presentation of meningococcal disease: case report

    Antonio Adolfo Guerra Soares Brandão

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic meningococcemia is a rare clinical presentation within the spectrumof infections due to Neisseria meningitidis, which was first described in 1902.It is defined as a chronic and benign meningococcal bacteremia withoutmeningeal signs or symptoms with at least one week’s duration, characterizedby intermittent or continuous fever, polymorphic cutaneous rash, and migratoryarthropathy. The incidence is believed to be around 1:200,000 inhabitants. Itaffects predominantly young people and adults, and it is equally distributedbetween genders. Diagnosis may be challenging in the early stages of thedisease because of the difficulty in isolating Neisseria meningitidis (it reaches74% of positivity in advanced stages. Recently, the use of PCR for detectingNeisseria sp antigen in skin biopsies specimens has been considered for thoseculture-negative cases. The authors report a case of a 54-year-old femalepatient who sought medical attention for a five-day fever followed by arthralgiaand skin lesions predominantly in the lower limbs. The patient progressed toa toxemic clinical status that improved after the administration of antibiotictherapy, which consisted of oxacillin and ceftriaxone. The diagnosis of chronicmeningococcemia was performed after the isolation of Neisseria meningitidisin two different blood sample cultures. This is, to our knowledge, the firstcase of chronic meningococcemia described in Brazil (up to the writing of thisreport.

  16. Capsular Outcomes After Pediatric Cataract Surgery Without Intraocular Lens Implantation: Qualitative Classification and Quantitative Measurement.

    Tan, Xuhua; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Tang, Xiangchen; Luo, Lixia; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate capsular outcomes 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation via qualitative classification and quantitative measurement.This study is a cross-sectional study that was approved by the institutional review board of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China.Digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs of 329 aphakic pediatric eyes were obtained 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation. Capsule digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs were divided as follows: anterior capsule opening area (ACOA), posterior capsule opening area (PCOA), and posterior capsule opening opacity (PCOO). Capsular outcomes were qualitatively classified into 3 types based on the PCOO: Type I-capsule with mild opacification but no invasion into the capsule opening; Type II-capsule with moderate opacification accompanied by contraction of the ACOA and invasion to the occluding part of the PCOA; and Type III-capsule with severe opacification accompanied by total occlusion of the PCOA. Software was developed to quantitatively measure the ACOA, PCOA, and PCOO using standardized DCRPs. The relationships between the accurate intraoperative anterior and posterior capsulorhexis sizes and the qualitative capsular types were statistically analyzed.The DCRPs of 315 aphakic eyes (95.8%) of 191 children were included. Capsular outcomes were classified into 3 types: Type I-120 eyes (38.1%); Type II-157 eyes (49.8%); Type III-38 eyes (12.1%). The scores of the capsular outcomes were negatively correlated with intraoperative anterior capsulorhexis size (R = -0.572, P PCOA increased in size from Type I to Type II, and the PCOO increased from Type II to Type III (all P < 0.05).Capsular outcomes after pediatric cataract surgery can be qualitatively classified and quantitatively measured by acquisition, division, definition, and user

  17. Important role for Toll-like receptor 9 in host defense against meningococcal sepsis

    Sjölinder, Hong; Mogensen, Trine; Kilian, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    have been reported to be involved in the host response to N. meningitidis. While TLR4 has been suggested to play an important role in early containment of infection, the roles of TLR2 and TLR9 in meningococcal disease are not well described. Using a model for meningococcal sepsis, we report that TLR9...... and induction of cytokine gene expression were independent of TLR2 or TLR9 in macrophages and conventional dendritic cells. In contrast, plasmacytoid dendritic cells relied entirely on TLR9 to induce these activities. Thus, our data demonstrate an important role for TLR9 in host defense against N. meningitidis....

  18. [Insertional mutation in the AZOBR_p60120 gene is accompanied by defects in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and calcofluor-binding polysaccharides in the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    Katsy, E I; Prilipov, A G

    2015-03-01

    In the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245, extracellular calcofluor-binding polysaccharides (Cal+ phenotype) and two types of lipopolysaccharides, LPSI and LPSII, were previously identified. These lipopolysaccharides share the same repeating O-polysaccharide unit but have different antigenic structures and different charges of their O-polysaccharides and/or core oligosaccharides. Several dozens of predicted genes involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides have been localized in the AZOBR_p6 plasmid of strain Sp245 (GenBank accession no. HE577333). In the present work, it was demonstrated that an artificial transposon Omegon-Km had inserted into the central region of the AZOBR_p60120 gene in the A. brasilense Sp245 LPSI- Cal- KM252 mutant. In A. brasilense strain Sp245, this plasmid gene encodes a putative glycosyltransferase containing conserved domains characteristic of the enzymes participating in the synthesis of O-polysaccharides and capsular polysaccharides (accession no. YP004987664). In mutant KM252, a respective predicted protein is expected to be completely inactivated. As a result of the analysis of the EcoRI fragment of the AZOBR_p6 plasmid, encompassing the AZOBR_p60120 gene and a number of other loci, novel data on the structure of AZOBR_p6 were obtained: an approximately 5-kb gap (GenBank accession no. KM189439) was closed in the nucleotide sequence of this plasmid.

  19. Diagnostic radio labelled polysaccharide derivatives

    Milbrath, D.S.; Ferber, R.H.; Barnett, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radiopharmaceutical compound for diagnosing blood clots is claimed. It is the reaction product of a compound characterized by a water-soluble polysaccharide moiety having an average of at least 0.25 anionic group per monosaccharide unit, and at least one chelating group derived from the group consisting of amino acids, substituted cyclic acid anhydrides, and carbon disulfide; and a radioactive tracer metal compound selected from In-111, Tc-99m, Cr-51, Ga-68, and a reduced pertechnetate compound

  20. Radiochemistry and radiopolymerization of polysaccharides

    Raffi, J.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on dry state polysaccharides (example: starch) are presented in an overall manner by order of quantitative importance: recombination of radicals to recover the initial macromolecule (cage effect) or smaller molecules which are chemically identical (radiopolymerization) and evolution of radicals to give secondary reactions (formation of radiolysis products). The effect of the botanical origin of the starch studied is briefly discussed, applications and extensions to the case of radiochemically induced modifications to foodstuffs being envisaged [fr

  1. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential.

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Quinn, Mark T

    2006-03-01

    Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of flora, including higher plants, mushrooms, lichens and algae. Overall, the primary effect of botanical polysaccharides is to enhance and/or activate macrophage immune responses, leading to immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, wound-healing and other therapeutic effects. Furthermore, botanical and microbial polysaccharides bind to common surface receptors and induce similar immunomodulatory responses in macrophages, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved polysaccharide structural features are shared between these organisms. Thus, the evaluation of botanical polysaccharides provides a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and adjuvants that exhibit beneficial immunomodulatory properties.

  2. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    Nan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date.

  3. A large portion of meningococcal antigen typing system-negative meningococcal strains from spain is killed by sera from adolescents and infants immunized with 4CMenB.

    Abad, R; Biolchi, A; Moschioni, M; Giuliani, M M; Pizza, M; Vázquez, J A

    2015-04-01

    A new vaccine (the 4CMenB 4-component protein vaccine [Bexsero], which includes PorA, factor H-binding protein [fHbp], neisserial heparin-binding antigen [NHBA], and Neisseria adhesin A [NadA]) against serogroup B meningococci has recently been approved for use in people older than age 2 months in Europe, Australia, and Canada. Preapproval clinical efficacy studies are not feasible for invasive meningococcal disease because its incidence is low/very low, and the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer (or the human SBA [hSBA] titer when human complement is used in the assay) has been used as a surrogate marker of protection. However, the hSBA assay cannot be used on a large scale, and therefore, a meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) was developed. MATS combines conventional PorA genotyping with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that quantifies both the expression and the cross-reactivity of antigenic variants. The assay has been used to evaluate the potential of the 4CMenB meningococcal group B vaccine to cover group B strains in several countries. Some recent data suggest that MATS is a conservative predictor of strain coverage. We used pooled sera from adolescents and infants to test by the hSBA assay 10 meningococcal group B strains isolated in Spain that were negative for the 3 antigens (n = 9) or that had very low levels of the 3 antigens (n = 1) by MATS. We found that all strains were killed by sera from adolescents and that 5 of the 10 strains were also killed, although at a low titer, by sera from infants. Our data confirm that MATS underestimates vaccine coverage. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. The Phosphocarrier Protein HPr Contributes to Meningococcal Survival during Infection.

    Ana Antunes

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is an exclusively human pathogen frequently carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx but it can also provoke invasive infections such as meningitis and septicemia. N. meningitidis uses a limited range of carbon sources during infection, such as glucose, that is usually transported into bacteria via the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS, in which the phosphocarrier protein HPr (encoded by the ptsH gene plays a central role. Although N. meningitidis possesses an incomplete PTS, HPr was found to be required for its virulence. We explored the role of HPr using bioluminescent wild-type and ΔptsH strains in experimental infection in transgenic mice expressing the human transferrin. The wild-type MC58 strain was recovered at higher levels from the peritoneal cavity and particularly from blood compared to the ΔptsH strain. The ΔptsH strain provoked lower levels of septicemia in mice and was more susceptible to complement-mediated killing than the wild-type strain. We tested whether meningococcal structures impacted complement resistance and observed that only the capsule level was decreased in the ΔptsH mutant. We therefore compared the transcriptomic profiles of wild-type and ΔptsH strains and identified 49 differentially expressed genes. The HPr regulon contains mainly hypothetical proteins (43% and several membrane-associated proteins that could play a role during host interaction. Some other genes of the HPr regulon are involved in stress response. Indeed, the ΔptsH strain showed increased susceptibility to environmental stress conditions. Our data suggest that HPr plays a pleiotropic role in host-bacteria interactions most likely through the innate immune response that may be responsible for the enhanced clearance of the ΔptsH strain from blood.

  5. Risk of transmitting meningococcal infection by transient contact on aircraft and other transport.

    Rachael, T; Schubert, K; Hellenbrand, W; Krause, G; Stuart, J M

    2009-08-01

    Contact tracing of persons with meningococcal disease who have travelled on aeroplane or other multi-passenger transport is not consistent between countries. We searched the literature for clusters of meningococcal disease linked by transient contact on the same plane, train, bus or boat. We found reports of two clusters in children on the same school bus and one in passengers on the same plane. Cases within each of these three clusters were due to strains that were genetically indistinguishable. In the aeroplane cluster the only link between the two cases was through a single travel episode. The onset of illness (2 and 5 days after the flight) is consistent with infection from an unidentified carrier around the time of air travel. In contrast to the established risk of transmission from a case of tuberculosis, it is likely that the risk from a case of meningococcal disease to someone who is not identified as a close contact is exceedingly low. This should be considered in making international recommendations for passenger contact tracing after a case of meningococcal disease on a plane or other multi-passenger transport.

  6. Commentary: Impact of meningococcal group B OMV vaccines, beyond their brief.

    Petousis-Harris, Helen

    2017-10-19

    Meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccines have been used widely in Cuba, New Zealand, and Brazil. They are immunogenic and initially assessed largely by their ability to induce serum bactericidal activity. Measures of efficacy indicate good protection against homologous strains in older children and adults. Effectiveness appears broader than predicted by immunogenicity and efficacy studies. The recent discovery that meningococcal group B OMVs may protect against the related Neisseria species N.gonorrhoeae suggests more to these interesting antigen collections than meets the eye. Currently there are two OMV-containing group B vaccines available, the new recombinant protein-based Bexsero® developed by Novartis and VA-MENGOC-BC® developed by the Finlay institute in Cuba. Also, a third group B vaccine based on two recombinant factor H binding proteins (Trumenba®, Pfizer), has recently been licenced but it does not include OMV. This commentary explores the population impact that group B OMV vaccines have had on meningococcal and gonorrhoea diseases. Given the heterologous effect against diverse strains of the meningococcus observed in older children and adults, and recent evidence to suggest moderate protection against gonorrhoea, there may be a role for these vaccines in programmes targeting adolescents and groups high at risk for both meningococcal disease and gonorrhoea.

  7. Managing Meningococcal Disease (Septicaemia or Meningitis) in Higher Education Institutions. Guidelines

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Students face many pressures today--pressure to be successful, financial worries and uncertainty about future career prospects. Good health is often taken for granted. It has taken publicity about recurring cases on meningococcal disease at university to bring home to students, universities and their associated doctors that students are at risk.…

  8. Outbreak of meningococcal disease caused by PorA-deficient meningococci

    van der Ende, A.; Hopman, C. T. P.; Keijzers, W. C. M.; Spanjaard, L.; Lodder, E. B.; van Keulen, P. H. J.; Dankert, J.

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of 7 cases of group C meningococcal disease occurred during the last week of July and the first week of August 2001 in the southwestern part of The Netherlands. Characterization of the 7 patients' isolates by various typing methods showed that the isolates were identical, except for the

  9. Host genetics and outcome in meningococcal disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Read, Robert C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Various genes regulate the intensity of the inflammatory and coagulation response to infection and therefore might determine the severity and outcome of meningococcal disease. We systematically reviewed the published work for case control studies on the influence of host genetics on severity and

  10. A multiplex PCR assay for molecular capsular serotyping of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, and 6

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an important respiratory pathogen of ruminants. Of the 12 capsular serovars identified, 1 and 6 are most frequently associated with disease in cattle, while 2 is largely a commensal. Comparative analysis of 24 M. haemolytica genomes was used to identify unique genes associa...

  11. The Impact of Breast Implant Location on the Risk of Capsular Contraction

    Egeberg, Alexander; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although many theories exist, the etiology of capsular contraction (CC) development is still not known. Anatomic location has been suggested as a possible risk factor, but rates of CC development vary between studies, often with conflicting results. This study examines the risk develo...

  12. Magnetic resonance evaluation of the labral capsular ligamentous complex: a pictorial review

    Connell, D.A.; Potter, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder is a common imaging test, and in the course of routine evaluation it can provide accurate information regarding the labral capsular ligamentous complex (LCLC). Common patterns of labral injury include fraying, flap tears and labral distraction, which can be readily identified on both coronal and axial planes by paying attention to signal and morphological characteristics. Capsular and ligamentous pathology may be subtle, but is recognizable using a high-resolution technique that has differential contrast between native intra-articular fluid and the adjacent labrum and capsular restraints. Common patterns of capsular injury include a thickened, hyperintense capsule, sometimes with disruption and retraction. The inferior glenohumeral ligament is the primary stabilizer of the shoulder joint, and although failure of this structure is uncommon, the injury is easily identified. Shoulder instability is a common presentation, the diagnosis of which is dependent upon recognising various injury patterns including Bankart lesions, reverse Bankart lesions, anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) and failure of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. CT features of malignant hepatic tumors : the significance of capsular retraction

    Seo, Bo Kyoung; Rhee, Ji Yong; Seol, Hae Young; Lee, Ki Yeol; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of capsular retraction in malignant hepatic tumors and the factors involved. Between January 1994 and December 1996, we retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 152 patients with pathologically-proven, peripherally-located, malignant hepatic tumors. We evaluated size, site, portal and hepatic venous obstruction, bile duct dilatation, and liver atrophy in 18 cases involving capsular retraction. The overall prevalence of capsular retraction among malignant hepatic tumors was 18/152 (12 %); the prevalence was 9/129 (7%) in hepatocellular carcinoma, 6/14 (43 %) in cholangiocarcinoma and 3/9 (33 %) in metastatic cancer; among cases of cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic cancer, the prevalence was high (p<0.05). Portal venous obstruction was seen in six patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ( a high incidence; p=0.04) and one with cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic venous obstruction was demonstrated in one patient with hepatocellular carcinoma and one with cholangiocarcinoma. Among cholangiocarcinoma patients, bile duct obstruction was seen in four and liver atrophy in three, but among metastatic cancer cases there were no similar findings. The main factors causing capsular retraction were portal venous obstruction in hepatocellular carcinoma and bile duct obstruction and liver atrophy in cholangiocarcinoma. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  14. Capsular contracture and possible implant rupture: is magnetic resonance imaging useful?

    Paetau, Alyssa A; McLaughlin, Sarah A; McNeil, Rebecca B; Sternberg, Erez; TerKonda, Sarvam P; Waldorf, James C; Perdikis, Galen

    2010-03-01

    Currently, magnetic resonance imaging is considered the accepted standard to evaluate breast implant integrity. To evaluate its utility in diagnosing ruptured silicone implants in the setting of capsular contracture and to correlate the preoperative assessment of implant integrity with or without magnetic resonance imaging with operative findings, 319 capsulectomies (171 patients with capsular contractures) were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was done on 160 implants, whereas the remaining 159 were evaluated using only physical examination and/or mammography. Postoperative results were analyzed to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging in comparison with clinical and/or mammography evaluation alone. Although occasionally valuable, overall, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was no more accurate than clinical evaluation with or without mammography in predicting implant status: magnetic resonance imaging 124 of 160 (78 percent) and clinical 121 of 159 (76 percent; p = 0.77). In the setting of capsular contracture, physical examination with or without mammogram is as accurate as magnetic resonance imaging in determining implant integrity. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a sensitive diagnostic tool, in symptomatic patients with capsular contracture, it cannot be viewed as infallible.

  15. [Construction of a capsular tissue-engineered ureteral stent seeded with autologous urothelial cells].

    Tan, Haisong; Fu, Weijun; Li, Jianqiang; Wang, Zhongxin; Li, Gang; Ma, Xin; Dong, Jun; Gao, Jiangping; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Zhang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of constructing a capsular poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) ureteral stent seeded with autologous urothelial cells using tissue engineering methods. The capsular ureteral stent was constructed by subcutaneously embedding PLLA ureteral stent in the back of beagles for 3 weeks to induce the formation of connective tissue on the surfaces. After decellularization of the stent, the expanded autologous urothelial cells were seeded on the stent. The surface structure and cell adhesion of the stent were observed using HE staining, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and immunocytochemical staining. MTT assay was used to evaluate urothelial cell proliferation on the capsular PLLA ureteral stent and on circumferential small intestinal submucosa graft. HE staining and VIII factor immunohistochemistry revealed numerous capillaries in the connective tissue encapsulating the stent without obvious local inflammatory response. The results of SEM and immunocytochemical staining showed that the capsule contained rich collagenic fibers forming three-dimensional structures, and the seeded autologous urothelial cells could adhere and well aligned on the surface. MTT assay showed normal growth of the cells on the stent as compared with the cells grown on circumferential small intestinal submucosa graft. The capsular PLLA ureteral stent allows adhesion and proliferation of autologous urothelial cells and shows a potential in applications of constructing tissue-engineered ureter.

  16. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature

    Francisco J. Ascaso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.1% after 10 years and 1.7% after 25 years. A predisposition to zonular insufficiency and capsular contraction is identified in 90% of reviewed cases. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Pseudoexfoliation is the most common risk factor, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed.

  17. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature.

    Ascaso, Francisco J; Huerva, Valentín; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.1% after 10 years and 1.7% after 25 years. A predisposition to zonular insufficiency and capsular contraction is identified in 90% of reviewed cases. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Pseudoexfoliation is the most common risk factor, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed.

  18. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

  19. The Pneumococcal Serotype 15C Capsule Is Partially O-Acetylated and Allows for Limited Evasion of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine-Elicited Anti-Serotype 15B Antibodies.

    Spencer, Brady L; Shenoy, Anukul T; Orihuela, Carlos J; Nahm, Moon H

    2017-08-01

    As a species, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) utilizes a diverse array of capsular polysaccharides to evade the host. In contrast to large variations in sugar composition and linkage formation, O-acetylation is a subtle capsular modification that nonetheless has a large impact on capsular shielding and recognition of the capsule by vaccine-elicited antibodies. Serotype 15B, which is included in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), carries the putative O-acetyltransferase gene wciZ The coding sequence of wciZ contains eight consecutive TA repeats [(TA) 8 ]. Replication slippage is thought to result in the addition or loss of TA repeats, subsequently causing frameshift and truncation of WciZ to yield a nonacetylated serotype, 15C. Using sensitive serological tools, we show that serotype 15C isolates whose wciZ contains seven or nine TA repeats retain partial O-acetylation, while serotype 15C isolates whose wciZ contains six TA repeats have barely detectable O-acetylation. We confirmed by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that (TA) 7 serotype 15C is ∼0.1% as acetylated as serotype 15B, while serotype 15X is nonacetylated. To eliminate the impact of genetic background, we created isogenic serotype 15B, (TA) 7 serotype 15C, and 15BΔ wciZ (15X) strains and found that reduction or absence of WciZ-mediated O-acetylation did not affect capsular shielding from phagocytes, biofilm formation, adhesion to nasopharyngeal cells, desiccation tolerance, or murine colonization. Sera from PPV23-immunized persons opsonized serotype 15B significantly but only slightly better than serotypes 15C and 15X; thus, PPV23 may not result in expansion of serotype 15C. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Preliminary observation about anterior capsular changes in different patients after cataract phacoemulsification

    Min Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare changes of anterior capsular opening size between complicated and simple cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and foldable IOL implantation.METHODS:Patients complicated with high myopia, primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACG, diabetic cataract and simple cataract(control groupwere selected, 25 case in each group. All patients accepted phacoemulsification by the doctor with operation experience of more than 5 000 cases, and the same 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL was implanted without any complicated happened. The measured value about anterior capsular area by Image-pro plus 6.0 was greater than 23mm2. Every patient was checked regularly through dilated pupil, take photos by slit-lamp camera and area was measured after operation 1 week, 1 month, 3 and 6 months, then to record the biological changes about anterior capsular in 4 groups.RESULTS: The average anterior capsular area in 4 groups 1 week after operation had no difference(P>0.05; No difference was found between simple and complicated high myopia group 6 months after operation(P>0.05. Capsule contraction was observed in complicated POAG group 3 months after operation and in diabetes mellitus group 6 months postoperatively, the average anterior capsular area become smaller than 1 week postoperatively(PCONCLUSION: Cataract patients who complicated PACG or diabetes mellitus maybe the high-risk groups, capsule contraction will be happened 1 month after operation. For high-risk groups, we should prolong the follow-up time, enrich the observation data, and provide the clinical basis for reasonable and preventive intervention.

  1. CLINICAL-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES AND OUTCOME OF GENERALIZED FORMS OF MENINGOCOCCAL INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    G. P. Martynova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study clinical and epidemiological features and outcomes of generalized forms of meningococcal infection in children from Krasnoyarsk and Krasnoyarsk Territory during the period from 2012 to 2016. Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of 57 medical records of hospital patients with generalized forms of meningococcal infection was carried out in the infectious and resuscitative departments of the Krasnoyarsk Clinical Hospital No. 1 from 2012 to 2016, including 12 protocols of pathologoanatomical studies of the deceased patients and 45 medical cards of ambulatory patients – convalescents of the disease from 2012 to 2016. Results. The epidemic situation for meningococcal infection in Krasnoyarsk Territory from 2012 to 2016 is characterized by signs of inter-epidemic period. Children of the first 3 years of life are in the group of high risk for the development of GFMI, which accounts for 74% of the total number of cases of children aged 14. There are signs of meningococcal infection «aging» – in the age structure the number of children in the first year of life decreased, while the proportion of children aged 4–7 and 7–14 increased compared to previous decades. There is a tendency to a decrease in the proportion of the combined forms with an increase in the frequency of «pure» meningococcemia. In recent years there has been an «atypical» course of generalized forms of the disease, when classical hemorrhagic necrotic rashes appear only on the 3rd – 4th day of the disease. In convalescents who underwent a combined form of MI and «pure» meningitis severe residual effects leading patients to disability are possible to develop. Conclusion. The use of polyvalent conjugated vaccines in potential risk groups will allow us to reduce the morbidity and mortality from generalized forms of meningococcal infection, including younger children.

  2. Safety and Immunogenicity Testing of an Intranasal Group B Meningococcal Native Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine in Healthy Volunteers

    Drabick, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    An intranasal vaccine composed of native outer membrane vesicles (NOMV) not exposed to detergent or denaturing agents was prepared from the group B meningococcal strain and tested in 32 healthy adult volunteers...

