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Sample records for menarche

  1. Predictive factors for early menarche in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, W C; Liu, Y H; Chi, J; Wu, V; Chen, A

    1997-06-01

    The rapid increase of breast cancer in Taiwan has prompted the authors to evaluate the predictive factors of early menarche among contemporary Taiwanese girls. A total of 895 four-grade girls from eight elementary schools in Taipei City and County were identified as a closed cohort from the first semester of 1993. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and school records. A total of 799 girls who had not menstruated in the first year remained in the group through 1994. The effects of potential predictive factors were assessed by logistic regression. Among the 799 girls followed, 69 (8.6%) had first menstruation between the fourth and fifth grades. Height, weight, body mass index and maternal early onset of menarche were positively related to the onset of menarche within the preceding year. Energy consumption during exercise showed only moderate association after being adjusted for age and weight. Calorie intake from junk food was not associated with early menarche within the preceding year. Poor interpersonal family relationships and stressful life events also showed a moderate association with early menarche. The data obtained supported the hypothesis that height, weight, body mass index and maternal early menarche are positive predictive factors of early menarche. The effects of exercise and childhood stress are less prominent.

  2. Age at menarche, reactions to menarche and attitudes towards menstruation among Mexican adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Alcalá-Herrera, Verónica

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationships between menarcheal timing and both menarcheal experience and attitudes toward menstruation in Mexican girls. Cross-sectional survey. Sample of adolescents attending 10 different public schools. Mexican postmenarcheal adolescents, aged 11-16 years. Participants answered 1 questionnaire about menarcheal experience and another about attitudes towards menstruation. Early maturers (menarche before 11 years) were more likely than average (menarche at 11 or 12 years) or late maturers (menarche at 13 or more years) to state they had not known what they should do at the moment they got their first period (P menstruating (P menstruation (P menstruation than their peers (P menstruation. Since these girls have limited or in some cases no time for preparation, they need special support. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Age at menarche and risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Sofie; Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Brok, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested a relationship between the age at menarche and risk of asthma development. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between the age at menarche and the risk of asthma. METHODS: This systematic review and meta...... RevMan to calculate summary odds ratios. The risk of publication bias was assessed graphically by using a funnel plot and the robustness of the overall estimate obtained was assessed by using sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The searches identified 61 potentially relevant articles of which seven...... articles, with a total of 22,859 subjects, matched the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Pooling of the seven studies showed that girls with early menarche (risk of asthma relative to girls with late menarche; random effects odds ratio = 1.37 (1.15-1.64), (p = 0...

  4. Menarcheal age and nutritional status among school girls' in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Menarche is a significant indicator of maturity and puberty in adolescent girls. There has been a decline in menarcheal ago over the years with many factors including nutrition having an influence on it. The aim of this study is to determine the age at menarche and its relationship with anthropometric ...

  5. Menarcheal age of girls from dysfunctional families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toromanović, Alma; Tahirović, Husref

    2004-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine median age at menarche and the influence of familial instability on maturation. The sample included 7047 girls between the ages of 9 and 17 years from Tuzla Canton. The girls were divided into two groups. Group A (N=5230) comprised girls who lived in families free of strong traumatic events. Group B (N=1817) included girls whose family dysfunction exposed them to prolonged distress. Probit analysis was performed to estimate mean menarcheal age using the Probit procedure of SAS package. The mean menarcheal age calculated by probit analysis for all the girls studied was 13.07 years. In girls from dysfunctional families a very clear shift toward earlier maturation was observed. The mean age at menarche for group B was 13.0 years, which was significantly lower that that for group A, 13.11 years (t=2.92, Pdysfunctional families mature not later but even earlier than girls from normal families. This supports the hypothesis that stressful childhood life events accelerate maturation of girls.

  6. Menarche menopause breast cancer risk individual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer; Bausch-Goldbohm, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected

  7. Menarche and Its Determinants in Adolescent Girls

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    Moushami Ghimire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, psychosocial, cognitive, emotional and social changes begin during puberty and continue throughout adolescence. The age at which a female reaches sexual maturity is critical in determining her future reproductive health and success. The aim of the study was to assess the average age of sexual feeling and menarche among the adolescent girls and its determinants. Methods: Three hundred fifty five respondents were selected through simple random sampling from three secondary schools (namely Sunrise Boarding School, Swaraswati Secondary School and Gyanjyoti Samudayak Bidhyalaya in Palpa for the cross-sectional study. Structured interview schedule was used to collect information. Data was tabulated in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed with SPSS-16. Results: Most of the girls (44.8% attained menarche at 12 years (M = 12.4, SD = 1.11. Age at menarche was more likely before 13 years of age when the age of onset of sexual feeling was earlier than 12 years of age, in students than in domestic workers and if they are living with parents than in those not living with parents. Conclusion: The average age of menarche among the adolescent girls was 12.40 years and it could be influenced by age of sexual feeling, occupation and living status of girls.

  8. Relation of Obesity and Menarche Age among

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    Shila Berenjy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between overweight and obesity among adolescent students and age of menarche.Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study 399 urban adolescent girls aged 11-14 years old were selected from schools of Kermanshah city in Iran. Anthropometric examinations including, triceps skin fold (TSF, mid arm circumference (MAC, body fat percentage (BF %, were measured and information on age of menarch and student’s demographics were collected. Results: The results showed that age, body mass index (BMI and menarche age were:12.63+1.01 year, 17.71+2.94 kg/m2 and 12.16+1.18 year respectively. Prevalence of overweight in respondents was 23.2%, however; prevalence of obesity was 23.2% for 11 years old , 22.4% for12 years olds , 24% of 13 years old  and 23.5% of 14 years old. Conclusion: There was a reverse relation  between BMI and age of menarche, however; it was not significant (p>0.1. This study suggests a high prevalence of obesity and relation between BMI and anthropometric parameters in adolesent girls.

  9. Menarcheal age of girls from dysfunctional families

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    Alma Toromanović

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine median age at menarche and the influence of familial instability on maturation. The sample included 7047 girls between the ages of 9 and 17 years from Tuzla Canton. The girls were divided into two groups. Group A (N=5230 comprised girls who lived in families free of strong traumatic events. Group B (N=1817 included girls whose family dysfunction exposed them to prolonged distress. Probit analysis was performed to estimate mean menarcheal age using the Probit procedure of SAS package. The mean menarcheal age calculated by probit analysis for all the girls studied was 13.07 years. In girls from dysfunctional families a very clear shift toward earlier maturation was observed. The mean age at menarche for group B was 13.0 years, which was significantly lower that that for group A, 13.11 years (t=2.92, P<0.01. The results surveyed here lead to the conclusion that girls from dysfunctional families mature not later but even earlier than girls from normal families. This supports the hypothesis that stressful childhood life events accelerate maturation of girls.

  10. Serum dioxin concentration and age at Menarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.; Samuels, S.; Eskenazi, B. [Univ. of California at Berkeley (United States); Mocarelli, P.; Gerthoux, P.M. [Univ. of Milano-Biococca (Italy); Needham, L.; Patterson, D. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States)

    2004-09-15

    To date, no epidemiologic studies have examined the association of TCDD exposure and age at menarche. Three studies, however, have examined the relation of dioxin-like compounds to pubertal development, with inconsistent conclusions. A study of daughters of Michigan women who had consumed polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in food in 1973, found an earlier age at menarche among daughters whose mothers had higher serum PBB levels 8. No differences were found in age at menarche of Taiwanese women who were exposed postnatally (but premenarche) to PCBs and PCDFs via consumption of contaminated rice oil (Yu-Cheng) compared to unexposed 9. In Flemish adolescents, there was no relation of age at menarche with current serum levels of dioxin-like compounds as measured by Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression bioassay toxic equivalents (CALUX-TEQ) or individual PCB congeners 118, 153, and 180 10. On July 10, 1976, as a result of a chemical explosion, residents of Seveso, Italy experienced the highest levels of TCDD exposure in a human population. Twenty years later (1996-1998), the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS), a retrospective cohort study, was initiated to determine whether the women were at higher risk for reproductive disease. Among participants in SWHS, we have observed that TCDD levels are associated with an increase in menstrual cycle length among those who were premenarcheal at exposure, but not in those who were postmenarcheal at exposure 11. Consistent with animal studies 12, this suggests that females may be particularly susceptible to the effects of TCDD during early stages of development, e.g. in utero or pre-pubertal. Thus, here we examine the association of individual serum TCDD and age of menarche among women who were premenarcheal in 1976, at the time of explosion.

  11. Symbols of menarche identified by African American females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Dorothy J

    2002-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify and describe symbolic themes of menarche. The qualitative case study design was used with a purposive sample of 30 participants (15 mothers and their 15 daughters) in answering 2 questions: (a) How do 9- and 10-year-old African American girls view the meaning of their menarcheal flow?, and (b) How do African American mothers view the meaning of menarche? Data were collected through interviews 2 to 5 days after completion of menarche. A cross-case comparison analysis of the interviews revealed 4 themes: (a) vaginal bleeding, (b) sexual maturation, (c) premenarcheal sexual activity, and (d) sexual payback to fathers. With the exception of the latter all themes were supported in earlier studies of Euro-American girls. These findings indicate the need for further research addressing self-concept at menarche, impact of menarche on family relationships, and views of fathers about sexual payback as a symbol of menarche.

  12. Early menarche is associated with increased risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Sofie; Gade, Elisabeth; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2015-01-01

    in girls with early menarche compared to girls without early menarche (7.4 vs. 4.5%), OR = 1.71 (1.31-2.22), p increased by 8% (1-15%), p = 0...... in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twins. CONCLUSION: Early menarche is associated with increased risk of asthma among Danish female twins independently of BMI, age, physical activity, educational level and smoking. Results indicate a complex relationship possibly mediated through innate and non...

  13. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Methods Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the...

  14. Age at menarche and menstrual pattern in secondary schoolgirls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menarche is the first menstruation in the life of a woman. Menstrual pattern involves the length of bleeding, the length of the cycle and other associated events such as pain ( ). Dysmenorrhoea has been identified as a reason for school absenteeismin girls. To determine the mean age at menarche and pattern of ...

  15. The Menarche Experience in Twenty-Three Foreign Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Deana Dorman

    1980-01-01

    Ninety-five women (18-26 years of age) from 23 countries were interviewed regarding (1) their preparation for menarche, (2) messages from others at the time of menarche, and (3) their emotional responses to the first period. Mothers were the source of information for most girls. Others' reactions were primarily hygiene-centered. Comparisons with…

  16. Age at menarche and pregnancy-related pelvic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Mette J; Biering, Karin; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Menarcheal age is a predictor of several complications related to pregnancy and diseases later in life. We aimed to study if menarcheal age is a risk factor for pregnancy-related pelvic pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within the Danish National Birth...

  17. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly associated with early menarche. However, because of the complex way that childhood adversities cluster within families, the more generalized influence of highly dysfunctional

  18. Early Menarche and Ischemic Stroke Risk Among Postmenopausal Women

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    Yi-Chen Hsieh

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study provides strong evidence that a significant joint protective effect was observed for patients who undergo early menarche, have longer estrogen exposure and no history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus on the risk of ischemic stroke.

  19. Secular trend of menarche in Zagreb (Croatia) adolescents.

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    Veček, Nenad; Veček, Andrea; Zajc Petranović, Matea; Tomas, Zeljka; Arch-Veček, Branka; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Miličić, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    To study the secular trend of menarche in high-school urban adolescent girls (Zagreb, Croatia) over the last two decades, and to evaluate the possible impact of worsening of socio-economic conditions on age at menarche during the Croatian War of Independence (1991-1995). Three surveys of female adolescents aged 15-19 years: (a) 523 girls interviewed in 1990, (b) 888 girls interviewed in 1997, and (c) 399 girls interviewed in 2010. Self-reported age at menarche (in decimal years) was presented by age groups and year of interview. Differences in mean age at menarche between adolescent age groups as well as between surveys were tested using One-way ANOVA. The mean age at menarche was 12.82 years in 1990, 12.92 years in 1997 and 12.31 years in 2010. It increased by 0.10 years from 1990 to 1997 (p=0.290) and then declined by 0.61 years from 1997 to 2010 (pZagreb adolescents continued to decline significantly from 1990 to 2010 (p<0.001), in spite of a statistically insignificant initial increase between 1990 and 1997. When put in broader context, age at menarche mirrored socio-economic changes in the war period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship Between Age at Menarche and Skeletal Maturation Stages in Taiwanese Female Orthodontic Patients

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    Eddie Hsiang-Hua Lai

    2008-07-01

    Conclusion: The majority of female orthodontic patients have passed the pubertal growth spurt when they experience their menarche. Menarche usually follows the pubertal growth spurt by about 1 year and occurs after NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III.

  1. Effect of family disintegration on age at menarche

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    Alma Toromanović

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of psychosocial factors on the age at menarche of girls in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBH. Subjects and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2002 to May 2003 in all Cantons of the FBH. The random stratified sample included 19.803 girls aged 9.0 to 17.5 years. Data were collected using the status quo method. Probit analysis was used to estimate median age at menarche and 95% confidence intervals. Results. The present study shows that menarche occurred significantly earlier (p<0.05 in girls from dysfunctional families (median: 12.99 years, 95% confidence interval: 12.93-13.05 than in girls who grew up in intact families (median: 13.04 years, 95% confidence interval: 13.01-13.07. Analyzing separately the impact of each of family stressors on age at menarche, we found that menarcheal age was significantly lower in girls from single-mother families, whose parents are divorced, whose one parent is died and where alcoholism in family is present than in girls from intact families. Maturation was found to be earlier in girls from dysfunctional families then in those from intact families after the influence of place of residence and sibship size was eliminated. Conclusion. From our research we can conclude that the girls from dysfunctional families reached earlier age at menarche than their peers who grew up in normal families, and that this effect did not disappear after controlling for socioeconomic variables.

  2. Effect of family disintegration on age at menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toromanović, Alma; Tahirović, Husref

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of psychosocial factors on the age at menarche of girls in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBH). A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2002 to May 2003 in all Cantons of the FBH. The random stratified sample included 19.803 girls aged 9.0 to 17.5 years. Data were collected using the status quo method. Probit analysis was used to estimate median age at menarche and 95% confidence intervals. The present study shows that menarche occurred significantly earlier (pfamilies (median: 12.99 years, 95% confidence interval: 12.93-13.05) than in girls who grew up in intact families (median: 13.04 years, 95% confidence interval: 13.01-13.07). Analyzing separately the impact of each of family stressors on age at menarche, we found that menarcheal age was significantly lower in girls from single-mother families, whose parents are divorced, whose one parent is died and where alcoholism in family is present than in girls from intact families. Maturation was found to be earlier in girls from dysfunctional families then in those from intact families after the influence of place of residence and sibship size was eliminated. From our research we can conclude that the girls from dysfunctional families reached earlier age at menarche than their peers who grew up in normal families, and that this effect did not disappear after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Copyright © 2015 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. Age at Menarche Among In-School Adolescents in Sawla Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... low menarche age was comparable with reports from developed countries. Inactive adolescents were more likely to see menarche earlier than average age. Healthy eating habits, regular exercise and nutrition education need to be promoted among school children. Keywords: adolescent, cross sectional, menarche age, ...

  4. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  5. Menarche delay and menstrual irregularities persist in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

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    McFann Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Menarche delay has been reported in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes (T1DM, perhaps due to poor glycemic control. We sought to compare age at menarche between adolescent females with T1DM and national data, and to identify factors associated with delayed menarche and menstrual irregularity in T1DM. Methods This was a cross-sectional study and females ages 12- 24 years (n = 228 with at least one menstrual period were recruited during their outpatient diabetes clinic appointment. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001-2006 data (n = 3690 for females 12-24 years were used as a control group. Results Age at menarche was later in adolescent females with T1DM diagnosed prior to menarche (12.81 +/- 0.09 years (mean+/- SE (n = 185 than for adolescent females diagnosed after menarche (12.17 0.19 years, p = 0.0015 (n = 43. Average age of menarche in NHANES was 12.27 +/- 0.038 years, which was significantly earlier than adolescent females with T1DM prior to menarche (p p = 0.77. Older age at menarche was negatively correlated with BMI z-score (r = -0.23 p = 0.0029 but not hemoglobin A1c (A1c at menarche (r = 0.01, p = 0.91. Among 181 adolescent females who were at least 2 years post menarche, 63 (35% reported usually or always irregular cycles. Conclusion Adolescent females with T1DM had a later onset of menarche than both adolescent females who developed T1DM after menarche and NHANES data. Menarche age was negatively associated with BMI z-score, but not A1c. Despite improved treatment in recent decades, menarche delay and high prevalence of menstrual irregularity is still observed among adolescent females with T1DM.

  6. Socio-economic status and menarcheal age in urban African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different socio-economic levels, height, weight and sum of four skinfolds on the menarcheal age of 302 Black, South African school girls ranging in age from 8 to 17 years was researched. Socioeconomic status was obtained by means of a questionnaire that focused on the education, income, and occupations ...

  7. Menstruation across time: menarche, menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Marianne E; Korfine, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between early and current menstrual experiences. The primary hypothesis was that women who reported positive menarcheal experiences (including menstrual education and menarche) would tend to report positive current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and/or behaviors, and vice versa for women who reported negative menarcheal experiences. In this survey-based study, college-aged women (n = 327) were screened by completing a questionnaire concerning their menarcheal experiences. Women who had extremely negative ("negative group," n = 46) or extremely positive ("positive group," n = 38) early menstrual experiences returned to complete questionnaires concerning current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors. Early and current menstrual experiences were most strongly associated in the domain of menstrual attitudes. Women in the negative group reported more negative menstrual attitudes than did women in the positive group. There were additional associations between early menstrual experiences and measures of body image and health behaviors. Positive group participants reported more positive body image and better general health behaviors. Results suggest that early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life. This study invites further investigation of the psychology of menstruation and suggests connecting menstruation with other women's health issues.

  8. An Exploration of Mothers' Attitudes towards Their Daughters' Menarche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Clare; Harden, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Menarche is a significant milestone for young women, representing an important juncture between girlhood and maturation. The limited literature that exists suggests that a mother's reaction to her daughter's first periods can shape her experiences and perceptions of menstruation which, in turn, may impact on her self-image and, consequently,…

  9. Association of Age at Menarche with Anthropometric Measures in Punjabi Bania Girls.

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    Goyal, Pratibha; Singh, Zora; Sethi, Gurmeet Kaur

    2016-11-01

    Menarcheal age is the age at which menstruation begins. Menarcheal age is regarded as a sensitive indicator of physical, biological and psychological environment. 1) To determine the menarcheal age and to examine the relationship between current age at menarche with anthropometric measures in Punjabi bania girls. 2) To develop maturity standards for Bania girls. The present cross-sectional survey was carried out on 200 bania girls at the age of onset of menarche. Menarcheal data was obtained by status quo method by asking about whether menarche has been experienced or not. In the present survey adolescent girls were interviewed with the help of pre-designed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS software, version 16.0. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for correlation studies. A total of 200 Punjabi bania girls were examined in the study. The median age of onset of menarche in these girls was 12.3 years. Menarcheal age was positively associated with bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span. The present research has revealed secular trend in the age of onset of menarche as indicated by median age of 12.3 years in Bania girls. The bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span were also correlated with the age of menarche.

  10. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (pminorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  11. Comparison of menarche age between two generations (tehran lipid and glucose study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainy, E.; Aziz, F.

    2007-01-01

    Menarcheal age is considered to be an indicator of puberty. There is a lack of information on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls, in comparison to that of their mothers. This cross-sectional study was aimed at comparing the age of menarches between two generations. The subjects were 812 (406 daughters and 406 mothers) chosen from among 15005 participants of the longitudinal Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographic information and the age of menarche were recorded in a questionnaire. We have considered a minimal of 25 years duration to be one generation. Distribution of the menarcheal age and linear regression were performed. The mean age of menarche in daughters and their mothers were 13.2+-1.4 and 13.6+-1.5 years, respectively. There was significant correlation between the mother and daughter menarcheal age (r=0.25, P<0.002). 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles for menarcheal ages in daughters and their mothers were 12.2, 13.1, 14.1 and 12.7, 13.5, 14.5 years respectively. Minimum and maximum ages of menarche were the same (10 and 18 years) in the two groups. We found a decrease in the average menarcheal age during 25 years (one generation) similar to the results of other studies. (author)

  12. Relationship of age at menarche on anthropometric index and menstrual irregularity in late adolescent girls in Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo examine the relationship between menarcheal age and anthropometric indices and menstrual irregularity in late adolescent girls in Seoul.MethodsWe surveyed 4,218 fertile adolescent girls between the ages of 16 and 18 years to determine their anthropometric indices and menarcheal age. Measurements were taken from June 2008 to October 2009 at seven girl's high schools in Seoul, Korea. Participants were offered self-report questionnaire as a survey tool that included questions on anthropometric indices (height, weight, waist circumference, menarcheal age, menstrual pattern, frequency of menstruation per year.ResultsThe participants were categorized into three groups based on menarcheal age: early menarche group (younger than 2 standard deviations [SD], mid menarche group (within ±2 SD, late menarche group (older than 2 SD. The mean age of early menarche group was 9.9±0.2 years, mid menarche group 12.5±0.9 years, late menarche group 15.1±0.3 years (P < 0.001. Heights were recorded as 160.4±5.2 cm, 161.8±4.9 cm, 162.3±4.7 cm in early, mid, and late menarche group, respectively (P = 0.001. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference significantly were lager in early menarche group than mid and late menarche ones (P < 0.001. The menarcheal age had a positive correlation with height and negative correlations with weight, BMI, waist circumference (P < 0.001. The prevalence of oligomenorrhea was more frequent in late menarche group than early and mid menarche group.ConclusionThe menarcheal age have positive relationship with height and inverse relationship with BMI and waist circumference in late adolescent girls in Seoul. Late menarcheal girls are disposed to have menstrual irregularity compared to early menarcheal girls.

  13. The influence of strenuous muscle stimulation on the menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, F; Ichikawa, Y; Arakawa, M; Chiba, G

    1984-03-01

    Nowadays, the average age at which menarche begins is lowering by three to four years every century, that is, four months every decade, according to both Japanese, and European and American annual changes of the average age. It emerged that the menarche shows a tendency to occur later in female gymnasts, because of the influence of strenuous muscle stimulation, and the fact that a higher level of technic is required in gymnastic games each year. These conclusions have been drawn from replies submitted to a questionnaire distributed among a relatively small number of gymnasts who participated in the competitions including the Inter High School Championship and the World Cup Championship. For example, at the age of 14, the percentage of women who had menstruated is almost 100% among women in general, but only 24% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, the average age at menarche of the latter being later than that of the former by as many as 3 years. At the age of 16, the percentage of women who had menstruated is 100% among women in general, but on the other hand, it is only 60% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, in other words, only a low percentage of women, of the latter group, had menstruated. Finally in our study, we established that the age at menarche of gymnasts is three or five years later than that of women in general. From our study, we concluded that the excessive burden imposed on muscles might cause an abnormal menstrual cycle, and the influence on menstruation would be considerable.

  14. Relation of Age at Menarche to Physical Activity

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    Egreta Peja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether regular physical activity during early puberty is influential in preventing early menarche. This cross sectional study was carried out on 102 post-menarcheal girls aged 11–20 (14.79±0.33. 51 of them were already engaged in competitive sport activities prior to the onset of menstruation (group 1, while the others got engaged in such activities after the onset of menstruation (group 2. All participants provided the year and the month of their first menstrual period. First, we estimated the equality of dispersion between the two groups, by conducting Two Samples for Variances F-test. Second, because no homogeneity of variances between groups was found, they were compared by using Two Samples Assuming Unequal Variances t-test. The difference between groups is statistically significant, as the t statistics (=2.883 is greater than both critical t statistics (one-tail=1.664 two-tail=1.990 and the p value less than 0.05 in both cases (one-tail=0.002 two-tail=0.005. None of the girls in the first group starts to menstruate before 11 years of age and 90% of them are menstruating by age 14, with a median age of 12.95±0.35 years. Age of menarche is lower in the second group with a median age of 12.25±0.31 years, thus approximately 8 months lower than median age for the first group. 11.76% of the girls in the second group start to menstruate before 11 years of age and 90% of them are menstruating by age 13. It is rather, the decline in early matures among those engaged in regular physical activity prior to the onset of menses, that makes the statistically significant correlation between physical activity and age at menarche practically meaningful. Relatively early matures (<11 years have been found to be slightly shorter but up to 5.5 kg heavier in adulthood than are late matures. In addition, a relatively young age at menarche has been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer and spontaneous

  15. Menarquia y factores asociados Menarche and associated factors

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    Wendy Valdés Gómez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la menarquia es el indicador de maduración sexual más comúnmente utilizado, influida por factores genéticos y ambientales, y se asocia al riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades como la obesidad, el cáncer de mama, las enfermedades cardiovasculares, entre otras. Objetivos: caracterizar demográficamente las adolescentes en estudio; evaluarlas nutricionalmente utilizando el índice de masa corporal y la circunferencia de cintura, así como identificar la relación entre la menarquia, el color de la piel, el bajo peso al nacer, el exceso de peso corporal, la obesidad abdominal y la presencia de acantosis nigricans. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo transversal en la Secundaria Básica Urbana "José María Heredia", desde junio de 2010 a enero de 2011. La población estuvo constituida por 85 adolescentes, a las cuales se les preguntó acerca de la menarquia, se les realizaron las mediciones antropométricas, y se buscó la presencia de acantosis nigricans. Resultados: la edad media de las adolescentes fue 12,05 años, de las cuales el 63,5 % había experimentado la menarquia, y su edad media de presentación fue de 11,00±0,801 años. El 17,6 % presentó exceso corporal, el 34,1 % adiposidad abdominal y el 12,9 % acantosis nigricans, asociadas estadísticamente con la aparición de la menarquia. Conclusiones: la mayoría de las adolescentes que habían experimentado la menarquia eran maduradoras tempranas, y de color de piel blanca; mostraron un riesgo incrementado de desarrollar exceso de peso corporal, obesidad abdominal y signos clínicos de resistencia a la insulina. La aparición de la menarquia no estuvo influida por el bajo peso al nacer.Introduction: menarche is the most common sexual maturity indicator, influenced by genetic and environmental factors and associated to the risk of developing diseases such as obesity, breast cancer, cardiovascular diseases and others. Objectives: to characterize

  16. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy.

  17. Relationship between age at menarche and skeletal maturation stages in Taiwanese female orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Jane Yao, Chung-Chen; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-07-01

    The age at menarche reflects a pubertal girl's physiologic maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the age at menarche and skeletal maturation in female orthodontic patients. Hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs from 304 adolescent female subjects (age, 8-18.9 years) were selected from the files of the Department of Orthodontics, National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Hand-wrist bone maturation stages were assessed using the NTUH Skeletal Maturation Index (NTUH-SMI). Cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMS) were determined using the latest CVMS Index. Menarcheal ages were self-reported by the patients and verified by the patients' mothers. The relationships between the NTUH-SMI or CVM stages and menarcheal status were investigated. More than 90% of the 148 subjects who had already attained menstruation had skeletal maturation beyond the NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III. However, the subjects who had never experienced menarche mostly had skeletal maturation before NTUH-SMI stage five or CVMS IV. During the period of orthodontic treatment, 19 females experienced their menarche. The mean age at menarche for the 167 female patients in total was 11.97 years. In average, menarche occurred between NTUH-SMI stages four and five or between CVM stages III and IV. The percentage of girls with menses increased from 1.2% at age 9 to 6.6% at age 10, 39.5% at age 11, 81.4% at age 12, 97% at age 13, and 100% at age 14. Compared with the results obtained 20 years previously, we found a downward shift of 0.47 years per decade for the mean age at menarche in female orthodontic patients. The majority of female orthodontic patients have passed the pubertal growth spurt when they experience their menarche. Menarche usually follows the pubertal growth spurt by about 1 year and occurs after NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III.

