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Sample records for mendelevium 246

  1. Symposium commemorating the 25th anniversary of the discovery of mendelevium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, G.T. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    The Symposium honoring the 25th Anniversary of the discovery of mendelevium was held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory on March 28, 1980. The following three papers were presented: Chemical Properties of Mendelevium; Nuclear Properties of Mendelevium; and Radioactive Decay of Md Isotopes. Besides these papers there were introductory remarks, reminiscences, and concluding remarks.

  2. Studies on some physico-chemical properties of the monovalent mendelevium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenskaya, A.N.; Mikheev, N.B.; Novichenko, V.L.

    1979-01-01

    It was established that Md 3+ reduced by Yb 2+ or Eu 2+ co-crystallizes with NaCl in water-ethanol solutions. The co-crystallization coefficient is independent of the relative quantities of the solid and liquid phase, of the concentration of the reducing agent in the concentration range from 1 to 8 mg/ml, and of the concentration of the chloride ion in the solution. Basing on the knowledge of anomalous mixed crystals and on the thermodynamical analysis of the formation of truly isomorphical solid solutions and anomalous mixed crystals, it was shown that mendelevium co-crystallizing with NaCl is in its monovalent state. Besides, it was concluded that up to 1.5 M chloride concentration the monovalent mendelevium does not form stable chloride complexes in water-ethanol solutions. (author)

  3. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-11-01

    Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10/sup 6/ atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severely restricted the gathering and the broadness of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with the element bound in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md/sup 3 +/ to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md/sup 2 +/ with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md/sup 3 +/ with sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence for Md/sup 4 +/; reduction potential of Md/sup 3 +/ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md/sup 3 +/ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md/sup 2 +/ + 2e/sup -/ = Md(Hg) and E/sup 0/ = -1.50 V.; and Md cannot be reduced to a monovalent ion with Sm/sup 2 +/.

  4. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-01-01

    The isotope 256 Md is nearly always employed for chemical studies of this element. This nuclide can be made by bombardment of fractions of a microgram of 254 Es with intense alpha-particle beams which will produce about 10 6 atoms of 256 Md with a half-life of 77 minutes. Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10 6 atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severly restricted the gathering and broadening of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with element found in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md wih sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence of Md 4+ ; standard reduction potential of Md 3+ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md 3+ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md 2+ + 2e - = Md(Hg), and E 0 = 1.5 V

  5. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-11-01

    Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10 6 atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severely restricted the gathering and the broadness of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with the element bound in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md 3+ to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md 2+ with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md 3+ with sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence for Md 4+ ; reduction potential of Md 3+ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md 3+ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md 2+ + 2e - = Md(Hg) and E 0 = -1.50 V.; and Md cannot be reduced to a monovalent ion with Sm 2+

  6. 24 CFR 246.21 - Rental charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rental charges. 246.21 Section 246.21 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... CONTROL Subsidized Insured Projects § 246.21 Rental charges. The Department finds that it is necessary and...

  7. 24 CFR 246.30 - Rental charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rental charges. 246.30 Section 246.30 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... CONTROL HUD-Owned Projects § 246.30 Rental charges. The Department has exclusive jurisdiction over the...

  8. 24 CFR 246.5 - Rental charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rental charges. 246.5 Section 246.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... Unsubsidized Insured Projects § 246.5 Rental charges. The Department will generally not interfere in the...

  9. 48 CFR 2453.246 - Quality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Quality Assurance. 2453.246 Section 2453.246 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 2453.246 Quality Assurance. ...

  10. 48 CFR 246.701 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 246.701 Section 246.701 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 246.701 Definitions. Acceptance, as...

  11. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture... Participant Benefits § 246.11 Nutrition education. (a) General. (1) Nutrition education shall be considered a benefit of the Program, and shall be made available at no cost to the participant. Nutrition education...

  12. 32 CFR 246.5 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... , and readership focus groups to gather information. 6 See footnote 1 to § 246.4(c). (f) The Other... APF accounting and reporting procedures required by DoD Instruction 7000.12 5 , in coordination with...

  13. 48 CFR 246.408-70 - Subsistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quality in food, to perform quality assurance for subsistence contract items. The designation may— (1..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.408-70...; (2) Technical requirements; and (3) Inspection procedures needed to assure wholesomeness of foods. (b...

  14. 40 CFR 246.200 - High-grade paper recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-grade paper recovery. 246.200 Section 246.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES SOURCE... paper recovery. ...

  15. 7 CFR 246.13 - Financial management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management system. 246.13 Section 246.13... State Agency Provisions § 246.13 Financial management system. (a) Disclosure of expenditures. The State agency shall maintain a financial management system which provides accurate, current and complete...

  16. 48 CFR 552.246-71 - Source Inspection by Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government. 552.246-71 Section 552.246-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....246-71 Source Inspection by Government. As prescribed in 546.302-71, insert the following clause: Source Inspection by Government (JUNE 1, 2009) (a) Inspection by Government personnel. (1) Supplies to be...

  17. 7 CFR 246.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 246.1 Section 246.1... General § 246.1 General purpose and scope. This part announces regulations under which the Secretary of... health by reason of inadequate nutrition or health care, or both. The purpose of the Program is to...

  18. 48 CFR 246.504 - Certificate of conformance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate of conformance. 246.504 Section 246.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 246.504 Certificate of conformance...

  19. 48 CFR 246.371 - Notification of potential safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safety issues. 246.371 Section 246.371 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Notification of potential safety issues. (a) Use the clause at 252.246-7003, Notification of Potential Safety Issues, in solicitations and contracts for the acquisition of— (1) Repairable or consumable parts...

  20. 48 CFR 246.202 - Types of contract quality requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of contract quality requirements. 246.202 Section 246.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 246.202...

  1. 7 CFR 246.5 - Selection of local agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a notice in the local media (unless it has received an application from a local public or nonprofit... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of local agencies. 246.5 Section 246.5... State and Local Agency Eligibility § 246.5 Selection of local agencies. (a) General. This section sets...

  2. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed Foods...

  3. 48 CFR 246.470-2 - Quality evaluation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality evaluation data... 246.470-2 Quality evaluation data. The contract administration office shall establish a system for the collection, evaluation, and use of the types of quality evaluation data specified in PGI 246.470-2. [71 FR...

  4. 7 CFR 246.19 - Management evaluation and monitoring reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Monitoring and Review § 246.19 Management evaluation and monitoring reviews... education, participant services, civil rights compliance, accountability, financial management systems, and...

  5. 48 CFR 246.370 - Material inspection and receiving report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 246.370... deliverable is a scientific or technical report; (5) Research and development contracts not requiring the...

  6. 48 CFR 252.246-7003 - Notification of Potential Safety Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Issues. 252.246-7003 Section 252.246-7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7003 Notification of Potential Safety Issues. As prescribed in 246.371(a), use the following clause: Notification of Potential Safety Issues (JAN 2007) (a...

  7. 40 CFR 246.202-3 - Recommended procedures: Market study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Market study... § 246.202-3 Recommended procedures: Market study. An investigation of markets should be made by the...: (a) Identifying potential purchasers of the recovered corrugated through standard market research...

  8. 40 CFR 246.201-4 - Recommended procedures: Market study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Market study... § 246.201-4 Recommended procedures: Market study. An investigation of markets should be made for each... at a minimum: (a) Identifying potential purchasers of the recovered material through standard market...

  9. 40 CFR 246.200-3 - Recommended procedures: Market study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Market study... § 246.200-3 Recommended procedures: Market study. An investigation of markets should be made by the... minimum: (a) Identifying potential purchasers of the recovered paper through standard market research...

  10. 48 CFR 452.246-70 - Inspection and Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptance will be performed at: ___.* (End of clause) * Contracting Officer shall insert appropriate... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and Acceptance... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.246-70...

  11. 48 CFR 1352.246-70 - Place of acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under this contract. (b) The place of acceptance will be: (End of clause) [75 FR 10570, Mar. 8, 2010; 75... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Place of acceptance. 1352... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.246-70 Place of...

  12. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....246 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: (1) Amount. 0.25 milligram of... associated with inflammatory conditions of the upper respiratory tract. (3) Limitations. For oral use in dogs...

  13. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94 Intermediate temperature testing. (a) This section is applicable to tests which are conducted at an intermediate...

  14. 48 CFR 52.246-9 - Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Development (Short Form). 52.246-9 Section 52.246-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.246-9 Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form). As prescribed in 46.309, insert the following clause: Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form) (APR 1984) The Government has the...

  15. 40 CFR 246.201-6 - Recommended procedures: Transportation to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Transportation to market. 246.201-6 Section 246.201-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Procedures § 246.201-6 Recommended procedures: Transportation to market. Transportation to market may be...

  16. 48 CFR 552.246-77 - Additional Contract Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. 552.246-77 Section 552.246-77 Federal Acquisition... a Noncomplex Nature. As prescribed in 546.710(a), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts that include FAR 52.246-17, Warranty of Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. Additional Contract...

  17. 48 CFR 246.402 - Government contract quality assurance at source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quality assurance at source. 246.402 Section 246.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Contract Quality Assurance 246.402 Government contract quality assurance at source. Do not require Government contract quality assurance at source for contracts or delivery orders valued below $300,000...

  18. 40 CFR 52.246 - Control of dry cleaning solvent vapor losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of dry cleaning solvent vapor losses. 52.246 Section 52.246 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... cleaning solvent vapor losses. (a) For the purpose of this section, “dry cleaning operation” means that...

  19. 48 CFR 246.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quality requirements. 246.202-4 Section 246.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Quality... requirements, including nongovernment quality system standards adopted to meet DoD needs, are listed in the DoD...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and Management...

  1. Structural study of 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laba, V. I.; Sviridova, A. V.; Nesterov, V. N.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (TPSCl) (I) was studied by X-ray diffraction. Compound I is a highly selective condensing agent first suggested by Khorana for the formation of the C3'-C5' interribonucleotide linkage in the oligo- and polyribonucleotide synthesis. I crystals are orthorhombic. At -120 deg. C, the unit-cell parameters are a = 14.184(4) A, b = 11.344(5) A, c = 19.883(6) A, V = 3199(2) A 3 , d calc = 1.257 g/cm 3 , Z = 8, sp. gr. Pbca. Molecule I adopts a strongly flattened boat conformation with the carbon atoms C-SO 2 Cl (C 1 ) and C-i-Pr (C4) of the benzene ring deviating from the bottom of the boat by 0.065(1) and 0.032(1) A, respectively. Molecule I is sterically overcrowded, resulting in an increase in the bond lengths and bond-angle distortions in the fragment containing the SO 2 Cl group and two ortho-i-Pr groups. Nonbonded contacts that are present in the molecule can be considered weak intramolecular hydrogen bonds (for example, the (CH 3 ) 2 C-H-O=S bond). There is no rotation of the SO 2 Cl, ortho-i-Pr, and CH 3 groups. The above-mentioned facts are, apparently, responsible for the specific selectivity of TPSCl. New readily available sterically hindered arenesulfonyl chlorides were designed.

  2. Evaluation of neutron cross sections for 244Cm, 246Cm, and 248Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McCrosson, F.J.; Gettys, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of neutron cross sections for 244 246 248 Cm using the ENDF/B format is presented. Primary data input included differential measurements, integral measurements, nuclear model calculations, and reactor production experience

  3. Role of UV photolysis in accelerating the biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbing; Kirumba, George; Zhang, Yongming; Wu, Yanqing; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-09-18

    2,4,6-TCP, a kind of chlorinated aromatic and aliphatic compound, is difficult to be biodegraded by ordinary microorganisms. UV photolysis and biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens intimate coupling is a potential means to accelerate its biotransformation. The initial steps of 2,4,6-TCP biodegradation involve mono-oxygenation reactions that have molecular oxygen and an intracellular electron carrier as cosubstrates. It was demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens has the 2,4,6-TCP monooxygenase gene tcpA which could encode 2,4,6-TCP monooxygenase (TCP-MO). TCP-MO would catalytically decompose 2,4,6-TCP into 2,6-DCHQ. We employed an internal loop photolytic biofilm reactor for 2,4,6-TCP degradation. Sequentially coupled photolysis and biodegradation experimental results suggested that 2,4,6-TCP removal rate in P + B (TCP(UV) + phenol) protocol was higher by 77 and 103 % when compared to B (TCP + phenol) and B (TCP-only) protocols respectively. The corresponding loss rate coefficient (k) values were 0.069, 0.039, 0.034 mg/L·min -1 respectively. This is because UV photolysis converted 2,4,6-TCP into its intermediates: 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-monochlorophenol (4-MCP), phenol, 2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone (2,6-DCHQ), with all displaying less inhibition to bacterial action. In addition, phenol was the crucial UV-photolysis product from 2,4,6-TCP, its catabolic oxidation generating internal electron carriers that may accelerate the initial steps of 2,4,6-TCP biodegradation. Intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation experimental results suggested that 2,4,6-TCP removal rate in P&B (TCP + phenol) protocol was higher by 166 and 681 % when compared to P&B (TCP-only) and P + B protocols respectively. The corresponding loss rate coefficient (k) values were 0.539, 0.203, 0.069 mg/L·min -1 respectively. It provided sufficient evidence to demonstrate that intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated 2,4,6-TCP removal

  4. Evaluation of neutron cross sections for /sup 244/Cm, /sup 246/Cm, and /sup 248/Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McCrosson, F.J.; Gettys, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of neutron cross sections for /sup 244/ /sup 246/ /sup 248/Cm using the ENDF/B format is presented. Primary data input included differential measurements, integral measurements, nuclear model calculations, and reactor production experience. (SDF)

  5. Degradation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol and hydrogen production simultaneously by TiO2 nanotubes/graphene composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Raudina

    2017-11-01

    Industrial waters in coal pyrolysis process, synthetic chemicals and oil and gas process contain phenol derivatives that are dangerous to the environment and needs to be removed, one of them is 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol. Degradation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol and hydrogen production simultaneously have been investigated using TiNT/Graphene composite at various graphene loading and initial concentration of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol. Optimal graphene loading of 0.6 wt% was obtained in the simultaneous system with 89% elimination of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol and 986 µmol of hydrogen production. Test results showed that addition of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol would subsequently increased 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol conversion and enhanced hydrogen production linearly. 2.7 times greater hydrogen production was found in addition of 50 ppm 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol.

  6. The potential of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) for detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpas, Zeev; Guamán, Ana V; Calvo, Daniel; Pardo, Antonio; Marco, Santiago

    2012-05-15

    The off-flavor of "tainted wine" is attributed mainly to the presence of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in the wine. In the present study the atmospheric pressure gas-phase ion chemistry, pertaining to ion mobility spectrometry, of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole was investigated. In positive ion mode the dominant species is a monomer ion with a lower intensity dimer species with reduced mobility values (K(0)) of 1.58 and 1.20 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1), respectively. In negative mode the ion with K(0) =1.64 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) is ascribed to a trichlorophenoxide species while the ions with K(0) =1.48 and 1.13 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) are attributed to chloride attachment adducts of a TCA monomer and dimer, respectively. The limit of detection of the system for 2,4,6-TCA dissolved in dichloromethane deposited on a filter paper was 2.1 μg and 1.7 ppm in the gas phase. In ethanol and in wine the limit of detection is higher implying that pre-concentration and pre-separation are required before IMS can be used to monitor the level of TCA in wine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Functions of Flavin Reductase and Quinone Reductase in 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Degradation by Cupriavidus necator JMP134▿

    OpenAIRE

    Belchik, Sara Mae; Xun, Luying

    2007-01-01

    The tcpRXABCYD operon of Cupriavidus necator JMP134 is involved in the degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a toxic pollutant. TcpA is a reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2)-dependent monooxygenase that converts 2,4,6-TCP to 6-chlorohydroxyquinone. It has been implied via genetic analysis that TcpX acts as an FAD reductase to supply TcpA with FADH2, whereas the function of TcpB in 2,4,6-TCP degradation is still unclear. In order to provide direct biochemical evidence for t...

  8. 8 CFR 246.4 - Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS RESCISSION OF ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS § 246.4 Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution. In any proceeding conducted under this part, the immigration judge shall have...

  9. 7 CFR 58.246 - Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG... Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.246 Cleaning of dryers, collectors...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Mission Critical Space... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program. As prescribed in 1846.370(a), insert the following clause: Mission Critical Space System...

  11. 12 CFR 24.6 - Examples of qualifying public welfare investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples of qualifying public welfare... INVESTMENTS § 24.6 Examples of qualifying public welfare investments. Investments that primarily support the following types of activities are examples of investments that meet the requirements of § 24.3: (a...

  12. SAGE ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTOME RESPONSES IN ARABIDOPSIS ROOTS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to profile transcript levels in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and assess their responses to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure. SAGE libraries representing control and TNT-exposed seedling root transcripts were constructed, and ea...

  13. 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melamine reacted with chlorosufonic acid (ClSO3H) to form a new sulfamic-type acid, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA). Both nitrosation of secondary amines and oxidation of urazoles were accomplished by using TTSA/NaNO2 system under mild and heterogeneous conditions with good to excellent yields.

  14. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as possible in the construction process. If Tribal construction standards are consistent with or... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE...

  15. Pilot investigation on formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole via microbial O-methylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in drinking water distribution system: An insight into microbial mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejia; Cao, Cong; Zhou, Xinyan; Zheng, Feifei; Sun, Youmin; Cai, Zhengqing; Fu, Jie

    2017-12-11

    Taste & odor (T&O) problems in drinking water are always complained by customers. Recent studies have indicated biofilms in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) are always ignored as potential sources of T&O compounds. In this paper, the formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA), one of the dominant T&O compounds, was investigated in a pilot-scale DWDS. The addition of precursor 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) of 0.2 mg/L induced the formation of 2,4,6-TCA with a maximum yield of ∼400 ng/L, and the formation kinetics can be described by a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Effects of water distribution factors such as pipe material, temperature, flow velocity, and residual chlorine on the formation of 2,4,6-TCA were evaluated, and the pipe material was found to have the most remarkable effect. Ductile iron and stainless steel pipes produced much more 2,4,6-TCA than polyethylene (PE) pipe. The biofilm microbial communities on the three types of pipe walls were then comprehensively analyzed by heterotrophic plate count and 16S rRNA/ITS1 genes high throughput sequencing. The links between the 2,4,6-TCA formation potential and the microbial activity in genus and enzymatic levels in DWDS have been revealed for the first time. According to the characteristics of microbial assemblages of producing 2,4,6-TCA, quorum-sensing (QS) bacterial signaling system and extracellular DNA (eDNA) may be two promising targets for biofilm treatment and 2,4,6-TCA control in DWDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Levan-type fructooligosaccharide production using Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surawut Sangmanee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S (LsRN-Y246S was immobilized by covalently linking onto chitosan, Sepabead EC-EP, and Sepabead EC-HFA, beads. The stability of immobilized LsRN-Y246S was found to be the highest with chitosan beads, retaining more than 70% activity after 13 weeks storage at 4 oC, and 68% activity after 12 hours incubation at 40°C. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads withstands sucrose concentrations up to 70% (w/v, retaining over 85% of its activity, significantly better than LsRN-Y246S immobilized on others supporting matrices. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan showed a 2.4 fold increase in activity in the presence of Mn2+, and gave slight protection against deactivation by of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, SDS and EDTA. A maximum of 8.36 g and an average of 7.35 g LFOS yield at least up to DP 11 can be produced from 25 g of sucrose, during five production cycles. We have demonstrated that LFOS can be effectively produced by chitosan immobilized LsRN-Y246S and purified.

  17. Biosensor-Based Approaches for Detecting Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole in Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Mavrikou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins and haloanisoles are secondary metabolites produced under special conditions of temperature and humidity by fungi colonizing a variety of commodities from preharvest up to consumer use. Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-trichloanisole are produced mainly by species of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium. Ochratoxin A exhibits nephrotic effects and can, potentially, be associated with human carcinogenesis, whereas 2,4,6-trichloanisole is primarily responsible for cork taint in wines. This review provides an overview of recent advances in biosensor technology for the determination of the aforementioned compounds in wine, beer and other beverages, as well as cork stoppers, which help in establishing and carrying out proper product quality-management strategies. Such a detailed investigation of biosensor-based detection methods of these toxic compounds in beverages could lead to the provision of safe-to-consume products, and allow the prioritization of future research efforts.

  18. Microbial Transformation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Aerobic Soil Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns-Nagel, D.; Breitung, J.; von Low, E.; Steinbach, K.; Gorontzy, T.; Kahl, M.; Blotevogel, K.; Gemsa, D.

    1996-01-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil material of a former TNT production plant was percolated aerobically in soil columns. Nineteen days of percolation with a potassium phosphate buffer supplemented with glucose or glucose plus ammonium sulfate caused an over 90% decline in the amount of extractable nitroaromatics in soils containing 70 to 2,100 mg of TNT per kg (dry weight). In the percolation solution, a complete elimination of TNT was achieved. Mutagenicity and soil toxicity were ...

  19. The in vitro metabolites of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and their DNA strand breaking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, U; Blum, K; Witte, I

    1989-01-01

    The carcinogenic compound 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was incubated with rat liver S-9 fraction. Three metabolites were identified: 2,6-dichloro-1,4-hydroquinone (DHQ), and two isomers of hydroxypentachlorodiphenyl ether (OH-Cl5-DPE). The latter are probably products of microsomal .OH radical attack on the trichlorophenol molecule forming phenoxy free radicals. These would undergo dimerizations with other molecules present in solution. The 2,6-dichloro-1,4-semiquinone free radical was identified by ESR spectroscopy. It is formed at physiological conditions in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 and 7.8, with a more intensive signal at the more alkaline pH. The formation is probably due to the autoxidation of the corresponding hydroquinone. Incubation of a mixture of metabolites with PM2 DNA at pH 7.2 resulted in single strand breaks. Addition of catalase and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) inhibited the DNA strand scission. It was concluded that reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced during the formation of the semiquinone radical, were responsible for the observed DNA damage. The significance of the ROS and the semiquinone free radical is discussed in view of the reported tumorgenicity of 2,4,6-TCP in rats and mice.

  20. Contribution of filamentous fungi to the musty odorant 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in water supply reservoirs and associated drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Ting; Qu, Zhipeng; Li, Haipu; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the distribution of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in two water supply reservoirs and four associated drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) were investigated. The 2,4,6-TCA concentrations were in the range of 1.53-2.36 ng L -1 in water supply reservoirs and 0.76-6.58 ng L -1 at DWTPs. To determine the contribution of filamentous fungi to 2,4,6-TCA in a full-scale treatment process, the concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA in raw water, settled water, post-filtration water, and finished water were measured. The results showed that 2,4,6-TCA levels continuously increased until chlorination, suggesting that 2,4,6-TCA could form without a chlorination reaction and fungi might be the major contributor to the 2,4,6-TCA formation. Meanwhile, twenty-nine fungal strains were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular biological methods. Of the seventeen isolated fungal species, eleven showed the capability to convert 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) to 2,4,6-TCA. The highest level of 2,4,6-TCA formation was carried out by Aspergillus versicolor voucher BJ1-3: 40.5% of the original 2,4,6-TCP was converted to 2,4,6-TCA. There was a significant variation in the capability of different species to generate 2,4,6-TCA. The results from the proportions of cell-free, cell-attached, and cell-bound 2,4,6-TCA suggested that 2,4,6-TCA generated by fungi was mainly distributed in their extracellular environment. In addition to 2,4,6-TCA, five putative volatile by-products were also identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. These findings increase our understanding on the mechanisms involved in the formation of 2,4,6-TCA and provide insights into managing and controlling 2,4,6-TCA-related problems in drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Orally Delivered ST-246 as Postexposure Prophylactic and Antiviral Therapeutic in an Aerosolized Rabbitpox Rabbit Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nalca, Aysegul; Hatkin, Josh M; Garza, Nicole L; Nichols, Donald K; Norris, Sarah W; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) to treat smallpox or monkeypox infection. In this study, we showed that administration of the antiviral compound ST-246 to rabbits by oral gavage, once daily for 14 days beginning 1h postexposure (p.e.), resulted in 100...

  2. Transformation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by the white rot fungi Panus tigrinus and Coriolus versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontievsky, A A; Myasoedova, N M; Baskunov, B P; Evans, C S; Golovleva, L A

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of thirteen isomers of mono-, di-, tri- and pentachlorophenols was tested in potato-dextrose agar cultures of the white rot fungi Panus tigrinus and Coriolus versicolor. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was chosen for further study of its toxicity and transformation in liquid cultures of these fungi. Two schemes of 2,4,6-TCP addition were tested to minimize its toxic effect to fungal cultures: stepwise addition from the moment of inoculation and single addition after five days of growth. In both cases the ligninolytic enzyme systems of both fungi were found to be responsible for 2,4,6-TCP transformation. 2,6-Dichloro-1,4-hydroquinol and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone were found as products of primary oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP by intact fungal cultures and purified ligninolytic enzymes, Mn-peroxidases and laccases of both fungi. However, primary attack of 2,4,6-TCP in P. tigrinus culture was conducted mainly by Mn-peroxidase, while in C. versicolor it was catalyzed predominantly by laccase, suggesting a different mode of regulation of these enzymes in the two fungi.

  3. Monoklonale Antikörper zum Nachweis von 2,4,6-Trichloranisol in Kork

    OpenAIRE

    Lausterer, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Die Verbindung 2,4,6-Trichloranisol (TCA) kann in Kork und Wein vorkommen. TCA entsteht durch mikrobielle Umsetzung von Chlorphenolen. In den betroffenen Industrien führt TCA zu jährlichen Verlusten von mehr als einer Milliarde €. Zur Bestimmung von TCA sollten enzymkoppelte Immunabsorptionstest (ELISAs) mit monoklonalen Antikörpern (mAk) entwickelt werden. Es wurden drei TCA-spezifische mAk-produzierende Zelllinien gewonnen. Mit diesen mAk wurden hochsensitive ELISAs hergstellt, die eine Nac...

  4. Progressive Vaccinia: Case Description and Laboratory-Guided Therapy With Vaccinia Immune Globulin, ST-246, and CMX001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Edith R.; Davidson, Whitni; Groff, Harold L.; Smith, Scott K.; Warkentien, Tyler; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly A.; Karem, Kevin L.; Akondy, Rama S.; Ahmed, Rafi; Frace, Michael; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif; Hruby, Dennis E.; Painter, Wendy P.; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Damon, Inger K.

    2012-01-01

    Progressive vaccinia (PV) is a rare but potentially lethal complication that develops in smallpox vaccine recipients with severely impaired cellular immunity. We describe a patient with PV who required treatment with vaccinia immune globulin and who received 2 investigational agents, ST-246 and CMX001. We describe the various molecular, pharmacokinetic, and immunologic studies that provided guidance to escalate and then successfully discontinue therapy. Despite development of resistance to ST-246 during treatment, the patient had resolution of PV. This case demonstrates the need for continued development of novel anti-orthopoxvirus pharmaceuticals and the importance of both intensive and timely clinical and laboratory support in management of PV. PMID:22904336

  5. 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP): An organic material for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; Gunasekaran, M.; Kanagasekaran, T.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    2006-04-01

    The bulk single crystals of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) have been grown by slow cooling solution growth technique using acetone and ethanol as solvents. Good-quality crystals were obtained from ethanol as solvent. The solubility in acetone and ethanol was studied. The X-ray diffraction and mass spectrum studies were performed for material confirmation. FT-IR and FT-Raman measurements were carried out for spectral analyses. The factor group analysis was carried out for TNP which predicts that there are 453 vibrational optical modes. Relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of TNP was compared with that of urea and KDP. TNP exhibit SHG efficiency over 1.4 order of magnitude higher than that of urea and 13.4 order of magnitude higher than that of KDP. The melting point, hardness and UV-Vis spectral studies were carried for the grown crystals.

  6. Synthesis and biological activity of substituted 2,4,6-s-triazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vinod Kumar; Tusi, Sarah; Tusi, Zehra; Joshi, Madhawanand; Bajpai, Shashikala

    2004-03-01

    Reaction of 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin with amido/ imido alcohols in ethanol containing concentrated hydrochloric acid afforded 8-aralkyl amido/imido-alkyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-coumarins (1a-f). Interaction of 1a-f with hydrazine hydrate in pyridine resulted in 1-amino-8-aralkyl amido/imido-alkyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-quinolines (2a-f). Treatment of 2 with formaldehyde in ethanol resulted in 1,3,5-tris-(8-aralkyl amido/imido-alkyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-quinolinyl)-2,4,6-hexahydro-s-triazines (3a-c). Antiviral activity of compounds 2a-d and 3a, 3b upon Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) was evaluated on vero cells in vitro. 3a-c were also screened for their antihypertensive activity.

  7. Poly[[triaqua(μ3-pyridine-2,4,6-tricarboxylatoterbium(III] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-lin Zhu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {[Tb(C8H2NO6(H2O3]·H2O}n, contains one TbIII ion, one pyridine-2,4,6-tricarboxylate (ptc anion, three aqua ligands and one lattice water molecule. The TbIII ion is nine coordinated by one N and five O atoms from three ptc ligands and by three O atoms from the three aqua ligands in a distorted bicapped trigonal–prismatic geometry. The ptc ligands bridge the TbIII ions into a two-dimensional polymeric framework parallel to (100. An extensive O—H...O hydrogen-bonding network consolidates the crystal packing.

  8. Adsorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene on carboxylated porous polystyrene microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhengfang; Meng Qingqiang; Lu Shengtao

    2012-01-01

    Large-pore-size (150 nm) polystyrene (PSt) microspheres were carboxylated with phthalic anhydride (PA) through Friedel-Crafts acetylation to study the adsorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on this material from aqueous solution. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and mercury porosimetry measurements (MPM) of the microspheres showed that the pore structure was unchanged during the reaction. High adsorption capacity (11.2 mg g -1 of suction-dried adsorbent) and adsorption rate (33.9 mg g -1 h -1 ) for TNT were observed during the study. As shown by the adsorption isotherm, the adsorption of TNT on PA-PSt can be described by the Freundlich adsorption equation, indicating heterogeneous adsorption process. On-column adsorption of TNT on PA-PSt and elution indicated that TNT can be completely removed from aqueous solution and condensed into acetone.

  9. Reliability of optical fibres and components final report of COST 246

    CERN Document Server

    Griffioen, Willem; Gadonna, Michel; Limberger, Hans; Heens, Bernard; Knuuttila, Hanna; Kurkjian, Charles; Mirza, Shehzad; Opacic, Aleksandar; Regio, Paola; Semjonov, Sergei

    1999-01-01

    Reliability of Optical Fibres and Components reports the findings of COST 246 (1993-1998) - European research initiative in the field of optical telecommunications. Experts in the materials and reliability field of optical fibres and components have contributed to this unique study programme. The results, conclusions and achievements of their work have been obtained through joint experimentation and discussion with representatives from manufacturing and research groups. Topics covered include: Lifetime estimation; Failure mechanisms; Ageing test methods; Field data and service environments for components. For the first time the reader can explore the reliability of products and examine the results and conclusions in published form. This comprehensive volume is intended to provide a deeper understanding of the reliability of optical fibres and components. The book will be extremely useful to all scientists and practitioners involved in the industry.

  10. Towards the island of superheavy stability - Prompt spectroscopy of 246Fm and 256Rf nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, J.

    2010-10-01

    The region of trans-fermium nuclei (Z = 100 to 104) is the last region of the nuclides chart to be accessible to spectroscopic measurements. It therefore provides the ultimate anchor points for nuclear models. This region also lies on the path of the alpha-decay chains of the super-heavy elements. This region represents the limit of today's spectroscopic capabilities. It therefore requires technological developments in order to overcome these limits. My thesis focuses on various aspects of the spectroscopy of trans-fermium nuclei. I took part in the development of the TNT2D digital acquisition cards for germanium detectors. I validated their use on the gamma-ray spectrometer JUROGAM during an in-beam experiment and demonstrated the gain compared to an analogue acquisition system. These tests were part of the developments needed to secure a study of the prompt spectroscopy of 256 Rf. The preparation of this experiment also lead me to work on the development of a 50 Ti beam. For that purpose, I studied and tested the use of titanium organo-metallic compounds compatible with the MIVOC technique. In parallel, I studied the use of metallic and oxide titanium pellets with an inductive oven newly developed at the University of Jyvaeskylae. In addition to these developments, I had the opportunity to study the in-beam prompt spectroscopy of 246 Fm at the University of Jyvaeskylae. The measurements yielded a rotational band built on the ground state of 246 Fm. This band has been observed up to the level 16 + and shows a behaviour quite similar to the neighbouring even-even isotopes, except for the top of the band for which a wider statistics is necessary in order to conclude. (author)

  11. Preparation and characterization of molecularly-imprinted magnetic microspheres for adsorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ping; Pan, Jianming; Yan, Yongsheng [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Sun, Qilong; Li, Jianfeng; Tan, Zhenjiang [Jilin Normal University, Siping (China)

    2015-04-15

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted microspheres (MMIS) were successfully prepared by suspension polymerization, and then as-prepared MMIS were used as adsorbents for selective recognition of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) from aqueous solutions. The results composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results demonstrated that MMIS possesses porous spherical morphology, and exhibits good thermal stability and magnetic property (Ms=10.14 emu g{sup -1}). Then batch mode of binding experiments was used to determine the equilibrium, kinetics and selectivity recognition. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted the equilibrium data better than did the Freundlich model, and the maximum adsorption capacity on MMIS was about 1.7 times higher than that of MNIS. Kinetics behaviors of MMIS were well described by the pseudo-second-order model. MMIS possessed outstanding selectivity recognition for 2,4,6-TCP in the presence of other competitive phenols (such as sesamol, 3-CP, thymol, 2,4-DCP). Furthermore, the reusability performance of MMIS showed about 17.53% loss after five repeated cycles. Finally, the MMIS were successfully applied to the selective extraction of 2,4,6-TCP from the vegetable samples.

  12. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium salt of adipic acid bis-(2,4,6-triiodo-3-carboxyanilide). [Gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharlamov, V.T.; Pikaev, A.K.; Shubnyakova, L.P.; Sysoeva, K.S.

    1975-07-01

    The ..gamma.. radiolysis of aqueous solutions of the sodium salt of adipic acid bis-(2,4,6-triiodo-3-carboxyanilide) was studied. The radiation-chemical decomposition yields of this compound and the formation of iodide ions under various conditions were measured. (auth)

  13. 78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... the dockets to read background documents or objections received, go to http://www.regulations.gov and insert the docket numbers, found in brackets in the heading of this document, into the ``Search'' box and... petitioner. This study demonstrated that there was no detectable migration of C.I. Reactive Blue 246 at the...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5356 - Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate. 721...]-omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... alpha-[2,4,6-tris(1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate (PMN P-98-185...

  15. Practical ruthenium-catalyzed cyclocarbonylation of allenyl alcohols in 2,4,6-collidine leading to alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones: concise stereoselective synthesis of (+)-isomintlactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubuki, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Kazunori; Honda, Toshio

    2009-02-06

    We have found that ruthenium-catalyzed cyclocarbonylation of allenyl alcohols in 2,4,6-collidine under atmospheric pressure of carbon monoxide smoothly proceeds to afford alpha,beta-unsaturated five- and six-membered lactones in moderate to good yields. Furthermore, we have completed a highly stereoselective synthesis of (+)-isomintlactone by the cyclocarbonylation of allenyl alcohol using 2,4,6-collidine.

  16. Visual detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotolune by molecularly imprinted colloidal array photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Asher, Sanford A., E-mail: asher@pitt.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Meng, Zihui, E-mail: m_zihui@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yan, Zequn [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Xue, Min, E-mail: minxue@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Qiu, Lili, E-mail: qiulili@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yi, Da [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Graphical abstract: Molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT with color changing from green to red. And molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) were evaluated for the adsorption capacity and the imprinting efficiency. The MICA had excellent flexibility, reversibility and stability. It promised high potential for the visual semi-quantitative detection of other explosives. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) was used to visually detect TNT. • The relationship of particle size, diffracted wavelength and color was discussed. • The adsorption capacity and imprinting efficiency of MICs were calculated. • MICA had short response time, high selectivity, good reversibility and stability. • MICA had high potential to be used in other customed visual explosive detection. - Abstract: We developed a photonic crystal (PhC) sensor for the quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in solution. Monodisperse (210 nm in diameter) molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for TNT were prepared by the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide in the presence of TNT as a template. The MICs were then self-assembled into close-packed opal PhC films. The adsorption capacity of the MICs for TNT was 64 mg TNT/g. The diffraction from the PhC depended on the TNT concentration in a methanol/water (3/2, v/v) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.0, 30 mM). The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 1.03 μg. The color of the molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) changed from green to red with an 84 nm diffraction red shift when the TNT concentration increased to 20 mM. The sensor response time was 3 min. The PhC sensor was selective for TNT compared to similar compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitromesitylene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, methylbenzene, 4-nitrophenol

  17. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass - Potential for phytoremediation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, Konstantinos C.; Shakya, Kabindra M.; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-01-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNT L -1 for 8 d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit (∼1 μg L -1 ) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils. - Vetiver grass demonstrates ability to absorb TNT in aqueous media

  18. Phototransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene: Sensitized by riboflavin under different irradiation spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xin; Zhao Xueheng; Hwang, H.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Riboflavin-sensitized phototransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under natural sunlight was investigated with reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effect of different spectral region of sunlight on TNT phototransformation in the absence or presence of riboflavin was also investigated by using optical filters with cut-off at 400 or 455 nm. The concentration of riboflavin in the phototransformation of TNT was optimized. Concentration of riboflavin and TNT was 1.0 and 50 μM, respectively. The rates of phototransformation of TNT under natural sunlight in the presence or absence of riboflavin were conformed to initial pseudo-first-order rate equation. The photolysis half life of TNT in the presence of riboflavin was 21.87 min, compared to 39 min in the absence of riboflavin under natural sunlight. Two major phototransformation products of TNT, 3,5-dinitroaniline (3,5-DNA) and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (1,3,5-TNB), were detected in the samples in the presence of riboflavin receiving irradiation at full wavelength or wavelength >400 nm. The results indicate that riboflavin mediates TNT sensitized-phototransfomation under natural sunlight or near-UV-vis light

  19. Evaluation of the cardiovascular system by digital subtraction angiography in 246 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuma, Kikuhiko; Ohta, Takashi; Hiroto, Seiji

    1987-07-01

    Usefulness of intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was examined in 246 patients with cardiovascular disorders. This examination was done by centrally intravenous DSA (CIVDSA) in all patients to reduce the risks and discomforts by peripheral intravenous DSA. 1) CIVDSA could be done safely in patients aged 18 to 81 years. 2) The good diagnostic quality by CIVDSA was obtained in 81.3% of patients. These images were classified into 7 groups according to the cardiovascular system, that is, the jugular arteries, the upper extremity arteries, the thoracic aorta, the left ventricle, the abnominal aorta, the renal arteries, and the lower extremity arteries, whose rate of good diagnostic quality were 100%, 70%, 67.7%, 79.5%, 84.8%, 87%, and 71.4% respectively. 3) The poor diagnostic quality was obtained in 18.7%. 4) The severe complications were not found in any case during this examination. Our results indicate that DSA is the safe, simple and useful method to obtain the diagnostic quality image of the cardiovascular system, especially, of the occulsive arterial disease, the aortic aneurisma, the renovascular stenosis and the cardiac function of postmyocardial infarction, even in aged patients.

  20. Sonochemical synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kien-Yin

    1996-05-01

    The synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from trichlorotrinitrobenzene (TCTNB) in toluene and ammonium hydroxide solution under the influence of ultrasonic waves was investigated. When the two-phase reaction mixture was irradiated with high intensity ultrasound at ambient temperature, fine-particle TATB (FP-TATB) was produced. This sonochemically produced TATB powder is lemon color in appearance and was analyzed to have the same explosive properties as reported in the literature. That is, it is insensitive to impact stimuli, and thermally stable. The median particle diameter of FP-TATB was calculated to be around 14 {mu}m, and the powder can be pressed to a density of 1.82 g/cm{sup 3} without a binder. The amination process is simple and requires neither the monitoring of the ammonia gas pressure nor the controlling of the reaction temperature during amination reaction, and we anticipate no problem in large scale production of FP-TATB.

  1. Soil decontamination of 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene by alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, S; Habibi-Rezaei, M; Khayami, M; Heydari, R

    2007-12-15

    Present study investigate the toxicity effect of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on a terrestrial plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in artificial soils. In this study, TNT toxicity assessment was performed on spiked silica with this nitroaromatic compound by determination of the percent of emergence and shoots and roots biomasses at the concentration range of 3.2-10000 mg kg(-1) Dry Weight (DW). The emergence was reduced by 22-32% after 5 days of exposure at TNT concentrations up to 100 mg kg(-1) DW; shoot and root biomasses were reduced by 48-50 and 63-74%, respectively after 30 days exposure at TNT concentrations root and shoot were measured by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Analyses of TNT spiked soil extracts reveal hat during alfalfa cultivation for 30 days, TNT was partially transformed at the extent of 15-27%. This transformation decreased at higher TNT soil concentrations. TNT is taken up and metabolized by plants to its downstream derivatives.