  3. A functional single nucleotide polymorphism in the thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) gene associates with outcome of meningococcal disease

    Kremer Hovinga, J. A.; Franco, R. F.; Zago, M. A.; ten Cate, Hugo; Westendorp, R. G. J.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2004-01-01

    In meningococcal sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation with deposition of fibrin and formation of microthrombi occurs in various organs and enhanced inhibition of fibrinolysis is associated with adverse outcome. Recently, TAFI (thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor) was identified as

  4. Enfermedad por meningococo, Neisseria meningitidis: perspectiva epidemiológica, clínica y preventiva Meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis: epidemiological, clinical, and preventive perspectives

    Lourdes Almeida-González

    2004-10-01

    disease is immunoprophylaxis. Available vaccines include the polysaccharide monovalent, bivalent (serogroups A, C, or tetravalent (A, C, Y, W-135 serogroups vaccines; conjugate vaccine (serogroup C; and the combined vaccine with outer membrane proteins and polysaccharide (serogroups B, C. Due to a recent increase in case reporting of serogroup C N. meningitidis in Mexico, we have developed a national response strategy that includes availability of vaccines and medications for chemoprophylaxis. This review aims at providing health care workers with updated information regarding the epidemiological, clinical, and preventive aspects of meningococcal disease.

  5. Vacinas meningocócicas conjugadas: eficácia e novas combinações Meningococcal conjugate vaccines: efficacy and new combinations

    Marco Aurélio Palazzi Sáfadi

    2006-07-01

    quadrivalente meningocócica conjugada representa, enfim, a real possibilidade de uma proteção mais abrangente contra a doença meningocócica, restando ainda a necessidade de se desenvolver uma vacina eficaz contra o meningococo B.OBJECTIVE: Meningococcal disease continues to be a serious public health concern, being associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, particularly in Brazil. In addition to discussing recent changes in the global epidemiology of meningococcal disease, we also analyze the development and impact of new conjugate vaccines on the prevention of meningococcal disease, with emphasis on the different immunization strategies implemented with these vaccines. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE databases were searched from 1996 to 2006, with emphasis on review articles, clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Information was also sought on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Brazilian Ministry of Health and Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Estado de São Paulo websites. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Five serogroups (A, B, C, W135 and Y are responsible for virtually all cases of the disease worldwide, with marked regional and temporal differences. The new meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines (MCC offer unmistakable advantages over polysaccharide vaccines. MCC vaccines generate a more efficient and long-lasting antibody response, inducing immunologic memory and reduction of nasopharyngeal carriage. The immediate results of introducing these vaccines into immunization programs have been encouraging, with a dramatic reduction in the incidence of serogroup C disease, not only in vaccinated, but also in unvaccinated individuals (herd immunity. However, concerns have arisen regarding the long-term effectiveness of these vaccines, especially for infants vaccinated in the routine schedule. CONCLUSIONS: The reported waning of efficacy more than 1 year after routine infant immunization supports alternative schedules incorporating a

  6. Bioactive polysaccharides and gut microbiome (abstract)

    Many polysaccharides have shown the ability to reduce plasma cholesterol or postprandial glycemia. Viscosity in the small intestine seems to be required to slow glucose uptake. Cereal mixed linkage beta-glucans, psyllium, glucomannans, and other polysaccharides also seem to require higher molecula...

  7. In vitro prebiotic effects of seaweed polysaccharides

    Chen, Xiaolin; Sun, Yuhao; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Xing, Rong'e.; Li, Rongfeng; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Although prebiotic activities of alginate and agar oligosaccharides isolated from seaweeds have been reported, it remains unknown whether seaweed polysaccharides have prebiotic activity. In this study, we isolated polysaccharides from four species of seaweeds, such as Grateloupia filicina (GFP), Eucheuma spinosum (ESP), Ulva pertusa (UPP), and Ascophyllum nodosum (ANP), and characterized their structures and prebiotic effects in vitro. The results showed that these polysaccharides were different in total sugar and sulfate contents as well as monosaccharide composition. GFP and ESP significantly promoted bifidobacterium proliferation and 0.1% ESP and 0.4% GFP resulted in the highest proliferation rates of beneficial bacteria, whereas UPP and ANP inhibited the growth of beneficial bacteria at all tested concentrations (0.1%-0.5%). The different behaviors of the four seaweed-originated polysaccharides might be reflected by differences in monosaccharide composition and structure. Therefore, polysaccharides isolated from GFP and ESP could be utilized as prebiotics. However, more studies must be carried out in vivo.

  8. Safety and immunogenicity of typhoid fever and yellow fever vaccines when administered concomitantly with quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY glycoconjugate vaccine in healthy adults.

    Alberer, Martin; Burchard, Gerd; Jelinek, Tomas; Reisinger, Emil; Beran, Jiri; Hlavata, Lucie Cerna; Forleo-Neto, Eduardo; Dagnew, Alemnew F; Arora, Ashwani K

    2015-01-01

    Compact and short pre-travel immunization schedules, which include several vaccinations in a single visit, are desirable for many travelers. However, concomitant vaccination could potentially compromise immunogenicity and/or safety of the individual vaccines and, therefore, possible vaccine interferences should be carefully assessed. This article discusses the immunogenicity and safety of travel vaccines for typhoid fever (TF) and yellow fever (YF), when administered with or without a quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate ACWY-CRM vaccine (MenACWY-CRM). Healthy adults (18-≤60 years) were randomized to one of three vaccine regimens: TF + YF + MenACWY-CRM (group I; n = 100), TF + YF (group II; n = 101), or MenACWY-CRM (group III; n = 100). Immunogenicity at baseline and 4 weeks post-vaccination (day 29) was assessed by serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or a neutralization test. Adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were collected throughout the study period. Non-inferiority of post-vaccination geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and geometric mean titers (GMTs) was established for TF and YF vaccines, respectively, when given concomitantly with MenACWY-CRM vaccine versus when given alone. The percentages of subjects with seroprotective neutralizing titers against YF on day 29 were similar in groups I and II. The antibody responses to meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y were within the same range when MenACWY-CRM was given separately or together with TF and YF vaccines. The percentage of subjects reporting AEs was the same for TF and YF vaccines with or without MenACWY-CRM vaccine. There were no reports of SAEs or AEs leading to study withdrawals. These data provide evidence that MenACWY-CRM can be administered with typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine and live attenuated YF vaccine without compromising antibody responses stimulated by the

  9. A meningococcal NOMV-FHbp vaccine for Africa elicits broader serum bactericidal antibody responses against serogroup B and non-B strains than a licensed serogroup B vaccine.

    Pajon, Rolando; Lujan, Eduardo; Granoff, Dan M

    2016-01-27

    Meningococcal epidemics in Sub-Sahara caused by serogroup A strains are controlled by a group A polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. Strains with serogroups C, W and X continue to cause epidemics. Protein antigens in licensed serogroup B vaccines are shared among serogroup B and non-B strains. Compare serum bactericidal antibody responses elicited by an investigational native outer membrane vesicle vaccine with over-expressed Factor H binding protein (NOMV-FHbp) and a licensed serogroup B vaccine (MenB-4C) against African serogroup A, B, C, W and X strains. Human Factor H (FH) transgenic mice were immunized with NOMV-FHbp prepared from a mutant African meningococcal strain containing genetically attenuated endotoxin and a mutant sub-family B FHbp antigen with low FH binding, or with MenB-4C, which contains a recombinant sub-family B FHbp antigen that binds human FH, and three other antigens, NHba, NadA and PorA P1.4, capable of eliciting bactericidal antibody. The NOMV-FHbp elicited serum bactericidal activity against 12 of 13 serogroup A, B, W or X strains from Africa, and four isogenic serogroup B mutants with sub-family B FHbp sequence variants. There was no activity against a serogroup B mutant with sub-family A FHbp, or two serogroup C isolates from a recent outbreak in Northern Nigeria, which were mismatched for both PorA and sub-family of the FHbp vaccine antigen. For MenB-4C, NHba was expressed by all 16 African isolates tested, FHbp sub-family B in 13, and NadA in five. However, MenB-4C elicited titers ≥ 1:10 against only one isolate, and against only two of four serogroup B mutant strains with sub-family B FHbp sequence variants. NOMV-FHbp has greater potential to confer serogroup-independent protection in Africa than the licensed MenB-4C vaccine. However, the NOMV-FHbp vaccine will require inclusion of sub-family A FHbp for coverage against recent serogroup C strains causing outbreaks in Northern Nigeria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. In vivo capsular switch in Streptococcus pneumoniae--analysis by whole genome sequencing.

    Fen Z Hu

    Full Text Available Two multidrug resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae - SV35-T23 (capsular type 23F and SV36-T3 (capsular type 3 were recovered from the nasopharynx of two adult patients during an outbreak of pneumococcal disease in a New York hospital in 1996. Both strains belonged to the pandemic lineage PMEN1 but they differed strikingly in virulence when tested in the mouse model of IP infection: as few as 1000 CFU of SV36 killed all mice within 24 hours after inoculation while SV35-T23 was avirulent.Whole genome sequencing (WGS of the two isolates was performed (i to test if these two isolates belonging to the same clonal type and recovered from an identical epidemiological scenario only differed in their capsular genes? and (ii to test if the vast difference in virulence between the strains was mostly - or exclusively - due to the type III capsule. WGS demonstrated extensive differences between the two isolates including over 2500 single nucleotide polymorphisms in core genes and also differences in 36 genetic determinants: 25 of which were unique to SV35-T23 and 11 unique to strain SV36-T3. Nineteen of these differences were capsular genes and 9 bacteriocin genes.Using genetic transformation in the laboratory, the capsular region of SV35-T23 was replaced by the type 3 capsular genes from SV36-T3 to generate the recombinant SV35-T3* which was as virulent as the parental strain SV36-T3* in the murine model and the type 3 capsule was the major virulence factor in the chinchilla model as well. On the other hand, a careful comparison of strains SV36-T3 and the laboratory constructed SV35-T3* in the chinchilla model suggested that some additional determinants present in SV36 but not in the laboratory recombinant may also contribute to the progression of middle ear disease. The nature of this determinants remains to be identified.

  11. Predictors for perioperative blood transfusion in elderly patients with extra capsular hip fractures treated with cephalo-medullary nailing

    M. Ali Fazal

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Patient age, ASA grade, preoperative haemoglobin and length of nail are reliable predictors for perioperative blood transfusion in extra capsular hip fractures in elderly patients treated with cephalo-medullary nailing and reinforce a selective transfusion policy.

  12. Evaluation of Artisan aphakic intraocular lens in cases of pediatric aphakia with insufficient capsular support.

    Gawdat, Ghada I; Taher, Sameh G; Salama, Marwa M; Ali, Adel A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the visual outcomes and complications after Artisan iris-claw lens implantation in aphakic children with insufficient capsular support. In this prospective, interventional noncontrolled study, aphakic eyes of consecutive patients >2 years of age with insufficient capsular support who underwent Artisan intraocular lens (IOL) implantation between June 2011 and December 2012 were followed for 1 year. Patients with anterior chamber depth IOL were included, 18 eyes with subluxated lens and 7 following trauma. The mean preoperative logMAR best-corrected visual acuity for traumatic aphakic patients was 0.95 ± 0.36; for patients with subluxation, 0.7 ± 0.26. Values improved at 1 year to 0.38 ± 0.15 (P IOL implantation for pediatric aphakia achieved a good visual outcome. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical observation of capsular tension ring implantation in congenital lens subluxation treating by phacoemulsification

    Liang-Nan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical results of capsular tension ring(CTRimplantation in phacoemulsification for eyes with congenital lens subluxation. METHODS: This study comprised 18 patients(31 eyeswith congenital ectopia lentis. All patients received phacoemulsification with CTR and intraocular lens(IOLimplantation. Visual acuity before and after surgery were examined. IOL decentration were measured with Image-Pro Plus image processing software. The complications were also recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: Uncorrected vision of all eyes increased after surgery, and all cases had different degree of IOL decentration after surgery. Two eyes received CTR scleral fixation 3mo after surgery because the IOL decentration aggravated during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification with CTR and IOL implantation is effective and safe for congenital lens subluxation. The implantation of CTR increase the stability of the capsular bag, improve the safety of surgery, and maintain the right position of IOL. CTR scleral fixation is a effective supplement for progressive cases.

  14. An exocellular polysaccharide and its interactions with proteins

    Tuinier, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the food industry polysaccharides are used as thickening or gelling agents. Polysaccharides are usually extracted from plants. Micro-organisms are also capable of excreting polysaccharides: exocellular polysaccharides (EPSs). In some cases EPSs are produced in-situ in food products,

  15. Population-based study of capsular warning syndrome and prognosis after early recurrent TIA.

    Paul, Nicola L M; Simoni, Michela; Chandratheva, Arvind; Rothwell, Peter M

    2012-09-25

    Many guidelines recommend emergency assessment for patients with ≥2 TIAs within 7 days, perhaps in recognition of the capsular warning syndrome. However, it is unclear whether all patients with multiple TIAs are at high early risk of stroke and whether treatable underlying pathologies are more prevalent in this group. We studied clinical characteristics, Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification, and risk of stroke in 1,000 consecutive patients with incident and recurrent TIAs in a prospective, population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Of 1,000 patients with TIAs, 170 had a further TIA within 7 days (105 within 24 hours). Multiple TIAs were not associated with carotid stenosis or atrial fibrillation, and much of the 10.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.5-15.9) risk of stroke during the 7 days after the first TIA was due to patients with small-vessel disease (SVD) etiology (10 of 24 vs 8 of 146, odds ratio [OR] = 12.3, 95% CI 3.7-41.9, p TIA was similar to the risk after a single TIA in patients with non-SVD TIA (8 of 146 [5.5%] vs 76 of 830 [9.2%], OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.25-1.3, p = 0.20). Of the 9 patients with stroke after a capsular warning syndrome, all had the recurrent TIA within 24 hours after the first TIA, and the subsequent stroke occurred within 72 hours of the second TIA in 8. The ABCD2 scores of all preceding TIAs were ≥4 in all 9 patients with capsular warning syndrome before stroke. Capsular warning syndrome is rare (1.5% of TIA presentations) but has a poor prognosis (7-day stroke risk of 60%). Otherwise, recurrent TIA within 7 days is not associated with a greater stroke risk than that after a single TIA.

  16. Clinical observation of capsular tension ring implantation in congenital lens subluxation treating by phacoemulsification

    Liang-Nan Sun; Bai-Jun Li; Yuan-Fei Zhu; Xin-Hua Liu

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical results of capsular tension ring(CTR)implantation in phacoemulsification for eyes with congenital lens subluxation. METHODS: This study comprised 18 patients(31 eyes)with congenital ectopia lentis. All patients received phacoemulsification with CTR and intraocular lens(IOL)implantation. Visual acuity before and after surgery were examined. IOL decentration were measured with Image-Pro Plus image processing software. The complications were also recorded preoperati...

  17. [Iris hooks and modified capsular tension ring for subluxation lens in patients with Marfan's syndrome].

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Zheng, Dan-ying; Zheng, Ying-feng; Cai, Xiao-yu

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate clinical efficiency and safety of the iris hooks and modified capsular tension ring (MCTR) for the treatment of subluxation lens in patients with Marfan's syndrome. This study comprised 5 patients (7 eyes) with Marfan's syndrome and subluxation lens. After 3.2 mm clear cornea incision and continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC), 2 - 4 disposable nylon iris hooks were inserted through the stab incisions and placed in the capsulorhexis to support the capsule and enlarged the CCC. Following irrigation/aspiration, a MCTR with suture in its eyelet was placed in the capsule bag. After tightening and tying the suture of MCTR, the capsular bag was centered and fixed. A foldable AcrySof one-piece intraocular lens (IOL) was then placed in the capsule bag. Twelve months after the operation, the best corrected visual acuity was >/= 0.8 in six eyes and 0.7 in one eye. The scheimpflug images obtained from the Pentacam demonstrated that the IOL were well centered. UBM showed that all the MCTR and the haptics of the IOL were in the capsule bag, the eyelet of the MCTR was rested stably between the capsulorhexis margin and the iris. The retroillumination photograph indicated that only one eye had obvious posterior capsular opacification. No intraoperative and postoperative complications such as prolapse of vitreous and retina detachment was occurred. The iris hooks can provide excellent intraoperative capsule-lens stability and facilitate the manipulation during operation. MCTR allows additional suture fixation to the eye wall without damaging the capsular bag and maintains the long-term stability of the intraocular lens. Furthermore, MCTR is helpful for avoiding dislocation of the IOL due to progressive weakening of the zonular fibers in some patients and provides long-term safety.

  18. Primary iris claw IOL retrofixation with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in cases of inadequate capsular support.

    Kelkar, Aditya; Shah, Rachana; Vasavda, Viraj; Kelkar, Jai; Kelkar, Shreekant

    2018-02-01

    To assess the outcomes and analyze complication rates following primary iris claw IOL retrofixation with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. This is a retrospective interventional case series. Patients with poor capsular support-diagnosed preoperatively or owing to intraoperative complications-were treated with iris claw IOL retrofixation with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. The data were retrospectively analyzed. 104 eyes of 102 patients with poor capsular support who underwent the procedure between 2010 and 2013 were analyzed. The minimum follow-up period was 12 months (ranging from 12 to 36 months). Iris claw IOL was implanted in-traumatic subluxated cataracts-24 cases (23.07%), non-traumatic subluxated cataracts in 16 cases (15.38%), or as a complication of cataract surgery-intraoperative posterior capsular rent in 48 cases (46.15%) and intraoperative nucleus drop in 16 cases (15.38%). The final mean best-corrected logMAR visual acuity improved from 1.36 ± 0.64 preoperatively to 0.36 ± 0.32 at 1-year follow-up. Complications included pupil ovalization in 11 cases (10.57%), transient elevation in intraocular pressure in 7 eyes (6.73%), postoperative hypotony in 5 eyes (4.80%), cystoid macular edema in 2 eyes (1.92%), retinal detachment in 1 eye (0.96%), vitreous hemorrhage in 1 eye (0.96%), and hyphema in 1 eye (0.96%). Primary iris claw IOL retrofixation provided excellent alternative in patients with inadequate capsular support. The visual outcomes were good along with favorable rates of complications. The addition of triamcinolone acetonide helps in reducing the chances of cystoid macular edema.

  19. The meningococcal vaccine candidate neisserial surface protein A (NspA binds to factor H and enhances meningococcal resistance to complement.

    Lisa A Lewis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Complement forms an important arm of innate immunity against invasive meningococcal infections. Binding of the alternative complement pathway inhibitor factor H (fH to fH-binding protein (fHbp is one mechanism meningococci employ to limit complement activation on the bacterial surface. fHbp is a leading vaccine candidate against group B Neisseria meningitidis. Novel mechanisms that meningococci employ to bind fH could undermine the efficacy of fHbp-based vaccines. We observed that fHbp deletion mutants of some meningococcal strains showed residual fH binding suggesting the presence of a second receptor for fH. Ligand overlay immunoblotting using membrane fractions from one such strain showed that fH bound to a approximately 17 kD protein, identified by MALDI-TOF analysis as Neisserial surface protein A (NspA, a meningococcal vaccine candidate whose function has not been defined. Deleting nspA, in the background of fHbp deletion mutants, abrogated fH binding and mAbs against NspA blocked fH binding, confirming NspA as a fH binding molecule on intact bacteria. NspA expression levels vary among strains and expression correlated with the level of fH binding; over-expressing NspA enhanced fH binding to bacteria. Progressive truncation of the heptose (Hep I chain of lipooligosaccharide (LOS, or sialylation of lacto-N-neotetraose LOS both increased fH binding to NspA-expressing meningococci, while expression of capsule reduced fH binding to the strains tested. Similar to fHbp, binding of NspA to fH was human-specific and occurred through fH domains 6-7. Consistent with its ability to bind fH, deleting NspA increased C3 deposition and resulted in increased complement-dependent killing. Collectively, these data identify a key complement evasion mechanism with important implications for ongoing efforts to develop meningococcal vaccines that employ fHbp as one of its components.

  20. Developmental strategy fora new Group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVacR).

    Kulkarni, Prasad S; Jadhav, Suresh S; LaForce, F Marc

    2017-10-19

    Until recently, periodic Group A meningococcal meningitis outbreaks were a major public health problem in the sub-Saharan Africa. In 2001, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP), a partnership between the World Health Organization (WHO) and PATH, a Seattle-based NGO, and the Serum Institute of India Pvt Ltd (SIIPL) initiated discussions aimed at establishing a collaboration to develop a Group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine for this unmet medical need. Over the next 8 years the partnership made countless strategic decisions about product characteristics, raw materials, potential target populations, geographic prioritization and affordability of the vaccine to name a few. These decisions evolved into detailed plans for preclinical development, extensive field trials in Africa and India and a focused regulatory strategy specific for the Men A conjugate vaccine. Important characteristics of the process included, flexibility, transparency andeffective partnerships that included public agencies as well as private companies in Africa, Europe, the United States and India.

  1. A Case of High Mortality, Treated with Multidisciplinary Approach in Intensive Care: Meningococcal Meningitis

    Mehtap Pehlivanlar Küçük

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcemia is a highly mortal disease that can cause septic shock and multiple organ failure, which can be accompanied by sudden onset, rapid course, purpura fulminans and diffuse intravenous coagulation tables. Mortality increases when meningococcal causes to meningitis. The fact that it is the cause of neurological sequelae and extremity losses even in the recovering cases makes the support provided by the intensive care unit quite important in the management of cases. A case with meningococcal meningitis with high mortality, who was successfully treated through the use of supportive methods, such as monitorization, mechanical ventilation practices with new modalities, plasmapheresis and sympathetic ganglion blockage, has been presented in company with the literature.

  2. Carriage of Neisseria Species in Communities with Different Rates of Meningococcal Disease

    Nicole Le Saux

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A single clone, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (C:2a:P1.2, was isolated from seven patients during a cluster of cases of meningococcal disease in Ontario in 1989. To determine whether the clone was present in asymptomatic individuals in the same population, pharyngeal swabs were taken from 7% (644 of 9125 of residents who were vaccinated during the outbreak. Rates of isolation of Neisseria species were also compared to those in two other geographical areas which did not have an elevated incidence of meningococcal disease. The rate of carriage of N meningitidis in the asymptomatic individuals sampled was between 1.9% and 5.4%. The clone isolated from patients was not present among the carrier strains as determined by sero- and subtyping and electrophoretic analysis of metabolic enzymes. Age greater than six years was the only factor associated with colonization with N meningitidis.

  3. Relevance of genetically determined host factors to the prognosis of meningococcal disease.

    Domingo, P; Muñiz-Diaz, E; Baraldès, M A; Arilla, M; Barquet, N; Pericas, R; Juárez, C; Madoz, P; Vázquez, G

    2004-08-01

    To assess the relevance of genetically determined host factors for the prognosis of meningococcal disease, Fc gamma receptor IIA (FcgammaRIIA), the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter region, and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms were studied in 145 patients with meningococcal disease and in 290 healthy controls matched by sex. Distribution of FcgammaRIIA, TNF-alpha, and PAI-1 alleles was not significantly different between patients and controls. Patients with the FcgammaRIIA-R/R 131 allotype scored > or =1 point in the Barcelona prognostic system more frequently than patients with other allotypes (odds ratio, 18.6; 95% confidence interval, 7.1-49.0, PFc gamma receptor IIA polymorphism was associated with markers of disease severity, but TNF-alpha and PAI-1 polymorphisms were not.

  4. Limited capsular release and controlled manipulation under anaesthesia for the treatment of frozen shoulder.

    Bidwai, Amit S; Mayne, Alistair Iw; Nielsen, Maryke; Brownson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In light of recent interest in the cost-effectiveness of the treatment options available for frozen shoulder, we aimed to determine the results of limited anterior capsular release and controlled manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) in the treatment of primary frozen shoulder in terms of patient-related outcomes measure, range of motion and re-intervention rates. This single-surgeon series included prospectively collected data on all patients undergoing capsular release with MUA from March 2011 until June 2013, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months from the index procedure. Outcome measures included pre- and postoperative Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), range of motion and need for re-intervention. Fifty-four procedures were performed in 52 patients. Mean age 50 years (range 42 years to 59 years); male: female ratio = 11: 41. There was a highly statistically significant improvement in both pain and function modules of the OSS (p patients were diabetics. There was no significant difference in pre-operative and postoperative OSS or range of motion between the diabetic group and the non-diabetic groups. No patients required surgical re-intervention. A combination of limited capsular release and MUA for the treatment of primary frozen shoulder is a safe and effective procedure resulting in marked improvement in pain, function and range of motion.