  18. Age of Menarche and Psychosocial Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…

  19. The Evolution of the Age at Menarche from Prehistorical to Modern Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Anastasios

    2016-12-01

    Menarche denotes the onset of the female reproductive capacity. The age that menarche occurs is mostly attributed to the interaction of genetics and various environmental factors. Herein, the author describes the evolution of the age at menarche from prehistoric to the present times. Data from skeletal remains suggest that in the Paleolithic woman menarche occurred at an age between 7 and 13 years, early sexual maturation being a trade-off for reduced life expectancy. In the classical, as well as in the medieval years, the age at menarche was generally reported to be at approximately 14 years, with a range from 12 to 15 years. A significant retardation of the age at menarche occurred in the beginning of the modern times, soon after the industrial revolution, due to the deterioration of the living conditions, with most studies reporting menarche to occur at 15-16 years. In the 20th century, especially in the second half of it, in the industrialized countries, the age at menarche decreased significantly, as a result of the improvement of the socioeconomic conditions, occurring at 12-13 years. In the present times, in the developed countries, this trend seems to slow down or level off. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Age at Menarche and the Menstrual Pattern of Igbo Women of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determines the age at menarche and menstrual pattern of an Igbo population in 12 randomly selected rural communities of Ebonyi State. Information on recalled ages at menarche, menstrual flow duration and cycle length was collected using a semi structured questionnaire over three months. 1209 women of ...

  1. Is age of menarche among school girls related to academic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mathkoori, Radhia; Nur, Ula; Al-Taiar, Abdullah

    2017-06-17

    Background There is strong evidence that the mean age of menarche has declined over the last few decades in developed and developing countries. This is of a major concern because of its enormous public health implications. This study aimed to estimate the age of menarche in Kuwait and investigate the association between menarcheal age and academic performance among high school girls in Kuwait. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected female high school students from private and public high schools in all governorates in Kuwait. Data on the age of menarche were collected by self-administered questionnaire from the students, while data on academic performance were extracted from the students' academic records. Results Of the 907 students we selected, 800 (88.2%) responded. The mean age of menarche was 12.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.18-12.49] years. There was no evidence for significant association between age of menarche and students' academic performance before or after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion The calculated age of menarche among contemporary girls in Kuwait is similar to that of the girls in industrialized countries. Early menarcheal age is unlikely to lead to adverse behavior that may affect academic performance in our setting.

  2. Psychosocial and Cultural Factors Influencing Expectations of Menarche: A Study on Chinese Premenarcheal Teenage Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Tang, Catherine So-kum; Lee, Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    This study explored how psychosocial and cultural factors influenced expectations of menarche among 476 Chinese premenarcheal teenage girls. Results showed that participants' expectations of menarche were largely negative and heavily influenced by cultural beliefs about menstruation. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that…

  3. Age of onset, nutritional determinants, and seasonal variations in menarche in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur; Christian, Parul

    2009-12-01

    Menarche is an important milestone in the development of female adolescents. The study assessed the age at menarche using recall, its seasonality, and association with marital and nutritional status (using mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC]) among 3,923 female adolescents aged 12-19 years in a rural area of Bangladesh. At the time of assessment, most (88%) adolescents had attained menarche at the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 12.8 (1.4) years. Age of onset of menarche among married adolescents (13%) occurred earlier than in those who were unmarried (12.6 +/- 1.3 years vs 12.9 +/- 1.4 years, p < 0.01). Age at menarche was negatively associated with MUAC after adjusting for age and marital status (beta = -0.10, p < 0.01). More than 50% of the adolescents had an onset of menarche during winter (chi2 = 634.97; p < 0.001), with peaks in December and January. In this rural population, the current age at menarche was found to be slightly lower than the previous estimates of 13.0 years in Bangladesh. An early onset of menarche was associated with season and better nutritional status of the female adolescents and may be associated with early marriage.

  4. Age at Menarche and its Related Factors among School Girls, in Zanjan, Iran

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    Parisa Khoshnevisasl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere are differences in the age at menarche in different countries and it seems that in recent decades gradually the age of puberty is declining. The aim of the present study was to determine the age at menarche and its related factors in school girls in Zanjan city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,500 healthy school girls between 6-17 years old who were selected on the basis of a multistage probability sampling. Age at menarche, birth weight, family size, Body Mass Index (BMI, fast food consumption, and physical activity, were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0.ResultsOut of 1,500 students, 273 girls (18.2% had experienced menarche with a mean age of 12.6±1.6 (95% confidence interval [C]: 12.4-12.8, and a median age of 13 years. The prevalence of early menarche, was 10.3%, (95% CI: 6.6%-14.1%. A significant association between menarche and BMI, frequency of fast food consumption and birth rank was observed; however, we didn’t find a significant association between physical activity (P>0.05 and birth weight (P>0.05 with menarche. ConclusionThe mean age of menarche in our study was 12.6±1.6 years old, similar to other studies in Iran, and it was significantly associated with higher BMI.

  5. Age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among female students in an urban area in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Serajul; Hussain, Md Altaf; Islam, Saimul; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among urban female students (n=680) in Bangladesh. The mean age of the respondents was 14±1.43years. Majority of the respondents were unmarried (98.4%). The mean age at menarche was 11.6±3.6years, median 12years. Almost one-third (35.7%) of the participants had menarche at the age of 12years. There was no statistically significant difference between age at menarche before and after 12years with the socio-economic characteristics, except education (p=<0.001). In the multivariate model, only higher education was statistically significant predictor of age at menarche. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chinese women in Italy--menarche, pregnancy and maternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argnani, Lisa; Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the well-being and health status of Chinese immigrant women in Italy. The subjects (mean 29.5 years) frequented the "Health Center for Foreign Women and their Children" in Bologna, Italy. Information on living conditions, biological characteristics and pregnancy or maternity was obtained through interviews of the women in the Center during normal medical visits. Data on menarche age were based on the retrospective method since all the women were in China at the onset of menarche. Social factors influencing the health and behavior of Chinese women in Italian society are discussed. The analysis on children sex ratio at birth indicates that the old cultural Chinese tradition of son preference still continues to exist. These women have achieved a socio-economic improvement and generally good health status in Italy. The difficult living conditions they faced in China are indirectly reflected in their delayed puberty (14.4 +/- 1.4 years). The delayed sexual development was probably due to the same situation of severe poverty that forced them to migrate.

  7. [The importance of memory bias in obtaining age of menarche by recall method in Brazilian adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Assuino, Samanta Ramos; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan

    2014-06-01

    To compare the age at menarche obtained by recall method according to the time elapsed since the event, in order to verify the importance of the recall bias. Were evaluated 1,671 girls (7-18 years) at schools in Campinas-SP regarding the occurrence of menarche by the status quo method (menarche: yes or no) and the recall method (date of menarche, for those who mentioned it). The age at menarche obtained by the status quo method was calculated by logit, which considers the whole group, and the age obtained by the recall method was calculated as the average of the mentioned age at menarche. In this group, the age at menarche was obtained by the difference between the date of the event and the date of birth. Girls who reported menarche (883, 52.8%) were divided into four groups according to the time elapsed since the event. To analyze the results, we used ANOVA and logistic regression for the analysis, with a significance level of 0.05. The age at menarche calculated by logit was 12.14 y/o (95% CI 12.08 to 12.20). Mean ages obtained by recall were: for those who experienced menarche within the previous year 12.26 y/o (±1.14), between > 1-2 years before, 12.29 y (±1.22); between > 2-3 years before, 12.23 y/o (±1.27); and more than 3 years before, 11.55y/o (±1.24), p recall method was similar for girls who menstruated within the previous 3 years (and approaches the age calculated by logit); when more than 3 years have passed, the recall bias was significant.

  8. Association of age at menarche with metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Bangladeshi women

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    Akter Shamima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in both China and the West. However, little is known about the impact of age at menarche and metabolic syndrome in South Asian women, including those from low-income country, where age at menarche is also falling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age at menarche is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Bangladeshi women, who are mostly poor and have limited access to and or poor health care facilities. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was performed using 1423 women aged between 15–75 years from rural Bangladesh in 2009 and 2010. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between age at menarche and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables, including age, education, marital status, tobacco users, use of contraceptives and number of pregnancies. Results Early onset of menarche (13 years was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=1.55; 95 % confidence interval =1.05-2.30. Age at onset of menarche was also inversely associated with prevalence of high triglycerides (P for trend P for trend = 0.01, but positively associated with prevalence of high fasting blood glucose (P for trend =0.02. However, no significant association was found between age at menarche, high blood pressure and elevated waist circumference. Conclusion Early onset of menarche might promote or trigger development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, knowledge of the history of age at onset of menarche may be critical in identifying women at risk of developing metabolic syndrome and those likely to benefit the most from early interventions.

  9. USIA MENARCHE, KONSUMSI PANGAN, DAN STATUS GIZI ANAK PEREMPUAN SEKOLAH DASAR DI BOGOR

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    Sanya Anda Lusiana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The general objective of this research was to analyze the correlation between nutritional status, food consumption, and first menstruation age (menarche of female Elementary School children. The research was conducted using cross sectional study design from May to June 2007 in 14 Elementary Schools in Bogor. Sample criteria was: 5 grade student consist of pre menarche and post menarche students. A total of 120 students was chosen by purposive sampling. Spearman Correlation Test shows that there was no correlation between menarche age of mother and menarche age of the sample. Post menarche sample had sufficient energy intake but low iron intake. About 86.7% post menarche sample and 68.3% pre menarche sample had normal nutritional status. Spearman Correlation Test shows that nutritional status (BMI/Age has negative significant correlation to menarche age (r=-0.062; P Keyword: Nutritional status, food consumption and age of menarche

  10. The Association of Increased Total Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels with Delayed Age at Menarche in Young Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kirstie K.; Palta, Mari; Allen, Catherine; D’Alessio, Donn J.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Delayed menarche is associated with subsequent reproductive and skeletal complications. Previous research has found delayed growth and pubertal maturation with type 1 diabetes and with poor glycemic control. The effect of diabetes management on menarche is important to clarify because tighter control might prevent these complications. Objective: To investigate age at menarche in young women with type 1 diabetes, and examine the effect of diabetes management (e.g. total glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) level, number of blood glucose checks, insulin therapy intensity, insulin dose) on age at menarche in those diagnosed before menarche. Design: The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Project is a follow-up study of a type 1 diabetes population-based incident cohort initially enrolled 1987 – 1992. Setting: Twenty-eight counties in south-central Wisconsin. Patients or Other Participants: Recruited through referrals, self-report, and hospital/clinic ascertainment. Individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, <30 years old, were invited to participate. Of 288 young women enrolled, 188 reported menarche by 2002; 105 were diagnosed before menarche. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Age at menarche. Results: Mean age at menarche was 12.78 years, compared to 12.54 years in the United States (p = 0.01). Ages at menarche and diagnosis were not associated. For those diagnosed before menarche, age at menarche was delayed 1.3 months with each one percent increase in mean total GHb level in the three years prior to menarche. Conclusions: Age at menarche was moderately delayed in young women with type 1 diabetes. Delayed menarche could potentially be minimized with improved GHb levels. PMID:16204372

  11. Milk intake and total dairy consumption: associations with early menarche in NHANES 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Wiley

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche.This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20-49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9-12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5-12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake β = -0.32, P<0.10; "sometimes/variable milk intake" β = -0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never. Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk "sometimes/varied" or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively. Among the 9-12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06. Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively, while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05 than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03, but not after controlling for overweight.There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche.

  12. Factors related to the occurrence of precocious menarche in female primary school students in Makassar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renjani, Rizky Swastika; Mappaware, Nasrudin A.; Nontji, Werna; Marniati

    2017-09-01

    Precocious menarche currently affects 1 in 5000 girls and likely to occur as many as 10 times and possess greater risk to the emergence of cancer in women. The aim of this research is to determine the relationship of nutrition status and lipid profile with precocious menarche occurrence onstudents of primary school in Makassar city. The design of this research was cross sectional design. The samples werethe students of grades IV, V and VI who have already menarche occurrence as many as 20 studentscollected with purposive sampling. The data were analyzed with Mann Whitney U test. The results indicate that there are 17 students (85%) do not undergoprecocious menarche, normal nutrition status is 11 persons (55%), normal cholesterol levelis 12 persons (60%), and level of normal LDL = 19 persons (95%). While the respondents who undergo precocious menarche is 3 persons (15%), fat nutrition status is 9 persons (45%), cautious cholesterol level is 8 persons (40%) and cautious LDL level is 1 person (5%). Based on Mann Whitney U test, there is relationship between nutrition status and precocious menarche occurrence (p = 0.043) and there is correlation of total cholesterol and LDLcholesterollevelswith precocious menarche (p = 0.025) and (p = 0.017). The decrease of knowledge about health of reproduction can be promoted in school by making cooperation with nutritionist to give information to parents and students of primary schools about good and healthy food.

  13. Experiences and Constructions of Menarche and Menstruation Among Migrant and Refugee Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, Alexandra J; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Metusela, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation are shaped by the sociocultural environment in which women are embedded. We explored experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation among migrant and refugee women resettled in Sydney, Australia, and Vancouver, Canada. Seventy-eight semistructured individual interviews and 15 focus groups comprised of 82 participants were undertaken with women from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Sri Lanka, and varying South American countries. We analyzed the data using thematic decomposition, identifying the overall theme "cycles of shame" and two core themes. In "becoming a woman," participants constructed menarche as a marker of womanhood, closely linked to marriage and childbearing. In "the unspeakable," women conveyed negative constructions of menstruation, positioning it as shameful, something to be concealed, and polluting. Identifying migrant and refugee women's experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation is essential for culturally safe medical practice, health promotion, and health education.

  14. Relationship Between Age at Menarche and Skeletal Maturation Stages in Taiwanese Female Orthodontic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-01-01

    Background/Purpose: The age at menarche reflects a pubertal girl's physiologic maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the age at menarche and skeletal maturation in female orthodontic patients. Methods: Hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs from 304 adolescent female subjects (age, 8–18.9 years) were selected from the files of the Department of Orthodontics, National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Hand-wrist bone maturation sta...

  15. [Parity and menarche as risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez-Arriola, Mariá Cleofás; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando; Rivera-Martínez, José Guillermo; de Jesús, Rafael Natividad Nieva; Valdez-Jiménez, Luis Alvaro

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide studies, even in our country, have thrown discrepant results about the relation between osteoporosis, parity and age of menarche. To investigate the relation of osteoporosis in postmenopausal mexican women with multiparity and age of menarche. Transversal, retrospective and analytical study. Non-probabilistic sampling technique was performing with users women of the IMSS in San Luis Potosí. Reproductive history and age of menarche were obtained by the addition of these items to the previously validated Albrand questionnaire. Women were divided into groups according to the number of pregnancies in: normal parity (0 to 3 childbirths) conformed by 112 patients (46%) and multiparity (> or = 4 pregnancies), 131 women (54%). In relation to menarche with an average of 12.98 years, from this number we divided them in: early menarche (before the age of 13) and late menarche (at 13 years of age or after). It was measured bone mineral density with dual distal forearm x-ray absorptiometry to all patients. 243 women were studied, with an average of age of 55.92, rank 31 to 80 years. Using the criteria, of the World Health Organization, 18% of posmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 39% had osteopenia and 41% had bone normality. No association was found between the number of deeds and osteoporosis. Additionally we observed that the women who had 4 or more children were older than the other women. average 57.42 against 54.16. Also there was significant negative correlation (r = -0.43) between age and densitometry. In addition we found that an age greater to 13 years in the appearance of the menarche was related to osteoporosis (OR 4.46; p = 0.035). In posmenopausal women a menarche at the age of 13 years or after is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  16. Pengaruh Pendidikan Kesehatan Terhadap Kecemasan Tentang Menarche pada Siswi Kelas V Sekolah Dasar

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    Anggi Winarti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Menarche is part of the primary change that commonly affects the psychology of a child. The psychological impact of menarche can be in a form of anxiety which lead to many problems to children. Based on research Randomination of childhood BMI and Early Menarche gained the results of girls who experience her first menarche changes in her either psychic like arise a sense of anxiety and happened changes such obesity. Anxiety is the most common, noticeable symptom in children during menarche and it is sometimes reinforced the desire to reject the physiological process. Anxiety can be influenced by age, genetics, level of knowledge and others.  Provision of information about menstrual health through education is one way to deal with the symptoms of psychological disorders that arise when facing menarche. Objective: to determine the effect of health education of anxiety in menarche in students at 5th grade Sonosewu Elementary School and Muhammadiyah Ambarbinangun Elementary School. This study uses quasi experiment research to control time series design or the sample material eqievalent design. The sample in this study is at 5th grade students in Sonosewu Elementary School 15 and Muhammadiyah Ambarbinangun Elementary School 15 who are not having menstruation yet, in total of 30 students, taken using total sampling technique. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Results showed that p-value 0.023 experimental group and p-value 0.234 the control group (<0.05. And from statistical test, the result showed that the differentiation was meaningful on intervention group. In conclusion, there was a significant influence of health education toward the anxiety about menarche in 5th grade students.

  17. Mexican adolescents' experience of menarche and attitudes toward menstruation: role of communication between mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, M L; Molina-Abolnik, M

    2012-12-01

    First, to explore the kind of information that Mexican mothers give their daughters about menstruation before their menarche, and to study the impact of this communication on how prepared the daughters felt when they experienced their menarche. Second, to investigate the influence of the menarcheal experience on attitudes toward menstruation. Cross-sectional survey. Sample of adolescents attending 3 different public schools. 405 Mexican postmenarcheal adolescents, aged 12-15 years. Participants answered a questionnaire that had 3 parts: (a) General data, (b) topics related to menses that participants had discussed with their mothers prior to menarche, and (c) menarcheal experience. They also answered a questionnaire about menstrual attitudes. Although most of the participants knew what they should do when they experienced their menarche, only 39% stated they had felt prepared to start menstruating. Regarding menstrual attitudes, adolescents scored highest on Negative Feelings and Secrecy rather than on Positive Feelings. Participants who had previously discussed the emotional aspects of menses with their mothers were more likely to claim they had felt prepared to start menstruating when they got their first period (OR = 3.45). The fact that adolescents felt prepared to start menstruating predicted positive attitudes toward menstruation (β = .19) Discussing the emotional aspects of menses prior to menarche is crucial to being prepared for menarche, and to holding positive attitudes toward menstruation. Information on biological knowledge and practical aspects of menses needs to be supplemented with emotional issues. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Secular trends in menarcheal age in India-evidence from the Indian human development survey.

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    Praveen Kumar Pathak

    Full Text Available Evidence from a number of countries in Europe and North America point towards the secular declining trend in menarcheal age with considerable spatial variations over the past two centuries. Similar trends were reported in several developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, data corroborating any secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Indian population remained sparse and inadequately verified.We examined secular trends, regional heterogeneity and association of socioeconomic, anthropometric and contextual factors with menarcheal age among ever-married women (15-49 years in India. Using the pseudo cohort data approach, we fit multiple linear regression models to estimate secular trends in menarcheal age of 91394 ever-married women using the Indian Human Development Survey.The mean age at menarche among Indian women was 13.76 years (95 % CI: 13.75, 13.77 in 2005. It declined by three months from 13.83 years (95% CI: 13.81, 13.85 among women born prior to 1955-1964, to nearly 13.62 years (95% CI: 13.58, 13.67 among women born during late 1985-1989. However, these aggregate national figures mask extensive spatial heterogeneity as mean age at menarche varied from 15.0 years in Himachal Pradesh during 1955-1964 (95% CI: 14.89-15.11 to about 12.1 years in Assam (95% CI: 11.63-12.56 during 1985-1989.The regression analysis established a reduction of nearly one month per decade, suggesting a secular decline in age at menarche among Indian women. Notably, the menarcheal age was significantly associated with the area of residence, geographic region, linguistic groups, educational attainment, wealth status, caste and religious affiliations among Indian women.

  19. Cultural practices relating to menarche and menstruation among adolescent girls in Taiwan--qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H-L; Chen, K-H; Peng, N-H

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively record the cultural attitudes and practices associated with menarche and menstruation in Taiwanese girls, particularly with respect to coping mechanisms. Forty-eight adolescent girls participated. Adolescent girls were individually interviewed to investigate the effects of their cultural practices, coping mechanisms, and physiological symptoms during menarche and menstruation. The qualitative investigation revealed mixed reactions to menstruation, such as eating chocolate, using sanitary napkins, and feeling irritable or embarrassed. Cluster construction suggested that adolescents were prepared for menarche but required emotional support; in addition, the new generation employed the Internet to learn how to cope. A phenomenological approach showed that menarche and menstrual attitudes among Taiwanese adolescents were comprised in 4 dimensions: self-perception, information, and cultural practices with regard to menarche; physiological symptoms and psychological reactions during menstruation; coping mechanisms during menarche and menstruation; and methods for coping and cultural practices for menstruation. Cultural beliefs and the Internet have changed cross-cultural contacts. Educators and health professionals should seek to understand this generation of girls, who perceive the world as more flexible and available and have more creativity and new eating behaviors and hobbies. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Age at Menarche and Time Spent in Education: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, D; Del Greco M, F; Rawson, T M; Sivakumaran, P; Brown, A; Sheehan, N A; Minelli, C

    2017-09-01

    Menarche signifies the primary event in female puberty and is associated with changes in self-identity. It is not clear whether earlier puberty causes girls to spend less time in education. Observational studies on this topic are likely to be affected by confounding environmental factors. The Mendelian randomization (MR) approach addresses these issues by using genetic variants (such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) as proxies for the risk factor of interest. We use this technique to explore whether there is a causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education. Instruments and SNP-age at menarche estimates are identified from a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 182,416 women of European descent. The effects of instruments on time spent in education are estimated using a GWAS meta-analysis of 118,443 women performed by the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium (SSGAC). In our main analysis, we demonstrate a small but statistically significant causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education: a 1 year increase in age at menarche is associated with 0.14 years (53 days) increase in time spent in education (95% CI 0.10-0.21 years, p = 3.5 × 10 -8 ). The causal effect is confirmed in sensitivity analyses. In identifying this positive causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education, we offer further insight into the social effects of puberty in girls.

  1. Food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

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    Getachew Yehenew

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is the reflection of cumulative pre-adolescent exposure of girls to either adverse environment such as food insecurity or affluent living conditions. Food insecurity could result in inadequate nutrient intake and stress, both of which are hypothesized to have opposing effects on the timing of menarche through divergent pathways. It is not known whether food insecure girls have delayed menarche or early menarche compared with their food secure peers. In this study we test the competing hypothesis of the relationship between food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods We report on 900 girls who were investigated in the first two rounds of the five year longitudinal survey. The semi-parametric frailty model was fitted to determine the effect of adolescent food insecurity on time to menarche after adjusting for socio-demographic and economic variables. Results Food insecure girls have menarche one year later than their food secure peer (median age of 15 years vs 14 years. The hazard of menarche showed a significant decline (P = 0.019 as severity of food insecurity level increased, the hazard ratio (HR for mild food insecurity and moderate/severe food insecurity were 0.936 and 0.496, respectively compared to food secure girls. Stunted girls had menarche nearly one year later than their non-stunted peers (HR = 0.551, P Conclusion Food insecurity is associated with delay of age at menarche by one year among girls in the study area. Stunted girls had menarche one year later than their non-stunted peers. Age at menarche reflects the development of girls including the timing of sexual maturation, nutritional status and trajectory of growth during the pre-pubertal periods. The findings reflect the consequence of chronic food insecurity on the development and well-being of girls in the study area.

  2. Nongenetic Determinants of Age at Menarche: A Systematic Review

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    Anna Yermachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The acceleration of pubertal development is an important medical and social problem, as it may result in increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This systematic review summarizes relevant data about nongenetic factors, which contribute to age at menarche (AAM, and suggests those which may be the most important. Methods. The available literature from 1980 till July 2013 was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Finally, 154 papers were selected for the analysis. Results. Environmental factors, which may affect AAM, vary in populations of different ethnicity. The prenatal, infancy, and early childhood periods are the most susceptible to these factors. Body weight, high animal protein intake, family stressors (e.g., single parenting, and physical activity seem to influence AAM in most populations. Conclusions. The data about influence of nongenetic factors on AAM are still inconsistent. The factors affecting prenatal and early childhood growth seem to have a larger effect on further sexual maturation. Further studies are needed in order to validate the association between other environmental determinants and AAM in different ethnical groups.

  3. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and age at menarche in a prospective study of US girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwile, J L; Willett, W C; Spiegelman, D; Hertzmark, E; Rich-Edwards, J; Frazier, A L; Michels, K B

    2015-03-01

    Is sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption associated with age at menarche? More frequent SSB consumption was associated with earlier menarche in a population of US girls. SSB consumption is associated with metabolic changes that could potentially impact menarcheal timing, but direct associations with age at menarche have yet to be investigated. The Growing up Today Study, a prospective cohort study of 16 875 children of Nurses' Health Study II participants residing in all 50 US states. This analysis followed 5583 girls, aged 9-14 years and premenarcheal at baseline, between 1996 and 2001. During 10 555 person-years of follow-up, 94% (n = 5227) of girls reported their age at menarche, and 3% (n = 159) remained premenarcheal in 2001; 4% (n = 197) of eligible girls were censored, primarily for missing age at menarche. Cumulative updated SSB consumption (composed of non-carbonated fruit drinks, sugar-sweetened soda and iced tea) was calculated using annual Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaires from 1996 to 1998. Age at menarche was self-reported annually. The association between SSB consumption and age at menarche was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. More frequent SSB consumption predicted earlier menarche. At any given age between 9 and 18.5 years, premenarcheal girls who reported consuming >1.5 servings of SSBs per day were, on average, 24% more likely [95% confidence interval (CI): 13, 36%; P-trend: 1.5 SSBs daily had an estimated 2.7-month earlier menarche (95% CI: -4.1, -1.3 months) relative to those consuming ≤2 SSBs weekly. The frequency of non-carbonated fruit drink (P-trend: 0.03) and sugar-sweetened soda (P-trend: 0.001), but not iced tea (P-trend: 0.49), consumption also predicted earlier menarche. The effect of SSB consumption on age at menarche was observed in every tertile of baseline BMI. Diet soda and fruit juice consumption were not associated with age at menarche. Although we adjusted for a variety of suspected

  4. Adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors influencing age at menarche of university students in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T

    2013-09-01

    Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (pObese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.