  2. Study on the colorimetric properties of 2,4,6-triarylpyridine derivative compound for imaging Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovianto, D.; Ma’ruf, F. A. R.; Fadilah, N. N.; Sugiharta, I. B. A. R.; Purwono, B.

    2017-11-01

    The derivative compound of 2,4,6-triarylpyridine was synthesized in two steps. The target compound was tested as colorimetric chemosensor against formaldehyde and the limit of detection was also determined using spectrophotometer UV-vis. The first step of the synthesis was the formation of 4-phenyl-2,6-bis(4-nitrophenyl)pyridine compound (1) from 4-nitroacetophenon and benzaldehyde. The second step of the synthesis was the formation of 4-phenyl-2,6-bis-(4-aminophenyl)pyridine (2) from reduction of the nitro group in compound 1 by HCl 37% solution and Sn metal. Compound 1 and 2 were characterized by spectrometers FTIR, 1H NMR and direct inlet-mass spectrometry. The results showed that compound 1 was synthesized with a yield of 78.3% and compound 2 with a yield of 68.9%. Compound 2 as chemosensor showed color transition from colorless to yellow in chemosensor test against formaldehyde in ethanol solvent. The limit of detection of formaldehyde was measured as 4.7×10-3 M using spectrophotometer UV-vis.

  3. Evaluation of the cardiovascular system by digital subtraction angiography in 246 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuma, Kikuhiko; Ohta, Takashi; Hiroto, Seiji

    1987-01-01

    Usefulness of intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was examined in 246 patients with cardiovascular disorders. This examination was done by centrally intravenous DSA (CIVDSA) in all patients to reduce the risks and discomforts by peripheral intravenous DSA. 1) CIVDSA could be done safely in patients aged 18 to 81 years. 2) The good diagnostic quality by CIVDSA was obtained in 81.3 % of patients. These images were classified into 7 groups according to the cardiovascular system, that is, the jugular arteries, the upper extremity arteries, the thoracic aorta, the left ventricle, the abnominal aorta, the renal arteries, and the lower extremity arteries, whose rate of good diagnostic quality were 100 %, 70 %, 67.7 %, 79.5 %, 84.8 %, 87 %, and 71.4 % respectively. 3) The poor diagnostic quality was obtained in 18.7 %. 4) The severe complications were not found in any case during this examination. Our results indicate that DSA is the safe, simple and useful method to obtain the diagnostic quality image of the cardiovascular system, especially, of the occulsive arterial disease, the aortic aneurisma, the renovascular stenosis and the cardiac function of postmyocardial infarction, even in aged patients. (author)

  4. Degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with peroxymonosulfate catalyzed by soluble and supported iron porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, Tuğçe; Çimen, Yasemin

    2017-12-01

    Degradation of 2,4,6-trichloropenol (TCP) with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) catalyzed by iron porphyrin tetrasulfonate ([FePTS)] was investigated in an 8-to-1 (v/v) CH 3 OH-H 2 O mixture. Typical reaction medium contained a 4.00 mL methanol solution of TCP (0.100 mmol), a 0.50 mL aqueous solution of catalyst (5.0 × 10 -4  mmol), and 0.100 mmol PMS (as 0.031 g of Oxone). The reaction was performed at ambient temperature. The conversion of TCP was 74% in 30 min and 80% in 6 h when the catalyst was [FePTS]. Amberlite IRA-900 supported [FePTS] catalyst was also prepared. In the recycling experiments the homogeneous [FePTS] lost its activity after the first cycle, while [FePTS]-Amberlite IRA 900 maintained its activity for the first 2 cycles. After the second cycle, the conversion of TCP dropped to degradation of TCP with PMS was also attempted using cobalt, copper, nickel and palladium porphyrin tetrasulfonate catalysts, however, no catalytic activity was observed with these structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by P. aeruginosa and characterization of some metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Aysun Mercimek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT, a nitroaromatic explosive found in the soil and ground water, was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa in in vitroexperiments. Biodegradable abilitiy of this bacteria was performed with 50 and 75 mg L−1 TNT concentrations in a defined liquid medium for 96 h time period. Treatment of TNT in supernatant samples taken at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h from agitated vessels was followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In cultures supplemented with 50 and 75 mgL−1 TNT, after 96 h of incubation 46% and 59% reduction were detected respectively. Two metabolites as degradation intermediates with nitrite release into the medium, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (4-ADNT, were elucidated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. These findings clearly indicate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be used in bioremediation of TNT contaminated sites.

  6. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, Konstantinos C.; Shakya, Kabindra M.; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mg g -1 ), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (p<0.001) increased the 2nd-order reaction rate constant over that of the untreated (no urea) control. Three major TNT metabolites were detected in the roots, but not in the shoot, namely 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 4-amino 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino 4,6-dinitrotoluene, indicating TNT degradation by vetiver grass. - A common agrochemical, urea catalyzes TNT removal by vetiver grass in aqueous media

  7. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mg g{sup -1}), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (p<0.001) increased the 2nd-order reaction rate constant over that of the untreated (no urea) control. Three major TNT metabolites were detected in the roots, but not in the shoot, namely 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 4-amino 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino 4,6-dinitrotoluene, indicating TNT degradation by vetiver grass. - A common agrochemical, urea catalyzes TNT removal by vetiver grass in aqueous media.

  8. PBCDD/F formation from radical/radical cross-condensation of 2-Chlorophenoxy with 2-Bromophenoxy, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy with 2,4-Dibromophenoxy, and 2,4,6-Trichlorophenoxy with 2,4,6-Tribromophenoxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiangli [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu, Wanni [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Linyi University, Linyi 276000 (China); Xu, Fei [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Qingzhu, E-mail: zqz@sdu.edu.cn [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hu, Jingtian; Wang, Wenxing [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We studied the formation of PBCDD/Fs from the reaction of three CPRs with BPRs. • The substitution pattern of halogenated phenols determines those of PBCDD/Fs. • The substitution of halogenated phenols influence the coupling of phenoxy radicals. • The rate constants of the crucial elementary steps were evaluated. - Abstract: Quantum chemical calculations were carried out to investigate the homogeneous gas-phase formation of mixed polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/benzofurans (PBCDD/Fs) from the cross-condensation of 2-chlorophenoxy radical (2-CPR) with 2-bromophenoxy radical (2-BPR), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy radical (2,4-DCPR) with 2,4-dibromophenoxy radical (2,4-DBPR), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TCPR) with 2,4,6-tribromophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TBPR). The geometrical parameters and vibrational frequencies were calculated at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level, and single-point energy calculations were performed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT) correction over a wide temperature range of 600–1200 K. Studies show that the substitution pattern of halogenated phenols not only determines the substitution pattern of the resulting PBCDD/Fs, but also has a significant influence on the formation mechanism of PBCDD/Fs, especially on the coupling of the halogenated phenoxy radicals.

  9. Single-pulse Raman and photoacoustic spectroscopy studies of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and related compounds. [Trinitrobenzene (TNB), 1-amino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene(MATB), 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.; Jungst, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Pulsed-laser-excited Raman scattering methods and photoacoustic spectroscopy have been applied to the study of porous, granular samples (i.e., pressed pellets) of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 1-amino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (MATB), 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Single-pulse spontaneous Raman spectra have been obtained for all four materials. Using 532-nm excitation, the intensity of the background emission observed with the Raman scattered light varies as TNB > MATB > DATB > TATB. This trend is compared to information on the long-wavelength absorption edge of MATB, DATB and TATB as determined by the photoacoustic spectra of these materials. Stimulated Raman scattering has been observed for three of the compounds with conversion efficiency as follows: DATB > TATB > MATB. In the case of TATB, this process may be limited by photo-induced chemical reactions. The relatively efficient formation of one or more stable photolysis products in TATB is evident on the basis of its photoacoustic spectrum. Preliminary single-pulse Raman scattering measurements on shocked TATB are also described. 16 references, 13 figures, 2 tables.

  10. The statistical model calculation of prompt neutron spectra from spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, B.F. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The calculations of integral spectra of prompt neutrons of spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm were carried out. The calculations were done by the Statistical Computer Code Complex SCOFIN applying the Hauser-Feschbach method as applied to the description of the de-excitation of excited fission fragments by means of neutron emission. The emission of dipole gamma-quanta from these fragments was considered as a competing process. The average excitation energy of a fragment was calculated by two-spheroidal model of tangent fragments. The density of levels in an excited fragment was calculated by the Fermi-gas model. The quite satisfactory agreement was reached between theoretical and experimental results obtained in frames of Project measurements. The calculated values of average multiplicities of neutron number were 2,746 for {sup 244}Cm and 2,927 for {sup 246}Cm that was in a good accordance with published experimental figures. (author)

  11. Source separation for materials recovery guidelines. Part 246. [High-grade paper, corrugated container, and residential materials recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-23

    These guidelines are issued under the Authority of Section 209(a) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965 (PL 89-272), as amended by the Resource Recovery Act of 1970 (PL 91-512). Chapter I of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations is amended effective May 24, 1976 by adding a new Part 246. The guidelines are applicable to the source separation of residential, commercial, and institutional solid wastes. Explicitly excluded are mining, agricultural, and industrial solid wastes; hazardous wastes; sludges; construction and demolition wastes; infectious wastes; classified waste. Specific requirements and recommended procedures for high-grade paper recovery, residential materials recovery, and corrugated container recovery are included in Part 246. (MCW)

  12. The Oxidation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene with an Ozone-Oxygen Mixture: A Simple Method for Preparation of 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zarei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT to 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB in one step, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA, and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzaldehyde (TNBAl with an ozone-oxygen mixture in different solvents, catalysts, and temperatures has been investigated. Reducing the number of steps in the oxidation of TNT to TNB is the major advantage of this procedure with respect to conventional processes such as chromic acid and potassium permanganate. The oxidation of TNT to TNB was completed in one step as compared to two steps in the conventional approach. The products were obtained with relatively good yield.

  13. Hemin immobilized into metal-organic frameworks as an electrochemical biosensor for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Wang, Lu; Gao, Congwei; Zhao, Chaoyue; Wang, Yang; Wang, Jianmin

    2018-02-01

    Hemin immobilized into copper-based metal-organic frameworks was successfully prepared and used as a new electrode material for sensitive electrochemical biosensing. X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the resultant composites. Due to the interaction between the copper atom groups and hemin, the constrained environment in Cu-MOF-74 acts as a matrix to avoid the dimerization of enzyme molecules and retain its biological activity. The hemin/Cu-MOF composites demonstrated enhanced electrocatalytical activity and high stability towards the oxidation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Under optimum experimental conditions, the sensor showed a wide linear relationship over the range of 0.01-9 μmol L-1 with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.005 μmol L-1. The relative standard deviations were 4.6% and 3.5% for five repeated measurements of 0.5 and 5 μmol L-1 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, respectively. The detection platforms for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol developed here not only indicate that hemin/Cu-MOF-74 possesses intrinsic biological reactivity, but also enable further work to be conducted towards the application of enzyme-containing metal-organic frameworks in electrochemical biosensors.

  14. Development of a cellular biosensor for the detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelas, Vassileios; Sanvicens, Nuria; M-Pilar-Marco; Kintzios, Spiridon

    2011-05-15

    2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) is a microbial metabolite formed from chlorophenols through the activity of several natural fungal strains present on the cork oak bark. TCA is the primary compound responsible for the mousty/mould off-odour known as "cork taint" present in cork stoppers, wine, water and alcoholic beverages. Chromatographic and electrochemical methods are currently used for the determination of TCA, however its detection at low concentrations remains a technical challenge. The aim of this study was the development of a rapid novel biosensor system based on the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). The sensor measured the electric response of cultured membrane-engineered fibroblast cells suspended in an alginate gel matrix due to the change of their membrane potential in the presence of the analyte. Membrane-engineered cells were prepared by osmotic insertion of 0.5 μg/l of specific TCA antibodies into the membrane of the cells. The BERA-based sensor was able to detect TCA in a few minutes (3-5 min) at extremely low concentrations (10(-1)ppt), thus demonstrating higher sensitivity than the human sensory threshold. In addition, the assay was quite selective against other haloanisoles and halophenols structurally related to or co-occurring with TCA. Finally the sensor was tested against real white wine samples from cork soaks. At this real test, the BERA sensor was able to detect TCA from cork soaks rapidly (3-5 min) at very low concentrations (1.02-12 ng/l), covering the whole range for the detection threshold for wines (1.4-10 ng/l). Therefore, this novel biosensor offers new perspectives for ultra-rapid, ultra-sensitive and low-cost monitoring of TCA presence in cork and wine and possibly also other food commodities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands: An Analysis of 246 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Alejandro; Patel, Tapan D; D'Aguillo, Christine M; Abdou, Rami Y; Farver, William; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Park, Richard Chan W

    2015-10-01

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare neoplasm of the salivary glands. In this study, we aim to examine the demographic, clinicopathologic, and survival features of EMC using a population-based approach. Retrospective cohort study. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database (1973-2010) was queried for EMC of the major salivary glands. Data were analyzed with respect to various demographic and clinicopathologic factors. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. In total, 246 cases were available for frequency analysis and 207 for survival analysis. Mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 63.8 ± 15.4 years. EMC affected females more frequently (57.3%). Distant metastases were present at diagnosis in only 4.5% of cases. Overall disease-specific survival (DSS) at 60, 120, and 180 months was 91.3%, 90.2%, and 80.7%, respectively. Patients with low-grade histology had significantly better survival at 180 months relative to those with high-grade tumors (90.6% vs 0.0%, P = .0246). When stratified by tumor size, patients with lesions >4 cm had the worst survival at 180 months (58.8%, P = .0003). All but 9 of the 207 cases available for survival analysis underwent surgery. A total of 85 patients (41.1%) received radiotherapy in addition to surgery. No survival benefit was noted for patients who received radiotherapy compared with those who did not (P = .4832). This report represents the largest series of EMC to date. Despite being regarded as a low-grade, indolent tumor, a significant fraction of our cohort underwent radiotherapy in addition to surgery, with no apparent added survival benefit. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  16. Dual role of endogenous serotonin in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eRapalli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Changes in gut serotonin content have been described in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and in different experimental models of colitis: the critical role of this monoamine in the pathogenesis of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation is gradually emerging. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of endogenous serotonin through the activation of its specific receptor subtypes to the local and systemic inflammatory responses in an experimental model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Methods: Colitis was induced by intrarectal 2,4,6-TriNitroBenzene Sulfonic acid in mice subacutely treated with selective antagonists of 5-HT1A (WAY100135, 5-HT2A (Ketanserin, 5-HT3 (Ondansetron, 5-HT4 (GR125487, 5-HT7 (SB269970 receptors and with 5-HT1A agonist 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylaminotetralin. Results: Blockade of 5-HT1A receptors worsened TNBS-induced local and systemic neutrophil recruitment while 5-HT1A agonist delayed and mitigated the severity of colitis, counteracting the increase in colonic 5-HT content. On the contrary, blockade of 5-HT2A receptors improved global health conditions, reduced colonic morphological alterations, down-regulated neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory cytokines levels and colonic apoptosis. Antagonism of 5-HT3, 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptor sites did not remarkably affect the progression and outcome of the pathology or only slightly improved it.Conclusions: The prevailing deleterious contribution given by endogenous serotonin to inflammation in TNBS-induced colitis is seemingly mediated by 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, by 5-HT4 receptors and coexists with the weak beneficial effect elicited by 5-HT1A stimulation. These findings suggest how only a selective interference with 5-HT pro-inflammatory actions may represent an additional potential therapeutic option for intestinal inflammatory disorders.

  17. Biodegradation of TNT (2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, T.; Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was observed. At an initial concentration of 1.3 mg/liter, 35.4 ± 3.6% of the [ 14 C]TNT was degraded to 14 CO 2 in 18 days. The addition of glucose 12 days after the addition of TNT did not stimulate mineralization, and, after 18 days of incubation with TNT only, about 3.3% of the initial TNT could be recovered. Mineralization of [ 14 C]TNT absorbed on soil was also examined. Ground corncobs served as the nutrient for slow but sustained degradation of [ 14 C]TNT to 14 CO 2 such that 6.3 ± 0.6% of the [ 14 C]TNT initially present was converted to 14 CO 2 during the 30-day incubation period. Mass balance analysis of liquid cultures and of soil-corncob cultures revealed that polar [ 14 C]TNT metabolites are formed in both systems, and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that less then 5% of the radioactivity remained as undegraded [ 14 C]TNT following incubation with the fungus in soil and liquid cultures. When the concentration of TNT in cultures (both liquid and soil) was adjusted to contamination levels that might be found in the environment, i.e., 10,000 mg/kg in soil and 100 mg/liter in water, mineralization studies showed that 18.4 ± 2.9% and 19.6 ± 3.5% of the initial TNT was converted to 14 CO 2 in 90 days in soil and liquid cultures, respectively. In both cases (90 days in water at 100 mg/liter and in soil at 10,000 mg/kg) approximately 85% of the TNT was degraded. These results suggest that this fungus may be useful for the decontamination of sites in the environment contaminated with TNT

  18. High-spin intermediates of the photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Chapyshev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to theoretical expectations, the photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridine in argon at 5 K gives rise to EPR peaks of just two triplet mononitrenes, two quintet dinitrenes, and a septet trinitrene. EPR spectral simulations in combination with DFT calculations show that observable nitrenes can be assigned to triplet 2,4-diazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-6-nitrene (DT = 1.026 cm−1, ET = 0, triplet 2,6-diazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-4-nitrene (DT = 1.122 cm−1, ET = 0.0018 cm−1, quintet 4-azido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-2,6-dinitrene (DQ = 0.215 cm−1, EQ = 0.0545 cm−1, quintet 2-azido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-4,6-dinitrene (DQ = 0.209 cm−1, EQ = 0.039 cm−1 and septet 3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene (DS = −0.1021 cm−1, ES = −0.0034 cm−1. Preferential photodissociation of the azido groups located in ortho-positions to the fluorine atom of pyridines is associated with strong π-conjugation of these groups with the pyridine ring. On photoexcitation, such azido groups are more efficiently involved in reorganization of the molecular electronic system and more easily adopt geometries of the locally excited predissociation states.

  19. Adsorptive removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in aqueous solution using calcined kaolinite-biomass composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olu-Owolabi, Bamidele I; Alabi, Alimoh H; Diagboya, Paul N; Unuabonah, Emmanuel I; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Synergistically combined low-cost composites may be effective for the potential treatment of effluents containing organic pollutants. Hence, preparation of Carica-papaya-modified-kaolinite (CPK) and pine-cone-modified-kaolinite (PCK) composites via calcination of pure kaolinite (KAC), Carica-papaya and pine-cone seeds is demonstrated. The composites' specific surface areas were reduced by more than 57% but no structural modification in KAC lattice d-spacing, indicating impregnation of calcined biomass on clay surfaces and pores. However, composites' cation exchange capacities were enhanced over 4-fold, indicating higher potential for adsorption. Adsorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on composites and KAC showed that CPK and PCK attained equilibrium relatively faster (30 min) compared to KAC (60 min). Modeling studies showed that 2,4,6-trichlorophenol removal mechanisms involved electrostatic interactions on sites of similar energy. Modification enhanced adsorption by 52 and 250% in PCK and CPK, respectively, and adsorption increased with temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrochemical destruction of dinitrotoluene isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in spent acid from toluene nitration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shing; Liang, Jing-Song

    2009-01-30

    Mineralization of dinitrotoluene (DNT) isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in spent acid was conducted by in situ electrogenerated hydrogen peroxide. The electrolytic experiments were carried out to elucidate the influence of various operating parameters on the performance of mineralization of total organic compounds (TOC) in spent acid, including electrode potential, reaction temperature, oxygen dosage and concentration of sulfuric acid. It is worth noting that organic compounds could be completely mineralized by hydrogen peroxide obtained from cathodic reduction of oxygen, which was mainly supplied by anodic oxidation of water. Based on the spectra identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS), it is proposed that oxidative degradation of 2,4-DNT and/or 2,6-DNT, 2,4,6-TNT results in o-mononitrotoluene (MNT) and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, respectively. Due to the removal of TOC and some amount of water, the electrolytic method established is promising for industrial application to regeneration of spent acid from toluene nitration process.

  1. Synthesis of bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine oxide – a tailor-made photoinitiator for dental adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Moszner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the poor solubility of the commercially available bisacylphosphine oxides in dental acidic aqueous primer formulations, bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine oxide (WBAPO was synthesized starting from 3-(chloromethyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid by the dichlorophosphine route. The substituent was introduced by etherification with 2-(allyloxyethanol. In the second step, 3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid was chlorinated. The formed acid chloride showed an unexpected low thermal stability. Its thermal rearrangement at 180 °C resulted in a fast formation of 3-(chloromethyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid 2-(allyloxyethyl ester. In the third step, the acid chloride was reacted with phenylphosphine dilithium with the formation of bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine, which was oxidized to WBAPO. The structure of WBAPO was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, and IR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. WBAPO, a yellow liquid, possesses improved solubility in polar solvents and shows UV–vis absorption, and a high photoreactivity comparable with the commercially available bisacylphosphine oxides. A sufficient storage stability was found in dental acidic aqueous primer formulations.

  2. Structural studies of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharides of Azospirillum brasilense Sp246 and SpBr14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Grinev, Vyacheslav S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2014-10-29

    Lipopolysaccharides from closely related Azospirillum brasilense strains, Sp246 and SpBr14, were obtained by phenol-water extraction. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in polysaccharide mixtures. On the basis of sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy data, it was concluded that both bacteria possess the same two distinct polysaccharides having structures 1 and 2: [structure: see text]. Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide of A. brasilense 54 [Fedonenko et al., 2011] whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecotoxicological evaluation of in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frische, Tobias

    2003-01-01

    The luminescent bacteria assay, using soil leachates, was the most sensitive toxicity indicator. - To evaluate the environmental relevance of in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, effective and reliable monitoring approaches are of special importance. The presented study was conducted as part of a research project investigating in situ bioremediation of topsoils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Changes in soil toxicity within different experimental fields at a former ordnance factory were evaluated using a battery of five bioassays (plant growth, Collembola reproduction, soil respiration, luminescent bacteria acute toxicity and mutagenicity test) in combination to chemical contaminant analysis. Resulting data reveal clear differences in sensitivities between methods with the luminescent bacteria assay performed with soil leachates as most sensitive toxicity indicator. Complete test battery results are presented in so-called soil toxicity profiles to visualise and facilitate the interpretation of data. Both biological and chemical monitoring results indicate a reduction of soil toxicity within 17 months of remediation

  4. Facile and Green Approach to the Synthesis of Boron Nitride Quantum Dots for 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dong; Zhang, Li; Li, Fang-Fang; Cui, Wei-Rong; Liang, Ru-Ping; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2018-02-28

    A facile and green approach has been developed for synthesis of boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs). The obtained BNQDs exhibit strong fluorescence and excellent stabilities, including high thermostability, good salt tolerance stability, pH-independence ability, and excellent antiphotobleaching capability. The strong inner filter effect between 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) and BNQDs resulted in fluorescence quenching of BNQDs. Thus, TNP can be selectively and sensitively detected in the concentration range of 0.25-200 μM, with a limit detection of 0.14 μM. The BNQD-based turn-off sensor shows potential prospects for rapidly and selectively detecting TNP in natural water samples without tedious sample pretreatment processes.

  5. N-(2-{[5-Bromo-2-(piperidin-1-ylpyrimidin-4-yl]sulfanyl}-4-methoxyphenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C25H29BrN4O3S2, the benzene rings bridged by the sulfonamide group are tilted relative to each other by 63.9 (1° and the dihedral angle between the sulfur-bridged pyrimidine and benzene rings is 64.9 (1°. The molecular conformation is stabilized by a weak intramolecular π–π stacking interaction between the pyrimidine and the 2,4,6-trimethylbenzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.766 (2 Å]. The piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked into inversion dimers by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds and these dimers are further linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains propagating along [010].

  6. 1,3,5-Trialkyl-2,4,6-triiodobenzenes: novel X-ray contrast agents for gastrointestinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, K G; Josef, K A; Bacon, E R; Illig, C R; Toner, J L; Mishra, D; Blazak, W F; Miller, D M; Johnson, D K; Allen, J M; Spencer, A; Wilson, S A

    2000-05-18

    Examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been performed for decades using barium sulfate. Although this agent has many recognized limitations including extreme radiopacity, poor intrinsic affinity for the GI mucosa, and very high density, no alternative contrast agents have emerged which produce comparable or better contrast visualization. In fact, the various techniques of the GI radiologic examination (i.e., single contrast, double contrast, biphasic) were developed to compensate for its limitations. Each of these techniques requires complex patient manipulation to achieve adequate mucosal coating or compression to overcome the marked radiopacity of barium sulfate in order to obtain a diagnostically useful examination. A series of novel radiopaque oils, the 1,3, 5-trialkyl-2,4,6-triiodobenzenes, was designed to improve the efficacy, stability, and safety of barium formulations. These substances were prepared in two steps from 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. Compound 17 (1,3,5-tri-n-hexyl-2,4,6-triiodobenzene), formulated as an oil-in-water emulsion, was found to be well-tolerated in rodents (mice, hamsters, rats) following acute oral and/or intraperitoneal administrations at 4 times the anticipated human clinical dose. No metabolism of 17 was detected in rat, hamster, dog, monkey, or human hepatic microsomes, suggesting the lack of oral toxicity was a consequence of poor absorption. In imaging experiments in dogs, emulsions of 17 have demonstrated excellent mucosal coating and improved radiodensity relative to barium sulfate suspensions. On the basis of the preliminary imaging and toxicity data, compound 17 was selected as a potential development candidate.

  7. Three-phase packed bed reactor with an evaporating solvent—I. Experimental: the hydrogenation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelder, K.B.; Damhof, J.K.; Kroijenga, P.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present experimental data on the three-phase hydrogenation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to triaminotoluene. The experiments are performed in a cocurrent upflow packed bed reactor. Methanol is used as an evaporating solvent. The influence of the main operating parameters, the

  8. Highly Sensitive Determination of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene and Related Byproducts Using a Diol Functionalized Column for High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; Erdogan, Zeynep; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new detection method for complete separation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT); 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT); 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) molecules in high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) with UV sensor has

  9. APR-246 (PRIMA-1(MET)) strongly synergizes with AZD2281 (olaparib) induced PARP inhibition to induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deben, Christophe; Lardon, Filip; Wouters, An; Op de Beeck, Ken; Van den Bossche, Jolien; Jacobs, Julie; Van Der Steen, Nele; Peeters, Marc; Rolfo, Christian; Deschoolmeester, Vanessa; Pauwels, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    APR-246 (PRIMA-1(Met)) is able to bind mutant p53 and restore its normal conformation and function. The compound has also been shown to increase intracellular ROS levels. Importantly, the poly-[ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 (PARP-1) enzyme plays an important role in the repair of ROS-induced DNA damage. We hypothesize that by blocking this repair with the PARP-inhibitor AZD2281 (olaparib), DNA damage would accumulate in the cell leading to massive apoptosis. We observed that APR-246 synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic response of olaparib in TP53 mutant non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, resulting in a strong apoptotic response. In the presence of wild type p53 a G2/M cell cycle block was predominantly observed. NOXA expression levels were significantly increased in a TP53 mutant background, and remained unchanged in the wild type cell line. The combined treatment of APR-246 and olaparib induced cell death that was associated with increased ROS production, accumulation of DNA damage and translocation of p53 to the mitochondria. Out data suggest a promising targeted combination strategy in which the response to olaparib is synergistically enhanced by the addition of APR-246, especially in a TP53 mutant background. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 3D Visualization of Developmental Toxicity of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Zebrafish Embryogenesis Using Light-Sheet Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juneyong Eum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by trinitrotoluene is of global concern due to its widespread use in military ordnance and commercial explosives. Despite known long-term persistence in groundwater and soil, the toxicological profile of trinitrotoluene and other explosive wastes have not been systematically measured using in vivo biological assays. Zebrafish embryos are ideal model vertebrates for high-throughput toxicity screening and live in vivo imaging due to their small size and transparency during embryogenesis. Here, we used Single Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM/light sheet microscopy to assess the developmental toxicity of explosive-contaminated water in zebrafish embryos and report 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-associated developmental abnormalities, including defects in heart formation and circulation, in 3D. Levels of apoptotic cell death were higher in the actively developing tissues of trinitrotoluene-treated embryos than controls. Live 3D imaging of heart tube development at cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy revealed trinitrotoluene-associated cardiac toxicity, including hypoplastic heart chamber formation and cardiac looping defects, while the real time PCR (polymerase chain reaction quantitatively measured the molecular changes in the heart and blood development supporting the developmental defects at the molecular level. Identification of cellular toxicity in zebrafish using the state-of-the-art 3D imaging system could form the basis of a sensitive biosensor for environmental contaminants and be further valued by combining it with molecular analysis.

  11. Extraction-less, rapid assay for the direct detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) in cork samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Theofylaktos; Pascual, Nuria; Marco, M-Pilar; Moschos, Anastassios; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Kaltsas, Grigoris; Kintzios, Spyridon

    2014-07-01

    2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), the cork taint molecule, has been the target of several analytical approaches over the few past years. In spite of the development of highly efficient and sensitive tools for its detection, ranging from advanced chromatography to biosensor-based techniques, a practical breakthrough for routine cork screening purposes has not yet been realized, in part due to the requirement of a lengthy extraction of TCA in organic solvents, mostly 12% ethanol and the high detectability required. In the present report, we present a modification of a previously reported biosensor system based on the measurement of the electric response of cultured fibroblast cells membrane-engineered with the pAb78 TCA-specific antibody. Samples were prepared by macerating cork tissue and mixing it directly with the cellular biorecognition elements, without any intervening extraction process. By using this novel approach, we were able to detect TCA in just five minutes at extremely low concentrations (down to 0.2 ppt). The novel biosensor offers a number of practical benefits, including a very considerable reduction in the total assay time by one day, and a full portability, enabling its direct employment for on-site, high throughput screening of cork in the field and production facilities, without requiring any type of supporting infrastructure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Laccase-polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membrane: highly immobilized, stable, reusable, and efficacious for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran; Chi, Chenglong; Li, Fengting; Zhang, Bingru

    2013-12-11

    Increasing attention has been given to nanobiocatalysis for commercial applications. In this study, laccase was immobilized on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes through ethanol/HCl method of amidination reaction and successfully applied for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) from water. PAN membranes with fiber diameters from 200 nm to 300 nm were fabricated via electrospinning and provided a large surface area for enzyme immobilization and catalytic reactions. Images of scanning electron microscope demonstrated the enzyme molecules were aggregated on the nanofiber surface. The immobilized laccase exhibited 72% of the free enzyme activity and kept 60% of its initial activity after 10 operation cycles. Moreover, the storage stability of the immobilized laccase was considered excellent because they maintained more than 92% of the initial activity after 18 days of storage, whereas the free laccase retained only 20%. The laccase-PAN nanofibrous membranes exhibited high removal efficiency of TCP under the combined actions of biodegradation and adsorption. More than 85% of the TCP was removed under optimum conditions. Effects of various factors on TCP removal efficiency of the immobilized laccase were analyzed. Results suggest that laccase-PAN nanofibrous membranes can be used in removing TCP from aqueous sources and have potential for use in other commercial applications.

  13. Effectiveness of urea in enhancing the extractability of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene from chemically variant soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Padmini; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Makris, Konstantinos C; Punamiya, Pravin; Datta, Rupali

    2013-11-01

    One of the major challenges in developing an effective phytoremediation technology for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soils is limited plant uptake resulting from low solubility of TNT. The effectiveness of urea as a solubilizing agent in increasing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic systems has been documented. Our preliminary greenhouse experiments using urea were also very promising, but further characterization of the performance of urea in highly-complex soil-solution was necessary. The present study investigated the natural retention capacity of four chemically variant soils and optimized the factors influencing the effectiveness of urea in enhancing TNT solubility in the soil solutions. Results show that the extent of TNT sorption and desorption varies with the soil properties, and is mainly dependent on soil organic matter (SOM) content. Hysteretic desorption of TNT in all tested soils suggests irreversible sorption of TNT and indicates the need of using an extractant to increase the release of TNT in soil solutions. Urea significantly (pcrops. The data obtained from this batch study will facilitate the optimization of a chemically-catalyzed phytoremediation model for cleaning up TNT-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Curcumin inhibits epigen and amphiregulin upregulated by 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene associated with attenuation of skin swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Sato, Ken; Sato, Fumiaki; Kai, Yuki; Mandokoro, Kazutaka; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Kato, Shinichi; Yumoto, Tetsuro; Narita, Minoru; Chiba, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    Contact dermatitis model involving repeated application of hapten is used as a tool to assess dermatitis, as characterized by thickening. Involvement of cell proliferation, elicited by repeated hapten-stimulation, in this swelling has been unclear. Curcumin is reported to reduce inflammation. We examined involvement of cell proliferation and the role of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) in 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) challenge-induced ear swelling. We also examined the effects of curcumin in this model. Mice were sensitized with TNCB to the abdominal skin. Then, they were challenged with TNCB to the ear three times. The ERK activation inhibitor U0126 or curcumin was applied 30 min before each TNCB challenge. TNCB challenge-induced increased epidermal cell number and dermal thickening. Gene expressions of epithelial mitogen (EPGN), amphiregulin (AREG) and heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) were increased in the ears after the last TNCB challenge. Ki-67 immunoreactivity was increased in the dermis in TNCB-challenged ears. TNCB-induced swelling was inhibited by U0126 and curcumin. Curcumin also attenuated TNCB-induced ERK phosphorylation and expression of EPGN and AREG genes. Ear swelling induced by TNCB challenge might be mediated, in part, by the EPGN- and AREG-ERK proliferation pathway and was inhibited by curcumin.

  15. Synthesis and Docking Studies of 2,4,6-Trihydroxy-3-Geranylacetophenone Analogs as Potential Lipoxygenase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chean Hui Ng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural product molecule 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl-acetophenone (tHGA isolated from the medicinal plant Melicope ptelefolia was shown to exhibit potent lipoxygenase (LOX inhibitory activity. It is known that LOX plays an important role in inflammatory response as it catalyzes the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid to form hydroperoxides. The search for selective LOX inhibitors may provide new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Herein, we report the synthesis of tHGA analogs using simple Friedel-Craft acylation and alkylation reactions with the aim of obtaining a better insight into the structure-activity relationships of the compounds. All the synthesized analogs showed potent soybean 15-LOX inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 10.31–27.61 μM where compound 3e was two-fold more active than tHGA. Molecular docking was then applied to reveal the important binding interactions of compound 3e in soybean 15-LOX binding site. The findings suggest that the presence of longer acyl bearing aliphatic chain (5Cs and aromatic groups could significantly affect the enzymatic activity.

  16. The renaissance of 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPymT) coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safin, Damir A; Frost, Jamie M; Murugesu, Muralee

    2015-12-21

    In this perspective we report on recently accumulated data on the synthesis and coordination chemistry of 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPymT). Although a highly attractive ligand, owing to the presence of three fused terpyridine-like coordination pockets, the coordination chemistry of TPymT has something of a chequered past. This can principally be attributed to the hydrolysis of the ligand, which readily occurs under mild conditions. Thus, after first being synthesised in 1959 it had only been used a handful of times to synthesise coordination compounds until we began reinvestigating its chemistry in early 2013. Despite the significant challenges associated with its use, our work over the past two years has demonstrated that coordination chemistry with TPymT is indeed possible. Herein, we describe an overview of this body of work as it stands, and discuss its potential impact in a variety of areas including porous materials, catalysis and crystal engineering.

  17. Reduction of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl) catalyzed by oxygen sensitive nitro reductase enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.M.; Spain, J.C. [Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by nitroreductase enzymes generally leads to the formation of the corresponding amines. However, we recently found that the incubation of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl) with ferredoxin-NADP oxidoreductase, an oxygen sensitive nitroreductase from spinach in the presence of NADPH led to the elimination of the nitramine nitro group from tetryl and the formation of N-methylpicramide (NMP). Other oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes including glutathione reductase, xanthine oxidase, and cytochrome c reductase were also able to release nitrite from tetryl. Nitrite was not eliminated from tetryl by an oxygen insensitive nitrobenzene reductase. For every mole of tetryl reduced, one mole each of nitrite and NMP were produced. The rate of nitrite elimination was inhibited under aerobic conditions. Subsequent oxygen uptake studies suggested that under aerobic conditions, molecular oxygen was reduced by FNR and tetryl served as the redox mediator. Our results suggest that under aerobic conditions; tetryl is reduced to the nitroanion radical by the enzyme and this radical is involved in the reduction of molecular oxygen.

  18. Pyrolusite (beta-MnO2)-mediated, near dry-phase oxidation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brant A; Siems, William E; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2006-06-01

    The pyrolusite (beta-MnO2)-mediated oxidation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) under nonaqueous conditions was investigated to assess the potential for abiotic transformations of chlorophenols and their transformation pathways when they are released to soils and the vadose zone. Lower rates of TCP oxidation were found at lower relative humidities, but the rates were still relatively high under near-dry conditions, with 86% of the TCP transformed within 24 h at less than 2% relative humidity. The rates of TCP transformation and soluble manganese formation at less than 2% relative humidity were not affected by atmospheric oxygen content. The manganese oxide-mediated oxidation of TCP resulted in the formation of 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone and dimers, including polychlorinated phenoxyphenols and at least one tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The products are consistent with the proposed mechanism in which some of the TCP is transformed into trichlorophenoxy radicals that attack TCP and its transformation products. The present results demonstrate that naturally occurring manganese oxides have the potential to oxidize industrial compounds such as TCP; however, the transformation products may be more toxic and persistent than the parent compound.

  19. Synthesis, molecular structure, spectroscopic properties and stability of (Z)-N-methyl-C-2,4,6-trimethylphenylnitrone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasri, Jamal; Ismail, Ali I.; Haukka, Matti; Soliman, Saied M.

    2015-02-01

    New N-methyl-C-2,4,6-trimethylphenylnitrone 1 has been synthesized starting from N-methylhydroxylamine and mesitaldehyde. The product was fully characterized using different spectroscopic techniques; FTIR, NMR, UV-Vis, high resolution mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The relative stability and percent of population of its two possible isomers (E and Z) were calculated using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method in gas phase and in solution. In agreement with the X-ray results, it was found that Z-isomer is the most stable one in both gas phase and solution. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO), and chemical shift values were also calculated using the same level of theory. The TD-DFT results of the studied nitrone predicted a π-π∗ transition band at 285.1 nm (fosc = 0.3543) in the gas phase. The rest of the spectral bands undergo either hyperchromic or hypsochromic shifts in the presence of solvent. Polarizability and HOMO-LUMO gap values were used to predict the nonlinear optical properties (NLO) of the studied compound. NBO analysis has been used to determine the most accurate Lewis structure of the studied molecule.

  20. Highly selective detection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol by using newly developed terbium-doped blue carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin Bin; Liu, Ze Xi; Zou, Hong Yan; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-04-25

    The detection of nitroaromatic explosives is of great importance owing to their strong explosive power and harmfulness in terms of the environment, homeland security and public safety. Herein, rare earth-doped carbon dots with multifunctional features were firstly prepared by simply keeping the mixture of terbium(iii) nitrate pentahydrate and citric acid at 190 °C for 30 min. The as-prepared terbium doped carbon dots (Tb-CDs), through a rapid and simple direct carbonization route, have a size of about 3 nm, and exhibit excitation wavelength dependent emission of blue fluorescence, are stable, and can be applied for the selective and colorimetric detection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) in the range of 500 nM-100 μM with a limit of detection of 200 nM based on the inner filtering effect (IFE) of the excitation and emission bands of Tb-CDs by TNP and the electron transfer (ET) from Tb-CDs to TNP, giving a precise and highly reproducible result for detecting complex water samples.

  1. Theoretical determination of anisotropic thermal conductivity for crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P; Sewell, Thomas D

    2013-08-21

    Bond stretching and three-center angle bending potentials have been developed to extend an existing rigid-bond 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene molecular dynamics force field [D. Bedrov, O. Borodin, G. D. Smith, T. D. Sewell, D. M. Dattelbaum, and L. L. Stevens, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 224703 (2009)] for simulations requiring fully flexible molecules. The potentials were fit to experimental vibrational spectra and electronic structure predictions of vibrational normal modes using a combination of zero kelvin eigenmode analysis for the isolated molecule and power spectra for the isolated molecule and crystal. A reverse non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method [F. Müller-Plathe, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 6082 (1997)] was used to obtain the room temperature, atmospheric pressure thermal conductivity along three directions in a well-defined, non-orthogonal basis. The thermal conductivity was found to be significantly anisotropic with values 1.13 ± 0.07, 1.07 ± 0.07, and 0.65 ± 0.03 W m(-1) K(-1) for directions nominally parallel to the a, b, and c lattice vectors, respectively.