  5. Investigation of vesicle-capsular plague antigen complex formation by elastic laser radiation scattering

    Guseva, N. P.; Maximova, Irina S.; Romanov, Sergey V.; Shubochkin, L. P.; Tatarintsev, Sergey N.

    1991-05-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been given to the investigation artificial lipid liposomes, due to their application as "containers" for directed transport of biologically active compounds into particular cells, organs and tissues for prophylaxis and therapy of infectious diseases. The use of traditional methods of liposome investigation, such as sedimentation, electrophoresis and chromatography is impeded by low liposome resistivity to different deformations. In conjunction with this, optical methods of laser light scattering are promising as they allow nondisturbing, precise and quick investigations. This paper describes the investigation of vesicle systems prepared from egg lecithin of Serva Corporation and their complexes with the capsular antigen of the plague microbe. The capsular antigen Fl was obtained from EV plague microbe grown at 37° C on Huttinger agar. Fl was isolated by gel-filtration on ASA-22 followed by freeze drying of the preparation. Angular dependences of polarized radiation scattering were measured for several liposome suspension samples in a saline solution before and after the interaction with the plague microbe capsular antigen. The aim of the investigation was to analyze the nature of mutual antigen arrangement in a liposome and to develop methods for measuring its inclusion percentage.

  6. Transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap for treatment of capsular contracture in tertiary breast reconstruction.

    Pülzl, Petra; Huemer, Georg M; Schoeller, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Capsular contracture is a common complication associated with implant-based breast reconstruction and augmentation leading to pain, displacement, and rupture. After capsulectomy and implant exchange, the problem often reappears. We performed 52 deepithelialized free transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flaps in 33 patients for tertiary breast reconstruction or augmentation of small- and medium-sized breasts. The indications for implant removal were unnatural feel and emotion of their breasts with foreign body feel, asymmetry, pain, and sensation of cold. Anyway, most of the patients did not have a severe capsular contracture deformity. The TMG flap is formed into a cone shape by bringing the tips of the ellipse together. Depending on the contralateral breast, the muscle can also be shaped in an S-form to get more projection if needed. The operating time for unilateral TMG flap breast reconstruction or augmentation was on average 3 hours and for bilateral procedure 5 hours. One patient had a secondary revision of the donor site due to disruption of the normal gluteal fold. Eighty percent of the unilateral TMG flap reconstructions had a lipofilling procedure afterward to correct small irregularities or asymmetry. The advantages of the TMG flap such as short harvesting time, inconspicuous donor site, and the possibility of having a natural breast shape make it our first choice to treat capsular contracture after breast reconstruction and augmentation.

  7. Do textured breast implants decrease the rate of capsular contracture compared to smooth implants?

    Cifuentes, Ignacio; Dagnino, Bruno; Rada, Gabriel

    2017-08-31

    The use of breast implants for aesthetic and reconstructive purposes has become one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons. Several breast implants models exist. They differ in their size, filling, shape and characteristic of the shell, which can be smooth or textured. Capsular contracture is one of the main complications of breast implants. It has been suggested that the use of textured implants could reduce the incidence of capsular contracture. To answer this question, we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We identified 15 studies overall, of which 13 were randomized trials relevant for the question of interest. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of textured breast implants probably decreases the risk of capsular contracture, however, they might be associated to an increased risk of anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

  8. [Subluxation of hydrophilic acrylate intraocular lenses due to massive capsular fibrosis].

    Kramer, S; Schröder, A C; Brückner, K; Jonescu-Cuypers, C; Seitz, B

    2010-05-01

    Compared with other biomaterials, hydrophilic acrylate provides better uveal biocompatibility, lower adhesion rates of bacteria and silicone oil, and less glare. Because of reduced capsular biocompatibility, increased fibrosis may initiate dislocation of the intraocular lens (IOL). In six eyes of four patients, enhanced fibroses led to IOL dislocation, leading to an IOL exchange an average of 40 weeks after implantation of the same hydrophilic acrylate lens type. Predisposing factors were found in 90% of all reported cases of IOL dislocation in the literature, but not in the cases described here. The lens type that was implanted was unable to adapt to the massive fibrosis induced by its hydrophilic biomaterial. The pattern of lens opacification should receive attention when one is choosing an IOL type. Eyes showing pseudoexfoliation syndrome as well as post-uveitis eyes might require a hydrophilic IOL for less cellular reaction, whereas a posterior subcapsular cataract might need a hydrophobic IOL to prevent a massive capsular fibrosis. In the case of increased capsular contraction, unreflected YAG laser capsulotomy may result in IOL subluxation when the lens design cannot handle capsule shrinkage, as demonstrated here.

  9. [Evaluation of the modified capsular tension ring in cases of traumatic lens subluxation].

    Marques, Daniela Meira Villano; Marques, Frederico França; Cionni, Robert J; Osher, Robert Henry; Freitas, Lincoln Lemes

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the behavior of the modified capsular tension ring (MCTR) in traumatic subluxated cataracts analyzing the visual acuity, centration of the capsular bag, pseudophacodonesis, postoperative follow-up and intra- and postoperative complications. Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with traumatic loss of zonular support had phacoemulsification using PCIOL and MCTR implantation. The preoperative examination included best correct visual acuity (BCVA) and the presence or absence of phacodonesis, lens decentration and vitreous prolapse. The postoperative evaluation included BCVA, the presence of pseudophacodonesis, PCIOL centration, necessity of vitrectomy and other complications. 21 eyes (95.45%) had an improvement in BCVA. The preoperative examination disclosed phacodonesis in 11 eyes (50%) and no eye presented pseudophacodonesis in the postoperative period. Preoperatively, symptomatic decentration was presented by 10 eyes (45.45%) and 22 eyes (100%) had no decentration after surgery. The preoperative examination revealed vitreous prolapse in the anterior chamber in 9 eyes (40.90%). Vitrectomy was required in 11 eyes (50%). The use of the MCTR resulted in a good centration of the capsular bag and the PC IOL in 22 eyes with traumatic cataract and loss of zonular support.

  10. New versus old meningococcal group B vaccines: how the new ones may benefit infants & toddlers.

    Panatto, D; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Cristina, M L; Domnich, A; Gasparini, R

    2013-12-01

    Invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high mortality and high disability rates and mainly affects children under one year of age. Vaccination is the best way to prevent meningococcal disease, especially in infants and toddlers. The introduction of massive meningococcal serogroup C vaccination has drastically reduced the incidence of disease caused by this serogroup, and serogroup B has now become the main causative agent in several industrialized countries. The first serogroup B vaccines, which were used for more than two decades, were based on outer membrane vesicles and proved to be protective only against specific epidemic strains in Cuba, Norway, Brazil and New Zealand. Moreover, these often elicited a scant immune response in young children. Innovative genomics-based reverse vaccinology subsequently enabled researchers to identify genes encoding for surface proteins that are able to elicit a strong immune response against several B strains. This important discovery led to the development and recent approval in Europe of the four-component meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccine. Large clinical trials have shown high immunogenicity and tolerability and acceptable safety levels of 4CMenB in infants and toddlers. This vaccine is expected to cover a large number of circulating invasive strains and may also be efficacious against other serogroups. Young children are particularly vulnerable to the devastating consequences of meningococcal disease. Given the high performance of 4CMenB and its non-interference with routine vaccinations, this age-group will be the first to benefit from the introduction of this vaccine.

  11. The case-fatality rate of meningococcal disease in Catalonia, 1990-1997.

    Domínguez, Angela; Cardeñosa, Neus; Pañella, Helena; Orcau, Angels; Companys, Maria; Alseda, Miquel; Oviedo, Manuel; Carmona, Glòria; Minguell, Sofia; Salleras, Lluis

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to analyse the case-fatality rate (CFR) of meningococcal disease (MD) in Catalonia, Spain. A retrospective study was carried out. Clinical histories of cases of MD reported for the period 1990-1997 in Catalonia were reviewed. For all cases, the variables gender, age, clinical type, y of presentation, province, phenotype and death by meningococcal disease were collected. The association between death and the other variables was studied by bivariate and unconditional logistic regression analysis. In the 2343 cases studied there were 146 deaths (6.2%) due to meningococcal disease. The CFR was higher in females (OR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-2.1), in the 20 to 49 y (OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2-4.9) and > or = 50 y (OR: 5.3, 95%CI: 2.8-10.1) age groups, in cases with septicaemia (OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.6-3.5), in the cases produced by serogroup A (OR: 4.7, 95%CI: 1.0-23.4) and in cases occurring during 1993 (OR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.1-4.1) or in the province of Lleida (OR: 2.9, 95%CI: 1.2-7.2). In the multivariate analysis, death was associated with the 20-49 y age group (OR: 3.9, 95%CI: 1.8-8.4), the > or = 50 y age group (OR: 7.3, 95%CI: 3.6-14.7), septicaemia (OR: 3.1; 95%CI: 2.0-4.7) and residing in the province of Lleida (OR: 3.2; 95%CI: 1.2-8.5). The CFR of meningococcal disease in Catalonia was not associated with the emergent phenotype C:2b:P1.2,5 strain, which caused an outbreak in other regions of Spain.

  12. Epidemiology of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease in Ontario, Canada, 2000 to 2010

    Dang Vica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD caused by serogroup B is the last major serogroup in Canada to become vaccine-preventable. The anticipated availability of vaccines targeting this serogroup prompted an assessment of the epidemiology of serogroup B disease in Ontario, Canada. Methods We retrieved information on confirmed IMD cases reported to Ontario’s reportable disease database between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 and probabilistically-linked these cases to Public Health Ontario Laboratory records. Rates were calculated with denominator data obtained from Statistics Canada. We calculated a crude number needed to vaccinate using the inverse of the infant ( Results A total of 259 serogroup B IMD cases were identified in Ontario over the 11-year period. Serogroup B was the most common cause of IMD. Incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.27/100,000/year, and fluctuated over time. Cases ranged in age from 13 days to 101 years; 21.4% occurred in infants, of which 72.7% were Conclusions Although rare, the proportion of IMD caused by serogroup B has increased and currently causes most IMD in Ontario, with infants having the highest risk of disease. Although serogroup B meningococcal vaccines are highly anticipated, our findings suggest that decisions regarding publicly funding serogroup B meningococcal vaccines will be difficult and may not be based on disease burden alone.

  13. The influence of injection volume and capsular bag contraction on the refractive power of polymer refilled lenses - a finite element modelling simulation study.

    Martin, Heiner; Guthoff, Rudolf; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Polymer injection into the capsular bag after phakoemulsification is an interesting and promising approach to lens surgery. Safe clinical application of this technique will require an appropriate estimate of the effect of implantation variables on the lens power. This article details the results of finite element investigations into the effects of the injected polymer volume and capsular bag contraction on the resultant lens power and accommodation amplitude. An axisymmetric finite element model was created from literature sources. Polymer injection and the capsular contraction were simulated, and their effect on the lens power was calculated. The simulations show that overfilling during polymer injection leads to a refractive power increase of the lens. Capsular bag contraction also results in a power increase. The calculated accommodative amplitude of the lens is minimally affected by capsular bag contraction but decreases significantly with increased capsular bag stiffness as a result of fibrosis. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  14. Chronic neck pain: making the connection between capsular ligament laxity and cervical instability.

    Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of

  15. Comparative ecology of capsular Exophiala species causing disseminated infection in humans

    Song, Y. (Yinggai); Laureijssen-van de Sande, W.W.J. (Wendy W.J.); Moreno, L.F. (Leandro F.); van den Ende, B.G. (Bert Gerrits); Li, R. (Ruoyu); S. de Hoog (Sybren)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractExophiala spinifera and Exophiala dermatitidis (Fungi: Chaetothyriales) are black yeast agents potentially causing disseminated infection in apparently healthy humans. They are the only Exophiala species producing extracellular polysaccharides around yeast cells. In order to gain

  16. Biochemical Aspects of Non-Starch Polysaccharides

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group of polysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fraction include cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins, arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3(1,4-D-glucans (β-glucans. Knowledge of the chemical structure of NSP has permitted the development of enzyme technology to overcome their antinutritional effects. The physiological effects of NSP on the digestion and absorption of nutrients in human and monogastric animals have been attributed to their physicochemical properties: hydration properties, viscosity, cation exchange capacity and organic compound absorptive properties. This paper reviews and presents information on NSPs chemistry, physicochemical properties and physiological effects on the nutrient entrapment.

  17. Interaction between gut immunity and polysaccharides.

    Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-09-22

    The human gut is colonized with a vast and diverse microbial ecosystem, and these bacteria play fundamental roles in the well being of our bodies. Gut-associated lymphoid tissues, the largest mucosal immune system, should never be overlooked for their profound effect in maintaining the host immunity. Therefore, we discussed the relationship between gut immunity and host health, primarily from two aspects: the homeostasis of gut microbiota, and the function of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Polysaccharides, widely concerned as bioactive macromolecules in recent centuries, have been proved to benefit the intestinal health. Dietary polysaccharides can improve the ratio of probiotics, regulate the intestinal microenvironment like decreasing the gut pH, and stimulate the macrophages or lymphocytes in gut tissues to fight against diseases like cancer. Based on various experimental and clinical evidence, the impacts of dietary polysaccharides on intestinal health are summarized, in order to reveal the possible immunomodulatory mechanisms of polysaccharides.

  18. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    Keywords: Pinellia rhizoma, Polysaccharides Optimization extraction, Monosaccharide composition,. Antioxidant ..... mean yield of PRP was 2.47 %. Therefore ... Table 3: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the fitted quadratic polynomial model.

  19. APPLICATION OF A POLYSACCHARIDE DERIVED FROM ...

    While Tragacanth was superior to Treculia gum, the latter performed better than sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) as a sustained release hydrophilic matrix for theophylline hydrate. Key Words: Polysaccharide, Treculia africana, Moreaceae, Hydrophilic matrix, theophylline hydrate and dissolution rate. Nig. J. Nat.

  20. Antioxidant effects of polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicines.

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Gangliang

    2017-12-07

    Polysaccharides are a kind of biological macromolecules with immune regulation, anti-tumor, anti-radiation, anti-inflammation, anti-fatigue and anti-aging effects. These effects are related to their antioxidant properties. The action mechanisms of antioxidation and scavenging free radicals for polysaccharides were reviewed. The polysaccharides contain plant polysaccharides, animal polysaccharides and microbial polysaccharides. The recent research progresses and our work on antioxidant properties of polysaccharides and their derivatives were summarized. At last, the existing problems of antioxidant polysaccharides were analyzed, and the development prospects were also presented. It is important to study the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides and their derivatives for the development of natural antioxidants. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Molecular mapping of the cell wall polysaccharides of the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae

    Beaussart, Audrey; Péchoux, Christine; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Hols, Pascal; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2014-11-01

    The surface of many bacterial pathogens is covered with polysaccharides that play important roles in mediating pathogen-host interactions. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is recognized as a major virulence factor while the group B carbohydrate (GBC) is crucial for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell division. Despite the important roles of CPS and GBC, there is little information available on the molecular organization of these glycopolymers on the cell surface. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to analyze the nanoscale distribution of CPS and GBC in wild-type (WT) and mutant strains of S. agalactiae. TEM analyses reveal that in WT bacteria, peptidoglycan is covered with a very thin (few nm) layer of GBC (the ``pellicle'') overlaid by a 15-45 nm thick layer of CPS (the ``capsule''). AFM-based single-molecule mapping with specific antibody probes shows that CPS is exposed on WT cells, while it is hardly detected on mutant cells impaired in CPS production (ΔcpsE mutant). By contrast, both TEM and AFM show that CPS is over-expressed in mutant cells altered in GBC expression (ΔgbcO mutant), indicating that the production of the two surface glycopolymers is coordinated in WT cells. In addition, AFM topographic imaging and molecular mapping with specific lectin probes demonstrate that removal of CPS (ΔcpsE), but not of GBC (ΔgbcO), leads to the exposure of peptidoglycan, organized into 25 nm wide bands running parallel to the septum. These results indicate that CPS forms a homogeneous barrier protecting the underlying peptidoglycan from environmental exposure, while the presence of GBC does not prevent peptidoglycan detection. This work shows that single-molecule AFM, combined with high-resolution TEM, represents a powerful platform for analysing the molecular arrangement of the cell wall polymers of bacterial pathogens.

  2. Delayed splenic rupture: dating the sub-capsular hemorrhage as a useful task to evaluate causal relationships with trauma.

    Riezzo, Irene; Di Battista, Benedetta; De Salvia, Alessandra; Cantatore, Santina; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to perform a chronological assessment of the phenomenon of delayed rupture of the spleen, to assess the phenomenological order about the sub-capsular hematoma transformation to determine the causal relationship with trauma as hypothetical cause of death. 80 cases of blunt trauma with splenic capsular hematoma and subsequent rupture of the spleen were evaluated: 38 had an acute rupture of the spleen, 42 presented a break in days or weeks after the traumatic injury. Time between the traumatic event and delayed rupture of the spleen is within a range of time from one day to more than one month. Data recorded included age, sex, type of trauma, injury severity score, grade of splenic injury, associated intra-abdominal injuries, pathologic specimen evaluation. Immunohistochemical investigation of perisplenic hematoma or laceration was performed utilizing polyclonal antibodies anti-fibrinogen, CD61 and CD68, and showed structural chronological differences of sub-capsular hematoma. Expression of modification and organization of erythrocytes, fibrinogen, platelets and macrophages provides an informative picture of the progression of reparative phenomena associated with sub-capsular hematoma and subsequent delayed splenic rupture. Sub-capsular splenic hematoma dating, which we divided into 4 phases, is representing a task in both clinical practice and forensic pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rotationally asymmetric multifocal IOL implantation with and without capsular tension ring: refractive and visual outcomes and intraocular optical performance.

    Alió, Jorge L; Plaza-Puche, Ana B; Piñero, David P

    2012-04-01

    To ascertain whether the refractive, visual, and intraocular optical quality outcomes of a rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) are enhanced by the use of a capsular tension ring. Ninety consecutive eyes from 53 patients (age range: 36 to 82 years) were divided into two groups: the no ring group comprised 43 eyes implanted with the multifocal rotationally asymmetric Lentis Mplus LS-312 (Oculentis GmbH) without a capsular tension ring; and the ring group comprised 47 eyes with the same IOL with a capsular tension ring. Distance and near visual acuity and refractive outcomes were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Contrast sensitivity, intraocular aberrations, and defocus curve were evaluated postoperatively. Significant postoperative differences between groups were found in sphere, spherical equivalent refraction, and near addition (P<.02). Regarding defocus curve, significantly better visual acuity was present in eyes with the capsular tension ring for intermediate vision conditions (P<.05). Intraocular aberrometry did not differ significantly between groups (P<.09). Refractive predictability and intermediate visual outcomes with the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL improved significantly when implanted in combination with a capsular tension ring. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Results of intraocular lens implantation with capsular tension ring in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children.

    Das, Pranab; Ram, Jagat; Brar, Gagandeep Singh; Dogra, Mangat R

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the outcome of intraocular lens (IOL) implantation using capsular tension ring (CTR) in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children. Tertiary care setting. We prospectively studied 18 eyes of 15 children with subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lenses between 90 degrees up to 210 degrees after phacoemulsification, CTR and IOL implantation. Each child was examined for IOL centration, zonular dehiscence and posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Age of the patient ranged between five to 15 years. Out of 18 eyes, seven had traumatic and 11 had spontaneous subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lens. Phacoemulsification was successfully performed with CTR implantation in the capsular bag. Intraoperative zonular dialysis occurred in two eyes. Anterior vitrectomy was performed in six eyes to manage vitreous prolapse. IOL implanted was polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in eight eyes, hydrophobic acrylic in seven and hydrophilic acrylic in three. Follow-up ranged from 24 months to 72 months. Sixteen eyes had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Nine eyes developed significant PCO and were managed with Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy. One eye with acrylic IOL in the capsular bag had IOL dislocation after two years which was managed with vitrectomy and secondary trans-scleral fixation of IOL. Phacoaspiration with CTR implantation makes capsular bag IOL fixation possible in most of the eyes with subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses. PCO still remains a challenge in children with successful phacoaspiration with CTR implantation.

  5. Results of intraocular lens implantation with capsular tension ring in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children

    Das Pranab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the outcome of intraocular lens (IOL implantation using capsular tension ring (CTR in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children. Setting : Tertiary care setting Materials and Methods : We prospectively studied 18 eyes of 15 children with subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lenses between 90° up to 210° after phacoemulsification, CTR and IOL implantation. Each child was examined for IOL centration, zonular dehiscence and posterior capsular opacification (PCO. Results : Age of the patient ranged between five to 15 years. Out of 18 eyes, seven had traumatic and 11 had spontaneous subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lens. Phacoemulsification was successfully performed with CTR implantation in the capsular bag. Intraoperative zonular dialysis occurred in two eyes. Anterior vitrectomy was performed in six eyes to manage vitreous prolapse. IOL implanted was polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA in eight eyes, hydrophobic acrylic in seven and hydrophilic acrylic in three. Follow-up ranged from 24 months to 72 months. Sixteen eyes had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Nine eyes developed significant PCO and were managed with Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. One eye with acrylic IOL in the capsular bag had IOL dislocation after two years which was managed with vitrectomy and secondary trans-scleral fixation of IOL. Conclusions : Phacoaspiration with CTR implantation makes capsular bag IOL fixation possible in most of the eyes with subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses. PCO still remains a challenge in children with successful phacoaspiration with CTR implantation

  6. Extraction, characterisation and antioxidant activity of Allium sativum polysaccharide.

    Cheng, Hao; Huang, Gangliang

    2018-07-15

    Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Allium sativum were investigated. The crude polysaccharide was obtained by the hot-water extraction method. The molecular weight of polysaccharide deproteinized with CaCl 2 was 7.35×10 3 . It indicated that polysaccharide from Allium sativum consisted of three monosaccharides, namely fructose, glucose, and galactose by HPLC. The polysaccharide had the β-glycosidic bond. Moreover, it was proved that the polysaccharide had the potential scavenging ability to superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. So, it should be a potential antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural analysis of cell wall polysaccharides using PACE

    Mortimer, Jennifer C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint BioEnergy Institute

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall is composed of many complex polysaccharides. The composition and structure of the polysaccharides affect various cell properties including cell shape, cell function and cell adhesion. Many techniques to characterize polysaccharide structure are complicated, requiring expensive equipment and specialized operators e.g. NMR, MALDI-MS. PACE (Polysaccharide Analysis using Carbohydrate gel Electrophoresis) uses a simple, rapid technique to analyze polysaccharide quantity and structure (Goubet et al. 2002). Whilst the method here describes xylan analysis, it can be applied (by use of the appropriate glycosyl hydrolase) to any cell wall polysaccharide.

  8. Second hand smoke exposure and the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Murray Rachael L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive meningococcal disease remains an important cause of serious morbidity and mortality in children and young people. There is a growing body of literature to suggest that exposure to passive smoke may play a role in the development of the disease, therefore we have performed a systematic review to provide a comprehensive estimate of the magnitude of this effect for smoking by any household member, by individual family members, and of maternal smoking before and after birth. Methods Four databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and CAB Abstracts database were searched to identify studies (to June 2012 and reference lists scanned for further studies. Titles, abstracts and full texts were checked for eligibility independently by two authors. Quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using random effect models, with heterogeneity quantified using I2. Results We identified 18 studies which assessed the effects of SHS on the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children. SHS in the home doubled the risk of invasive meningococcal disease (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.92, I2 = 72%, with some evidence of an exposure-response gradient. The strongest effect was seen in children under 5 years (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.51 to 4.09, I2 = 47%. Maternal smoking significantly increased the risk of invasive meningococcal disease by 3 times during pregnancy (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.52-5.66 and by 2 times after birth (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.54-3.31. Conclusions SHS exposure, and particularly passive foetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy, significantly increases the risk of childhood invasive meningococcal disease. It is likely that an extra 630 cases of invasive meningococcal disease annually in children under 16 are directly attributable to SHS exposure in UK homes.