  5. [Parity and menarche as risk factors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez-Arriola, María Cleofas; Velasco-Chávez, José Fernando; Rivera-Martínez, José Guillermo; Nieva-de Jesús, Rafael Natividad; Valdez-Jiménez, Luis Alvaro

    2013-03-01

    At the moment the studies lead at world-wide level and even in our country have thrown discrepant results about the relation between osteoporosis, parity and age of menarche. To investigate the relation of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican women with multiparity and age of menarche. A retrospective and analytical cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sampling technique in women rightful claimants of the IMSS, San Luis Potosi. In all of them the bone mineral density was measured with X-ray dual absorptiometry in the distal forearm. Reproductive history and age of menarche were obtained by the addition of these items to the previously validated Albrand questionnaire. Women were divided into groups according to the number of pregnancies in: normal parity (0 to 3 childbirths) conformed by 112 patients (46%) and multiparity (> or = 4 pregnancies), 131 women (54%). In relation to menarche with an average of 12.98 years, from this number we divided them in: early menarche ( or = 13 yrs). 243 women were studied, with an average of age of 55.92, rank 31 to 80 years. Using the criteria of the World Health Organization, 18% of postmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 39% had osteopenia and 43% had bone normality. No association was found between the number of pregnancies and osteoporosis. Additionally we observed that the women who had four or more children were older than the other women, average 57.42 against 54.16. Also there was significant negative correlation (r = -0.43) between age and densitometry. We found that an age greater to 13 years in the appearance of the menarche was related to osteoporosis (OR 4.46, p: 0.035). In postmenopausal women a menarche older than 13 years is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  6. Experience of Menarche Among Jordanian Adolescent Girls: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Omari, Omar; Abdel Razeq, Nadin M; Fooladi, Marjaneh M

    2016-06-01

    Menarche is a significant physical and emotional experience for adolescent girls, especially in certain cultures, where it is viewed as a rite of passage, affecting the meaning of lived experiences. The purpose of the study was to explore the menarche experience among Jordanian adolescent girls when they reach menarche. Interpretive phenomenological analysis. Az-Zarqa City, Jordan. A homogenous sample of 7 Jordanian girls, ages 12-14 years, who had their first menstruation within the past 6 months. Participants were asked to narrate their experiences through journal writing; their reports to be used for interpretive phenomenological analyses by 2 independent researchers, to ensure the findings' trustworthiness. Three major themes emerged as: (1) menstruation as a forbidden topic; (2) keeping the "topic" to oneself; and (3) no more secrets. Each theme was characterized according to distinct sets of emotions and knowledge-seeking patterns because Jordanian culture and Islamic teachings had greatly influenced the girls' experience of menarche. Menarche was considered a social taboo; not to be openly discussed. At the first signs of menarche, participants were shocked, scared, confused, and anxious. They had limited information and support from their family or school system. Therefore, they relied on self-perceptions about menarche, and viewed the experience of menstruation with profound negative emotions. Participants hesitated to share their experiences with their mothers and close friends. They felt alone and experienced their emotional turmoil in isolation and without support. Jordanian adolescent girls need formal health education to understand and manage the reproductive changes that occur in their bodies. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes

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    Mihas Constantinos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among normal girls in various geographic latitudes. An attempt is also made to implicate a possible role of melatonin in the above association. Material-methods 20 peer-reviewed published papers reporting adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and 33 peer-reviewed papers reporting age at menarche in normal girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included regression of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche by latitude. Results The regression of prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche by latitude is statistically significant (p Conclusion Late age at menarche is parallel with higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pubarche appears later in girls that live in northern latitudes and thus prolongs the period of spine vulnerability while other pre-existing or aetiological factors are contributing to the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A possible role of geography in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis is discussed, as it appears that latitude which differentiates the sunlight influences melatonin secretion and modifies age at menarche, which is associated to the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis.

  8. Age at menarche and eruption of permanent second molars: an investigation to determine a possible correlation.

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    Taaniya Akhter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Downward shifts in the mean menarcheal age and earlier emergence of permanent second molars have been observed worldwide during the past few decades. A positive correlation between the two would make menarche a biomarker for permanent second molar eruption or vice versa, making it a simple tool for monitoring oral status of adolescent girls. This study was conducted to find a correlation between attainment of menarche and eruption status of permanent second molars in girls aged 10-13 years. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 470 female students from six randomly selected schools who consented to participate in the interview and oral examination. Data were analyzed using the Chi square (X2 test with a p-value of < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Significant differences existed within the age groups with regard to attainment of menarche (p = 0.000 and eruption status of second molars (p = 0.000 for all four teeth. However, no correlation could be found between attainment of menarche and eruption status of the permanent second molars. Conclusion: Although this study failed to find a correlation between the two variables, a population based multicentric survey may give a concrete conclusion on this issue. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 210-214

  9. The sex ratio of offspring is associated with the mothers' age at menarche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early menarcheal age is a risk factor for breast and ovarian cancers and is also associated with an increased spontaneous abortion rate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between early menarcheal age and the offspring sex ratio. METHODS We recorded the sex...... of 21208 live born infants, all singletons, born to 10 847 premenopausal women (mean attending age: 37.5 ± 7.2 years, range 22-54) who attended our clinics for obstetrical and gynaecological assessment. We calculated the sex ratio of newborn infants in relation to the mothers' age of menarche (from 9 to 18...... years) and to the number of infants per woman (i.e. fertility index). RESULTS A low offspring sex ratio (males/females) of 0.800 was observed in mothers who entered menarche at the age of 9 years; the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals) compared with those of control group with menarche at age 14...

  10. Longitudinal Reliability of Self-Reported Age at Menarche in Adolescent Girls: Variability across Time and Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa M.; Pabst, Stephanie; Tissot, Abbigail; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Age at menarche is critical in research and clinical settings, yet there is a dearth of studies examining its reliability in adolescents. We examined age at menarche during adolescence, specifically, (a) average method reliability across 3 years, (b) test-retest reliability between time points and methods, (c) intraindividual variability of…

  11. Hubungan Riwayat Menonton Media Dewasa¹, Teman Menonton Media Dewasa² dan Perilaku Seksual³ dengan Kejadian Menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Aisya, Mugawati; Wibowo, Arief

    2017-01-01

    Menarche is an indicator of teenage girls enter puberty phace. Currently the age of menarche is early hasdecreased every year. It is triggered by the improvement of living standard which is causing the age of menarcheto reduce. This research was intended to identify the age of menarche and the lifestyle which lead to menarche.This research an observational research with analytic and descriptive design. Researcher used the questioner toobtain the respondents data. The subjects of this research...

  12. Faktor-Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Usia Menarche Siswi SMP Adabiah

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    Fitrah Umi Mutasya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMenarche (menars adalah haid pertama dari uterus yang merupakan awal dari fungsi menstruasi dan tanda telah terjadinya pubertas pada remaja putri. Pada dekade terakhir menunjukkan kecenderungan pergeseran usia menars ke arah umur yang lebih muda. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan usia menars. Jenis penelitian ini adalah analitik observasional dalam bentuk rancangan cross sectional study. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswi SMP Adabiah kelas VII dan VIII tahun ajaran 2012/2013. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 72 siswi yang diambil secara Simple Random Sampling. Data dikumpulkan dengan angket dan pengukuran tinggi dan berat badan responden. Pengolahan data dilakukan secara komputerisasi dan analisis dengan uji chi-square pada α = 0,05. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa usia menars rata-rata siswi SMP Adabiah adalah 12,29 ± 0,49 tahun. Uji statistik menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara tingkat pendapatan per kapita dan status gizi dengan usia menars sedangkan tingkan pendidikan orang tua dan paparan media massa tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna dengan usia menars.Kata kunci: usia menars, pendapatan per kapita, status gizi AbstractMenarche is the first menstruation or bleeding of the uterus that is the beginning of the menstrual function and mark the occurrence of puberty in young girls. In the past decade shows a shift in the age of menarche trend toward younger age. The objective of this study was to determine the associated factors to age of menarche. This type of research is observational analytic with cross sectional study design. The population in this study were all junior high school students of class VII and VIII academic year 2012/2013. The total sample of 72 student were taken by simple random sampling. Data were collected by questionnaire and measurement of height and weight. Data was analyzed  by chi-square test at α = 0,005. The result showed that the

  13. Early Menarche is Associated With Preference for Masculine Male Faces and Younger Preferred Age to Have a First Child

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    Carlota Batres

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One developmental factor that is associated with variation in reproductive strategy is pubertal timing. For instance, women who experience earlier menarche have their first pregnancy earlier and prefer more masculinized male voices. Early menarche may also lead to preferences for masculine faces, but no study has shown such a link. We therefore investigated the relationships between pubertal timing, reproductive plans, sexual attitudes and behaviors, and masculinity preferences in nulliparous women aged 18–30 from the United Kingdom (N = 10,793. We found that women who experienced earlier menarche reported a younger preferred age to have a first child and showed stronger masculinity preferences. This provides evidence that women experiencing early menarche not only have children earlier but notably plan to have children earlier. Additionally, our findings provide evidence that age of menarche influences partner selection, which is instrumental for the implementation of reproductive strategies.

  14. The Correlation between Junk Food Consumption and Age of Menarche of Elementary School Student In Gedung Johor Medan

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    Surya Anita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acceleration age of menarche, can increase the chances of endometrial hyperplasia. The incidence of uterine and breast cancer are associated with early menarche. Junk food is indicated as one of the triggers of early menarche. With observational-analytic research and case-control research design, it was conducted to determine the effect of junk food in early menarche at elementary school student. The population of the study was the 6th grade elementary school students who had been menstruated, yet the sample was chosen randomly. Data collected using questionnaires, also measuring weight and height, then analysed using chi-square. The results shows a relationship between junk food consumption with early menarche incidence (p = 0.021 and OR 1.889. This is due to the high consumption patterns of junk food/fast food in teenages. Affected by behavioral patterns of people who tend to choose practical food, easy to get and ready to eat.   ABSTRAK Percepatan usia menarche dapat memperbesar peluang terjadI hyperplasia endometrium. Insiden kanker uterus dan kanker payudara dihubungkan dengan menarche dini.  Junk food diindikasi sebagai salah satu pemicu menarche dini. Dengan penelitian observasional-analitik dan desain penelitian case-control, dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh junk food pada menarche dini di usia SD. Populasi penelitian adalah siswi SD kelas VI yang sudah haid /belum, sampel dipilih secara random. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner kepada siswi, menimbang berat badan serta  mengukur tinggi badan. Analisis data menggunakan chi-square. Hasil penelitian bahwa ada hubungan konsumsi junk food dengan kejadian menarche dini (p=0,021 dan OR 1,889. Hal ini disebabkan Tingginya pola konsumsi junk food/fast food  pada remaja dipengaruhi oleh pola perilaku masyarakat yang cenderung memilih makanan praktis, mudah didapat dan siap saji.

  15. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R. B.; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E.

    2014-01-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-causemortality(1). Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal...

  16. Trends in Menarcheal Age between 1955 and 2009 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talma, H.; Schonbeck, Y.; van Dommelen, P.; Bakker, B.; van Buuren, S.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the secular trend in age at menarche in Dutch girls (1955-2009) and girls from Turkish and Moroccan descent living in the Netherlands (1997-2009). Methods: Data on growth and maturation were collected in 20,867 children of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan descent in 2009 by

  17. Trends in menarcheal age between 1955 and 2009 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talma, H.; Schönbeck, Y.; Dommelen, P. van; Bakker, B.; Buuren, S. van; Hirasing, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the secular trend in age at menarche in Dutch girls (1955-2009) and girls from Turkish and Moroccan descent living in the Netherlands (1997-2009). Methods: Data on growth and maturation were collected in 20,867 children of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan descent in 2009 by

  18. Biological maturity at birth, the course of the subsequent ontogenetic stages and age at menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, A; Kosińska, M

    2012-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to assess the influence of biological maturity at birth on growth processes in the subsequent years and during puberty in girls. The material of this study comes from the outpatient clinic cards and cross-sectional research on girls from the province of Wielkopolska in Poland. It includes data of 527 girls. The influence of perinatal maturity on body weight in the later stages of ontogeny was determined with the use of the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. In order to determine the relationship between perinatal maturity and age at menarche, the survival analysis module was used. The results show a diverse influence of perinatal maturity on the values of body weight achieved in later years of life. The indicated predictive factors included both birth weight and gestational age. In the examined girls menarche occurred between the 10th year and the 17th year of life (X¯=12.87, s=1.26; Me=13 years). The comparison showed a significant variation in age at menarche depending on the length of pregnancy (log-rank χ(2)(2)=27.068, p0.05). Remote prognoses as to the postnatal development of preterm-born children and/or children with low birth weight indicate adverse influence of these variables on age at menarche. Perinatal biological maturity of a newborn conditions the course of postnatal development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Early menarche, nulliparity and the risk for premature and early natural menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Gita D; Pandeya, Nirmala; Dobson, Annette J

    2017-01-01

    studies in the UK, Scandinavia, Australia and Japan that contribute to the International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Age at menarche (categorized as ≤11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 or more years...

  20. Age of Menarche among basic level school girls in Madina, Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was designed to determine the age at which menarche occurs among school girls in Madina, Accra. A survey was conducted among 529 girls selected using multi-stage sampling from basic schools in Madina, Accra. Respondents completed a questionnaire that recorded age-at-first menstruation by recall, ...

  1. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R.B. Perry (John); F.R. Day (Felix); C.E. Elks (Cathy); P. Sulem (Patrick); D. Thompson (Deborah); T. Ferreira (Teresa); C. He (Chunyan); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); T. Esko (Tõnu); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); E. Albrecht (Eva); W.Q. Ang (Wei); T. Corre (Tanguy); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); N. Franceschini (Nora); A. Ganna (Andrea); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); S. Kjellqvist (Sanela); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); G. Mcmahon (George); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); E. Porcu (Eleonora); G.D. Smith; L. Stolk (Lisette); A. Teumer (Alexander); N. Tsernikova (Natalia); E. Tikkanen (Emmi); S. Ulivi (Shelia); E.K. Wagner (Erin K.); N. Amin (Najaf); L.J. Bierut (Laura); E.M. Byrne (Enda); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); D.L. Koller (Daniel); M. Mangino (Massimo); T.H. Pers (Tune); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); F. Atsma (Femke); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J. Benítez (Javier); C. Blomqvist (Carl); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); H. Brenner (Hermann); J.E. Buring (Julie); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Chen (Jinhui); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J.M. Collée (Margriet); F.J. Couch (Fergus); D.J. Couper (David); A.D. Coviello (Andrea); A. Cox (Angela); K. Czene (Kamila); P. d' Adamo (Pio); G.D. Smith; I. de Vivo (Immaculata); E.W. Demerath (Ellen); J. Dennis (Joe); P. Devilee (Peter); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); A.M. Dunning (Alison); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); K. Hagen (Knut); P.A. Fasching (Peter); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); H. Flyger (Henrik); T. Foroud (Tatiana); L. Franke (Lude); M. Garcia (Melissa); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); F. Geller (Frank); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); G.G. Giles (Graham); D.F. Gudbjartsson (Daniel); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); P. Guénel (Pascal); S. Guo (Suiqun); P. Hall (Per); U. Hamann (Ute); R. Haring (Robin); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); A.C. Heath (Andrew); A. Hofman (Albert); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.L. Hopper (John); F.B. Hu (Frank); D. Hunter (David); D. Karasik (David); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); J.A. Knight (Julia); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); S. Lai (Sandra); D. Lambrechts (Diether); A. Lindblom (Annika); R. Mägi (Reedik); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mannermaa (Arto); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); G. Masson (Gisli); P.F. McArdle (Patrick); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); M. Melbye (Mads); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R.L. Milne (Roger L); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); P. Neven (Patrick); C. Nohr (Christian); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Palotie (Aarno); M. Peacock (Munro); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); J. Peto (Julian); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); A. Pouta (Anneli); K. Pykäs (Katri); P. Radice (Paolo); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Robino (Antonietta); L.M. Rose (Lynda); A. Rudolph (Anja); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Sanna (Serena); D. Schlessinger (David); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); M.C. Southey (Mellissa C.); U. Sovio (Ulla); M.J. Stampfer (Meir J.); D. Stöckl (Doris); A.M. Storniolo (Anna M.); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); J.A. Visser (Jenny); P. Vollenweider (Peter); H. Völzke (Henry); G. Waeber (Gérard); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); Q. Wang (Qing); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); R. Winqvist (Robert); B.H.R. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce H. R.); M.J. Wright (Margaret); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M.J. Econs (Michael); K.T. Khaw; R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.P. Rice (John); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); H.A. Boyd (Heather); L. Crisponi (Laura); P. Gasparini (Paolo); C. Gieger (Christian); T.B. Harris (Tamara); E. Ingelsson (Erik); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); P. Kraft (Peter); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); A. Metspalu (Andres); C.E. Pennell (Craig); P.M. Ridker (Paul); H. Snieder (Harold); T.I.A. Sørensen; T.D. Spector (Timothy); D.P. Strachan (David P.); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); N.J. Wareham (Nick); E. Widen (Elisabeth); M. Zygmunt (Marek); A. Murray (Anna); D.F. Easton (Douglas); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); J. Murabito (Joanne); K.K. Ong (Ken K.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAge at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and

  2. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, John R. B.; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E.; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J.; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I.; Esko, Toenu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q.; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D.; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V.; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tsernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K.; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J.; Byrne, Enda M.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L.; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Franke, Lude; Hartman, Catharina A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Snieder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-causemortality(1). Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal

  3. Association of Adiposity Genetic Variants With Menarche Timing in 92,105 Women of European Descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Rhodes, L.; Demerath, E.W.; Cousminer, D.L.; Tao, R.; Dreyfus, J.G.; Esko, T.; Smith, A.V.; Gudnason, V.; Harris, T.B.; Launer, L.; McArdle, P.F.; Yerges-Armstrong, L.M.; Elks, C.E.; Strachan, D.P.; Kutalik, Z.; Vollenweider, P.; Feenstra, B.; Boyd, H.A.; Metspalu, A.; Mihailov, E.; Broer, L.; Zillikens, M.C.; Oostra, B.A.; van Duijn, C.M.; Lunetta, K.L.; Perry, J.R.; Murray, A.; Koller, D.L.; Lai, D.; Corre, T.; Toniolo, D.; Albrecht, E.; Stöckl, D.; Grallert, H.; Gieger, C.; Hayward, C.; Polasek, O.; Rudan, I.; Wilson, J.F.; He, C.; Kraft, P.; Hu, F.B.; Hunter, D.J.; Hottenga, J.J.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Byrne, E.M.; Martin, N.G.; Montgomery, G.W.; Warrington, N.M.; Pennell, C.E.; Stolk, L.; Visser, J.A.; Hofman, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Rivadeneira, F.; Lin, P.; Fisher, S.L.; Bierut, L.J.; Crisponi, L.; Porcu, E.; Mangino, M.; Zhai, G.; Spector, T.D.; Buring, J.E.; Rose, L.M.; Ridker, P.M.; Poole, C.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Murabito, J.M.; Chasman, D.I.; Widén, E.; North, K.E.; Ong, K.K.; Franceschini, N.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is of global health concern. There are well-described inverse relationships between female pubertal timing and obesity. Recent genome-wide association studies of age at menarche identified several obesity-related variants. Using data from the ReproGen Consortium, we employed meta-analytical

  4. Age at menarche, age at menopause and duration of fertility as risk factors for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioka, C; Fotopoulos, A; Georgiou, A; Xourgia, X; Papadopoulos, A; Kalef-Ezra, J A

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the relationship of osteopenia and osteoporosis in apparently healthy postmenopausal patients with age at menarche, age at menopause and duration of fertility. One hundred and twenty-four apparently healthy Greek postmenopausal women underwent spinal and hip X-ray absorptiometry scans. Among them, 47 were classified as normal (control group), 52 as osteopenic, and 25 as having osteoporosis. These groups were compared according to their age at menarche (three subgroups of 10-12, 13 and 14-16 years old), at menopause (three subgroups of 40-45, 46-50 and > or = 51 years old) and duration of fertility (four subgroups of 40 and 41-45 years). The groups were not found to differ statistically according to age and age at menarche. However, decreased bone mineral density was found in patients with duration of fertility not exceeding 30 years (p = 0.034) and age at menopause less than 45 years (p = 0.034). No association was found between bone mineral density in Greek postmenopausal women and either number of live births or lactation. In postmenopausal females, the cumulative exposure to endogenous estrogens, measured as years of menstruation, seems to be a significant protective factor against the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Age at menopause between 40 and 45 years, but not age at menarche, correlated with low bone mineral density in postmenopausal females.

  5. The impact of pre-menarcheal training on menstrual practices and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The menstrual practices of adolescents derive largely from health issues associated with their adjustment to reproductive life. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of pre-menarcheal training on the menstrual and hygiene practices of Nigerian school girls. Methods: A cross-sectional ...

  6. Relationship between menarche and psychosis onset in women with first episode of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Abadal, Elena; Usall, Judith; Barajas, Anna; Carlson, Janina; Iniesta, Raquel; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Baños, Iris; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Ochoa, Susana

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age at menarche and age at first episode of psychosis, as well as clinical severity and outcome, in a population of women with first-episode psychosis. Clinical and socio-demographical data, age at menarche and at first-episode psychosis, parental history of psychosis and cannabis-use habits were obtained from 42 subjects with a first episode of psychosis. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Global Assessment Function, Disability Assessment Schedule, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, European Quality of Life, and Lewis and Murray Obstetric Complication Scales were administered. Statistical analysis was performed by means of zero-order correlations and Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests using SPSS version 17.0. We found no significant correlation between age at menarche and age at first-episode psychosis, or with the clinical scores performed. We observed that subjects with earlier age at menarche had more parental history of psychosis. Our negative results do not support the theory of a possible protective role of oestrogen, which seems to be more complex than previously thought. We would suggest that further research is needed to investigate developmental influences of sex steroids on the onset of psychosis and potentially therapeutic benefits based upon oestrogen. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Early menarche, nulliparity and the risk for premature and early natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gita D; Pandeya, Nirmala; Dobson, Annette J; Chung, Hsin-Fang; Anderson, Debra; Kuh, Diana; Sandin, Sven; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Lee, Jung Su; Mizunuma, Hideki; Cade, Janet E; Burley, Victoria; Greenwood, Darren C; Goodman, Alissa; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld; Adami, Hans-Olov; Demakakos, Panayotes; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2017-03-01

    Are parity and the timing of menarche associated with premature and early natural menopause? Early menarche (≤11 years) is a risk factor for both premature menopause (final menstrual period, FMP menopause (FMP 40-44 years), a risk that is amplified for nulliparous women. Women with either premature or early menopause face an increased risk of chronic conditions in later life and of early death. Findings from some studies suggest that early menarche and nulliparity are associated with early menopause, however overall the evidence is mixed. Much of the evidence for a direct relationship is hampered by a lack of comparability across studies, failure to adjust for confounding factors and inadequate statistical power. This pooled study comprises 51 450 postmenopausal women from nine observational studies in the UK, Scandinavia, Australia and Japan that contribute to the International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE). Age at menarche (categorized as ≤11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 or more years) and parity (categorized as no children, one child and two or more children) were exposures of interest. Age at FMP was confirmed by at least 12 months of cessation of menses where this was not the result of an intervention (such as surgical menopause due to bilateral oophorectomy or hysterectomy) and categorized as premature menopause (FMP before age 40), early menopause (FMP 40-44 years), 45-49 years, 50-51 years, 52-53 years and 54 or more years. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression models to estimate relative risk ratio (RRR) and 95% CI for associations between menarche, parity and age at FMP adjusting for within-study correlation. The median age at FMP was 50 years (interquartile range 48-53 years), with 2% of the women experiencing premature menopause and 7.6% early menopause. Women with early menarche (≤11 years, compared with 12-13 years) were at higher risk of premature menopause (RRR 1

  8. Breast Cancer Risk Analysis by the Use of Hormonal Contraceptives and Age of Menarche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Triara Dewi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of cases of breast cancer is increasing every year and it’s a serious health problem in the world, including in Indonesia. Breast cancer is type of cancer that is most dominant in Indonesia. High estrogen exposure is one of factor that can increase the risk of breast cancer in women. This study was conducted to determine the relationship of estrogen exposure through the use of hormonal contraceptives and age of menarche with breast cancer incidence in women. Type of this study is observational analytic and use case control design. All of women breast cancer patients of Dr. Soetomo Hospital in 2013 were the population of case. All of woman non breast cancer patients who done breast examination at Dr Soetomo Hospital in 2013 were the population of control. The number of respondents in this study were 90 respondents were drawn from population using simple random sampling method. The variables studied were the use of hormonal contraceptives and age of menarche. The results of the analysis used binary logistic regression (α = 5% indicated that the use of hormonal contraceptives (p = 0,028; OR = 3,266 and age of menarche (p =0,031; OR = 3,492 has an significant correlation with incidence of breast cancer in women at Dr. Soetomo Hospital in 2013. It is expected that the community can be more accurate in determining the duration of hormonal contraception usage and avoid lifestyle can accelerate the occurrence of menarche. Keywords: breast cancer, risk factor, hormonal contraceptives, age of menarche, estrogen

  9. Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Mangini, Lauren D; Thelus-Jean, Rosenie; Hayward, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A woman’s age at menarche (first menstrual period) and her age at menopause are the alpha and omega of her reproductive years. The timing of these milestones is critical for a woman’s health trajectory over her lifespan, as they are indicators of ovarian function and aging. Both early and late timing of either event are associated with risk for adverse health and psychosocial outcomes. Thus, the search for a relationship between age at menarche and menopause has consequences for chronic disease prevention and implications for public health. This article is a review of evidence from the fields of developmental biology, epidemiology, nutrition, demography, sociology, and psychology that examine the menarche–menopause connection. Trends in ages at menarche and menopause worldwide and in subpopulations are presented; however, challenges exist in constructing trends. Among 36 studies that examine the association between the two sentinel events, ten reported a significant direct association, two an inverse association, and the remainder had null findings. Multiple factors, including hormonal and environmental exposures, socioeconomic status, and stress throughout the life course are hypothesized to influence the tempo of growth, including body size and height, development, menarche, menopause, and the aging process in women. The complexity of these factors and the pathways related to their effects on each sentinel event complicate evaluation of the relationship between menarche and menopause. Limitations of past investigations are discussed, including lack of comparability of socioeconomic status indicators and biomarker use across studies, while minority group differences have received scant attention. Suggestions for future directions are proposed. As research across endocrinology, epidemiology, and the social sciences becomes more integrated, the confluence of perspectives will yield a richer understanding of the influences on the tempo of a woman

  10. Latitude and ultraviolet radiation dose in the birthplace in relation to menarcheal age in a large cohort of French women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossus, Laure; Kvaskoff, Marina; Bijon, Anne; Engel, Pierre; Verdebout, Jean; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    Age at menarche is an important determinant of hormonal-related neoplasia and other chronic diseases. Spatial and temporal variations in age at menarche have been observed in industrialised countries and several environmental factors were reported to have an influence. We examined geographical variations in self-reported age at menarche and explored the effects of both latitude and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dose on the onset of menarche in 88,278 women from the French E3N cohort (aged 40-65 years at inclusion). The mean age at menarche was 12.8 years. After adjustment for potential confounders (birth cohort, prematurity, birth weight and length, father's income index, body silhouette in childhood, food deprivation during World War II, population of birthplace, number of siblings, breastfeeding exposure and indoor exposure to passive smoking during childhood), latitude and UVR dose (annual or spring/summer) in county of birth were significantly associated with age at menarche (P(trend) < 0.0001). Women born at lower latitudes or in regions with higher annual or spring/summer UVR dose had a 3- to 4-month earlier menarche than women born at higher latitudes or in regions with lower UVR. On a continuous scale, a 1° increment in latitude resulted in a 0.04-year older age at menarche [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03, 0.05], whereas a 1-kJ/m(2) increment in annual UVR dose resulted in a 0.42-year younger age at menarche (95% CI: -0.55, -0.29). These data further suggest that light exposure in childhood may influence sexual maturation in women.