  2. A combination of p53-activating APR-246 and phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody potently inhibits tumor development in hormone-dependent mutant p53-expressing breast cancer xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Y

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yayun Liang,1 Benford Mafuvadze,1 Cynthia Besch-Williford,2 Salman M Hyder1 1Deparment of Biomedical Sciences and Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, Columbia, MO, USA; 2IDEXX BioResearch, Columbia, MO, USA Background: Between 30 and 40% of human breast cancers express a defective tumor suppressor p53 gene. Wild-type p53 tumor suppressor protein promotes cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor–dependent angiogenesis, whereas mutant p53 protein (mtp53 lacks these functions, resulting in tumor cell survival and metastasis. Restoration of p53 function is therefore a promising drug-targeted strategy for combating mtp53-expressing breast cancer. Methods: In this study, we sought to determine whether administration of APR-246, a small-molecule drug that restores p53 function, in combination with 2aG4, an antibody that targets phosphatidylserine residues on tumor blood vessels and disrupts tumor vasculature, effectively inhibits advanced hormone-dependent breast cancer tumor growth. Results: APR-246 reduced cell viability in mtp53-expressing BT-474 and T47-D human breast cancer cells in vitro, and significantly induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. However, APR-246 did not reduce cell viability in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, which express wild-type p53. We next examined APR-246’s anti-tumor effects in vivo using BT-474 and T47-D tumor xenografts established in female nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with APR-246 and/or 2aG4 and tumor volume followed over time. Tumor growth was more effectively suppressed by combination treatment than by either agent alone, and combination therapy completely eradicated some tumors. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tumor tissue sections demonstrated that combination therapy more effectively induced apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation in tumor xenografts than either agent alone. Importantly, combination therapy dramatically reduced the density of blood

  3. 2-(4,6-dimetil-2-pirimidiniltio) alkanų rūgščių hidrazidų sąveika su karboniliniais junginiais

    OpenAIRE

    Kuršys, Marius

    2005-01-01

    In this work the alkylation of 4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2(1H)-thione with ethyl bromoalkanoates was described. It was found the reactions in the present of potassium carbonate in boiling acetonitrile gave rise to corresponding S-alkylated derivatives. Under treatment of ethyl 2-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pirimidinylthio)alkanoates with excess of hydrazine hydrate the corresponding hydrazides were prepared. Further refluxing with aromatic monocarbonylic compounds led to formation of corresponding hydrazones...

  4. 1,1´,1´´-(2,4,6-Trihydroxybenzene-1,3,5-triyl)triethanone tautomerism revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Zhiryakova, Diana

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that 1,1′,1′′-(2,4,6-trihydroxybenzene-1,3,5-triyl)triethanone may be tautomeric. Using 13C NMR chemical shifts and deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts, it is demonstrated that this is not the case. This compound occurs as a strongly hydrogen bonded ben....... In addition, conventional UV–vis spectroscopy data suggest not tautomeric, but aggregation behaviour of the molecule in methanol and acetonitrile....

  5. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCA by the white-rot fungus Phlebia radiata is initiated by a phase I (O-demethylation)-phase II (O-conjugation) reactions system: implications for the chlorine cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, Sonia; Alvarez-Rodríguez, María Luisa; Recio, Eliseo; Rumbero, Angel; Coque, Juan-José R

    2009-01-01

    Thirteen species of white-rot fungi tested have been shown to efficiently biodegrade 1 mM 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in liquid cultures. The maximum biodegradation rate (94.5% in 10-day incubations) was exhibited by a Phlebia radiata strain. The enzymes of the ligninolytic complex, laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP) were not able to transform 2,4,6-TCA in in vitro reactions, indicating that the ligninolytic complex was not involved in the initial attack to 2,4,6-TCA. Instead, the first biodegradative steps were carried out by a phase I and phase II reactions system. Phase I reaction consisted on a O-demethylation catalysed by a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase to produce 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). Later, in a phase II reaction catalysed by a microsomal UDP-glucosyltransferase, 2,4,6-TCP was detoxified by O-conjugation with D-glucose to produce 2,4,6-TCP-1-O-d-glucoside (TCPG). This compound accumulated in culture supernatants, reaching its maximum concentration between 48 and 72 h of growth. TCPG levels decreased constantly by the end of fermentation, indicating that it was subsequently metabolized. A catalase activity was able to break in vitro the glycosidic link to produce 2,4,6-TCP, whereas ligninolytic enzymes did not have a significant effect on the biotransformation of that compound. Once formed, 2,4,6-TCP was further degraded as detected by a concomitant release of 2.6 mol of chloride ions by 1 mol of initial 2,4,6-TCA, indicating that this compound underwent almost a complete dehalogenation and biodegradation. It was concluded that P. radiata combines two different degradative mechanisms in order to biodegrade 2,4,6-TCA. The significance of the capability of white-rot fungi to O-demethylate chloroanisoles for the global chlorine cycle is discussed.

  6. Thermal stability of the anionic sigma complexes of 2,4,6-trinitroanisole with the methylates of the alkaline-earth metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaz, A.I.; Soldatova, T.A.; Golopolosova, T.V.; Gitis, S.S.

    1987-09-10

    The study of the stability of the 1,1-dimethoxy-2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexadienates of the alkali metals when they are heated in air showed that their temperature of decomposition and the heat effect of the process are dependent on the nature of the cation. Our study centered on the thermal decomposition of the products resulting from the addition of the methylates of calcium, strontium, and barium to 2,4,6-trinitroanisole. For a quantitative assessment of the process we used the combined methods of differential-thermal analysis and differential thermogravimetry. The anionic sigma-complexes of 2,4,6-trinitroanisole with the methylates of the alkaline-earth metals decompose on heating into the corresponding picrates; at the same time, when one passes from the calcium slat to the strontium and barium salts the decomposition temperature and the heat effect of the process show a drop which is linked to the structure both of the complexes and of the picrates forming therefrom.

  7. Prevalence and significance of early repolarisation in a black African population: data of 246 individuals with cardiovascular morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Aime; Noah, Dominique Noah; Amougou, Sylvie Ndongo; Saka, Cecile

    2013-08-01

    Early repolarisation (ER) is commonly seen on electrocardiograms (ECG). Recent reports have described the relationship between ER and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The prevalence and significance of ER have not been studied in black Africans. We matched clinical and ECG records of subjects over 18 years of age who consulted a cardiac unit in two medical centres of Douala, Cameroon. A questionnaire focusing on past history of syncope or family history of sudden unexplained death (SUD) was filled in by each subject. A 12-lead ECG was recorded by a trained nurse and analysed by two independent physicians. Of the 752 ECGs recorded, we studied 246 index cases. The mean age of subjects was 45 ± 16 years and 53% were female. Almost 57% had hypertension, 41% had palpitations and 18% reported a history of syncope. ER pattern was found in 20% [slurring in three (3%), notching in 13% and both in three (7%)]. ER subjects were younger than those without (41 ± 16 vs 49 ± 16 years, p = 0.0048). Lead localisation was predominantly the laterals for the slurring pattern, whereas the inferior and lateral leads were equally involved for the notching pattern. Negative T waves in the infero-lateral leads were associated with ER (p = 0.00025). Among the subjects with syncope, 41% displayed ER and 13% did not have ER (p = 0.00014). The notching pattern seemed to be associated with syncope (p = 0.00011). Early repolarisation is frequent in black Africans, especially in the setting of cardiovascular morbidity. Early repolarisation may be associated with a past history of syncope, especially the notched pattern.

  8. Transplacental transport and fetal localization of bispehnol A, tetrabromobisphenol A and 2,4,6-tribromophenol in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, A.; Brunstroem, B.; Brandt, I. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology; Cantillana, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an intermediate in the production of epoxy resins, while its brominated derivative tetrabromobishenol A (TBBPA) and its photolysis degradation product 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) are widely used flame retardants. These brominated compounds have been identified in human blood. TBBPA, TBP and a number of 4-hydroxy-PCBs (e.g. 4-OH-CB107) are high affinity ligands for the thyroxin (T4) transporter transthyretin (TTR) in rodents and other species. Displacement of T4 from the TTR binding site has been proposed as an important mechanism of endocrine disruption by certain halogenated phenolic environmental pollutants. BPA is a fairly potent environmental estrogen receptor agonist that can induce an array of estrogenic effects in several species including mammals, birds and fish. Although the estrogenic activity of TBBPA is less obvious, this brominated BPA analog has been reported to interact with the estrogen receptor and induce estrogenic effects in some in vitro test systems. While the reproductive and developmental toxicity of BPA is well documented, there is evidence that also halogenated phenolic compounds can pass the placental barrier and induce such toxicity. Within the objectives of the COMPARE EU project we study the fetal and maternal kinetics and transplacental transport of phenolic environmental pollutants in pregnant mice. To explore the role of TTR in the placental and blood-brain barrier transport, we employ TTR-deficient mice. For comparative reasons, we also explore the transfer to bird embryos following injection into the yolk or administration to the egg-laying bird. In the present communication, we report on the disposition of BPA, TBBPA and TBP in the fetoplacental unit in pregnant wild-type mice.

  9. Fate and stability of 14C-labeled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in contaminated soil following microbial bioremediation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Geyer, Roland; Günther, Thomas; Kaestner, Matthias

    2004-09-01

    Biological treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil rarely results in complete mineralization of the parent compound. More often, the largest proportion of the TNT carbon is incorporated into the soil organic matrix. Therefore, we evaluated the stability of nonextractable residues from various bioremediation processes of 14C-TNT in soils. The extractable amounts of the residual radioactivity varied between 7 and 33% and thus the nonextractable amount between 93 and 67% (3-15% in fulvic acids, 26-46% in humic acids, and 27-44% in the humin fraction). The residue-containing soils were analyzed for the release of radioactivity after treatment by physical (freeze and thaw, grinding of soil, and steam extraction), chemical (acid rain and addition of metal complexing agent), and biological methods (addition of compost, white rot fungi, radical-generating enzymes, and germination of plants). Freeze and thaw treatment and grinding of the soil did not alter the partitioning of the label significantly. Steam extraction and acid rain extraction increased the water extractability to 11 to 29% and to 51.6% in the native TNT-contaminated soil. The addition of ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA) increased the extractability from 7 to 12%. After biological treatment, only slightly increased extractability (<10%) was observed. No increase of extractable TNT or known metabolites was observed with any of the treatments. Thus, under the treatment conditions applied in this study, the residues formed during microbial transformation of TNT may be biogenic residues with low mobilization potential and low hazardous impact.

  10. Effects of humanin on experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatma A; Emre, Ali U; Celik, Sevim K; Barut, Figen; Tali, Ufuk; Sumer, Demet; Turkcu, Ummuhani O

    2017-01-01

    The excessive apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) partly accounts for the development of colonic inflammation and eventually results in ulcerative colitis (UC). Humanin, an endogenous anti-apoptotic peptide, has previously been shown to protect against Alzheimer's disease and a variety of cellular insults. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of glysin variant of humanin (HNG) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Rats were divided into four groups as follows: Group 1 (n = 8): control; isotonic saline solution 0.1 ml/rat rectally, Group 2 (n = 8): TNBS colitis; 0.1 ml of a 2.5% (w/v) TNBS solution in 50% ethanol rectally, Group 3 (n = 8): 10 μM HNG, and Group 4 (n = 8): 20 μM HNG intraperitoneal (ip) on day 2 and 6 after rectal TNBS administration. Rats were sacrificed 7 days after the induction of colitis. Blood and tissue samples were harvested for biochemical and histopathological analysis. HNG treatment significantly ameliorated weight loss and macroscopic and microscopic scores. TNBS-induced colitis significantly increased the colonic mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and caspase-3 activities in group II in comparison to the group I. HNG treatment was associated with an inhibition of mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β, and a decrease in caspase-3 activities in colon tissues in group III and IV when compared to group II. The results of this study indicate that HNG treatment may exert beneficial effects in UC by decreasing inflammatory reactions and apoptosis.

  11. Uptake of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Vetiver grass (Vetiviera ziznoides L.) -- Preliminary results from a hydroponic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, K. M.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Makris, K.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene(TNT) is a potent mutagen and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. As a result, vast areas that have been previously used as military ranges, munition burning and open detonation sites have been heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remedial activities in such contaminated sites commonly rely on methods such as incineration, land filling and soil composting. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective solution, utilizing plants to phytoextract TNT from the contaminated soil. We propose the use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) to remove TNT from such contaminated soils. Vetiver is a fast-growing and adaptive grass, enabling its use in TNT-contaminated sites in a wide variety of soil types and climate. We also hypothesized that TNT removal by vetiver grass will be enhanced by utilizing a chaotropic agent (urea) to alter rhizosphere/root hair chemical environment. The objectives of this preliminary hydroponic study were: i) to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver grass in removing TNT from solution, and ii) to evaluate the use of a common agrochemical (urea) in enhancing TNT removal by vetiver grass. Vetiver plants were grown in a hydroponic system with five different TNT concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg TNT L-1) and three urea concentrations (0, 0.01 and 0.1%). A plant density of 10 g L-1 and three replicate vessels per treatment were used. Aliquots were collected at several time intervals up to 192 hour, and were analyzed for TNT with HPLC. Results showed that vetiver was able to remove TNT from hydroponic solutions. The overall magnitude and kinetics of TNT removal by vetiver grass was enhanced in the presence of urea. TNT removal kinetics depended on TNT and urea initial concentrations, suggestive of second-order kinetic reactions. Preliminary results are encouraging, but in need for verification using more detailed studies involving TNT-contaminated soils. Ongoing

  12. Biomonitoring of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and degradation products in the marine environment with transplanted blue mussels (M. edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehse, Jennifer S; Appel, Daniel; Geist, Catharina; Martin, Hans-Jörg; Maser, Edmund

    2017-09-01

    Since World War I considerable amounts of warfare material have been dumped at sea worldwide, but little is known about the fate of the explosive components in the marine environment. Sea dumped munitions are able to contaminate the surroundings because of the release of explosive chemicals due to corrosion and breaching or by detonation after blast-operations. This implies the risk of accumulation of toxic compounds in human and wildlife food chains. With the help of divers, we performed an active biomonitoring study with transplanted blue mussels (M. edulis) in a burdened area (Kolberger Heide, Germany) with explosive compounds near blast craters over an exposure time of 93days. With this biomonitoring system, we could show that blue mussels accumulate 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its metabolites 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) in their tissues. In all mussels deployed at the ground, we found a body burden with 2-ADNT of 103.75±12.77ng/g wet weight and with 4-ADNT of 131.31±9.53ng/g wet weight. TNT itself has been found in six mussels with an average concentration of 31.04±3.26ng/g mussel wet weight. In the mussels positioned at one meter above the ground no TNT nor 2-ADNT could be detected, but 4-ADNT was found in all samples with an average concentration of 8.71±2.88ng/g mussel wet weight. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using blue mussels M. edulis as an active biomonitoring system for TNT and its metabolites 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT in a free field experiment in a burdened area. Moreover, with this system, we unequivocally proved that these toxic explosives accumulate in the marine biota resp. in the marine food chain, thereby posing a possible risk to the marine ecosphere and human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Visceral hypersensitivity is provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Crohn’s Disease (CD, a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most frequently in the ileum. Visceral hypersensitivity contributes for development of chronic abdominal pain in this disease. Currently, the understanding of the mechanism underlying hypersensitivity of Crohn’s ileitis has been hindered by a lack of specific animal model. The present study is undertaken to investigate the visceral hypersensitivity provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS-induced ileitis rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and laparotomized for intraileal injection of TNBS (0.6 ml, 80 mg/kg body weight in 30% ethanol, n = 48, an equal volume of 30% Ethanol (n = 24 and Saline (n = 24, respectively. Visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by visceromotor responses (VMR to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressure (CRD at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Immediately after CRD test, the rats were euthanized for collecting the terminal ileal segment for histopathological examinations and ELISA of myleoperoxidase and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and dorsal root ganglia (T11 for determination of calcitonin gene-related peptide by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among all groups, TNBS-treatment showed transmural inflammation initially at 3 days, reached maximum at 7 days and persisted up to 21 days. The rats with ileitis exhibited (P < 0.05 VMR to CRD at day 7 to day 21. The calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive positive cells increased (P < 0.05 in dorsal root ganglia at day 7 to 21, which was persistently consistent with visceral hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats.Conclusions: TNBS injection into the ileum induced transmural ileitis including granuloma and visceral hypersensitivity. As this model mimics clinical manifestations of CD, it may provide a road map to probe the pathogenesis of gut inflammation and visceral

  14. Convergent Total Synthesis of Paecilomycin B and 6'-epi-Paecilomycin B by a Barbier-Type Reaction Using 2,4,6-Triisopropylphenyllithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Kiyomi; Nakata, Masaya

    2018-02-15

    The convergent total synthesis of the natural product paecilomycin B and its 6'-epimer was investigated. The aryl-C-glycoside skeleton was constructed by an intramolecular Barbier-type reaction using 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyllithium and subsequent deoxygenation of the resulting anomeric hydroxy group. Starting from aryl iodide 24, the addition reaction afforded the thermodynamically stable C-β macrocyclic adduct 41a in 29% yield and the C-α adduct 41b in 1% yield. Meanwhile, aryl iodide 43 (6'-epimer of 24) gave only the C-α adduct 44 in 76% yield. The stereoselectivities of these nucleophilic addition reactions are also discussed.

  15. PRIMA-1Met/APR-246 induces apoptosis and tumor growth delay in small cell lung cancer expressing mutant p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandi, Roza; Selivanova, Galina; Christensen, Camilla Laulund

    2011-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis, necessitating the need to develop new and efficient treatment modalities. PRIMA-1(Met) (p53-dependent reactivation of massive apoptosis), also known as APR-246, is a small molecule, which restores tumor suppressor...... function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Since p53 is mutated in more than 90% of SCLC, we investigated the ability of PRIMA-1(Met) to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in SCLC with different p53 mutations....

  16. Vanillin Analogues o-Vanillin and 2,4,6-Trihydroxybenzaldehyde Inhibit NFĸB Activation and Suppress Growth of A375 Human Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Annamária; Kúsz, Erzsébet; Kolozsi, Csongor; Tubak, Vilmos; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Buzás, Krisztina; Quintieri, Luigi; Vizler, Csaba

    2016-11-01

    Constitutive activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NFĸB) is a hallmark of various cancer types, including melanoma. Chemotherapy may further increase tumour NFĸB activity, a phenomenon that, in turn, exacerbates drug resistance. This study aimed at preliminary screening of a panel of aromatic aldehydes, including vanillin, for cytotoxicity and suppression of tumour cell NFĸB activity. The cytotoxic and NFĸB-inhibitory effects of 10 aromatic aldehydes, including vanillin, were investigated in cultured A375 human melanoma cells. Each compound was assayed alone and in combination with the model NFĸB-activating drug doxorubicin. The most promising analogues were then tested alone and in combination with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide in vitro, and with cyclophosphamide in mice bearing A375 xenografts. The vanillin analogues o-vanillin and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde exhibited cytotoxicity against cultured A375 cells, and inhibited doxorubicin- and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide-induced NFĸB activation. They also suppressed A375 cell growth in mice. o-vanillin and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde deserve further evaluation as potential anticancer drugs. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Thiocyanate cadmium(II) complexes of 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine – Synthesis, structure and luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrot, I. [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Machura, B., E-mail: basia@ich.us.edu.pl [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Kruszynski, R., E-mail: rafal.kruszynski@p.lodz.pl [Department of X-ray Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry, Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, ul. Żeromskiego 116, 90-924 Łódź (Poland)

    2014-12-15

    Two new thiocyanate cadmium(II) complexes of 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine were synthesized and characterized. The resulted complexes [Cd(SCN)(NO{sub 3})(tptz)(H{sub 2}O)] (1) and [Cd(SCN){sub 2}(tptz)(MeOH)] (2) were studied by IR, UV–vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray analysis. The luminescent properties of 1 and 2 were studied in solution and solid state and compared with the free ligand. To get detailed insight into the electronic structure and spectroscopic properties of [Cd(SCN)(NO{sub 3})(tptz)(H{sub 2}O)] and [Cd(SCN){sub 2}(tptz)(MeOH)], the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were performed. - Highlights: • Two novel thiocyanate cadmium(II) compounds of 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine were synthesized. • The compounds were identified by IR, UV–vis spectroscopy and X-ray analysis. • The fluorescence properties of the complexes were examined and compared with the free ligand. • The electronic spectra were investigated at the TD-DFT level employing B3LYP/LANL2DZ.

  18. Hexaaquabis[3,5-bis(hydroxyimino-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxocyclohexanido-κ2N3,O4]barium tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ba(C7H5N2O52(H2O6]·4H2O, the Ba2+ cation lies on a twofold rotation axis and is ten-coordinated by two 3,5-bis(hydroxyimino-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxocyclohexanide oxo O atoms [Ba—O = 2.8715 (17 Å], two hydroxyimino N atoms [Ba—N = 3.036 (2 Å], and six water molecules [Ba—O = 2.847 (2, 2.848 (2, and 2.880 (2 Å]. The 3,5-bis(hydroxyimino-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxocyclohexanide monoanions act in a bidentate chelating manner, coordinating through an N atom of the non-deprotonated hydroxyimino group and an O atom of the neighboring oxo group. Two lattice water molecules are located in the cavities of the framework and are involved in hydrogen bonding to O atoms of one of the coordinating water molecules and the O atom of a keto group of the ligand. As a result, a three-dimensional network is formed.

  19. The first detection of ionized helium in the local ISM - EUVE and IUE spectroscopy of the hot DA white dwarf GD 246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennes, Stephane; Dupuis, Jean; Rumph, Todd; Drake, Jeremy; Bowyer, Stuart; Chayer, Pierre; Fontaine, Gilles

    1993-01-01

    We report observations of the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the hot degenerate star GD 246 obtained with the EUVE. Our initial attempt at modeling the photospheric emission from the white dwarf reveals a relatively uncontaminated pure H spectrum in the range above 200 A, allowing a study of interstellar continuum absorption features in the line of sight of GD 246. Modeling of the He I autoionization transition discussed by Rumph et al. (1993), and the EUV continuum using the white dwarf as a source of background radiation provides measurements of both neutral and, for the first time, singly ionized He column densities in the local ISM (LISM). We estimate the He ionization fraction He II/(He I + He II) at roughly 25 percent with a total He column of 1.40-1.65 x 10 exp 18/sq cm. We have measured and compared H I column densities from the saturated Ly-alpha ISM absorption in IUE high-dispersion spectroscopy and from EUV continuum absorption: the two measurements are in good agreement with a total H column of 1.2-1.6 x 10 exp 19/sq cm. We discuss some implications for the nature of the LISM, particularly in the context of current models of the EUV radiation field.

  20. Decomposition of dinitrotoluene isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in spent acid from toluene nitration process by ozonation and photo-ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-S.; Juan, C.-N.; Wei, K.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Ozone and UV/O 3 were employed to mineralize dinitrotoluene (DNT) isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in spent acid from toluene nitration process. The oxidative degradation tests were carried out to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the performance of mineralization of total organic compounds (TOC) in spent acid, including reaction temperature, intensity of UV (254 nm) irradiation, dosage of ozone and concentration of sulfuric acid. It is remarkable that the nearly complete mineralization of organic compounds can be achieved by ozonation combined with UV irradiation. Nevertheless, the hydroxyl radicals (·OH) would not be generated by either ozone decomposition or photolysis of ozone under the experimental condition of this study. According to the spectra identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and further confirmed by gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector (GC/FID), the multiple oxidation pathways of DNT isomers are given, which include o-, m-, p-mononitrotoluene (MNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In addition, oxidative degradation of 2,4,6-TNT leads to a 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene intermediate

  1. Decomposition of dinitrotoluene isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in spent acid from toluene nitration process by ozonation and photo-ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chenwen@yuntech.edu.tw; Juan, C.-N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640, Taiwan (China); Wei, K.-M. [Refining and Manufacturing Research Center, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Chia-Yi 600, Taiwan (China)

    2007-08-17

    Ozone and UV/O{sub 3} were employed to mineralize dinitrotoluene (DNT) isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in spent acid from toluene nitration process. The oxidative degradation tests were carried out to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the performance of mineralization of total organic compounds (TOC) in spent acid, including reaction temperature, intensity of UV (254 nm) irradiation, dosage of ozone and concentration of sulfuric acid. It is remarkable that the nearly complete mineralization of organic compounds can be achieved by ozonation combined with UV irradiation. Nevertheless, the hydroxyl radicals ({center_dot}OH) would not be generated by either ozone decomposition or photolysis of ozone under the experimental condition of this study. According to the spectra identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and further confirmed by gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector (GC/FID), the multiple oxidation pathways of DNT isomers are given, which include o-, m-, p-mononitrotoluene (MNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In addition, oxidative degradation of 2,4,6-TNT leads to a 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene intermediate.

  2. Decomposition of dinitrotoluene isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in spent acid from toluene nitration process by ozonation and photo-ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shing; Juan, Chien-Neng; Wei, Kuo-Ming

    2007-08-17

    Ozone and UV/O3 were employed to mineralize dinitrotoluene (DNT) isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in spent acid from toluene nitration process. The oxidative degradation tests were carried out to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the performance of mineralization of total organic compounds (TOC) in spent acid, including reaction temperature, intensity of UV (254 nm) irradiation, dosage of ozone and concentration of sulfuric acid. It is remarkable that the nearly complete mineralization of organic compounds can be achieved by ozonation combined with UV irradiation. Nevertheless, the hydroxyl radicals (*OH) would not be generated by either ozone decomposition or photolysis of ozone under the experimental condition of this study. According to the spectra identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and further confirmed by gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector (GC/FID), the multiple oxidation pathways of DNT isomers are given, which include o-, m-, p-mononitrotoluene (MNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In addition, oxidative degradation of 2,4,6-TNT leads to a 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene intermediate.

  3. ANALISIS SIFAT TARIK DAN IMPAK KOMPOSIT SERAT RAMI DENGAN PERLAKUAN ALKALI DALAM WAKTU 2,4,6 DAN 8 JAM BERMATRIK POLIESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramuko Ilmu Purboputro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ikatan interfacal bonding pada komposit serat alam sangat tergantung dari kekasaran permukaan serat. Permukaan serat dapat ditingkatkan daya ikatan permukaannya dengan cara mencelupkan pada larutan alkali. Pencelupan ini akan mengurangi lapisan lignin yang mengurangi kekuatan ikat pada permukaan serat. Pada penelitian ini proses yang digunakan adalah perlakuan alkali terhadap permukaan serat dengan  cara merendam serat rami selama 2,4,6, dan 8 jam. Larutah alkali yang digunakan adalah larutan NaOH dengan konsentrasi 10% pada pelarut air. Serat rami   Boehmeria nivea (L Goud direndam pada larutan NaOH selama 2,4,6, dan 8 jam perendaman, untuk menghilangkan zat ligninnya agar kekuatan ikatan permukaan bisa diperbaiki.  Pengujian yang dilakukan adalah pengujian tarik dan pengujian impak. Hasil yang didapat adalah kekuatan tarik terbesar didapat pada perendaman 8 jam yaitu sebesar 41,9 MPa. Modulus young terbesar didapat pada perendaman 2 jam, yaitu 2743,15 Mpa, dan kekuatan impak terbesar adalah 0,0725 Joule/mm2 terjadi pada perendaman 4 jam   Kata kunci : komposit serat, kekuatan tarik, kekuatan impak, perendaman alkali

  4. Fluorescence-based Sensing of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT Using a Multi-channeled Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA Microimmunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne W. Kusterbeck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence immunoassays employing monoclonal antibodies directed against the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT were conducted in a multi-channel microimmunosensor. The multi-channel microimmunosensor was prepared in poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA via hot embossing from a brass molding tool. The multi-channeled microfluidic device was sol-gel coated to generate a siloxane surface that provided a scaffold for antibody immobilization. AlexaFluor-cadaverine-trinitrobenzene (AlexaFluor-Cad-TNB was used as the reporter molecule in a displacement immunoassay. The limit of detection was 1-10 ng/mL (ppb with a linear dynamic range that covered three orders of magnitude. In addition, antibody crossreactivity was investigated using hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, HMX, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT, 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT and 2-amino-4,6-DNT.

  5. Synthesis of novel tripodal-benzimidazole from 2,4,6-tris(p-formylphenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine: Structural, electrochemical and antimicrobial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Ziya Erdem; Bingol, Haluk; Saf, Ahmet O.; Torlak, Emrah; Coskun, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Four new tripodal-benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized by Schiff base reaction between 2,4,6-tris(p-formylphenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (TRIPOD) and different diamine derivatives. The structures of the obtained compounds were identified by FT-IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and UV-vis spectral data, thermal analysis and elemental analysis. Electrochemical behaviors of the compounds were studied by cyclic voltammetry in DMF including 0.1 M [NBu 4 ] [PF 6 ]. The voltammograms showed peaks having similar characteristics except tripodal-benzimidazole including -NO 2 derivative. In addition, their antimicrobial activities were evaluated by using the standard disk diffusion method in dimethylformamide media. The activities were determined against 4 bacteria cultures by comparing to those of gentamycin.

  6. Graphene-based electrochemical sensor for detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater: the comparison of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Madeline Shuhua; Pumera, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The detection of explosives in seawater is of great interest. We compared response single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticle-based electrodes toward the electrochemical reduction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). We optimized parameters such as accumulation time, accumulation potential, and pH. We found that few-layer graphene exhibits about 20% enhanced signal for TNT after accumulation when compared to multilayer graphene nanoribbons. However, graphite microparticle-modified electrode provides higher sensitivity, and there was no significant difference in the performance of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles for the electrochemical detection of TNT. We established the limit of detection of TNT in untreated seawater at 1 μg/mL.

  7. Fabrication of surface plasmon resonance sensor surface with control of the nonspecific adsorption and affinity for the detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene using an antifouling copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eYatabe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor using a hydrophilic polymer for the highly sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT. The hydrophilic polymer was made from mono-2-(methacryloyloxyethylsuccinate (MES and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP. The detection of TNT was carried out by displacement assay with the SPR measurement. In displacement assay, the affinity between anti-TNT antibody and the sensor surface, affects to the sensitivity. In the SPR measurement, nonspecific adsorption should be controlled because SPR sensor cannot discriminate between specific and nonspecific adsorption. Therefore, the affinity and nonspecific adsorption were controlled by changing the ratio of HEMA to MES. A detection limit of 0.4 ng/ml (ppb for TNT was achieved using a sensor surface with the lowest affinity without nonspecific adsorption.

  8. Organic salts formed by 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine and selected carboxylic acids via a variety of hydrogen bonds: Synthons cooperation, and crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Peiqi; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yingying; Wang, Kunpeng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    By using solvent evaporation method, 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAPI) is employed to crystallize with a variety of acids, including 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (HDHBA), 3-nitrophthalic acid (H2NPA), 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (H2ATIPIA), 2,5-dibromoterephthalic acid (H2DBTPA), 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (H2NDSA), sebacic acid (H2SA), 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTA), and biphenyl-2,2‧,5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid (H4BPTA). In all eight complexes, protons are completely exchanged from O atom of acid to nitrogen of TAPI in 1, 3, 4, and, 5, partly transferred in 2, 6, 7, and 8. The crystal structure of all eight complexes exhibit that classical robust hydrogen bonds X-H⋯X (X = O/N) direct the molecular crystals to bind together in a stacking modes. Classical hydrogen bond Nsbnd H⋯O is participated in forming all eight organic salts, while hydrogen bonding Osbnd H⋯O are found in constructing the diversity structures in salts 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7. The analysis shows that some classical supramolecular synthons, such as I R22(8), V R24(12), and VI S(6), are observed again in the construction of hydrogen-bonding networks. In the formation of layered and reticular structure, strong hydrogen bonds between water molecules and ligands having well-refined hydrogen atoms have been considered. Water molecules play an important role in building supramolecular structures of 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8. Moreover, salts 1-8 are further characterized and analyzed by element analysis, infrared radiation, thermogravimetric analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass spectra.

  9. Novel photo-catalysts containing 2,4,6-tri-phenyl-thiapyrylium encapsulated within zeolites. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity as compared to the pyrylium analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro, M.; Carbonell, E.; Fornes, V.; Hermenegildo, Garcia [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Instituto Tecnologia Quimica and Departamento de Quimica, Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    A series of solid photo-catalysts containing either 2,4.6-triplienyl-pyrylium (TP{sup +}) or 2,4,6-tri-phenyl-thiapyrylium (TPTP{sup +}) encapsulated within zeolite Y or Beta, or deposited on amorphous silica or MCM-41, have been prepared. These photo-catalysts have been tested for the degradation of aqueous solutions of phenol (40 ppm) or aniline (40 or 80 ppm, initial pH 3) as model reactions. TPTP{sup +} photo-catalysts were found to be more active and stable than those containing TP{sup +}, the initial efficiency order being: TPTP/MCM-41 {approx} TPTP/SiO{sub 2} > TPTPaBeta > TPTPaY > TiO{sub 2}. In the case of TPTP/SiO{sub 2} and TPTP/MCM-41 the photo-catalysts are largely decomposed during the photo-catalytic reaction, as compared to TPTP+ encapsulated within zeolites Y and Beta; in the latter, although the initial activity is considerably lower the dye persists after the irradiation and can be reused. In this way the final productivity of TPTPaBeta is at least four times higher than when the dye is supported on SiO{sub 2} or MCM-41. Addition of an initial concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (10{sup -3} M) accelerates the photo-degradation of phenol by a factor of 6 but it does not have much influence in the case of aniline. (authors)

  10. Identification of lysine 74 in the pyruvate binding site of alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis - Chemical modification with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate, and 5'-(P-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl)adenosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delforge, D; Devreese, B; Dieu, M; Delaive, E; VanBeeumen, J; Remacle, J

    1997-01-01

    L-Alanine dehydrogenase hom Bacillus subtilis was inactivated with two different lysine-directed chemical reagents, i.e. 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate. In both cases, the inactivation followed pseudo first-order kinetics, with a 1:1

  11. Impact of long-term partial aeration on the removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in an initially methanogenic fluidized bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay-Orijel, Claudio; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; García-Mena, Jaime; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor Mario

    2006-08-05

    A fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was operated for more than 1000 days under two regimes, Methanogenic (M) and Methanogenic-Aerobic (M-A), to remove 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and phenol (Phe) from a synthetic wastewater, containing different amounts of TCP and Phe, using different aeration flow-rates (0, 2.13, and 1.06 NL O(2)/L.day). M conditions (80:20 mg/L of TCP:Phe, 0 NL O(2)/L.day) showed similar TCP and Phe removal (>95%). Nevertheless accumulation of 4-chlorophenol (4CP) up to 16 mg/L and Phe up to 4 mg/L was observed, while in M-A conditions (80:20 mg/L of TCP:Phe, 2.13 NL O(2)/L.day) TCP and Phe removal achieved 99.9(+)% and after 70 days no accumulation of intermediates were detected. The increase of TCP and Phe in the influent under M-A conditions from 80:20 to 120:30 mg/L of TCP:Phe did not negatively affect the removal of TCP, intermediates and Phe; in fact, they were similar to those in previous M-A conditions. The decrease in the oxygen flow rate from 2.13 to 1.06 NL O(2)/L.day had no negative effect on pollutant removals, which were as high as in previous two M-A conditions. The specific methanogenic activity of bioparticles of the fluidized bed decreased with long-term partial aeration, starting from 1.097 mmol CH(4)/h.g(TKN) in the M regime (day 60) to TCP and less chlorinated intermediates could be achieved in an initially methanogenic FBBR under conditions of partial aeration, although long-term operation seemed to negatively affect the methanogenic activity of biomass. It is also likely that after extended aeration the microbial community was finally enriched with strains with the ability to attack 2,4,6-TCP under aerobic conditions. This report represents the first evidence of a long exposure to oxygen of an anaerobic microbial consortium that efficiently remove TCP. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mechanistic and Kinetic Studies on the Homogeneous Gas-Phase Formation of PCTA/DTs from 2,4-Dichlorothiophenol and 2,4,6-Trichlorothiophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated thianthrene/dibenzothiophenes (PCTA/DTs are sulfur analogues compounds to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs. Chlorothiophenols (CTPs are key precursors to form PCTA/DTs. 2,4-DCTP has the minimum number of Cl atoms to form 2,4,6,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzothiophenes (2,4,6,8-TeCDT, which is the most important and widely detected of the PCDTs. In this paper, quantum chemical calculations were carried out to investigate the homogeneous gas-phase formation of PCTA/DTs from 2,4-DCTP and 2,4,6-TCTP precursors at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p level. Several energetically feasible pathways were revealed to compare the formation potential of PCTA/DT products. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT correction over a wide temperature range of 600–1200 K. This study shows that pathways that ended with elimination of Cl step were dominant over pathways ended with elimination of the H step. The water molecule has a negative catalytic effect on the H-shift step and hinders the formation of PCDTs from 2,4-DCTP. This study, together with works already published from our group, clearly illustrates an increased propensity for the dioxin formation from CTPs over the analogous CPs.

  13. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-07-12

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems.

  14. catena-Poly[[[aquatripyridinecobalt(II]-μ-5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalato-κ2O1:O3] pyridine solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of cobalt(II nitrate with 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (ATPA in pyridine solution leads to the formation of the title compound, {[Co(C8H2I3NO4(C5H5N3(H2O]·C5H5N}n. The Co2+ ion is six-coordinated by three N atoms, one water O atom and two O atoms from two ATPA ligands to form a distorted octahedral geometry. The two carboxylate groups of ATPA act as bridging ligands connecting the CoII metal centers to form one-dimensional zigzag chains along the c axis, with Co—O distances in the range 2.104 (4–2.135 (4 Å. The average Co—N distance is 2.171 Å. A classical O—H...N hydrogen bond is formed by the coordinating water molecule and the pyridine solvent molecule. The structure was refined from a racemically twinned crystal with a twin ratio of approximately 8:1.

  15. Facile Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Antimicrobial Screening of a New Series of 2,4,6-Trisubstituted-s-triazine Based Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Bhushan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of new 2,4,6-trisubstituted-s-triazine was synthesized, assessed for antimicrobial activity, and characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and elemental analysis. The tested compounds, 4d, 4g, 4h, 4k, and 4n, have shown considerable in vitro antibacterial efficacy with reference to the standard drug ciprofloxacin (MIC 3.125 μgmL−1 against B. subtilis, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae. It was observed that compounds 4d and 4h displayed equipotent antibacterial efficacy against B. subtilis (MIC 3.125 μgmL−1 and S. aureus (MIC 6.25 μgmL−1. The studies demonstrated that the para-fluorophenylpiperazine substituted s-triazine (4n was potent and exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa with MIC of 6.25 μgmL−1 and for E. coli, it showed an MIC of 3.125 μgmL−1 equipotent with reference to the standard drug. Among all the compounds under investigation, compound 4g also demonstrated significant antifungal activity (3.125 μgmL−1 against C. albicans.

  16. Recommendations for developing the optimum method for da installations to comply with 40 CFR 246-source separation for materials recovery guidelines. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, B.A.; Gershman, H.W.; Gardner, W.P.; Price, J.D.

    1977-05-01

    This report is the end-product of a study which involved both an examination of source separation techniques for materials recovery and an evaluation of current Department of the Army (DA) operations, especially those related to solid waste management. The purpose of the study was to arrive at the optimum method or methods by which DA installations could integrate source separation procedures into their current solid waste management activities, as required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 40 CFR 246 -- Source Separation for Materials Recovery Guidelines. The report was written with the goal of providing assistance -- both background information and specific instructions for procedures -- to the managing activities faced with compliance with the guidelines at the installation level. The procedures recommended in the report are those which can most easily be included in current operations while still producing significant resource recovery results. It is considered advisable for DA to institute only the 'Required' procedures from the guidelines, acting on the 'Recommended' procedures only where they can be handled with existing equipment, personnel, and funds. Procedural changes at the installation level must be preceded by DA and Department of Defense policy and guidance alterations, for which Recommendations are also provided.

  17. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongoh Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP is a brominated flame retardant (BFR. Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1 and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2 decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2 and growth hormone (Gh mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems

  18. A CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF 3C 288-REHEATING THE COOL CORE OF A 3 keV CLUSTER FROM A NUCLEAR OUTBURST at z = 0.246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, D. V.; Kraft, R. P.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Evans, D. A.; Lee, J. C.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Croston, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a 42 ks Chandra/ACIS-S observation of the transitional FR I/FR II radio galaxy 3C 288 at z = 0.246. We detect ∼3 keV gas extending to a radius of ∼0.5 Mpc with a 0.5-2.0 keV luminosity of 6.6 x 10 43 erg s -1 , implying that 3C 288 lies at the center of a poor cluster. We find multiple surface brightness discontinuities in the gas indicative of either a shock driven by the inflation of the radio lobes or a recent merger event. The temperature across the discontinuities is roughly constant with no signature of a cool core, thus disfavoring either the merger cold front or sloshing scenarios. We argue therefore that the discontinuities are shocks due to the supersonic inflation of the radio lobes. If they are shocks, the energy of the outburst is ∼10 60 erg, or roughly 30% of the thermal energy of the gas within the radius of the shock, assuming that the shocks are part of a front produced by a single outburst. The cooling time of the gas is ∼10 8 yr, so that the energy deposited by the nuclear outburst could have reheated and efficiently disrupted a cool core.