  9. Is the lateral radiograph necessary for the management of intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures?

    Korim, Muhammad Tawfiq; Mohan Reddy, Venthurla Ram; Gibbs, David; Wildin, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate if a lateral hip radiograph is always needed in the management of intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures. Furthermore, we sought to evaluate if a radiographer could accurately identify cases in which the lateral radiograph is not required. Methods: All patients who underwent surgical management of an intra-capsular proximal femoral fracture over a 3 month period at our unit were identified. Radiographs were reviewed by 6 observers: 2 consultant orthopaedic surgeons, 2 registrars, and 2 radiographers. Initially the observers viewed the AP radiographs alone and classified the fractures into displaced, undisplaced, or unclear categories. They were then shown the lateral view and asked for a diagnosis and management plan. Comparison of diagnosis and management based on AP views alone, and AP in-combination with a lateral view was made. Results: 90 patients were included; the mean age was 80.8 years with a range of 42–100 years. 73 underwent arthroplasty and 17 had internal fixation. All observers, including the radiographer were able to make a surgical decision in 90% of the cases based on AP views alone. Lateral radiographs improved the diagnostic accuracy by 6%. The availability of the lateral view did not alter the management in patients where the AP clearly demonstrated a displaced fracture. Conclusion: Elderly patients with a displaced intra-capsular fracture identifiable on the AP do not require a lateral radiograph. Such patients can be accurately identified by the radiographer. Patient discomfort experienced during positioning for the lateral view would be avoided, and a financial saving made.

  10. The risk of capsular breakage from phacoemulsification needle contact with the lens capsule: a laboratory study.

    Meyer, Jay J; Kuo, Annie F; Olson, Randall J

    2010-06-01

    To determine capsular breakage risk from contact by phacoemulsification needles by machine and tip type. Experimental laboratory investigation. Infiniti (Alcon, Inc.) with Intrepid cartridges and Signature (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc.) phacoemulsification machines were tested using 19- and 20-gauge sharp and rounded tips. Actual and unoccluded flow vacuum were determined at 550 mm Hg, bottle height of 75 cm, and machine-indicated flow rate of 60 mL/minute. Breakage from brief tip contact with a capsular surrogate and human cadaveric lenses was calculated. Nineteen-gauge tips had more flow and less unoccluded flow vacuum than 20-gauge tips for both machines, with highest unoccluded flow vacuum in the Infiniti. The 19-gauge sharp tip was more likely than the 20-gauge sharp tip to cause surrogate breakage for Signature with micropulse and Ellips (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc.) ultrasound at 100% power. For Infiniti using OZil (Alcon, Inc.) ultrasound, 20-gauge sharp tips were more likely than 19-gauge sharp tips to break the membrane. For cadaveric lenses, using rounded 20-gauge tips at 100% power, breakage rates were micropulse (2.3%), Ellips (2.3%), OZil (5.3%). Breakage rates for sharp 20-gauge Ellips tips were higher than for rounded tips. Factors influencing capsular breakage may include active vacuum at the tip, flow rate, needle gauge, and sharpness. Nineteen-gauge sharp tips were more likely than 20-gauge tips to cause breakage in lower vacuum methods. For higher-vacuum methods, breakage is more likely with 20-gauge than with 19-gauge tips. Rounded-edge tips are less likely than sharp-edged tips to cause breakage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of capsular tissue around failed Ahmed glaucoma valves.

    Alka Mahale

    Full Text Available Impervious encapsulation around Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV results in surgical failure raising intraocular pressure (IOP. Dysregulation of extracellular matrix (ECM molecules and cellular factors might contribute to increased hydraulic resistance to aqueous drainage. Therefore, we examined these molecules in failed AGV capsular tissue. Immunostaining for ECM molecules (collagen I, collagen III, decorin, lumican, chondroitin sulfate, aggrecan and keratan sulfate and cellular factors (αSMA and TGFβ was performed on excised capsules from failed AGVs and control tenon's tissue. Staining intensity of ECM molecules was assessed using Image J. Cellular factors were assessed based on positive cell counts. Histopathologically two distinct layers were visible in capsules. The inner layer (proximal to the AGV showed significant decrease in most ECM molecules compared to outer layer. Furthermore, collagen III (p = 0.004, decorin (p = 0.02, lumican (p = 0.01 and chondroitin sulfate (p = 0.02 was significantly less in inner layer compared to tenon's tissue. Outer layer labelling however was similar to control tenon's for most ECM molecules. Significantly increased cellular expression of αSMA (p = 0.02 and TGFβ (p = 0.008 was detected within capsular tissue compared to controls. Our results suggest profibrotic activity indicated by increased αSMA and TGFβ expression and decreased expression of proteoglycan (decorin and lumican and glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate. Additionally, we observed decreased collagen III which might reflect increased myofibroblast contractility when coupled with increased TGFβ and αSMA expression. Together these events lead to tissue dysfunction potentially resulting in hydraulic resistance that may affect aqueous flow through the capsular wall.

  12. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of capsular tissue around failed Ahmed glaucoma valves.

    Mahale, Alka; Fikri, Fatma; Al Hati, Khitam; Al Shahwan, Sami; Al Jadaan, Ibrahim; Al Katan, Hind; Khandekar, Rajiv; Maktabi, Azza; Edward, Deepak P

    2017-01-01

    Impervious encapsulation around Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) results in surgical failure raising intraocular pressure (IOP). Dysregulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and cellular factors might contribute to increased hydraulic resistance to aqueous drainage. Therefore, we examined these molecules in failed AGV capsular tissue. Immunostaining for ECM molecules (collagen I, collagen III, decorin, lumican, chondroitin sulfate, aggrecan and keratan sulfate) and cellular factors (αSMA and TGFβ) was performed on excised capsules from failed AGVs and control tenon's tissue. Staining intensity of ECM molecules was assessed using Image J. Cellular factors were assessed based on positive cell counts. Histopathologically two distinct layers were visible in capsules. The inner layer (proximal to the AGV) showed significant decrease in most ECM molecules compared to outer layer. Furthermore, collagen III (p = 0.004), decorin (p = 0.02), lumican (p = 0.01) and chondroitin sulfate (p = 0.02) was significantly less in inner layer compared to tenon's tissue. Outer layer labelling however was similar to control tenon's for most ECM molecules. Significantly increased cellular expression of αSMA (p = 0.02) and TGFβ (p = 0.008) was detected within capsular tissue compared to controls. Our results suggest profibrotic activity indicated by increased αSMA and TGFβ expression and decreased expression of proteoglycan (decorin and lumican) and glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate). Additionally, we observed decreased collagen III which might reflect increased myofibroblast contractility when coupled with increased TGFβ and αSMA expression. Together these events lead to tissue dysfunction potentially resulting in hydraulic resistance that may affect aqueous flow through the capsular wall.

  13. Do textured breast implants decrease the rate of capsular contracture compared to smooth implants?

    Ignacio Cifuentes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El uso de implantes mamarios con propósitos estéticos y reconstructivos se ha convertido en uno de los procedimientos más comunes realizados por los cirujanos plásticos. Existen diversos modelos de implantes mamarios, los cuales difieren en su tamaño, relleno, forma y característica de la envoltura, pudiendo ser lisa o texturizada. La contractura capsular es una de las principales complicaciones del uso de implantes mamarios y se ha planteado que las prótesis texturizadas podrían disminuir la incidencia de contractura capsular. Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud a nivel mundial, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Identificamos cinco revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 15 estudios primarios, 13 de ellos correspondientes a ensayos aleatorizados pertinentes a la pregunta de interés. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que el uso de prótesis mamaria texturizada probablemente disminuye el riesgo de contractura capsular, sin embargo, podría asociarse a un aumento en el riesgo de linfoma anaplásico de células grandes.

  14. Recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae Lineages Increase with Carriage Duration and Size of the Polysaccharide Capsule

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Harris, Simon R.; Cornick, Jennifer E.; Yang, Marie; Bricio-Moreno, Laura; Kamng’ona, Arox W.; French, Neil; Heyderman, Robert S.; Kadioglu, Aras; Everett, Dean B.; Bentley, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate) and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency). Using univariate analyses, we found an association between both recombination measures and multiple factors associated with the capsule, including duration and prevalence of carriage. Because many capsular factors are correlated, we used multivariate analysis to correct for collinearity. Capsule size and carriage duration remained positively associated with recombination, although with a reduced P value, and this effect may be mediated through some unassayed additional property associated with larger capsules. This work describes an important impact of serotype on recombination that has been previously overlooked. While the details of how this effect is achieved remain to be determined, it may have important consequences for the serotype-specific response to vaccines and other interventions. PMID:27677790

  15. Recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae Lineages Increase with Carriage Duration and Size of the Polysaccharide Capsule

    Chrispin Chaguza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency. Using univariate analyses, we found an association between both recombination measures and multiple factors associated with the capsule, including duration and prevalence of carriage. Because many capsular factors are correlated, we used multivariate analysis to correct for collinearity. Capsule size and carriage duration remained positively associated with recombination, although with a reduced P value, and this effect may be mediated through some unassayed additional property associated with larger capsules. This work describes an important impact of serotype on recombination that has been previously overlooked. While the details of how this effect is achieved remain to be determined, it may have important consequences for the serotype-specific response to vaccines and other interventions.

  16. Capsular and thalamic infarction caused by tentorial herniation subsequent to head trauma

    Endo, M.; Ichikawa, F.; Miyasaka, Y.; Yada, K.; Ohwada, T.

    1991-01-01

    Five patients (4 male and 1 female) were observed to have capsular and thalamic infarction ascribed to descending transtentorial herniation (DTH) caused by head injury. A lucid interval immediately after the trauma and the presence of an epidural hematoma (EDH) characterized all five case. The low attenuation implicated the perforating arteries, that is the anterior thalamoperforating and anterior choroidal arteries, suggesting infarcted regions caused by occlusion of these arteries. Findings in the present study suggest that arterial occlusion in closed head injury may result from DTH. Moreover, infarction may be attributed to the delayed effects of injury. (orig./GDG)

  17. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  18. Meningococcal disease in children in Merseyside, England: a 31 year descriptive study.

    Michelle C Stanton

    Full Text Available Meningococcal disease (MCD is the leading infectious cause of death in early childhood in the United Kingdom, making it a public health priority. MCD most commonly presents as meningococcal meningitis (MM, septicaemia (MS, or as a combination of the two syndromes (MM/MS. We describe the changing epidemiology and clinical presentation of MCD, and explore associations with socioeconomic status and other risk factors. A hospital-based study of children admitted to a tertiary children's centre, Alder Hey Children's Foundation Trust, with MCD, was undertaken between 1977 to 2007 (n = 1157. Demographics, clinical presentations, microbiological confirmation and measures of deprivation were described. The majority of cases occurred in the 1-4 year age group and there was a dramatic fall in serogroup C cases observed with the introduction of the meningococcal C conjugate (MCC vaccine. The proportion of MS cases increased over the study period, from 11% in the first quarter to 35% in the final quarter. Presentation with MS (compared to MM and serogroup C disease (compared to serogroup B were demonstrated to be independent risk factors for mortality, with odds ratios of 3.5 (95% CI 1.18 to 10.08 and 2.18 (95% CI 1.26 to 3.80 respectively. Cases admitted to Alder Hey were from a relatively more deprived population (mean Townsend score 1.25, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.41 than the Merseyside reference population. Our findings represent one of the largest single-centre studies of MCD. The presentation of MS is confirmed to be a risk factor of mortality from MCD. Our study supports the association between social deprivation and MCD.

  19. Introducing vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease: an economic and mathematical modelling study of potential impact.

    Christensen, Hannah; Hickman, Matthew; Edmunds, W John; Trotter, Caroline L

    2013-05-28

    Meningococcal disease remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The first broadly effective vaccine against group B disease (which causes considerable meningococcal disease in Europe, the Americas and Australasia) was licensed in the EU in January 2013; our objective was to estimate the potential impact of introducing such a vaccine in England. We developed two models to estimate the impact of introducing a new 'MenB' vaccine. The cohort model assumes the vaccine protects against disease only; the transmission dynamic model also allows the vaccine to protect against carriage (accounting for herd effects). We used these, and economic models, to estimate the case reduction and cost-effectiveness of a number of different vaccine strategies. We estimate 27% of meningococcal disease cases could be prevented over the lifetime of an English birth cohort by vaccinating infants at 2,3,4 and 12 months of age with a vaccine that prevents disease only; this strategy could be cost-effective at £9 per vaccine dose. Substantial reductions in disease (71%) can be produced after 10 years by routinely vaccinating infants in combination with a large-scale catch-up campaign, using a vaccine which protects against carriage as well as disease; this could be cost-effective at £17 per vaccine dose. New 'MenB' vaccines could substantially reduce disease in England and be cost-effective if competitively priced, particularly if the vaccines can prevent carriage as well as disease. These results are relevant to other countries, with a similar epidemiology to England, considering the introduction of a new 'MenB' vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety and immunogenicity of a CRM or TT conjugated meningococcal vaccine in healthy toddlers.

    Bona, Gianni; Castiglia, Paolo; Zoppi, Giorgio; de Martino, Maurizio; Tasciotti, Annaelisa; D'Agostino, Diego; Han, Linda; Smolenov, Igor

    2016-06-17

    MenACWY-CRM (Menveo(®); GlaxoSmithKline) and MenACWY-TT (Nimenrix(®); Pfizer) are two meningococcal vaccines licensed in the European Union for use in both children and adults. While both vaccines target meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y, immunogenicity and reactogenicity of these quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines may differ due to differences in formulation processes and chemical structure. Yet data on the comparability of these two vaccines are limited. The reactogenicity and immunogenicity of one dose of either MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-TT were evaluated in healthy toddlers aged 12-15 months. Immunogenicity was assessed using serum bactericidal antibody assays (SBA) with human (hSBA) and rabbit (rSBA) complement. A total of 202 children aged 12-15 months were enrolled to receive one dose of MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-TT. Similar numbers of subjects reported solicited reactions within 7 days following either vaccination. Tenderness at the injection site was the most common local reaction. Systemic reactions reported were similar for both vaccines and mostly mild to moderate in severity: irritability, sleepiness and change in eating habits were most commonly reported. Immunogenicity at 1 month post-vaccination was generally comparable for both vaccines across serogroups. At 6 months post-vaccination antibody persistence against serogroups C, W, and Y was substantial for both vaccines, as measured by both assay methodologies. For serogroup A, hSBA titers declined in both groups, while rSBA titers remained high. Despite differences in composition, the MenACWY-CRM and MenACWY-TT vaccines have comparable reactogenicity and immunogenicity profiles. Immediate immune responses and short-term antibody persistence were largely similar between groups. Both vaccines were well-tolerated and no safety concerns were identified. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. An outbreak of serogroup C (ST-11) meningococcal disease in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Chacon-Cruz, Enrique; Espinosa-De Los Monteros, Luz Elena; Navarro-Alvarez, Samuel; Aranda-Lozano, Jose Luis; Volker-Soberanes, Maria Luisa; Rivas-Landeros, Rosa Maria; Alvelais-Arzamendi, Ariadna Annete; Vazquez, Julio Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) has been reported to be endemic in children from Tijuana, Mexico and the risk of an outbreak was always a threat. To describe all clinical, epidemiological and microbiological features of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in Tijuana, Mexico. All cases with IMD were admitted at different emergency departments within the city and diagnosed by culture and agglutination tests. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism pulse field gel electrophoresis (RFLP-PFGE) and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. All clinical and epidemiological characteristics and interventions were evaluated, as well as risk factors associated with mortality. From 30 January 2013 to 30 March 2013 there were 19 cases of IMD all caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. The median age was 16 years (2-47), with higher frequency among individuals at least 13 years old (73.7%). At admission, meningitis was the main clinical presentation (94.7%), followed by purpura (78.9%), septic shock (42.1%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, 36.8%). Overall mortality was seven (36.8%). Variables associated with higher mortality were, at admission, presence of septic shock, DIC and thrombocytopenia less than 70,000. All 19 cases had no identifiable site or cluster as the source of the outbreak. RFLP-PFGE showed a discriminatory power for only one profile on all N. meningitidis strains analyzed and a clone ST-11 was identified in all strains. Public health interventions were continuous case reporting of all suspected cases of IMD, an increase in active surveillance in all hospitals, training of medical and laboratory personnel, massive and rapid chemoprophylaxis to all close contacts as indicated, and promotion of good health habits. An outbreak with high mortality of IMD occurred in Tijuana, Mexico. This event and evidence of endemicity should encourage health authorities to evaluate meningococcal vaccination in the region.

  2. Background Paper for the update of meningococcal vaccination recommendations in Germany: use of the serogroup B vaccine in persons at increased risk for meningococcal disease.

    Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Koch, Judith; Harder, Thomas; Bogdan, Christian; Heininger, Ulrich; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Terhardt, Martin; Vogel, Ulrich; Wichmann, Ole; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2015-11-01

    In December 2013 Bexsero® became available in Germany for vaccination against serogroup B meningococci (MenB). In August 2015 the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) endorsed a recommendation for use of this vaccine in persons at increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). This background paper summarizes the evidence underlying the recommendation. Bexsero® is based on surface protein antigens expressed by about 80% of circulating serogroup B meningococci in Germany. The paper reviews available data on immunogenicity and safety of Bexsero® in healthy children and adolescents; data in persons with underlying illness and on the effectiveness in preventing clinical outcomes are thus far unavailable.STIKO recommends MenB vaccination for the following persons based on an individual risk assessment: (1) Persons with congenital or acquired immune deficiency or suppression. Among these, persons with terminal complement defects and properdin deficiency, including those under eculizumab therapy, are at highest risk with reported invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) incidences up 10,000-fold higher than in the general population. Persons with asplenia were estimated to have a ~ 20-30-fold increased risk of IMD, while the risk in individuals with other immune defects such as HIV infection or hypogammaglobulinaemia was estimated at no more than 5-10-fold higher than the background risk. (2) Laboratory staff with a risk of exposure to N. meningitidis aerosols, for whom an up to 271-fold increased risk for IMD has been reported. (3) Unvaccinated household (-like) contacts of a MenB IMD index case, who have a roughly 100-200-fold increased IMD risk in the year after the contact despite chemoprophylaxis. Because the risk is highest in the first 3 months and full protective immunity requires more than one dose (particularly in infants and toddlers), MenB vaccine should be administered as soon as possible following identification of the serogroup of the

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Various Ratios of Polysaccharides/Alkaloids from ...

    and increases survival in endotoxemic mice. Acta. Pharmacol Sin ... secretion in hyperthyroid diarrheic rats. Regul Peptides ... effect of Coptis chinensis polysaccharide in high-fat diet ... polysaccharides decrease blood sugar by inhibition of α-.

  4. Three-Dimensional Structural Aspects of Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions

    Masamichi Nagae

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity enhancement in the face of inherently weak binding interactions.

  5. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from Myceliophthora thermophila C1

    Frommhagen, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Current developments aim at the effective enzymatic degradation of plant biomass polysaccharides into fermentable monosaccharides for biofuels and biochemicals. Recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxgygenases (LPMOs) boost the hydrolytic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass, especially

  6. Eficacia de la vacuna meningocócica de polisacárido capsular del grupo C

    González Enríquez Jesús; García Comas Luis; Alcaide Jiménez Juan Francisco; Sáenz Calvo Antonio; Conde Olasagasti José

    1997-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: Este trabajo consiste esencialmente en una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica sobre los efectos, intensidad y duración de la respuesta serológica, así como sobre la eficacia, efectividad y seguridad de la vacuna meningocócica de polisacárido capsular del grupo C. MÉTODOS: Búsqueda en repertorio MEDLINE en el periodo 1970-1996. Búsqueda específica de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y estudios de intervención prospectivos en humanos con vacunas de polisacáridos capsular...

  7. Identification of interstellar polysaccharides and related hydrocarbons

    Hoyle, F.; Olavesen, A.H.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the infrared transmittance spectra of several polysaccharides that may be of interest as possible interstellar candidates. It is stated that a 2.5 to 15 μm spectrum computed from the author's measurements is remarkably close to that required to explain a wide range of astronomical data, except for two points. First the required relative opacity at the 3 μm absorption dip is a factor of about 1.5 lower than was found in laboratory measurements; this difference may arise from the presence of water in terrestrial polysaccharide samples. Secondly, in the 9.5 to 12 μm waveband an additional source of opacity appears to be necessary. Close agreement between the spectrum of this additional opacity and the absorption spectrum of propene, C 3 H 6 , points strongly to the presence of hydrocarbons of this type, which may be associated with polysaccharide grains in interstellar space. (U.K.)

  8. Invasive meningococcal disease epidemiology and control measures: a framework for evaluation

    Coudeville L

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meningococcal disease can have devastating consequences. As new vaccines emerge, it is necessary to assess their impact on public health. In the absence of long-term real world data, modeling the effects of different vaccination strategies is required. Discrete event simulation provides a flexible platform with which to conduct such evaluations. Methods A discrete event simulation of the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease was developed to quantify the potential impact of implementing routine vaccination of adolescents in the United States with a quadrivalent conjugate vaccine protecting against serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135. The impact of vaccination is assessed including both the direct effects on individuals vaccinated and the indirect effects resulting from herd immunity. The simulation integrates a variety of epidemiologic and demographic data, with core information on the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease and outbreak frequency derived from data available through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Simulation of the potential indirect benefits of vaccination resulting from herd immunity draw on data from the United Kingdom, where routine vaccination with a conjugate vaccine has been in place for a number of years. Cases of disease are modeled along with their health consequences, as are the occurrence of disease outbreaks. Results When run without a strategy of routine immunization, the simulation accurately predicts the age-specific incidence of invasive meningococcal disease and the site-specific frequency of outbreaks in the Unite States. 2,807 cases are predicted annually, resulting in over 14,000 potential life years lost due to invasive disease. In base case analyses of routine vaccination, life years lost due to infection are reduced by over 45% (to 7,600 when routinely vaccinating adolescents 12 years of age at 70% coverage. Sensitivity analyses indicate that herd immunity plays

  9. Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal B disease in Australia, 1999-2015: priority populations for vaccination.

    Archer, Brett N; Chiu, Clayton K; Jayasinghe, Sanjay H; Richmond, Peter C; McVernon, Jodie; Lahra, Monica M; Andrews, Ross M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2017-11-06

    To describe trends in the age-specific incidence of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Australia, 1999-2015. Analysis in February 2017 of de-identified notification data from the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System of all notifications of IMD in Australia with a recorded diagnosis date during 1999-2015.Major outcomes: IMD notification rates in Australia, 1999-2015, by age, serogroup, Indigenous status, and region. The incidence of meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) disease declined progressively from 1.52 cases per 100 000 population in 2001 to 0.47 per 100 000 in 2015. During 2006-2015, MenB accounted for 81% of IMD cases with a known serogroup; its highest incidence was among infants under 12 months of age (11.1 [95% CI, 9.81-12.2] per 100 000), children aged 1-4 years (2.82 [95% CI, 2.52-3.15] per 100 000), and adolescents aged 15-19 years (2.40 [95% CI, 2.16-2.67] per 100 000). Among the 473 infants under 2 years of age with MenB, 43% were under 7 months and 69% under 12 months of age. The incidence of meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) disease prior to the introduction of the MenC vaccine in 2003 was much lower in infants than for MenB (2.60 cases per 100 000), the rate peaking in people aged 15-19 years (3.32 per 100 000); the overall case fatality rate was also higher (MenC, 8%; MenB, 4%). The incidence of MenB disease was significantly higher among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians during 2006-2015 (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 3.8; 95% CI, 3.3-4.5). Based on disease incidence at its current low endemic levels, priority at risk age/population groups for MenB vaccination include all children between 2 months and 5 years of age, Indigenous children under 10 years of age, and all adolescents aged 15-19 years. Given marked variation in meningococcal disease trends over time, close scrutiny of current epidemiologic data is essential.