  11. Influence of menarche on the relation between diurnal cortisol production and ventral striatum activity during reward anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoult, Joelle; Colich, Natalie L; Sherdell, Lindsey; Hamilton, J Paul; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-09-01

    Adolescence is characterized by an increase in risk-taking and reward-seeking behaviors. In other populations, increased risk taking has been associated with tighter coupling between cortisol production and ventral striatum (VS) activation during reward anticipation; this relation has not yet been examined, however, as a function of adolescent development. This study examined the influence of pubertal development on the association between diurnal cortisol production and VS activity during reward anticipation. Pre- and post-menarcheal girls collected diurnal cortisol and completed an functional magnetic resonance imaging-based monetary incentive delay task, from which we extracted estimates of VS activity during the anticipation of reward, anticipation of loss and anticipation of non-incentive neutral trials. Post-menarcheal girls showed greater coupling between the cortisol awakening response and VS activation during anticipation of reward and loss than did their pre-menarcheal counterparts. Post-menarcheal girls did not differ from pre-menarcheal girls in their cortisol-VS coupling during anticipation of neutral trials, suggesting that puberty-related changes in cortisol-VS coupling are specific to affective stimuli. Interestingly, behavioral responses during the task indicate that post-menarcheal girls are faster to engage with affective stimuli than are pre-menarcheal girls. Thus, post-menarcheal girls exhibit neurobiological and behavioral patterns that have been associated with risk taking and that may underlie the dramatic increase in risk-taking behavior documented during adolescence. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Secular trends in age at menarche among Caboclo populations from Pará, Amazonia, Brazil: 1930-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H P; Padez, C

    2006-01-01

    The present study is part of a large research project on growth, development, nutrition, and health of Caboclo populations from the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this paper is to analyze the age of menarche in adolescents (N=164) and adult women (219) in the studied populations. Caboclo are admixed rural, peasant groups that live along the Amazon river and its tributaries, and there are few previous studies about them. Probit analysis of the status quo data yielded a median age at menarche of 12.29+/-1.76 years. The retrospective method was applied to recall data of the 77 post-menarcheal adolescents, yielding an average of 13.06+/-1.27 years. Number of children in the family did not show any statistical influence on age at menarche in any age group. In adult women, age at menarche decreased from 14.50 in those born in 1930 to 12.88 for those born in 1980 (F=4.371, P=0.001). The downward trend found was, on average, 0.237 year per decade in the study period. The median age at menarche in the adolescents (12.29 years) is one of the lowest values found for Central and South American populations. In the ecological context, a low age at menarche could be an adaptive advantage because it provides a greater chance for reproduction at a young age in an environment where, until recently, life expectancy was low. As has been reported for other developing countries, the change found in age at menarche in the women born from the 1930s to the 1980s is likely to be related to changes in health and nutritional factors that occurred in Brazil because this country experienced significant improvement in living standards related to education, vaccination, and health conditions, which, although not equally, reached all regions after the 1960s. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:83-92, 2006. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Important Role of Menarche in Development of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Zirpoli, Gary; Hong, Chi-Chen; Yao, Song; Troester, Melissa A; Bandera, Elisa V; Schedin, Pepper; Bethea, Traci N; Borges, Virginia; Park, Song-Yi; Chandra, Dhyan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R

    2015-09-01

    Menarche is a critical time point for diverging fates of mammary cells of origin. African American women have young age at menarche, which could be associated with their high rates of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer. In the AMBER Consortium, using harmonized data from 4426 African American women with breast cancer and 17 474 controls, we used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ages at menarche and first live birth (FLB), and the interval between, in relation to ER+ and ER- breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. Risk of ER- breast cancer was reduced with later age at menarche among both parous and nulliparous women (≥15 vs fashion (OR for 20 year interval = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.79, P trend = .003), ER- risk was only increased for intervals up to 14 years and not beyond (P trend = .33). While ER- breast cancer risk was markedly reduced in women with a late age at menarche, there was not a clear pattern of increased risk with longer interval between menarche and FLB, as was observed for ER+ breast cancer. These findings indicate that etiologic pathways involving adolescence and pregnancy may differ for ER- and ER+ breast cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Early Menarche as an Alternative Reproductive Tactic in Human Females: An Evolutionary Approach to Reproductive Health Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan T. Gillette

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The age at which a female reaches sexual maturity is critical in determining her future reproductive health and success. Thus, a worldwide decline in menarcheal age (timing of first menstrual period may have serious long-term consequences. Early menarcheal timing (first menstrual period before age 12 can have a negative effect on fecundity, as well as the quality and quantity of offspring, and may consequently influence population growth or decline. In this paper, we apply an evolutionary framework to modern human health, and assess both proximate and ultimate consequences of declining menarcheal age. Examination of human reproductive health within an evolutionary framework is innovative and essential, because it illuminates the ultimate consequences of a declining age of menarche and facilitates new ways of thinking about the long-term and intergenerational transmission of health and disease; thus, an evolutionary framework lends itself to innovative public health and policy programs. In this paper, we examine whether or not early menarche is an alternative reproductive tactic that modern human females employ in response to a stressful environment, and whether or not early menarche is ultimately beneficial.

  15. Age at menarche and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various observational studies have focused on the relationship between menarcheal age and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the association is still controversial because of inconsistent results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess this issue from epidemiological studies. METHODS: After a literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science for studies of menarcheal age and CRC risk published through the end of January 2013, we pooled the relative risks (RRs from included studies using a fixed- or random-effects model and performed heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Eleven case-control and 11 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion in our analysis. The random-effects pooled RR for oldest versus youngest menarcheal age was 0.95 [95% confidence intervals (CIs = 0.85-1.06], with significant heterogeneity (Q = 61.03, P<0.001, I (2 = 65.6%. When separately analyzed, case-control (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.75-1.21 and cohort studies (RR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.90-1.04 yielded similar results. Moreover, similar results were also observed among the subgroup analyses by study quality, population, exposure assessment, anatomic cancer site, subsite of colon cancer, and several potential important confounders and risk factors. There was no evidence of publication bias and significant heterogeneity between subgroups detected by meta-regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this meta-analysis demonstrated that menarcheal age was not associated with the risk of CRC in humans. Further studies are warranted to stratify results by the subsite of colon cancer and menopause status in the future.

  16. Secular Trends in Age at Menarche, Smoking, and Oral Contraceptive Use Among Israeli Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Chodick, Gabriel; Rademaker, Alfred; Huerta, Michael; Balicer, Ran D; Davidovitch, Nadav; Grotto, Itamar

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The improved nutrition and socioeconomic status of the population in industrialized countries has resulted in a decrease in the mean age at menarche. This trend raises the question of whether cigarette smoking and the use of oral contraceptives, health behaviors often adopted during adolescence, may also be starting at a younger age. Cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives are a public health concern because they pose an increased risk for development of chronic diseases...

  17. Secular Trends in Age at Menarche, Smoking, and Oral Contraceptive Use Among Israeli Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Ran D. Balicer, MD; Nadav Davidovitch, MD, MPH; Itamar Grotto, MD, MPH; Michael Huerta, MD, MPH; Gabriel Chodick, PhD, MHA

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The improved nutrition and socioeconomic status of the population in industrialized countries has resulted in a decrease in the mean age at menarche. This trend raises the question of whether cigarette smoking and the use of oral contraceptives, health behaviors often adopted during adolescence, may also be starting at a younger age. Cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives are a public health concern because they pose an increased risk for development of chronic disease...

  18. Parent-of-origin specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, John RB; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, T?nu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAge at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using ge...

  19. Predictors of stunting and thinness in post-menarcheal adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and risk factors of undernutrition in post-menarcheal girls in rural northern Bangladesh. Cross-sectional data on anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, work activity, morbidity and socio-economic status were collected from 12- to 19-year-old primigravidae (n 209) and never-pregnant adolescents (n 456) matched on age and time since menarche. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of stunting, thinness, upper-arm muscle (UAMZ) and fat area Z-scores (UAFZ) among the adolescent girls. A large proportion of adolescents (49 %) were stunted (height-for-age Z-score <-2) and underweight (40 %; weight-for-age Z-score <-2), but not thin (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; approximately 10 %). The mean (sd) UAMZ and UAFZ of the adolescent girls was -0.3 (0.64) and -0.9 (0.40), respectively. Lean mass increased whereas fat mass declined with age. Both stunting and thinness were positively associated with age and time since menarche (P < 0.05). Young age (12-14 years) and literacy were protective against stunting among pregnant adolescents (OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.09, 0.88 and OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.96, respectively). Having symptoms of diarrhoea or dysentery (OR = 7.40, 95 % CI 1.43, 38.29) predicted thinness and was associated with lower UAMZ and UAFZ among never-pregnant girls (both P < 0.05). Performing light-to-moderate activities was protective against thinness among never-pregnant girls (OR = 0.43, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.82), whereas pregnant adolescents who performed high levels of strenuous activities had greater UAMZ (P < 0.05). Undernutrition was widespread among this post-menarcheal adolescent population. Younger and literate adolescents were less likely to be stunted, whereas thinness and body composition were associated with morbidity and work activity.

  20. Differential Impact of Genetic Loci on Age at Thelarche and Menarche in Healthy Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2018-01-01

    ) were followed through puberty and genotyped for FSHB c.-211G>T (rs10835638), FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205), FSHR c.2039A>G (rs6116), LIN28B (rs7759938), INHA (rs4141153), MKRN3 (rs12148769), TMEM38B (rs10453225), and ZNF483 (rs10980921). Main Outcome Measures: Clinical pubertal staging and anthropometric...... data. Results: We observed an association of LIN28B (rs7759938) with age at thelarche (P year, 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.42) and age at menarche (P = 0.005, 0.17 year, 0.05 to 0.29). FSHB c.-211G>T (rs10835638) and FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205) minor allele count...... was associated with age at thelarche (P = 0.004, 0.19 year, 0.06 to 0.31) but not with age at menarche (P = 0.97; all adjusted for body mass index z scores). Conclusion: Our results indicate a differential impact of specific genetic loci on age at thelarche and menarche in healthy girls....

  1. Outcome of Isolated Premature Menarche: A Retrospective and Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Sehar; Lane, Andrew; Wilson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Isolated premature menarche is isolated or recurrent vaginal bleeding in a female in the absence of appropriate secondary sexual characters. Retrospective chart review of patients with premature menarche, followed by a telephone questionnaire. Charts of patients evaluated in the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic for premature vaginal bleeding from 1982-2013 were reviewed. Of 21 patients identified, 17 could be contacted. Five newly diagnosed patients were recruited during the course of the study. The median age at initial presentation was 7 years. Most patients presented with Tanner I sexual development. Some had more advanced breast staging, which regressed later. All had prepubertal baseline and stimulated gonadotropins. Most of the patients reported a single or few episodes of menses. Two reported continuation of irregular bleeding into adulthood. All reported an adult height within the midparental target height. Premature menarche in the absence of other appropriate secondary sexual characteristics is a benign entity. Most patients have a few isolated episodes of menses that stop spontaneously; some may continue to have periods into adulthood. Unlike true puberty, these patients do not demonstrate advanced skeletal maturation, and the adult height is normal. Fertility appears to be normal. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Early-menarche as Determinant Factor for Metabolic-risks: An Epidemiology Perspectives among Adolescent Girls aged 13-15 years old in Jakarta-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Hariani

    2018-01-01

    A total of 194 adolescent girls were participated in this study. Early menarche was found in 22.68% of all subjects. There was no association between menarche status and daily macronutrients intake pattern and physical activity level score. Early menarche subjects had significantly higher BMI (p<0.001, CDC-percentile (p<0.001, WHO Z-score (p<0.001, and waist circumference values (p=0.02. Furthermore, early menarche subjects also had higher systolic blood pressure (p=0.035, total cholesterol level (p=0.028, LDL-cholesterol level (p=0.013, and triglyceride level (p=0.026. There was no association between menarche status and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, HDL-C level, lipid profile ratio. In conclusion, early menarche is an important determinant factor of metabolic risks, and balance between dietary intake and physical activity level should be prioritized among them.

  3. The role of BMI across the life course in the relationship between age at menarche and diabetes, in a British Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, M B; Kuh, D; Hardy, R

    2012-01-01

    Aims Previous research showing an inverse association between age of menarche and adult diabetes relied on recalled age at menarche and did not adjust for BMI across the life course. We investigated the relationship between age at menarche and diabetes, and whether childhood, adolescent or adult BMI attenuates this relationship. Methods We used data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a British birth cohort study of men and women born in 1946, with con...

  4. Age at menarche in Polish University students born before, during and after World War II: Economic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liczbińska, Grażyna; Czapla, Zbigniew; Piontek, Janusz; Malina, Robert M

    2018-02-01

    Although the relationships between economic conditions and biological variables over the past two centuries in Poland are reasonably well-documented, the influence of economic and political disruptions, including nutritional privation, during the years immediately before, during and shortly after World War II (WWII) has received less attention. This paper considers the association between age at menarche and body size of university students born before, during and after WWII and father's level of education, a commonly used indicator of family economic status in Poland. Subjects were 518 university students surveyed between 1955 and 1972, birth years 1931 through 1951. The sample was divided into three birth cohorts: before (n=237), during (n=247) and after (n=34) WWII. Age at menarche was compared among birth cohorts, and by weight status and father's level of education. Age at menarche increased slightly but significantly among women born during WWII (14.4 yrs) compared to those born before (14.2 yrs) and after (13.9 yrs) the war. Controlling for year of birth and age of the student, age at menarche was significantly earlier in overweight (13.42±0.35 yrs) than in normal weight (14.33±0.06 yrs) and thin (14.54±0.21 yrs) women. Adjusted mean ages at menarche in small samples of overweight women did not differ by father's level of education, and were earlier than corresponding ages of thin and normal weight women. Adjusted mean ages at menarche did not differ between thin and normal weight women with fathers having primary or no education, but were slightly later in thin than in normal weight women with fathers having a vocational, secondary or higher education. Although age at menarche was associated with father's level of education, young adult weight status was a somewhat more important correlate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of the age at menarche on body composition in adulthood: results from two birth cohort studies

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    Susana Bubach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that early menarche is positively associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, it is important to assess whether this association is due to early menarche or to the association of adiposity in late childhood with age at menarche. We evaluated the association between age at menarche and body composition in adolescence and adulthood, among subjects who have been prospectively followed in two Brazilian birth cohort studies. Methods In 1982 and 1993, the hospitals births in Pelotas were identified, and these subjects have been followed for several times. Information on age at menarche was obtained from the women (1982 cohort and their mothers (1993 cohort. At 30 and 18 years, the following body composition measures were evaluated: body mass index, waist circumference, fat-free mass index and fat mass index measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and thickness of the abdominal visceral fat layer measured by ultrasound. The analyses were adjusted for: birth weight, maternal pregestational weight, gestational age, family income, household score index, maternal schooling, weight-for-height z-score at 4 years (1982, and body mass index at 11 years (1993. Results At 30 and 18 years, 2045 and 2092 women were evaluated, respectively. The prevalence of early menarche (≤11 years of age was 24.7 % in the 1982 and 27.6 % in the 1993 cohort. In the 1982 cohort, early menarche was positively associated with all body composition variables compared to those with late menarche (≥14 years of age even after adjusting for confounders (fat mass index: 2.33 kg/m2, 95 % Confidence interval: 1.64; 3.02. However, in the 1993 cohort, after adjusting for body mass index at 11 years, the regression coefficient for the association with fat mass index decreased from 2.2 kg/m2 (95 % Confidence interval: 1.7; 2.6 to 0.26 (95 % Confidence interval: −0.08; 0.60. Conclusions The association between age at menarche

  6. Secure Infant-Mother Attachment Buffers the Effect of Early-Life Stress on Age of Menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sooyeon; Simpson, Jeffry A; Griskevicius, Vladas; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Prior research indicates that being reared in stressful environments is associated with earlier onset of menarche in girls. In this research, we examined (a) whether these effects are driven by exposure to certain dimensions of stress (harshness or unpredictability) during the first 5 years of life and (b) whether the negative effects of stress on the timing of menarche are buffered by secure infant-mother attachment. Results revealed that (a) exposure to greater harshness (but not unpredictability) during the first 5 years of life predicted earlier menarche and (b) secure infant-mother attachment buffered girls from this effect of harsh environments. By connecting attachment research to its evolutionary foundations, these results illuminate how environmental stressors and relationships early in life jointly affect pubertal timing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Menstrual and menarche experience among pubescent female students in Taiwan: implications for health education and promotion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the menarche and menstruation experiences of young females aged 10-12 years in elementary education in Taiwan. Menarche is a significant milestone in a woman's life and for female adolescents it is a sharply defined biological event that can be a traumatic and uncomfortable time. If used, school nurses can make a significant contribution in educating young people and help to ameliorate these problems. Understanding how young women feel about menstruation is a central element to sexual health education practice. A qualitative research design was employed using focus groups. Data were collected from 20 female students, aged between 10-12 years. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and subject to a thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the data analysis reflecting the menstrual experience of participants. These were: 'Changing bodies: the physical effects of menarche and menstruation', 'Emotional issues: the psychological impact of menarche and menstruation' and 'Social dimensions of the menarche and menstruation'. Our findings show that young females can experience significant physical and emotional difficulties around menstruation - many of which stem from poor information and the reactions of their peer group to menstrual activity. The potential for school nurses to contribute to this education is significant and schools should explore the manner in which nurses can contribute to this area of health education. Nurses involved in health education work with young people and ensure that menstruation education addresses the social and psychological impact of the menarche as well as the physical elements of menstruation. Boys should not be absent from this education and the impact of their attitudes towards menstruation upon their female peers should be addressed in health education work.

  8. Insulin, androgen, and gonadotropin concentrations, body mass index, and waist to hip ratio in the first years after menarche in girls with regular menstrual cycles, irregular menstrual cycles, or oligomenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.H.A. van; Voorhorst, F.J.; Kaptein, M.B.H.; Hirasing, R.A.; Koppenaal, C.; Schoemaker, J.

    2000-01-01

    Data on changes in hormone concentrations during the first years after menarche are scarce. We studied the relation between gynecological age (age minus age at menarche), hormone concentrations, and body measurements from the 1st to the 6th yr after menarche in 229 observations of girls with regular

  9. [Comparative study of height and age at menarche according to the socioeconomic level in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Contreras, M; Tovar Escobar, G; Farid Coupal, N; Landaeta Jiménez, M; Méndez Castellano, H

    1981-12-01

    This is a retrospective study based on growth and development data published in Venezuela by various authors in the period 1936-1978. The data on height for males of the middle and high socioeconomic strata show growth curves which are very similar to the standards for British children. Likewise, the girls of the same socioeconomic condition follow the British standards, but only up to about 10-12 years of age. After that age, the girls studied by the Venezuelan authors, show a pattern of early maturation with a corresponding lower adult height compared with their British counterparts. There were differences in the growth curves according to the socioeconomic strata. These differences were more marked in the girls data. A secular increase for height was discerned, from the published data, in all socioeconomic strata and in both sexes. The data on sexual maturation showed a tendency for progressively early menarche in Venezuelan girls. These changes in growth in height and age of menarche were more notorious and came about at an earlier age in the upper socioeconomic strata. They were less marked, not constant, and came about later in the lower socioeconomic groups. The secular changes in height and sexual maturation apparent from these data, could be explained by an improvement in the environmental conditions, especially nutrition and hygiene of the population, and also be genetic heterosis from European immigration and with improvement in communications.

  10. [Associated factors related to first spermatorrhea and menarche among high and primary school students, in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K Q; Wang, H; Guo, J; Yuan, B C; Guan, P Y

    2016-02-01

    To understand the status and correlative factors on menarche and first spermatorrhea among children and adolescents, in Chongqing, in order to provide theoretical basis for carrying out sex and health education in this population. By random stratified and cluster sampling, 10 498 students (5 372 boys and 5 126 girls), 5 to 18 years old and living in Chongqing urban districts, were enrolled. General situation and physical features of the population were studied. Statistics analysis system included logistic regression methods, t-test and chi-square test. For urban kids, first experience of spermatorrhea was 0.218 years later than those living in the rural areas (Z=-73.287,P0.05). However, significant difference appeared in average family income (χ(2)=6.175,P=0.046) between two groups of girls. Data from the logistic analysis showed that BMI, hip circumference, height, weight, number of children in the family, time of sleep and the diet structure were associated with menarche. Correlative factors of boys' first spermatorrhea would include: high-energy snacks, hip circumference, weight, height, school type and mother' s education level (Psleep.

  11. Timing of menarche related to carotid artery intima-media thickness in black and white young adult women: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Azad R; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Xu, Ji-Hua; Berenson, Gerald S

    2015-06-01

    The early onset of menarche is related to the adulthood risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. This study examines the relation of early onset of menarche to carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), which is a surrogate marker of CV disease, among asymptomatic young adult women in a black-white community. A cohort of 461 women (31% black, 69% white) aged 24 to 43 years (mean of 35.6 years) were participants in the Bogalusa Heart Study. The age at menarche was retrospectively collected. In addition to CV risk factor variable measurements B-mode ultrasound images of the far walls of carotid artery segments were obtained. The multivariate linear regression model along with mediating effect by Sobel test was applied to analyze menarcheal age effect on carotid artery IMT, adjusting for covariates. Waist to height ratio was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women and also similar direction in black women. Internal carotid artery IMT was the same in early menarcheal age (women but higher (P = .02) in black women. Given as previously mentioned these different associations, the mediation analysis by race was performed. The effect of early menarcheal age (women after adjusting for parental education and age. The mediating effect of waist to height ratio (Sobel test = -2.26 and P = .02) and HOMA-IR (Sobel test = -1.85 and P = .06) on internal carotid artery IMT was noted in white women. The direct effect of early menarcheal age (women. The observed deleterious effect of early onset of menarche on carotid artery IMT in asymptomatic black and white younger adult women has biological, social, and public health implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between age at menarche and exposure to sexual content in audio-visual media and other factors in Islamic junior high school girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tity Wulandari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent decades, girls have experienced menarche at earlier ages, which may have negative effects on health. Exposure to audio-visual media and other factors may influence the age at menarche, although past studies have produced inconsistent results. Objective To assess for relationships between the age at menarche and audio-visual media exposure, socio-economic status, nutritional status, physical activity, and psychosocial dysfunction in adolescent girls. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2015 in students from two integrated Islamic junior high schools in Medan, North Sumatera. There were 216 students who met the inclusion criteria: aged 10-16 years and experienced menarche. They were asked to fill out questionnaires that had been previously validated, regarding their history of exposure to audio-visual media, physical activity, and psychosocial dysfunction. The data were analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests in order to assess for relationships between audio-visual media exposure and other potential factors with the age at menarche. Results Of 261 female students at the two schools, 216 had undergone menarche, with a mean age at menarche of 11.6 (SD 1.13 years. There was no significant relationship between age at menarche and audio-visual media exposure (P=0.68. Also, there were no significant relationships between factors such as socio-economic and psychosocial status with age at menarche (P=0.64 and P=0.28, respectively. However, there were significant relationships between earlier age at menarche and overweight/obese nutritional status (P=0.02 as well as low physical activity (P=0.01. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low physical activity had the strongest influence on early menarche (RP=2.40; 95%CI 0.92 to 6.24. Conclusion Age at menarche is not significantly associated with sexual content of audio-visual media exposure. However, there were significant

  13. Genetic moderation of effects of maternal sensitivity on girl's age of menarche: Replication of the Manuck et al. study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Widaman, Keith F; Belsky, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Manuck, Craig, Flory, Halder, and Ferrell (2011) reported that a theoretically anticipated effect of family rearing on girls' menarcheal age was genetically moderated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptor-α gene. We sought to replicate and extend these findings, studying 210 White females followed from birth. The replication was general because a different measure of the rearing environment was used in this inquiry (i.e., maternal sensitivity) than in the prior one (i.e., family cohesion). Extensions of the work included prospective rather than retrospective measurements of the rearing environment, reports of first menstruation within a year of its occurrence rather than decades later, accounting for some heritability of menarcheal age by controlling for maternal age of menarche, and using a new model-fitting approach to competitively compare diathesis-stress versus differential-susceptibility models of Gene × Environment interaction. The replication/extension effort proved successful in the case of both estrogen receptor-α SNPs, with the Gene × Environment interactions principally reflecting diathesis-stress: lower levels of maternal sensitivity predicted earlier age of menarche for girls homozygous for the minor alleles of either SNP but not for girls carrying other genotypes. Results are discussed in light of the new analytic methods adopted.