  19. Spectrophotometric analysis of vitamin E using Cu(I)-Bathocuproine or/and Fe(II)-2,4,6-tris-(2'-pyridyl)-s-triazine complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, I.; Memon, S. A.; Khuhawar, M.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) antioxidants are determined by reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I) or Fe(III) to Fe(II) in presence of vitamin E and subsequent complexation of Cu(I) with bathocuproine and/or Fe(II) with 2,4,6-tris-(2'-pyridyl)-s-triazine (TPTZ). Both the reactions are monitored separately, Cu(I)-bathocuproine at 479 nm where as, Fe(II)-(TPTZ) at 595 nm spectrophotometrically. Linear calibration curves are achieved for both complexes between I to 5mu g ml-1 for vitamin E. The methods were applied for the determination of vitamin E in pharmaceutical preparations and edible oils. Vitamin E, from edible oils, was solvent extracted into n-hexane prior to saponification. Furthermore, a single lined flow was also examined. A larger excess of Cu(II) or Fe =(II) with different concentrations of vitamin E in buffer pH 4 was run on the line and constant amounts of reagent bathocuproine or TPTZ in each case was injected through the injector. The peak height shows a linear relationship for vitamin E between 0.5 to 2.5 mu g ml-1 for both complexes. (author)

  20. Modeling and investigation of new explosive materials based on N-(3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamuliene, Jelena; Sarlauskas, Jonas; Bekesiene, Svajone

    2017-08-01

    This study presents an investigation of the effects of adding extra nitro group substituents to N-(3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-amine (HEM-II) on its thermal and chemical stability as well as its explosive performance. An analysis of the thermal stabilities of HEM-II and HEM-II-based molecules based on an investigation of the binding energy per atom for each molecule was performed. The values of the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) as well as those of the chemical hardness and softness for HEM-II and the HEM-II-based molecules were studied to determine the chemical stabilities of these molecules. The detonation velocity and oxygen balance of each HEM-II-based molecule were investigated to elucidate its explosive properties. The results of our investigation show that the presence of additional nitro groups suppresses the tendency of the new HEM-II-based explosive material to react with other materials, improves its explosive properties (strength), decreases the likelihood that it will degrade, and enhances its toxicity and thermal stability. We also found that zero-point correction does not need to be performed when molecules with different substituents are investigated and compared.

  1. Tracing the cycling and fate of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in coastal marine systems with a stable isotopic tracer, 15N-[TNT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W.; Vlahos, Penny; Böhlke, John Karl; Ariyarathna, Thivanka; Ballentine, Mark; Cooper, Christopher; Fallis, Stephen; Groshens, Thomas J.; Tobias, Craig

    2015-01-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been used as a military explosive for over a hundred years. Contamination concerns have arisen as a result of manufacturing and use on a large scale; however, despite decades of work addressing TNT contamination in the environment, its fate in marine ecosystems is not fully resolved. Here we examine the cycling and fate of TNT in the coastal marine systems by spiking a marine mesocosm containing seawater, sediments, and macrobiota with isotopically labeled TNT (15N-[TNT]), simultaneously monitoring removal, transformation, mineralization, sorption, and biological uptake over a period of 16 days. TNT degradation was rapid, and we observed accumulation of reduced transformation products dissolved in the water column and in pore waters, sorbed to sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM), and in the tissues of macrobiota. Bulk δ15N analysis of sediments, SPM, and tissues revealed large quantities of 15N beyond that accounted for in identifiable derivatives. TNT-derived N was also found in the dissolved inorganic N (DIN) pool. Using multivariate statistical analysis and a 15N mass balance approach, we identify the major transformation pathways of TNT, including the deamination of reduced TNT derivatives, potentially promoted by sorption to SPM and oxic surface sediments.

  2. Experimental and quantum chemical studies of a new organic proton transfer compound, 1H-imidazole-3-ium-3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodharan, P.; Sathya, K.; Dhandapani, M.

    2018-02-01

    A new proton transfer compound, 1H-imidazole-3-ium-3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate (IMHTP), was crystallized by slow evaporation-solution growth technique. 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies confirm the molecular structure of the grown crystal. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirms that IMHTP crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/c. Thermal curves (TG/DTA) show that the material is thermally stable up to 198 °C. The crystal emits fluorescence at 510 nm, proving its utility in making green light emitting materials in optical applications. The stable molecular structure was optimized by Gaussian 09 program with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of basis set. The frontier molecular orbital study shows that the charge transfer interaction occurs within the complex. The calculated first-order hyperpolarizability value of IMHTP is 44 times higher than that the reference material, urea. The electrostatic potential map was used to probe into electrophilic and nucleophilic reactive sites present in the molecule.

  3. Preconcentration of Co, Ni, Cd and Zn on naphthalene–2,4,6-trimorpholino-1,3,5-triazin adsorbent and flame atomic absorption determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAYYEBEH MADRAKIAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A preconcentration method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of Co, Ni, Cd and Zn by atomic absorption spectrometry. The method is based on the retention of the metal cations by naphthalene–2,4,6-trimorpholino-1,3,5-triazin adsorbent in a column. The adsorbed metals were then eluted from the column with hydrochloric acid and the Co, Ni, Cd and Zn were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimal extraction and elution conditions were studied. The effects of diverse ions on the preconcentration were also investigated. A preconcentration factor of 250 for Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II, and 400 for Cd(II can easily be achieved. Calibration graphs were obtained and the detection limits of the method for Co(II, Ni(II, Cd(II and Zn(II were 0.51, 0.49, 0.17 and 0.10 ng mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD of 0.37–2.31 % for Co, 0.37–3.73 % for Ni, 2.20–2.40 % for Cd and 1.50–2.56 % for Zn were obtained. The method was also used for the simultaneous preconcentration of these elements and the method was successfully applied to their preconcentration and determination. The method was applied to the determination of Co, Ni, Cd and Zn in several real samples.

  4. Adsorption characteristics of green 5-arylaminomethylene pyrimidine-2,4,6-triones on mild steel surface in acidic medium: Experimental and computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Chandrabhan; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Ebenso, Eno E.; Quraishi, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of electron withdrawing nitro (-NO2) and electron releasing hydroxyl (-OH) groups on corrosion inhibition potentials of 5-arylaminomethylenepyrimidine-2,4,6-trione (AMP) had been studied. Four AMPs tagged AMP-1, AMP-2, AMP-3 and AMP-4 were studied for their ability to inhibit mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl using experimental and theoretical methods. Gravimetric results showed that inhibition efficiency of the studied inhibitors increases with increasing concentration. The results further revealed that that electron withdrawing nitro (-NO2) group decreases the inhibition efficiency of AMP, while electron donating hydroxyl (-OH) group increases the inhibition efficiency of AMP. SEM and AFM studies showed that the studied compounds inhibit mild steel corrosion by adsorbing at the metal/electrolyte interface and their adsorption obeyed the Temkin adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization study revealed that studied inhibitors act as mixed type inhibitors with predominant effect on cathodic reaction. The inhibitive strength of the compounds might have direct relationship electron donating ability of the molecules as revealed by quantum chemical parameters. The order of interaction energies derived from Monte Carlo simulations is AMP-4 > AMP-3 > AMP-2 > AMP-1, which is in agreement with the order of inhibition efficiencies obtained from experimental measurements.

  5. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems PMID:27420076

  6. Systems Biology Approach to Bioremediation of Nitroaromatics: Constraint-Based Analysis of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Biotransformation by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, Maryam; Sobati, Tabassom; Panahi, Yunes; Mobasheri, Meysam

    2017-08-14

    Microbial remediation of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) is a promising environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach to the removal of these life-threating agents. Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) has shown remarkable capability for the biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitro-toluene (TNT). Efforts to develop E. coli as an efficient TNT degrading biocatalyst will benefit from holistic flux-level description of interactions between multiple TNT transforming pathways operating in the strain. To gain such an insight, we extended the genome-scale constraint-based model of E. coli to account for a curated version of major TNT transformation pathways known or evidently hypothesized to be active in E. coli in present of TNT. Using constraint-based analysis (CBA) methods, we then performed several series of in silico experiments to elucidate the contribution of these pathways individually or in combination to the E. coli TNT transformation capacity. Results of our analyses were validated by replicating several experimentally observed TNT degradation phenotypes in E. coli cultures. We further used the extended model to explore the influence of process parameters, including aeration regime, TNT concentration, cell density, and carbon source on TNT degradation efficiency. We also conducted an in silico metabolic engineering study to design a series of E. coli mutants capable of degrading TNT at higher yield compared with the wild-type strain. Our study, therefore, extends the application of CBA to bioremediation of nitroaromatics and demonstrates the usefulness of this approach to inform bioremediation research.

  7. A New Indirect Spectrofluorimetric Method for Determination of Ascorbic Acid with 2,4,6-Tripyridyl-S-Triazine in Pharmaceutical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Klepo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA is a water-soluble vitamin which shows no fluorescence. However, in reaction with iron(III, AA is oxidised to dehydroascorbic acid and iron(III is reduced to iron(II which forms a complex with 2,4,6-tripyridyl-S-triazine (TPTZ in buffered medium. The relative fluorescence intensity of the resulting Fe(TPTZ22+ complex can be measured at excitation and emission wavelengths of 393 and 790 nm, respectively. Based on this data, a new indirect spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of AA in pharmaceutical samples was proposed. Influence of the reaction conditions, such as acidity of acetic buffer, concentration of TPTZ and iron(III, reaction time and instrumental parameters were investigated in detail. The linear range was from 5.4 × 10−4 to 5.4 × 10−6 mol·L−1 (R = 0.9971. The LOD was 7.7 × 10−7 mol·L−1 and LOQ was 2.3 × 10−4 mol·L−1. Fourteen pharmaceutical samples containing various amounts of AA were analysed. Influences of potential interfering substances were also examined. Analysis of commercial pharmaceutical formulations showed good correlation with the nominal values given by the manufacturers and with the results obtained by a titration method. The proposed method can be applied in routine quality control in the pharmaceutical industry due to its sensitivity, simplicity, selectivity and low cost.

  8. Copolymerization with 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine for the rolling-up the layer structure, tunable electronic properties, and photocatalysis of g-C3N4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wingkei; Zhang, Zizhong; Lin, Wei; Huang, Shuping; Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Xuxu; Huang, Yu

    2015-03-11

    Copolymerization with 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP) is developed for precise substitution of one nitrogen with carbon atom in the triazine ring of polymeric g-C3N4. Direct incorporation of C4N2 ring from TAP into the network retains the structural features of g-C3N4, but induces the rolling-up of g-C3N4 sheets into tubular configuration. The band gap energy is narrowed from 2.7 to 2.4 eV by a negative shift of valence band of the g-C3N4 photocatalyst, which enhances charge-carrier migration and separation, leading to higher photocatalytic activity for NO gas pollutant removal. It is attributed to the decrease of the π-deficiency and the generation of imbalanced electron density in π-electron conjugated units of g-C3N4 by TAP incorporation. This work provides a significant technique for precise control of heteroatom in the framework of g-C3N4 to finely adjust its intrinsic electronic properties and its photocatalytic properties.

  9. Preparation of N-(3-BROMO-2,4,6-trimethylacetanilide) iminodiacetic acid and its 99MTc-complex for hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ok Ja; Hong, Young Don; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Sang Mu; Choi, Sun Ju

    2005-01-01

    N-(3-bromo-2,4,6-trimethylacetanilide) iminodiacetic acid (BrTIDA) was synthesized using nitrilotriacetic anhydride prepared in situ, and lyophilized vials were prepared which contained 20 mg of BrTIDA and 0.4 mg of SnCl 2 . To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the in-house prepared lyophilized kit, a technetium-99m complex of BrTIDA was prepared; its in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior was evaluated via animal studies to assess the hepatocytic function and the functional status of the cystic duct and the gallbladder. Serial static image scans of rabbits and the biodistribution in mice injected with 99m Tc-BrTIDA revealed that none of the tissues except for the hepatobiliary system showed radioactivity concentrations, and a rapid clearance from the organs was observed. In conclusion, a lyophilized kit and its prepared 99m Tc-BrTIDA can be applied as a hepatobiliary imaging agent for the evaluation of the functional status of the hepatocytes and the patency of the biliary duct

  10. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L.; Hameed, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were evaluated. The effects of TCP initial concentration, agitation time, solution pH and temperature on TCP adsorption were investigated. TCP adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, agitation time and solution temperature whereas adsorption of TCP was more favourable at acidic pH. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of TCP on the activated carbon was mainly governed by particle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (ΔH o ), standard entropy (ΔS o ), standard free energy (ΔG o ) and activation energy were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the spent activated carbon was high, with TCP desorption of 99.6%.

  11. Systems Biology Approach to Bioremediation of Nitroaromatics: Constraint-Based Analysis of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Biotransformation by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Iman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial remediation of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs is a promising environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach to the removal of these life-threating agents. Escherichia coli (E. coli has shown remarkable capability for the biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitro-toluene (TNT. Efforts to develop E. coli as an efficient TNT degrading biocatalyst will benefit from holistic flux-level description of interactions between multiple TNT transforming pathways operating in the strain. To gain such an insight, we extended the genome-scale constraint-based model of E. coli to account for a curated version of major TNT transformation pathways known or evidently hypothesized to be active in E. coli in present of TNT. Using constraint-based analysis (CBA methods, we then performed several series of in silico experiments to elucidate the contribution of these pathways individually or in combination to the E. coli TNT transformation capacity. Results of our analyses were validated by replicating several experimentally observed TNT degradation phenotypes in E. coli cultures. We further used the extended model to explore the influence of process parameters, including aeration regime, TNT concentration, cell density, and carbon source on TNT degradation efficiency. We also conducted an in silico metabolic engineering study to design a series of E. coli mutants capable of degrading TNT at higher yield compared with the wild-type strain. Our study, therefore, extends the application of CBA to bioremediation of nitroaromatics and demonstrates the usefulness of this approach to inform bioremediation research.

  12. Stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy for forensic analysis of post-blast scenes: trace detection of ammonium nitrate and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceco, Ema; Önnerud, Hans; Menning, Dennis; Gilljam, John L.; Bââth, Petra; Östmark, Henric

    2014-05-01

    The following paper presents a realistic forensic capability test of an imaging Raman spectroscopy based demonstrator system, developed at FOI, the Swedish Defence Research Agency. The system uses a 532 nm laser to irradiate a surface of 25×25mm. The backscattered radiation from the surface is collected by an 8" telescope with subsequent optical system, and is finally imaged onto an ICCD camera. We present here an explosives trace analysis study of samples collected from a realistic scenario after a detonation. A left-behind 5 kg IED, based on ammonium nitrate with a TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) booster, was detonated in a plastic garbage bin. Aluminum sample plates were mounted vertically on a holder approximately 6 m from the point of detonation. Minutes after the detonation, the samples were analyzed with stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy from a distance of 10 m. Trace amounts could be detected from the secondary explosive (ammonium nitrate with an analysis time of 1 min. Measurement results also indicated detection of residues from the booster (TNT). The sample plates were subsequently swabbed and analyzed with HPLC and GC-MS analyses to confirm the results from the stand-off imaging Raman system. The presented findings indicate that it is possible to determine the type of explosive used in an IED from a distance, within minutes after the attack, and without tampering with physical evidence at the crime scene.

  13. Fabrication of an SPR Sensor Surface with Antifouling Properties for Highly Sensitive Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Using Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Toko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we modified a surface plasmon resonance immunosensor chip with a polymer using surface-initiated atom transfer polymerization (SI-ATRP for the highly sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT. To immobilize a TNT analogue on the polymer, mono-2-(methacryloyloxyethylsuccinate (MES, which has a carboxyl group, was used in this study. However, the anti-TNT antibody may adsorb non-specifically on the polymer surface by an electrostatic interaction because MES is negatively charged. Therefore, a mixed monomer with MES and diethylaminoethylmethacrylate (DEAEM, which has a tertiary amino group and is positively charged, was prepared to obtain electroneutrality for suppressing the nonspecific adsorption. The detection of TNT was performed by inhibition assay using the polymer surface. To ensure high sensitivity to TNT, the affinity between the surface and the antibody was optimized by controlling the density of the initiator for ATRP by mixing two types of self-assembled monolayer reagents. As a result, a limit of detection of 5.7 pg/mL (ppt for TNT was achieved using the optimized surface.

  14. DECHLORINATION OF 2,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOL BY FREE AND IMMOBILIZED LACCASE FROM TRAMETES VERSICOLOR IN A LAB SCALE BIOREACTOR Arzu ÜNAL, Ahmet ÇABUK, Nazif KOLONKAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazif KOLANKAYA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Detoxification of a chlorinated phenolic compound, 2,4,6- trichlorophenol through treatment with laccase enzyme produced by a white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor was investigated. Enzymaticdechlorination experiments by using free and immobilized laccase have been performed in a lab scale bioreactor. Chlorine ion and dissolved oxygen electrodes mounted to the bioreactor were used continuouslyto detect the profiles of chlorine ions and oxygen consumption, respectively, in reaction medium. The maximum dechlorination activity of laccase for free and immobilized form was determined as 160 μM of substrate concentration at pH 5.0, 25 °C, and 30 min of incubation time. Also, GC/MS analyses of enzymatic degradation products indicated that chlorine removal was a result of degradation of 2,4,6- trichlorophenol by the laccase under the determined optimum conditions.

  15. Self-assembly of novel supramolecular silver(I) compound based on mixed ligands bipy/TST3- H3TST=2,4,6-tris (4-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yunfang; Wei, Yongqin; Broer, Ria; Wu, Kechen

    2007-01-01

    The novel supramolecular silver(I) compound with formula [Ag-6(TST)(2)(bipy)(6)(H2O)(2)](n) center dot 3nH(2)O (1) based on assembly of Ag(I) and mixed ligand bipy/TST3-, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, H3TST = 2,4,6-tris(4-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine, has been prepared by hydrothermal method. In the

  16. Spectral, thermal, structural and quantum chemical calculations of 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-2-ium-3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate - A new organic proton transfer crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodharan, P.; Sathya, K.; Dhandapani, M.

    2017-12-01

    Single crystals of a new proton transfer optical material, 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-2-ium-3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate (DPHTP), were obtained using slow evaporation of methanolic solution containing 1:1 M quantities of 3,5 dimethyl-1H-pyrazole and 3-hydroxy 2,4,6-trinitro phenol (styphnic acid). Asymmetric unit of DPHTP contains a univalent 3,5- dimethylpyrazolium cation with a univalent 3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate anion. The various types of carbon atoms and protons in the compound were established using 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. Thermal stability and decomposition pattern of DPHTP were studied by TG/DTA. The optical nonlinearities of DPHTP have been investigated by Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser radiation of wavelength 632.8 nm. The equilibrium optimized geometry, the first order hyperpolarizability calculations, molecular electrostatic interactions, frontier molecular orbital analysis, Mulliken population analysis have been calculated by density functional theoretical (DFT) method with (B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) level of basis set. First order hyperpolarizability (β) of DPHTP is 22 times greater than that of urea.

  17. Total glucosides of peony attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid/ethanol-induced colitis in rats through adjustment of TH1/TH2 cytokines polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yabing; Zhou, Rui; Zhou, Feng; Cheng, Hong; Xia, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to investigate effects of total glucosides of peony (TGP) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol-induced colitis in rats and to explore potential clinical use of TGP for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly grouped into normal controls, model controls, sulfasalazine (SASP) controls (100 mg/kg/day), and low, medium, and high-dose TGP groups (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively). 24 h following colonic instillation of TNBS, TGP, and SASP were given by gastric gavage three times a day for 7 days. Disease activity index (DAI), colon macroscopic damage index (CMDI), histopathological score (HPS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated. Levels of serum TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 were measured by ELISA, and expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 mRNA and protein in colonic tissues was detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Compared with rats in the model controls, TGP (50 or 100 mg/kg/day)-treated rats with TNBS/ethanol-induced colitis showed significant improvements of DAI, CMDI, HPS, and MPO activity. Moreover, administration of TGP (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) decreased the up-regulated levels of serum TNF-α and IL-1β, and expression of TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA and protein in colonic tissues, and increased the serum IL-10 and colonic IL-10 mRNA and protein level. And there was no significant difference compared with administration of SASP (P > 0.05). TGP attenuates TNBS/ethanol-induced colitis in rats and its efficacy is similar to SASP, the potential mechanism might be related to the adjustment of Th1/Th2 cytokines polarization by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1β, and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

  18. Contribution of thermal energy to initial ion production in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization observed with 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yin-Hung; Chen, Bo-Gaun; Lee, Yuan Tseh; Wang, Yi-Sheng; Lin, Sheng Hsien

    2014-08-15

    Although several reaction models have been proposed in the literature to explain matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), further study is still necessary to explore the important ionization pathways that occur under the high-temperature environment of MALDI. 2,4,6-Trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) is an ideal compound for evaluating the contribution of thermal energy to an initial reaction with minimum side reactions. Desorbed neutral THAP and ions were measured using a crossed-molecular beam machine and commercial MALDI-TOF instrument, respectively. A quantitative model incorporating an Arrhenius-type desorption rate derived from transition state theory was proposed. Reaction enthalpy was calculated using GAUSSIAN 03 software with dielectric effect. Additional evidence of thermal-induced proton disproportionation was given by the indirect ionization of THAP embedded in excess fullerene molecules excited by a 450 nm laser. The quantitative model predicted that proton disproportionation of THAP would be achieved by thermal energy converted from a commonly used single UV laser photon. The dielectric effect reduced the reaction Gibbs free energy considerably even when the dielectric constant was reduced under high-temperature MALDI conditions. With minimum fitting parameters, observations of pure THAP and THAP mixed with fullerene both agreed with predictions. Proton disproportionation of solid THAP was energetically favorable with a single UV laser photon. The quantitative model revealed an important initial ionization pathway induced by the abrupt heating of matrix crystals. In the matrix crystals, the dielectric effect reduced reaction Gibbs free energy under typical MALDI conditions. The result suggested that thermal energy plays an important role in the initial ionization reaction of THAP. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Development of a microwave assisted extraction method for the analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork stoppers by SIDA-SBSE-GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestner, Jochen; Fritsch, Stefanie; Rauhut, Doris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research work was focused on the replacement of the time-consuming soaking of cork stoppers which is mainly used as screening method for cork lots in connection with sensory analysis and/or analytical methods to detect releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) of natural cork stoppers. Releasable TCA from whole cork stoppers was analysed with the application of a microwave assisted extraction method (MAE) in combination with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The soaking of corks (SOAK) was used as a reference method to optimise MAE parameters. Cork lots of different quality and TCA contamination levels were used to adapt MAE. Pre-tests indicated that an MAE at 40 deg. C for 120 min with 90 min of cooling time are suitable conditions to avoid an over-extraction of TCA of low and medium tainted cork stoppers in comparison to SOAK. These MAE parameters allow the measuring of almost the same amounts of releasable TCA as with the application of the soaking procedure in the relevant range ( -1 releasable TCA from one cork) to evaluate the TCA level of cork stoppers. Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) was applied to optimise quantification of the released TCA with deuterium-labelled TCA (TCA-d 5 ) using a time-saving GC-MS technique in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The developed MAE method allows the measuring of releasable TCA from the whole cork stopper under improved conditions and in connection with a low use of solvent and a higher sample throughput.

  20. Purifying, cloning and characterizing a novel dehalogenase from Bacillus sp. GZT to enhance the biodegradation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhishu; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng

    2017-06-01

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP), an intermediate of brominated flame retardants, can easily release to environment and recalcitrant to degradation. Previously, Bacillus sp. GZT, a pure aerobic strain capable of simultaneously debrominating and mineralizing TBP, was successfully isolated by us. To further obtain a practical application and dig up its TBP degradation mechanism, a total of 46.7-fold purification of a novel dehalogenase with a final specific activity of 18.9 U mg -1 and a molecular mass of 63.4 kDa was achieved. Under optimal conditions (35 °C and 200 rpm), up to 80% degradation efficiencies were achieved within 120 min. Adding H 2 O 2 , NADPH, Mn 2+ and Mg 2+ promoted enzyme reaction effectively; while EDTA, methyl viologen, Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ca 2+ and Fe 2+ strongly inhibited reaction activities. The debromination of TBP was catalyzed by the enzyme at a Km of 78 μM and a Vmax of 0.65 min -1  mg protein -1 , which indicated that this dehalogenase could specifically eliminate TBP with a high efficiency and stability. Based on MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis, the dehalogenase shared 98% identity with peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein. One open reading frame (ORF) encoding this peptide was found in Strain GZT genome, subjected to clone and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) to characterize the encoding gene. Result showed that this recombinant strain could also remove as similar amount of TBP as Bacillus sp. GZT under the identical condition. Based on these results, we suggest that this newly-isolated TBP dehalogenase highlights a new approach for remediating TBP pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computational investigation and hydrogen/deuterium exchange of the fixed charge derivative tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium: implications for the aspartic acid cleavage mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Kristin A; Wysocki, Vicki H; Vorpagel, Erich R

    2005-07-01

    Aspartic acid (Asp)-containing peptides with the fixed charge derivative tris(2,4,6trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium (tTMP-P+) were explored computationally and experimentally by hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange and by fragmentation studies to probe the phenomenon of selective cleavage C-terminal to Asp in the absence of a "mobile" proton. Ab initio modeling of the tTMP-P+ electrostatic potential shows that the positive charge is distributed on the phosphonium group and therefore is not initiating or directing fragmentation as would a "mobile" proton. Geometry optimizations and vibrational analyses of different Asp conformations show that the Asp structure with a hydrogen bond between the side-chain hydroxy and backbone carbonyl lies 2.8 kcal/mol above the lowest energy conformer. In reactions with D2O, the phosphonium-derived doubly charged peptide (H+)P+LDIFSDF rapidly exchanges all 12 of its exchangeable hydrogens for deuterium and also displays a nonexchanging population. With no added proton, P+LDIFSDF exchanges a maximum of 4 of 11 exchangeable hydrogens for deuterium. No exchange is observed when all acidic groups are converted to the corresponding methyl esters. Together, these H/D exchange results indicate that the acidic hydrogens are "mobile locally" because they are able to participate in exchange even in the absence of an added proton. Fragmentation of two distinct (H+)P+LDIFSDF ion populations shows that the nonexchanging population displays selective cleavage, whereas the exchanging population fragments more evenly across the peptide backbone. This result indicates that H/D exchange can sometimes distinguish between and provide a means of separation of different protonation motifs and that these protonation motifs can have an effect on the fragmentation.

  2. Highly sensitive determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and related byproducts using a diol functionalized column for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Gumuscu

    Full Text Available In this work, a new detection method for complete separation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT; 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT; 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT; 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (4-ADNT molecules in high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC with UV sensor has been developed using diol column. This approach improves on cost, time, and sensitivity over the existing methods, providing a simple and effective alternative. Total analysis time was less than 13 minutes including column re-equilibration between runs, in which water and acetonitrile were used as gradient elution solvents. Under optimized conditions, the minimum resolution between 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT peaks was 2.06. The recovery rates for spiked environmental samples were between 95-98%. The detection limits for diol column ranged from 0.78 to 1.17 µg/L for TNT and its byproducts. While the solvent consumption was 26.4 mL/min for two-phase EPA and 30 mL/min for EPA 8330 methods, it was only 8.8 mL/min for diol column. The resolution was improved up to 49% respect to two-phase EPA and EPA 8330 methods. When compared to C-18 and phenyl-3 columns, solvent usage was reduced up to 64% using diol column and resolution was enhanced approximately two-fold. The sensitivity of diol column was afforded by the hydroxyl groups on polyol layer, joining the formation of charge-transfer complexes with nitroaromatic compounds according to acceptor-donor interactions. Having compliance with current requirements, the proposed method demonstrates sensitive and robust separation.

  3. Development of a microwave assisted extraction method for the analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork stoppers by SIDA-SBSE-GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestner, Jochen [Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim, Fachgebiet Mikrobiologie und Biochemie, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany); Hochschule RheinMain, Fachbereich Geisenheim, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany); Fritsch, Stefanie [Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim, Fachgebiet Mikrobiologie und Biochemie, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany); Rauhut, Doris, E-mail: doris.rauhut@fa-gm.de [Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim, Fachgebiet Mikrobiologie und Biochemie, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this research work was focused on the replacement of the time-consuming soaking of cork stoppers which is mainly used as screening method for cork lots in connection with sensory analysis and/or analytical methods to detect releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) of natural cork stoppers. Releasable TCA from whole cork stoppers was analysed with the application of a microwave assisted extraction method (MAE) in combination with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The soaking of corks (SOAK) was used as a reference method to optimise MAE parameters. Cork lots of different quality and TCA contamination levels were used to adapt MAE. Pre-tests indicated that an MAE at 40 deg. C for 120 min with 90 min of cooling time are suitable conditions to avoid an over-extraction of TCA of low and medium tainted cork stoppers in comparison to SOAK. These MAE parameters allow the measuring of almost the same amounts of releasable TCA as with the application of the soaking procedure in the relevant range (<25 ng L{sup -1} releasable TCA from one cork) to evaluate the TCA level of cork stoppers. Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) was applied to optimise quantification of the released TCA with deuterium-labelled TCA (TCA-d{sub 5}) using a time-saving GC-MS technique in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The developed MAE method allows the measuring of releasable TCA from the whole cork stopper under improved conditions and in connection with a low use of solvent and a higher sample throughput.

  4. Effects of sinomenine on the expression of microRNA-155 in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yu

    Full Text Available Sinomenine, a pure alkaloid isolated in Chinese medicine from the root of Sinomenium acutum, has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are gradually being recognized as critical mediators of disease pathogenesis via coordinated regulation of molecular effector pathways.After colitis was induced in mice by instillation of 5% (w/v 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS, sinomenine at a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg was orally administered once daily for 7 days. We evaluated body weight, survival rate, diarrhea score, histological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity. The mRNA and protein expression levels of miR-155, c-Maf, TNF-α and IFN-γ were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Sinomenine (100 or 200 mg/kg-treated mice with TNBS-induced colitis were significantly improved in terms of body weight, survival rate, diarrhea score, histological score and MPO activity compared with untreated mice. Both dosages of sinomenine significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of c-Maf, TNF-α and IFN-γ, which elevated in TNBS-induced colitis. Furthermore, sinomenine at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly decreased the level of miR-155 expression by 71% (p = 0.025 compared with untreated TNBS-induced colitis in mice.Our study evaluated the effects and potential mechanisms of sinomenine in the anti-inflammatory response via miRNA-155 in mice with TNBS-induced colitis. Our findings suggest that sinomenine has anti-inflammatory effects on TNBS-induced colitis by down-regulating the levels of miR-155 and several related inflammatory cytokines.

  5. Development of a chemiluminescence-based quantitative lateral flow immunoassay for on-field detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirasoli, Mara; Buragina, Angela; Dolci, Luisa Stella; Guardigli, Massimo; Simoni, Patrizia; Montoya, Angel; Maiolini, Elisabetta; Girotti, Stefano; Roda, Aldo

    2012-04-06

    Simple, rapid and highly sensitive assays, possibly allowing on-site analysis, are required in the security and forensic fields or to obtain early signs of environmental pollution. Several bioanalytical methods and biosensors based on portable devices have been developed for this purpose. Among them, Lateral Flow ImmunoAssays (LFIAs) offer the advantages of rapidity and ease of use and, thanks to the high specificity of antigen-antibody binding, allow greatly simplifying and reducing sample pre-analytical treatments. However, LFIAs usually employ colloidal gold or latex beads as labels and they rely on the formation of colored bands visible by the naked eye. With this assay format, only qualitative or semi-quantitative information can be obtained and low sensitivity is achieved. Recently, the use of enzyme-catalyzed chemiluminescence detection in LFIA has been proposed to overcome these problems. In this work, we describe the development of a quantitative CL-LFIA assay for the detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in real samples. Thanks to the use of a portable imaging device for CL signal measurement based on a thermoelectrically cooled CCD camera, the analysis could be performed directly on-field. A limit of detection of 0.2 μg mL(-1) TNT was obtained, which is five times lower than that obtained with a previously described colloidal gold-based LFIA developed employing the same immunoreagents. The dynamic range of the assay extended up to 5 μg mL(-1) TNT and recoveries ranging from 97% to 111% were obtained in the analysis of real samples (post blast residues obtained from controlled explosion). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Introduction (PSW-GTR-246)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Halperin; David. Ganz

    2013-01-01

    Globally, approximately two-thirds of the world's forests are considered degraded, but practical, cost-effective tools for monitoring forest quality remain elusive. Techniques for monitoring deforestation and changes to forest carbon stocks are widespread and well published. However, techniques for monitoring forest degradation are relatively untested in...

  7. Kinetic studies of the BrO + ClO cross-reaction over the range T = 246-314 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracci, Valerio; Rowley, David M

    2014-01-21

    The kinetics of the atmospherically important gas phase radical reaction between BrO and ClO have been studied over the temperature range T = 246-314 K by means of laser flash photolysis coupled with UV absorption spectroscopy. Charge-coupled-device (CCD) detection allowed simultaneous monitoring of both free radicals and the OClO product using 'differential' spectroscopy, which minimised interference from underlying UV absorbing species. In this way, the total rate coefficient for BrO + ClO → products (1) was measured, along with that for the OClO producing channel of this process BrO + ClO → OClO + Br (1c). These reaction rate coefficients are described by the Arrhenius expressions: k1/cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) = (2.5 ± 2.2) × 10(-12) exp[(630 ± 240)/T] and k(1c)/cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) = (4.6 ± 3.0) × 10(-12) exp[(280 ± 180)/T], where errors are 2σ, statistical only. An extensive sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the potential additional systematic uncertainties in this work arising from uncertainties in secondary chemistry, absorption cross-sections and precursor concentrations. This analysis identified the reactions of initial and secondarily generated bromine atoms (specifically Br + O3 and Br + Cl2O) as particularly important, along with the reversible combination of ClO with OClO forming Cl2O3. Potential uncertainty in this latter process was used to define the lowest temperature of the present study. Results from this work indicate larger absolute values for k1 and k(1c) than those reported in previous studies, but a weaker negative temperature dependence for k(1c) than previously observed, resulting in a branching ratio for with a positive temperature dependence, in disagreement with previous studies. is the principal source of OClO in the polar stratosphere and is commonly used in atmospheric models as an indicator of stratospheric bromine chemistry. Thus these measurements might lead to a reinterpretation of modelled

  8. Association between Exposure to Benzodiazepines and Related Drugs and Survivorship of Total Hip Replacement in Arthritis: A Population-Based Cohort Study of 246,940 Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Beziz

    Full Text Available Total hip replacement (THR is successful in treating hip arthritis. Prosthetic survivorship may depend on the medications taken by the patient; particularly, the role of benzodiazepines and related drugs (Z-drugs with THR revision has been poorly investigated. Our objective was to compare THR short-term survivorship according to level of exposure to benzodiazepine and Z-drugs.All French patients aged 40 years or older, having undergone primary THR from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012, for arthritis according to French national health insurance databases were included in the cohort. Outcome of interest was THR revision, including any surgical procedure in which the implant or any component was changed or removed. Follow-up started the day the primary THR was performed. Observations were right-censored on December 31, 2014, if neither revision nor death had yet occurred. Exposure of interest was the cumulative defined daily doses per day (cDDD/day of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs dispensed within 6 months before or after inclusion. We defined four exposure groups; cDDD/d = 0: unexposed; 0.38: high exposure. THR survivorship was assessed according to level of exposure to benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in univariate and multivariate Cox models adjusted for patient, THR and implanting center characteristics.The study cohort comprised 246,940 individuals: mean age at baseline, 69.9 years; women, 57.9%; unexposed: 51.7%; low exposure: 16.7%; medium exposure: 15.9%; and high exposure: 15.7%. During the median 45-month follow-up, 9043 individuals underwent prosthetic revision. Adjusted hazard ratios in low, medium and high exposed groups were 1.18 (95%CI, 1.12-1.26; P<0.001, 1.32 (95%CI, 1.24-1.40; P<0.001 and 1.37 (95%CI, 1.29-1.45; P<0.001, respectively, compared to unexposed.Exposure to benzodiazepines and Z-drugs is associated with an increased risk of THR revision, with a dose-response relationship. Cautious prescribing might be needed as well

  9. The novel isotopically coded short-range photo-reactive crosslinker 2,4,6-triazido-1,3,5-triazine (TATA) for studying protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Nicholas I; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Borchers, Christoph H

    2016-10-21

    Short-distance molecular-modeling constraints are advantageous for elucidating the structures of individual proteins and protein conformational changes. Commonly used amine-reactive crosslinks are relatively long (14Å), partly due to the length of the lysine side-chain, and are sparsely distributed throughout a protein. Short-distance non-specific crosslinkers can provide a larger number of tighter molecular-modeling constraints. Here we describe the use of a short-range homo-trifunctional isotopically-coded non-specific photo-reactive crosslinking reagent, 2,4,6-triazido-1,3,5-triazine (TATA)- 12 C 3 / 13 C 3 , for MS-based protein crosslinking studies. Upon activation by 254nm UV light, TATA- 12 C 3 / 13 C 3 generates up to three nitrene radicals capable of non-selective crosslinking at ~5Å. This reagent was validated using cyclohexane, several test peptides, and myoglobin, and was found to react with a large number of amino acids, forming multiple crosslinked products. The myoglobin crosslinks detected by MS agreed with the known structure of myoglobin; arranging the protein's secondary-structure motifs into their correct fold was possible based solely on the constraints imposed by the crosslinks. Finally, TATA was used to crosslink the α-synuclein monomer. The 10 short-distance constraints provided by TATA crosslinking led to an initial model of the molten-globule form of the native α-synuclein monomer; this provides a suggested structure for the precursor of the misfolded α-synuclein proteoforms involved in synucleopathies. The isotopically labeled short-range non-specific crosslinker TATA- 12 C 3 / 13 C 3 was characterized for use in crosslinking-based protein structural studies. The crosslinking products of TATA can provide a distance constraint of merely 5Ǻ between crosslinked residues. TATA- 12 C 3 / 13 C 3 had broad reactivity, crosslinking a wide variety of amino acids, including lysine, glutamic and aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamine, glycine

  10. (E-N-[2-(9-Fluorenylidene-3a,5,7-trimethyl-3,3a-dihydro-2H-indol-3-ylidene]-2,4,6-trimethylaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Tokitoh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C33H30N2, has an E configuration at the imine double bond. The angle between the least-squares planes of the imine C=N—C group and the benzene ring of the 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl substituent is 85.38 (11°. The crystal structure is sustained mainly by intermolecular π–π interactions (3.510 Å between the two fluorene rings and some C—H...π interactions.

  11. Synthesis and the crystal and molecular structures of (H3L . Cl)[CoCl4] and H2L[CuBr4] (L is 2,4,6-Tri(N,N-dimethylamino)methylphenol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchukova, O. V.; Stash, A. I.; Strashnova, S. B.; Romashkina, E. P.; Zaitsev, B. E.

    2010-01-01

    The complex compounds (H 3 L . Cl)[CoCl 4 ] (I) and H 2 L[CuBr 4 ] (II), where L is 2,4,6-tri(N,N-dimethylamino)methylphenol, were isolated in the crystalline state and studied by X-ray diffraction. The organic cations were found to be outer-sphere ligands. All three nitrogen atoms of the tertiary amino groups are protonated. In compound I, the H 3 L 3+ cation exists as the cis tautomer. In compound II, the H 2 L 2+ dication exists as the trans isomer. In the crystal structure, the dications are arranged in layers via hydrogen bonds.

  12. Beyaz Çürükçül Mantar Trametes versicolor’dan Elde Edilen Lakkaz Enzimi İle 2,4,6-Triklorofenol’ün Enzimatik Deklorinasyonunun Kinetik Modellemesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Ünal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada beyaz çürükçül mantar suşu Trametes versicolor’dan elde edilen lakkaz enzimi ile toksik klorlu fenolik bir bileşik olan 2,4,6-triklorofenol’ün deklorinasyonuna bağlı detoksifikasyonunun kinetik modellemesi araştırıldı. Substrat olarak kullanılan 2,4,6-triklorofenol’ün deklorinasyonuna bağlı detoksifikasyon kinetiğinin değerlendirilmesinde bir istatistik programı olan Systat 10 paket programı, deklorinasyonun kinetik davranışlarının açıklanması için iki substratlı çözüm ortamı olarak kullanıldı. Deneyler ve istatistiksel analizler sonucunda, Moser eşitliğinin en uygun kinetik model olduğu gözlendi. Elde edilen istatistiksel verilerden ve grafikten, çift-substratlı modelin deney verileri ile iyi bir uyum içinde olduğu görüldü. Enzimatik deklorinasyon kinetiğini tanımlayan model için elde edilen biyokinetik parametre değerleri Vmax =9,341 ppmO2/dk, Ks =38,254 g/L, Ko =20,747 ppm, R = 1,895 ve N = 1,233 olarak hesaplandı. Literatürde 2,4,6-trikolorofenol’ün degradasyonuna ilişkin herhangi bir kinetik modelleme çalışmasına rastlanmamış olup, bu araştırma ile ilk kez tarafımızdan 2,4,6-trikolorofenol’ün enzimatik deklorinasyonuna bağlı degradasyonunun kinetik modellemesi gerçekleştirildi. GC/MS Analiz sonuçları, lakkaz enzimi ile gerçekleştirilen enzimatik deklorinasyon boyunca kullanılan klorofenolik bileşiğin, %80-%100 oranında parçalandığını gösterdi. GC/MS analiz sonuçlarına bağlı olarak deklorinasyondan sorumlu olan enzimin lakkaz olduğu sonucunun literatür bulgularını da desteklediği görüldü.