  10. Effects of Zafirlukast on the Capsular Fibrosis of Silicone Breast Implants

    Emre Hocaoglu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: Forty-eight adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Smooth-surfaced, gel-filled prostheses were implanted in 36 rats. Group A: The day of the operation, 12 animals received Zafirlukast treatment for 14 weeks (oral gavage, once a day, 6 days a week, 4 mg/kg/day; Group B: 10 weeks after the operation, 12 animals received Zafirlukast treatment for 4 weeks; Group C: 12 animals were implanted but did not receive treatment; Group D: 12 animals did not have an operation, but for 14 weeks received oral gavage containing water instead of Zafirlukast. At the end of the 14 weeks, the implants with the surrounding capsules were extracted. Blind macroscopic inspectional evaluation of the capsules was performed, and microscopic capsular thickness measurements were made. Results: The mean capsular thickness was 0.033 mm (SD: 0.011 in Group A, and 0.089 mm (SD: 0.023 and 0.125 mm (SD: 0.025 in Groups B and C, respectively. Differences between Groups A and C and between Groups A and B were significant (p0.05. Similarly, Macroscopic Inspectional Fibrosis Scoring showed a significant difference between Groups A and C and a non-significant difference between Groups B and C. Conclusion: Daily prophylactic oral administration of Zafirlukast immediately after implantation significantly diminishes the development of fibrotic capsules around the silicone prostheses. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 139-146

  11. Comparison of virulence factors and capsular types of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from human and bovine infections.

    Emaneini, Mohammad; Khoramian, Babak; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Abani, Samira; Dabiri, Hossein; Beigverdi, Reza

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of human and bovine infections. A total of 194 S. agalactiae isolates, 55 isolates from bovines and 139 from humans, were analyzed for capsular types, virulence genes (scpB, hly, rib, bca and bac) and mobile genetic elements (IS1548 and GBSi1) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex PCR. Capsular type III was predominant (61%), followed by types V, II, Ib, and IV. The scpB, hly, bca and bac virulence genes were only found among human isolates. Twelve and 2 distinct virulence gene profiles were identified among human and bovine isolates respectively. The virulence gene profiles scpB- hly- IS1548- rib-bca (51%) and scpB- hly- IS1548- bca (19%) were only predominant among human isolates. The rib gene was the most common virulence gene in both human and bovine isolates. The study showed a high prevalence of virulence genes in S. agalactiae strains isolated from human infections, these result can support the idea that S. agalactiae isolated from humans and bovines are generally unrelated and probably belonged to separate populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensory-parietal cortical stimulation improves motor recovery in severe capsular infarct.

    Kim, Ra Gyung; Cho, Jongwook; Ree, Jinkyue; Kim, Hyung-Sun; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Kim, Jin-Myung; Lee, Min-Cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of subcortical white matter strokes in elderly patients is on the rise, but these patients show mixed responses to conventional rehabilitative interventions. To examine whether cortical electrical stimulation can promote motor recovery after white matter stroke, we delivered stimulation to a small or wide region of sensory-parietal cortex for two weeks in a rodent model of circumscribed subcortical capsular infarct. The sham-operated group (SOG) showed persistent and severe motor impairments together with decreased activation in bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striatum. In contrast, sensory-parietal cortex stimulation significantly improved motor recovery: final recovery levels were 72.9% of prelesion levels in the wide stimulation group (WSG) and 37% of prelesion levels in the small stimulation group (SSG). The microPET imaging showed reversal of cortical diaschisis in both groups: in both hemispheres for the WSG, and in the hemisphere ipsilateral to stimulation in the SSG. In addition, we observed activation of the corpus callosum and subcortical corticostriatal structures after stimulation. The results from the c-Fos mapping study were grossly consistent with the microPET imaging. Sensory-parietal cortex stimulation may therefore be a useful strategy for overcoming the limits of rehabilitative training in patients with severe forms of subcortical capsular infarct. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Net technique for intraocular lens support in aphakia without capsular support.

    De Novelli, Fernando José; Neto, Theodomiro Lourenço Garrido; de Sena Rabelo, Gabriel; Blumer, Marcel Eduardo; Suzuki, Ricardo; Ghanem, Ramon Coral

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a modified surgical technique for intraocular lens implantation in aphakic eyes with no capsular support. Retrospective case series. Seventeen eyes of 17 aphakic patients with no capsule support underwent intraocular lens (IOL) implantation using a standardized technique in which a net was created at the ciliary sulcus plane with two threads forming a net pattern. The net was used as support for the IOL. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 38 months, with an average of 23 months. In all cases, the IOL was safely implanted and remained stable during the follow-up. In 16 eyes, the IOL remained well centered; in one eye, slight decentration was observed. Distance-corrected visual acuity improved by a mean of 4 lines, from 1.13 (LogMAR) to 0.52 (P = 0.01). This technique might be especially useful in cases of insufficient capsular support associated with tissue loss or iris atrophy. In these cases, iris fixation is not feasible; thus, the only surgical alternative is IOL scleral fixation.

  14. Regulation and diversity of plant polysaccharide utilisation in fungi

    Battaglia, E.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi obtain their nutrients by degrading dead or living plant material. Plant material consists of different cell wall and storage polysaccharides. Due to the complex structure and the variety of plant polysaccharides, filamentous fungi secrete a wide range of plant polysaccharide

  15. Síndrome de distensión del saco capsular: Presentación de un caso Capsular bag distension syndrome: A case presentation

    Belmary Aragonés Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La capsulorrexis es el método preferido para la realización de la capsulotomía anterior. El síndrome de distensión del saco capsular es una complicación posoperatoria poco frecuente asociada a esta técnica. En este artículo presentamos un caso clínico de una mujer de 70 años, que presentaba una catarata nuclear dura en ojo izquierdo, a la cual se le realizó cirugía extracapsular técnica de Mini Nuc de Blumenthal, con capsulorrexis anterior e implante de LIO de Polimetil Metacrilato en cápsula posterior. Un mes más tarde la paciente acude con disminución de la visión, con sobrerrefracción miópica postoperatoria y desplazamiento anterior del lente. Se realizó capsulotomía anterior periférica con láser Nd YAG que resolvió la complicación, con recuperación de la profundidad de la cámara anterior y reposicionamiento del lente. La capsulotomía anterior periférica con láser es la mejor opción terapéutica, al ser inocua, de rápida recuperación, excelentes resultados visuales y mínimas complicacionesCapsulorrhexis is the preferred method to perform anterior capsulotomy. Capsular bag distension syndrome is one of the less frequent postoperative complications associated to this technique. This article prresented the clinical case of a 70-years-old woman who presented with hard nuclear cataract in hter left eye and underwent an extracapsular surgery by Mini Nuc technique, with anterior capsulorrhexis and polymethyl-metacrylate IoL implant in posterior capsule. A month after surgery, the patient went to the doctor´s with reduced vision, posoperative myopic overrefraction and anterior displacement of the lens. Then, peripheral anterior capsulotomy with Nd YAG laser was used to overcome this problem; anterior chamber depth and repositioning of the lens were recovered. Peripheral anterior capsulotomy with laser is the best therapeutic choice since it is harmless, and offers rapid recovery, excellent visual results and minimal

  16. The progeny of a single virgin B cell predominates the human recall B cell response to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Barington, T; Hougs, L; Juul, L

    1996-01-01

    of the cells originated from a common virgin B cell. Kinetic considerations implied that an extremely selected population of hypermutated memory B cells must have existed in these individuals before the first systemic immunization with the Ag. A possible role for the mucosal immune system in the priming...

  17. Cross-reactivity of antibodies against PorA after vaccination with a meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine

    Vermont, C. L.; van Dijken, H. H.; Kuipers, A. J.; van Limpt, C. J. P.; Keijzers, W. C. M.; van der Ende, A.; de Groot, R.; van Alphen, L.; van den Dobbelsteen, G. P. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The cross-reactivity of PorA-specific antibodies induced by a monovalent P1.7-2,4 (MonoMen) and/or a hexavalent (HexaMen) meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine (OMV) in toddlers and school children was studied by serum bactericidal assays (SBA). First, isogenic vaccine strains and

  18. Polysaccharide charge density regulating protein adsorption to air/water interfaces by protein/polysaccharide complex formation

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Kosters, H.; Vliet, T. van; Stuart, M.A.C.; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2007-01-01

    Because the formation of protein/polysaccharide complexes is dominated by electrostatic interaction, polysaccharide charge density is expected to play a major role in the adsorption behavior of the complexes. In this study, pullulan (a non-charged polysaccharide) carboxylated to four different

  19. Evolutionary Events Associated with an Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Becher, Dörte; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Frosch, Matthias; Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Hong, Eva; Parent du Châtelet, Isabelle; Prior, Karola; Harmsen, Dag; Vogel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Meningococci spread via respiratory droplets, whereas the closely related gonococci are transmitted sexually. Several outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease have been reported in Europe and the United States among men who have sex with men (MSM). We recently identified an outbreak of serogroup C meningococcal disease among MSM in Germany and France. In this study, genomic and proteomic techniques were used to analyze the outbreak isolates. In addition, genetically identical urethritis isolates were recovered from France and Germany and included in the analysis. Genome sequencing revealed that the isolates from the outbreak among MSM and from urethritis cases belonged to a clade within clonal complex 11. Proteome analysis showed they expressed nitrite reductase, enabling anaerobic growth as previously described for gonococci. Invasive isolates from MSM, but not urethritis isolates, further expressed functional human factor H binding protein associated with enhanced survival in a newly developed transgenic mouse model expressing human factor H, a complement regulatory protein. In conclusion, our data suggest that urethritis and outbreak isolates followed a joint adaptation route including adaption to the urogenital tract. PMID:27167067

  20. Evolutionary Events Associated with an Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease in Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Muhamed-Kheir Taha

    Full Text Available Meningococci spread via respiratory droplets, whereas the closely related gonococci are transmitted sexually. Several outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease have been reported in Europe and the United States among men who have sex with men (MSM. We recently identified an outbreak of serogroup C meningococcal disease among MSM in Germany and France. In this study, genomic and proteomic techniques were used to analyze the outbreak isolates. In addition, genetically identical urethritis isolates were recovered from France and Germany and included in the analysis. Genome sequencing revealed that the isolates from the outbreak among MSM and from urethritis cases belonged to a clade within clonal complex 11. Proteome analysis showed they expressed nitrite reductase, enabling anaerobic growth as previously described for gonococci. Invasive isolates from MSM, but not urethritis isolates, further expressed functional human factor H binding protein associated with enhanced survival in a newly developed transgenic mouse model expressing human factor H, a complement regulatory protein. In conclusion, our data suggest that urethritis and outbreak isolates followed a joint adaptation route including adaption to the urogenital tract.

  1. Meningococcal Two-Partner Secretion Systems and Their Association with Outcome in Patients with Meningitis

    Piet, Jurgen R.; van Ulsen, Peter; ur Rahman, Sadeeq; Bovenkerk, Sandra; Bentley, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Two-partner secretion (TPS) systems export large TpsA proteins to the surface and extracellular milieu. In meningococci, three different TPS systems exist, and of these, TPS system 2 (TPS2) and TPS3 can be detected by the host's immune system. We evaluated the distribution of TPS systems among clinical isolates from two prospective cohort studies comprising 373 patients with meningococcal meningitis. TPS system 1 was present in 91% of isolates, and system 2 and/or 3 was present in 67%. The TPS system distribution was related to clonal complexes. Infection with strains with TPS2 and/or TPS3 resulted in less severe disease and better outcomes than infection with strains without these systems. Using whole-blood stimulation experiments, we found no differences in the host cytokine response between patients infected with TPS system 2 and 3 knockout strains and patients infected with a wild-type strain. In conclusion, meningococcal TPS system 2 and/or 3 is associated with disease severity and outcome in patients with meningitis. PMID:27324486

  2. EpiScanGIS: an online geographic surveillance system for meningococcal disease

    Albert Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance of infectious diseases increasingly relies on Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The integration of pathogen fine typing data in dynamic systems and visualization of spatio-temporal clusters are a technical challenge for system development. Results An online geographic information system (EpiScanGIS based on open source components has been launched in Germany in May 2006 for real time provision of meningococcal typing data in conjunction with demographic information (age, incidence, population density. Spatio-temporal clusters of disease detected by computer assisted cluster analysis (SaTScan™ are visualized on maps. EpiScanGIS enables dynamic generation of animated maps. The system is based on open source components; its architecture is open for other infectious agents and geographic regions. EpiScanGIS is available at http://www.episcangis.org, and currently has 80 registered users, mostly from the public health service in Germany. At present more than 2,900 cases of invasive meningococcal disease are stored in the database (data as of June 3, 2008. Conclusion EpiScanGIS exemplifies GIS applications and early-warning systems in laboratory surveillance of infectious diseases.

  3. Polysaccharide coating of human corneal endothelium

    Schroder, H D; Sperling, S

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscopy revealed the presence of a 600-1500 A thick layer of polysaccharide on the surface of human corneal endothelial cells. The surface layer was visualized by combined fixation and staining in a mixture of ruthenium red and osmium tetroxide. The coating material was stable for at ...... for at least 39 h post mortem and was retained on disintegrating cells....

  4. Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides.

    Beauregard, Pascale B; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-04-23

    Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant.

  5. Therapeutic role of glucogalactan polysaccharide extracted from ...

    RACHEL

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... Neurotransmitters and nitric oxide were significantly increased in the group given GA treatment compared to TMT .... Fractionation was performed by precipitating with ammonium sulfate. ..... deleterious effects of nitrogen reactive species accumula- .... Studies on the production of sulfated polysaccharide by.

  6. Preparation and antidiabetic activity of polysaccharide from ...

    Extraction parameters of polysaccharide from Portulaca oleracea L. (POP) and antidiabetic activity of POP on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. Better extraction parameters of POP were obtained by the single factor test, as follows: extraction temperature 95°C, extraction time 5 h, and ratio of solvent to raw ...

  7. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    Purpose: To investigate the optimum extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Pinellia Rhizoma (PRP) and their antioxidant activities. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the water extraction conditions of PRP by Box-Benhnken design (BBD). A high performance liquid ...

  8. Enzymatic production of polysaccharides from gum tragacanth

    2014-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases...

  9. Modulation of Porphyridium aerugineum polysaccharide rheology ...

    A stock (0.5% w/v) aqueous solution of the polysaccharide of the microalga Porphyridium aerugineum was further diluted using (i) deionized water and (ii) an aqueous (0.2% w/v) solution of a new, garden soil extract. The viscosity of the resultant solution was higher by about 23% (5 samples) where the soil extract was used ...

  10. Plant-Polysaccharide-Degrading Enzymes from Basidiomycetes

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Yuzon, Jennifer; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Basidiomycete fungi subsist on various types of plant material in diverse environments, from living and dead trees and forest litter to crops and grasses and to decaying plant matter in soils. Due to the variation in their natural carbon sources, basidiomycetes have highly varied plant-polysaccharide-degrading capabilities. This topic is not as well studied for basidiomycetes as for ascomycete fungi, which are the main sources of knowledge on fungal plant polysaccharide degradation. Research on plant-biomass-decaying fungi has focused on isolating enzymes for current and future applications, such as for the production of fuels, the food industry, and waste treatment. More recently, genomic studies of basidiomycete fungi have provided a profound view of the plant-biomass-degrading potential of wood-rotting, litter-decomposing, plant-pathogenic, and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) basidiomycetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge on plant polysaccharide depolymerization by basidiomycete species from diverse habitats. In addition, these data are compared to those for the most broadly studied ascomycete genus, Aspergillus, to provide insight into specific features of basidiomycetes with respect to plant polysaccharide degradation. PMID:25428937

  11. Enzymatic production of hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides

    Kooy, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides are abundant in the human body. Depending on the chain length, hyaluronan is an important structural component or is involved in influencing cell responses during embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation and cancer. Due to these diverse roles of

  12. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    Yoshii, Fumio; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  13. Improved coupling of bacterial polysaccharides to macromolecules and solid supports

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing a polysaccharide-carrier conjugate comprising coupling a polysaccharide to a carrier, said polysaccharide comprising at least one monosaccharide unit comprising a keto-carboxy group according to the formula -C(=O)COOR, where R is either hydrogen or C1......-alkoxyamine group of the carrier with a keto-carboxy group of said polysaccharide to form a covalent amide bond between the carrier and the polysaccharide. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a compound or solid surface obtained when performing the method of the present invention. A third aspect...

  14. [Imaging manifestations and pathologic basis for hepatic capsular retraction syndrome caused by benign and malignant liver tumors].

    Ou, Youkuan; Xiao, Enhua; Shang, Quanliang; Chen, Juan

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the imaging manifestations of CT, MRI and pathological basis for hepatic capsular retraction syndrome caused by benign and malignant liver tumors.
 CT or MRI images and pathological features for hepatic capsular retraction syndrome were retrospectively analyzed in 50 patients with benign and malignant liver tumors. Picture archive and communication system (PACS) was used to observe and compare the morphology, size, width, depth, edge of the capsular retraction and the status of liquid under the liver capsule. The structure, differentiation and proliferation of the tumor were analyzed under the microscope.
 There were malignant liver tumors in 44 patients and benign tumor in 6 patients. The smooth or rough for the edge of capsular retraction was significant difference between the benign tumors and the malignant tumors with three differentiated grades (all PBenign and malignant hepatic tumors may appear capsule retraction syndrome, but there are morphological differences between them. The differences are closely related with the lesion size, differentiated degree of tumor and fibrous tissue proliferation.

  15. On the trail of preventing meningococcal disease: a survey of students planning to travel to the United States.

    Huang, Hsien-Liang; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Lee, Long-Teng; Yao, Chien-An; Chu, Chia-Wei; Lu, Chia-Wen; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2013-01-01

    College freshmen living in dormitories are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Many students become a high-risk population when they travel to the United States. This study surveyed the knowledge, attitudes toward, and behavior surrounding the disease among Taiwanese college students planning to study in the United States, and to identify factors that may affect willingness to accept meningococcal vaccination. A cross-sectional survey of college students going to study in the United States was conducted in a medical center-based travel medicine clinic. Background information, attitudes, general knowledge, preventive or postexposure management, and individual preventive practices were collected through a structured questionnaire. A total of 358 students were included in the final analysis. More than 90% of participants believed that preventing meningococcal disease was important. However, fewer than 50% of students accurately answered six of nine questions exploring knowledge of the disease, and only 17.3% of students knew the correct management strategy after close contact with patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that students who understood the mode of transmission (odds ratio: 3.21, 95% CI = 1.117-9.229), medication management (1.88, 1.045-3.38), and epidemiology (2.735, 1.478-5.061) tended to be vaccinated. Despite an overall positive attitude toward meningococcal vaccination, there was poor knowledge about meningococcal disease. Promoting education on the mode of transmission, epidemiology, and pharmacological management of the disease could increase vaccination rates. Both the governments and travel medicine specialists should work together on developing an education program for this high-risk group other than just requiring vaccination. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  16. [Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine: Impact of a vaccination program and long-term effectiveness in Navarra, Spain, 2000-2014].

    Morales, Desirée; García-Cenoz, Manuel; Moreno, Laura; Bernaola, Enrique; Barricarte, Aurelio; Castilla, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    Since 2000, when the meningococcal serogroupC conjugate vaccine (MenCC) was introduced in the childhood immunization schedule in Spain, several changes in the schedule and catch-up campaigns have been performed. We aim to estimate the impact and effectiveness of this vaccine in Navarra up to 2014. The impact of the vaccination program was analysed by comparing incidence, mortality and lethality rates of disease before (1995-1999) and after (2004-2014) the introduction of the MenCC. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated using the screening method (Farrington) and the indirect cohort method (Broome). Data on cases were obtained from the active surveillance of meningococcal disease. During 1995-1999 the mean annual incidence of meningococcalC disease was 1.32 per 100,000, and 7.18 per 100,000 in children younger than 15years. The fall of meningococcalC disease incidence was significant in cohorts targeted for vaccination from the beginning and progressive in the general population. No cases were reported between 2011 and 2014. The estimated vaccine effectiveness was 96% by the screening method, and 99% by the indirect cohort method. The MenCC vaccination program has been successful in decreasing the incidence rate of serogroupC meningococcal disease in Navarra, and schedule changes have maintained high vaccine effectiveness throughout the study period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Biodegradation of bacterial polysaccharides adsorbed on montmorillonite

    Guckert, A.; Tok, H.H.; Jacquin, F.

    1977-01-01

    In this research, by means of a model, a study was made of the biodegradation of microbial organic compounds adsorbed on clays, with a parallel experiment on Fontainebleau sand serving as the control. During incubation the three classes of organic matter ( 14 C-labelled glucose, 14 C-labelled polysaccharides and 14 C-labelled microbial cells) mineralize more actively in the presence of sand than in the presence of clay, since the latter provides protection against biodegradation. Mineralization of the adsorbed organic compounds, however, is marked by clear-cut differences after three weeks - glucose (55%)>polysaccharides (43%)>microbial organisms (7.3%). After incubation, chemical extraction of the organo-mineral complexes by alkaline solvents shows only water-soluble and alkali-soluble products in the case of sand; conversely, in that of montmorillonite the bulk of the 14 C was found in the non-extractable fraction or humin (18.1% of the initial 14 C for glucose, 27.3% for the polysaccharides, and 67.6% for the microbial organisms). A second incubation carried out after a phase in which there was drying and remoistening of the organo-mineral complexes, brings to light the important part played by climatic alternations during the biodegradation process. A new mineralization phase is observed, affecting more the bacterial organisms (14.1%) than the polysaccharides (6.3%), with the glucose-base complexes occupying an intermediate position (11.2%). The chemical fractioning of the organo-mineral complexes following re-incubation shows the stability of 14 C in humin very clearly, especially in the case of polysaccharides, where the mineralization phase relates primarily to the products extractable with alkalis. (author)

  18. Polymorphisms in PARP, IL1B, IL4, IL10, C1INH, DEFB1, and DEFA4 in meningococcal disease in three populations.

    Emonts, M.; Vermont, C.L.; Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J.; Haralambous, E.; Gaast-de Jongh, C.E. van der; Hazelzet, J.A.; Faust, S.N.; Betts, H.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Levin, M.; Groot, R. de

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of meningococcal infections involves activation of the complement system, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, antimicrobial peptides, and apoptosis. We hypothesized that variations in genes encoding these products are involved in the susceptibility to and severity of

  19. POLYMORPHISMS IN PARP, IL1B, IL4, IL10, C1INH, DEFB1, AND DEFA4 IN MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE IN THREE POPULATIONS

    Emonts, Marieke; Vermont, Clementien L.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Haralambous, Elene; Gaast-de Jongh, Christa E.; Hazelzet, Jan A.; Faust, Saul N.; Betts, Helen; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Levin, Michael; de Groot, Ronald

    The pathogenesis of meningococcal infections involves activation of the complement system, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, antimicrobial peptides, and apoptosis. We hypothesized that variations in genes encoding these products are involved in the susceptibility to and severity of

  20. The effect of post-mastectomy radiation therapy on breast implants: Unveiling biomaterial alterations with potential implications on capsular contracture

    Ribuffo, Diego; Lo Torto, Federico [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Giannitelli, Sara M. [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Urbini, Marco; Tortora, Luca [Surface Analysis Laboratory, Department of Mathematics and Physics, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); INFN — National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Section of Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Mozetic, Pamela; Trombetta, Marcella [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia [Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00173 Rome (Italy); Tombolini, Vincenzo [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Spencer-Lorillard Foundation, Viale Regina Elena 291, 00161 Rome (Italy); Cassese, Raffaele [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Scuderi, Nicolò [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); and others

    2015-12-01

    Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction with expanders and implants is recognized as an integral part of breast cancer treatment. Its main complication is represented by capsular contracture, which leads to poor expansion, breast deformation, and pain, often requiring additional surgery. In such a scenario, the debate continues as to whether the second stage of breast reconstruction should be performed before or after post-mastectomy radiation therapy, in light of potential alterations induced by irradiation to silicone biomaterial. This work provides a novel, multi-technique approach to unveil the role of radiotherapy in biomaterial alterations, with potential involvement in capsular contracture. Following irradiation, implant shells underwent mechanical, chemical, and microstructural evaluation by means of tensile testing, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), high resolution stylus profilometry, and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Our findings are consistent with radiation-induced modifications of silicone that, although not detectable at the microscale, can be evidenced by more sophisticated nanoscale surface analyses. In light of these results, biomaterial irradiation cannot be ruled out as one of the possible co-factors underlying capsular contracture. - Highlights: • The debate continues whether to perform breast reconstruction before or after PMRT. • Radiation therapy may alter implant material, concurring to capsular contracture. • In this work, irradiated implants were investigated by a multi-technique approach. • Radiation-induced alterations could be evidenced by ATR/FTIR and ToF-SIMS. • Reported alteration might represent a co-factor underlying capsular contracture.