  14. Birth weight and age at menarche in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome or diminished ovarian reserve, in a retrospective cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadrzadeh, S.; Klip, W.A.J.; Broekmans, F.J.; Schats, R.; Willemsen, W.N.P.; Burger, C.W.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Lambalk, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association between subfertility in women and factors in early life such as birth weight and age at menarche, and most have produced contradictory results. In the present study, this association was investigated among women undergoing artificial

  15. Can the observed association between serum perfluoroalkyl substances and delayed menarche be explained on the basis of puberty-related changes in physiology and pharmacokinetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huali; Yoon, Miyoung; Verner, Marc-André; Xue, Jianping; Luo, Man; Andersen, Melvin E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Clewell, Harvey J

    2015-09-01

    An association between serum levels of two perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and delayed age at menarche was reported in a cross-sectional study of adolescents. Because perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have half-lives of years, growth dilution and the development of a new route of excretion (menstruation) could account for some or all of the reported association. To assess how much of the epidemiologic association between PFAS and delayed menarche can be explained by the correlation of growth and maturation with PFAS body burden. We developed a Monte Carlo (MC) physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of PFAS to simulate plasma PFAS levels in a hypothetical female population aged 2 to 20years old. Realistic distributions of physiological parameters as well as timing of growth spurts and menarche were incorporated in the model. The association between PFAS level and delayed menarche in the simulated data was compared with the reported association. The prevalence of menarche, distributions of age-dependent physiological parameters, and quartiles of serum PFAS concentrations in the simulated subjects were comparable to those reported in the epidemiologic study. The delay of menarche in days per natural log increase in PFAS concentrations in the simulated data were about one third as large as the observed values. The reported relationship between PFAS and age at menarche appears to be at least partly explained by pharmacokinetics rather than a toxic effect of these substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Height, age at menarche and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dossus, Laure; Teucher, Birgit; Steindorf, Karen; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra Hm; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Krum-Hansen, Sanda; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2013-06-01

    Associations of breast cancer overall with indicators of exposures during puberty are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the associations of height, leg length, sitting height and menarcheal age with hormone receptor-defined malignancies. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of adult height, leg length and sitting height and age at menarche with risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-) (n = 990) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,524) breast tumors. Height as a single risk factor was compared to a model combining leg length and sitting height. The possible interactions of height, leg length and sitting height with menarche were also analyzed. Risk of both ER-PR- and ER+PR+ malignancies was positively associated with standing height, leg length and sitting height and inversely associated with increasing age at menarche. For ER+PR+ disease, sitting height (hazard ratios: 1.14[95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.20]) had a stronger risk association than leg length (1.05[1.00-1.11]). In comparison, for ER-PR- disease, no distinct differences were observed between leg length and sitting height. Women who were tall and had an early menarche (≤13 years) showed an almost twofold increase in risk of ER+PR+ tumors but no such increase in risk was observed for ER-PR- disease. Indicators of exposures during rapid growth periods were associated with risks of both HR-defined breast cancers. Exposures during childhood promoting faster development may establish risk associations for both HR-positive and -negative malignancies. The stronger associations of the components of height with ER+PR+ tumors among older women suggest possible hormonal links that could be specific for postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  17. Differential impacts of serum vitamin D levels and age at menarche on metabolic syndrome in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: findings from the Korea national cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Mok, Ji-Oh; Chang, Sung Woon; Lee, Bora; Jang, Ji Hyon; Kang, Sukho; Jung, Sang Hee

    2018-07-01

    It is suggested that vitamin D level and age at menarche are related to each other, and the prevalence of low vitamin D status and early menarche in women is increasing worldwide. Moreover, several studies revealed that both of them are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, we hypothesized that there are significant associations among vitamin D status, age at menarche, and MetS and that the relationships differ according to menstrual state. We assessed whether the association among MetS, vitamin D, and menarche age is different between premenopausal and postmenopausal women and whether there is a change in risk of MetS according to vitamin D level in different age-at-menarche groups. We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using 1:1 age-matching for this cross-sectional study. Individuals were stratified into 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels (deficient, D level, was associated with risk of MetS (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.65 [1.18-2.33]). In contrast, in postmenopausal women, vitamin D deficiency, not age at menarche, was associated with risk of MetS (1.39 [1.03-1.87]). In a stratified analysis regarding interactions of a change in risk of MetS according to vitamin D level in different ages at menarche, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with the risk of MetS (1.36 [1.01-1.86]), but this was only in the average-age-at-menarche group. This study suggests that the time of entry into puberty for women may be an important factor in the development of MetS in adulthood, and vitamin D status in women at average menarche age may contribute to the development of MetS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tubal endometriosis diagnosed within one month after menarche: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Mitsuhashi, Y; Takaike, T; Takase, K; Hoshiai, H; Noda, K

    1997-03-01

    A 13-year-old nulligravida girl, 158.5 cm in height and 76.0 kg in body weight, came to our department complaining of continuous right lower abdominal pain. One month earlier, an ovarian cyst in the right ovary, about 3 cm in diameter, was found when she underwent appendectomy at another hospital, but was left untreated. Menarche occurred at the age of 13 years and 1 month, which was after the appendectomy and 24 days before the present operation. Right hematosalpinx with peripheral obstruction and a para-ovarian serous cyst on the same side were diagnosed, and therefore right salpingectomy with para-ovarian cyst resection was performed. The bilateral ovaries and uterus were completely normal by inspection. The post operative histological examination confirmed hematosalpinx and revealed tubal endometriosis.

  19. Urethral Caruncle Presented as Premature Menarche in a 4-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manori Gamage

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral caruncle (UC is a benign fleshy outgrowth at the urethral meatus. It was first described by Samuel Sharp in 1750 and occurs mainly at the posterior lip of the urethra, and the exact aetiology is still uncertain. More often it was seen in the postmenopausal women, and only few cases are reported in young girls. Patients may be asymptomatic and could find this as an incidental finding or they may present with symptoms such as dysuria, bleeding per vagina, haematuria, a mass protruding through vagina, and acute retention of urine. Here, we report the case history of a 4-year-old girl presented with vaginal bleeding which was taken as she has attended menarche and found to have urethral caruncle which was the cause for bleeding. Histology confirmed the diagnosis, and girl was completely cured following surgical excision.

  20. Cultural perceptions and practices around menarche and adolescent menstruation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Margaret L

    2008-01-01

    This overview details the persistence of negative characterizations of the menstrual cycle as a feature of the current cultural context in which girls begin menstrual life in the United States. In addition, research on girls' current menstrual attitudes and experiences within this context are reviewed. Current research suggests that girls are not very knowledgeable about menstruation, and that menstrual education continues to provide girls with mixed messages, such as: menstruation is a normal, natural event, but it should be hidden. Girls' attitudes and expectations about menstruation are negatively biased and have been found to contribute to self-objectification, body shame, and lack of agency in sexual decision-making. Although preparation has been found to be associated with more positive menarcheal and menstrual experiences, specificity about what constitutes "good" preparation has not been well articulated. Implications for promoting the menstrual cycle among young girls as a vital sign in service of monitoring their health are discussed.

  1. Urethral Caruncle Presented as Premature Menarche in a 4-Year-Old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Manori; Beneragama, D

    2018-01-01

    Urethral caruncle (UC) is a benign fleshy outgrowth at the urethral meatus. It was first described by Samuel Sharp in 1750 and occurs mainly at the posterior lip of the urethra, and the exact aetiology is still uncertain. More often it was seen in the postmenopausal women, and only few cases are reported in young girls. Patients may be asymptomatic and could find this as an incidental finding or they may present with symptoms such as dysuria, bleeding per vagina, haematuria, a mass protruding through vagina, and acute retention of urine. Here, we report the case history of a 4-year-old girl presented with vaginal bleeding which was taken as she has attended menarche and found to have urethral caruncle which was the cause for bleeding. Histology confirmed the diagnosis, and girl was completely cured following surgical excision.

  2. Is soy intake related to age at onset of menarche? A cross-sectional study among adolescents with a wide range of soy food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Pribis, Peter; Messina, Mark; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Background Early onset of menarche may negatively influence the future health of adolescent girls. Several factors affect the timing of menarche but it is not clear if soy foods consumption around pubertal years plays a role; thus, we examined its relation to age at onset of menarche (AOM) in a high soy-consuming population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 339 girls ages 12–18 years attending middle and high schools near two Seventh-day Adventist universities in California and...

  3. Effect of Soft Drink, Electronic Media Exposure, Family Income, Pocket Money, and Nutritional Status, on Age at Menarche Among Adolescents in Surakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzawati Latifah; Bhisma Murti; Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Age at menarche has become earlier for the last 100 years. This situation poses worrying problem as it may be lead to an increased risk of premarital sex, teenage pregnancy, mental unpreparedness, and increased risk of Malignant diseases such as ovarial cancer and breast cancer. This study aimed to determine the effect of soft drink, electronic media exposure, family income, pocket money, and nutritional status, on age at menarche among adolescents in Surakarta. Subjects and Metho...

  4. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  5. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  6. Genome-wide association studies and epistasis analyses of candidate genes related to age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyun, Jung-A; Kim, Sunshin; Cho, Nam H; Koh, InSong; Lee, Jong-Young; Shin, Chol; Kwack, KyuBum

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions that are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at menopause in a Korean population. A total of 3,452 and 1,827 women participated in studies of age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively. Linear regression analyses adjusted for residence area were used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS), candidate gene association studies, and interactions between the candidate genes for age at menarche and age at natural menopause. In GWAS, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs7528241, rs1324329, rs11597068, and rs6495785) were strongly associated with age at natural menopause (lowest P = 9.66 × 10). However, GWAS of age at menarche did not reveal any strong associations. In candidate gene association studies, SNPs with P menopause, there was a significant interaction between intronic SNPs on ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif 9 (ADAMTS9) and SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) genes (P = 9.52 × 10). For age at menarche, there were three significant interactions between three intronic SNPs on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene and one SNP located at the 3' flanking region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) gene (lowest P = 1.95 × 10). Novel SNPs and synergistic interactions between candidate genes are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

  7. Effects of menarcheal age on the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors during single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kew-Wan; Lim, Bee-Oh

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between maturation and lower extremity biomechanics during landing in team sport athletes, we are presently uninformed of any research that examined the single-legged drop landing biomechanics of gymnasts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the menarcheal age on the lower extremity biomechanics during a single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts. Twenty-two female artistic elite gymnasts, between 9 and 36 years of age, participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups pre- (n = 11) and post- (n = 11) menarche and asked to perform a single-legged drop landing on top of a 30 cm platform and land on a force plate. The statistical analysis consisted of the multivariate analysis with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The post-menarche group showed a decrease in their maximum knee flexion angle and increase in their maximum knee abduction angle, maximum internal tibial rotation angle, maximum knee abduction moment, and hamstring-quadriceps muscle activity ratio compared with the pre-menarche group during the single-legged drop landing. The post-menarche group showed an increased noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, due to their greater knee loads, compared with the pre-menarche group.

  8. The relationship determination between menarche and the peak of skeletal maturation using hand wrist and cervical vertebrae index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Mardiati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menarche and skeletal maturation indices are physiological maturation indicators that can be used to establish the maturation stage of individual patient in orthodontic treatment, especially in orthodontic growth modification and orthognatic surgery. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between menarche and the peak of skeletal maturation using hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae indexes. Methods: This was an observational diagnostic research with 220 female of Deutero-Malay Indonesian subjects aged 8-17 years from Dental Hospital Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, and some privates orthodontic practice in Bandung. All subjects had hand-wrist radiograph and lateral cephalogram. Menarche data were collected through interview with the subjects and their parents. There were 89 subjects who already had menarche but only 84 of them remembered the month and year of their menarche. The stage of hand-wrist skeletal maturation was analyzed using Fishman method and cervical vertebrae maturation was analyzed using Baccetty et.al., method. Results: The result indicates that the menarche age of Indonesian DeuteroMalay subject were 12.47 ± 0.73 year. The youngest age of were 10.92 ± 0.0 year and the oldest were 13.83 ± 0.23 year. Conclusion: Menarche could be used as an indicator that the pubertal growth peak has been exceeded and to predict the end of the pubertal growth. This study showed that 0.49 years after MP3cap stage of hand-wrist skeletal maturation index and 0.69 years after CVMS2 stage of cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation index, the subject of Indonesian Deutero-Malay will have their menarche. Latar belakang: Menarke dan indeks maturasi skeletal merupakan indikator maturasi fisologis yang dapat digunakan untuk menentukan tahap maturasi pasien pada perawatan ortodonti modifikasi pertumbuhan dan bedah ortognati. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan antara menarke dengan

  9. Age at menarche and age at natural menopause in East Asian women: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiajun; Zhang, Ben; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Huaixing; Lu, Wei; Long, Jirong; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Park, Sue K; Ye, Xingwang; Noh, Dong-Young; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Yiqin; Chung, Seokang; Lin, Xu; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-12-01

    Age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) are complex traits with a high heritability. Abnormal timing of menarche or menopause is associated with a reduced span of fertility and risk for several age-related diseases including breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. To identify novel genetic loci for AM or ANM in East Asian women and to replicate previously identified loci primarily in women of European ancestry by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we conducted a two-stage GWAS. Stage I aimed to discover promising novel AM and ANM loci using GWAS data of 8073 women from Shanghai, China. The Stage II replication study used the data from another Chinese GWAS (n = 1230 for AM and n = 1458 for ANM), a Korean GWAS (n = 4215 for AM and n = 1739 for ANM), and de novo genotyping of 2877 additional Chinese women. Previous GWAS-identified loci for AM and ANM were also evaluated. We identified two suggestive menarcheal age loci tagged by rs79195475 at 10q21.3 (beta = -0.118 years, P = 3.4 × 10 -6 ) and rs1023935 at 4p15.1 (beta = -0.145 years, P = 4.9 × 10 -6 ) and one menopausal age locus tagged by rs3818134 at 22q12.2 (beta = -0.276 years, P = 8.8 × 10 -6 ). These suggestive loci warrant a further validation in independent populations. Although limited by low statistical power, we replicated 19 of the 98 menarche loci and 5 of the 20 menopause loci previously identified in women of European ancestry in East Asian women, suggesting a shared genetic architecture for these two traits across populations.

  10. Anxiety of School-Age Childre (10 – 12 Years) Face Menarche at Mojoroto Village Kediri City

    OpenAIRE

    Wati, Susi Erna

    2015-01-01

    Child age at ranging Elementary School 6 to 12 years, this term constitute school term. Child those are on SD's early class is child that lies on early age elongation. Early age term constitute child developing term that short but constitutes term that really necessary for its life. Therefore, on this term all proprietary potency child needs to be pushed so will optimal ala amends. Menarche constitute first menstruating that ordinary happening deep age range 10 to 12 years. All this time a ...

  11. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. Elks (Cathy); J.R.B. Perry (John); P. Sulem (Patrick); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); N. Franceschini (Nora); C. He (Chunyan); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); J.A. Visser (Jenny); E.M. Byrne (Enda); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); D.F. Gudbjartsson (Daniel); T. Esko (Tõnu); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); D.L. Koller (Daniel); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); P. Lin (Peng); M. Mangino (Massimo); M. Marongiu (Mara); P.F. McArdle (Patrick); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); L. Stolk (Lisette); S. van Wingerden (Sophie); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); E. Albrecht (Eva); T. Corre (Tanguy); E. Ingelsson (Erik); C. Hayward (Caroline); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); S. Ulivi (Shelia); N.M. Warrington (Nicole); L. Zgaga (Lina); H. Alavere (Helene); N. Amin (Najaf); T. Aspelund (Thor); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); I.E. Barroso (Inês); G. Berenson (Gerald); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); H. Blackburn (Hannah); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); J.E. Buring (Julie); F. Busonero; H. Campbell (Harry); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); W. Chen (Wei); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); D.J. Couper (David); A.D. Coviello (Andrea); P. d' Adamo (Pio); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); A. Döring (Angela); D.F. Easton (Douglas); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Emilsson (Valur); J.G. Eriksson (Johan); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); T. Foroud (Tatiana); M. Garcia (Melissa); P. Gasparini (Paolo); F. Geller (Frank); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A.S. Hall (Alistair); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); L. Ferreli (Liana); A.C. Heath (Andrew); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Hofman (Albert); F.B. Hu (Frank); T. Illig (Thomas); M.R. Järvelin; A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D. Karasik (David); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); T.O. Kilpelänen (Tuomas); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Kraft (Peter); L.J. Launer (Lenore); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); S. Li (Shengxu); J. Liu (Jianjun); D. Levy (Daniel); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Melbye (Mads); V. Mooser (Vincent); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); M.A. Nalls (Michael); P. Navarro (Pau); M. Nelis (Mari); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); C. Palmer (Cameron); A. Palotie (Aarno); G. Paré (Guillaume); A.N. Parker (Alex); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); C.E. Pennell (Craig); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); O. Polasek (Ozren); A.S. Plump (Andrew); A. Pouta (Anneli); E. Porcu (Eleonora); T. Rafnar (Thorunn); J.P. Rice (John); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); I. Rudan (Igor); C. Sala (Cinzia); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Sanna (Serena); D. Schlessinger; N.J. Schork (Nicholas); A. Scuteri (Angelo); A.V. Segrè (Ayellet); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); U. Sovio (Ulla); S.R. Srinivasan (Sathanur); D.P. Strachan (David); M.L. Tammesoo; E. Tikkanen (Emmi); D. Toniolo (Daniela); K. Tsui (Kim); L. Tryggvadottir (Laufey); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); M. Uda (Manuela); R.M. van Dam (Rob); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); N.J. Wareham (Nick); D. Waterworth (Dawn); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); J.F. Wilson (James); A.F. Wright (Alan); L. Young (Lauren); G. Zhai (Guangju); W.V. Zhuang; L.J. Bierut (Laura); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H.A. Boyd (Heather); L. Crisponi (Laura); E.W. Demerath (Ellen); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); M.J. Econs (Michael); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D. Hunter (David); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); P.M. Ridker (Paul); T.D. Spector (Tim); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); K. Stefansson (Kari); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); E. Widen (Elisabeth); J. Murabito (Joanne); K. Ong (Ken); M.N. Weedon (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTo identify loci for age at menarche, we performed a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies in 87,802 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,731 women. In addition to the known loci at LIN28B (P = 5.4 × 10 -60) and 9q31.2 (P = 2.2 × 10 -33), we identified 30

  12. Vaginal Microbiota of Adolescent Girls Prior to the Onset of Menarche Resemble Those of Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L.; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. PMID:25805726

  13. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elks, Cathy E.; Perry, John R.B.; Sulem, Patrick; Chasman, Daniel I.; Franceschini, Nora; He, Chunyan; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Visser, Jenny A.; Byrne, Enda M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Esko, Tõnu; Feenstra, Bjarke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lin, Peng; Mangino, Massimo; Marongiu, Mara; McArdle, Patrick F.; Smith, Albert V.; Stolk, Lisette; van Wingerden, Sophie W.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Albrecht, Eva; Corre, Tanguy; Ingelsson, Erik; Hayward, Caroline; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Smith, Erin N.; Ulivi, Shelia; Warrington, Nicole M.; Zgaga, Lina; Alavere, Helen; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barroso, Ines; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bergmann, Sven; Blackburn, Hannah; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buring, Julie E.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D.; d’Adamo, Pio; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Deloukas, Panos; Döring, Angela; Smith, George Davey; Easton, Douglas F.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Emilsson, Valur; Eriksson, Johan; Ferrucci, Luigi; Folsom, Aaron R.; Foroud, Tatiana; Garcia, Melissa; Gasparini, Paolo; Geller, Frank; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Hankinson, Susan E.; Ferreli, Liana; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Andrew D.; Karasik, David; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraft, Peter; Launer, Lenore J.; Laven, Joop S.E.; Li, Shengxu; Liu, Jianjun; Levy, Daniel; Martin, Nicholas G.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Melbye, Mads; Mooser, Vincent; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael A.; Navarro, Pau; Nelis, Mari; Ness, Andrew R.; Northstone, Kate; Oostra, Ben A.; Peacock, Munro; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Peltonen, Leena; Pennell, Craig E.; Pharoah, Paul; Polasek, Ozren; Plump, Andrew S.; Pouta, Anneli; Porcu, Eleonora; Rafnar, Thorunn; Rice, John P.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Sala, Cinzia; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schork, Nicholas J.; Scuteri, Angelo; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Soranzo, Nicole; Sovio, Ulla; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Strachan, David P.; Tammesoo, Mar-Liis; Tikkanen, Emmi; Toniolo, Daniela; Tsui, Kim; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tyrer, Jonathon; Uda, Manuela; van Dam, Rob M.; van Meurs, Joyve B.J.; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Weedon, Michael N.; Wichmann, H. Erich; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Young, Lauren; Zhai, Guangju; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Boyd, Heather A.; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Econs, Michael J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hunter, David J.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Metspalu, Andres; Montgomery, Grant W.; Ridker, Paul M.; Spector, Tim D.; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uitterlinden, André G.; Widen, Elisabeth; Murabito, Joanne M.; Ong, Ken K.; Murray, Anna

    2011-01-01

    To identify loci for age at menarche, we performed a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies in 87,802 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,731 women. In addition to the known loci at LIN28B (P=5.4×10−60) and 9q31.2 (P=2.2×10−33), we identified 30 novel menarche loci (all P<5×10−8) and found suggestive evidence for a further 10 loci (P<1.9×10−6). New loci included four previously associated with BMI (in/near FTO, SEC16B, TRA2B and TMEM18), three in/near other genes implicated in energy homeostasis (BSX, CRTC1, and MCHR2), and three in/near genes implicated in hormonal regulation (INHBA, PCSK2 and RXRG). Ingenuity and MAGENTA pathway analyses identified coenzyme A and fatty acid biosynthesis as biological processes related to menarche timing. PMID:21102462

  14. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

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    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  15. Vaginal microbiota of adolescent girls prior to the onset of menarche resemble those of reproductive-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Roxana J; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A; Shew, Marcia L; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Forney, Larry J

    2015-03-24

    Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. This study addresses longitudinal changes in vaginal and vulvar microbial communities prior to and immediately following menarche. The research is significant because microbial ecology of the vagina is an integral aspect of health, including resistance to infections. The physiologic changes of puberty and initiation of cyclic menstruation are likely to have profound effects on vaginal microbiota, but almost nothing is known about changes that normally occur during this time. Our understanding has been especially hampered by the lack of thorough characterization of microbial communities using techniques

  16. Persistent osteopenia in ballet dancers with amenorrhea and delayed menarche despite hormone therapy: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Michelle P; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Fox, Richard P; Holderness, Claire C; Hyle, Emily P; Hamilton, William G; Hamilton, Linda

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the role of estrogen deprivation and replacement in amenorrheic and nonamenorrheic dancers on hormone therapy and calcium. Clinical, placebo-controlled, randomized trial study.Healthy volunteers in an academic research environment. Fifty-five dancers (mean age: 22.0 +/- 4.6, age at menarche: 14.7 +/- 2.3 years), including 24 amenorrheics. Amenorrheics were randomized in a controlled trial to receive placebo or Premarin, 0.625 mg for 25 days monthly, with Provera, 10 mg, for 10 of these 25 days (hormone therapy) for 2 years. These women were compared to normally menstruating controls. The study participants also received 1250 mg of calcium per day. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the foot, wrist, and lumbar spine. Our overall results showed no difference in BMD between the treated or placebo groups, indicating that hormone therapy did not change or normalize BMD when compared to normals. Five patients (all on placebo) who resumed menses during the study showed an increase in BMD without normalization. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than hypoestrogenism may be involved with the osteopenia associated with exercise-induced amenorrhea.

  17. From menarche to menopause: the fertile life span of celiac women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonicola, Antonella; Iovino, Paola; Cappello, Carmelina; Capone, Pietro; Andreozzi, Paolo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated menopause-associated disorders and fertile life span in women with celiac disease (CD) under untreated conditions and after long-term treatment with a gluten-free diet. The participants were 33 women with CD after menopause (untreated CD group), 25 celiac women consuming a gluten-free diet at least 10 years before menopause (treated CD group), and 45 healthy volunteers (control group). The Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire was used to gather information on menopause-associated disorders. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to acquire information on physical activity. Untreated celiac women had a shorter duration of fertile life span than did the control women because of an older age of menarche and a younger age of menopause (P menopause causes a shorter fertile period in untreated celiac women compared with control women. A gluten-free diet that started at least 10 years before menopause prolongs the fertile life span of celiac women. The perception of intensity of hot flushes and irritability is more severe in untreated celiac women than in controls. Low physical exercise and/or poorer quality of life frequently reported by untreated celiac women might be the cause of reduced discomfort tolerance, thus increasing the subjective perception of menopausal symptoms.

  18. Menarche, menopause, years of menstruation, and the incidence of osteoporosis: the influence of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Samantha E; Troisi, Rebecca; Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Strohsnitter, William C; Hatch, Elizabeth E

    2014-02-01

    Estrogen is critical for bone formation and growth in women. Estrogen exposures occur throughout life, including prenatally, and change with reproductive events, such as menarche and menopause. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, on such associations. Participants were 5573 women in the National Cancer Institute Combined Cohort Study of DES (1994-2006). Data on reproductive history and medical conditions were collected through questionnaires at baseline in 1994 and subsequently in 1997, 2001, and 2006. Age-stratified Cox regression models were used to calculate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Effect measure modification by prenatal DES exposure was assessed using cubic restricted spline regression models. Osteoporosis was the main outcome measure. The IRRs for osteoporosis incidence with age at menarche less than 11 years and age at menopause of 50 years or younger were 0.82 (CI 0.59, 1.14) and 0.61 (CI 0.40, 0.92), respectively. Fewer than 25 years of menstruation was associated with an increased incidence of osteoporosis (IRR 1.80; CI 1.14, 2.86) compared with 35 years or more of menstruation. Associations were stronger among women who had not been prenatally exposed to DES. Our data support the hypothesis that lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogens is protective against osteoporosis. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to estrogen appears to modify these associations, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown.

  19. Determinants of pre-menarcheal knowledge of menstruation and sociocultural implications in college going girls: A community-based cross-sectional study from Latur, Maharashtra

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    Namrata Arvind Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence marks the onset of female puberty. The first menstruation is often horrifying and traumatic to an adolescent girl because it usually occurs without her knowing about it. Implications of a girl′s response to menarche have a socio-cultural and religious significance. Aim and Objective: To study the sociocultural and physiological implications of menstruation in college going girls. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional observational study undertaken among college girls. All the girls (n = 252 of the college were enrolled in the study. A structured questionnaire was used as the study tool. The questionnaire included topics related to sociodemographic information, sociocultural implications and first informant about the physiological process of menstruation along with its timing. Results: Majority of the study subjects (77.40% observed restrictions for religious/holy things. Sleep disturbances were the most common (59% disturbance faced by the study subjects. Of a total of 252 respondents, majority [104 (41.30%] had leg cramps. The first informant of menstruation was the mother in 196 (77.78% girls. Of 252 girls, 86 (34.12% had pre-menarcheal knowledge of menstruation. Mothers from the urban area and with better education tend to give knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche of her daughter. An increasing trend was observed with increasing educational status of the mother and proportion of them giving pre-menarcheal knowledge of menstruation to their daughter. Conclusions: Menstruation is associated with a high burden of sociocultural implications. Pre-menarcheal knowledge of menstruation is poor. Mothers from the urban area and with better educational level tend to give knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche of their daughter.

  20. Menarche and menstruation through the eyes of pubescent students in eastern Taiwan: implications in sociocultural influence and gender differences issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2013-03-01

    Menstruation is a significant part of women's lives. It has been studied from many perspectives to draw various conclusions about biological and physiological development, gender differences, and sociocultural environments. The purpose of this study was to explore how male and female pubescent students perceive and interpret menarche and menstruation and how their perceptions reflect gender differences and the sociocultural environment in eastern Taiwan. This was an exploratory qualitative study that employed focus group interviews. Data were collected from 20 girls and 27 boys, aged 10-12 years, who were recruited from two elementary schools. Participants engaged in 19 focus group discussions, which lasted 45-60 minutes each. Discussion transcripts were collected, encoded, categorized, and analyzed using the Atlas V 5.0 software. The central theme in menarche and menstruation experiences among pubescent students in eastern Taiwan can be summarized as, "Struggling to grow up amidst contradictions," an attitude that reflects gender divisions and sociocultural representations and practices. Generally, participants' views on menstruation fell within five subthemes: "Ambiguous," "Disregarded," "Dirty," "Personal," and "Transitional." These themes were analyzed within the contexts of society, school, and family. In line with previous research, this study shows the need for more individual reproductive health consultations, reliable sex education, and well-planned health policies to assist pubescent students manage menstruation. In addition, this study suggests that the subjugation of girls and women remains a critical issue that must be addressed and challenged.

  1. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Pirie, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected w...