  13. Immunization with the SDPM1 peptide lowers amyloid plaque burden and improves cognitive function in the APPswePSEN1(A246E) transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiou-Miin; Devries, Sarah; Camboni, Marybeth; Glass, Matthew; Martin, Paul T

    2010-09-01

    Vaccination has become an important therapeutic approach to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, immunization with Abeta amyloid can have unwanted, potentially lethal, side effects. Here we demonstrate an alternative peptide-mimotope vaccine strategy using the SDPM1 peptide. SDPM1 is a 20 amino acid peptide bounded by cysteines that binds tetramer forms of Abeta(1-40)- and Abeta(1-42)-amyloids and blocks subsequent Abeta amyloid aggregation. Immunization of mice with SDPM1 induced peptide-mimotope antibodies with the same biological activity as the SDPM1 peptide. When done prior to the onset of amyloid plaque formation, SDPM1 vaccination of APPswePSEN1(A246E) transgenic mice reduced amyloid plaque burden and Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42) levels in the brain, improved cognitive performance in Morris water maze tests, and resulted in no increased T cell responses to immunogenic or Abeta peptides or brain inflammation. When done after plaque burden was already significant, SDPM1 immunization still significantly reduced amyloid plaque burden and Abeta(1-40/1-42) peptide levels in APPswePSEN1(A246E) brain without inducing encephalitogenic T cell responses or brain inflammation, but treatment at this stage did not improve cognitive function. These experiments demonstrate the efficacy of a novel vaccine approach for Alzheimer's disease where immunization with an Abeta(1-40/1-42) amyloid-specific binding and blocking peptide is used to inhibit the development of neuropathology and cognitive dysfunction.

  14. Diacetato-κO;κ2O,O′-aqua(2,4,6-tri-2-pyridyl-1,3,5-triazine-κ3N2,N1,N6manganese(II monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Ha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The MnII ion in the title compound, [Mn(CH3CO22(C18H12N6(H2O]·H2O, is seven-coordinated in an approximately pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry by three N atoms of the tridentate 2,4,6-tri-2-pyridyl-1,3,5-triazine ligand and four O atoms from two distinct anionic acetato ligands and a water molecule. One acetate anion chelates the Mn atom via two O atoms occupying equatorial positions, and the other anion coordinates the Mn atom as a monodentate ligand via one O atom. The complex and solvent water molecules are linked by inter- and intramolecular O—H...O, O—H...N and C—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.

  15. Group separation of transplutonium and rare earth elements by liquid chromatography with free stationary phase using 2,4,6-tris[ditolylphosphoryl] - 1,3,5 - triazine as extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmutova, M.K.; Ivanova, L.A.; Bodrin, G.B.; Polikarpov, Yu.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Methods of group separation of trace amounts of transplutonium elements (TPE) and weight amounts of rare earth elements (REE) in the systems on the basis of bifunctional neutral organophosphoric compounds by the method of liquid chromatography with a free stationary phase have been developed. When solution of 2,4,6 - tris[ditolylphosphoryl] - 1,3,5 - triazine in chloroform was used as stationary phase, REE were the first to be washed out by 0.5 mol/l NH 4 SCN-1 mol/l HCl solution, then TPE - by 0.025 mol/l of oxyethylidenediphosphonic acid in water. the fractions contained about 100% of one of the groups without impurity of the other. 7 refs.; 6 figs

  16. Bis[1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene]dinitrosyl(tetrahydroborato-κ2H,H′tungsten(0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Berke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title paramagnetic 19-electron neutral complex, [W(BH4(C21H24N22(NO2], the W(0 atom is coordinated by two 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene (IMes carbene ligands, two NO groups and two H atoms of an η2-tetrahydroborate ligand. Depending on the number of coordination sites (n assigned to the BH4− ligand, the coordination geometry of the W atom may either be described as approximately trigonal–bipyramidal (n = 1 or as very distorted octahedral with the bridging H atoms filling two coordination positions (n = 2. In the latter case, the coplanar NO groups and bridging H atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.032 Å form one octahedral plane, with mutually trans-oriented carbene ligands. In the crystal, molecules are connected via C—H...O interactions.

  17. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed regioselective C2-amidation of indoles with N-(2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyloxy)amides and its synthetic application to the development of a novel potential PPARγ modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Zhao, Guanguan; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, H Eric; Yi, Wei

    2014-09-21

    A new and efficient method for the direct regioselective C2-amidation of various functionalized indoles with several N-(2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyloxy)amides via Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation/N-O cleavage/C-N formation using the pyrimidyl group as a readily installable and removable directing group has been developed. With this method, a variety of valuable 2-amido indoles can be easily prepared under mild conditions with broad functional group tolerance and excellent region-/site-specificities. Application of this strategy to the synthesis of target compound as a novel PPARγ modulator was also demonstrated. The results from biological evaluation showed that compound had a partial PPARγ agonistic activity and a strong PPARγ binding affinity with an IC50 value of 120.0 nM, along with a less pronounced adipocyte differentiation ability compared to the currently marketed anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone, suggesting that further development of such a compound might be of great interest.

  18. Physico-chemical characterization, density functional theory (DFT) studies and Hirshfeld surface analysis of a new organic optical material: 1H-benzo[d]imidazol-3-ium-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-1,3 bis(olate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodharan, P.; Sathya, K.; Dhandapani, M.

    2017-10-01

    A novel organic crystal, 1H-benzo[d]imidazol-3-ium-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-1,3 bis(olate) (BITB), was synthesized. Single crystals of BITB were harvested by solution growth-slow evaporation technique. 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques were utilized to confirm the presence of various types of carbons and protons in BITB. Single crystal XRD confirms that BITB crystallizes in monoclinic system with a space group of P21/n. The suitability of this material for optical applications was assessed by optical absorption, transmittance, reflectance and refractive index spectroscopic techniques. Gaussian 09 program at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of basis set as used for the optimization of molecular structure of BITB. Greater first order hyperpolarizability value of BITB is due to intensive hydrogen bond network in the crystal. The value is 15 times greater than that of Urea, a reference standard. Computation of frontier molecular orbitals and electrostatic potential surface helped to understand the electron density and reactive sites in BITB. The material was thermally stable up to 220 °C. Hirshfeld surface analysis was performed to quantify the covalent and non covalent interactions.

  19. Field-Induced Single-Ion Magnet Behaviour in Two New Cobalt(II Coordination Polymers with 2,4,6-Tris(4-pyridyl-1,3,5-triazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Shao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We herein reported the syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of a two-dimensional coordination polymer {[CoII(TPT2/3(H2O4][CH3COO]2·(H2O4}n (1 and a chain compound {[CoII(TPT2(CHOO2(H2O2]}n (2 based on the 2,4,6-Tris(4-pyridyl-1,3,5-triazine (TPT ligand. Structure analyses showed that complex 1 had a cationic hexagonal framework structure, while 2 was a neutral zig-zag chain structure with different distorted octahedral coordination environments. Magnetic measurements revealed that both complexes exhibit large easy-plane magnetic anisotropy with the zero-field splitting parameter D = 47.7 and 62.1 cm−1 for 1 and 2, respectively. This magnetic anisotropy leads to the field-induced slow magnetic relaxation behaviour. However, their magnetic dynamics are quite different; while complex 1 experienced a dominating thermally activated Orbach relaxation at the whole measured temperature region, 2 exhibited multiple relaxation pathways involving direct, Raman, and quantum tunneling (QTM processes at low temperatures and Orbach relaxation at high temperatures. The present complexes enlarge the family of framework-based single-ion magnets (SIMs and highlight the significance of the structural dimensionality to the final magnetic properties.

  20. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  1. Constitutive ω-3 fatty acid production in fat-1 transgenic mice and docosahexaenoic acid administration to wild type mice protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Hye-Won; Kang, Jing X; Hahm, Ki Baik; Surh, Young-Joon

    2017-06-10

    Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to have strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs on experimentally induced murine colitis. Intrarectal administration of 2.5% 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) caused inflammation in the colon of wild type mice, but this was less severe in fat-1 transgenic mice that constitutively produce ω-3 PUFAs from ω-6 PUFAs. The intraperitoneal administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a representative ω-3 PUFA, was also protective against TNBS-induced murine colitis. In addition, endogenously formed and exogenously introduced ω-3 PUFAs attenuated the production of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in the colon of TNBS-treated mice. The effective protection against inflammatory and oxidative colonic tissue damages in fat-1 and DHA-treated mice was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and with elevated activation of Nrf2 and upregulation of its target gene, heme oxygenase-1. Taken together, these results provide mechanistic basis of protective action of ω-3 fatty PUFAs against experimental colitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Hydroxonium hydrate tris(2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium bis[bis(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatocuprate(II] pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Hooshmand

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of copper(II nitrate hexahydrate with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (pydcH2 and 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine (melamine in aqueous solution in a 1:2:2 molar ratio gave the title compound, (H5O2(C3H7N63[Cu(C7H3NO42]2·C7H5NO4·6H2O. The hydroxonium hydrate (H5O2+, also known as the Zundel cation, resides on a twofold rotation axis. The O—H distance is 1.274 (14 Å, the O...O distance is 2.518 (5 Å, and the O—H—O angle is 162 (8°. One of the melamine H+ cations, the uncoordinated pydcH2, and two water molecules also reside on crystallographic twofold axes. The CuII atom has a tetragonally distorted octahedral coordination environment. The structure features extensive hydrogen bonding, with 21 distinct interactions. There is also a centrosymmetric C=O...π interaction with an O...centroid distance of 3.288 (3 Å. The structure is similar to a mixed-valence manganese(II/III structure but shows interesting differences in the metal-atom coordination. One of the water molecules is equally disordered with respect to a twofold axis.

  3. Solvent-Induced Change of Electronic Spectra and Magnetic Susceptibility of Co(II) Coordination Polymer with 2,4,6-Tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polunin, Ruslan A; Burkovskaya, Nataliya P; Satska, Juliya A; Kolotilov, Sergey V; Kiskin, Mikhail A; Aleksandrov, Grigory G; Cador, Olivier; Ouahab, Lahcène; Eremenko, Igor L; Pavlishchuk, Vitaly V

    2015-06-01

    One-dimensional coordination polymer [Co(Piv)2(4-ptz)(C2H5OH)2]n (compound 1, Piv(-) = pivalate, 4-ptz = 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine) was synthesized by interaction of Co(II) pivalate with 4-ptz. Desolvation of 1 led to formation of [Co(Piv)2(4-ptz)]n (compound 2), which adsorbed N2 and H2 at 78 K as a typical microporous sorbent. In contrast, absorption of methanol and ethanol by 2 at 295 K led to structural transformation probably connected with coordination of these alcohols to Co(II). Formation of 2 from 1 was accompanied by change of color of sample from orange to brown and more than 2-fold decrease of molar magnetic susceptibility (χM) in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K. Resolvation of 2 by ethanol or water resulted in restoration of spectral characteristics and χM values almost to the level of that of 1. χMT versus T curves for 1 and samples, obtained by resolvation of 2 by H2O or C2H5OH, were fitted using a model for Co(II) complex with zero-field splitting of this ion.

  4. Studies on synthesis, structural, luminescent and thermal properties of a new non-linear optical crystal: 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium-3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhamodharan, P.; Sathya, K.; Dhandapani, M., E-mail: chemistrydhandapani@gmail.com

    2017-03-01

    A new organic proton transfer complex having NLO activity, 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium-3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate (ATHTP), was crystallized to investigate the factors which stabilize the structure of the crystal. The compound crystallizes in triclinic system with space group P-1. Elemental analysis, thermal analysis, UV–Vis–NIR, FT-IR and NMR spectral analyses were carried out to characterize the crystal. Optical, spectral and thermal properties of the title crystal were analyzed to recommend the material for optical applications. Z-scan was used to measure the effective third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index. The crystal structure was determined using single crystal XRD method and the structure was optimized using Gaussian 09 program at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of basis set. This hydrogen bond interactions led to the increase in first-order hyperpolarizability of ATHTP and was 30 times greater than that of urea. Hirshfeld analyses surface analysis was carried out to explore intermolecular interactions in the crystalline state. - Highlights: • Single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. • N-H…O, O-H…O and C-H…O type of interactions lead to stable network. • The thermal stability of the compound was investigated by TG/DTA analyses. • The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility is found to be 2.1×10{sup −7} esu. • Hirshfeld analyses explore covalent and non covalent interactions.

  5. Species-specific differences in peroxisome proliferation, catalase, and SOD2 upregulation as well as toxicity in human, mouse, and rat hepatoma cells induced by the explosive and environmental pollutant 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Ekaterina Anatolevna; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2017-03-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used as an explosive substance and its toxicity is still of interest as it persisted in polluted areas. TNT is metabolized in hepatocytes which are prone to its toxicity. Since analysis of the human liver or hepatocytes is restricted due to ethical reasons, we investigated the effects of TNT on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, peroxisome proliferation, and antioxidative enzymes in human (HepG2), mouse (Hepa 1-6), and rat (H4IIEC3) hepatoma cell lines. Under control conditions, hepatoma cells of all three species were highly comparable exhibiting identical proliferation rates and distribution of their cell cycle phases. However, we found strong differences in TNT toxicity with the lowest IC 50 values (highest cell death rate) for rat cells, whereas human and mouse cells were three to sevenfold less sensitive. Moreover, a strong decrease in cellular dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay) and increased ROS levels were noted. TNT caused peroxisome proliferation with rat hepatoma cells being most responsive followed by those from mouse and human. Under control conditions, rat cells contained fivefold higher peroxisomal catalase and mitochondrial SOD2 activities and a twofold higher capacity to reduce MTT than human and mouse cells. TNT treatment caused an increase in catalase and SOD2 mRNA and protein levels in human and mouse, but not in rat cells. Similarly, human and mouse cells upregulated SOD2 activity, whereas rat cells failed therein. We conclude that TNT induced oxidative stress, peroxisome proliferation and mitochondrial damage which are highest in rat cells rendering them most susceptible toward TNT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 989-1006, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Characteristics of energy exchange between inter- and intramolecular degrees of freedom in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) with implications for coarse-grained simulations of shock waves in polyatomic molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Sewell, Thomas D.; Maillet, Jean-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we characterize the kinetics and dynamics of energy exchange between intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom (DoF) in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to obtain predictions for relaxation from certain limiting initial distributions of energy between the intra- and intermolecular DoF. The results are used to parameterize a coarse-grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics at constant Energy (DPDE) model for TATB. Each TATB molecule in the DPDE model is represented as an all-atom, rigid-molecule mesoparticle, with explicit external (molecular translational and rotational) DoF and coarse-grained implicit internal (vibrational) DoF. In addition to conserving linear and angular momentum, the DPDE equations of motion conserve the total system energy provided that particles can exchange energy between their external and internal DoF. The internal temperature of a TATB molecule is calculated using an internal equation of state, which we develop here, and the temperatures of the external and internal DoF are coupled using a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The DPDE force expression requires specification of the input parameter σ that determines the rate at which energy is exchanged between external and internal DoF. We adjusted σ based on the predictions for relaxation processes obtained from MD simulations. The parameterized DPDE model was employed in large-scale simulations of shock compression of TATB. We show that the rate of energy exchange governed by σ can significantly influence the transient behavior of the system behind the shock

  7. Characteristics of energy exchange between inter- and intramolecular degrees of freedom in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) with implications for coarse-grained simulations of shock waves in polyatomic molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Sewell, Thomas D.; Maillet, Jean-Bernard

    2016-02-01

    In this report, we characterize the kinetics and dynamics of energy exchange between intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom (DoF) in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to obtain predictions for relaxation from certain limiting initial distributions of energy between the intra- and intermolecular DoF. The results are used to parameterize a coarse-grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics at constant Energy (DPDE) model for TATB. Each TATB molecule in the DPDE model is represented as an all-atom, rigid-molecule mesoparticle, with explicit external (molecular translational and rotational) DoF and coarse-grained implicit internal (vibrational) DoF. In addition to conserving linear and angular momentum, the DPDE equations of motion conserve the total system energy provided that particles can exchange energy between their external and internal DoF. The internal temperature of a TATB molecule is calculated using an internal equation of state, which we develop here, and the temperatures of the external and internal DoF are coupled using a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The DPDE force expression requires specification of the input parameter σ that determines the rate at which energy is exchanged between external and internal DoF. We adjusted σ based on the predictions for relaxation processes obtained from MD simulations. The parameterized DPDE model was employed in large-scale simulations of shock compression of TATB. We show that the rate of energy exchange governed by σ can significantly influence the transient behavior of the system behind the shock.

  8. Rapid determination of silver in cultivated Japanese and South Korean oysters and Japanese rock oysters using the 24.6-s neutron activation product 110Ag and estimation of its average daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Chatt, A.

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissues of cultivated Japanese (Miyagi Prefecture) and South Korean (Koje-do and Kosong) oysters and Japanese rock oysters (Honshu Island) were analyzed to measure silver levels. The soft tissues, namely hepatopancreas, gill, muscle, and mantle were separated, freeze-dried, pulverized, and analyzed by an instrumental neutron activation analysis method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (INAA-CSS). The method consisted of the irradiation of samples in a neutron flux of 5 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 using the rapid transfer system in an inner pneumatic irradiation site of the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor (DUSR) facility for 12-15 s, decay for 20 s, and counting for 60 s. The 657.8-keV gamma-ray of the 24.6-s nuclide 110 Ag was used for assaying silver. The method was validated using NIST, NRC and NIES certified reference materials. An absolute detection limit of 0.05 μg silver using NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue was achieved. About 10-50 times higher levels of silver were found in cultivated Japanese oysters compared to the South Korean ones. The silver concentrations in cultivated oysters in Miyagi Prefecture showed the following trend: gill > mantle > hepatopancreas > muscle as well as on the age. Rock oysters generally had higher silver content compared to cultivated oysters. A very preliminary value of about 0.466 μg silver average intake per person per day was estimated from the consumption of oysters by the people living in the Sendai city of Miyagi Prefecture. (author)

  9. A study comparing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents versus enzyme (P-gp) inducers in the treatment of 2,4,6 trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toklu, H Z; Kabasakal, L; Imeryuz, N; Kan, B; Celikel, C; Cetinel, S; Orun, O; Yuksel, M; Dulger, G A

    2013-08-01

    The intestinal microflora is an important cofactor in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation; and the epithelial cell barrier function is critical in providing protection against the stimulation of mucosal immune system by the microflora. In the present study, therapeutic role of the antibacterial drugs rifampicin and ciprofloxacine were investigated in comparison to spironolactone, an enzyme inducer, in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis of the rats. Drugs were administered for 14 days following induction of colitis. All drug treatments ameliorated the clinical hallmarks of colitis as determined by body weight loss and assessment of diarrhea, colon length, and histology. Oxidative damage and neutrophil infiltration as well as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expressions that were increased during colitis, were decreased significantly. Rifampicin and ciprofloxacin were probably effective due to their antibacterial and immunomodulating properties. The multidrug resistence gene (MDR1) and its product p-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, findings of the P-gp expression were inconclusive but regarding previous studies, it can be suggested that the beneficial effects of rifampicin and spironolactone may be partly due to their action as a P-gp ligand. Spironolactone has been reported to supress the transcription of proinflamatory cytokines that are considered to be of importance in immunoinflammatory diseases. It is also a powerful pregnane X receptor (PXR) inducer; thus, inhibition of the expression of NF-κB and TNF-α, and amelioration of inflammation by spironolactone suggest that this may have been through the activation of PXR. However, our findings regarding PXR expression were inconclusive. Activation of PXR by spironolactone probably also contributed to the induction of P-gp, resulting in extrusion of noxious substances

  10. 7 CFR 246.4 - State plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Participants will include homeless individuals. (iii) Instructions concerning all food delivery operations... under the Program. (14) A description of the food delivery system as it operates at the State agency level, including— (i) Type of system. All food delivery systems in use within the State agency's...

  11. 7 CFR 246.14 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... delivery contractor, or supplier in a direct distribution food delivery system. In addition, food costs may... delivery system, including the cost of transporting food. (5) The cost of translators for materials and... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  12. 40 CFR 246.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... packing wastes generated at industrial facilities. (h) Construction and demolition waste means the waste building materials, packaging, and rubble resulting from construction, remodeling, repair, and demolition... facilities for the purpose of these guidelines. (m) Food waste means the organic residues generated by the...

  13. Publications | Page 246 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC works with developing-country researchers and institutions to build local capacity through funding, knowledge sharing, and training. Through books, articles, research publications, and studies, we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. We share the results of our funded ...

  14. 7 CFR 246.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part 3017); governing restrictions on lobbying (7 CFR part 3018); and governing the drug-free workplace... Nutritionist; and (vi) Have at least one of the following: Program development skills, education background and..., counseling skills or experience in participant advocacy. (4) A designated breastfeeding promotion coordinator...

  15. 7 CFR 246.26 - Other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... taxation, welfare and public assistance programs. (b) Statistical information. FNS reserves the right to... by Federal, State, or local law or policy or unless the information supports a State or local agency... State agency to participate in the program for each of Federal fiscal years 2006 through 2009, including...

  16. 40 CFR 246.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining, agricultural, and industrial solid wastes; hazardous wastes; sludges; construction and demolition... separation. Pursuant to section 211 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, and Executive Order 11752... technical assistance in the form of sample cost analysis formats, sample bid specifications, implementation...

  17. Melaminium 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Prior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C3H7N6+·C7H5O5−·2H2O, the melaminium and benzoate ions are approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation of the non-hydrogen atoms is 0.093 Å and there is a strong C22(8 hydrogen-bonding embrace between them. The centre of symmetry generates a second acid–base pair which is bound to the first by a C22(8 (N—H...N embrace common between melamine molecules in similar compounds. Further extensive hydrogen bonding assembles the components into a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network.

  18. 32 CFR 246.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... without news management or censorship. The calculated withholding of unfavorable news is prohibited. (c... through newspaper sales, resale of commercial publications, authorized advertising, job printing, and...

  19. Publications | Page 246 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women who work in South Korea and Taiwan had access to NGOs and government services when facing difficulties while women in the Gulf region have nowhere to turn. Transnational marriage migration largely occurs outside the planning and control of the State. In both lines of domestic work, brokers... Sustaining water ...

  20. 43 CFR 24.6 - Cooperative agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Congressional policy (e.g., Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1956) of State-Federal cooperation and coordination in the area of fish and wildlife conservation, State and Federal agencies have implemented...: (1) Protection, maintenance, and development of fish and wildlife habitat; (2) Fish and wildlife...

  1. 32 CFR 246.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... population, currency fluctuations, inflation, armed conflict, national contingency deployment, and others. (b... (Force Management and Personnel) [OASD (FM&P)] that address S&S personnel and business policies. The S&S...

  2. 7 CFR 246.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... service. A supervised publicly or privately operated shelter (including a welfare hotel or congregate... nighttime residence is: (1) A supervised publicly or privately operated shelter (including a welfare hotel... must ensure the reliability and integrity of the technology used and the security and confidentiality...

  3. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... order to meet religious eating patterns; and (ii) The State agency has the discretion to require medical... for: (A) Infants whose only condition is: (1) A diagnosed formula intolerance or food allergy to...; or (2) A non-specific formula or food intolerance. (B) Women and children who have a food intolerance...

  4. Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1996-07-30

    The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

  5. Monomer-to-polymer conversion and micro-tensile bond strength to dentine of experimental and commercial adhesives containing diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide or a camphorquinone/amine photo-initiator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletic, Vesna; Pongprueksa, Pong; De Munck, Jan; Brooks, Neil R; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2013-10-01

    To compare the degree of conversion (DC) of adhesives initiated by diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (TPO) or a camphorquinone/tertiary amine system (CQ/Amine) as well as their 'immediate' micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) to bur-cut dentine. DC of Scotchbond Universal ('SBU'; 3M ESPE), its experimental counterpart containing TPO as photo-initiator system, an experimental G-aenial Bond ('Ga-B'; GC) adhesive formulation, and an experimental LUB-102 adhesive formulation ('LUB', Kuraray Noritake), containing as photo-initiatior system either 2wt% CQ along with 2wt% tertiary amine ('SBU_CQ/Amine'; 'Ga-B_CQ/Amine'; 'LUB_CQ/Amine'), or 2wt% TPO ('SBU_TPO'; 'Ga-B_TPO'; 'LUB_TPO'), was determined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), after being cured with a dual-wavelength light-curing unit (bluephase 20i, Ivoclar Vivadent). The same adhesive formulations were applied to bur-cut mid-coronal dentine of intact human molars, and subjected to a μTBS test after 1-week water storage. Besides being applied following a self-etch (SE) application mode, the adhesive formulations SBU_CQ/Amine and SBU_TPO were also applied following an etch-and-rinse (E&R) mode, this both for DS and μTBS measurement. No significant difference in DC was found for any of the adhesive formulations, except for SBU_CQ/Amine_SE and SBU_TPO_SE. For both SBU formulations, a significantly higher DC was reached for the E&R than the SE approach. Regarding μTBS, no significant differences were recorded, except for the significantly higher μTBS measured for SBU_CQ/Amine_E&R and SBU_TPO_E&R. In self-etch adhesives, the photo-initiator TPO may be used instead of CQ/Amine. The curing and 'immediate' bonding efficiency depended on the application protocol (E&R versus SE), but not on the photo-initiator system. The photo-initiator TPO may be used in self-etch adhesives instead of CQ/Amine with similar curing and 'immediate' bonding efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Bromido(2,4,6-trimethylphenylmercury(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Meyer-Wegner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecules of the title compound, [HgBr(C9H11], are located on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis. Due to the molecular symmetry, the HgII atom is linearly coordinated by the ipso-C of the mesityl group and the Br atom. In the crystal, molecules lie in planes parallel to (001.

  7. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with home delivery or direct distribution food delivery systems; (2) Indian State agencies with 1,000... anticipated costs for modifying its automated data processing system or components of its food delivery system... agencies with retail food delivery systems based on the following guidelines: (1) FNS will solicit bids and...

  8. 7 CFR 246.25 - Records and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., information pertaining to financial operations, food delivery systems, food instrument issuance and redemption... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... participation; (B) Actual and projected food funds expenditures; (C) A listing by source year of food and NSA...

  9. Dicty_cDB: SSJ246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ifihf*kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: kl*nviqiitinhkc*lnpkesnffnfsrkhtik**cstlrccstccnsrfid...nfsrkhtik**cstlrccstccnsrfidccrccsy lnlqriln*liihilipweifenlivylinn*LYLLIFKKKKKKK...AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA sequence update 1998.12.21 Translated Amino Acid sequence kl*nviqiitinhkc*lnpkesnff

  10. All projects related to | Page 246 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: North and Central America, South America, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 123,600.00. Nouveau Programme de Troisième Cycle Interuniversitaire : Phase 2. Project. Social sciences in sub-Saharan Africa are severely ...

  11. 48 CFR 252.246-7001 - Warranty of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and acceptance by the Government of technical data furnished under this contract, and notwithstanding any provision of this contract concerning the conclusiveness of acceptance, the Contractor warrants... Contractor by written notice that the Government elects a price or fee adjustment instead of correction or...

  12. 7 CFR 246.9 - Fair hearing procedures for participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... defined as any clear expression by the individual, the individual's parent, caretaker, or other... or local agency shall not limit or interfere with the individual's freedom to request a hearing. (e...

  13. Decree number 1.246 of September 16, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Promulgates the Treaty for Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America and Caribbean - Tlatelolco Treaty, held in Mexico City in February 14, 1967 an the Resolutions numbers 267(E-V), of July 3, 1990, 268 (XII), of May 10, 1991 and 290 (VII), of August 26, 1992, all of them adopted by the General Conference of the Organism for the Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America and Caribbean (OPANAL) in Mexico City

  14. 7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percentage of anticipated food sales by type of payment, i.e., cash, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance... calculate average payments per food instrument type for groups of vendors that meet the above-50-percent... instruments and cash-value vouchers. (2) Design. The State agency must design all food delivery systems to be...

  15. 246 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN NIGERIA: A CASE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    administration of justice in Nigeria even though Judges, like Caesar's wife, are expected to be above board. It is also the ... 4Dame Roma Mitchell, 'The Appointment of judges and their Return to the Bar', Address to the second Biennial ..... impinge upon, or be seen to impinge upon, how they decide cases and treat certain.

  16. 7 CFR 246.16 - Distribution of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... technical assistance and research evaluation projects for the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. (b... management information system, including an electronic benefit transfer system. (B) Funds spent forward will... government purchases, as published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis of the Department of Commerce, for the...

  17. 42 CFR 24.6 - Pay and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Salary surveys of similar skills in pertinent labor markets; and (7) Other relevant factors. (e) Annual... of an institution of higher education immediately prior to his appointment as a member of the Service... Executive Schedule unless a higher rate of pay is expressly approved on an individual basis by the President...

  18. Page | 246 CONCEPT OF CRIME IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    view of the libertarians, also called the utilitarian view, dominated western jurisprudence while the positivist views pervade modern thinking in both the domestic and international arena. It was finally discovered that the uniqueness of the different views is that crimes must attract punishment for its breach. It is submitted that ...

  19. preparation and nucleophilic substitution of the 2,4,6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    pyridinium salt 3 during preparation or could be the consequence of the nucleophilic substitution reaction. In case of the first presumption, racemization of 3 might have happened via acid mediated tautomerization of the vinylogous compound 5 , an intermediate formed during preparation of the triphenylpyridinium salt ...

  20. 2,4,6-Tri-p-tolylpyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Ping Tang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C26H23N, the complete molecule is generated by crystallographic mirror symmetry, with the N atom and four C atoms lying on the reflection plane. The dihedral angles between the pyridine ring and pendant benzene rings are 2.9 (1, 14.1 (1 and 14.1 (1°. Neighbouring molecules are stabilized through intermolecular π–π interactions along the c axis [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.804 (2 Å], forming one-dimensional chains.

  1. Preparation and nucleophilic substitution of the 2,4,6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three methods for preparation of D-amino acids by nucleophilic substitution on derivatives of their L-antipodes have been attempted. Nucleophilic substitution on optically active phenylalanine ethyl ester triphenylpyridinium salt yielded partial inverted azide products. The N,N-disulfonylimide intermediate of the same ester ...

  2. 48 CFR 2452.246-70 - Inspection and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solicitations and contracts: Inspection and Acceptance (FEB 2006) Inspection and acceptance of all work required... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Inspection and acceptance... DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  3. Page | 246 CONCEPT OF CRIME IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Abstract. There are various definitions of crime from the perspectives of moralists, libertarians, positivists, etc. This research covers Criminal Code, Penal Code as well as Shariah Penal Code. The doctrinal method of research was adopted to analytically study the concept of crime. It was found that the moralist sees.

  4. 40 CFR 98.246 - Data reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... process unit. (1) The petrochemical process unit ID number or other appropriate descriptor. (2) The type... that burned both process off-gas and supplemental fuel. (9) If you comply with the alternative to... the mass balance calculation. (b) If you use CEMS to measure CO2 emissions in accordance with § 98.243...

  5. 7 CFR 246.6 - Agreements with local agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approved by FNS; (8) Maintains complete, accurate, documented and current accounting of all Program funds... criteria used for certification, including information on the area served, income standards used, and... submits reports as required to permit effective enforcement of the nondiscrimination laws. (c) Indian...

  6. Water Quality Criteria for 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Bureau of Standards, May, 1976. [As cited in Liu et al. 1983]. Letavet, A. A. 1964. Professionalnyje bolezni. Izdanije 2-e. Moskva, Medicina , 758. [As...military explosives on hands. J. Forensic Scl.29:284-290. ABSTRACT. Urbanski, T. 1983a. Chemistry and Technology of Explosives, Vol. 2, Pergammon Press, New

  7. An Assessment of surgical outcome amongst 246 cataract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows2G

    Poor outcome was associated with pre-existing ocular disease in. 10.8% of the eyes operated and were due to pre-existing glaucoma, macular degeneration, optic atrophy and diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: Best functional visual results are obtained by modern techniques of ECCE with IOL, which ensures that the patient ...

  8. 48 CFR 1652.246-70 - FEHB Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and in a manner that will not unreasonably delay the work. (b) The Contractor shall maintain and the... examine and audit all books and records relating to the contract for purposes of the Contracting officer's... and audit for the record retention period specified in the Federal Employees Health Benefits...

  9. Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by selected helophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nepovím, Aleš; Hebner, A.; Soudek, Petr; Gerth, A.; Thomas, H.; Smrček, S.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 60, - (2005), s. 1454-1461 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP206/02/P065; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : TNT * biodegradation * emergent plant Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.297, year: 2005

  10. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... workmanship performed. (d) The Contractor shall restore any work damaged in fulfilling the terms and... damage at the Contractor's expense. (g) With respect to all warranties, express or implied, from... all warranties to be executed in writing, for the benefit of the Government, if directed by the...

  11. 48 CFR 52.246-21 - Warranty of Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... restore any work damaged in fulfilling the terms and conditions of this clause. The Contractor's warranty.... (g) With respect to all warranties, express or implied, from subcontractors, manufacturers, or... executed, in writing, for the benefit of the Government, if directed by the Contracting Officer; and (3...

  12. 40 CFR 408.246 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55791... subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply...

  13. 48 CFR 52.246-15 - Certificate of Conformance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Conformance (APR 1984) (a) When authorized in writing by the cognizant Contract Administration Office (CAO... under this contract until use of the Certificate of Conformance has been authorized in writing by the... office or attached to the CAO copy when contract administration (Block 10 of the DD Form 250) is...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 246 - Editorial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... major purpose of the Stars and Stripes is to provide news and information from varied sources. This aids... its subordinate commands. All reporting necessarily requires some investigation and, as with... journalists. While the Stars and Stripes staff cannot conduct independent investigations that fall under the...

  15. Dicty_cDB: CFF246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Frames) Frame A: y**igncikr*t*ire**k*ww****f*kik***n*w***ckynkrws*fsftinknnks n*kyik***w*ck*yky*wy*wwck*yky...ky**wyrttsttnl*rtkctkrsimeg*rcy f*w**yc***fr*n*frisyfsrkyynnnnnynnnynk*tkny*t*i**kfnnf*kfirn tlkfh**frvrin*-

  16. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 246 - Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-sponsored regional and local media pools. ... readers, the Stars and Stripes shall pay special attention to news of local, host-country conditions relevant to their audiences. They shall provide, through their reporters and bureaus, news of local...

  17. 7 CFR 246.7 - Certification of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... constant or unlimited access. (D) Payments or benefits provided under certain Federal programs or acts are...(c)); (11) Payments under the Low-income Home Energy Assistance Act, as amended (Pub. L. 99-125, sec...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 246 - Recommended Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economics of separate refuse collection. SCS Engineers, Inc. report. Long Beach, California, April 1974. 22....S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1974. 70 p. (Distributed by National Technical Information... distributed by National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia.) SCS Engineers, Inc. Analysis of...

  19. Anonimi, “Ges al meu grat non sui joglar” (BdT 461.126, “Per zo no·m voil desconortar” (BdT 461.193, “Va, cobla: al Juge de Galur” (BdT 461.246, “Seigner Juge, ben aug dir a la gen” (BdT 461.217, “Ges per li diz non er bons prez sabuz” (BdT 461.133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Noto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available My paper provides a new critical edition, with critical apparatus, comment and translation of a set of anonymous ‘coblas’, copied as a sequence in the anthology present at ff. 55-66 in chansonnier P: BdT 461.126; BdT 461.193; BdT 461.246; BdT 461.217; BdT 461.133 (all of which are unica. I will examine in particular the attributions suggested so far for one or more of these ‘coblas’ (a name that has frequently been put forward is that of Paolo Lanfranchi da Pistoia, author of the sonnet in ‘cobla’ form copied in P immediately preceding the poems discussed here and address the hypothesis put forward by several scholars (and upheld with convincing evidence by Stefano Asperti that the sequence under consideration points to the strong presence of a Tuscan tradition in chansonnier P, clearly contributing, among other things, to outline a “fundamental coherence” (Asperti between some aspects of Dante’s literary culture and this particular songbook.

  20. Second sphere coordination in anion binding: Synthesis, characterization of [Co(phen) 2CO 3]X· nH 2O where X = o-nitrophenolate(onp), p-nitrophenolate(pnp), 2,4-dinitrophenolate(dnp), 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate(tnp) and single crystal X-ray structures of [Co(phen) 2CO 3](onp)·2H 2O and [Co(phen) 2CO 3](dnp)·4.5H 2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajnesh; Sharma, Raj Pal; Brandão, Paula; Félix, Vitor; Venugopalan, Paloth

    2008-12-01

    In an effort to utilize [Co(phen) 2CO 3] + cation as a new host for mono-, di- and tri-substituted nitrophenolate anions, red coloured crystals of composition [Co(phen) 2CO 3](onp)·2H 2O, [Co(phen) 2CO 3](pnp), orange coloured precipitated product of [Co(phen) 2CO 3](dnp)·4.5H 2O (which gave red coloured crystals from acetone-water mixture) and orange-yellow coloured precipitated product of [Co(phen) 2CO 3](tnp) were obtained in good yields by reacting sodium salts of o-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol with [Co(phen) 2CO 3]Cl·5H 2O, respectively in 1:1 molar ratio in aqueous medium. These cobalt(III) complex salts have been characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic techniques (UV/Visible, IR and NMR) and conductance measurements. Single crystal X-ray structure determination of [Co(phen) 2CO 3](onp)·2H 2O and [Co(phen) 2CO 3](dnp)·4.5H 2O revealed the presence of discrete ions and lattice water molecules in the solid state. A strong network of hydrogen bond interactions through the weak second sphere coordination (C sbnd H…O (phenolate), C sbnd H…O (nitro), and strong interactions of type O sbnd H…O (water) besides the electrostatic interactions play a very important role in stabilizing the crystal lattice. The studies indicated that complex cation, [Co(phen) 2CO 3] + may preferentially bind nitrophenolate ions in the aqueous medium.

  1. Rubidium 2,4,6-trioxo-1,3-diazinan-5-ide–1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione–water (1/1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Gryl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, Rb+·C4H3N2O3−·C4H4N2O3·H2O, consists of one rubidium cation, a barbituric acid molecule, a barbiturate anion and one water molecule. The rubidium ion has seven close-contact interactions with O atoms, with Rb...O distances ranging from 2.8594 (16 to 3.2641 (14 Å. These seven O atoms together with an eighth O atom at 3.492 (2 Å away from Rb form a distorted polyhedron with shape intermediate between an antiprism and a dodecahedron. The Rb+ ions connect layers built of organic components and water molecules linked via N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  2. Thermophilic Transformation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Composting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Extracts were analyzed by IR and TLC. 4. Extraction of organic matter fractions, humic, fulvic and humin , was accomplished using 0.5 N NaOH and 0.1 N...500C, rinsed with 0.1 N HCl and extracted overnight with 0.5 N NaOH and 0.1 N sodium pyrophosphate. The insoluble material, humin , was oven-dried at...after solvent extraction was separated into three organic matter fractions, humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin . The dry weights of these fractions are

  3. Comparing Good and Poor Readers: A Critique of the Research. Technical Report. No. 246.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Glenn M.

    The many studies comparing good and poor readers have yielded few conclusive findings as a result of a number of problems. The first set of problems has to do with the choice of tests or tasks. There are many differences in the cognitive demands of reading and listening tasks children encounter in school. In listening, prosodic cues facilitate…

  4. Long-term follow-up of 246 adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: education and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packham, J C; Hall, M A

    2002-12-01

    To examine the levels of education and employment in adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) compared with their siblings and national figures. Two hundred and forty-six adults identified with long-standing JIA had an average disease duration of 28.3 yr. Educational achievements and employment status were recorded and comparative data obtained from siblings and the National Office for Statistics, UK. The effects, incidence and nature of discrimination in the workplace were also explored. Across all levels of education the study group achieved significantly better results than both the national average and their siblings. In contrast, the rate of unemployment in the patient group was more than twice that in the national population. The percentage of patients who had encountered discrimination in the workplace was 25.1.