  1. A stepwise approach for the management of capsular contraction syndrome in hinge-based accommodative intraocular lenses

    Page TP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy P Page,1 Jeffrey Whitman2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, 2Key-Whitman Eye Center, Dallas, TX, USA Purpose: The aims of this study are to define the various stages of capsular contraction syndrome (CCS and its effect on refractive error with hinge-based accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs and to describe a systematic approach for the management of the different stages of CCS. Methods: Hinge-based accommodative IOLs function via flexible hinges that vault the optic forward during accommodation. However, it is the flexibility of the IOL that makes it prone to deformation in the event of CCS. The signs of CCS are identified and described as posterior capsular striae, fibrotic bands across the anterior or posterior capsule, and capsule opacification. Various degrees of CCS may affect hinge-based accommodating IOLs in a spectrum from subtle changes in IOL appearance to significant increases in refractive error and loss of uncorrected visual acuity. The signs of CCS and its effect on IOL position and the resulting changes in refractive error are matched to appropriate treatment plans. Results: A surgeon can avoid CCS and manage the condition if familiar with the early signs of CCS. If CCS is identified, yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser capsulotomy should be considered. If moderate CCS occurs, it may be effectively treated with insertion of a capsular tension ring. If CCS is allowed to progress to advanced stages, an IOL exchange may be necessary. Conclusion: Surgeons should be familiar with the stages of CCS and subsequent interventions. The steps outlined in this article help to guide surgeons in the prevention and management of CCS with hinge-based accommodative IOLs in order to provide improved refractive outcomes for patients. Keywords: z-syndrome, pseudophakic tilt, IOL subluxation, CTR, capsular tension ring, capsular fibrosis

  2. Clinical application of capsular tension ring on cataract surgery in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome after trabeculectomy

    Yi Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the safety and efficacy of capsular tension ring(CTRinsertion combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens(IOLimplantation in patient with pseudoexfoliation syndrome after anti-glaucoma surgery.METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of 10 eyes from 10 cataract patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome following trabeculectomy surgery, and who underwent CTR insertion combined with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation between January, 2012 and June, 2013. All cases had nuclear cataracts(nuclear hardness Ⅱ 1 eye, nuclear hardness Ⅲ 4 eyes, nuclear hardness Ⅳ 5 eyes. One case with Ⅳ nuclear hardness cataract had iridodonesis and lens subluxation. Postoperative visual acuity, intra- and post-operative complications, anterior capsular opening, IOL position, and postoperative intraocular pressure(IOPwere assessed. Follow-ups ranged from 3 to 14mo. The t test was used to analyze the variables studied.RESULTS: All patients had a successful CTR insertion combined with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. A modified CTR insertion was performed in one case, the others underwent a standard CTR insertion. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVAwas ≥0.5 in 3 eyes and 0.3-t=1.9955, P>0.05. The most common intrao- and post-operative complications were corneal edema, small pupil, residual cortex, spontaneous zonular dialysis.CONCLUSION: Suitable CTR insertion in appropriate occasion may be beneficial to patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome after trabeculectomy during cataract surgery. It prevents the IOL decentration and decrease the surgical complication. Less complication occurs at the early stage.

  3. Analysis by the reductive-cleavage method of linkage positions in a polysaccharide containing 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residues.

    Vodonik, S A; Gray, G R

    1988-04-01

    The fate of 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residues under reductive-cleavage conditions was investigated by using the Klebsiella aerogenes type 54 strain A3 capsular polysaccharide. Treatment of the fully methylated polysaccharide with triethylsilane and trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate in dichloromethane, followed by in situ acetylation, yielded 1,5-anhydro-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-D-glucitol, 3,4-di-O-acetyl-1,5-anhydro-2,6-di-O-methyl-D-glucitol, and 3-O-acetyl-1,5-anhydro-2,4-di-O-methyl-L-fucitol, as expected, but the expected product of reductive cleavage of the 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residue, namely, methyl 3-O-acetyl-2,6-anhydro-4,5-di-O-methyl-L-gulonate, was not observed. Instead, methyl 2-O-acetyl-3,6-anhydro-4,5-di-O-methyl-L-gulonate (6) was identified as the sole product of reductive cleavage of the 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residue. That compound 6 arose as a result of rearrangement during reductive cleavage rather than by reductive cleavage of a 5-linked D-glucofuranosyluronic residue, was established by reductive cleavage of the fully methylated polysaccharide following reduction of its ester groups with either lithium aluminum hydride or lithium aluminum deuteride. The products of the latter reductive cleavage were the same as before, except for the absence of 6 and the presence of 4,6-di-O-acetyl-1,5-anhydro-2,3-di-O-methyl-D-glucitol, or its 6,6-dideuterio isomer. Although the reductive-cleavage technique is suitable for the direct analysis of polysaccharides containing 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residues, it does not establish whether the uronic residue is a 4-linked pyranoside or a 5-linked furanoside. The expected product is, however, derived from the 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residue after sequential methylation, reduction of its ester group and reductive cleavage.

  4. UK parents' attitudes towards meningococcal group B (MenB) vaccination: a qualitative analysis.

    Jackson, Cath; Yarwood, Joanne; Saliba, Vanessa; Bedford, Helen

    2017-05-04

    (1) To explore existing knowledge of, and attitudes, to group B meningococcal disease and serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine among parents of young children. (2) To seek views on their information needs. Cross-sectional qualitative study using individual and group interviews conducted in February and March 2015, prior to the introduction of MenB vaccine (Bexsero) into the UK childhood immunisation schedule. Community centres, mother and toddler groups, parents' homes and workplaces in London and Yorkshire. 60 parents of children under 2 years of age recruited via mother and baby groups and via an advert posted to a midwife-led Facebook group. Although recognising the severity of meningitis and septicaemia, parents' knowledge of group B meningococcal disease and MenB vaccine was poor. While nervous about fever, most said they would take their child for MenB vaccination despite its link to fever. Most parents had liquid paracetamol at home. Many were willing to administer it after MenB vaccination as a preventive measure, although some had concerns. There were mixed views on the acceptability of four vaccinations at the 12-month booster visit; some preferred one visit, while others favoured spreading the vaccines over two visits. Parents were clear on the information they required before attending the immunisation appointment. The successful implementation of the MenB vaccination programme depends on its acceptance by parents. In view of parents' recognition of the severity of meningitis and septicaemia, and successful introduction of other vaccines to prevent bacterial meningitis and septicaemia, the MenB vaccination programme is likely to be successful. However, the need for additional injections, the likelihood of post-immunisation fever and its management are issues about which parents will need information and reassurance from healthcare professionals. Public Health England has developed written information for parents, informed by these findings.

  5. Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness of Procalcitonin Test for Prodromal Meningococcal Disease-A Meta-Analysis.

    Jennifer M Bell

    Full Text Available Despite vaccines and improved medical intensive care, clinicians must continue to be vigilant of possible Meningococcal Disease in children. The objective was to establish if the procalcitonin test was a cost-effective adjunct for prodromal Meningococcal Disease in children presenting at emergency department with fever without source.Data to evaluate procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white cell count tests as indicators of Meningococcal Disease were collected from six independent studies identified through a systematic literature search, applying PRISMA guidelines. The data included 881 children with fever without source in developed countries.The optimal cut-off value for the procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white cell count tests, each as an indicator of Meningococcal Disease, was determined. Summary Receiver Operator Curve analysis determined the overall diagnostic performance of each test with 95% confidence intervals. A decision analytic model was designed to reflect realistic clinical pathways for a child presenting with fever without source by comparing two diagnostic strategies: standard testing using combined C-reactive protein and white cell count tests compared to standard testing plus procalcitonin test. The costs of each of the four diagnosis groups (true positive, false negative, true negative and false positive were assessed from a National Health Service payer perspective. The procalcitonin test was more accurate (sensitivity=0.89, 95%CI=0.76-0.96; specificity=0.74, 95%CI=0.4-0.92 for early Meningococcal Disease compared to standard testing alone (sensitivity=0.47, 95%CI=0.32-0.62; specificity=0.8, 95% CI=0.64-0.9. Decision analytic model outcomes indicated that the incremental cost effectiveness ratio for the base case was £-8,137.25 (US $ -13,371.94 per correctly treated patient.Procalcitonin plus standard recommended tests, improved the discriminatory ability for fatal Meningococcal Disease and was more cost

  6. Methylation analysis of polysaccharides: Technical advice.

    Sims, Ian M; Carnachan, Susan M; Bell, Tracey J; Hinkley, Simon F R

    2018-05-15

    Glycosyl linkage (methylation) analysis is used widely for the structural determination of oligo- and poly-saccharides. The procedure involves derivatisation of the individual component sugars of a polysaccharide to partially methylated alditol acetates which are analysed and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linkage positions for each component sugar can be determined by correctly identifying the partially methylated alditol acetates. Although the methods are well established, there are many technical aspects to this procedure and both careful attention to detail and considerable experience are required to achieve a successful methylation analysis and to correctly interpret the data generated. The aim of this article is to provide the technical details and critical procedural steps necessary for a successful methylation analysis and to assist researchers (a) with interpreting data correctly and (b) in providing the comprehensive data required for reviewers to fully assess the work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biodegradability of polyurethane/polysaccharide blends

    Mothe, Cheila G.; Leite, Selma G.

    2001-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers for use in environmental waste-management has been the subject of much discussion over the last few years. Polyurethane mixtures with polysaccharide (80/20 and 90/10 w/w ) have been prepared and films obtained. These films were inoculated, according to ASTM G22-76 rule and analysed by thermogravimetry and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results are discussed in terms of thermal degradation and biodegradability. (author)

  8. Electrospinning of food proteins and polysaccharides

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    Nano-microfibrous structures of biopolymers with a wide range of compositions, morphologies, mechanical properties and bioactivities could be developed using electrospinning technology. This review focuses on the processing, properties, functionalization and potential applications of electrospun ...... biopolymers. Biopolymers include proteins (gelatin, collagen, elastin, silk, soy zein, gliadin, hordein, amaranth, casein, wheat, whey, marine sources proteins), and polysaccharides (chitosan, starch, alginate, cellulose and cellulose derivatives, pullulan, dextran, cyclodextrins)....

  9. Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum

    Shao Baomei; Dai Hui; Xu Wen; Lin Zhibin; Gao Xiaoming

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and characterize the immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese medicinal fungus that exhibits anti-tumor activities via enhancing host immunity. We herein demonstrate that G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) activated BALB/c mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in vitro. However, GLPS was unable to activate splenic B cells from C3H/HeJ mice that have a mutated TLR4 molecule (incapable of signal transduction) in proliferation assays. Rat anti-mouse TLR4 monoclonal antibody (Ab) inhibited the proliferation of BALB/c mouse B cells under GLPS stimulation. Combination of Abs against mouse TLR4 and immunoglobulin (Ig) achieved almost complete inhibition of GLPS-induced B cell proliferation, implying that both membrane Ig and TLR4 are required for GLPS-mediated B cell activation. In addition, GLPS significantly inhibited the binding of mouse peritoneal macrophages with polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, which is known to bind directly with TLR4 on macrophage surface. Moreover, GLPS induced IL-1β production by peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c, but not C3H/HeJ, mice, suggesting that TLR4 is also involved in GLPS-mediated macrophage activation. We Further identified a unique 31 kDa serum protein and two intracellular proteins (ribosomal protein S7 and a transcriptional coactivator) capable of binding with GLPS in co-precipitation experiments. Our results may have important implications for our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiating polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicine

  10. Correlation of group C meningococcal conjugate vaccine response with B- and T-lymphocyte activity.

    James B Wing

    Full Text Available Despite the success of conjugate vaccination against meningococcal group C (MenC disease, post-vaccination, some individuals still exhibit rapid waning of initially protective bactericidal antibody levels. The mechanism of this relative loss of humoral protection remains undetermined. In this report we have investigated the relationship between T- and B-cell activation and co-stimulation and the loss of protective antibody titers. We have found that healthy volunteers who lose protective MenC antibody levels one year after receipt of glycoconjugate vaccine exhibit no detectable cellular defect in polyclonal B- or T-cell activation, proliferation or the B-memory pool. This suggests that the processes underlying the more rapid loss of antibody levels are independent of defects in either initial T- or B-cell activation.

  11. Effect of increased CRM₁₉₇ carrier protein dose on meningococcal C bactericidal antibody response.

    Lee, Lucia H; Blake, Milan S

    2012-04-01

    New multivalent CRM(197)-based conjugate vaccines are available for childhood immunization. Clinical studies were reviewed to assess meningococcal group C (MenC) antibody responses following MenC-CRM(197) coadministration with CRM(197)-based pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Infants receiving a total CRM(197) carrier protein dose of ∼50 μg and concomitant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccine tended to have lower MenC geometric mean antibody titers and continued to have low titers after the toddler dose. Nevertheless, at least 95% of children in the reported studies achieved a MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer of ≥ 1:8 after the last infant or toddler dose. SBA was measured using an assay with a baby rabbit or human complement source. Additional studies are needed to assess long-term antibody persistence and MenC CRM(197) conjugate vaccine immunogenicity using alternative dosing schedules.

  12. Meningococcal B Vaccination (4CMenB in Infants and Toddlers

    Susanna Esposito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative pathogen that actively invades its human host and leads to the development of life-threatening pathologies. One of the leading causes of death in the world, N. meningitidis can be responsible for nearly 1,000 new infections per 100,000 subjects during an epidemic period. The bacterial species are classified into 12 serogroups, five of which (A, B, C, W, and Y cause the majority of meningitides. The three purified protein conjugate vaccines currently available target serogroups A, C, W, and Y. Serogroup B has long been a challenge but the discovery of the complete genome sequence of an MenB strain has allowed the development of a specific four-component vaccine (4CMenB. This review describes the pathogenetic role of N. meningitidis and the recent literature concerning the new meningococcal vaccine.

  13. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  14. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems.

    Cardoso, Matias J; Costa, Rui R; Mano, João F

    2016-02-05

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  15. The diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae surface polysaccharides.

    Follador, Rainer; Heinz, Eva; Wyres, Kelly L; Ellington, Matthew J; Kowarik, Michael; Holt, Kathryn E; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2016-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered an urgent health concern due to the emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains for which vaccination offers a potential remedy. Vaccines based on surface polysaccharides are highly promising but need to address the high diversity of surface-exposed polysaccharides, synthesized as O-antigens (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and K-antigens (capsule polysaccharide, CPS), present in K. pneumoniae . We present a comprehensive and clinically relevant study of the diversity of O- and K-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters across a global collection of over 500 K. pneumoniae whole-genome sequences and the seroepidemiology of human isolates from different infection types. Our study defines the genetic diversity of O- and K-antigen biosynthesis cluster sequences across this collection, identifying sequences for known serotypes as well as identifying novel LPS and CPS gene clusters found in circulating contemporary isolates. Serotypes O1, O2 and O3 were most prevalent in our sample set, accounting for approximately 80 % of all infections. In contrast, K serotypes showed an order of magnitude higher diversity and differ among infection types. In addition we investigated a potential association of O or K serotypes with phylogenetic lineage, infection type and the presence of known virulence genes. K1 and K2 serotypes, which are associated with hypervirulent K. pneumoniae , were associated with a higher abundance of virulence genes and more diverse O serotypes compared to other common K serotypes.

  16. Immunoregulatory activities of polysaccharides from mung bean.

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-30

    Ultrasonic treatment was performed on water-extractable polysaccharides from the seed of mung beans. Purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, MWP-1' and MWP-2' were obtained. Average molecular weights (Mws) of MWP-1' and MWP-2' were 68.4 kDa, and 52.4 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharides components analysis indicated that MWP-1' was composed of Rha, Ara, Man and Gal in a molar percent of 0.4:2.6:5.3:0.7. MWP-2' was composed of Ara, Man, Gal and Glc in a molar percent of 0.5:1.4:2.1:0.4. In vitro study showed that both polysaccharides samples were able to stimulate the production of secretory molecules (NO, TNF-α and IL-6) of RAW264.7 murine macrophages in a dosage dependent manner. MWP-2' seemed to be the most potent and induced significantly higher the NO production. These findings suggest that the ultrasonic treatment polysaccharides isolated in our study have immune potentiation effects on macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Cardoso, Matias J.; Costa, Rui R.; Mano, João F.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine. PMID:26861358

  18. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Matias J. Cardoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  19. Meningococcal Carriage among College Freshmen in Kashmir, North India- A Single Centre Study

    Nargis K Bali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on the community carriage of meningococci in developing countries are sparse. Knowledge about the same would help identify demographic and socio-behavioural risk factors, the need for infection control strategies and the composition of the relevant serogroup for locally effective meningococcal vaccine. Aim: To assess the meningococcal carriage and the major serotypes among fresh college hostellers. Materials and Methods: Charcoal-impregnated nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 274 consenting fresh college recruits (first year students residing in the college hostel and plated on to Thayer-Martin medium. Oxidase-positive diplococci were taken as presumptive Neisseria species. DNA was extracted from the isolates and Sanger sequencing was performed on the amplified PCR product. Blast analysis of all sequenced samples was performed against the retrieved Neisseria meningitidis sequences from whole NCBI-nr/nt database and within the dataset. Phylogentic analysis was done by Mega-6 professional package comparing published sequences of serogroups against the detected Neisseria meningitidis. Results: Ten (3.6% samples grew oxidase-positive diplococci suggestive of Neisseria. On molecular testing and sequence analysis, 4 samples were found to be N.meningitidis, one (Neisseria spp had close similarity to N.meningitidis and the others included N.perflava (n= 3, N.pharyngis (n=1 and N. flavescens (n=1. N.meningitidis isolates on blast and phylogenetic analysis bore molecular homology to serogroup B. Conclusion: Nasal carriage of N. meningitis (serogroup B was found in about 1.5% (n=4 of the fresh college recruits in the present study. Close proximity amongst the hostellers is likely to result in transmission and such preventive strategies for infection control are desirable. Further, studies of similar kind are mandated to determine the appropriate serogroups required for inclusion in the vaccine.

  20. A phase 2 randomized controlled trial of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (I).

    Prymula, Roman; Esposito, Susanna; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Xie, Fang; Toneatto, Daniela; Kohl, Igor; Dull, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    The novel meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB, Bexsero(®)), recently approved in Europe and Australia, may soon be included in routine infant immunization schedules, subject to guidance from national or regional recommending bodies. In the development of 4CMenB and consistent with other newly introduced vaccines, clinical studies have shown concomitant administration with routine infant vaccines induces an incremental increase in some reactions, including fever. As this may hinder acceptability, we examined the impact of prophylactic paracetamol on the occurrence of fever and other solicited reactions, as well as the immune responses to study vaccines, in a prospectively designed study. 4CMenB was administered as a 4-dose series at 2, 3, 4, and 12 months of age concomitantly with routine infant vaccines: DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib and PCV7, with or without prophylactic paracetamol; a third group received MenC vaccine. Immune responses to 4CMenB were not decreased by the use of paracetamol prophylaxis and there were no clinically relevant effects on immune responses to routine vaccines. Occurrence of fever was higher in infants co-administered with 4CMenB compared with those given MenC vaccine, but was significantly decreased by prophylactic paracetamol, as were other solicited reactions to vaccination, both local and systemic. Co-administration of 4CMenB had an acceptable tolerability profile, with no withdrawals due to vaccination-related adverse events. Inclusion of 4CMenB in routine infant immunization schedules will be a major advance in the control of meningococcal disease, and our study indicates that by using paracetamol prophylaxis, post-vaccination reactions are reduced without clinically relevant negative consequences on vaccine immunogenicity.

  1. Antibody persistence following meningococcal C conjugate vaccination in children and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Ana Cristina Cisne Frota

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: HIV-infected individuals (HIVI are threatened by meningococcal infection and presented lower response to vaccines. Data are scarce on long-term persistence of human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA after a meningococcal C conjugate (MCC vaccine in HIVI youth; the authors aimed to describe this persistence in HIVI. Methods: HIVI and HIV uninfected individuals (HIVU, aged 2–18 years, CD4 >15% were recruited. Seroprotection (hSBA ≥1:4 at baseline and at 12–18 months after immunization was evaluated and the association of the different factors with the long-term persistence was calculated using logistic regression. Results: A total of 145 HIVI, 50 HIVU were recruited and immunized, and their median age was 11 years (median age in HIVI group was 12 years, and 10 years in HIVU group, p-value = 0.02. 85 HIVI (44% had undetectable viral load (UVL. Seroprotection rate was 27.2%: 24.1% in HIVI and 36% in HIVU 12–18 months after immunization (p = 0.14. Baseline immunity (odds ratio [OR] = 70.70, 95% CI: 65.2–766.6; UVL at entry (OR: 2.87, 95% CI: 0.96–8.62 and lower family income (OR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.01–0.69 were associated with seroprotection among HIVI. Conclusion: Seroprotection at 12–18 months after single dose of MCC was low for both groups, and higher among individuals who presented baseline immunity. Among HIVI, vaccine should be administered after UVL is achieved.

  2. Safety of Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children 2-10 Years.

    Tartof, Sara Yee; Sy, Lina S; Ackerson, Bradley K; Hechter, Rulin C; Haag, Mendel; Slezak, Jeffrey M; Luo, Yi; Fischetti, Christine A; Takhar, Harp S; Miao, Yan; Solano, Zendi; Jacobsen, Steven J; Tseng, Hung-Fu

    2017-11-01

    Quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended for children, adolescents and adults at increased risk of meningococcal disease. In 2011, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, GSK, Siena, Italy) was approved for children 2-10 years of age in the United States. Although no safety concerns arose from clinical trials, it remains important to monitor its safety in routine clinical settings. Kaiser Permanente Southern California members 2-10 years old who received MenACWY-CRM between September 2011 and September 2014 were included. Electronic health records were searched using a validated algorithm to identify 26 prespecified events of interests (EOIs) and serious medically attended events (SMAEs) from inpatient or emergency settings up to 1 year after MenACWY-CRM vaccination. SMAEs were categorized by International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision diagnostic categories. All events were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and symptom onset date. The study was descriptive (NCT01452438); no statistical tests were performed. Among 387 vaccinated children, 327 with ≥6 months membership before vaccination were analyzed. Among EOIs, 9 asthma cases and 1 myasthenia gravis case underwent chart review which confirmed 1 incident asthma case occurring 237 days after concomitant vaccination with MenACWY-CRM and typhoid vaccine. Thirty-one children experienced SMAEs, most commonly because of unrelated injury and poisoning. The remaining events occurred sporadically after vaccination and most were unlikely related to vaccination based on medical record review. One incident EOI of asthma late in the 1-year observation period and sporadic distribution of SMAEs were observed. These data do not suggest safety concerns associated with MenACWY-CRM vaccination in children 2-10 years old.

  3. Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thirteen boletus mushrooms.

    Zhang, Lan; Hu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyu; Tang, Tingting; Shen, Yingbin; Hu, Bin; Liu, Aiping; Chen, Hong; Li, Cheng; Liu, Yuntao

    2018-07-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the caps and stipes of thirteen boletus mushrooms representing five different species collected in Southwest China. Investigations of their structures and antioxidant activities allowed an evaluation of structure-function relationships. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of the monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. Most samples displayed a broad molecular weight range, with significant differences observed between the molecular weight ranges of the polysaccharides from the caps and the stipes. FT-IR spectral analysis of the polysaccharides revealed that most of polysaccharides from boletus mushrooms (except Boletus edulis) contained a pyranose ring. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides in stipes showed a significant correlation with their monosaccharide composition, and were also related to their molecular weight and anomeric configuration. Suillellus luridus collected in Pingwu, Mianyang, Sichuan, China had remarkably superior antioxidant activity and might be developed as a natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stenosing Tenosynovitis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Associated with the Plantar Capsular Accessory Ossicle at the Interphalangeal Joint of the Great Toe

    Song Ho Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with the plantar capsular accessory ossicle at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe, which was confirmed by intraoperative observation and was successfully treated with surgical resection of the ossicle. As the plantar capsular accessory ossicle was not visible radiographically due to the lack of ossification, ultrasonography was helpful for diagnosing this disorder.