  2. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Day, Felix R; Thompson, Deborah J; Helgason, Hannes; Chasman, Daniel I; Finucane, Hilary; Sulem, Patrick; Ruth, Katherine S; Whalen, Sean; Sarkar, Abhishek K; Albrecht, Eva; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Amini, Marzyeh; Barbieri, Caterina M; Boutin, Thibaud; Campbell, Archie; Demerath, Ellen; Giri, Ayush; He, Chunyan; Hottenga, Jouke J; Karlsson, Robert; Kolcic, Ivana; Loh, Po-Ru; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Mangino, Massimo; Marco, Brumat; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Nolte, Ilja M; Noordam, Raymond; Nutile, Teresa; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perjakova, Natalia; Porcu, Eleonora; Rose, Lynda M; Schraut, Katharina E; Segrè, Ayellet V; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; de Geus, Eco J C N; Mbarek, Hamdi; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Visser, Jenny A

    2017-01-01

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for age at menarche, a milestone in female

  3. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nichola; Dudbridge, Frank; Orr, Nick; Gibson, Lorna; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Folkerd, Elizabeth J; Haynes, Ben P; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Dite, Gillian S; Apicella, Carmel; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Atsma, Femke; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Renner, Stefan P; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Cordina, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger; Zamora, M Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Benitez, Javier; Bernstein, Leslie; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Clarke Dur, Christina; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Meindl, Alfons; Heil, Joerg; Bartram, Claus R; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Lindblom, Annika; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Wu, Anna H; Van den Berg, David; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Pensotti, Valeria; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Chris; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Soucy, Penny; Teo, Soo; Yip, Cheng Har; Phuah, Sze Yee; Cornes, Belinda K; Kristensen, Vessela N; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Devillee, Peter; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E; Hall, Per; Schoof, Nils; Hooning, Maartje; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Oldenburg, Rogier A; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angie; Brock, Ian W; Reed, Malcolm W R; Cross, Simon S; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Kang, Daehee; Noh, Dong-Young; Park, Sue K; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lim, Wei Yen; Tang, Anthony; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Vachon, Celine; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; González-Neira, Anna; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Luccarini, Craig; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Jean; Easton, Douglas F; García-Closas, Montserrat; Dowsett, Mitch; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia

    2014-05-26

    We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years. We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping of rs10235235 was conducted using a custom Illumina Infinium array. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine whether this association was modified by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, age at menarche or tumor characteristics. We confirmed the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk for women of European ancestry but found no evidence that this association differed with age at diagnosis. Heterozygote and homozygote odds ratios (ORs) were OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.94, 1.01; P = 0.2) and OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93; P = 0.004), respectively (P(trend) = 0.02). There was no evidence of effect modification by tumor characteristics. rs10235235 was, however, associated with age at menarche in controls (P(trend) = 0.005) but not cases (P(trend) = 0.97). Consequently the association between rs10235235 and breast cancer risk differed according to age at menarche (P(het) = 0.02); the rare allele of rs10235235 was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for women who had their menarche age ≥15 years (OR(het) = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94; OR(hom) = 0.81, 95% CI 0.51, 1.30; P(trend) = 0.002) but not for those who had their menarche age ≤11 years (OR(het) = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95, 1.19, OR(hom) = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67, 1.72; P(trend) = 0.29). To our knowledge rs10235235 is the first single nucleotide polymorphism to be associated with both breast cancer risk and age at menarche consistent with the well-documented association between later age at menarche and a reduction in

  4. The effect of Ramadan fasting on thyroid hormones in 9‐13 years old pre‐menarche girls

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    Shohereh Bahrayni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Muslims fast from dawn to dusk during Ramadan. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on endocrine hormones have been studied in healthy adults but no previous study has investigated this effect on children. This study aimed to evaluate the feasible changes in serum level of thyroxin (T3, tetraiodothyronin (T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and body composition in pre-menarche girls. Methods: This cohort study was performed through Ramadan 2012. We enrolled fifty-eight 9-13years old girls (weight 34.20±7.96 kg, height 142.01±7.76 cm in two groups from (31  and 27 in fasted and non-fasted groups, respectively prior to Ramadan until afterwards. Weight and height of the subjects were measured using standard methods, and then Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated.  Body composition was measured using Bio Impedance Analyzer (BIA method.  Serum concentrations of T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured by Radio Immunoassay (RIA. Paired t-test was used to compare result of each group before and after Ramadan. Independent t-test was used to compare two groups together. Tanner intervention variable was controlled by generalized linear models intervening test. SPSS.11 software was used for data analysis. Results: Ramadan fasting induces a significant decrease in BMI and weight on fasted group (p=0.005, p=0.044, respectively while a significant increase was observed in non-fasted group (p

  5. The effects of Ramadan fasting on the level of sex hormones in pre-menarche girls in Mashhad, Iran

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    Shohreh Bahreyni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the level of sex hormones in girls between 9-13 years before age at menarche.This study was conducted on a sample of 58 subjects (age range: 9-13 years, who were divided intotwo groups of fasting (N=31 and non-fasting (N=27. The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, progesterone and estradiol were measured in all the subjectsbefore and after Ramadan. Measurements were carried out three days before the start of Ramadan,and one day afterwards.In this study, FSH levels significantly increased in the non-fasting group (P=0.01, and the level ofDehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA had a significant decrease during the time of study in bothgroups (P=0.001, P=0.006. In addition, serum levels of LH significantly increased in the non-fastinggroup after Ramadan (P=0.006, and estradiol significantly increased in both groups (P=0.008,P=0.004.Given the similar changes in the levels of DHEA, progesterone and estradiol in both study groups, itcould be concluded that fasting has no effects on these parameters, and the changes in LH and FSHlevels could be due to other contributing factors.

  6. Significado da menarca segundo adolescentes El significado de la menarquia para adolescentes Meaning of menarche according to adolescents

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    José Roberto da Silva Brêtas

    2012-01-01

    sexualidad sean ampliadas, alcanzando a un número mayor de participantes a partir del grupo etáreo de 9 años.OBJECTIVE: To know the meaning of menarche for adolescents in schools in the region of Saint Edward, in the municipality of Embu das Artes, São Paulo (Brazil. METHODS: This was qualitative research, with data collected by a focus group technique and with the content of the narratives outlined by means of content analysis. RESULTS: The results were classified into five categories represented as: fertility; repercussions; menstruation and taboo; the fear of dying; and, misinformation and impact. CONCLUSION: For the adolescents interviewed, menarche was reported as a negative experience, related to feelings of fear and anguish. This view was attributed to social, historical and cultural constructs that do not value dialogue and questions relating to the body. Thus, it emphasizes the importance of demystifying the theme and recommends that sexuality education interventions should be expanded, to reach a larger number of participants beginning at the age of 9 years.

  7. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Thyroid Hormones in 9‐13 Years Old Pre‐Menarche Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohereh Bahrayni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Muslims fast from dawn to dusk during Ramadan. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on endocrine hormones have been studied in healthy adults but no previous study has investigated this effect on children. This study aimed to evaluate the feasible changes in serum level of thyroxin (T3, tetraiodothyronin (T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and body composition in pre-menarche girls. Methods: This cohort study was performed through Ramadan 2012. We enrolled fifty-eight 9-13years old girls (weight 34.20±7.96 kg, height 142.01±7.76 cm in two groups from (31 and 27 in fasted and non-fasted groups, respectively prior to Ramadan until afterwards. Weight and height of the subjects were measured using standard methods, and then Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated. Body composition was measured using Bio Impedance Analyzer (BIA method. Serum concentrations of T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured by Radio Immunoassay (RIA. Paired t-test was used to compare result of each group before and after Ramadan. Independent t-test was used to compare two groups together. Tanner intervention variable was controlled by generalized linear models intervening test. SPSS.11 software was used for data analysis. Results: Ramadan fasting induces a significant decrease in BMI and weight on fasted group (p=0.005, p=0.044, respectively while a significant increase was observed in non-fasted group (p<0.001. Although, T3 decreased significantly by fasting (p<0.001, it remained in the normal range. Hence, T4 decreased and TSH increased slightly in both groups. Conclusions: According to our findings, despite a significant reduction of T3 in fasting group, variation in thyroid hormones level remained in the normal range during Ramadan fasting.

  8. The Diagnostic Value of Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Early Post Menarche Adolescent Girls with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaay, Pınar; Siklar, Zeynep; Buyukfirat, Sema; Berberoglu, Merih

    2018-02-17

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation, which affects 5%-10% of reproductive-age women. Diagnosis of adult patients with PCOS is made easily with clinical and laboratory methods and the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level are accepted as a good indicator. However, there is still no complete consensus on the diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents. Prospective cohort study, December 2013 to November 2014. The study was conducted on adolescent girls with oligomenorrhea, with at least 2 years since menarche. The study group consisted of adolescent girls with complete PCOS and incomplete PCOS. A control group was formed of healthy adolescent girls. Complete PCOS was diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria, as the presence of all the following characteristics: oligomenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovarian morphology on ultrasound image. Incomplete PCOS was accepted as "oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovarian morphology," or "oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenism." All patients underwent a physical examination and the anthropometric assessments, insulin resistance, and acanthosis nigricans were recorded. It was also noted whether or not the patient had an acne score. The Ferriman-Gallwey score was applied to evaluate hirsutism. The results of this study showed that no statistically significant difference was found between the PCOS and incomplete PCOS groups and the control group with respect to AMH levels. The use of adult-specific diagnostic methods in adolescence might result in an incomplete diagnosis and inadequate treatment plan. Although the serum AMH level clearly facilitates the diagnosis of PCOS, the use of the AMH level in adolescence in PCOS diagnosis is still controversial and further studies are needed. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 'Le moment de la lune'. an auto-ethnographic tale of practice about menarche in a children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denshire, Sally

    2011-08-01

    Auto-ethnographic accounts can highlight unsaid moments of professional practice. In this case, my auto-ethnographic tale 'Le moment de la lune' re-inscribes subjugated knowledge about menstruation and occupational therapy practice in the era before adolescent wards. This fictional tale is written in direct dialogue with an article that was published in this journal at a particular point in my own career as an occupational therapist. In the tale I am 'writing in' what was not written about in my article and in occupational therapy generally. This 'writing-in'/re-inscribing is the research method. My previous article 'Normal spaces' published in this journal in 1985, was organised around principles and generalities of youth-specific practice. The original article had little locating the personal or evoking the body and a heavy reliance on the literature. Issues of gender and culture were largely absent, or, perhaps, 'written out'. The corresponding tale of embodied sexuality, 'Le moment de la lune', articulates something of local complex practice and the particularity of individual therapeutic work to do with menstruation in self-care. Points of tension in 'Normal spaces' are elaborated and I explain how 'Le moment de la lune' problematises supporting menarche in a children's hospital. Now practice has moved on with dedicated adolescent wards in all major children's hospitals. Nevertheless, occupational therapy practice around issues of menstrual self-management is still under-documented. Writing about unspoken moments of practice can have ethical implications for expanding the ways occupational therapy practice can be written and understood. © 2011 The Author. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  10. Age at menarche and digit ratio (2D:4D): relationships with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia symptoms in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oinonen, Kirsten A; Bird, Jessica L

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that lower prenatal androgen exposure and earlier puberty are associated with more dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. Relationships between both age at menarche (AAM) and 2D:4D (a marker of prenatal androgen exposure), and EDI-2-Body Dissatisfaction, EDI-2-Drive for Thinness, and EDI-2-Bulimia scores, were examined in women using correlations and regressions. Earlier menarche was associated with higher drive for thinness after controlling for BMI and negative affect, but only in women who were not exclusively heterosexual. Higher 2D:4D was associated with higher Bulimia and Body Dissatisfaction scores, but only in exclusively heterosexual women, and relationships disappeared when covariates were controlled. Later AAM and higher 2D:4D were unique predictors of higher Bulimia scores for exclusive heterosexuals when BMI was controlled. These findings suggest future research should examine sexual orientation as a mediator or moderator of prenatal and postnatal organizational hormonal effects on women's disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R; Thompson, Deborah J; Helgason, Hannes; Chasman, Daniel I; Finucane, Hilary; Sulem, Patrick; Ruth, Katherine S; Whalen, Sean; Sarkar, Abhishek K; Albrecht, Eva; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Amini, Marzyeh; Barbieri, Caterina M; Boutin, Thibaud; Campbell, Archie; Demerath, Ellen; Giri, Ayush; He, Chunyan; Hottenga, Jouke J; Karlsson, Robert; Kolcic, Ivana; Loh, Po-Ru; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Mangino, Massimo; Marco, Brumat; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Nolte, Ilja M; Noordam, Raymond; Nutile, Teresa; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perjakova, Natalia; Porcu, Eleonora; Rose, Lynda M; Schraut, Katharina E; Segrè, Ayellet V; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broer, Linda; Brüning, Thomas; Buring, Julie E; Campbell, Harry; Catamo, Eulalia; Chanock, Stephen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Corre, Tanguy; Couch, Fergus J; Cousminer, Diana L; Cox, Angela; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Davey Smith, George; de Geus, Eco J C N; de Mutsert, Renée; De Vivo, Immaculata; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dunning, Alison M; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Franke, Lude; Gabrielson, Marike; Gandin, Ilaria; Giles, Graham G; Grallert, Harald; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Harris, Tamara B; Hartman, Catharina A; Heiss, Gerardo; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank; Hunter, David J; Ikram, M Arfan; Im, Hae Kyung; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Joshi, Peter K; Karasik, David; Kellis, Manolis; Kutalik, Zoltan; LaChance, Genevieve; Lambrechts, Diether; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J; Laven, Joop S E; Lenarduzzi, Stefania; Li, Jingmei; Lind, Penelope A; Lindstrom, Sara; Liu, YongMei; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Mannermaa, Arto; Mbarek, Hamdi; McCarthy, Mark I; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Menni, Cristina; Metspalu, Andres; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Montgomery, Grant W; Mulligan, Anna M; Nalls, Mike A; Navarro, Pau; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nyholt, Dale R; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; O'Mara, Tracy A; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Nancy; Peters, Annette; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Pouta, Anneli; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Iffat; Ring, Susan M; Robino, Antonietta; Rosendaal, Frits R; Rudan, Igor; Rueedi, Rico; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Scott, Robert A; Shah, Mitul; Sorice, Rossella; Southey, Melissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir; Steri, Maristella; Strauch, Konstantin; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; Timpson, Nicholas J; Traglia, Michela; Truong, Thérèse; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uitterlinden, André G; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Vitart, Veronique; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wang, Qin; Widen, Elisabeth; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Zygmunt, Marek; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Boomsma, Dorret I; Ciullo, Marina; Cucca, Francesco; Esko, Tõnu; Franceschini, Nora; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hayward, Caroline; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Nohr, Ellen A; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Price, Alkes L; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stöckl, Doris; Toniolo, Daniela; Ulivi, Sheila; Visser, Jenny A; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wilson, James F; Spurdle, Amanda B; Thorsteindottir, Unnur; Pollard, Katherine S; Easton, Douglas F; Tung, Joyce Y; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hinds, David; Murray, Anna; Murabito, Joanne M; Stefansson, Kari; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2017-06-01

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10 -8 ) for age at menarche, a milestone in female pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In aggregate, our findings highlight the complexity of the genetic regulation of puberty timing and support causal links with cancer susceptibility.

  12. Early menarche and teenager pregnancy as risk factors for morbid obesity among reproductive-age women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Amanda Gonçalves; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Godoy-Miranda, Ana Carolina; Oshika, Flávio Hideki; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors, including non-communicable diseases, for morbid obesity in women between 20 and 49 years of age. We performed a case-control study with 110 morbidly obese women and 110 women with adequate weight who were matched by age and with a 1:1 case to control ratio. All women were between 20 to 49 years old and non-menopausal. Possible risk factors were evaluated through a self-report questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological characteristics, presence of non-communicable diseases and habits. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with respective confidence intervals. Menarche under 12 years old, teenage pregnancy and lower educational level were shown to be risk factors for morbid obesity among women of reproductive age. Incidences of non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver disease, lung disease, thyroid dysfunction, and joint pain) were increased in women with morbid obesity. Early menarche, teenage pregnancy and low education level are risk factors for the occurrence of morbid obesity in women of reproductive age. Some non-communicable diseases were already more prevalent in women with morbid obesity even before 50 years of age.

  13. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche in indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean adolescents Nivel socioeconómico y edad de la menarquia en adolescentes chilenas indígenas y no indígenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Amigo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were screened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6±10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6±10.8 months in the non-indigenous group. Among the non-indigenous, the analysis showed no significant association between age at menarche and socioeconomic status. In the indigenous group, age at menarche among girls with low socioeconomic status was 5.4 months later than among those with higher socioeconomic status. There were no differences in nutritional status according to socioeconomic level. Obesity was associated with earlier menarche. Menarche occurred earlier than in previous generations. An inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche was seen in the indigenous group only; low socioeconomic status was associated with delayed menarche, regardless of nutritional status or mother's age at menarche.El objetivo fue analizar la relación entre nivel socioeconómico y edad de menarquia en adolescentes indígenas y no indígenas de la Región de la Araucanía, Chile, controlando el efecto del estado nutricional, y la edad de menarquia de las madres. Se estudiaron 8.624 niñas de 168 escuelas elegidas aleatoriamente, seleccionando 207 indígenas y 200 no indígenas que habían tenido recientemente la menarquia. La edad de menarquia ocurrió a los 149,6±10,7 meses en indígenas y a los 146,6±10,8 meses en no indígenas. En el grupo no indígena, hubo una relación significativa entre edad de menarquia y nivel socioeconómico. En el grupo indígena, edad de menarquia del nivel socioeconómico bajo fue de 5,4 meses más tarde que el

  14. Mapping the knowledge and understanding of menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Patel, Sheila Vipul

    2017-03-01

    Menstruation is a natural physiological process that requires proper management. Unlike other normal bodily processes, menstruation is linked with religious and cultural meanings that can affect the perceptions of young girls as well as the ways in which the adults in the communities around them respond to their needs. This review aims to answer the following questions: (1) how knowledgeable are adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries about menstruation and how prepared are they for reaching menarche, (2) who are their sources of information regarding menstruation, (3) how well do the adults around them respond to their information needs, (4) what negative health and social effects do adolescents experience as a result of menstruation, and (5) how do adolescents respond when they experience these negative effects and what practices do they develop as a result? Using a structured search strategy, articles that investigate young girls' preparedness for menarche, knowledge of menstruation and practices surrounding menstrual hygiene in LMIC were identified. A total of 81 studies published in peer-reviewed journals between the years 2000 and 2015 that describe the experiences of adolescent girls from 25 different countries were included. Adolescent girls in LMIC are often uninformed and unprepared for menarche. Information is primarily obtained from mothers and other female family members who are not necessarily well equipped to fill gaps in girls' knowledge. Exclusion and shame lead to misconceptions and unhygienic practices during menstruation. Rather than seek medical consultation, girls tend to miss school, self-medicate and refrain from social interaction. Also problematic is that relatives and teachers are often not prepared to respond to the needs of girls. LMIC must recognize that lack of preparation, knowledge and poor practices surrounding menstruation are key impediments not only to girls' education, but also to self-confidence and personal

  15. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Felix R; Thompson, Deborah J; Helgason, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P ... pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare...... variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women...

  16. Age of menarche and knowledge about menstrual hygiene management among adolescent school girls in Amhara province, Ethiopia: implication to health care workers & school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultie, Teklemariam; Hailu, Desta; Workineh, Yinager

    2014-01-01

    Effective menstrual hygiene has direct and indirect effect on achieving millennium development goals two (universal education), three (gender equality and women empowerment) and, five (improving maternal health). However, in Ethiopiait is an issue which is insufficiently acknowledged in the reproductive health sector. The objective of this study therefore, is to assess the age of menarche and knowledge of adolescents about menstrual hygiene management in Amhara province. School based cross sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to June 2013. Multistage stage sampling technique was used. The school was first clustered in to grades & sections and thenparticipants were selected by lottery method. A pretested &structured questionnaire was used. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to assess independent effect of predictors. In this study, 492 students were included, making a response rate of 100%. Mean age at menarche was 14.1±1.4 years. The main sources of information about menstrual hygiene management were teachers for 212 (43.1%). Four hundred forty six (90.7%) respondents had high level knowledge about menstrual hygiene management. Most of the respondents 457 (92.9%) and 475 (96.5%) had access for water and toilet facility respectively. Place of residence (AOR = 1.8, 95%CI: [1.42-1.52]) and educational status of their mothers' (AOR = 95%CI: [1.15-13.95]) were independent predictors of knowledge about menstrual hygiene management. Knowledge of respondents about menstrual hygiene management was very high. School teachers were the primary source of information. Place of residence and their mother's educational status were independent predictors of menstrual hygiene management. Thus, the government of Ethiopia in collaboration with its stalk holders should develop and disseminatereproductive health programmes on menstrual hygiene management targeting both parents and their

  17. Childhood body mass index at 5.5 years mediates the effect of prenatal maternal stress on daughters' age at menarche: Project Ice Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, A; Liu, A; Jones, S L; Laplante, D P; King, S

    2017-04-01

    Early pubertal timing is known to put women at greater risk for adverse physiological and psychological health outcomes. Of the factors that influence girls' pubertal timing, stress experienced during childhood has been found to advance age at menarche (AAM). However, it is not known if stress experienced by mothers during or in the months before conception can be similarly associated with earlier pubertal timing. Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is associated with metabolic changes, such as increased childhood adiposity and risk of obesity, that have been associated with earlier menarchal age. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the present study tested whether PNMS induced by a natural disaster is either directly associated with earlier AAM, or whether there is an indirect association mediated through increased girls' body mass index (BMI) during childhood. A total of 31 girls, whose mothers were exposed to the Quebec's January 1998 ice storm during pregnancy were followed from 6 months to 5 1/2 to 5.5 years of age. Mother's stress was measured within 6 months of the storm. BMI was measured at 5.5 years, and AAM was assessed through teen's self-report at 13.5 and 15.5 years of age. Results revealed that greater BMI at 5.5 years mediated the effect of PNMS on decreasing AAM [B=-0.059, 95% confidence intervals (-0.18, -0.0035)]. The present study is the first to demonstrate that maternal experience of stressful conditions during pregnancy reduces AAM in the offspring through its effects on childhood BMI. Future research should consider the impact of AAM on other measures of reproductive ability.

  18. Idade da menarca em escolares de uma comunidade rural do Sudeste do Brasil Age at menarche among schoolgirls from a rural community in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Falcão Tavares

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os valores dos percentis 3 (P3, 50 (P50 = Idade Mediana da Menarca = IMM e 97(P97, e a amplitude entre os extremos (P97 e P3, nas escolares do Município de Barrinha, São Paulo, Brasil. Esses valores foram correlacionados com algumas condições sócio-econômicas: classe social, número de irmãos e situação de desemprego do pai. Trata-se de estudo transversal, utilizando o método "status quo", ajustado pelo Logito para o cálculo dos percentis. Questionário foi o instrumento aplicado a 1.602 escolares entre 8 e 17 anos incompletos. A IMM foi 12 anos(a e 6 meses(m,P97 de 10a2 m e P3 de 14a10m. As meninas da classe social menos favorecida, e aquelas que referiram desemprego paterno apresentaram IMM mais tardia. Não houve diferença da IMM relacionada ao número de irmãos. A amplitude entre P97 e P3 mostrou-se ampla na amostra geral. Concluiu-se que Barrinha apresentou IMM semelhante e até abaixo de valores regionais, do Brasil e de alguns países desenvolvidos. O estudo do intervalo entre os percentis extremos mostrou ser um melhor indicador das diversidades biológicas e das desigualdades sócio-econômicas, do que a IMM isoladamente.The purpose of this study was to determine the 3rd percentile (P3, 50th percentile (P50 = median age at menarche = MAM, and amplitude between the extremes (P97 and P3 of age at menarche among schoolgirls in the county of Barrinha, São Paulo, Brazil. Values were correlated with socioeconomic conditions such as social class, number of siblings, and father's employment status. This was a cross-sectional study based on the use of status quo adjusted by logit for calculation of percentiles. A questionnaire was applied to 1,602 schoolgirls aged 8 to 17 years (incomplete. MAM was 12 years (y and 6 months (m, with a P97 of 10 y and 2 m and a P3 of 14 y and 10 m. Girls from lower-income families and those with unemployed fathers showed later MAM. No difference in MAM was

  19. Longitudinal Effects of Self-Report Pubertal Timing and Menarcheal Age on Adolescent Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes in Female Youths from Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Ting; Tsai, Meng-Che; Lin, Chung-Ying; Strong, Carol

    2017-08-01

    Early puberty is linked to adverse developmental outcomes in adolescents in Western societies. However, little is known about this relationship in an East Asian context. In addition, whether the impact of subjective pubertal timing (PT) and menarcheal age (MA) on adolescent psychosocial development persists into early adulthood remains unclear and is worthy of investigation. A subset of data was retrieved from the Taiwan Youth Project, which recruited and followed a longitudinal cohort of 7 th - and 9 th -grade female Taiwanese students from 2000 to 2007. Subjective PT was defined using the Pubertal Developmental Scale (PDS), which mainly measures pubertal changes. MA was recalled by participants themselves. Various psychological and behavioral factors were recorded and measured until the age of 20, including the use of alcohol and cigarettes, psychological well-being, sexual activity, and socially problematic behaviors. A χ 2 test for linear-by-linear association and one-way analysis of variance followed by multivariate regression models were used to dissect the differential effects of PT and MA in the association with the outcome variables. In total, 1545 female participants with an average age of 14.5 (±1.1) years were deemed valid for analysis. Among them, 257 (16.6%) participants perceived themselves as having early PT, defined as more than 1 standard deviation above the mean PDS score, and 82 (5.3%) had early MA (occurring before the 4 th grade). In univariate analysis, participants with early PT had higher rates of smoking and sexual activity, and MA was not related to their psychobehavioral outcomes. After multivariate adjustment, only late PT was significantly correlated with lower amounts of cigarette smoking and sexual activity before the age of 20. Conceptual and actual pubertal developments may be differentially associated with psychobehavioral outcomes among young Taiwanese girls. Clinical attention should be given to adolescent self-perception of

  20. Indicadores de maduración esquelética y dental en pacientes de ortodoncia con menarquía Indicators of skeletal and dental maturation in orthodontics patients presenting menarche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladia Toledo Mayarí

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente trabajo fue determinar según la menarquía: la edad ósea, los estadios de maduración esquelética, los estadios de maduración de las vértebras cervicales y los estadios de calcificación del canino y el segundo premolar mandibulares izquierdos. Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo en 30 pacientes femeninas con menarquía que ingresaron en la Clínica de Ortodoncia de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, en el periodo comprendido entre abril de 2004 y septiembre de 2006. A cada paciente se le realizó una telerradiografía lateral de cráneo, una radiografía de la mano izquierda y una radiografía panorámica o periapical de la hemiarcada mandibular izquierda. En cada caso se evaluaron los métodos Taner-Whitehouse 2 (TW2, Grave y Brown, Hassel y Farman y Demirjian. Se estudiaron las variables: edad de aparición de la menarquía, edad ósea, edad cronológica, estadios de maduración esquelética, estadios de maduración de las vértebras cervicales, estadios de calcificación del canino y el segundo premolar mandibulares izquierdos. El promedio de la edad de aparición de la menarquía en esta muestra fue de 12,00 años con una desviación estándar de 1,00 año. Los promedios de la edad ósea fueron superiores a los de la edad cronológica en todos los grupos de edades. Las 30 pacientes estudiadas se encontraban en: estadios de maduración esquelética mayores que 4, estadios de maduración de las vértebras cervicales mayores que 1, estadio H de calcificación del canino mandibular izquierdo y estadios superiores al E para el segundo premolar mandibular izquierdo. En todos los métodos determinados se encontró que la mayoría de las pacientes con menarquía estaban en los estadios de maduración más avanzados.The aim of present paper was to determine according menarche the bone age, skeletal maturation stages, maturation stage of cervical vertebrae and the stages of calcification of canine