  5. Crystal structure of 2,4,6-tris(cyclohexyloxy-1,3,5-triazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Sankolli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H33N3O3, is a tri-substituted cyclohexyloxy triazine. In the crystal, the triazine rings form (C3i-PU Piedfort units. The inter-centroid distance of the π–π interaction involving the triazine rings is 3.3914 (10 Å. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming ribbons propagating along [1-10]. There are also weak C—H...N and C—H...O contacts present, linking inversion-related ribbons, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  6. People and things. CERN Courier, Jul-Aug 1984, v. 24(6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article reports on achievements of various people, staff changes and position opportunities within the CERN organization and contains news updates on upcoming or past events. Valuable information on collective nuclear matter has come from another GSI / Berkeley team working at the Bevalac, this time using a streamer chamber to measure pion production in heavy ion collisions and infer the properties of the compressed nuclear matter formed in the 10 -23 seconds following the collisions. Judged by the bubbling enthusiasm of its 260 users, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring at CERN continues to be a great success. Electron beams have been taken to 800 MeV in the Aladdin storage ring at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin- Madison. The UA 1 'Monojets ' were first past the post in this year's traditional 3.9 km relay race round the CERN site

  7. Rapid restoration of methanogenesis in an acidified UASB reactor treating 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Báez, María Consuelo; Valderrama-Rincon, Juan Daniel

    2017-02-15

    Anaerobic bioreactors are often used for removal of xenobiotic and highly toxic pollutants from wastewater. Most of the time, the pollutant is so toxic that the stability of the reactor becomes compromised. It is well known that methanogens are one of the most sensitive organisms in the anaerobic consortia and hence the stability of the reactors is highly dependant on methanogenesis. Unfortunately few studies have focused on recovering the methanogenic activity once it has been inhibited by highly toxic pollutants. Here we establish a quick recovery strategy for neutralization of an acidified UASB reactor after failure by intoxication with an excess of TCP in the influent. Once the reactor returned to pH values compatible with methanogenesis, biogas production was re-started after one day and the system was re-acclimated to TCP. Successful removal of TCP from synthetic wastewater was shown for concentrations up to 70mg/L after restoration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 246 - Business and Financial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... entertainment opportunities for DoD personnel and their dependents in accordance with DoD Instructions 1015.2 5... services. c. Carry any advertisement that implies discrimination as to race, age, origin, gender, politics...

  9. 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    oxidizing agents and reaction conditions.4,5. Nitrosation chemistry has been a fruitful area for mechanistic, organic, and biological chemists.6 An effort has been ... siderable interest in recent years mainly due to their strong mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, vaso- relaxant activity and their use as pesticides, antioxi-.

  10. 48 CFR 52.246-17 - Warranty of Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... As used in this clause— Acceptance means the act of an authorized representative of the Government by... “data.” (b) Contractor's obligations. (1) Notwithstanding inspection and acceptance by the Government of... contract price by an amount equitable under the circumstances. (3)(i) If the contract provides for...

  11. 48 CFR 52.246-18 - Warranty of Supplies of a Complex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause— Acceptance means the act of an authorized representative of the Government by which the... data called for under this contract) at no increase in the contract price. (5) When supplies are... specified in the contract (irrespective of the f.o.b. point or the point of acceptance) to the Contractor's...

  12. Soft rotator model and {sup 246}Cm low-lying level scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    Non-axial soft rotator nuclear model is suggested as self-consistent approach for interpretation of level schemes, {gamma}-transition probabilities and neutron interaction with even-even nuclei. (author)

  13. Mineralization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoleune (TNT) in Coastal Waters and Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, S. W; Osburn, C. L; Boyd, T. J; Hamdan, L. J; Coffin, R. B; Montgomery, M. T; Smith, J. P; Li, Q. X; Monteil, F; Hawari, J

    2006-01-01

    Mineralization rates of 14C-TNT, -DNT, and -DAT were measured in surface sediments, with depth in sediment cores, and in the water column during 12 research cruises over the past 4 years in the San...

  14. SU-F-T-246: Evaluation of Healthcare Failure Mode And Effect Analysis For Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, T [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Manger, R; Cervino, L; Pawlicki, T [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the differences between the Veteran Affairs Healthcare Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (HFMEA) and the AAPM Task Group 100 Failure and Effect Analysis (FMEA) risk assessment techniques in the setting of a stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) procedure were compared respectively. Understanding the differences in the techniques methodologies and outcomes will provide further insight into the applicability and utility of risk assessments exercises in radiation therapy. Methods: HFMEA risk assessment analysis was performed on a stereotactic radiosurgery procedure. A previous study from our institution completed a FMEA of our SRS procedure and the process map generated from this work was used for the HFMEA. The process of performing the HFMEA scoring was analyzed, and the results from both analyses were compared. Results: The key differences between the two risk assessments are the scoring criteria for failure modes and identifying critical failure modes for potential hazards. The general consensus among the team performing the analyses was that scoring for the HFMEA was simpler and more intuitive then the FMEA. The FMEA identified 25 critical failure modes while the HFMEA identified 39. Seven of the FMEA critical failure modes were not identified by the HFMEA and 21 of the HFMEA critical failure modes were not identified by the FMEA. HFMEA as described by the Veteran Affairs provides guidelines on which failure modes to address first. Conclusion: HFMEA is a more efficient model for identifying gross risks in a process than FMEA. Clinics with minimal staff, time and resources can benefit from this type of risk assessment to eliminate or mitigate high risk hazards with nominal effort. FMEA can provide more in depth details but at the cost of elevated effort.

  15. 26 CFR 1.246-5 - Reduction of holding periods in certain situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prices, or foreign-currency exchange rates; and (ii) Changes in the fair market value of the stock are... expectations include all explicit or implicit representations made with respect to the marketing or sale of the... of a strategy to substantially offset changes in the fair market value of the stock. (ii) Conversion...

  16. 48 CFR 52.246-2 - Inspection of Supplies-Fixed-Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... covering supplies under this contract and shall tender to the Government for acceptance only supplies that... mistakes amounting to fraud, or as otherwise provided in the contract. (l) If acceptance is not conclusive... remedies provided by law, or under other provisions of this contract, shall have the right to require the...

  17. 27 CFR 24.246 - Materials authorized for the treatment of wine and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derived from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, or barley malt per FDA advisory opinion of 8/18/83 or from Rhizopus oryzae per 21 CFR 173.130 or from Bacillus licheniformis per 21 CFR... FDA advisory opinion dated 08/18/83 or from Bacillus licheniformis per 21 CFR 184.1027 (GRAS...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 246 - Personnel Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... experience, and a journalism degree. b. The S&S officers supervising business operations should have experience in DoD Comptroller functions and be familiar with laws and regulations applicable to DoD and NAFI...

  19. Numerical Solutions of the Coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrand#246;dinger Equations by Differential Quadrature Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoudam Roshan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solutions of the coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger equations is obtained by using differential quadrature methods based on polynomials and quintic B-spline functions for space discretization and Runge-Kutta fourth order for time discretization. Stability of the schemes are studied using matrix stability analysis. The accuracy and efficiency of the methods are shown by conducting some numerical experiments on test problems. The motion of single soliton and interaction of two solitons are simulated by the proposed methods.

  20. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Paul S; Chasman, Daniel I; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chen, Ming-Huei; Huffman, Jennifer E; Steri, Maristella; Tang, Weihong; Teumer, Alexander; Marioni, Riccardo E; Grossmann, Vera; Hottenga, Jouke J; Trompet, Stella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brody, Jennifer A; Kleber, Marcus E; Guo, Xiuqing; Wang, Jie Jin; Auer, Paul L; Attia, John R; Yanek, Lisa R; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Lahti, Jari; Venturini, Cristina; Tanaka, Toshiko; Bielak, Lawrence F; Joshi, Peter K; Rocanin-Arjo, Ares; Kolcic, Ivana; Navarro, Pau; Rose, Lynda M; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Riess, Helene; Mazur, Johanna; Basu, Saonli; Goel, Anuj; Yang, Qiong; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Rumley, Ann; Fiorillo, Edoardo; de Craen, Anton J M; Grotevendt, Anne; Scott, Robert; Taylor, Kent D; Delgado, Graciela E; Yao, Jie; Kifley, Annette; Kooperberg, Charles; Qayyum, Rehan; Lopez, Lorna M; Berentzen, Tina L; Räikkönen, Katri; Mangino, Massimo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Peyser, Patricia A; Wild, Sarah; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Wright, Alan F; Marten, Jonathan; Zemunik, Tatijana; Morrison, Alanna C; Sennblad, Bengt; Tofler, Geoffrey; de Maat, Moniek P M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lowe, Gordon D; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sattar, Naveed; Binder, Harald; Völker, Uwe; Waldenberger, Melanie; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Mcknight, Barbara; Huang, Jie; Jenny, Nancy S; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Qi, Lihong; Mcevoy, Mark G; Becker, Diane M; Starr, John M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Hysi, Pirro G; Hernandez, Dena G; Jhun, Min A; Campbell, Harry; Hamsten, Anders; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Mcardle, Wendy L; Slagboom, P Eline; Zeller, Tanja; Koenig, Wolfgang; Psaty, Bruce M; Haritunians, Talin; Liu, Jingmin; Palotie, Aarno; Uitterlinden, André G; Stott, David J; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Wilson, James F; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Spector, Tim D; Eriksson, Johan G; Hansen, Torben; Deary, Ian J; Becker, Lewis C; Scott, Rodney J; Mitchell, Paul; März, Winfried; Wareham, Nick J; Peters, Annette; Greinacher, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S; Jukema, J Wouter; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hayward, Caroline; Cucca, Francesco; Tracy, Russell; Watkins, Hugh; Reiner, Alex P; Folsom, Aaron R; Ridker, Paul M; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Smith, Nicholas L; Strachan, David P; Dehghan, Abbas

    2016-01-15

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes indels. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis of 34 studies imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel and including ∼120 000 participants of European ancestry (95 806 participants with data on the X-chromosome). Approximately 10.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 1.2 million indels were examined. We identified 41 genome-wide significant fibrinogen loci; of which, 18 were newly identified. There were no genome-wide significant signals on the X-chromosome. The lead variants of five significant loci were indels. We further identified six additional independent signals, including three rare variants, at two previously characterized loci: FGB and IRF1. Together the 41 loci explain 3% of the variance in plasma fibrinogen concentration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, Paul; Chasman, Daniel; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chen, Ming-Huei; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Steri, Maristella; Tang, Weihong; Teumer, Alexander; Marioni, Riccardo; Grossmann, Vera; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Trompet, Stella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brody, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes indels.We conducted a genome-wide association analysis of 34 studies imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel and including ~120 000 participants of European ancestry (95 806 participant...

  2. 3-Nitrophenol–1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sangeetha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C3H6N6·2C6H5NO3, contains one melamine and two 3-nitrophenol molecules. The mean planes of the 3-nitrophenol molecules are almost orthogonal to the plane of melamine, making dihedral angles of 82.77 (4 and 88.36 (5°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via O—H...N, N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The crystal also features weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.9823 (9 Å].

  3. Degradation products of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by a microbial consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, O.; Parker, C.; Bender, J. [Clark Atlanta Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using microbial species. Of particular interest is the remediation of explosive contaminated soils. A microbial consortia has been developed which removes TNT by an unexplained mechanism. Our goal is to understand the degradation of TNT by this microbial mat. Constructed mats have been generated in our laboratory by enriching water with ensiled grass and adding specific microbial components for organic degradation. Microbial mats are natural mixed microbial communities dominated by cyanobacterias (blue-green algae). In this research, degradation products of TNT have been identified using GC/MS. Ninety-seven percent of TNT (1000 mg/L), was removed in < 1 day by floating mats placed over TNT-contaminated water in quiescent ponds. Metabolites of TNT, 2, 4-Dinitro-6 amminotoluene and 2-Nitro-4,6 diaminotoluene has been observed after 1 day of mat treatment. A mechanism is postulated for this degradation showing that two of the nitro groups of the TNT molecule are being reduced to amino groups systematically. Anoxic zones in the mat, containing sulfur-reducing bacteria, may account for the reduction of TNT. GC/MS shows significant decreases in metabolite concentrations in 4-7 days, indicating continued degradation of TNT. It has been found by toxicity assays that these metabolites appeared to be nontoxic and nonmutagenic. These results suggest that floating microbial mats may be useful for the decontamination of sites in the environment contaminated with TNT. Further studies using {sup 13}C TNT will focus on the fate of the carbon, to determine the intermediates products prior to transformations into hydrocarbons or utilization by the bacteria consortia.

  4. Symposium on Energy Storage Materials Energy and Fuel Division, 246th ACS National Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-17

    next­generation batteries for plug­in electric  vehicles (PEVs) Peter Faguy   1:45 pm 295 Phosphate and diphosphate bimetallic cathode materials Esther...3/3   3:15 pm 452 Low cost, abundant, defective materials for large scale  electrical  energy storage Dan Steingart   3:45 pm 453 Fundamentals and...structure designs for Na­ion battery anodes Liangbing Hu   4:15 pm 454 Enhanced lithium ion battery via biological  engeneering Scott J Riley   4:35 pm

  5. Mineralization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoleune (TNT) in Coastal Waters and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-21

    Estuarine sediments have significant differences in organic geochemistries ( Hedges and Oades 1997), which may limit the extrapolation of TNT...types of whole plants that have been studied include the bush bean (Harvey et al. 1990), hybrid poplar (Thompson et al. 1998), soybean (Adamia et al...pH 4.5. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(7):2877-2986. Hedges , JL, Oades, JM (1997). Comparative organic geochemistries of soils and marine sediments

  6. Water quality criteria for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT): Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G.

    1987-08-01

    Studies of the acute toxicity of TNT to aquatic organisms indicate that LC/sub 50/ values range from 5.2 to 27.0 mg/L for invertebrates in 48-hr static tests, and from 2.0 to 3.7 mg/L for fish in 96-hr flow-through tests. TNT is absorbed by both humans and test animals through the skin, by ingestion, and by inhalation. Following oral absorption, /sup 14/C-TNT is found at highest levels in the GI tract, liver, kidneys, and blood. The liver is the site for metabolic and detoxification activity. The primary effects of occupational exposure to TNT are jaundice with toxic hepatic and/or aplastic anemia that can be fetal. Significant effects on the hematological system occurred at mean exposure levels of 0.2 to 7.5 mg/m/sup 3/. Evaluations of oral TNT toxicity were reported for 90-day exposures of dogs, mice, and rats. The effects for all three species were similar and included depressed weight gain, mild to moderate anemia, enlarged livers and spleens, some testicular atrophy, and hemosiderosis of the spleen. Carcinogenicity data were limited to a 2-yr study of rats which indicated hyperplasia and carcinoma of the urinary bladder in females at the highest dose (50 mg/kg/day). Standards for TNT occupational exposures have been recommended by OSHA (TLV of 1.5 mg/m/sup 3/), US Army (0.5 mg/m/sup 3/), and ACGIH (TLV of 0.5 mg/m/sup 3/ and STEL of 0.3 mg/m/sup 3/). Drinking water limits of 0.03 to 0.05 mg/L were recommended by the US Army and Navy. Available data for calculating water quality criteria were insufficient to meet all the USEPA guideline requirements. However, a reasonable estimate of the criterion maximum concentration is 557 ..mu..g/L. 54 refs., 3 figs., 31 tabs.

  7. 246 THE STRATEGY OF SQ3R TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ READING SKILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Johana Ari Widayanti, S.S., M.Si.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a hobby. By reading, we can increase our knowledge. Unfortunately, many students dislike reading especially English version. They think that reading English version is difficult because there are a lot of difficult vocabularies. To enhance reading skill among students, the researcher applied SQ3R strategy in her Elementary Reading Comprehension class. The aims were: (1. To give an explanation how the SQ3R application could improve students‘ reading skill, (2 to know how far SQ3R application could change students‘ behavior in reading. The subject was the students of English Department semester 2. The sample was one class with the total number were 23 students (8 men and 15 women. The collecting data were written through the result of analysis and summary of students which done three (3 times. In Cycle 1: only 5 students (23% who could understand, analyze, and write a summary by applying SQ3R. 18 students (67% could not understand how to apply SQ3R. In cycle 2, 15 people could understand, analyze, and write a summary by applying KWL chart. 35% (8 students could not understand how to KWL chart. In cycle 3, 20 students (90% could apply SQ3R and KWL chart by understanding, analyzing, and writing a summary. 3 students (10% could not apply SQ3R and KWL chart. The observation result, the interview, and the questionnaire presented the motivation of students in analyzing and writing a summary of English version was high. It could be said there was a change in writing a summary by applying SQ3R among students.

  8. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium and/or 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Chang, Joo-Yun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Bae, Bum-Han; Kim, Jaisoo; Lee, In-Sook

    2006-05-01

    Phytotoxicity, microbial activity, plant uptake and microbial degradation were examined using Rumex crispus in TNT and/or cadmium contaminated columns (TNT: 100 mg/kg of soil and Cd: 10 mg/kg of soil). The growth of plants was significantly inhibited by TNT, but not by Cd. The microbial activity was highly increased by plant root growth, decreased by Cd, and slightly reduced by TNT. The plant uptake of Cd was relatively well in Cd-contaminated column, but lowered by TNT in TNT+Cd-contaminated column. The microbial degradation of TNT occurred much faster in planted columns than in unplanted columns with minor effect of Cd (less 2-ADNT was produced). Therefore, it may be effective to treat TNT first and then Cd using phytoremediation in the TNT plus Cd contaminated sites.

  9. 19 CFR 10.246 - Maintenance of records and submission of Certificate by importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... electronically through any electronic data interchange system authorized by CBP for that purpose; (2) If in..., the producer, exporter, importer or authorized agent includes on, or attaches to, the invoice or other...

  10. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. de Vries (Paul); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M. Sabater-Lleal (Maria); M.-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer E.); M. Steri (Maristella); W. Tang (Weihong); A. Teumer (Alexander); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); V. Grossmann (Vera); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); S. Trompet (Stella); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); J. Brody (Jennifer); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); X. Guo (Xiuqing); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin); P. Auer (Paul); J. Attia (John); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); J. Lahti (Jari); C. Venturini (Cristina); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); L.F. Bielak (Lawrence F.); P.K. Joshi (Peter); A. Rocanin-Arjo (Ares); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Navarro (Pau); L.M. Rose (Lynda); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); H. Riess (Helene); J. Mazur (Johanna); S. Basu (Saonli); A. Goel (Anuj); Q. Yang (Qiong); M. Ghanbari (Mohsen); Gonnekewillemsen; A. Rumley (Ann); E. Fiorillo (Edoardo); A.J. de Craen (Anton); A. Grotevendt (Anne); R.A. Scott (Robert); K.D. Taylor (Kent D.); G.E. Delgado (Graciela E.); J. Yao (Jie); A. Kifley (Annette); C. Kooperberg (Charles); Q. Qayyum (Rehan); L. Lopez (Lornam); T.L. Berentzen (Tina L.); K. Räikkönen (Katri); Massimomangino; S. Bandinelli (Stefania); P.A. Peyser (Patricia A.); S. Wild (Sarah); D.-A. Tregouet (David-Alexandre); A.F. Wright (Alan); J. Marten (Jonathan); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); B. Sennblad (Bengt); G.H. Tofler (Geoffrey); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); G.D. Lowe (Gordon D.); M. Zoledziewska (Magdalena); N. Sattar (Naveed); H. Binder (Harald); U. Völker (Uwe); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); B. McKnight (Barbara); J. Huang (Jian); N.S. Jenny (Nancy); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); L. Qi (Lihong); M.G. Mcevoy (Mark G.); D.M. Becker (Diane); J.M. Starr (John); A.-P. Sarin; P.G. Hysi (Pirro); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); M.A. Jhun (Min A.); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Hamsten (Anders); F. Sarin (Fernando); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); P. Eline Slagboom; T. Zeller (Tanja); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); B. Psaty (Brucem); T. Haritunians (Talin); J. Liu (Jingmin); A. Palotie (Aarno); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D.J. Stott (David J.); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); O. Polasek (Ozren); I. Rudan (Igor); P.-E. Morange (P.); J.F. Wilson (James F.); S.L. Kardia (Sharon L.r); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); T. Hansen (Torben); I.J. Deary (Ian); L.C. Becker (Lewis); R.J. Scott (Rodney); P. Mitchell (Paul); W. März (Winfried); N.J. Wareham (Nick J.); A. Peters (Annette); A. Greinacher (Andreas); P.S. Wild (Philipp S.); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret I.); C. Hayward (Caroline); F. Cucca (Francesco); R.P. Tracy (Russell); H. Watkins (Hugh); A.P. Reiner (Alex P.); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); P.M. Ridker (Paul); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher J.); N.L. Smith (Nicholas L.); D.P. Strachan (David P.); A. Dehghan (Abbas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes

  11. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Paul S; Chasman, Daniel I; Sabater-Lleal, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes indels. W...

  12. 2,4,6-Trimethyl-3,5-bis[(phenylcarbonothioylsulfanylmethyl]benzyl benzenecarbodithioate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kannan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound C33H30S6, the three pendant methylene benzodithioate groups lie to one side of the central benzene ring in a cis-cis-cis `tripod' arrangement. The dihedral angles between the central benzene ring and the three pendant rings are 72.54 (4, 89.68 (4 and 86.74 (4°. In the crystal structure, one of the benzene rings is disordered over two orientations in a 0.559 (13:0.441 (13 ratio.

  13. (RS-(2-Bromo-4-fluoroanilino[2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxyphenyl]acetonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-xiang Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H16BrFN4O3, the pyrimidine and 2-bromo-4-fluorophenyl rings are twisted away from the central benzene ring, making dihedral angles of 77.7 (1 and 85.5 (1, respectively. A pair of C—H...F interactions is involved in an R22(8 motif, linking the molecules into dimers. These ring motifs are situated about the crystallographic centres of symmetry. C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the dimers into chains running parallel to [1overline{1}1]. Additionally, a weak C—F...π-electron ring interaction was observed in the crystal packing [F...Cg = 3.459 (4 Å; Cg is the centroid of the pyrimidine ring]. There is also an intramolecular N—H...Br interaction in the structure.

  14. Sud du Sahara | Page 246 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... des Caraïbes et du Pacifique - phase III. Langue French. Read more about Women, Migration and Rights in Mali and Sénégal. Langue English. Read more about Femmes, migration et droits au Mali et au Sénégal. Langue French. Read more about Modèle d'édition et autre modèle d'octroi de licences (PALM Africa).

  15. 48 CFR 552.246-70 - Source Inspection by Quality Approved Manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Standard 368 or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 9001:2000... required inspections and tests. (2) In addition to the requirements in Federal Standard 368, ISO 9001:2000...

  16. Oral exposure of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 2,4,6-tribromophenol affects reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halden, Anna Norman; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Andersson, Patrik L

    2010-01-01

    after oral exposure. In this study, we exposed adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to TBP via feed in nominal concentrations of 33, 330, and 3300 mu g/g feed (or control feed) for 6 weeks to assess the effects of TBP on reproductive output, gonad morphology, circulatory vitellogenin levels...

  17. : tous les projets | Page 246 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Pollution. Région: China, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam. Programme: Food, Environment, and Health. Financement total : CA$ 4,000,000.00. Initiative de renforcement du leadership en recherche en écosanté en Asie du Sud-Est. Projet. L'Asie du Sud-Est connaît une intensification rapide de l'agriculture qui entraîne ...

  18. Detoxification of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Arabidopsis: discovery of bifunctional O- and C-glucosyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    2 MS + sucrose media in 100-ml flasks were treated with 100 lM TNT for 6 h. The freeze -dried, ground, plant tissue was extracted twice with MeOH and...resistance to Pseudo- monas syringae pv tomato in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 139, 1890–1901. Lao, S.H., Loutre, C., Brazier, M., Coleman, J.O., Cole, D.J

  19. Application of Spectra Accuracy for Analysis of Organic Explosive: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by AccuTOF-DART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanfang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, through mass spectrometric (MS analysis for nitro compound explosives on a direct analysis in a real-time time-of-flight MS, indicates that even on a high-resolution MS with accurate mass measurement capabilities, there is no guarantee to obtain the unique molecular formula of a compound. By calculating spectra accuracy, highly accurate isotope pattern matching can be conducted to significantly improve performance of compound confirmation or identification.

  20. Evaluation of Orally Delivered ST-246 as Postexposure Prophylactic and Antiviral Therapeutic in an Aerosolized Rabbitpox Rabbit Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nalca, Aysegul; Hatkin, Josh M; Garza, Nicole L; Nichols, Donald K; Norris, Sarah W; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Orthopoxviruses, such as variola and monkeypox viruses, can cause severe disease in humans when delivered by the aerosol route, and thus represent significant threats to both military and civilian populations...

  1. Bis(2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium 2-[bis(carboxylatomethylazaniumyl]acetate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Hoxha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 2C3H7N6+·C6H7NO62−·3H2O, was obtained by mixing melamine and nitrilotriacetic acid in aqueous solution. There is proton transfer from the nitrilotriacteic acid to melamine to produce two melaminium cations and an internal proton transfer to generate the [HN(CH2COO]2− zwitterion. The melaminium cations are arranged in hydrogen-bonded tapes formed by N—H...N interactions. These tapes extend parallel to the [010] direction and are stacked parallel to the a axis at a mean separation of 3.3559 (11 Å. Between these tapes lie the anions and lattice water molecules. Further O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds exist between the water molecules, the anions, and the melaminium cations, generating a three-dimensional array. The crystal examined was found to be twinned by a twofold rotation about the direct lattice direction [100]. The two twin components were present in the ratio 0.5918:0.4082 (14.

  2. First and second ionization energies of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milko, Petr; Schröder, Detlef; Lemr, K.; Žabka, Ján; Alcaraz, Ch.; Roithová, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2009), s. 101-114 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ionization energy * isodesmic reactions * Jahn-Teller effect * mass spectrometry * synchrotron Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.856, year: 2009

  3. Clean Manufacture of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) via Improved Regioselectivity in the Nitration of Toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ross W.; Arber, Anthony W.; Endsor, Robert M.; Hamid, Javid; Eamon Colclough, M.

    2011-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense requires an environmentally benign synthesis route to manufacture military grade trinitrotoluene (TNT), which eliminates the production of red water arising from the sulfiting process for removing unsymmetrical trinitrotoluene isomers. We have found that by using a novel nitrating system, N2O5 in dichloromethane, the proportion of metasubstituted nitrotoluenes can be suppressed, and improvements have also been made to the di- and trinitration steps. As a result, TNT with a set point near that of the Mil. Spec. can be made by our process, without the need for sulfite washing; after recrystallization it exceeds the specification.

  4. A DUF-246 family glycosyltransferase-like gene affects male fertility and the biosynthesis of pectic arabinogalactans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stonebloom, Solomon; Ebert, Berit; Xiong, Guangyan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pectins are a group of structurally complex plant cell wall polysaccharides whose biosynthesis and function remain poorly understood. The pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) has two types of arabinogalactan side chains, type-I and type-II arabinogalactans. To date few...

  5. Species Differences in the Disposition and Metabolism of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene as a Function of Route of Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    these areas are not known. A feeble reaction with the TTC spray reagent at the R value of the 4-hydroxylamino suggested its presence in small amounts. Tge...supervised the inhalation investigations. Ms. Mary D. Sawyer and Ms. M. Hainje, Junior Biologists, performed the animal experiments, radioactivity and...routes in any subsequent carcinogenicity studies. Since TNT aerosols prepared using methods reported herein were not adequate for inhalation exposure

  6. 48 CFR 52.246-19 - Warranty of Systems and Equipment under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or refusal of the Contractor to— (A) Present a detailed recommendation for corrective action as... the Contractor must remedy the failure or refusal specified in the notice. (6) If the Contractor does... entitled to reimbursement from the Contractor, or from the proceeds, for the reasonable expenses of care...

  7. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 1. Acute Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Research and Development Laboratory: j. Gareth Pearson and William H. van der Schalie ( Aquatic Toxicology ), Jesse J. Barkley, Jr. (Analytical Chemistry...composed of data from literature reviews, on-site field studies, and laboratory investi- gations in mammalian and aquatic toxicology . Of the various...for- each of these parameters. Over the seven years that our aquatic toxicology facility has been in operation, our dechlorinated tap water has been

  8. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 3. Chronic Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Pearson and William H. van der Schalie ( Aquatic Toxicology ), Jesse J. Barkley, Jr. (Analytical Chemistry), and Jerry W. lighfill (Statistical Analysis...comprising data from literature reviews, .i- on-site field studies, and laboratory investigations in mammalian and aquatic toxicology . :: i " Of the...the average, standard deviation, and range for each of these parameters during the study period. Over the seven years that our aquatic toxicology facility

  9. The Role of Oxophytodienoate Reductases in the Detoxification of the Explosive 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Supplemental Figure S2. All constructs was transformed into Arabidopsis Col-0 usingAgrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101. Transformants and homozygous...White GF (1997) Purifica- tion, properties, and sequence of glycerol trinitrate reductase from Agrobacterium radiobacter. J Bacteriol 179: 7796–7802

  10. Evaluation of Orally Delivered ST-246 as Postexposure Prophylactic and Antiviral Therapeutic in an Aerosolized Rabbitpox Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    the ketamine–xylazinemixture and then euthanized with an overdose of intravenous pentobarbital solution. 2.6. Plaque assay Viral contents of starting...anesthetized and then euthanized with an overdose of intravenous pentobarbital solution as described above. Although a complete gross necropsy was...challenge meth- ods. In: Swearengen, J.L. (Ed.), Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models. CRC Press, Boca Raton , FL, pp. 61–76. Sbrana, E

  11. The unusual stability of TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene): A review of the scientific literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, S.F.; Simpson, R.L.

    1990-07-04

    This review is intended as an up-to-date review of the scientific literature on TATB since its discovery as a high explosive. In particular, it focuses on clarifying our current understanding of the relationship between the structure of TATB and its unique thermal stability. We review a large number of different publications by many authors. A small portion of the work on TATB'' presented actually consists of experimental studies on TATB formulated as PBX-9502 or as LX-17. Where relevant, this distinction is indicated. However, inasmuch as this review focuses on thermal response and the relationship of chemical reactivity to the molecular and lattice structure of TATB as a pure material, results from these other formulations may not be directly applicable, and in general we have omitted them. 4 refs.

  12. Corrigendum to "New constraints on kinetic isotope effects during CO2(aq) hydration and hydroxylation: Revisiting theoretical and experimental data" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 214 (2017) 246-265

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Ziv; Halevy, Itay

    2018-03-01

    The authors regret an error in the derivation of the link between KFFs and isotopic rate constants of CO2 hydration (Section 2.2). Considering the subset of isotopologues, C16O16O, C18O16O, H216O and H218O, there are four possible forward reactions: C16O16O + H216O → H2C16O16O16O,

  13. Scaling of light emission from detonating bare Composition B, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [C7H5(NO2)3], and PE4 plastic explosive charges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mostert, FJ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available -detonation reactions in the expanding products of the detonation. Various researchers have studied these emissions, and it has been established that there are features in such emission spectra that can be regarded as characteristic for a specific explosive composition...

  14. Influence of Biogenically Produced Fe(II) and Humic Acid Analogs on the Fate of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, T.; Gerlach, R.; Cunningham, A. B.; Peyton, B. M.; Apel, W. A.

    2002-12-01

    Pollution of soil and groundwater with explosives, such as TNT, is a well-known environmental problem. Obviously, a precise risk assessment and evaluation of appropriate remediation strategies of TNT require a fundamental understanding of the processes that govern the transformation of TNT in the subsurface. Recently a number of novel Gram positive metal-reducing bacteria were isolated from enrichments of subsurface soils from Cr(VI) contaminated and uncontaminated zones at the US Department of Energy's Hanford site. In contrast to most known metal-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter spp. and Shewanella spp. the isolates were predominantly Gram-positive and 16S rDNA and phospholipid analysis indicated that the isolates predominantly belonged to commonly observed soil bacteria of the genus Cellulomonas. These isolates proved to be capable of Cr(VI), U(VI), dissolved Fe(III), goethite, maghemite, magnetite, hematite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) reduction. Reduced solid phase iron can mediate the degradation of nitroaromatics, halogenated solvents, azo compounds, arsenate, and other important contaminants. Consequently, batch experiments were conducted with Fe(III) minerals (namely, HFO and Magnetite) to investigate the impact of biogenically produced Fe(II) on the fate of TNT. The humic acid analog anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), can be reduced by Cellulomonas spp. and was included in these studies because of its ability to function as an electron shuttle between the Fe(III) minerals and the bacterial cell during microbial iron reduction. The work to be presented systematically investigates how different factors control the rate and extent of TNT reduction reactions as well as the mechanisms involved. Anaerobic batch studies show the fastest and most complete reduction of TNT in the presence of HFO and the humic analog AQDS. However, we also observe TNT removal by Cellulomonas in the absence of HFO and AQDS with similar TNT reduction rates but with the accumulation of less reduced and polymerized metabolites as analyzed by RP-HPLC with diode array detection. Autoclaved and non-inoculated samples show no significant transformation of TNT. The results suggest that the addition of AQDS (and thus potentially humic substances) can significantly improve the rate and extent of TNT reduction in iron reducing soil environments. A metabolic pathway map elucidating all the metabolites formed and the underlying mechanisms during the degradation of TNT by the Cellulomonas isolates is being established and will become a powerful tool in understanding the biogeochemical fate of TNT in soil environments.

  15. 2,4,6-tris[bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-1,3,5-triazine as a nitrogen-rich ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MUDDAMARRI HANUMANTHA RAO

    mmol) (in 15 mL of deionized water) was added dropwise to the slurry of cyanuric chloride (0.18 g, 1 mmol) in ace- ... ture was filtered and washed with water to obtain a white solid product of N,N',N”-(1,3,5-triazine-2,4 .... getic materials emerging for military and space appli- cations J. Hazard. Mater. 112 1; (b) Wang R, Xu H,.

  16. Catalytic dimerization of propene with a Bis(salicyladiminato)Nic le (II) catalyst using 2,4,6-trichlorophenol for isomerization reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, H. G.; Schneider, K.J; Gorl, C.

    2009-01-01

    A bis(salicylaldiminato)nic le(II) catalyst was used for dimerization reactions of propene. The catalyst precursor was activated with a triethylaluminum/aluminum trichloride mixture in the presence of phosphines and 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol. The influence of the various components on the catalytic activity and product distribution is shown.

  17. 1-(4,5-Dinitro-10-azatricyclo[6.3.1.02,7]dodeca-2,4,6-trien-10-yl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Tang Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H10F3N3O5, a derivative of andrographolide, the five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation, while the non-planar six-membered ring has a chair conformation. An intramolecular C—H...F hydrogen bond results in the formation of a non-planar six-membered ring adopting a twisted conformation. In the crystal structure, intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers.

  18. Assessing the acid properties of desilicated ZSM-5 by FTIR using CO and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine (collidine) as molecular probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Svelle, S.; Joensen, F.

    2009-01-01

    A series of desilicated ZSM-5 catalysts previously shown to have improved catalytic performance in the MTG (methanol-to-gasoline) reaction [M. Bjorgen, F. Joensen, M.S. Holm, U. Olsbye, K.-P. Lillerud, S. Svelle, Appl. Catal. A 345 (2008) 43] was subjected to thorough examination using FTIR...

  19. CCDC 1477674: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene)-trimethyl-gallium

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Melissa M.

    2017-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  20. CCDC 1477675: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene)-trimethyl-indium

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Melissa M.

    2017-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  1. Synergy of aggregation pheromone with methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate in attraction of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys

    Science.gov (United States)

    The male-produced aggregation pheromone of the brown marmorated stink bug ((BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)), recently identified as a mixture of (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3S,6S,7R,10R)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol, offers new opportunities for manage...

  2. 2,4,6-tris[bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-1,3,5-triazine as a nitrogen-rich ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MUDDAMARRI HANUMANTHA RAO

    include a broad range of neutral molecules and salts of tetrazole due to their high nitrogen content (∼80%), the high positive heat of formation (320 kJ/mol), low sensi- tivity towards impact and excellent thermal stability that results from the aromatic ring system. The introduction of multiple heterocyclic rings within a single ...

  3. Synthesis and Low Temperature Spectroscopic Observation of 1,3,5-Trioxane-2,4,6-Trione: The Cyclic Trimer of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    ozonolysis was then explored.27−29 The Criegee mechanism30 for this chemistry as applied to compound 2a is depicted in Scheme 4. Ozone and the olefin...Unsubstituted Triolefin- Trioxane Scheme 4. Criegee Ozonolysis Mechanism Applied to Compound 2aa aFor clarity, chemistry is represented on one of the three...carbon− carbon double bonds. The Journal of Organic Chemistry Article DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.6b00647 J. Org. Chem. XXXX, XXX, XXX−XXX B the resultant

  4. Effects of chronic 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene exposure on developing bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Norka E; Smith, Ernest E; Maul, Jonathan D; Kendall, Ronald J

    2011-05-01

    Chronic aqueous exposures were conducted using bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles (8 d old) exposed to TNT (0-4 mg/L), 2,4-DNT (0-4 mg/L), and 2,6-DNT (0-8 mg/L) for 90 d. Survival of tadpoles examined using Cox proportional hazard models was reduced at all concentrations tested. Percent of abnormal swimming and other morphological abnormalities after sublethal exposure to TNT, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT at 2 mg/L were also evaluated. The effects of TNT, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT on wet body mass, snout vent length (SVL), and developmental stage of surviving tadpoles were examined. Only 2,4-DNT did not have a significant effect on body mass or SVL, but all three compounds tested had significant effects on survival. Long-term continuous exposure to these compounds at concentrations of 0.25 mg/L could lead to significant changes in growth and survival of larval amphibians. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CCDC 933141: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (2-(bis(2,4,6-Trimethoxyphenyl)phosphino)benzenesulfonato)-(2,6-dimethylpyridine)-methyl-palladium dichloromethane solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, B.

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  6. A Literature Review - Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 3. Occupational Health and Safety Aspects of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    flavoproteins to the nitro group. It is also reduced by partially puri- fied xanthine oxidase to hydroxylaminodinitrotoluene. 4. EXCRETION OF TNT Based upon...level was also decreased and the monoamine oxidase activity was increased in the liver and brain of rats given 100 mg/fkg/day of TNT orally for 3 to 30...of Food ...... .......... ...... 39 i. Meat . . . . * .. ... . . . ........ . 39ii. Milk . . . . . . . . . . .... . ....3 iii. Fat-, carbohydrate-, and

  7. Anharmonic Computations Meet Experiments (IR, Raman, Neutron Diffraction) for Explaining the Behavior of 1,3,5-Tribromo-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinnel, Jean; Latouche, Camille; Ghanemi, Soumia; Boucekkine, Abdou; Barone, Vincenzo; Moréac, Alain; Boudjada, Ali

    2016-02-25

    In the present paper we first show the experimental Raman, infrared, and neutron INS spectra of tribromomesitylene (TBM) measured in the range 50-3200 cm(-1) using crystalline powders at 6 or 4 K. Then, the bond lengths and angles determined by neutron diffraction using a TBM single crystal at 14 K are compared to the computed ones at different levels of theory. Anharmonic computations were then performed on the relaxed structure using the VPT2 approach, and for the lowest normal modes, the HRAO model has led to a remarkable agreement for the assignment of the experimental signatures. A particularity appears for frequencies below 150 cm(-1), and in particular for those concerning the energy levels of "hindered rotation" of the three methyl groups, they must be calculated for one-dimensional symmetrical tops independent of the frame vibrations. This fact is consistent with the structure established by neutron diffraction: the protons of the methyl groups undergoing huge "libration" motions are widely spread in space. The values of the transitions between the librational levels determined by inelastic neutron scattering indicate that the hindering potentials are mainly due to intermolecular interactions different for each methyl group in the triclinic cell.

  8. Alterations of cholinergic markers in transgenic APPSWE/PS1DE9 and APPSWE/PS1A246E mouse models of Alzheimer´s disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, Eva; Jakubík, Jan; Michal, Pavel; Oksman, M.; Iivonen, H.; Tanila, H.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 102, Suppl.1 (2007), s. 133-133 ISSN 0022-3042. [Biennial meeting of the International Society for Neurochemistry /21./ and Annual meeting of the American Society for Neurochemistry /38./. 19.08.2007-24.08.2007, Cancun] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR IAA500110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * cholinergic markers * transgenic mouse model * Alzheimer ´s disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  9. Evaluation of the endocrine activity of 2,4,6-tribromophenol, benzanthrone and benzophenone-2 based on Appendix 7.8-5 of REACH guidance document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duis, Karen; Holbech, Henrik; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    Within a project funded by the German Federal Environment Agency, the practicability of Appendix 7.8-5 of REACH guidance document R.7b was evaluated using three case study substances. Shortcomings in the guidance were identified. An assessment of potential endocrine activity in aquatic vertebrates......, the main findings and the conclusions with regard to Appendix 7.8-5 are highlighted. (1) For benzanthrone, no binding to the estrogen receptor (ER) is predicted using QSAR methods, but potential metabolites with strong affinity to the ER were identified. At present, the endocrine activity...... of such metabolites is not considered in Appendix 7.8-5. Since many in vitro assays have limited metabolic capacity, this is a shortcoming for substances, for which no in vivo data are available. (2) Reporter gene assays indicate weak ER agonism of benzanthrone; in vitro results on androgen receptor mediated effects...