  5. Different Accumulation Profiles of Multiple Components Between Pericarp and Seed of Alpinia oxyphylla Capsular Fruit as Determined by UFLC-MS/MS

    Chen, Feng; Li, Hai-Long; Tan, Yin-Feng; Guan, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Qing; Li, Yong-Hui; Zhao, Yuan-Sheng; Qin, Zhen-Miao

    2014-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are known to not only play a key role in the adaptation of plants to their environment, but also represent an important source of active pharmaceuticals. Alpinia oxyphylla capsular fruits, made up of seeds and pericarps, are commonly used in traditional East Asian medicines. In clinical utilization of these capsular fruits, inconsistent processing approaches (i.e., hulling pericarps or not) are employed, with the potential of leading to differential pharmacological...

  6. Comparison of Polysaccharides from Two Species of Ganoderma

    Xie, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Shao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two...

  7. Maca polysaccharides: A review of compositions, isolation, therapeutics and prospects.

    Li, Yujuan; Xu, Fangxue; Zheng, Mengmeng; Xi, Xiaozhi; Cui, Xiaowei; Han, Chunchao

    2018-05-01

    Maca polysaccharides, some of the major bioactive substances in Lepidium meyenii (Walp.) (Maca), have various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory effects, as well as hepatoprotective activity and regulation function. Although many therapeutics depend on multiple structures of maca polysaccharides in addition to providing sufficient foundations for maca polysaccharide products in industrial applications, the relationships between the pharmacological effects and structures have not been established. Therefore, this article summarizes the extraction and purification methods, compositions, pharmacological effects, prospects and industrial applications of maca polysaccharides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sonographic anatomy of the newborn hip and high-resolution US equipments: internal capsular stripe and perichondral gap

    Ortore, P.; Fodor, G.; Psenner, F.; Stuefert, S.; Scherer, M.

    1991-01-01

    The use of high-resolution US equipments in the examination of the newborn hip allowed the evaluation of a thin echogenic stripe (the internal capsule stripe), which defines laterally the acetabular hyaline cartilage. By means of an anatomo-histological preparation the echogenic stripe can be related to either the capsular circular fibres or the interface between the latter and the hyaline cartilage. The internal capsular stripe, together with the echogenic synovial stripe, precisely delimit the whole acetabular hyaline cartilage. Further-more, in many babies high-resolution US sometimes fails to demonstrate Graft's 'perichondral gap', so that an accurate anatomic knowledge of the hip becomes necessary in the evaluation of acetabular labrum

  9. Chronic and Intermittent Angle Closure Caused by In-The-Bag Capsular Tension Ring and Intraocular Lens Dislocation in Patients With Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome.

    Bochmann, Frank; Strümer, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    A subluxation or dislocation of the intraocular lens (IOL) is a well-known complication after cataract surgery in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX). Capsular tension rings (CTR) are frequently used to prevent postoperative complications caused by zonular weakness. Here we present a series of 7 cases, 2 with intermittent and 5 with acute angle closure caused by a combination of PEX-associated zonular weakness and a resulting unstable capsular bag-CTR-IOL complex. We describe the typical clinical course with elevated intraocular pressure, myopic shift, and shallowing of the anterior chamber in 7 patients with a new type of secondary angle closure. The diagnostic challenges and treatment options are discussed in detail. In all cases, the mechanism of angle closure identified by ultrasound biomicroscopy was an anterior dislocation of the peripheral iris by the capsular bag-CTR-IOL complex. The IOL was removed together with the capsular bag and the CTR and replaced by an iris-fixated IOL in all cases. We present a new type of secondary angle closure caused by an anterior dislocated capsular bag-CTR-IOL complex. The cause of both, this atypical presentation and the ineffectiveness of the laser peripheral iridotomy is the large diameter CTR. Therefore CTR implantation might also be the source of late postoperative complications. If a secondary angle closure associated with PEX and unstable capsular bag-CTR-IOL complex is encountered, IOL explantation and replacement by an iris-fixated IOL is a simple and effective treatment option.

  10. Short-term evaluation of arthroscopic management of tennis elbow; including resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

    Babaqi, AbdulRahman A; Kotb, Mohammed M; Said, Hatem G; AbdelHamid, Mohamed M; ElKady, Hesham A; ElAssal, Maher A

    2014-06-01

    There has been controversy regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Different surgical techniques for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis prescribed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of arthroscopic management including resection of the radio-capitellar capsular complex, using different validated scores. In this study, arthroscopic resection of a capsular fringe complex was done beside debridement of the undersurface of Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB). Thirty-one patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for a minimum of 6 months had surgery. In all patients, a collar-like band of radio-capitellar capsular complex was found to impinge on the radial head and subluxate into the radio-capitellar joint with manipulation under direct vision. Outcomes were assessed using Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI), the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), beside visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction criteria. After arthroscopic surgery, overall satisfaction was extremely positive, over the 31 patients, 93.5% of the patients are satisfied. The mean score for pain improved from 8.64 to 1.48 points. The total PRTEE improved from 55.53 to 10.39 points. The mean MEPI score was improved from 61.82 to 94.10 points. DASH score also improved from 24.46 to 4.81 points. All improvements are statistically significant (P < 0.05). Arthroscopic release of ECRB in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis is a reproducible method with a marked improvement in function within a short period, with special consideration for resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

  11. Long-term outcomes of ciliary sulcus versus capsular bag fixation of intraocular lenses in children: An ultrasound biomicroscopy study.

    Yun-E Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the long-term outcomes of ciliary sulcus versus capsular bag fixation of intraocular lenses (IOLs in children after pediatric cataract surgery.IOL was implanted in the ciliary sulcus in 21 eyes of 14 children, and in the capsular bag in 19 eyes of 12 children for the treatment of pediatric cataract in an institutional setting. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM was performed. Main outcome measures included IOL decentration, IOL tilt, anterior chamber depth (ACD, angle-opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500, trabecular-iris angle (TIA, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, and incidence of postoperative complications.The mean follow-up period was 6.81 ± 1.82 years. Comparing to the capsular bag fixation group, the ciliary sulcus fixation group had higher vertical IOL decentration, horizontal IOL tilt, and vertical IOL tilt (p = 0.02, 0.01,0.01, respectively, higher incidence of iris-IOL contact and peripheral anterior synechia (p = 0.001, 0.03, respectively, smaller ACD, AOD500, and TIA (p = 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, respectively, higher mean IOP (17.10 ±6.06 mmHg vs.14.15± 4.74 mmHg, p = 0.01, and higher incidence of secondary glaucoma (28.57% vs. 10.53%, p = 0.007.There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the BCVA, refractive errors, incidence of myopic shift, nystagmus, strabismus, and visual axis opacity.Ciliary sulcus fixation of IOLs in pediatric eyes may increase IOL malposition and crowding of the anterior segment, and may associate with a higher risk of secondary glaucoma compared to capsular bag fixation of IOLs.

  12. Relationship between the Intracellular Integrity and the Morphology of the Capsular Envelope in Attached and Free-Living Marine Bacteria

    Heissenberger, A.; Leppard, G. G.; Herndl, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    The integrity of the intracellular structures and the presence and dimension of the capsular envelope were investigated in marine snow-associated and marine free-living bacteria by transmission electron microscopy and special fixation techniques. Three categories depending on the presence of internal structures were differentiated. In marine snow, 51% of the marine snow-associated bacterial community was considered intact, 26% had a partly degraded internal structure, and 23% were empty with ...

  13. Arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift for recurrent anterior shoulder instability: functional outcomes and identification of risk factors for recurrence.

    Ahmed, Issaq; Ashton, Fiona; Robinson, Christopher Michael

    2012-07-18

    Arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift is a well-established technique for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes following arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift and to identify risk factors that are predictive of recurrence of glenohumeral instability. We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively collected database consisting of 302 patients who had undergone arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift for the treatment of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. The prevalence of patient and injury-related risk factors for recurrence was assessed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the predicted probability of recurrence within two years. The chief outcome measures were the risk of recurrence and the two-year functional outcomes assessed with the Western Ontario shoulder instability index (WOSI) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores. The rate of recurrent glenohumeral instability after arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift was 13.2%. The median time to recurrence was twelve months, and this complication developed within one year in 55% of these patients. The risk of recurrence was independently predicted by the patient's age at surgery, the severity of glenoid bone loss, and the presence of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion (all p surgery. Varying the cutoff level for the predicted probability of recurrence in the model from 50% to lower values increased the sensitivity of the model to detect recurrences but decreased the positive predictive value of the model to correctly predict failed repairs. There was a significant improvement in the mean WOSI and DASH scores at two years postoperatively (both p instability and individualizing treatment options for particular groups of patients. Prognostic level I. See Instructions for authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  14. Results of intraocular lens implantation with capsular tension ring in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children

    Das, Pranab; Ram, Jagat; Brar, Gagandeep Singh; Dogra, Mangat R

    2009-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the outcome of intraocular lens (IOL) implantation using capsular tension ring (CTR) in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children. Setting : Tertiary care setting Materials and Methods : We prospectively studied 18 eyes of 15 children with subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lenses between 90° up to 210° after phacoemulsification, CTR and IOL implantation. Each child was examined for IOL centration, zonular dehiscence and posterior ...

  15. A Salmonella Typhimurium-Typhi genomic chimera: a model to study Vi polysaccharide capsule function in vivo.

    Angela M Jansen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Vi capsular polysaccharide is a virulence-associated factor expressed by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi but absent from virtually all other Salmonella serotypes. In order to study this determinant in vivo, we characterised a Vi-positive S. Typhimurium (C5.507 Vi(+, harbouring the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-7, which encodes the Vi locus. S. Typhimurium C5.507 Vi(+ colonised and persisted in mice at similar levels compared to the parent strain, S. Typhimurium C5. However, the innate immune response to infection with C5.507 Vi(+ and SGB1, an isogenic derivative not expressing Vi, differed markedly. Infection with C5.507 Vi(+ resulted in a significant reduction in cellular trafficking of innate immune cells, including PMN and NK cells, compared to SGB1 Vi(- infected animals. C5.507 Vi(+ infection stimulated reduced numbers of TNF-α, MIP-2 and perforin producing cells compared to SGB1 Vi(-. The modulating effect associated with Vi was not observed in MyD88(-/- and was reduced in TLR4(-/- mice. The presence of the Vi capsule also correlated with induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo, a factor that impacted on chemotaxis and the activation of immune cells in vitro.

  16. Influence of antibiotic therapy prior to admission on the efficacy of classical methods for the diagnosis of meningococcal disease.

    Nemescu, Roxana Elena; Iancu, Luminiţa Smaranda; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Ursu, Ramona Gabriela; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    To assess the influence of preadmission antibiotic therapy on the results of the classical methods for bacteriological confirmation of meningococcal disease (MD). Retrospective study of the MD cases diagnosed in the "St. Parascheva" Universitary Clinical Infectious Diseases Iaşi between 1994 and 2011. The etiological diagnosis was made by identifying the meningococcus in the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) in 71.9% of the 323 patients and by blood culture in 8%. Preadmission antibiotic therapy received 39% of the patients, thus the sensitivity of test was significantly reduced: direct examination from 64.6% to 43.2% (p antibiotic therapy significantly increased the ratio of cases in which meningococcus was not detected in CSF by any of the classical methods (44% compared to 17.9% in the cases without prior treatment). The proportion of cases in which meningococcal isolation was done by two methods decreased from 38.5% to 19.2%, and of those by all three methods from 16.9% to 5.6% (p antibiotic therapy also decreased the rate of positive blood cultures from 14.7% to 3.5% (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.009). Antibiotic treatment prior to admission significantly decreases the percentage of patients with MD in which meningococcal isolation can be done; this requires the use of a more sensitive diagnosis method (ex. qPCR).

  17. Induction of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP in the blood-brain barrier and meninges after meningococcal infection.

    Bergman, Peter; Johansson, Linda; Wan, Hong; Jones, Allison; Gallo, Richard L; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Hökfelt, Tomas; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2006-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are present in most living species and constitute important effector molecules of innate immunity. Recently, we and others have detected antimicrobial peptides in the brain. This is an organ that is rarely infected, which has mainly been ascribed to the protective functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and meninges. Since the bactericidal properties of the BBB and meninges are not known, we hypothesized that antimicrobial peptides could play a role in these barriers. We addressed this hypothesis by infecting mice with the neuropathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. Brains were analyzed for expression of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP by immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy. After infection, we observed induction of CRAMP in endothelial cells of the BBB and in cells of the meninges. To explore the functional role of CRAMP in meningococcal disease, we infected mice deficient of the CRAMP gene. Even though CRAMP did not appear to protect the brain from invasion of meningococci, CRAMP knockout mice were more susceptible to meningococcal infection than wild-type mice and exhibited increased meningococcal growth in blood, liver, and spleen. Moreover, we could demonstrate that carbonate, a compound that accumulates in the circulation during metabolic acidosis, makes meningococci more susceptible to CRAMP.

  18. Induction of the Antimicrobial Peptide CRAMP in the Blood-Brain Barrier and Meninges after Meningococcal Infection▿

    Bergman, Peter; Johansson, Linda; Wan, Hong; Jones, Allison; Gallo, Richard L.; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H.; Hökfelt, Tomas; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are present in most living species and constitute important effector molecules of innate immunity. Recently, we and others have detected antimicrobial peptides in the brain. This is an organ that is rarely infected, which has mainly been ascribed to the protective functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and meninges. Since the bactericidal properties of the BBB and meninges are not known, we hypothesized that antimicrobial peptides could play a role in these barriers. We addressed this hypothesis by infecting mice with the neuropathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. Brains were analyzed for expression of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP by immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy. After infection, we observed induction of CRAMP in endothelial cells of the BBB and in cells of the meninges. To explore the functional role of CRAMP in meningococcal disease, we infected mice deficient of the CRAMP gene. Even though CRAMP did not appear to protect the brain from invasion of meningococci, CRAMP knockout mice were more susceptible to meningococcal infection than wild-type mice and exhibited increased meningococcal growth in blood, liver, and spleen. Moreover, we could demonstrate that carbonate, a compound that accumulates in the circulation during metabolic acidosis, makes meningococci more susceptible to CRAMP. PMID:17030578

  19. Clinical study of foldable intraocular lens secondary implantation after lens-vitrectomy in residual capsular with traumatic eyes

    Ru-Fa Meng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the operation methods and clinical effects of foldable intraocular lens secondary implantation after lens-vitrectomy in residual capsular with traumatic eyes.METHODS: During January 2012 to January 2014, foldable intraocular lens was implanted on 47 cases following lens-vitrectomy in residual capsular with traumatic eyes 3~6mo. Follow-up period was 6~12mo, averaged(8.21±2.63mo. RESULTS:All of 47 eyes had successful operation at one time, and position deviation was not appeared. The naked vision of the last postoperative follow-up was(0.44±0.19. Compared with best corrected visual acuity(0.41±0.23, and There was no significant difference between visual acuity of preoperative and last follow-up period(t=0.879, P=0.342. No severe complication was found. CONCLUSION: Secondary implantation of foldable intraocular lens is a safe and reliable method for correcting ametropia after lens-vitrectomy in residual capsular with traumatic eyes.

  20. Autologous Collagen Matrix (ACM): Lower Pole Support With a Supero-Anterior Capsular Flap in Secondary Subpectoral Breast Augmentation.

    Montemurro, Paolo; Cheema, Mubashir; Hedén, Per; Avvedimento, Stefano; Agko, Mouchammed; Quattrini Li, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    Secondary aesthetic breast surgery is a complex and challenging scenario. It requires the surgeon to identify contributing factors, provide patient education, make a further management plan, and optimize the conditions for a favorable result. Various techniques have been described in literature but the rate of reoperation is still high. The first author has been using a supero-anterior capsular flap with a neopectoral subcapsular pocket and an implant change in these cases. To review the patient characteristics, indications, and early results of using part of the existing implant capsule for secondary subpectoral breast augmentations. All patients who underwent secondary breast augmentation, over a period of 2 years by the first author (P.M.), using the supero-anterior capsular flap technique were included. The technique involves dissection of a new subpectoral pocket and uses the existing implant capsule as an internal brassiere. A total of 36 patients were operated by this technique. Of these, 17 patients had developed a complication while 19 patients wanted a change in size only. At a mean follow up of 10.2 months, there was no bottoming out, double bubble, or capsular contracture. This reliable technique provides stable results as shown by low rate of complications with the existing follow up. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Predictors for perioperative blood transfusion in elderly patients with extra capsular hip fractures treated with cephalo-medullary nailing.

    Fazal, M Ali; Bagley, Caroline; Garg, Parag

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our study was to determine predictive factors and requirement for perioperative blood transfusion in elderly patients with extra capsular hip fractures treated with cephalo-medullary device. Seventy-nine patients with extra capsular hip fractures treated with cephalo-medullary nailing were included in the study. Age, sex, ASA grade, timing of surgery, preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin, length of hospital stay, fracture type, number of units transfused and 30-day mortality were recorded. The mean age was 82.3 years. Forty-seven patients underwent a short nail and 32 patients a long nail; 53.4% patients required blood transfusion postoperatively. Transfusion was required in 71.8% of the long nails (p  0.05). Length of hospital stay in non-transfusion group was 13 days and in transfusion group was 19 days (p  0.05). Thirty-day mortality in patients needing blood transfusion was 5% and in non-transfusion group was 3.7% (p > 0.05). Patient age, ASA grade, preoperative haemoglobin and length of nail are reliable predictors for perioperative blood transfusion in extra capsular hip fractures in elderly patients treated with cephalo-medullary nailing and reinforce a selective transfusion policy. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    Nelson Erika D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor

  3. Meningococcal Meningitis

    ... Iraq Nigeria Somalia South Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Yemen All emergencies » Latest » By country By disease Disease ... conditions in Africa in areas with limited health infrastructure and resources, ceftriaxone is the drug of choice. \\ ...

  4. Use of MenACWY-CRM vaccine in children aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2013.

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Rubin, Lorry; McNamara, Lucy; Briere, Elizabeth C; Clark, Thomas A; Cohn, Amanda C

    2014-06-20

    During its October 2013 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of a third meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis), as an additional option for vaccinating infants aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease. MenACWY-CRM is the first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine licensed for use in children aged 2 through 8 months. MenACWY-D (Menactra, Sanofi Pasteur) is recommended for use in children aged 9 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease, and Hib-MenCY-TT (MenHibrix, GlaxoSmithKline) is recommended for use in children aged 6 weeks through 18 months at increased risk. This report summarizes information on MenACWY-CRM administration in infants and provides recommendations for vaccine use in infants aged 2 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Because the burden of meningococcal disease in infants is low in the United States and the majority of cases that do occur are caused by serogroup B, which is not included in any vaccine licensed in the United States, only those infants who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease are recommended to receive a meningococcal vaccine.

  5. Significance of lymph node capsular invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Sakai, Makoto; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Sano, Akihiko; Tanaka, Naritaka; Inose, Takanori; Sohda, Makoto; Nakajima, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    Extranodal invasion (ENI) has been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis in several malignancies. However, previous studies have included perinodal fat tissue tumor deposits in their definitions of ENI. To investigate the precise nature of ENI in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we excluded these tumor deposits from our definition of ENI and defined tumor cell invasion through the lymph node capsule and into the perinodal tissues as lymph node capsular invasion (LNCI). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the significance of LNCI in ESCC. We investigated the associations between LNCI and other clinicopathologic features in 139 surgically resected ESCC. We also investigated the prognostic significance of LNCI in ESCC. LNCI was detected in 35 (25.2%) of 139 patients. The overall survival rate of the ESCC patients with LNCI was significantly lower than that of the ESCC patients with lymph node metastasis who were negative for LNCI. The survival difference between the patients with 1–3 lymph node metastases without LNCI and those with no lymph node metastasis was not significant. LNCI was significantly associated with distant organ recurrence. LNCI was also found to be an independent predictor of overall survival in addition to the number of lymph node metastases. LNCI in ESCC patients is an indicator of distant organ recurrence and a worse prognosis. LNCI could be used as a candidate marker for designing more precise staging and therapeutic strategies for ESCC.

  6. Collagen Organization in Facet Capsular Ligaments Varies With Spinal Region and With Ligament Deformation.

    Ban, Ehsan; Zhang, Sijia; Zarei, Vahhab; Barocas, Victor H; Winkelstein, Beth A; Picu, Catalin R

    2017-07-01

    The spinal facet capsular ligament (FCL) is primarily comprised of heterogeneous arrangements of collagen fibers. This complex fibrous structure and its evolution under loading play a critical role in determining the mechanical behavior of the FCL. A lack of analytical tools to characterize the spatial anisotropy and heterogeneity of the FCL's microstructure has limited the current understanding of its structure-function relationships. Here, the collagen organization was characterized using spatial correlation analysis of the FCL's optically obtained fiber orientation field. FCLs from the cervical and lumbar spinal regions were characterized in terms of their structure, as was the reorganization of collagen in stretched cervical FCLs. Higher degrees of intra- and intersample heterogeneity were found in cervical FCLs than in lumbar specimens. In the cervical FCLs, heterogeneity was manifested in the form of curvy patterns formed by collections of collagen fibers or fiber bundles. Tensile stretch, a common injury mechanism for the cervical FCL, significantly increased the spatial correlation length in the stretch direction, indicating an elongation of the observed structural features. Finally, an affine estimation for the change of correlation length under loading was performed which gave predictions very similar to the actual values. These findings provide structural insights for multiscale mechanical analyses of the FCLs from various spinal regions and also suggest methods for quantitative characterization of complex tissue patterns.

  7. 3D printed multi-compartment capsular devices for two-pulse oral drug delivery.

    Maroni, A; Melocchi, A; Parietti, F; Foppoli, A; Zema, L; Gazzaniga, A

    2017-12-28

    In the drug delivery area, versatile therapeutic systems intended to yield customized combinations of drugs, drug doses and release kinetics have drawn increasing attention, especially because of the advantages that personalized pharmaceutical treatments would offer. In this respect, a previously proposed capsular device able to control the release performance based on its design and composition, which could extemporaneously be filled, was improved to include multiple separate compartments so that differing active ingredients or formulations may be conveyed. The compartments, which may differ in thickness and composition, resulted from assembly of two hollow halves through a joint also acting as a partition. The systems were manufactured by fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing, which holds special potential for product personalization, and injection molding (IM) that would enable production on a larger scale. Through combination of compartments having wall thickness of 600 or 1200μm, composed of promptly soluble, swellable/erodible or enteric soluble polymers, devices showing two-pulse release patterns, consistent with the nature of the starting materials, were obtained. Systems fabricated using the two techniques exhibited comparable performance, thus proving the prototyping ability of FDM versus IM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Versatility of Capsular Flaps in the Salvage of Exposed Breast Implants

    Beniamino Brunetti, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Breast implant exposure due to poor tissue coverage or previous irradiation represents a surgical challenge both in the reconstructive and aesthetic plastic surgery practice. In case of implant extrusion or incipient exposure, the commonly suggested strategies, such as targeted antibiotic therapy, drainage and lavage of the cavity, fistulectomy, and primary closure, may be ineffective leading the surgeon to an unwanted implant removal or to adopt more invasive flap coverage procedures. Breast implant capsule, in its physiological clinical behavior, can be considered as a new reliable source of tissue, which can be used in a wide range of clinical situations. In our hands, capsular flaps proved to be a versatile solution not only to treat breast contour deformities or inframammary fold malpositions but also to salvage exposed breast implants. In this scenario, the use of more invasive surgical techniques can be avoided or simply saved and delayed for future recurrences.(Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2015;3:e340; doi:10.1097/GOX.0000000000000307; Published online 30 March 2015.