  1. Proporcionalidade corporal na avaliação antropométrica de adolescentes pós-menarca Body proportion in anthropometric assessment of post-menarche adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Bronhara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o comportamento da proporcionalidade corporal em adolescentes pós-menarca e sua influência na avaliação antropométrica desses indivíduos, com ênfase na relação peso/estatura. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 80 adolescentes de uma escola pública de Alfenas, Minas Gerais, com pelo menos 12 meses pós-menarca. As medidas antropométricas foram realizadas conforme procedimentos padronizados. A proporcionalidade corporal foi avaliada pelo Índice de Cormic. A população foi dividida em grupos de estudo (Índice de Cormic > mediana e controle (Índice de Cormic mediana, em comparação ao grupo controle (37,2%. Quanto aos indicadores de adiposidade global ou localizada, não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: As diferenças na proporcionalidade corporal não se relacionaram com a estatura. Altos valores de Índice de Cormic parecem estar associados a elevado índice de massa corporal, mas não à composição corporal e à topografia da gordura corporal. Questiona-se, assim, a utilização exclusiva do índice de massa corporal para avaliação antropométrica em serviços de saúde, visto que pode gerar resultados inexatos em populações com comprometimento na proporcionalidade corporal.OBJECTIVE: To verify body proportion performance in pos-menarche adolescents and its influence in anthropometric assessment, emphasizing weight-height ratio. METHODS: Eighty adolescents from a public school in Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated, with at least 12 months pos-menarche. Anthropometric measurements were obtained according to standardized procedures. Body proportion was assessed by Cormic Index. The population was divided in studied group ( Cormic Index > median and control group ( Cormic Index median, when compared with the control group (37.2%. The overall and localized body fat indicators were not statistically different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in body

  2. Antropometria, maturação sexual e idade da menarca de acordo com o nível socioeconômico de meninas escolares de Cascavel (PR Antropometry, sexual maturation and menarcheal age according to socioeconomic status of schoolgirls from Cascavel (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Paulo Roman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a idade da menarca e a antropometria de meninas escolares de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos em Cascavel (Estado do Paraná -Região Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado no ano de 2006 com 2.761 meninas em 27 escolas públicas e particulares. A idade da menarca foi obtida pelo método status quo. Para a avaliação da maturação sexual foi realizada a autoavaliação de acordo com os critérios descritos por Tanner. O nível socioeconômico foi obtido por meio do questionário da ABEP (2003. Avaliou-se o peso e a estatura, obtendo-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC. Foram utilizados a análise estatística descritiva e o teste de Mann-Whitney, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A idade da menarca geral foi 12,2±1,2 anos e 12,1±1,1; 12,3±1,2 e 12,4±1,2 anos para os tercis alto, médio e baixo de nível socioeconômico, respectivamente. Foram constatados valores superiores para as meninas pós-menarca no peso e na estatura dos 10 aos 17 anos de idade e no IMC dos 11 aos 14 anos de idade. CONCLUSÕES: As meninas de nível socioeconômico alto apresentaram idade da menarca em idade inferior aos demais níveis socioeconômicos. Embora estas diferenças tenham sido observadas em níveis socioeconômicos distintos, biologicamente foram consideradas pequenas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate age of menarche and anthropometric data of schoolgirls of different socioeconomic levels in Cascavel, state of Parana, in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 with 2,761 girls evaluated in 27 private and public schools. Age at menarche was obtained by the status quo method. Sexual maturity was assessed by self evaluation, according to Tanner's criteria. Socioeconomic level was obtained through the ABEP (2003 questionnaire. Data of weight, stature and Body Mass Index (BMI were obtained. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney test at 5% significance. RESULTS: Age

  3. Irregularidades menstruales y de hormonas sexuales en mujeres que se les diagnosticó la diabetes tipo 1 antes de la menarquia o después de esta Menstruation disorders and sexual hormones in women diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before menarche or after it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaquelín González Ricardo

    2010-04-01

    determine the sexual hormones levels and to establish the influence of this entity on the menarche age. METHODS: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 74 women aged 15 and 35, all seen in the Diabetes Care Center of Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, which were distributed in two groups: A and B, both with n= 37; A: diagnosed with diabetes before the menarche appearance and B; after it. We designed a questionnaire of general data and puberal and menstrual medical records; we determined the presence of fasting glycemia, glycosylated hemoglobin and sexual hormones; both groups were compared using the t Student and chi² tests. RESULTS: we achieved a high frequency of dysmenorrhea, menorrhhea and premenstrual tension, as well the loss of a correlation among some sexual hormones. Earlier presence of type 1 diabetes mellitus determined a greater age of menarche, lower levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH and oligomenorrhea. CONCLUSIONS: type 1 diabetes mellitus diagnosed before menarche seems to interfere with maturation and subsequent function of female gonadal axis, which conditioned a greater frequency of dysmenorrhea and menstrual irregularities.

  4. Growth patterns in early childhood and the onset of menarche before age twelve Patrones de crecimiento en la infancia precoz y ocurrencia de menarca antes de doce años de edad Padrões de crescimento na infância precoce e ocorrência de menarca antes de doze anos de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeovany Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between growth patterns in early childhood and the onset of menarche before age 12. METHODS: The study included 2,083 women from a birth cohort study conducted in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, starting in 1982. Anthropometric, behavioral, and pregnancy-related variables were collected through home interviews. Statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's chi-square and chi-square test for linear trends. A multivariable analysis was carried out using Poisson regression based on a hierarchical model. RESULTS: Mean age of menarche was 12.4 years old and the prevalence of menarche before age 12 was 24.3%. Higher weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height z-scores at 19.4 and 43.1 months of age were associated with linear tendencies of increased prevalence and relative risks of the onset of menarche before age 12. Girls who experienced rapid growth in weight-for-age z-score from birth to 19.4 months of age and in weight-for-age or height-for-age z-scores from 19.4 to 43.1 months of age also showed higher risk of menarche before age 12. Higher risk was seen when rapid growth in weight-for-age z-score was seen during these age intervals and the highest risk was found among those in the first tertile of Williams' curve at birth. Rapid growth in weight-for-height z-score was not associated with menarche before age 12. CONCLUSIONS: Menarche is affected by nutritional status and growth patterns during early childhood. Preventing overweight and obesity during early childhood and keeping a "normal" growth pattern seem crucial for the prevention of health conditions during adulthood.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación entre patrones de crecimiento en la infancia precoz y ocurrencia de menarca antes de 12 años de edad. MÉTODOS: El estudio incluyó 2.083 mujeres del estudio de cohorte de nacidos en Pelotas, 1982, Sur de Brasil. Variables antropométricas, comportamentales y relacionadas a la gestaci

  5. Menarca, gravidez precoce e obesidade em mulheres brasileiras selecionadas em um Centro de Saúde de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Menarche, early pregnancy, and obesity in selected Brazilian women from a health care center in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Kac

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi identificar fatores obstétricos potencialmente associados à obesidade em 486 mulheres brasileiras entre 15-59 anos, residentes na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A gordura corporal (GC foi aferida por meio de exame de bioimpedância e a obesidade foi definida como GC > 30%. A associação entre fatores obstétricos e a obesidade foi avaliada a partir da técnica de regressão logística. Permaneceram associadas com a obesidade no modelo final após controle para o efeito da renda, fumo, consumo de álcool e prática de atividade física: idade de menarca 30 e 40 anos (OR = 3,32; IC95%: 1,76-6,27, idade ao primeiro parto (OR = 1,99; IC95%: 1,07-3,68 e a seguinte interação significativa: faixa etária de 30-39 e idade de menarca (OR = 0,27; IC95%: 0,09-0,83. Os fatores obstétricos se manifestam na obesidade por meio de uma complexa rede de inter-relações entre as covariáveis estudadas. É importante que sejam implementadas políticas eficazes de combate à obesidade durante o ciclo reprodutivo, e de planejamento familiar que busquem diminuir a freqüência de mães adolescentes.The aim of this study was to investigate obstetric variables potentially associated with obesity among 486 Brazilian childbearing-age women aged 15-59 residing in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State. Body fat (BF was measured through impedance analysis, and obesity was defined as BF > 30%. The association between obstetrics factors and obesity was evaluated through multivariate logistic regression. The following variables remained in the logistic regression after adjustments for total income, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity: age at menarche 30 and 40 years (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.76-6.27, age at first childbirth (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.07-3.68, and the following interaction: age group > 30 and < 39 and age at menarche (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.83. It appears that obstetric factors

  6. Age at Menarche and Menstrual Problems Among School‑Going ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exists for strong health educational activities among the adolescent girls, their parents, and teachers for effective management of menstrual problems ... accompanied by mental and psychological development.[3] ... At the third stage, students from classes VI to XII of age ..... girls in Malaysia: A cross-sectional school survey.

  7. Age at menarche among school girls in Sokoto, Northern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    et étalonné les murs. Résultats: Filles rurales deux cent vingt huit 228 et quatre cent quatre-vingts 480 des filles urbaines qui avaient atteint l'apparition des premières règles dans l'année ont été étudiées. L'âge moyen à l'apparition des premières règles pour toutes les filles était 15.26 ans. Menstruées âge moyen pour les ...

  8. Association between menarche and iron deficiency in non-anemic young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa L Sekhar

    Full Text Available The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID among non-pregnant, reproductive-age US women significantly exceeds rates among males. In clinical practice ID screening relies on hemoglobin, a late-stage indicator of ID. As a single, low-cost laboratory test to diagnose ID before anemia develops is lacking, the study objective was to improve ID screening by identifying risk factors among non-anemic, iron-deficient reproductive age women.Cross-sectional data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010. Hemoglobin identified non-anemic women. ID was defined using the body iron formula, requiring ferritin and transferrin receptor values. Logistic regression assessed the association of sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive risk factors in an anemia-based conceptual framework with non-anemic reproductive age women (12-49 years with ID, as well as subsets of younger (12-21 years and older (22-49 years women, recognizing that risks may differ by age.Among 6216 women, 494 had ID (prevalence was 8.0%, 95% CI 7.3%, 8.6%. Among non-anemic younger women, 250 (8.7%, 95% CI 7.7%, 9.8% had ID, compared to 244 (7.3%, 95% CI 6.4%, 8.2% older women. Among younger women, menstruation for over 3 years was the only variable significantly associated with non-anemic ID (risk ratio 3.18, 95% CI 2.03, 4.96. No other significant risk factors were identified.Menstrual years was the only risk factor significantly associated with ID among non-anemic younger women. The negative results suggest ID risk factors among non-anemic women may need to be considered separately from those associated with ID anemia.

  9. Age at Menarche and the Menstrual Pattern of Igbo Women of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    1209 women of reproductive age ... reproductive life. For many women ... result in work-related economic adversity. In many ... of Southeast Nigeria, and none for the women of Ebonyi State .... women, may be attributed to the delicate balance.

  10. AGE AT MENARCHE IN GIRLS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYL. (R825300)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Menarche stories: reminiscences of college students from Lithuania, Malaysia, Sudan, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, J C; Zittel, C B

    1998-01-01

    Women college students in four countries were invited to write the story of their first menstruation in as much detail as memory allowed. Stories were received from 26 Lithuanians, 27 Americans, 20 Malaysians, and 23 Sudanese. The stories were read and their contents analyzed for the presence or absence of information on such topics as emotional reaction, preparedness, sources of information about menstruation, changes in body image, and celebrations of this rite of passage. Similarities and differences among the groups are discussed, and passages from particularly interesting stories are quoted.

  12. Stature of nigerian igbo female adolescents with a note on menarche

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... By systematic random sampling, these girls were selected from primary and secondary school in Enugu, Nigeria. ... from a similar study done in 1961 by Tanner and O'Keeffe on upper class Igbo school girls, the 1961 figures were found to be lower than all corresponding values in this study.

  13. Age at Menarche and Choice of College Major: Implications for STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner-Shuman, Anna; Waren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Even though boys and girls in childhood perform similarly in math and spatial thinking, after puberty fewer young women pursue majors that emphasize abilities such as science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in college. If postpubertal feminization contributes to a lower likelihood of choosing STEM majors, then young women who enter…

  14. Attitudes and feelings towards menstruation and womanhood in girls at menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembeck, Gun I; Möller, Margareta; Gunnarsson, Ronny K

    2006-06-01

    To elucidate early adolescent girls' attitudes, thoughts and feelings towards menstruation and their bodies. 309 12-y-old girls answered questionnaires. One part of the questionnaire dealt with thoughts and feelings towards menstruation. The other part dealt with thoughts and feelings towards menstruation and sex and ability to communicate on aspects of womanhood. Postmenarcheal girls were less positive towards menstruation than premenarcheal girls (p = 1 x 10(-6)). Many girls (43%) did not reaffirm the statement "I like my body" and almost one quarter stated being teased for their appearance. Many of the girls claimed that they had been called "cunt" (38%) or "whore" (46%). If called "cunt" or "whore", 17% stated that they felt alone, 76% felt anger and 50% were offended. Mothers were those with whom girls could most easily "chat" about their period. Sixty-seven per cent received information about menstruation from school nurses. Wanting to be an adult and liking that their body develops seem to be associated with a more positive feeling towards menstruation. Furthermore, mothers' timing and ability to communicate attitudes towards menstruation and the body are as important as those in a girl's immediate environment.

  15. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Age of Menarche among Basic Level School Girls in Medina, Accra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Richmond Aryeetey*1, Anthony Ashinyo2 and Martin Adjuik3. 1University of ... with teen and adolescent sexual behavior, ... parents/guardians of the study participants. ... respondent siblings (p<0.01), birth weight ..... determine the relative independent contribution of ... Kaplowitz P: Pubertal development in girls: secular.

  17. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Nichola; Dudbridge, Frank; Orr, Nick

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age <=50 years. METHO...

  18. Exploring the relationship between timing of menarche and eating disorder symptoms in black and white adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; McMahon, RP; Biro, FM; Schreiber, G; Crawford, PB; Voorhees, C

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between timing of sexual maturation and eating disorders symptoms in adolescent girls. Method: Data were collected over 10 years for a cohort of 1,213 Black girls and 1,166 White girls who were either 9 or 10 years old at study entry. Annually, girls'

  19. Prevalence and severity of malnutrition and age at menarche; cross-sectional studies in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, T.; Petersen, L. T.; Kariuki, S. K.; Oloo, A. J.; Kager, P. A.; ter Kuile, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Nutritional status is an important marker of overall health and linear growth retardation has serious long-term physiological and economic consequences. Approximately 35 and 29% of preschool children in sub-Saharan Africa are stunted and underweight, respectively. There is relatively

  20. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Nichola

    2014-05-26

    We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years.

  1. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, N. (Nichola); F. Dudbridge (Frank); N. Orr (Nick); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); M. Jones (Michael); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); Folkerd, E.J. (Elizabeth J.); Haynes, B.P. (Ben P.); J.L. Hopper (John); M.C. Southey (Melissa); Dite, G.S. (Gillian S.); Apicella, C. (Carmel); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); F. Atsma (Femke); K.R. Muir (K.); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); A.B. Ekici (Arif); S.P. Renner (S.); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); Marme, F. (Frederik); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); Cordina, E. (Emilie); F. Menegaux (Florence); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); H. Flyger (Henrik); R.L. Milne (Roger); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I. Arias Pérez (José Ignacio); J. Benítez (Javier); L. Bernstein (Leslie); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); Clarke Dur, C. (Christina); Brenner, H. (Hermann); H. Mul̈ler (Heiko); Arndt, V. (Volker); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); A. Meindl (Alfons); J. Heil (Joerg); C.R. Bartram (Claus); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); C. Justenhoven (Christina); Y-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); Muranen, T.A. (Taru A.); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); Dörk, T. (Thilo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); Antonenkova, N.N. (Natalia N.); A. Lindblom (Annika); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A.H. Wu (Anna); D. Van Den Berg (David); C.-C. Tseng (Chiu-Chen); Lambrechts, D. (Diether); D. Smeets (Dominiek); P. Neven (Patrick); H. Wildiers (Hans); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); Rudolph, A. (Anja); Nickels, S. (Stefan); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); V. Pensotti (Valeria); Couch, F.J. (Fergus J.); J.E. Olson (Janet); Wang, X. (Xianshu); Fredericksen, Z. (Zachary); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); G. Severi (Gianluca); Baglietto, L. (Laura); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); Labrèche, F. (France); M. Dumont (Martine); Soucy, P. (Penny); S.-H. Teo (Soo-Hwang); C.H. Yip (Cheng Har); S.-Y. Phuah (Sze-Yee); Cornes, B.K. (Belinda K.); Kristensen, V.N. (Vessela N.); G. Grenaker Alnæs (Grethe); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); W. Zheng (Wei); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); Grip, M. (Mervi); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); Glendon, G. (Gord); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); P. Devillee (Peter); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); M.E. Sherman (Mark); P. Hall (Per); N. Schoof (Nils); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); Liu, J. (Jianjun); A. Cox (Angela); I.W. Brock (Ian); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); S.S. Cross (Simon); W.J. Blot (William); L.B. Signorello (Lisa B.); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); Shah, M. (Mitul); D. Kang (Daehee); Noh, D.-Y. (Dong-Young); Park, S.K. (Sue K.); Choi, J.-Y. (Ji-Yeob); Hartman, M. (Mikael); X. Miao; Lim, W.Y. (Wei Yen); A. Tang (Anthony); U. Hamann (Ute); A. Försti (Asta); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); Jaworska-Bieniek, K. (Katarzyna); Durda, K. (Katarzyna); Sangrajrang, S. (Suleeporn); Gaborieau, V. (Valerie); P. Brennan (Paul); McKay, J. (James); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Toland (Amanda E.); C. Vachon (Celine); Yannoukakos, D. (Drakoulis); C.-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); Huang, C.-S. (Chiun-Sheng); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); A. González-Neira (Anna); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); C. Luccarini (Craig); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet K.); J. Wang (Jinxia); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); M. Dowsett (Mitch); A. Ashworth (Alan); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); O. Fletcher (Olivia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractINTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50

  2. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, N. (Nichola); Dudbridge, Frank; Orr, Nick; Gibson, Lorna; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk; Folkerd, E.J. (Elizabeth J.); Haynes, B.P. (Ben P.); Hopper, John; Southey, Melissa; Dite, G.S. (Gillian S.); Apicella, C. (Carmel); Schmidt, Marjanka; Broeks, Annegien; Veer, Laura

    2014-01-01

    textabstractINTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years.METHODS: We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breas...

  3. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Nichola; Dudbridge, Frank; Orr, Nick; Gibson, Lorna; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk; Folkerd, E.J. (Elizabeth J.); Haynes, B.P. (Ben P.); Hopper, John; Southey, Melissa; Dite, Gillian; Apicella, Carmel; Schmidt, Marjanka; Broeks, Annegien; Veer, Laura

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years. Methods: We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Brea...

  4. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Johnson (Nichola); F. Dudbridge (Frank); N. Orr (Nick); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); M. Jones (Michael); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); Folkerd, E.J. (Elizabeth J.); Haynes, B.P. (Ben P.); J.L. Hopper (John); M.C. Southey (Melissa); G.S. Dite (Gillian); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); F. Atsma (Femke); K.R. Muir (K.); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); A.B. Ekici (Arif); S.P. Renner (S.); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); Cordina, E. (Emilie); F. Menegaux (Florence); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); H. Flyger (Henrik); R.L. Milne (Roger); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); J. Benítez (Javier); L. Bernstein (Leslie); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); C.C. Dur (Christina Clarke); H. Brenner (Hermann); H. Mul̈ler (Heiko); V. Arndt (Volker); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); A. Meindl (Alfons); J. Heil (Joerg); C.R. Bartram (Claus); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); C. Justenhoven (Christina); Y-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); T. Dörk (Thilo); Bogdanova, N.V. (Natalia V.); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); A. Lindblom (Annika); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A.H. Wu (Anna); D. Van Den Berg (David); C.-C. Tseng (Chiu-Chen); Lambrechts, D. (Diether); D. Smeets (Dominiek); P. Neven (Patrick); H. Wildiers (Hans); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); S. Nickels (Stefan); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); V. Pensotti (Valeria); F.J. Couch (Fergus); Olson, J.E. (Janet E.); X. Wang (X.); Fredericksen, Z. (Zachary); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); G. Severi (Gianluca); Baglietto, L. (Laura); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); Soucy, P. (Penny); S.-H. Teo (Soo-Hwang); C.H. Yip (Cheng Har); S.-Y. Phuah (Sze-Yee); Cornes, B.K. (Belinda K.); V. Kristensen (Vessela); Alnæs, G.G. (Grethe Grenaker); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); W. Zheng (Wei); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); P. Devillee (Peter); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); Chanock, S.J. (Stephen J.); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); M.E. Sherman (Mark); P. Hall (Per); N. Schoof (Nils); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); Liu, J. (Jianjun); A. Cox (Angela); I.W. Brock (Ian); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); S.S. Cross (Simon); W.J. Blot (William); L.B. Signorello (Lisa B.); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); D. Kang (Daehee); D-Y. Noh (Dong-Young); S.K. Park (Sue K.); J.-Y. Choi (Ji-Yeob); J.M. Hartman (Joost); X. Miao; Lim, W.Y. (Wei Yen); A. Tang (Anthony); U. Hamann (Ute); A. Försti (Asta); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); Jaworska-Bieniek, K. (Katarzyna); Durda, K. (Katarzyna); S. Sangrajrang (Suleeporn); Gaborieau, V. (Valerie); P. Brennan (Paul); J.D. McKay (James); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Toland (Amanda); Vachon, C. (Celine); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); C.-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); Huang, C.-S. (Chiun-Sheng); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); A. González-Neira (Anna); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); C. Luccarini (Craig); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); Bolla, M.K. (Manjeet K.); J. Wang (Jinxia); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); M. Dowsett (Mitch); A. Ashworth (Alan); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); O. Fletcher (Olivia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50

  5. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Nichola; Dudbridge, Frank; Orr, Nick; Gibson, Lorna; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Folkerd, Elizabeth J; Haynes, Ben P; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Dite, Gillian S; Apicella, Carmel; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van?t Veer, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years. Methods We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with b...

  6. From menarche to menopause: A population-based assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene risk factors for reproductive tract infection symptoms over life stages in rural girls and women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kelly K; Padhi, Bijaya; Torondel, Belen; Das, Padmalaya; Dutta, Ambarish; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Das, Bhabani; Dreibelbis, Robert; Caruso, Bethany; Freeman, Matthew C; Sager, Lauren; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    Women face greater challenges than men in accessing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) resources to address their daily needs, and may respond to these challenges by adopting unsafe practices that increase the risk of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). WASH practices may change as women transition through socially-defined life stage experiences, like marriage and pregnancy. Thus, the relationship between WASH practices and RTIs might vary across female reproductive life stages. This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between WASH exposures and self-reported RTI symptoms in 3,952 girls and women from two rural districts in India, and tested whether social exposures represented by reproductive life stage was an effect modifier of associations. In fully adjusted models, RTI symptoms were less common in women using a latrine without water for defecation versus open defecation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.69; Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.48, 0.98) and those walking shorter distances to a bathing location (OR = 0.79, CI = 0.63, 0.99), but there was no association between using a latrine with a water source and RTIs versus open defecation (OR = 1.09; CI = 0.69, 1.72). Unexpectedly, RTI symptoms were more common for women bathing daily with soap (OR = 6.55, CI = 3.60, 11.94) and for women washing their hands after defecation with soap (OR = 10.27; CI = 5.53, 19.08) or ash/soil/mud (OR = 6.02; CI = 3.07, 11.77) versus water only or no hand washing. WASH practices of girls and women varied across reproductive life stages, but the associations between WASH practices and RTI symptoms were not moderated by or confounded by life stage status. This study provides new evidence that WASH access and practices are associated with self-reported reproductive tract infection symptoms in rural Indian girls and women from different reproductive life stages. However, the counterintuitive directions of effect for soap use highlights that causality and mechanisms of effect cannot be inferred from this study design. Future research is needed to understand whether improvements in water and sanitation access could improve the practice of safe hygiene behaviors and reduce the global burden of RTIs in women.

  7. From menarche to menopause: A population-based assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene risk factors for reproductive tract infection symptoms over life stages in rural girls and women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Bijaya; Torondel, Belen; Das, Padmalaya; Dutta, Ambarish; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Freeman, Matthew C.; Sager, Lauren; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    Women face greater challenges than men in accessing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) resources to address their daily needs, and may respond to these challenges by adopting unsafe practices that increase the risk of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). WASH practices may change as women transition through socially-defined life stage experiences, like marriage and pregnancy. Thus, the relationship between WASH practices and RTIs might vary across female reproductive life stages. This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between WASH exposures and self-reported RTI symptoms in 3,952 girls and women from two rural districts in India, and tested whether social exposures represented by reproductive life stage was an effect modifier of associations. In fully adjusted models, RTI symptoms were less common in women using a latrine without water for defecation versus open defecation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.69; Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.48, 0.98) and those walking shorter distances to a bathing location (OR = 0.79, CI = 0.63, 0.99), but there was no association between using a latrine with a water source and RTIs versus open defecation (OR = 1.09; CI = 0.69, 1.72). Unexpectedly, RTI symptoms were more common for women bathing daily with soap (OR = 6.55, CI = 3.60, 11.94) and for women washing their hands after defecation with soap (OR = 10.27; CI = 5.53, 19.08) or ash/soil/mud (OR = 6.02; CI = 3.07, 11.77) versus water only or no hand washing. WASH practices of girls and women varied across reproductive life stages, but the associations between WASH practices and RTI symptoms were not moderated by or confounded by life stage status. This study provides new evidence that WASH access and practices are associated with self-reported reproductive tract infection symptoms in rural Indian girls and women from different reproductive life stages. However, the counterintuitive directions of effect for soap use highlights that causality and mechanisms of effect cannot be inferred from this study design. Future research is needed to understand whether improvements in water and sanitation access could improve the practice of safe hygiene behaviors and reduce the global burden of RTIs in women. PMID:29206842

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF SPONTANEOUS AND INDUCED PUBERTY IN GIRLS WITH TURNER SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Lisal J; Slaven, James E; Nabhan, Zeina M; Eugster, Erica A

    2017-07-01

    To characterize puberty in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and determine whether specific patient characteristics are associated with the timing of menarche. We also sought to compare spontaneous versus induced puberty in these patients. Medical records of girls followed in our Pediatric Endocrine clinic for TS from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed. Fifty-three girls were included, of whom 10 (19%) achieved menarche spontaneously and 43 (81%) received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Of girls receiving HRT, a younger age at estrogen initiation correlated with a longer time to menarche (P = .02), and a mosaic karyotype was associated with a shorter time to menarche (P = .02), whereas no relationship was seen for body mass index, estrogen regimen, or maternal age at menarche. Nineteen girls (44%) receiving HRT had bleeding on estrogen alone at a wide dose range and were more likely to be on transdermal than oral preparations (P = .01). Girls with spontaneous puberty achieved menarche at a younger age (PTurner syndrome.