  10. α7 Nicotinic Agonist AR-R17779 Protects Mice against 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis in a Spleen-Dependent Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Grandi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway negatively modulating the inflammatory and immune responses in various clinical conditions and experimental models has long been postulated. In particular, the protective involvement of the vagus nerve and of nicotinic Ach receptors (nAChRs has been proposed in intestinal inflammation and repeatedly investigated in DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis. However, the role of α7 nAChRs stimulation is still controversial and the potential contribution of α4β2 nAChRs has never been explored in this experimental condition. Our aims were therefore to pharmacologically investigate the role played by both α7 and α4β2 nAChRs in the modulation of the local and systemic inflammatory responses activated in TNBS-induced colitis in mice and to assess the involvement of the spleen in nicotinic responses. To this end, TNBS-exposed mice were sub-acutely treated with various subcutaneous doses of highly selective agonists (AR-R17779 and TC-2403 and antagonists (methyllycaconitine and dihydro-β-erythroidine of α7 and α4β2 nAChRs, respectively, or with sulfasalazine 50 mg/kg per os and clinical and inflammatory responses were evaluated by means of biochemical, histological and flow cytometry assays. α4β2 ligands evoked weak and contradictory effects, while α7 nAChR agonist AR-R17779 emerged as the most beneficial treatment, able to attenuate several local markers of colitis severity and to revert the rise in splenic T-cells and in colonic inflammatory cytokines levels induced by haptenization. After splenectomy, AR-R17779 lost its protective effects, demonstrating for the first time that, in TNBS-model of experimental colitis, the anti-inflammatory effect of exogenous α7 nAChR stimulation is strictly spleen-dependent. Our findings showed that the selective α7 nAChRs agonist AR-R17779 exerted beneficial effects in a model of intestinal inflammation characterized by activation of the adaptive immune system and that the spleen is essential to mediate this cholinergic protection.

  11. Comments on Li et al. Effects of in Utero Exposure to Dicyclohexyl Phthalate on Rat Fetal Leydig Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 246

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    an observed change in expression level represent what occurs within individual cells, or does it represent a shift in the ratio of different cell types within the tissue? This commentary attempts to highlight the importance of considering cellularity when interpreting quantitative expression data, using......Profiling the expression levels of genes or proteins in tissues comprising two or more cell types is commonplace in biological sciences. Such analyses present particular challenges, however, for example a potential shift in cellular composition, or ‘cellularity’, between specimens. That is, does...

  12. Chemistry of the heaviest elements--one atom at a time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.

    2000-01-01

    In keeping with the goal of the Viewpoint series of the Journal of Chemical Education, this article gives a 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years. A historical perspective of the importance of chemical separations in the discoveries of the transuranium elements from neptunium (Z=93) through mendelevium (Z=101) is given. The development of techniques for studying the chemical properties of mendelevium and still heavier elements on the basis of measuring the radioactive decay of a single atom (''atom-at-a-time'' chemistry) and combining the results of many separate experiments is reviewed. The influence of relativistic effects (expected to increase as Z 2 ) on chemical properties is discussed. The results from recent atom-at-a-time studies of the chemistry of the heaviest elements through seaborgium (Z=106) are summarized and show that their properties cannot be readily predicted based on simple extrapolation from the properties of their lighter homologues in the periodic table. The prospects for extending chemical studies to still heavier elements than seaborgium are considered and appear promising

  13. Migrating hydrogen in 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidinium(1+).sub.x./sub. hydrogen trioxofluorophosphate(1-).sub.x./sub. monohydrate/2,4,6-triaminopyrimidinium(2+).sub.1–x./sub.trioxofluorophosphate(2–).sub.1–x./sub. monohydrate(0.0 < x < 0.73) with changing temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matulková, I.; Fábry, Jan; Němec, I.; Císařová, I.; Vaněk, Přemysl

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, Jun (2017), s. 1114-1124 ISSN 2052-5206 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray single-structure determination * hydrogen bonding * pi-pi-electron ring interactions * crystallographic databases * fluorine Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.032, year: 2016

  14. The discovery of 260Md and the decay properties of 258Fm, 258m,gMd and 259Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lougheed, R.W.; Hulet, E.K.; Dougan, R.J.; Wild, J.F.; Dupzyk, R.J.; Henderson, C.M.; Moody, K.J.; Hahn, R.L.; Suemmerer, K.; Bethune, G.

    1986-01-01

    We have discovered a new neutron-rich isotope, 260 Md, from 18 O and 22 Ne bombardments of 254 Es. We observed a spontaneous-fission (SF) activity with a half-life of 32 days in electromagnetically separated fractions with mass number 260 from these bombardments and we measured the mass and kinetic energy distributions of this SF activity. The mass distribution was symmetric with the principal energy peak at a total kinetic energy (TKE) of 234 MeV, similar to previous observations for heavy fermium isotopes. Surprisingly, we also observed a smaller symmetric component with a TKE of 195 MeV. We interpret these two peaks in the TKE distribution as arising from two types of fission in the same nucleus, or bimodal fission. The observed fission activity may be either from the SF decay of 260 Md or from 260 Fm which would arise from electron-capture (EC) decay of 260 Md. We have eliminated the possible β - decay of 260 Md by measuring β - -SF time correlations for the decay of 260 Md and we plan to determine whether 260 Md decays by EC by measuring time correlations between fermium X-rays and SF events. We also measured various properties of the heavy fermium and mendelevium isotopes and obtained 1. more accurate cross-sections for the neutron-rich mendelevium isotopes which we use to predict the production rates of yet undiscovered nuclides, 2. improved half-life measurements for 258m,g Md and 259 Md, 3. confirmation of the EC decay of 258m Md by measurement of the fermium X-rays preceding the SF decay of 258 Fm and 4. very substantially improved mass and TKE distributions for the SF decay of 258 Fm and 259 Md. (orig.)

  15. CCDC 1005758: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (mu2-eta5,eta5-Bi-(2,4,6-triethylcyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-yl))-bis(eta5-pentamethyl-cyclopentadienyl)-di-ruthenium

    KAUST Repository

    Mohapatra, Swagat K.

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  16. 4,4′,4′′-Tris(2-pyridyl-2,2′,2′′-[(2,4,6-trimethylbenzene-1,3,5-triyltris(methylenetris(sulfanediyl]tripyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Wen Zhang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C39H33N9S3, features a mesitylene unit substituted with three thioether arms. The distances from the center of mesitylene unit to the N atoms of the three pyridine rings in the arms are 10.05 (1, 9.94 (3 and 8.79 (3 Å. The crystal structure shows weak intramolecular C—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  17. Multivariate soil fertility relationships for predicting the environmental persistence of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-tricyclohexane (RDX) among taxonomically distinct soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katseanes, Chelsea K; Chappell, Mark A; Hopkins, Bryan G; Durham, Brian D; Price, Cynthia L; Porter, Beth E; Miller, Lesley F

    2017-12-01

    After nearly a century of use in numerous munition platforms, TNT and RDX contamination has turned up largely in the environment due to ammunition manufacturing or as part of releases from low-order detonations during training activities. Although the basic knowledge governing the environmental fate of TNT and RDX are known, accurate predictions of TNT and RDX persistence in soil remain elusive, particularly given the universal heterogeneity of pedomorphic soil types. In this work, we proposed overcoming this problem by considering the environmental persistence of these munition constituents (MC) as multivariate mathematical functions over a variety of taxonomically distinct soil types, instead of a single constant or parameter of a specific absolute value. To test this idea, we conducted experiments where the disappearance kinetics of TNT and RDX were measured over a >300 h period in taxonomically distinct soils. Classical fertility-based soil measurements were log-transformed, statistically decomposed, and correlated to TNT and RDX disappearance rates (k -TNT and k -RDX ) using multivariate dimension-reduction and correlation techniques. From these efforts, we generated multivariate linear functions for k parameters across different soil types based on a statistically reduced set of their chemical and physical properties: Calculations showed that the soil properties exhibited strong covariance, with a prominent latent structure emerging as the basis for relative comparisons of the samples in reduced space. Loadings describing TNT degradation were largely driven by properties associated with alkaline/calcareous soil characteristics, while the degradation of RDX was attributed to the soil organic matter content - reflective of an important soil fertility characteristic. In spite of the differing responses to the munitions, batch data suggested that the overall nutrient dynamics were consistent for each soil type, as well as readily distinguishable from the other soil types used in this study. Thus, we hypothesized that the latent structure arising from the strong covariance of full multivariate geochemical matrix describing taxonomically distinguished "soil types" may provide the means for potentially predicting complex phenomena in soils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Multibeam collection for TN246: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas G. Thompson from 2010-01-15 to 2010-03-04, Punta Arenas, Chile to Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  19. The quantum leader: applications for the new world of work Kathy Malloch The quantum leader: applications for the new world of work and Tim Porter-O'Grady Jones and Bartlett $59.95 246pp 9780763764508 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-09

    THE WORLD of leadership is ever changing. In the NHS for example, systems of command and control have been dismantled in favour of co-production, subsidiarity, clinical ownership and system alignment.

  20. National Dam Inspection Program. North Arrowhead Lake Dam (NDI ID PA 00743, PA DER 45-246), Delaware River Basin, Unnamed Tributary of Trout Creek, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    junction with the concreto discharge apron. 7. Irreyular surfaces on the dam and levee should be regraded and back- filled with suitable compacted...for the levee portion- of the dam consist of a 10-inch diameter standpipe, which extends approximately a foot above normal pool ele - vat.ion, and...350 feet downstream of the dam, and 10 houses located along the shores of Arrowhead Lake ( El . 1656-) constitute the hazard area downstream of North

  1. Synthesis and spectroscopic and structural characterization of the monomeric diborylphosphine and diphosphinoborane compounds PhP(BMes2)2 and MesB(PPh2)2 (Mes = 2,4,6-Me3C6H2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.A.; Dias, H.V.R.; Power, P.P.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic and first x-ray structural characterization of a diborylphosphine, PhP(BMes 2 ) 2 (1), and a diphosphinoborane, MesB(PPh 2 ) 2 (2), are described. The structure of 1 has a planar core that involves the phosphorus and two boron atoms and also the five substituent carbons. In addition, the B-P bond lengths are shortened, which suggests a close structural analogy between 1 and the allyl cation. In the case of 2, although the boron remains planar, both phosphorus centers are pyramidal with slightly longer B-P bonds than in 1. Both 1 and 2 are the first examples of their respective classes of compound to be well characterized. Crystal data with Mo Kα radiation (λ = 0.71069 /angstrom/) at 130 K are as follows. 1: a = 14.302 (4) /angstrom/, b = 15.701 (3) /angstrom/, c = 16.601 (6) /angstrom/, β = 109.61 (2)/degrees/; monoclinic, space group C2/c, Z = 4, R = 0.059. 2: a = 7.815 (2) /angstrom/, b = 8.723 (2) /angstrom/, c = 40.147 (10) /angstrom/, β = 94.90 (2)/degrees/; monoclinic, space group P2 1 /n, Z = 4, R = 0.041. A listing of available 11 B and 31 P NMR data on compounds involving triply connected boron and phosphorus centers is also provided and discussed in the context of the data for 1 and 2. 25 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  2. Anti-allergic activity of 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA) via attenuation of IgE-mediated mast cell activation and inhibition of passive systemic anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji Wei; Israf, Daud Ahmad; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Md Hashim, Nur Fariesha; Ng, Chean Hui; Shaari, Khozirah; Tham, Chau Ling

    2017-03-15

    tHGA, a geranyl acetophenone compound originally isolated from a local shrub called Melicope ptelefolia, has been previously reported to prevent ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma by targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis. Mast cells are immune effector cells involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases including asthma by releasing cysteinyl leukotrienes. The anti-asthmatic properties of tHGA could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on mast cell degranulation. As mast cell degranulation is an important event in allergic responses, this study aimed to investigate the anti-allergic effects of tHGA in cellular and animal models of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. For in vitro model of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation, DNP-IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells were pre-treated with tHGA before challenged with DNP-BSA to induce degranulation. For IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis, Sprague Dawley rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of DNP-IgE before challenged with DNP-BSA. Both in vitro and in vivo models showed that tHGA significantly inhibited the release of preformed mediators (β-hexosaminidase and histamine) as well as de novo mediators (interleukin-4, tumour necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin D 2 and leukotriene C 4 ). Pre-treatment of tHGA also prevented IgE-challenged RBL-2H3 cells and peritoneal mast cells from undergoing morphological changes associated with mast cell degranulation. These findings indicate that tHGA possesses potent anti-allergic activity via attenuation of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and inhibition of IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis. Thus, tHGA may have the potential to be developed as a mast cell stabilizer for the treatment of allergic diseases in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CCDC 972836: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (2-(1-(1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium-2-yl)propan-2-ylidene)-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl)-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-aluminium

    KAUST Repository

    Jianghua,

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  4. Surface effects on the crystallization of cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX) and the consequences for its N K X-ray emission spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ilana G; Vila, Fernando D; Jach, Terrence

    2012-10-11

    Recent studies of the crystallization of cyclotrimethylene-trinitramine (RDX) have shown that the presence of the α- and β-phases of the compound is sensitive to the substrate when using drop cast crystallization methods. The specific phase has potential consequences for measurements of the nitrogen K X-ray emission spectrum (XES) that were recently reported for this compound using samples crystallized on In metal substrates. We have determined that the crystallization of RDX on a clean In metal substrate starts out completely as the β-phase but progressively incorporates the α-phase as the film thickens. In addition, we have carried out additional molecular orbital calculations of the N 1s X-ray fluorescence from the valence band, comparing the results expected from the α-and β- phases. The differences due to the presence of the β-phase instead of, or in addition to, the α-phase appear to be minimal.

  5. Aigle Denise, Le Fârs sous la domination mongole. Politique et fiscalité (xiiie-xive s., Cahiers de Studia iranica, 31, Paris, 2005, 246 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Favereau-Doumenjou

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage aborde le thème de la domination mongole en Iran, en mêlant deux approches : l’une, « locale », est centrée sur le Fârs et l’autre, « globale », intègre cette province dans l’ensemble du système administratif et financier mis en place par les ilkhans. Cette double lecture permet à l’auteur d’analyser les processus politique et économique qui touchent une région assujettie aux Mongols sans la déconnecter pour autant de la réalité étatique. Ainsi, tout en suivant, en filigrane, ce q...

  6. The Origin of Continents and Oceans : A. Wegener (translated by J. Biram from the 4th revised German edition, 1929) Dover, New York N.Y., 1966, 246 pp., 63 illus., paperbound U.S.$2.00

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmelen, R.W. van

    In the old controversy between fixism and mobilism a new scientific tool, palaeomagnetism, has recently brought forward independent diagnostic facts. In the discussions about drift many authors quote Wegener's classic work. It is fortunate that it has now appeared in an excellent English translation

  7. ALKYLATION OF THE S-C-S LINKAGE - TOWARDS LIPOPHILIC MONOTOPIC AND DITOPIC HEAVY-METAL RECEPTORS CONTAINING TRITHIANE BUILDING-BLOCKS - MOLECULAR-STRUCTURE OF CIS-2,4,6-TRIBENZYL-1,3,5-TRITHIANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EDEMA, JJH; HOOGENRAAD, M; SCHOONBEEK, FS; KELLOGG, RM; KOOIJMAN, H; SPEK, AL

    Reaction of 1,3,5-trithiane with BuLi in THF at - 50-degrees-C, followed by reaction with an equivalent amount of alkyl halide [n-hexyl (a), benzyl (b), n-dodecyl (c)] affords the corresponding lipophilic alkyl trithianes in moderate to good yields (25-75%). Reactions with xylylene dibromides

  8. What Should Be the Future Direction of the Foreign Policy of the United States?: National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1979-1980, Pursuant to Public Law 88-246.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This book provides information on the 1979-80 national high school debate topic (United States foreign policy). The volume begins with a group of articles selected to provide an overview of foreign policy considerations and a general context for discussions of the three propositions within the designated topic. The book also contains sections with…

  9. 5-[1-(1,3-Dimethyl-2,4,6-trioxohexahydropyrimidin-5-yl-2-oxopropyl]-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H-trione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Steimann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H18N4O7, is a product of the substitution reaction of 5,5-dibromo-1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid with sodium sulfide in aqueous acetone. In the crystal, molecules display neither intermolecular nor intramolecular hydrogen bonding and the two barbiturate rings adopt the keto form.

  10. Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel Energetics 2,6-pyrazinediamine 3,5-dinitro 1 -oxide (LLM-105) and 2,4,6-trinitro-3-bromoanisole (TNBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-06

    testing is recommended to more definitively determine the sensitizing potential of these compounds. The h-CLAT is one of many non- animal skin sensitizing...2015: European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing [28, 29]. The range finding assay was completed a minimum of two...Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing [28, 29]. If the EC200 or EC150 fell below the lowest dose, the values were extrapolated by the

  11. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix C. Gasification/combined-cycle power generation: comparison of alternative systems. 1977 technology status report. [246 references w. abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental aspects of low-Btu gasification/combined-cycle power-generation (LBG/CCPG) plants are assessed, using available published data. Six base-case plants, based on three different gasifiers and two different coals, are investigated. A representative combined power cycle is selected for analysis, and material and energy balances for the six systems are developed. Emissions of various air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and discharge rates of aqueous effluents are also calculated. The costs of electricity produced are derived for the six systems, using estimated plant-investment and operating costs. These costs and the emissions of various pollutants are compared with those for a conventional 500-MWe coal-based power plant using flue-gas cleaning and in compliance with the federal New Source Performance Standards. Finally, the commercialization potential of coal-based combined-cycle plants, based on the technical feasibility of building a first plant in the 1985 period and on economic viability, is evaluated. This evaluation is based on the current status of research and development programs for various components of the combined-cycle plant, such as gas turbines and fuel-gas-cleaning systems, and on the status of the demonstration plant.

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_003155 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HLVPGSTTGK 180 ... Query: 246 VLELPIVLVGTPAQITAQVLAQRERYGFSYLTVLEPYMEAFAPVIEALR 294 ... VLELPIVLVGTPAQITAQVLAQRERYGFSYLTVLEPYME...AFAPVIEALR Sbjct: 241 VLELPIVLVGTPAQITAQVLAQRERYGFSYLTVLEPYMEAFAPVIEALR 289

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_002505 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LADSIPLASDKLAARQLLGL 180 ... Query: 246 VAPELNFVLVDDTARNVITAADAVMLASGTVALECMLLKRPMVVGYRVNAFTA...F 299 ... VAPELNFVLVDDTARNVITAADAVMLASGTVALECMLLKRPMVVGYRVNAFTAF Sbjct: 241 VAPELNFVLVDDTARNVITAADAVMLASGTVALECMLLKRPMVVGYRVNAFTAF 294

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-12

    Feb 12, 2013 ... 30.9. 1. 30.9. 1. 30.9. 1. 30.9. Compressed Air Cylinder. 123.5. 2. 246.9. 2. 246.9. 2. 246.9. Oxygen Cylinder. 123.5. 2. 246.9. 2. 246.9. 2. 246.9. Total. 1,362.2. 3,534.6. 1,306.5. ASD: Atrial Septal Defect; MVR: Mitral Valve Replacement; OPCAB: Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Qty: Quantity ...

  15. Optical simulations for the S3 project - Super separator spectrometer - gamma-electron coincidence spectroscopy of a transfermium nucleus: the 251Md101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechery, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    In analogy with the atomic closed shells giving rise to the stability and high ionisation energies of noble gases, nuclear physics also has its magic numbers of protons and neutrons which enhance nuclear structure stability. Knowledge of the structure of doubly-magic nuclei, both proton and neutron numbers, is crucial to parameterize theoretical models. The discovery of the next and ultimate magic numbers will provide a strong constraint on the many predictions. These two numbers are like the centre coordinates of an area of enhanced stability of the nuclear chart, well known as 'island of stability'. These superheavy nuclei only exist due to pure quantum shell effects. My thesis work deals with two distinct, but complementary, aspects of fundamental physics with the common goal of studying these extreme mass nuclei structure. The first part corresponds to the development of a next generation instrument for nuclear physics to allow synthesis and spectroscopy studies of superheavy nuclei: the Super Separator Spectrometer S 3 . This project will be installed at SPIRAL2 (GANIL) and has been approved by the French Research National Agency (ANR) within the EQUIPEX framework. It has been designed to take advantage of the high intensity heavy ion beam from the LINAC, giving access to a wide range of physical programs. The second part corresponds to the preparation, realisation and analysis of an experiment on 251-Mendelevium in which the very first prompt gamma-electron coincidence spectroscopy was performed for a transfermium nuclei. (author) [fr

  16. 48 CFR 46.705 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.705 Limitations. (a) Except for the warranties in the clauses at 52.246-3, Inspection of Supplies—Cost-Reimbursement, and 52.246-8, Inspection of Research and Development—Cost...

  17. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281754 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MLYNNEILPTLTVESSPRSMNILLYKLLSLRRIEYIAVDR...YP_007115817.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  18. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281805 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MYLILPDLYANMTYQIDERLNTSPCGFLSFADDGTIVMVN...YP_007118829.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  19. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 281806 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se with PAS/PAC and GAF sensors Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MIEESKSIKEKFGVLDSVPVGACLLQDDFVVLFWNTCLEE...YP_007117793.1 1117:4890 1150:2464 1158:318 482564:246 179408:246 diguanylate cycla

  20. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolate, identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, was obtained using the enrichment process with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) as a sole carbon source. This isolate was found to be able to degrade various highly chlorinated phenolic compounds such as pentachlorophenol, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP as well as phenol, ...

  1. DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.8011 Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences Maringá, v. 33, n. 3, p. 239-246, 2011 Acute inflammatory response in Nile tilapia fed probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in the diet = Resposta inflamatória aguda em tilápia do Nilo alimentada com probiótico, Lactobacillus plantarum na dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dotta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced bycarrageenin (500 £gg injected in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia, after fed or not probiotic supplemented diet. Fifty four fish were distributed in six treatments and three replicates: Group A: Fish fed unsupplemented diet: 0.5 mL saline-injected fish; fish injected with 500 £gg carrageenin diluted in 0.5 mL saline; Non-injected. Group B: Fish fed probiotic supplemented diet: saline-injected fish; carrageenin-injected fish; Non-injected. Fifteen days after feeding the fish were injected with carrageenin or saline. After six hours, inflammatory exudate was collected, as well as the blood for hematocrit, red blood cell (RBC and white blood cell (WBC counts, differential count of leucocytes and phagocytic activity in the blood. Supplementation with probiotic did not influence the RBC, hematocrit and the numbers of lymphocytes and basophils in the blood. The number of neutrophils was significantly higher in supplemented fish injected with carrageenin. Glucose concentration in supplemented and non-injected fish was higher than that observed in the saline injected ones. Probiotic potentialized the migration of cells to the inflammatory focus in the animals injected with the carrageenin irritant. In fish injected with saline and carrageenin occurred the greatest phagocytic activity in the blood in relation to those treatments.Este trabalho avaliou a resposta inflamatoria aguda induzida por injecao de carragenina (500 ƒÝg na bexiga natatoria de tilapia do Nilo suplementada ou nao com probiotico na racao. Cinquenta e quatro animais foram distribuidos em seis tratamentos com tres repeticoes: Grupo A: peixes alimentados com racao naosuplementada: Controle (injecao de 0,5 mL de solucao salina esteril; Carragenina (injecao de500 £gg de carragenina; Nao-injetada. Grupo B: peixes alimentados com racao suplementada com probiotico: Controle; Carragenina; Nao-injetada. Apos 15 dias de alimentacao foi injetado carragenina ou salina. Apos 6h, realizou-se a coleta de exsudato e sangue para determinacao do hematocrito, contagens totais de eritrocitos, leucocitos, contagem diferencial de leucocitos e atividade fagocitaria no sangue. A suplementacao com probiotico na racao nao influenciou o numero total de eritrocitos, o hematocrito e os numeros de linfocitos e basofilos no sangue dos animais. O numero de neutrofilos foi maior nos peixes suplementados com probiotico einjetados com carragenina. A glicose nos peixes suplementados com probiotico nao-injetados foi maior do que nos injetados com salina. A suplementacao com probiotico potencializou a migracao de celulas para o foco inflamatorio nos injetados com o flogogeno carragenina. Empeixes injetados com salina e carragenina, ocorreu maior atividade fagocitaria no sangue em relacao aos demais tratamentos.

  2. [KDy(Hptc3(H3ptc]n·2n(Hbipy·5n(H2O, a Layered Coordination Polymer Containing DyO6N3 Tri-Capped Trigonal Prisms (H3ptc = Pyridine 2,4,6-Tricarboxylic Acid, C8H5NO6; Bipy = 2,2'-Bipyridine, C10H8N2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Anwar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, structure and properties of the bimetallic layered coordination polymer, [KDy(C8H3NO63(C8H5NO6]n·2n(C10H9N2·5n(H2O = [KDy(Hptc3(H3ptc]n·2n(Hbipy·5n(H2O, are described. The Dy3+ ion is coordinated by three O,N,O-tridentate doubly-deprotonated pyridine tri-carboxylate (Hptc ligands to generate a fairly regular DyO6N3 tri-capped trigonal prism, with the N atoms acting as the caps. The potassium ion is coordinated by an O,N,O-tridentate H3ptc molecule as well as monodentate and bidentate Hptc ligands to result in an irregular KNO9 coordination geometry. The ligands bridge the metal-atom nodes into a bimetallic, layered, coordination polymer, which extends as corrugated layers in the (010 plane, with the mono-protonated bipyridine cations and water molecules occupying the inter-layer regions: Unlike related structures, there are no dysprosium–water bonds. Many O–HLO and N–HLO hydrogen bonds consolidate the structure. Characterization and bioactivity data are described. Crystal data: C52H42DyKN8O29, Mr = 1444.54, triclinic,  (No. 2, Z = 2, a = 9.188(2 Å, b = 15.7332(17 Å, c = 19.1664(19 Å, α = 92.797(6°, β = 92.319(7°, γ = 91.273(9°, V = 2764.3(7 Å3, R(F = 0.029, wR(F2 = 0.084.

  3. Ayllón, Bruno. La cooperación Sur-Sur y triangular en América Latina. Políticas afirmativas y prácticas transformadoras. Madrid, 2013. Editora Catarata / Universidad Complutense de Madrid (IUDC-UCM), 2013, 246p. ISBN: 978–84–8319–441–6

    OpenAIRE

    Dolcetti, Michele; Universidad Complutense de Madrid

    2013-01-01

    Três anos após a publicação de “La Cooperación Sur-Sur en Latinoamérica. Utopía y realidad”, a equipe de pesquisa do IUDC-UCM editou “La Cooperación Sur-Sur en América Latina. Políticas afirmativas y práticas transformadoras”, texto imprescindível para o estudo da Cooperação Sul-Sul (CSS) no espaço ibero-americano. Em 2010 a análise da CSS era incipiente e suas definições pouco consolidadas; falava-se de “estado embrionário da CSS” e de “doadores emergentes”: definições que expressavam plenam...

  4. Application of alpha spectrometry to the discovery of new elements by heavy-ion-beam bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1983-05-01

    Starting with polonium in 1898, α-spectrometry has played a decisive role in the discovery of new, heavy elements. For even-even nuclei, α-spectra have proved simple to interpret and exhibit systematic trends that allow extrapolation to unknown isotopes. The early discovery of the natural α-decay series led to the very powerful method of genetically linking the decay of new elements to the well-established α-emission of daughter and granddaughter nuclei. This technique has been used for all recent discoveries of new elements including Z = 109. Up to mendelevium (Z = 101), thin samples suitable for α-spectrometry were prepared by chemical methods. With the advent of heavy-ion accelerators new sample preparation methods emerged. These were based on the large momentum transfer associated with heavy-ion reactions, which produced energetic target recoils that, when ejected from the target, could be thermalized in He gas. Subsequent electrical deposition or a He-jet technique yielded samples that were not only thin enough for α-spectroscopy, but also for α- and #betta#-recoil experiments. Many variations of these methods have been developed and are discussed. For the synthesis of element 106 an aerosol-based recoil transport technique was devised. In the most recent experiments, α-spectrometry has been coupled with the magnetic analysis of the recoils. The time from production to analysis of an isotope has thereby been reduced to 10 - 6 s; while it was 10 - 1 to 10 0 s for He-jets and 10 1 to 10 3 s for rapid chemical separations. Experiments are now in progress to synthesize super heavy elements (SHE) and to analyze them with these latest techniques. Again, α-spectrometry will play a major role since the expected signature for the decay of a SHE is a sequence of α-decays followed by spontaneous fission

  5. Characterization of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid variants from oil palm affected by orange spotting disease in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y H; Cheong, L C; Meon, S; Lau, W H; Kong, L L; Joseph, H; Vadamalai, G

    2013-06-01

    A 246-nt variant of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) has been identified and described from oil palms with orange spotting symptoms in Malaysia. Compared with the 246-nt form of CCCVd from coconut, the oil palm variant substituted C(31)→U in the pathogenicity domain and G(70)→C in the central conserved domain. This is the first sequence reported for a 246-nt variant of CCCVd in oil palms expressing orange spotting symptoms.

  6. Antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo of the fungicide prochloraz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Nellemann, Christine; Dalgaard, Majken

    2002-01-01

    The commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz was tested for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Prochloraz, but not the metabolites 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, inhibited the R1881-induced response in an androgen receptor reporter gene assay. In the Her......The commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz was tested for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Prochloraz, but not the metabolites 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, inhibited the R1881-induced response in an androgen receptor reporter gene assay...

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_002939 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IGGTNLRMGLVDEAGTILFRFRQKTDIHEGRAAFYEKLAEGIGILKEHAEQAGFR 60 ... Query: 126 GAGREFDSFLMXXXXXXXXXXXILNGRLWTGIDGVAGEFGHVTVEPQGTSCPC...GNRGCLE 185 ... GAGREFDSFLM ... ILNGRLWTGIDGVAGEFGHVTVEPQGTSCPCGNRGCLE Sbjct: 1...21 GAGREFDSFLMVTLGTGVGGGLILNGRLWTGIDGVAGEFGHVTVEPQGTSCPCGNRGCLE 180 ... Query: 246 A

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_002940 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... deoxyribonuclease [Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP] ... Length = 246 ... Query: 3 ... DSHLHLDQLNSNQVRHILADELIS...GVLAVSTDLASAKQLLQLQRQAPSKLHIAAGFHPEQ 62 ... DSHLHLDQLNSNQVRHILADELISGVLA...VSTDLASAKQLLQLQRQAPSKLHIAAGFHPEQ Sbjct: 1 ... DSHLHLDQLNSNQVRHILADELISGVLAVSTDLASAKQLLQLQRQAPSKLHIAAGFHPEQ 60

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_004578 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DLSGPAIKGK 60 ... Query: 126 LKAWHAAGLPLSLDALNHEPGNFSGEPDXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXAEMTLIDARAEARFRG 185 ... LKAWHA...AGLPLSLDALNHEPGNFSGEPD ... AEMTLIDARAEARFRG Sbjct: 121 LKAWHAAGLPLSLDA...LNHEPGNFSGEPDMSMLLSGSRLQSRLGRAEMTLIDARAEARFRG 180 ... Query: 246 TACHNLFALCLAGYPMGTLYAGSWSEWITDPTREIATGAG 285 ...

  10. CCDC 972511: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 10,11,21,22-tetra-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2,13-bis(3,5-di-t-butylphenyl)-2,14,16a,19b,21,22b-hexahydrodiphenanthro[1,10,9,8-cdefg:1,10,9,8-c'd'e'f'g']s-indaceno[2,1-a:6,5-a']dicarbazole

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Soumyajit

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  11. A Novel Brominated Triazine-based Flame Retardant (TTBP-TAZ) in Plastic Consumer Products and Indoor Dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballesteros Gomez, A.M.; de Boer, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a novel brominated flame retardant named 2,4,6-tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (TTBP-TAZ) is reported for the first time in plastic parts of consumer products and indoor dust samples. TTBP-TAZ was identified by untargeted screening and can be a replacement of the banned

  12. Structural analysis within the Rožná and Olší uranium deposits (Strážek Moldanubicum) for the estimation of deformation and stress conditions of underground gas storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáček, Jiří; Melichar, R.; Hájek, Antonín; Koníček, Petr; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Kříž, P.; Lazárek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2013), s. 237-246 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : structural analysis * deformation * stress * underground gas storage Subject RIV: DH - Mining , incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2013_02/acta_170_13_Ptacek_237-246.pdf

  13. Synthesis of diiodo- and triiodoanilines by aniline iodination with potassium dichloroiodate and preparation of 1,3,5-triiodobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsadze, S.Z.; Titanyuk, I.D.; Chernikov, A.V.; Zyk, N.V.

    2004-01-01

    A new chemiselective method of synthesis of 2,4,6-triiodoaniline and 2,4-diiodoaniline by reaction between aniline and potassium dichloroiodate in HCl solution was suggested. Subsequent desamination of 2,4,6-triiodoaniline results in 1,3,5-triiodobenzene with a high yield [ru

  14. bu ke kao xu shu zhe zhi zai shen shi (不可靠叙述者之再审视)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Krogh

    2008-01-01

    Kinesisk oversættelse af "Reconsidering the Unreliable Narrator" in Semiotica 165 - 1/4 2007: 227-246. Oversætter: Shang Biwu.......Kinesisk oversættelse af "Reconsidering the Unreliable Narrator" in Semiotica 165 - 1/4 2007: 227-246. Oversætter: Shang Biwu....

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, Srinagar, Pauri Garhwal 246 174 Uttarakhand, India; Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, School of Agriculture & Allied Sciences, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar, Pauri Garhwal 246 174, Uttarakhand, India; Department of Horticulture, Aromatic & Medicinal Plant, ...

  16. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Air Quality Management District, 541 U.S. 246 (2004) (EMA v. South Coast). However, that case involved.... South Coast Air Quality Management District [541 U.S. 246 (2004)], NAHB asserts that EPA erred in... be considered ``new'' under EPA's pre-existing (and permissible, in the court's view) definition of...

  17. Prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites in stray dogs in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 246 faecal samples were collected between October 2015 to February 2016, 154 from stray dogs in Harare and 92 from rural dogs in Arcturas, Goromonzi and Christon Bank. The samples were examined by flotation and sedimentation methods and helminth eggs identified and EPG counted. Of the 246 samples, ...

  18. Stemcell Information: SKIP001155 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SKIP001155 ... BJ Human Foreskin Fibroblasts 新生児包皮由来の線維芽細胞 Unknown 246G1 246G1 ... ... ... 0-9 Male ... -- No Human iPS cell lines derived from BJ human foreskin fibroblasts. 新生児包皮から得た線維芽細胞

  19. Stemcell Information: SKIP001158 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SKIP001158 ... BJ Human Foreskin Fibroblasts 新生児包皮由来の線維芽細胞 Unknown 246G5 246G5 ... ... ... 0-9 Male ... -- No Human iPS cell lines derived from BJ human foreskin fibroblasts. 新生児包皮から得た線維芽細胞

  20. Stemcell Information: SKIP001157 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SKIP001157 ... BJ Human Foreskin Fibroblasts 新生児包皮由来の線維芽細胞 Unknown 246G4 246G4 ... ... ... 0-9 Male ... -- No Human iPS cell lines derived from BJ human foreskin fibroblasts. 新生児包皮から得た線維芽細胞

  1. 78 FR 64242 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Lease Sales: 2012-2017; Western Planning Area Lease Sales 229, 233, 238, 246, and 248; Central Planning...: 2013-2014; Western Planning Area Lease Sale 233; Central Planning Area Lease Sale 231, Final... Sales, Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sales 238, 246, and 248 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  2. 78 FR 42544 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Planning Area Lease Sales 229, 233, 238, 246, and 248; Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 227, 231... 233; Central Planning Area Lease Sale 231-Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS... Sale, Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sales 238, 246, and 248 MMAA104000 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean...

  3. Relationship between Indian summer monsoon rainfall and position of Pacific Ocean warm pool

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.; Sastry, J.S.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_246.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_246.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Život i djelo Dmitrija Ivanoviča Mendeljejeva - povodom 100. obljetnice smrti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaščić, V.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The life and activities of D. I. Mendeleyev are presented primarily in view of his role in the progress of chemistry. Born in Tobolsk in 1834 to a numerous and poor family, burdened by the family's bad luck and his ill health, he graduated natural sciences in 1855 at St. Petersburg and was awarded a gold medal for exceptional success. In 1855/56 he was teacher at a secondary school in Odessa. He obtained his MSc degree in 1856 in St. Petersburg where he was appointed lecturer in 1857. He was guest scientist 1859-1861 at the University in Heidelberg where he investigated the behavior of gases under various pressures and temperatures and discovered the criticaltemperature of liquefaction. He achieved his PhD degree in 1865 in St. Petersburg with a thesis on ethanol/water mixtures. Therein he had proven the existence of alcohol hydrates. His work later enabled the elaboration of modern conceptions on solvate formation in solutions. In 1865 he was elected professor at the University in St. Petersburg where he worked until 1890 when he was forced to retire. Preparing his textbook "Fundamentals of Chemistry" in 1869, he discovered that properties of chemical elements depend periodically on atomic weights. This enabled the elaboration of a periodic system as the base for classification in chemistry, as well as for further research and development of chemical science and technology. The international scientific community accepted Mendeleyev's system with distrust and it was generally acknowledged not before three "prophecies" of Mendeleyev were realized by the discovery of gallium (1875, scandium (1879 and germanium (1886. Later, in verification of his predictions, other elements - including transuranics - were discovered. Hence, in honor of the creator of the periodic system, the element of atomic number 101 was named mendelevium (1955. Mendeleyev was reactivated in 1892 as director of the Central Bureau for Measures and Weights where he worked until

  5. Use of Low-cost Adsorbents to Chlorophenols and Organic Matter Removal of Petrochemical Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretha Moreira de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The removal of 2,4 diclorophenol (2,4-DCF and 2,4,6 trichlorophenol (2,4,6 TCF present in  petrochemical wastewater was evaluated using low-cost adsorbents, such as chitin, chitosan and coconut shells. Batch studies showed that the absorption efficiency for 2,4 DCF and 2,4,6 TCF follow the order: chitosan > chitin > coconut shells. Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied to experimental isotherms data, to better understand the adsorption mechanisms. Petrochemical wastewater treatment with fixed bed column system using chitinous adsorbents showed a removal of COD (75% , TOG (90% and turbidity (74-89%.

  6. Gclust Server: 80545 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 80545 SCE_YDL246C=SOR2 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(311) 357 Protein of unknown function, computation...sequences Related Sequences(311) Sequence length 357 Representative annotation Protein of unknown function, computation

  7. Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu inimesepilt / Lauri Mälksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälksoo, Lauri, 1975-

    2016-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk. Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni artikli 8 sisustamisest

  8. 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis of actinomycetes isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the possible closely related compounds were identified as Silane, Pyridine, 2,4,6-trimethyl, Amino malonic acid, 4-benzoxazin, Tris methyl and Cyclohexydimethoxy methyl compounds. Studies were conducted to ...

  9. First aid to aid Helmand / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Välisministeeriumi rahastatud projekti raames saatsid MTÜ Mondo ja Eesti Kaitsevägi Afganistani 1500 esmaabipakki, mis on mõeldud Helmandi provintsis toimunud esmaabikoolituse läbinutele. Koolitusprojekti kogumaksumus on 2 246 580 krooni

  10. Review: Leander Schneider, Government of Development: Peasants and Politicians in Postcolonial Tanzania (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Hyden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Leander Schneider, Government of Development: Peasants and Politicians in Postcolonial Tanzania, Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press, 2014, ISBN: 9780253013996, 246 pp.

  11. The Ratio of Blood Products Transfused Affects Mortality in Patients Receiving Massive Transfusions at a Combat Support Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgman, Matthew A; Spinella, Philip C; Perkins, Jeremy G; Grathwohl, Kurt W; Repine, Thomas; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James; Jenkins, Donald; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2007-01-01

    ...:1 ratio of plasma to red blood cell (RBC) units. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 246 patients at a US Army combat support hospital, each of who received a massive transfusion...

  12. 76 FR 13349 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ..., Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-246). C. Definition of Terms. The definitions applicable to..., color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status...

  13. 89 Book review Bozalek, V., Ng'ambi, D., Wood, D., Herrington, J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ., Herrington, J., Hardman, J. & Amory, A. (eds.) 2015. Activity Theory, Authentic Learning and Emerging Technologies: Towards a. Transformative Higher Education Pedagogy. New York: Routledge. ISBN: 978-1-138-77859-7 (print), 246 pp.

  14. Associateship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship; Associateship. Associate Profile. Period: 2010–2013. Ray, P S . Date of birth: 27 November 1976. Address during Associateship: IISER, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia 741 246. Contact: Email: psray@iiserkol.ac.in. YouTube; Twitter ...