  9. Cryptococcus neoformans capsular enlargement and cellular gigantism during Galleria mellonella infection.

    Rocío García-Rodas

    Full Text Available We have studied infection of Cryptococcus neoformans in the non-vertebrate host Galleria mellonella with particular interest in the morphological response of the yeast. Inoculation of C. neoformans in caterpillars induced a capsule-independent increase in haemocyte density 2 h after infection. C. neoformans manifested a significant increase in capsule size after inoculation into the caterpillar. The magnitude of capsule increase depended on the temperature, being more pronounced at 37°C than at 30°C, which correlated with an increased virulence of the fungus and reduced phagocytosis at 37°C. Capsule enlargement impaired phagocytosis by haemocytes. Incubation of the yeast in G. mellonella extracts also resulted in capsule enlargement, with the polar lipidic fraction having a prominent role in this effect. During infection, the capsule decreased in permeability. A low proportion of the cells (<5% recovered from caterpillars measured more than 30 µm and were considered giant cells. Giant cells recovered from mice were able to kill the caterpillars in a manner similar to regular cells obtained from in vivo or grown in vitro, establishing their capacity to cause disease. Our results indicate that the morphological transitions exhibited by C. neoformans in mammals also occur in a non-vertebrate host system. The similarities in morphological transitions observed in different animal hosts and in their triggers are consistent with the hypothesis that the cell body and capsular responses represent an adaptation of environmental survival strategies to pathogenesis.

  10. Direct MR-arthrography of the shoulder with maximum capsular distension for surgical planning

    Drescher, R.; Rothenburg, T. von; Koester, O.; Schmid, G.; Ludwig, J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of direct MR arthrography of the glenohumeral joint with maximum distension of the joint capsule in patients with glenohumeral instability for preoperative diagnosis and for determining the method of surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: MR arthrography of the shoulder joint was performed on a 1.5 T system in 38 patients. All patients suffered from anterior or bidirectional instability. Using a fluoroscopically guided posterior approach, a 1% dilution of dimeglumine gadopentetate (5 mmol Gd-DTPA/l) was injected until full capsular stretching was achieved. MR imaging protocol included fat-saturated transversal, oblique-coronal and oblique-sagittal T1-weighted spin-echo, T1-weighted 3-D and transversal T2-weighted Flash-2D. Results: MR imaging revealed significant capsule distention in 22 patients and ventral capsule defects in 9 patients. Labral lesions were depicted in 25 patients, bicipital tendon lesions in 4 patients and partial ruptures of the rotator cuff in 3 patients. 15 of the 38 patients underwent surgery. Areas of pathologic laxity of the glenohumeral capsule were correctly described in all cases. In 12 of 15 patients, the best method of intervention could be determined prospectively. In 3 of 15 patients, the necessary operation was overestimated. Regarding labral ruptures, MRI had a sensitivity of 88%, a specificity of 86%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 87%. (orig.)

  11. Constant current chronopotentiometric stripping of sulphated polysaccharides

    Strmečki, S.; Plavšić, M.; Ćosović, B.; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2009), s. 2032-2035 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/07/P497; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sulphated polysaccharides * ióta-carrageenan * catalysis of hydrogen evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2009

  12. Methods of saccharification of polysaccharides in plants

    Howard, John; Fake, Gina

    2014-04-29

    Saccharification of polysaccharides of plants is provided, where release of fermentable sugars from cellulose is obtained by adding plant tissue composition. Production of glucose is obtained without the need to add additional .beta.-glucosidase. Adding plant tissue composition to a process using a cellulose degrading composition to degrade cellulose results in an increase in the production of fermentable sugars compared to a process in which plant tissue composition is not added. Using plant tissue composition in a process using a cellulose degrading enzyme composition to degrade cellulose results in decrease in the amount of cellulose degrading enzyme composition or exogenously applied cellulase required to produce fermentable sugars.

  13. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 16 (2010), s. 1837-1845 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) GPP301/10/P548; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651 Program:KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * electroactive labels * osmium(VI) complexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  14. Structures of three different neutral polysaccharides of Acinetobacter baumannii, NIPH190, NIPH201, and NIPH615, assigned to K30, K45, and K48 capsule types, respectively, based on capsule biosynthesis gene clusters.

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Kenyon, Johanna J; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shneider, Mikhail M; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-11-19

    Neutral capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) were isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii NIPH190, NIPH201, and NIPH615. The CPSs were found to contain common monosaccharides only and to be branched with a side-chain 1→3-linked β-d-glucopyranose residue. Structures of the oligosaccharide repeat units (K units) of the CPSs were elucidated by 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Novel CPS biosynthesis gene clusters, designated KL30, KL45, and KL48, were found at the K locus in the genome sequences of NIPH190, NIPH201, and NIPH615, respectively. The genetic content of each gene cluster correlated with the structure of the CPS unit established, and therefore, the capsular types of the strains studied were designated as K30, K45, and K48, respectively. The initiating sugar of each K unit was predicted, and glycosyltransferases encoded by each gene cluster were assigned to the formation of the linkages between sugars in the corresponding K unit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bio-inspired materials engineering using polysaccharide based biotemplates

    Zollfrank, C.

    2007-01-01

    Nano-structured materials with a controlled microstructure and tailored properties at a scale below 100 nm are of interest for applications in micro-mechanical, sensor and biomedical devices. In contrast to top-down manufacturing processes the formation of solid matter structures in nature is templated and directed by biomacromolecules such as polysaccharides and polypeptides. A promising biomimetic route for the directed deposition of ceramic materials is the application of anisotropically structured biomacromolecules as patterned templates. The polysaccharides exhibit a hierarchical multi scale order as well as self-assembly properties. The bio-inspired deposition and formation of ceramic phases on biomolecular polysaccharide templates was investigated. The polysaccharides were used at various structural levels from the molecular scale up to three-dimensional parts in the millimetre range. The versatility of polysaccharide shaping capabilities was explored using dissolved polysaccharide molecules as well as thin films for the or simultaneous or successive formation of inorganic mineral phases. Microalgae with a spherical appearance of 5 micro-m were applied in mineralisation studies. The extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) layers on the microalgae were used as biotemplates for manufacturing of functional ceramics. The obtained results on the mineralisation of inorganic phases on polysaccharides are adapted for novel biomimetic routes used in the fabrication for functional and biomedical ceramics. (author)

  16. Production of heterologous storage polysaccharides in potato plants

    Huang, X.; Vincken, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Starch is the most important storage polysaccharide in higher plants. This polysaccharide is used in many industrial applications as it is abundant, renewable and biodegradable and it can be modified into a wide range of products used in food, animal feed, pharmaceuticals and industry. With the

  17. Iodophilic polysaccharide synthesis, acid production and growth in oral streptococci

    Houte, J. van; Winkler, K.C.; Jansen, H.M.

    The relation between iodophilic polysaccharide formation, acid production and growth in α-haemolytic streptococci, isolated from human dental plaque, was studied. In experiments with resting cell suspensions, or with cells growing at a low rate, all strains synthesizing iodophilic polysaccharide

  18. In vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gardenia jasminoides ellis

    Fan, Y.; Ge, Z.; Luo, A.

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, GP, was isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The in vitro free radicals scavenging tests exhibited that GP has significant scavenging abilities especially for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals, which suggests that the polysaccharide GP is a novel antioxidant. ?? 2011 Academic Journals.

  19. Structural modification of polysaccharides: A biochemical-genetic approach

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.

    1991-01-01

    Polysaccharides have a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. An industry trend is underway towards the increased use of bacteria to produce polysaccharides. Long term goals of this work are the adaptation and enhancement of saccharide properties for electronic and optic applications. In this report we illustrate the application of enzyme-bearing bacteriophage on strains of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, which produces a polysaccharide with the relatively rare rheological property of drag-reduction. This has resulted in the production of new polysaccharides with enhanced rheological properties. Our laboratory is developing techniques for processing and structurally modifying bacterial polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which comprise their basic polymeric repeat units. Our research has focused on bacteriophage which produce specific polysaccharide degrading enzymes. This has lead to the development of enzymes generated by bacteriophage as tools for polysaccharide modification and purification. These enzymes were used to efficiently convert the native material to uniform-sized high molecular weight polymers, or alternatively into high-purity oligosaccharides. Enzyme-bearing bacteriophage also serve as genetic selection tools for bacteria that produce new families of polysaccharides with modified structures.

  20. Life cycle assessment of polysaccharide materials: a review

    Shen, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310872022; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2008-01-01

    Apart from conventional uses of polysaccharide materials, such as food, clothing, paper packaging and construction, new polysaccharide products and materials have been developed. This paper reviews life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in order to gain insight of the environmental profiles of

  1. Modulating surface rheology by electrostatic protein/polysaccharide interactions

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Zinoviadou, K.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a large interest in mixed protein/polysaccharide layers at air-water and oil-water interfaces because of their ability to stabilize foams and emulsions. Mixed protein/polysaccharide adsorbed layers at air-water interfaces can be prepared either by adsorption of soluble protein/

  2. Recent Advances in Marine Algae Polysaccharides: Isolation, Structure, and Activities.

    Xu, Shu-Ying; Huang, Xuesong; Cheong, Kit-Leong

    2017-12-13

    Marine algae have attracted a great deal of interest as excellent sources of nutrients. Polysaccharides are the main components in marine algae, hence a great deal of attention has been directed at isolation and characterization of marine algae polysaccharides because of their numerous health benefits. In this review, extraction and purification approaches and chemico-physical properties of marine algae polysaccharides (MAPs) are summarized. The biological activities, which include immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic, are also discussed. Additionally, structure-function relationships are analyzed and summarized. MAPs' biological activities are closely correlated with their monosaccharide composition, molecular weights, linkage types, and chain conformation. In order to promote further exploitation and utilization of polysaccharides from marine algae for functional food and pharmaceutical areas, high efficiency, and low-cost polysaccharide extraction and purification methods, quality control, structure-function activity relationships, and specific mechanisms of MAPs activation need to be extensively investigated.

  3. Chromatography in characterization of polysaccharides from medicinal plants and fungi.

    Hu, De-jun; Cheong, Kit-leong; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-ping

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from medicinal plants and fungi exhibit multiple pharmacological activities. The biological activities of polysaccharides depend on their chemical characteristics. However, characterization of polysaccahrides is a challenge because of their complicated structure and macromolecular mass. In this review, chromatography in characterization of polysaccharides, including physicochemical characterization (purity, molecular mass, and distribution), structural characterization (constituent monosaccharide composition and the ratio, the features of glycosidic linkages), and fingerprint of polysaccharides (acidic and enzymatic hydrolysates), from medicinal plants and fungi were reviewed and discussed according to the publications collected in Web of Science since 2007. The perspective for characterization of polysaccharides has also been described. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Comparison of polysaccharides from two species of Ganoderma.

    Xie, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Shao-Ping

    2012-01-13

    Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two species of Lingzhi collected from different regions of China were analyzed and compared based on HPSEC-ELSD and HPSEC-MALLS-RI analyses, as well as enzymatic digestion and HPTLC of acid hydrolysates. The results indicated that both the HPSEC-ELSD profiles and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were similar. Enzymatic digestion showed that polysaccharides from all samples of Lingzhi could be hydrolyzed by pectinase and dextranase. HPTLC profiles of their TFA hydrolysates colored with different reagents and their monosaccharides composition were also similar.

  5. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  6. Characterization of polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. using saccharide mapping.

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Xie, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-09-12

    Polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. and their adulterants were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, enzymatic (endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed by polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both 1,3-β-D-glucosidic and 1,4-α-D-galactosiduronic linkages were existed in Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense), and the similarity of polysaccharides from G. lucidum and G. sinense was high, which may contribute to rational use of Lingzhi. Different species of Ganoderma and their adulterants can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Ganoderma and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in Lingzhi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  8. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  9. Nanoengineering of vaccines using natural polysaccharides.

    Cordeiro, Ana Sara; Alonso, María José; de la Fuente, María

    2015-11-01

    Currently, there are over 70 licensed vaccines, which prevent the pathogenesis of around 30 viruses and bacteria. Nevertheless, there are still important challenges in this area, which include the development of more active, non-invasive, and thermo-resistant vaccines. Important biotechnological advances have led to safer subunit antigens, such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. However, their limited immunogenicity has demanded potent adjuvants that can strengthen the immune response. Particulate nanocarriers hold a high potential as adjuvants in vaccination. Due to their pathogen-like size and structure, they can enhance immune responses by mimicking the natural infection process. Additionally, they can be tailored for non-invasive mucosal administration (needle-free vaccination), and control the delivery of the associated antigens to a specific location and for prolonged times, opening room for single-dose vaccination. Moreover, they allow co-association of immunostimulatory molecules to improve the overall adjuvant capacity. The natural and ubiquitous character of polysaccharides, together with their intrinsic immunomodulating properties, their biocompatibility, and biodegradability, justify their interest in the engineering of nanovaccines. In this review, we aim to provide a state-of-the-art overview regarding the application of nanotechnology in vaccine delivery, with a focus on the most recent advances in the development and application of polysaccharide-based antigen nanocarriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.

  11. Prediction of meningococcal meningitis epidemics in western Africa by using climate information

    YAKA, D. P.; Sultan, B.; Tarbangdo, F.; Thiaw, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    The variations of certain climatic parameters and the degradation of ecosystems, can affect human's health by influencing the transmission, the spatiotemporal repartition and the intensity of infectious diseases. It is mainly the case of meningococcal meningitis (MCM) whose epidemics occur particularly in Sahelo-Soudanian climatic area of Western Africa under quite particular climatic conditions. Meningococcal Meningitis (MCM) is a contagious infection disease due to the bacteria Neisseria meningitis. MCM epidemics occur worldwide but the highest incidence is observed in the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa, stretching from Senegal to Ethiopia. In spite of standards, strategies of prevention and control of MCS epidemic from World Health Organization (WHO) and States, African Sahelo-Soudanian countries remain frequently afflicted by disastrous epidemics. In fact, each year, during the dry season (February-April), 25 to 250 thousands of cases are observed. Children under 15 are particularly affected. Among favourable conditions for the resurgence and dispersion of the disease, climatic conditions may be important inducing seasonal fluctuations in disease incidence and contributing to explain the spatial pattern of the disease roughly circumscribed to the ecological Sahelo-Sudanian band. In this study, we tried to analyse the relationships between climatic factors, ecosystems degradation and MCM for a better understanding of MCM epidemic dynamic and their prediction. We have shown that MCM epidemics, whether at the regional, national or local level, occur in a specific period of the year, mainly from January to May characterised by a dry, hot and sandy weather. We have identified both in situ (meteorological synoptic stations) and satellitales climatic variables (NCEP reanalysis dataset) whose seasonal variability is dominating in MCM seasonal transmission. Statistical analysis have measured the links between seasonal variation of certain climatic parameters

  12. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  13. Polysaccharide components from the scape of Musa paradisiaca: main structural features of water-soluble polysaccharide component.

    Anjaneyalu, Y V; Jagadish, R L; Raju, T S

    1997-06-01

    Polysaccharide components present in the pseudo-stem (scape) of M. paradisiaca were purified from acetone powder of the scape by delignification followed by extraction with aqueous solvents into water soluble polysaccharide (WSP), EDTA-soluble polysaccharide (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASP) and alkali-insoluble polysaccharide (AISP) fractions. Sugar compositional analysis showed that WSP and EDTA-SP contained only D-Glc whereas ASP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 1:1:10 ratio, respectively, and AISP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 10:1:2 ratio, respectively. WSP was further purified by complexation with iso-amylalcohol and characterized by specific rotation, IR spectroscopy, Iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and methylation linkage analysis, and shown to be a amylopectin type alpha-D-glucan.

  14. Decreased plasma levels of factor II + VII + X correlate with increased levels of soluble cytokine receptors in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections

    Bygbjerg, I C; Hansen, M B; Rønn, A M

    1997-01-01

    The levels of coagulation factors II + VII + X and of blood platelets (thrombocytes) as well as of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors were studied in the patients with malaria or meningococcal infections. The coagulation factors were decreased particularly in the meningococcal patients, while...... thrombocytes were lowest in the Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients. There was no correlation between factors II + VII + X and thrombocytes, but plasma levels of coagulation factors II + VII + X were found to correlate inversely with levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and soluble tumour...... necrosis factor-I (sTNF-RI) in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections. Elevated sIL-2R and sTNF-RI levels and decreased coagulation factors reverted to normal within 3-5 days after initiation of therapy in P. falciparum patients followed consecutively. Estimation of coagulation factors may...

  15. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 strains isolated from pigs.

    Seol, B; Kelneric, Z; Hajsig, D; Madic, J; Naglic, T

    1996-03-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for thirty-three epidemiologicaly unrelated clinical isolates of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 were determined in relation to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin, clavulanate-amoxicillin, penicillin G, cephalexin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tylosin and doxycycline, using the microtitre broth dilution procedure described by the U.S. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Gentamicin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of 0.4 mg/L. Overall, 70% of strains were resistant to doxycycline (MIC(90) > or = 100.0 mg/L), followed by penicillin G (51% of strains) (MIC(90) + or = 100.0 mg/L). Resistance to amoxicillin and ampicillin was 36.4% (MIC(90) 12.5 mg/L) and 33.3% (MIC(90) 50.0 mg/L), respectively. 15.2% of S. suis strains were resistant to streptomycin, tylosin and cephalexin with MIC90 values of 25.0 mg/L, 12.5 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively. A combination of ampicillin and sulbactam (MIC(90) 6.3 mg/L) and a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate (MIC(90) 3.1 mg/L) as well as erythromycin (1.6 mg/L) were of the same efficacy, with a total of 9.1% resistant S. suis strains. This high percentage of resistance to doxycycline and penicillin G precludes the use of these antibiotics as empiric therapy of swine diseases.

  16. Combined surgical management of capsular and iris deficiency with glued intraocular lens technique.

    Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Agarwal, Amar; Jacob, Soosan; Lamba, Mandeep; Packialakshmi, Sathiya; Meduri, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    To determine the outcome after glued aniridia intraocular lens (IOL) and glued IOL with iridoplasty in eyes with combined lens capsular and iris deficiency. Twenty-seven eyes of 25 patients (6 had congenital aniridia with subluxated cataract and 19 had acquired lens/iris defects) were included. Glued IOL with aniridia IOL (Intra Ocular Care, Gujarat, India) was performed in eyes with total aniridia and iridoplasty with glued IOL with a three-piece foldable IOL (Sofport; Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) was performed in eyes with partial aniridia. The postoperative outcomes were analyzed at follow-up examination (range: 6 to 48 months). Eleven eyes underwent glued aniridia IOL and 16 eyes underwent glued IOL with iridoplasty. There was significant improvement in (spectacle) corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) (P = .002). Postoperatively, pigment dispersion on the IOL (n = 1) and raised intraocular pressure was seen in the glued aniridia IOL group and chronic uveitis (n = 1), cystoid macular edema (n = 1), and hyphema (n = 1) in the glued IOL with iridoplasty group. The CDVA remained unchanged in 14 eyes (51.8%) and improved in 13 eyes (48.1%). There was a difference in postoperative CDVA (P = .001) between eyes with glued aniridia IOL and glued IOL with iridoplasty. There was no IOL decentration, retinal detachment, corneal decompensation, or endophthalmitis. There was reduction in glare and photophobia. Both glued aniridia IOL and glued IOL/iridoplasty showed good functional and anatomical results with fewer complications in eyes with lens capsule and iris deficiency. However, long-term follow-up is required.[J Refract Surg. 2013;29(5):342-347.]. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Safety of a meningococcal group B vaccine used in response to two university outbreaks.

    Duffy, Jonathan; Johnsen, Peter; Ferris, Mary; Miller, Mary; Leighton, Kevin; McGilvray, Mark; McNamara, Lucy; Breakwell, Lucy; Yu, Yon; Bhavsar, Tina; Briere, Elizabeth; Patel, Manisha

    2017-03-31

    To assess the safety of meningococcal group B (MenB)-4C vaccine. Undergraduates, dormitory residents, and persons with high-risk medical conditions received the MenB-4C vaccine two-dose series during mass vaccination clinics from 12/2013 through 11/2014. Adverse events (AEs) were identified by 15 minutes of observation postvaccination, spontaneous reports, surveys, and hospital surveillance. Causality was assessed for serious adverse events (SAEs). 16,974 persons received 31,313 MenB-4C doses. The incidence of syncope during the 15-minutes post-dose 1 was 0.88/1000 persons. 2% of participants spontaneously reported an AE (most common were arm pain and fever). 3 SAEs were suspected of being caused by the vaccine, including one case of anaphylaxis. Most AEs reported were nonserious and consistent with previous clinical trial findings. Measures to prevent injury from syncope and to treat anaphylaxis should be available wherever vaccines are administered. Our safety evaluation supports the use of MenB-4C in response to outbreaks.

  18. Effectiveness analyses may underestimate protection of infants after group C meningococcal immunization.

    Vu, David M; Kelly, Dominic; Heath, Paul T; McCarthy, Noel D; Pollard, Andrew J; Granoff, Dan M

    2006-07-15

    Group C meningococcal conjugate-vaccine effectiveness in the United Kingdom declines from ~90% in the first year to 0% between 1 and 4 years after immunization in infants immunized at 2, 3, and 4 months of age and to 61% in toddlers given a single dose. Confidence intervals are wide, and the extent of protection is uncertain. Serum samples were obtained from children 3-5 years of age who were participants in a preschool booster-vaccine trial. Serum bactericidal activity was measured with human complement. Group C anticapsular antibody concentrations were measured by a radioantigen binding assay. Passive protection was analyzed in an infant rat bacteremia model. Serum samples from UK children who had been immunized 2-3 years earlier as infants or toddlers had higher levels of radioantigen binding, bactericidal activity, and passive protection than did historical control serum samples from unimmunized children (P or =1 : 4 (considered to be protective) than those immunized as toddlers (61% vs. 24%; Pprotection (50% and 41%, respectively; P=.4). We found no evidence of lower immunity in children immunized as infants than as toddlers. On the basis of serum bactericidal activity and/or passive protection, 40%-50% of both age groups are protected at 2-3 years after immunization, which was significantly greater than in unimmunized historical controls (<5%).

  19. [Approximation to the dynamics of meningococcal meningitis through dynamic systems and time series].

    Canals, M

    1996-02-01

    Meningococcal meningitis is subjected to epidemiological surveillance due to its severity and the occasional presentation of epidemic outbreaks. This work analyses previous disease models, generate new ones and analyses monthly cases using ARIMA time series models. The results show that disease dynamics for closed populations is epidemic and the epidemic size is related to the proportion of carriers and the transmissiveness of the agent. In open populations, disease dynamics depends on the admission rate of susceptible and the relative admission of infected individuals. Our model considers a logistic populational growth and carrier admission proportional to populational size, generating an endemic dynamics. Considering a non-instantaneous system response, a greater realism is obtained establishing that the endemic situation may present a dynamics highly sensitive to initial conditions, depending on the transmissiveness and proportion of susceptible individuals in the population. Time series model showed an adequate predictive capacity in terms no longer than 10 months. The lack of long term predictability was attributed to local changes in the proportion of carriers or on transmissiveness that lead to chaotic dynamics over a seasonal pattern. Predictions for 1995 and 1996 were obtained.

  20. [Assessment of health information available online regarding meningococcal B vaccine recommendations].

    Hernández-García, Ignacio; Giménez-Júlvez, Teresa

    2018-05-11

    The quality of health information online is a concern to governments and users. Our objective was to determine the extent to which the information available online regarding meningococcal B vaccine recommendations adhere to the guidelines of the Spanish Ministry of Health. Cross-sectional study carried out in April 2017. The study assessed adherence of information regarding vaccine recommendations to official guidelines. The information was collected via Google with 20 keywords. The Chi-squared test was used to analyze the association between the adhered information and its origin. In total, 186 web links were analyzed. Adhered recommendations were found in a range of links, from 52.2% (97/186) with an indication for people with properdin deficiency/terminal component pathway deficiency, to 79.6% for outbreak situations. Vaccinating children from two months of age was a recommendation not issued by the Ministry that was found in 72.6% of the links. For each of the Ministry recommendations, official public health institutions always provide information adhering to them. Digital media provided information about vaccination adhering to official guidelines with a significantly higher frequency than scientific societies in cases of people with properdin deficiency/terminal component pathway deficiency (OR: 2.72; 95%CI: 1.18-6.28) and asplenia (OR: 3.83; 95%CI: 1.66-8.86). We have observed a difficulty to obtain adhered information. Users must be encouraged to access websites of official public health institutions when looking for information about this vaccine.