  15. Example of an irreversible Smiles rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbarskii, V.L.; Goncharuk, A.P.; Orlova, E.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have found that N-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-N'-nitroethylenediamine is formed during the nitration of N-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine with a sulfuric-nitric acid mixture. Since a primary aliphatic amino group is not usually nitrated under these conditions, the authors assumed that the N-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-N-nitroethylenediamine formed as a result of the reaction undergoes a Smiles rearrangement. In order to obtain evidence for the formation of the intermediate the authors dissolved the reagent in a mixture deuterosulfuric acid and nitrogen pentoxide and recorded the PMR spectrum of this solutions. The signal for the aromatic protons has a chemical shift typical of N,2,4,6-tetranitro-N-methylaniline

  16. MUK ja maksujärelevalve = TAFIC and tax supervision

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Maksuameti Maksupettuste Uurimise Keskus (MUK) viis 2003. aastal lõpule eeluurimise 42 maksukuritegusid ja rahapesu puudutavas kriminaalasjas ning saatis kohtu ette 76 süüdistatavat 246 kuriteoepisoodis

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction in oxidative stress : On the impact of neuronal KCa channels & calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honrath, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondriale dysfunctie in oxidatieve stress – over de impact van neuronale KCa kanalen en calcium signalering in neurodegeneratie (246 words) Neurodegeneratieve ziektes, zoals de ziekte van Alzheimer of Parkinson, worden gekarakteriseerd door een verlies van neuronen in verschillende

  18. Sequence Classification: 894414 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n S. cerevisiae, which is a model system for studying replication of positive-strand RNA viruses in their natural hosts; Yor246cp || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6324820 ...

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-09-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 164 million barrels of oil and 24.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan.

  20. Terrestrial adaptation of green algae Klebsormidium and Zygnema (Charophyta) involves diversity in photosynthetic traits but not in CO2 acquisition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pierangelini, M.; Ryšánek, David; Lang, I.; Adlassnig, W.; Holzinger, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 246, č. 5 (2017), s. 971-986 ISSN 0032-0935 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Desiccation * Green algae * Photosynthesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  1. Optická tloušťka atmosféry jako parametr pro stanovení obyvatelných zón exoplanet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pintr, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 9 (2013), s. 243-246 ISSN 0447-6441 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Habitable zones * exoplanets * stellar spectral classes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), nitroglycerine which is also used as a vasodilator (a substance that dilates blood vessels) and PETN (pentaerythritol nitrate); so- dium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate), NaHC03. ; sodium carbonate,. Na2C03.

  3. Metabolic Engineering of Seaweeds for the Detoxification of TNT-Contaminated Marine Waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rorrer, Gregory L

    2005-01-01

    This project provided fundamental information on the ability of native marine macroalgae, commonly known as seaweed, to tolerate, take up, and metabolize the explosive compound 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene (TNT...

  4. Ruins of medieval castles as refuges for endangered species of molluscs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřičková, L.; Kučera, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2005), s. 233-246 ISSN 0260-1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : molluscs , medieval castles, Central Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.758, year: 2005

  5. 273-IJBCS-Article-M Gbeassor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    . Gadano A, Gurni A, Carballo M. 2006. Argentine folk medicine; genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family. J. Ethnopharmacol., 103: 246-251. Gisby J, Bryant J. 2002. Efficacy of a new cream formulation of mupirocin: comparison with oral ...

  6. Od krize Západu k jeho katastrofě: Ke strukturalistické koncepci filosofie dějin J. L. Fischera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauza, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2016), s. 229-246 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : crisis * peripetia * catastrophe * 'primitivism' * legitimisation * democracy Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. 77 FR 9970 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ............ September 15, 2010. 80,502 Lexis Nexis, Quality & Miamisburg, OH........ October 6, 2010. Metrics Division...) Corporation, Systems & Technology, Systems Software Development, Z/OS Applications, etc. 81,246 Peacehealth St...

  8. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    sulphur analogue of heptamolybdate [Mo7S24]6– does not exist in alkaline medium and also cannot be isolated from aqueous acidic medium. Keywords. Tetraoxomolybdate; heptamolybdate; tetrathiomolybdate; dinuclear; all-sulphur analogue ...

  9. Full Data of Yeast Interacting Proteins Database (Annotation Updated Version) - Yeast Interacting Proteins Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ast two-hybrid method. (Fields, S. & Song, O. K. (1989) Nature (London) 340, 245-246.) Data analysis method As the indicator of relia...bility of the interactions obtained by the experiment, t

  10. Core Data of Yeast Interacting Proteins Database (Annotation Updated Version) - Yeast Interacting Proteins Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hod As the indicator of reliability of the interactions obtained by the experiment, the literature informati...(Fields, S. & Song, O. K. (1989) Nature (London) 340, 245-246.) Data analysis met

  11. Personal neutron dosemeter of the Czech Republic: Review of basic properties, results of recent tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trousil, J.; Spurný, František; Plichta, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, 7/8 (2006), s. 246-253 ISSN 1210-7085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : detectors * dosemeters * personal dosimetry Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  12. 10 CFR 110.23 - General license for the export of byproduct material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Actinium-225 and -227, americium-241 and -242m, californium-248, -249, -250, -251, -252, -253, and -254, curium-240, -241, -242, -243, -244, -245, -246 and -247, einsteinium-252, -253, -254 and -255, fermium...

  13. Vasopressin in perioperative management of congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vascular resistance and improvement in cardiac output and reduced need for inotropes. This paradoxical response. (vasodilation in some vascular beds) distinguishes it from other vasoconstrictor agents. ... FRACP, Department of Paediatrics, Monash. University, 246, Clayton Road, Clayton, Melbourne, VIC 3168, Australia.

  14. 78 FR 75679 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ..., 114 Stat. 2763 (Dec. 21, 2000). \\4\\ See Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008, Public Law 110-246... related to the relative size of such positions, i.e., the capacity of the market is not unlimited.''). In...

  15. Differential behaviour of a Lesser Himalayan watershed in extreme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Pankaj Chauhan1 Nilendu Singh1 Devi Datt Chauniyal2 Rajeev S Ahluwalia1 Mohit Singhal1. Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248 001, India. School of Earth Science, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar 246 174, India.

  16. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: What Are the Concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gain, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and high triglyceride levels. All of these boost your risk of ... fructose hypothesis: New perspectives on fructose consumption and metabolism. Advances in Nutrition. 2013;4:246. Position of ...

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_003103 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003103 gi|15892818 >1xvqA 25 163 52 203 1e-07 ... ref|NP_360532.1| sco2 protein pr...ecursor [Rickettsia conorii str. Malish 7] ... gb|EAA26363.1| sco2 protein precursor [Rickettsia ... ... ... sibirica 246] gb|AAL03433.1| sco2 protein precursor ... [Rickettsia conorii str. Malish 7] ref...|ZP_00142954.1| ... sco2 protein precursor [Rickettsia sibirica 246] ... pir||G97811 sco2

  18. Photosynthetic Responses to the Environment. Proceedings Symposium held August 24 - 27, 1992. Volume 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-27

    150. satellite 235, 242, 243, 246 data 246 Picea abies 193 remote sensing 247 Pisum sativum 161 seasonal changes 193 Pittosporum tobira 176 senescence...it will be difficult to predict the consequences of ozone depletion on untested species and within a changing global atmosphere and climate ...Strid A, Chow WS, Anderson JM (1990) Effects of supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation on photosynthesis in Pisum sativum . Biochim Biophys Acta 1020

  19. Structural and kinetic study of an internal substrate binding site in dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin A from Amphitrite ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; de Serrano, Vesna; Zhao, Junjie; Le, Peter; Franzen, Stefan

    2013-04-09

    X-ray crystal structures of dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin A (DHP A) from Amphitrite ornata soaked with substrate, 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP), in buffer solvent with added methanol (MeOH), 2-propanol (2-PrOH), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reveal an internal substrate binding site deep in the distal pocket above the α-edge of the heme that is distinct from the previously determined internal inhibitor binding site. The peroxidase function of DHP A has most often been studied using 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) as a substrate analogue because of the low solubility of 2,4,6-TBP in an aqueous buffer solution. Previous studies at low substrate concentrations pointed to the binding of substrate 2,4,6-TCP at an external site near the exterior heme β- or δ-edge as observed in the class of heme peroxidases. Here we report that the turnover frequencies of both substrates 2,4,6-TCP and 2,4,6-TBP deviate from Michaelis-Menten kinetics at high concentrations. The turnover frequency reaches a maximum in the range of 1400-1700 μM, with a decrease in rate at higher concentrations that is both substrate- and solvent-dependent. The X-ray crystal structure is consistent with the presence of an internal active site above the heme α-edge, in which the substrate would be oxidized in two consecutive steps inside the enzyme, followed by attack by H2O via a water channel in the protein. The physiological role of the internal site may involve interactions with any of a number of aromatic toxins found in benthic ecosystems where A. ornata resides.

  20. Ophthalmic Presentations in Leprosy Patients in (South-Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other findings were cataract 24.6%; pterygium 24.6%; refractive errors 21.6%; glaucoma 12.3%; age- related macular degeneration 4.6%; presumed toxoplasmosis 1.2%; optic atrophy 1.2% and squint 0.6%.A total of 10.5% of patients were blind and 39.8% visually impaired. Cataract accounted for 55.6% blindness.

  1. 40 CFR 464.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... tetrachloroethylene (2) Die Casting (§ 465.45(b) and § 464.46(b)): 1. acenaphthene 21. 2,4,6-trichlorophenol 22. para... AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.41...) Casting Quench (§ 464.45(a) and § 464.46(a)): 21. 2,4,6-trichlorophenol 22. para-chloro meta-cresol 31. 2...

  2. Degradation of TATP, TNT, and RDX using mechanically alloyed metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie (Inventor); Sigman, Michael (Inventor); Fidler, Rebecca (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Bimetallic alloys prepared in a ball milling process, such as iron nickel (FeNi), iron palladium (FePd), and magnesium palladium (MgPd) provide in situ catalyst system for remediating and degrading nitro explosive compounds. Specifically, munitions, such as, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX), nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine that have become contaminants in groundwater, soil, and other structures are treated on site to remediate explosive contamination.

  3. Spectroscopic, electrochemical, electronic, and self-assembly properties of naphthalene bisimides asymmetrically and symmetrically N-substituted with triarylamine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybakiewicz, R.; Zapala, J.; Djurado, D.; Nowakowski, R.; Toman, Petr; Pfleger, Jiří; Verilhac, J.-M.; Zagorska, M.; Pron, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 246, 8 September (2013), s. 166-ORGN ISSN 0065-7727. [American Chemical Society National Meeting & Exposition /246./. 08.09.2013-12.09.2013, Indianapolis] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E10040 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 247745 - FlexNet Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : naphthalene bisimides * electrochemistry Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  4. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium andersoni infection in naturally infected cattle of northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mirzai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium commonly infects cattle throughout the world and Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the abundance and associated risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle herds of northwestern Iran. A total number of 246 fecal samples from 138 (56.1% diarrheic (D and 108 (43.9% non-diarrheic (ND cattle were randomly collected and examined by fecal smears stained with Ziehl-Neelsen. For molecular specification, DNA was extracted from collected Cryptosporidium oocysts and a fragment of 1325 bp in size from 18S rRNA gene was amplified. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was 22.3% (55/246. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in examined calves less than 6 month-old was significantly higher than adult cattle. C. parvum and C. andersoni were identified in 20.3% (50/246 and 2.03% (5/246 of examined cattle, respectively. The highest prevalence of C. parvum infection was found in D calves < 6 month-old (13.4%, 33/246, while C. andersoni was only detected in ND cattle (8.9%, 22/246. There was significant difference in the prevalence between male than female cattle. There was no significant difference between prevalence and seasons of investigation. It was concluded that C. parvum was the prevalent species in younger animals compared to older ones as a potentially zoonotic agent in the region.

  5. A New Alkali-Stable Phosphonium Cation Based on Fundamental Understanding of Degradation Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingzi; Kaspar, Robert B; Gu, Shuang; Wang, Junhua; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Yan, Yushan

    2016-09-08

    Highly alkali-stable cationic groups are a critical component of hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs). To search for such cations, we studied the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of a series of quaternary phosphonium (QP) cations. Benzyl tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium [BTPP-(2,4,6-MeO)] was determined to have higher alkaline stability than the benchmark cation, benzyl trimethylammonium (BTMA). A multi-step methoxy-triggered degradation mechanism for BTPP-(2,4,6-MeO) was proposed and verified. By replacing methoxy substituents with methyl groups, a superior QP cation, methyl tris(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)phosphonium [MTPP-(2,4,6-Me)] was developed. MTPP-(2,4,6-Me) is one of the most stable cations reported to date, with <20 % degradation after 5000 h at 80 °C in a 1 m KOD in CD3 OD/D2 O (5:1 v/v) solution. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Organobromine compound profiling in human adipose: Assessment of sources of bromophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shixiong; Wan, Yi; Zheng, Guomao; Luo, Kai; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P.; Lam, Michael H.W.; Hu, Jianying

    2015-01-01

    Bromophenols (BRPs) have been widely detected in human tissues, however, relative proportions from natural products and/or anthropogenic flame retardants are not clear. 21 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 15 MeO/OH-PBDEs, and 10 BRPs were simultaneously quantified in adipose collected from people from New York City, USA. An in vitro assay utilizing human liver microsomes was performed for detected predominant organobromine. High concentrations of 2,4,6-triBRP and PBDEs were observed, and extremely low concentrations of naturally occurring MeO/OH-PBDEs were detected. Similar biotransformatioin rates of BRPs and MeO/OH-PBDEs indicated that the relative high concentration of 2,4,6-triBRP in humans was not of natural origin. Significant correlation observed between concentrations of 2,4,6-triBRP and BDE-209 suggested that the two chemicals may share a common source. Both 2,4,6-triBRP and BDE-209 were detected in commercial ABS resins, suggesting that plastic products made from ABS resins could be potential sources of co-exposure of the two compounds for humans. - Highlights: • 2,4,6-triBRP detected with high concentrations in human was not of natural origin. • Co-exposure of 2,4,6-triBRP and BDE-209 was observed in human samples. • Products made from ABS resins were potential exposure sources of 2,4,6-triBRP. - The profile of organobromine compounds in human together with biotransformation behaviors indicate that anthropogenic sources mainly contribute to high levels of bromophenols in humans

  7. Reactions of aromatic nitro-compounds. LV. Anionic sigma-complexes of sym-trinitrobenzene with the alkoxides of dihydric alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel' nikov, A.I.; Gitis, S.S.; Kaminskii, A.Ya.

    1986-12-20

    The reactions of alkoxides of dihydric alcohols with 2,4,6-trinitroanisole and picryl chloride have been studied. The reaction between 2,4,6-trinitroanisole and sodium 2-hydroxyethoxide, 3-hydroxypropoxide, 4-hydroxybutoxide, and 2-methoxyethoxide gives the unsymmetrical 1-methoxy-1-hydroxyalkoxy-2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate sigma-complexes, which are converted on heating into the 1,1-dihydroxyalkoxy-2,4-6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate sigma-complexes. In the case of sodium 1-methoxy-1-(..beta..-hydroxyethoxy)-2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexa-2,5-dienate, heating results in intramolecular spirocyclization of the ..beta..-hydroxyethoxy grouping to give sodium 6,8,10-trinitro-1,4-dioxaspiro(4,5)deca-6,9-dienate. The reaction of sodium 3-hydroxy-propoxide, 4-hydroxybutoxide, 2-methoxyethoxide, and diethyleneglycolate with picryl chloride gives the symmetrical 1,1-dihyroxyalkoxy sigma-complexes, while sodium 2-hydroxyethoxide forms a sigma-complex with a 1,3-dioxolane spiro-ring. The composition and structures of the sigma-complexes, isolated as their sodium salts, were established by their elemental analyses and PMR and IR spectroscopy.

  8. Transformation of the Ionic X-Ray Contrast Agent Diatrizoate and Related Triiodinated Benzoates by Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Ulrike; Müller, Rudolf

    1998-01-01

    Iodinated X-ray contrast agents are considered to be nondegradable by microorganisms. The decomposition of the ionic X-ray contrast agents Diatrizoate (3,5-di(acetamido)-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid) and Iodipamide (3,3′-adipoyl-diimino-di(2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid) and related triiodinated benzoates (Acetrizoate [3-acetylamino-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid] and Aminotrizoate [3-amino-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid]) by Trametes versicolor has been investigated. The fungus was able to transform all tested triiodinated benzoates cometabolically. During transformation of these compounds, iodide was released, but deiodination was not complete. T. versicolor liberated traces of 14CO2 from uniformly ring-14C-labeled Diatrizoate (3,5-di(acetamido)-2,4,6-triiodobenzoate). Various extracellular metabolites were detected during transformation of the different substances. In the transformation of Diatrizoate, the three main metabolites were identified as 3,5-di(acetamido)-2,6-diiodobenzoic acid, 3,5-di(acetamido)-2,4-diiodobenzoic acid, and 3,5-di(acetamido)-2-iodobenzoic acid, suggesting reductive deiodinations in steps as initial transformation steps. PMID:9687487

  9. Distribution and biodegradability of 14C-residues bound in various soil fractions after treatment of the soil with model 14C-chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, I.; Meer-Bekk, C. ter; Korte, F.

    1986-01-01

    The long-term fate of 14 C-labelled 4-chloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and trichloroethylene in soil was studied under field conditions. As a natural reference compound, 14 C-glucose was also studied. Most of the trichloroethylene applied was lost by volatilization and/or degradation during a 25-week period. The soils were exhaustively extracted with methanol and then re-extracted with acetate buffer solutions. The extracted soils were fractionated into humic acid, fulvic acid, humin and inorganic fractions. With the exception of 2,4,6-trichloroaniline the bound residues were more than 31% of the amount of radiocarbon initially applied. Insoluble residues of the natural compound glucose were bound preferentially in the inorganic fraction, whereas 14 C of the four xenobiotics was concentrated more in the humic acid fraction, with the portion increasing in the order: glucose 14 C in soil is present in a metabolized form. (author)

  10. 1987 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    TECNWIQUES IN TX2 NORTH INDIAN OCEAN 24-HOUR 3i5AW FORECAST ERROR (NM) JTWc OTCM Csuw TOTL K?AC CLIM XTRF JTWC 54 144 O’scu 38 152 Csuw 37 239 TOTL 10 176...246 0 (V-4 11 199 12 150 153 -46 158 0 44 246 12 15s 45 138 45 1? 2 170 -76 165 7 172 34 172 0 XTRF 38 130 45 158 44 246 12 158 45 138 -45 172 45 141... XTRF 11 209 26 419 2e 4el 7 3ee 29 310 29 322 29 330 265 56 330 -e9 330 -151 391 3 330 20 330 ● 330 0 72-BWR N2AN FORECAST 39ROR (1414J Jnrc OTcN Csun

  11. 溶媒に依存したスタンナンチオンの安定性<ミニノート>

    OpenAIRE

    斎藤, 雅一; 時任, 宣博; 岡崎, 廉治

    1998-01-01

    Stannanethione, Tbt(mes)Sn=S (Tbt = 2,4,6-tris[bis(trimethylsilyl)methyl]phenyl; Mes = mesityl) was aynthesized by the reaction of the corresponding kinetically stabilized diarylstannylene, Tbt(Mes)Sn:, with styrene episulfide. In THF-Et2O, Tbt(mes)Sn=S reacted with styrene oxide to give the corresponding [3+2]cycloadducts even at room temperature as in the case of more hindered stable stannanethione, Tbt(Tip)Sn=S (Tip = 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl). On the contrary, Tbt(Mes)Sn=S dimerized in ...

  12. Low cycle fatigue life of two nickel-base casting alloys in a hydrogen environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of low cycle fatigue tests on alloy Mar-M-246 and Inconel 713 are presented. Based on the limited data, it was concluded that the Mar-M-246 material had a cyclic life in hydrogen that averaged three times higher than the alloy 713LC material for similar strain ranges. The hydrogen environment reduced life for both materials. The life reduction was more than an order of magnitude for the 713LC material. Porosity content of the cast specimens was as expected and was an important factor governing low cycle fatigue life

  13. Description of All Solutions of a Linear Complementarity Problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2009), s. 246-252 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : linear complementarity problem * Moore-Penrose inverse * verified solution * absolute value equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.892, year: 2009 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol18_pp246-252.pdf

  14. 77 FR 2278 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive License for a U.S. Army Owned Invention to Triumph Actuation Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ....S. patent 7,228,779, issued June 12, 2007, ``Automatic Primer Feed Mechanism''; U.S. patent 7,246,549, issued July 24, 2007, ``Automatic Primer Feed Mechanism; U.S. patent 7,318,369, issued January 15, 2008, ``Out-of- Battery Lock for the Automatic Primer Feed Mechanism''; U.S. patent 7,845,264, issued...

  15. Perceived Parenting Styles, Personality Traits and Sleep Patterns in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58 [plus or minus] 1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression;…

  16. Conservative Ideology and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…

  17. 7 CFR 900.200 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations § 900.200 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the terms as defined in the Act shall apply with... Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 (50 Stat. 246, 7 U.S.C. 601), as amended; (b) The term Department...

  18. Learning Styles and Their Relationship to Stress and Coping in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and coping skills. There were significant…

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 246 ... Vol 8, No 1 (2011), Evaluation of physical stability of oleogels containing diclofenac diethylamine, Abstract. DC Goupale, B ... Vol 2, No 1 (2005), High performance liquid chromatographic determination of ciprofloxacin in human plasma and urine and its application to pharmacokinetic studies, Abstract.

  20. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts for...

  1. A survey for piroplasmids in horses and Bactrian camels in North-Eastern Mongolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sloboda, M.; Jirků, Milan; Lukešová, D.; Qablan, M.; Batsukh, Z.; Fiala, Ivan; Horin, P.; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 179, 1-3 (2011), 246-249 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/1972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Piroplasmosis * Babesia * Theileria * Horse * Bactrian camel * Dog Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  2. CEFLES2: the remote sensing component to quantify photosynthetic efficiency from the leaf to the region by measuring sun-induced fluorescence in the oxygen absorption bands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rascher, U.; Agati, G.; Alonso, L.; Cecchi, G.; Champaigne, S.; Colombo, R.; Damm, A.; Daumard, F.; de Miguel, E.; Fernandez, G.; Franch, B.; Franke, J.; Gerbig, C.; Gioli, B.; Gomez, J.A.; Goulas, Y.; Guanter, L.; Gutierrez-de-la-Camara, O.; Hamdi, K.; Hostert, P.; Jimenez, M.; Košvancová, Martina; Lognoli, D.; Meroni, M.; Miglietta, F.; Moersch, A.; Moreno, J.; Moya, I.; Neininger, B.; Okujeni, A.; Ounis, A.; Palombi, L.; Raimondi, V.; Schickling, A.; Sobrino, J.A.; Stellmes, M.; Toci, G.; Toscano, P.; Udelhoven, T.; van der Linden, S.; Zaldei, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 7 (2009), s. 1181-1198 ISSN 1726-4170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : remote sensing * photosynthetic efficiency * fluorescence * CO2 flux * gross primary production * water-stress * steady-state Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2009 www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/6/2217/2009/

  3. 77 FR 23365 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Biobased Procurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... require contractors to report the biobased products purchased under service and construction contracts... compliance with the contract performance schedule; (b) Meeting reasonable performance requirements; or (c) At... implements additional elements of 7 U.S.C. 8102 as amended by Public Law 110-246. This final rule also meets...

  4. Tracking Bottom Waters in the Southern Adriatic Sea Applying Seismic Oceanography Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    the R/V Urania (Italian National Research Council, CNR), the seismic acquisition of G. Bortoluzzi (CNR-ISMAR Bologna) and Exploration Electronics LTD...Langone. L, Miserocchi, S.. Tesi . T., Foglini. F.. 2007. Particle transport in the Bari Canyon (Southern Adriatic Sea). Marine Geology 246(2-4

  5. Spring 2009 Water Mass Distribution, Mixing and Transport in the Southern Adriatic after a Low Production of Winter Dense Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    Temperature– Depth (CTD) SBE911Plus profiler on a rosette. Temperature mea- surements were performed with an accuracy of 0.001 1C using a Seabird Electronics ...system, SW adriatic margin (Central Mediterranean). Marine Geology 246, 208–230. Turchetto, M., Boldrin, A., Langone, L., Miserocchi, S., Tesi , T

  6. 76 FR 68510 - Grays Harbor Paper, LLC, Including on-site Workers From Barrier West, Inc., Hoquiam, WA; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Grays Harbor Paper, LLC, Including on-site Workers From Barrier West... Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2273), and Section 246 of the Trade Act of 1974 (26 U.S.C. 2813), as amended, the...

  7. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…

  8. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Haemophilia; genetic disorder; Royal disease; blood; history. Author Affiliations. Anindita Bhadra1. Behaviour and Ecology Lab, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, Mohanpur 741 246, West Bengal, India. Resonance – Journal of ...

  9. Preservice Teachers' Memories of Their Secondary Science Education Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Usak, Muhammet; Fancovicova, Jana; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-01-01

    Understanding preservice teachers' memories of their education may aid towards articulating high-impact teaching practices. This study describes 246 preservice teachers' perceptions of their secondary science education experiences through a questionnaire and 28-item survey. ANOVA was statistically significant about participants' memories of…

  10. Quality characteristics of bread produced from composite flours of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract and ash contents of the soy supplemented breads (SSBs) increased with progressive increase in the proportion of soy flour, with the 15% SSB having highest values of 8.39, 0.14, 2.46 and 1.17%, respectively, while lowest values were recorded for the whole wheat bread (WWB).

  11. Zoonotic microsporidia in dogs and cats in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piekarska, J.; Kicia, M.; Wesołowska, M.; Kopacz, Z.; Gorczykowski, M.; Szczepankiewicz, D.; Kváč, Martin; Sak, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 246, 15 November (2017), s. 108-111 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cat * dog * Encephalitozoon spp. * Enterocytozoon bieneusi * zoonosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.356, year: 2016

  12. K možným předlohám libreta Dvořákovy opery Vanda a k jeho dramatické výstavbě

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabrielová, Jarmila

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2012), s. 233-246 ISSN 0018-7003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/08/1020 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Antonín Dvořák * Vanda * dramatic structure Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  13. A Book as a Gift for Ferdinand I of Habsburg. An unknown Bohemical manuscript from the collections of the Austrian National Library in Vienna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárovcová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2015), s. 236-246 ISSN 1804-1132 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Fabián Puléř * Johannes Cavalerius * Ferdinand I of Habsburg * illuminated manuscripts * prayer books * Turkish threat Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  14. 77 FR 6587 - PHB Die Casting a Subsidiary of PHB, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Concepts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-64,292] PHB Die Casting a... Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2273), and Section 246 of the Trade Act of...

  15. 75 FR 11914 - Chrysler, LLC, Mount Elliott Tool and Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Modern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Elliott Tool and Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Modern Professional Services, TAC Automotive... Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2273), and Section 246 of the...

  16. Solitons and spin transport in graphene boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solitons and spin transport in graphene boundary. KUMAR ABHINAV1, VIVEK M VYAS2 and PRASANTA K PANIGRAHI1,∗. 1Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata, Mohanpur 741 246, India. 2Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Tharamani, Chennai 600 113, India. ∗Corresponding author.

  17. Nutrient and antinutrient components of Jatropha tanjorensis ( J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition, mineral composition (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, and Zn), ascorbic acid and antinutrients (Tannin, Trypsin, phytate and oxalate) content of both raw and blanched Jatropha tanjorensis (J.L Ellis & Saroja) were reported. The crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, carbohydrate and ash are 24.6, 9.7, 4.5, ...

  18. Optimization of the thickness of a conductiong polymer, polyaniline, deposited on the surface of poly(vinyl chloride) membranes: A new way to improve their potentiometric response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shishkanova, T. V.; Matějka, P.; Král, V.; Šeděnková, Ivana; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 624, č. 2 (2008), s. 238-246 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : potentiometry * membrane electrode * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2008

  19. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and fractions of the seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Fitoterapia 65 3: 267-278. Okonji CO, Iwu MM (1988). Control of Schistosomiasis using Nigerian medicinal plants as molluscicides. Int. J. Crude drug Res. 26(4): 246-. 252. Russel AD, Fur JR (1977). Antibacteria activity of a new chloroxylenol prepration containing ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid. J. Appl.

  20. 78 FR 69286 - Electric System Construction Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1726 Electric System Construction Policies and Procedures CFR Correction In Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1600 to 1759, revised as of January 1, 2013, on page 246, in Sec. 1726.14, the second definition of Minor modification...

  1. TVT-S in the U Position - Anatomical Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, P.; Naňka, O.; Martan, A.; Grim, M.; Zvárová, Jana; Mašata, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2011), s. 241-246 ISSN 0937-3462 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : anatomy * female * obturator bundle * stress urinary incontinence * tension-free vaginal tape Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth Impact factor: 1.832, year: 2011

  2. Efficiency of different coagulants combination for the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    of reduction in value of total solid (TS), suspended solid (SS), total dissolved solid (TDS), color, pH, [Cl-. ], Alkalinity, biological ... tannery effluents, the lowest value for color (246.67 in Hazen unit) was found in the treatment T5, pH value 7.13 was ... increasing society concern with regard to the importance of the preservation ...

  3. Aerobic biotransformation of 2, 4, 6–trichlorophenol by Penicillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) is a toxic compound widespread in the environment, with numerous applications. There are many fungi capable of degrading it, although little attention has been paid to non wood-degrading species. Penicillium chrysogenum ERK1 was able to degrade 85% of TCP in batch cultures in the ...

  4. Modafinil Trial in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A film-coated tablet formulation of modafinil (ProvigilR was used to treat a total of 246 patients, ages 6 to 17 years, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, and other centers.

  5. Compatibility Effects and Preference Reversals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-21

    0 Aspirin 0 Lead Paint OCoal Burning (Pollution) FACTOR I Skateboards* * Auto Exhaust (CO) 0 LNG Storage 8 Transport * Nerve Gas Accidents 0 D- CON...246, 160-73. sented to the First International Con- Kerr, R. A., " Petroleum Exploration: Dis- ference on Foundations of Utility and Risk couragement

  6. When Life Played Dice with Royal Blood

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anindita Bhadra1. Behaviour and Ecology Lab, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, Mohanpur 741 246, West Bengal, India. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 22, Issue 12 · Current Issue Volume 22 | Issue 12

  7. The analysis of halogenated flame retardants by GC-HRMS in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolic, Terry M; Shen, Li; Macpherson, Karen; Fayez, Laila; Gobran, Teresa; Helm, Paul A; Marvin, Chris H; Arsenault, Gilles; Reiner, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    The analytical conditions required to determine polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and a variety of other halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in environmental samples are reported. HRMS can be used to analyze brominated diphenylethers (BDEs), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) as well as for a number of other emerging HFRs like allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE), 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), octabromotrimethylphenylindane (OBIND), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), Dechlorane Plus (DP), hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO), tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH), 1,2,5,6-tetrabromocylcooctane (TBCO), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTeBB), and bis(2-ethly-1-hexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP). The detection in environmental matrices and use of these non-BDE flame retardants is reviewed. A method for the analysis of PBDEs by isotope dilution HRMS and 16 other halogenated compounds primarily used as flame retardants is reported. A survey of selected environmental samples, which included Lake Ontario surface and tributary sediments, municipal wastewater effluent, sludge, and mussel tissues, detected PBDEs, DP, DBDPE, BTBPE, PBEB, BB-153, and HBB.

  8. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Einstein's Last Dream: The Space - Time Unification of Fundamental Forces. Abdus Salam. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 246-253. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    •••••••••• il H ., G 1 D., i'1 1 ¥I il. ANNUS MIRABHIS. 232 The Crisis of Science. Satyendra Nath Bose L....-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _----I. 242 The Scientific Outlook. C V Raman. 246 Einstein's last Dream: The Space - Time Unification of Fundamental Forces.

  10. Supporting the production of quality livestock vaccines for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-09

    Apr 9, 2018 ... Photo: IDRC/Bartay. Kenya has an estimated 18.2 million cattle, 16.3 million sheep, and 24.6 million goats. The majority of these animals are held by smallholder farmers who depend on livestock for their livelihoods. However, approximately 25% of these animals succumb to preventable diseases such as ...

  11. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keyhole depth instability in case of CW CO2 laser beam welding of mild steel · N Kumar S Dash A K ... April 2011 pp 251-265. Melt pool vorticity in deep penetration laser material welding ... April 2013 pp 235-246. Study of dimensionless quantities to analyse front and rear wall of keyhole formed during laser beam welding.

  12. The Pathology of Breast Biopsies in a Sample of Nigerian Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibroadenoma was the commonest benign lesion and accounted for 61.7% of all benign lesions with a mean age of cases been 24,6 years. Age groups 40-49 and 30-39 years accounted for most malignant lesions (33.5% and 27.6% respectively) with invasive ductal carcinoma been the commonest. Conclusion: Benign ...

  13. The use of the fungus Dichomitus squalens for degradation in rotating biological contactor conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Čeněk; Trošt, N.; Šušla, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina; Mikesková, Hana; Válková, H.; Malachová, K.; Pavko, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 114, JUN 2012 (2012), s. 241-246 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00200901; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB021019 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Dichomitus squalens * Biodegradation * Biofilm cultures Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.750, year: 2012

  14. Generic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lombard, L.; Houbraken, J.; Decock, C.; Samson, R.A.; Meijer, M.; Réblová, Martina; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, SI Jun (2016), s. 156-246 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/0038 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodegraders * generic concept * human and plant pathogens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  15. File list: Pol.Epd.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Epd.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Epidermi...246,SRX663247,SRX807622 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Epd.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  16. 75 FR 34175 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... domestic industry in an investigation resulting in-- (A) An affirmative determination of serious injury or... TA-W-73,906: Ocean Beauty Seafoods, LLC, Los Angeles, CA: April 10, 2009 TA-W-72,246: Greenheck Fan...: Oakley Industries Sub Assembly Division, Incorporated, Leased Workers QPS Companies, Belvidere, IL...

  17. Holt Oram syndrome: a registry-based study in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Boban, Ljubica; Greenlees, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    were reported in all cases. Agenesis/hypoplasia of radius was present in 49.2% (30/61), ulnar aplasia/hypoplasia in 24.6% (15/61) and humerus hypoplasia/phocomelia in 42.6% (26/61) of patients. Congenital heart defects (CHD) were recorded in 78.7% (48/61) of patients. Isolated septal defects were...

  18. 75 FR 62560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency... Removal, Form I-246, OMB No. 1653-0021. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs... Desk Officer for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Department of Homeland Security, and sent...

  19. Solvable quantum lattices with nonlocal non-Hermitian endpoint interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 361, OCT (2015), s. 226-246 ISSN 0003-4916 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : exactly solvable quantum models * non-Hermitian boundary conditions * new nonlocal boundary conditions * physical inner products Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.375, year: 2015

  20. Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, K; Kawachi, I; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ≤ 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers.

  1. Study on cellular adhesion of human osteoblasts on nano-structured diamond films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáčová, M.; Brož, A.; Babchenko, Oleg; Kromka, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 246, 11-12 (2009), 2774-2777 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : cells adhesion * diamond nanostructures Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.150, year: 2009

  2. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 47, No 3 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass between species by the fractal dimension of the vascular system and body composition · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C.Z. Roux, 246-254. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v47i3.1 ...

  3. Method for the production of high-purity triaminotrinitrobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1977-01-01

    Triaminotrinitrobenzene is readily formed by the nitration of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene to 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene followed by amination to triaminotrinitrobenzene. The purity of the triaminotrinitrobenzene is significantly improved if, during the amination step, sufficient water is present that the byproduct ammonium chloride formed during the amination is rendered at least semideliquescent.

  4. 76 FR 31338 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Medicare program and Medicare plans design and monitor patient-centered quality improvement initiatives... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [Document Identifier CMS-10147, CMS-10396 and CMS-R-246] Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection...

  5. Mechanical small bowel obstruction in children at a tertiary care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The operative procedures performed included enterotomy in 37 (29.3%), milking of worms in 18 (14.2%), resection anastomosis in 31 (24.6%) and adhesiolysis in 13 (10.3%). Appendicular perforation was seen in 4 (1.9%) and worm in gall bladder in 1 (0.5%) patients. Surgical complications were wound infection in 18 ...

  6. Capacitive contribution to Li-storage in TiO2 (B) and TiO2 (anatase)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lásková, Barbora; Zukalová, Markéta; Zukal, Arnošt; Bouša, Milan; Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 246, JAN 2014 (2014), s. 103-109 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0814; GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : titanium dioxide * TiO2 (B) * Li-insertion Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 6.217, year: 2014

  7. Nonwoven polymeric nanofiber scaffolds utilizable for spinal cord injury repair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přádný, Martin; Lesný, Petr; Martinová, L.; Michálek, Jiří; Syková, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 32, Suppl. A (2007), s. 67 ISSN 0377-8282. [AFMC International Medicinal Chemistry Symposium /6./. 08.07.2007-11.07.2007, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA MPO 1H-PK2/46 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : nanofiber scaffolds * nonwoven Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  8. El trienio cubano de un asesor checo. La Cuba revolucionaria en los diarios del médico y político František Kriegel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráková Bortlová, Hana

    Suppl., č. 40 (2015), s. 147-156. ISBN 978-80-246-2569-0. ISSN 1210-6690 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Czechoslovak-Cuban cooperation in early 1960s * Czechoslovak experts in Cuba * Cuban diaries of František Kriegel Subject RIV: AB - History

  9. Developing a Valid Version of an Inventory to Measure Anger in Mexican Adolescents of Middle School Level: The ML-STAXI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Escamilla-Tecalco, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    The goals were to develop a valid version of the Multicultural Latin American Inventory of Anger Expression and Hostility (ML-STAXI) for middle school Mexican youth (ML-STAXI-MS) and to test a new Questionnaire about Anger Expression with Physical Aggression (QAEPA). Five hundred and four adolescents (258 males, 246 females); (M[subscript age] =…

  10. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp 239-246. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand complexes of Zn(II) and Co(II) with amino acids: Relevance to zinc binding sites in zinc fingers .... Viscometric and thermodynamic studies of interactions in ternary solutions containing sucrose and aqueous alkali metal halides at 293.15, 303.15 and 313.15 K.

  11. Distribution of the common hamster in the Czech Republic after 2000: retreating to optimum lowland habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkadlec, Emil; Heroldová, Marta; Víšková, V.; Bednář, M.; Zejda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 246-253 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cricetus cricetus * questionnaire * Rodentia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  12. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    hour (246.2) and language barrier (239.3) were identified as constraints to the use of soap operas ... USA, South Africa, the Philippines, Turkey, Gambia, and Pakistan. ..... Language barrier. 239.3. Inability to comprehend soap opera messages. 227.3. Un-interesting story line. 222.0. Untimely agricultural information. 220.0.

  13. Measurement of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries on transversely polarised protons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregisilio, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chaberny, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Donskov, S.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Efremov, A.V.; El Alaoui, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Käfer, W.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konopka, R.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Krämer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlütter, T.; Schmitt, L.; Schopferer, S.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 692, č. 4 (2010), s. 240-246 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : transverse spin effects * proton * Collins asymmetry * Sivers asymmetry Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 5.255, year: 2010

  14. 76 FR 61746 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... posted by the subject firm in Malaysia at the same time as the domestic layoffs. Additionally, the... imports of these articles from Malaysia. In a letter submitted to the Department on June 13, 2011, the... facilities overseas. AR 152, 212-218, 228-231, 244, 245-246, 271-279. After the design and development of the...

  15. Polymer brush-functionalized chitosan hydrogels as antifouling implant coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buzzacchera, I.; Vorobii, M.; Kostina, N. Yu.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Riedel, Tomáš; Bruns, M.; Ogieglo, W.; Möller, M.; Wilson, C. J.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2017), s. 1983-1992 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chitosan * hemocompatible * polymer brushes Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016

  16. Bullying by Definition: An Examination of Definitional Components of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246

  17. Montmorillonite K-10 as a catalyst in the synthesis of 5, 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6. Basappa C S, Ananda Kumar S, Nanjunda S, Kazuyuki. S and Kanchugarakoppal S R 2009 Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17 4928. 7. Zhang W and Lu Y 2003 Org. Lett. 5 2555. 8. Suzen S and Buyukbingol E 2000 Farmaco 55 246. 9. Mandal A, Krishnan R S G, Thennarasu S, Panigrahi S and Mandal A B 2010 Colloids Surf.

  18. (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) genotypes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular assessment of genetic diversity in cluster bean. (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) genotypes. Rakesh Pathak, S. K. Singh, Manjit Singh and A. Henry. J. Genet. 89, 243–246. Figure 1. RAPD profile of 1–16 Cyamopsis tetragonoloba genotypes amplified with arbitrary primer OPA-16. Figure 2. RAPD profile of 17–32 ...

  19. Acta Theologica - Supplementum 17

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pavel Aleksadrovič Florenskij's method of discerning spiritual truth · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Camilleri, 228-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/actat.v32i2S.13 ...

  20. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Knight J C, Leveson N G 1986 Proc. of 16th Int. Symp. on Fault Tolerant Computing, Vienna (Silver. Spring, MD: IEEE Comput. Soc. Press) pp. 165–170. Kopetz H 1985 in Resilient computing systems (London: Collins). Lampson B, Sturgis H 1981 Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 105: 246—265. Lee P A, Anderson T 1985 in ...