  9. Nomenclature of primary amenorrhea: A proposal document of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology committee for the redefinition of primary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shozu, Makio; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Horikawa, Reiko; Sakakibara, Hideya; Izumi, Shun-Ichiro; Ohba, Takashi; Hirota, Yasushi; Ogata, Tsutomu; Osuga, Yutaka; Kugu, Koji

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide medical terms to describe the condition of a girl who should be evaluated for primary amenorrhea in order to facilitate intervention at an appropriate time. We performed a literature and clinical guidelines search for recent practices with regard to menarche and discussed relevant cases that had been experienced by committee members. Additionally, we theoretically reviewed medical terms defined in the Glossary Book of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Japan (Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3rd edition). The committee for the redefinition of primary amenorrhea proposed the introduction of two terms and the deletion of one term that had been defined by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, instead of changing the age definition of primary amenorrhea. 'Delayed menarche' was introduced to describe a condition in which a girl has never experienced cyclic menstruation (menarche) by 15-17 years of age. 'Late menarche' was also introduced to describe a condition in which a girl has experienced menarche at 15 years of age or older. 'Delayed menstruation,' which was defined as a condition in which a girl experiences menarche at 15-18 years of age, was deleted. The new terms 'delayed menarche' and 'late menarche' were introduced, and the term 'delayed menstruation' was deleted. The new system might help in the early detection and appropriate treatment of primary amenorrhea. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Preparing Girls for Menstruation: Recommendations from Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Elissa; Rierdan, Jill

    1995-01-01

    Ninth-grade girls (n=157) rated their own experience of menarche and answered 4 open-ended questions. Responses suggested several ways that early preparation could be revised, and supported a conceptualization of menstrual education as a long-term, continuous process, beginning well before menarche and continuing long after. (JPS)

  11. Pubertal breast development in primary school girls in Sokoto, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted on African children living in Africa.[13,14] The influence of ... breast development and menarche, and to determine the influence of nutrition and ethnicity ... 5 University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Corresponding ...

  12. Port Harcourt Medical Journal - Vol 4, No 3 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and knowledge of breast cancer among three major professional groups ... Menarcheal age amongst secondary school students in Port Harcourt · EMAIL ... Mothers' knowledge and perception of child sexual abuse · EMAIL FULL ...

  13. Understanding the role played by parents, culture and the school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-05

    Apr 5, 2018 ... health education received from school adequate for equipping them with appropriate .... menarche. Some girls gave account of also learning things from talking to or ..... viors in Nairobi informal settlements? Archives of Sexual ...

  14. Development of Autoimmune Overt Hypothyroidism Is Highly Associated With Live Births and Induced Abortions but Only in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Buelow; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    : In conditional multivariate logistic regression models, we analyzed the associations between the development of autoimmune hypothyroidism and age at menarche/menopause, years of menstruations, pregnancies, spontaneous and induced abortions, live births, and years on oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormone...

  15. Reproductive and biochemical changes in obese and non obese polycystic ovary syndrome women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Ibrahim Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Overweight and obese PCOS women had significantly higher age of menarche, abortion and menstrual disturbances. Also, signs of hyperandrogenism, acanthosis nigricans were more encountered among them with higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, FSH, LH and testosterone.

  16. TJOG Vol 26 No 1.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coincides with the onset of coitus and the first pregnancy, especially in Northern ... Conclusion: Earlier onset of menarche in Nigerian school girls reinforces the ... countries are abortion related. ... is inevitable due to complex psychological and.

  17. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles in girls with central precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis....

  18. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles in girls with central precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis.......Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis....

  19. Onset of menstrual cycle and menses features among secondary school girls in Italy: A questionnaire study on 3,783 students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise: Healthcare professionals need updated information about what is the range of "normal" variation of menstrual cycle features to support young girls and their parents in managing reproductive health, and to detect diseases early. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to provide an updated picture of age at menarche and main menstrual cycle characteristics and complaints in an Italian population-based sample of 3,783 adolescents attending secondary school. Girls filled in a self-administered anonymous questionnaire including questions about demography, anthropometry, smoking and drinking habits, use of contraceptive, socioeconomic status, age at menarche, menstrual pattern, and physical/psychological menstrual complaints. Mean age at menarche and prevalence of polymenorrhea (cycle length 35 days, irregularity, dysmenorrhea, and of physical/psychological complaints were computed. Factors associated with age at menarche and menstrual disturbances were explored by using multiple logistic models. Results: The girls′ mean age was 17.1 years (SD 1.4 years and the mean age at menarche was 12.4 years (SD 1.3 years; menarche occurred with two monthly peaks of frequency in July-September and in December-January (P 6 days was shown in 19.6% of girls. Gynecological age was significantly associated with cycle length (P < 0.0001 with long cycles becoming more regular within the fourth year after menarche, while frequency of polymenorrhea stabilized after the second gynecological year. Oligomenorrhea and irregularity were both significantly associated with long menstrual bleeding (adjusted OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.55-3.60, and adjusted OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.95-3.44, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of the study support the levelling-off of secular trend in menarche anticipation in Italy and confirm the timing in menstrual cycle regularization. The study provides updated epidemiological data on frequency of menstrual abnormalities

  20. The Association of Self-Reported Measures With Poor Training Outcomes Among Male and Female U.S. Navy Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    questions based on menses during the 12 months before basic training, primary amenorrhea (age at menarche >16 years), irregular menstrual activity...additional questions based on menses during the 12 months before basic training. From these ques- tions, several variables were created: primary...amenorrhea (women whose age at menarche was >16 years), menstrual regularity (>10 menses in the past 12 months as the reference group), secondary

  1. Does Competence Mediate the Associations between Puberty and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Hillman, Jennifer, B.; Dorn, Lorah D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine separate mediational models linking a) menarcheal status or b) pubertal timing to internalizing and externalizing problems through competence. Method Cross-sectional analyses of 262 adolescent girls (11–17 years; M=14.93, SD=2.17) enrolled in a longitudinal study examining the association of psychological functioning and smoking with reproductive and bone health. Measures of menarcheal status (pre/post), pubertal timing (early, on-time, or late), internalizing and externalizing behavior, and perceived competence (parent and adolescent report) were obtained. Structural Equation Modeling was used for analyses. Results Perceived competence was found to fully mediate the association between menarcheal status and parent report of internalizing and externalizing problems. For adolescent report, there was a full mediation effect for internalizing problems but a partial mediation effect for externalizing problems. Being menarcheal was related to lower competence which was related to higher internalizing and externalizing problems. Models including pubertal timing were not significant. Conclusions Perceived competence is important in understanding the associations between menarcheal status and internalizing and externalizing problems. Interventions targeting competence, particularly in post-menarcheal girls, may reduce or prevent problem behaviors. PMID:21939864

  2. Birth characteristics and female sex hormone concentrations during adolescence: results from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Elizabeth H; Hartman, Terryl J; Rovine, Michael J; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2011-04-01

    Birth characteristics and adult hormone concentrations influence breast cancer risk, but little is known about the influence of birth characteristics on hormone concentrations, particularly during adolescence. We evaluated the association of birth characteristics (birth weight, birth length, and gestational age) with serum sex hormone concentrations during late childhood and adolescence in 278 female participants of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess the relationships of birth characteristics and serum estrogens and androgens at five different time points over a mean period of 7 years. In analyses that did not take into account time from blood draw until menarche, birth weight was inversely associated with pre-menarche concentrations of estradiol, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). In the post-menarche analyses, birth weight was not significantly associated with concentration of any of the hormones under investigation. Birth length and gestational age were not associated with hormone concentrations before or after menarche. Birth weight is inversely associated with sex hormone concentrations before menarche in the model unadjusted for time from blood draw until menarche. The in utero environment has long-term influences on the hormonal milieu, which could potentially contribute to breast cancer risk.

  3. Evolutionary fitness as a function of pubertal age in 22 subsistence-based traditional societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlik Aneta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context The age of puberty has fallen over the past 130 years in industrialized, western countries, and this fall is widely referred to as the secular trend for earlier puberty. The current study was undertaken to test two evolutionary theories: (a the reproductive system maximizes the number of offspring in response to positive environmental cues in terms of energy balance, and (b early puberty is a trade-off response for high mortality rate and reduced resource availability. Methods Using a sample of 22 natural-fertility societies of mostly tropical foragers, horticulturalists, and pastoralists from Africa, South America, Australia, and Southeastern Asia, this study compares indices of adolescence growth and menarche with those of fertility fitness in these non-industrial, traditional societies. Results The average age at menarche correlated with the first reproduction, but did not correlate with the total fertility rate TFR or reproductive fitness. The age at menarche correlated negatively with their average adult body mass, and the average adult body weight positively correlated with reproductive fitness. Survivorship did not correlate with the age at menarche or age indices of the adolescent growth spurt. The population density correlated positively with the age at first reproduction, but not with menarche age, TFR, or reproductive fitness. Conclusions Based on our analyses, we reject the working hypotheses that reproductive fitness is enhanced in societies with early puberty or that early menarche is an adaptive response to greater mortality risk. Whereas body mass is a measure of resources is tightly associated with fitness, the age of menarche is not.

  4. Reproductive disturbances among Saudi adolescent girls and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Rim; Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Musallam, Maha Ali; Alanazi, Abdulaziz; Swedan, Nawaf Bin; Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz

    2017-11-15

    To identify reproductive disturbances among adolescent girls and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Saudi Arabia. This cross sectional study was conducted among 102 female with T1DM, (aged 13-29 years) who attended the Diabetes Clinic at Diabetes Treatment Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia between April 2015 to March 2016. Clinical history, anthropometric characteristics and reproductive disturbance were collected through a questionnaire. Of 102 patients included in this analysis, 26.5% (27/102) were reported that they experienced an irregular menses. Of these patients, when compared to whose diabetes was diagnosed before menarche (35.4%, 17/48), patients diagnosed with diabetes after menarche (18.5%, 10/54) showed significantly less irregular menses (difference 16.9%, P = 0.04). Similarly, compared to patients diagnosed with diabetes prior to menarche (mean age 12.9 years; n = 48), patients diagnosed with diabetes after menarche (mean age 12.26 years; n = 54) were found to have 0.64 years delay in the age of menarche ( P = 0.04). Among the studied patients, 15.7% (16/102) had polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Of these PCOS patients, 37.5% (6/16) had irregular menses, 6.3% (1/16) had Celiac disease, 37.5% (6/16) had Hashimoto thyroiditis and 18.7% (3/16) had acne. More than one fourth of the study population with T1DM experiencing an irregular menses. Adolescent girls and young women diagnosed with diabetes prior to menarche showed higher menstrual irregularity and a delay in the age of menarche.

  5. Onset of menstrual cycle and menses features among secondary school girls in Italy: A questionnaire study on 3,783 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Bernasconi, Sergio; Bianchin, Luigi; Bona, Gianni; Bozzola, Mauro; Buzi, Fabio; De Sanctis, Carlo; Rigon, Franco; Tatò, Luciano; Tonini, Giorgio; Perissinotto, Egle

    2014-11-01

    Healthcare professionals need updated information about what is the range of "normal" variation of menstrual cycle features to support young girls and their parents in managing reproductive health, and to detect diseases early. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide an updated picture of age at menarche and main menstrual cycle characteristics and complaints in an Italian population-based sample of 3,783 adolescents attending secondary school. Girls filled in a self-administered anonymous questionnaire including questions about demography, anthropometry, smoking and drinking habits, use of contraceptive, socioeconomic status, age at menarche, menstrual pattern, and physical/psychological menstrual complaints. Mean age at menarche and prevalence of polymenorrhea (cycle length 35 days), irregularity, dysmenorrhea, and of physical/psychological complaints were computed. Factors associated with age at menarche and menstrual disturbances were explored by using multiple logistic models. The girls' mean age was 17.1 years (SD 1.4 years) and the mean age at menarche was 12.4 years (SD 1.3 years); menarche occurred with two monthly peaks of frequency in July-September and in December-January (P irregular length by 8.3%, while long bleeding (>6 days) was shown in 19.6% of girls. Gynecological age was significantly associated with cycle length (P irregularity were both significantly associated with long menstrual bleeding (adjusted OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.55-3.60, and adjusted OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.95-3.44, respectively). The findings of the study support the levelling-off of secular trend in menarche anticipation in Italy and confirm the timing in menstrual cycle regularization. The study provides updated epidemiological data on frequency of menstrual abnormalities to help reproductive health professionals in managing adolescent gynecology.

  6. Concerted actions of insulin-like growth factor 1, testosterone, and estradiol on peripubertal bone growth: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leiting; Wang, Qin; Wang, Qingju; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Mikkola, Tuija; Völgyi, Eszter; Cheng, Shumei; Wiklund, Petri; Munukka, Eveliina; Nicholson, Patrick; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2011-09-01

    A better understanding of how bone growth is regulated during peripuberty is important for optimizing the attainment of peak bone mass and for the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. In this report we used hierarchical models to evaluate the associations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), estradiol (E(2) ), and testosterone (T) with peripubertal bone growth in a 7-year longitudinal study. Two-hundred and fifty-eight healthy girls were assessed at baseline (mean age 11.2 years) and at 1, 2, 3.5, and 7 years. Serum concentrations of IGF-1, E(2) , and T were determined. Musculoskeletal properties in the left lower leg were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Serum levels of IGF-1, E(2) , and T increased dramatically before menarche, whereas they decreased, plateaued, or increased at a lower rate, respectively, after menarche. IGF-1 level was positively associated with periosteal circumference (PC) and total bone mineral content (tBMC) throughout peripuberty but not after adjustment for muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA). On the other hand, IGF-1 was associated with tibial length (TL) independently of mCSA before menarche. T was positively associated with TL, PC, tBMC, and cortical volumetric bone mineral density, independent of mCSA, before menarche but not after. E(2) was associated with TL positively before menarche but negatively after menarche. These findings suggest that during puberty, circulating IGF-1 promotes bone periosteal apposition and mass accrual indirectly, probably through stimulating muscle growth, whereas the effects of sex steroids on bone growth differ before and after menarche, presenting a biphasic pattern. Hence the concerted actions of these hormones are essential for optimal bone development in peripuberty. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Perinatal History and Functional Features of Reproductive System of Mothers of Adolescent Girls with Secondary Amenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Nachotova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal histories of 172 adolescent girls aged 13–17 years with secondary amenorrhea (SA and 102 age-matched girls with regular menstrual cycle (comparison group, and reproductive status of their mothers have been studied. It has been found that the most unfavorable factor affecting the formation of SA in adolescent girls is the late menarche in their mothers. It is found that the probability of SA in girls born from the mothers with late menarche right after menarche or after previous menstrual disorders is 16-fold increased. Ir is determined that particularly unfavorable factor, 3-fold increasing the risk of the transformation of olygomenorrhea or pubertal uterine bleeding into SA, is the low birth weight registered in the patient’s history.

  8. Place of menstruation in the reproductive lives of women of rural North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To ascertain the perceptions and experiences of women regarding menstruation. Methods : An integrated qualitative and quantitative study on reproductive health of Indian women was conducted in two primary health centre areas of rural north India. Present article reports on the perceptions of 1205 women regarding various aspects of menstruation. Results : Major source of information about menarche/menstruation was friends/relatives (72%. Mean age at menarche was ~ 15 years. Very few women (0.4% used sanitary napkins. Majority of women had strong beliefs about effect of diet on menstruation. Most of them considered menstruation a dirty act and indulged in various taboo behaviours. Initial reaction was of fear/apprehension at menarche in majority of girls. Conclusion: Women in rural north India still hold tranditional beliefs regarding menstruation. Provision of a balanced and healthy family health education package to all girls is recommended.

  9. Reproductive factors and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Grote, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Tikk, Kaja; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gils, Carla H van; Peeters, Petra HM; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Lund, Eliv; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Romieu, Isabelle; Tjønneland, Anne; Rinaldi, Sabina; Vineis, Paulo; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Fournier, Agnès; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    The association of reproductive factors with hormone receptor (HR)-negative breast tumors remains uncertain. Within the EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of reproductive factors (menarcheal age, time between menarche and first pregnancy, parity, number of children, age at first and last pregnancies, time since last full-term childbirth, breastfeeding, age at menopause, ever having an abortion and use of oral contraceptives [OC]) with risk of ER-PR- (n = 998) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,567) breast tumors. A later first full-term childbirth was associated with increased risk of ER+PR+ tumors but not with risk of ER-PR- tumors (≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 1.47 [95% CI 1.15-1.88] p trend < 0.001 for ER+PR+ tumors; ≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 0.93 [95% CI 0.53-1.65] p trend = 0.96 for ER-PR- tumors; P het = 0.03). The risk associations of menarcheal age, and time period between menarche and first full-term childbirth with ER-PR-tumors were in the similar direction with risk of ER+PR+ tumors (p het = 0.50), although weaker in magnitude and statistically only borderline significant. Other parity related factors such as ever a full-term birth, number of births, age- and time since last birth were associated only with ER+PR+ malignancies, however no statistical heterogeneity between breast cancer subtypes was observed. Breastfeeding and OC use were generally not associated with breast cancer subtype risk. Our study provides possible evidence that age at menarche, and time between menarche and first full-term childbirth may be associated with the etiology of both HR-negative and HR-positive malignancies, although the associations with HR-negative breast cancer were only borderline significant

  10. Hormonal factors and incident asthma and allergic rhinitis during puberty in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junxiang; Gerlich, Jessica; Genuneit, Jon; Nowak, Dennis; Vogelberg, Christian; von Mutius, Erika; Radon, Katja

    2015-07-01

    Accumulating evidence is indicating that hormonal factors play a role in new-onset allergic rhinitis and asthma after puberty. To determine whether age at menarche and use of hormonal contraceptives predict new-onset allergic rhinitis and asthma after puberty in young German women. A prospective community-based cohort study followed 1,191 girls 9 to 11 years old to early adulthood (19-24 years old). Self-administrated questionnaires concerning age at menarche, use of hormonal contraceptives, and status and age at onset of physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis and asthma were collected at 16 to 18 and 19 to 24 years of age. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the incidence of asthma and allergic rhinitis after puberty and pooled estimates were obtained from the final model. Eleven percent of girls developed allergic rhinitis after menarche and 3% reported new-onset asthma. Late menarche (>13 years of age) was statistically significantly inversely related to allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.74) but did not reach the level of statistical significance for asthma (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.07-1.42). Use of hormonal contraceptives was inversely associated with new-onset allergic rhinitis (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.08-0.23) and asthma (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.12-0.58) after puberty. This study shows that girls with late onset of menarche are less likely to develop allergic rhinitis after puberty compared with those who have menarche at an average age. These findings also suggest that, in addition to endogenous hormones, hormonal contraceptives play a role and might protect young women from allergies and asthma. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Menstrual characteristics in some adolescent girls in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumanga, S K; Kwame-Aryee, R A

    2012-03-01

    Menstruation has a variable pattern within a few years of menarche which may not be well understood by many adolescent girls. Providing accurate information on menstruation is necessary to reduce anxiety, menstrual morbidity and improve reproductive health of these adolescents. To determine the age at menarche, duration of menstruation, length of menstrual cycle, regularity of menstrual cycle, prevalence of dysmenorrhoea and sources of information on menstruation. S(T) Mary's Senior Secondary School, Accra. Cross-sectional descriptive study using self-administered questionnaire. Four hundred and fifty six girls whose ages ranged from 14-19 years with mean and median ages of 16 ± 0.93 years and 16 years respectively were surveyed. Their ages at menarche ranged from 9 years to 16 years and the mean age at menarche was 12.5 ±1.28 years. Their menstrual cycle lengths ranged from 21-35 days with mean menstrual cycle length of 27.9± 0.9 days; the mode and median were both 28 days. The mean duration of menstrual flow was 4.9 days with mode and median of 5 days. Seventy one percent (n=449) had menses lasting 3-5 days while 27.2% had menses lasting over 5 days. Some 24% (n=409) had irregular menses six months after their menarche and 59.6% (n=453) were experiencing menses with clots. The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was 74.4% (n=453). Some 80.2% (n=378) of the girls got counselling and education on care for their menses from their parents. The age at menarche and other menstrual characteristics observed in this study are similar to adolescent menstrual characteristics described by studies in other populations in the world.

  12. Menstrual hygiene practices in context of schooling: A community study among rural adolescent girls in Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, that is, 2, 3 4,5, and5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling . Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative. It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78% had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4% were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55% played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6% as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%. Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05 was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for

  13. Menstrual Hygiene Practices in Context of Schooling: A Community Study Among Rural Adolescent Girls in Varanasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the provision of comprehensive family life

  14. Primary amenorrhea: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Courtney A; Grimstad, Frances W

    2014-10-01

    Puberty is a defining time of many adolescents' lives. It is a series of events that includes thelarche, pubarche, and menarche. Primary amenorrhea is the absence of menarche. There are numerous etiologies including outflow tract obstructions, gonadal dysgenesis, and anomalies of the hypothalamic axis. This review's aims are to define primary amenorrhea and describe the various causes, their workups, associated comorbidities, and treatment options. At the end, a generalist should be able to perform an assessment of an adolescent who presents with primary amenorrhea and, if warranted, begin initial treatment.

  15. Improving pre- and postmenarcheal 12-year-old girls' attitudes toward menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembeck, Gun I; Gunnarsson, Ronny K

    2004-08-01

    Adolescence is a time of rapid changes, including risk for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Education may improve understanding and attitudes toward menstruation among adolescents thus increasing their awareness of risks and enabling them to protect themselves accordingly. To investigate effects of education on attitudes, two interventions were compared in 345 12-year-old girls. The new, active intervention given to premenarcheal girls just before menarche resulted in improvements in attitudes toward menstruation compared with standard intervention. Thus, just before menarche girls should be offered education modeled after the active intervention. The education must be concrete and based on multisensory learning.

  16. Menstrual cycle and its disorders in women with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, Willem; Hoendermis, Elke S.; Moons, Philip; Heida, Karst Y.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Lely, A. Titia; Canobbio, Mary M.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the age at menarche, the prevalence of menstrual cycle (interval) disorders, and determinants in women with congenital heart disease (CHD). DESIGN: Using two CHD registries, 1802 (82%) of the 2196 women with CHD contacted (aged 18-58 years) provided written informed

  17. Hormone profile in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with previous or current amenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Clovis A.; Deen, Maria E. J.; Febronio, Marilia V.; Oliveira, Sheila K.; Terreri, Maria T.; Sacchetti, Silvana B.; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Marini, Roberto; Quintero, Maria V.; Bica, Blanca E.; Pereira, Rosa M.; Bonfa, Eloisa; Ferriani, Virginia P.; Robazzi, Teresa C.; Magalhaes, Claudia S.; Hilario, Maria O.

    To identify the underlying mechanism of amenorrhea in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients, thirty-five (11.7%) JSLE patients with current or previous amenorrhea were consecutively selected among the 298 post-menarche patients followed in 12 Brazilian pediatric rheumatology centers.

  18. Menstrual cycle and its disorders in women with congenital heart disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, W.; Hoendermis, E.S.; Moons, P.; Heida, K.Y.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Vliegen, H.W.; Sollie, K.M.; Berger, R.M.; Lely, A.T.; Canobbio, M.M.; Pieper, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the age at menarche, the prevalence of menstrual cycle (interval) disorders, and determinants in women with congenital heart disease (CHD). DESIGN: Using two CHD registries, 1802 (82%) of the 2196 women with CHD contacted (aged 18-58 years) provided written informed

  19. Effect of Dysmenorrhoea on the Quality Of Life among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dysmenorrhea which is painful menstruation affects the quality of life. After menarche many adolescent girls face problems of irregular menstruation, excessive bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Of these dysmenorrhea is one of the common problems experienced by most adolescent girls. Objective: To determine ...

  20. Re-torsion of the ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel, Trine E W; Bak, Geske S; Larsen, Solveig B

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of de-torsion of the ovaries may result in re-torsion. This review addresses risk of re-torsion and describes preventive strategies to avoid re-torsion in pre-menarcheal girls, and fertile and pregnant women. We clinically reviewed PubMed, Embase, Trip and Cochrane databases. T...

  1. Menarkalderen blandt skolepiger i Odense. Falder menarkalderen fortsat i Danmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, J L; Jeune, B; Bach-Rasmussen, K L

    1993-01-01

    at the menarche was found to be the same throughout the municipality (13.27 years; 95% confidence limit 13.20-13.35). The variations were found to be significantly differentiated by the type of school district. The variations were low in the suburbs and in the surrounding rural districts, higher in the inner city...

  2. December 2010.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    She had no history of dysmenorrhoea or dyspareunia. her last normal menstrual period was on 21 March. 2007, and she bled for 5 days. She developed cyclical pre-menstrual lower abdominal pain 12 years after menarche. She noticed brownish discharge from the umbilicus which occurred about 12 days of commencing ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 263 ... Vol 6, No 2 (2007), Prevalence of Plasmodial Parasiteamia among ... Vol 5, No 2 (2006), Profile of menarche among school children in ... Non-paretic Lower Limbs of Patients with Post-stroke Hemiplegia, Abstract ... Vol 6, No 2 (2007), Root Surface Caries Occurence in Relation to Social and Dental ...

  4. Maternal Early Life Factors Associated with Hormone Levels and the Risk of Having a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Nurses Health Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Pauls, David L.; Santangelo, Susan; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    It is not known whether reproductive factors early in the mother's life influence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed maternal age at menarche, menstrual cycle characteristics during adolescence, oral contraceptive use prior to first birth, body shape, and body mass index (BMI) in association with ASD using binomial regression in…

  5. S-Nitrosylation and the Development of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    children and adolescents living at high altitude37,38. However, menarchal humans are better able to adapt to high altitude than males and non...in patients using oral contraceptives . Chest 69:143-147, 1976 28. Morse JH, Horn EM, Barst RJ. Hormone replacement therapy. A possible risk factor

  6. Menstruation: Experiences of Adolescent Slum Dwelling Girls of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    Bengal and cluster sampling was used to select 798 post menarcheal adolescent girls residing in the slums. Data on .... From separate lists of the adolescent girls in the age ... back of the paper and the numbers of a currency note were used to ...

  7. Eating attitudes and body image in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescent girls in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampei, Míriam A; Sigulem, Dirce M; Novo, Neil F; Juliano, Yara; Colugnati, Fernando A B

    2009-01-01

    Despite investigations into the rapid increase in eating disorders across diverse ethnic groups, conclusions concerning ethnicity and eating disorders are contradictory. The objective of the present study was to investigate eating attitudes in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescents in Brazil. The influence of body mass index (BMI), menarche and social-affective relationships on the development of eating disorders was also assessed. Questionnaires evaluating the incidence of eating disorders and the influence of social-affective relationships were applied to 544 Japanese-Brazilian and Caucasian adolescent girls: 10 to 11-year-old Japanese-Brazilian (n = 122) and Caucasian (n = 176) pre-menarcheal adolescents, and 16 to 17-year-old Japanese-Brazilian (n = 71) and Caucasian (n = 175) post-menarcheal adolescents. Caucasian girls obtained higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), showed greater body image dissatisfaction, dieted more often and had more diet models introduced by their mothers and peers than the Japanese-Brazilian girls. CONCLUSION The Caucasian adolescents overall appeared to be more sensitive to aesthetic and social pressures regarding body image than the Japanese adolescents. The high incidence of EAT-26 scores above 20 in the Caucasian pre-menarcheal group indicates that individual body image concerns are developing at an earlier age. Multiple logistic regression revealed several associations between mother-teen interactions and the development of abnormal eating attitudes.

  8. Uterine leiomyoma in a 19-year-old girl: Case report and literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    discomfort. There was no history of nausea, vomiting, weight loss, or anorexia. She reported no changes in bowel habits and denied genitourinary symptomatology. Menarche occurred at 14 ... the pelvis, corresponding in size to a pregnant uterus of 24 ... rather than later in adult life.18,19 It is possible that these lesions are ...

  9. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated...

  10. The Relationship among Pubertal Stage, Age, and Drinking in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, Vivian B.; Ruffin, Beverly; Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Chen, Chiung

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from the Third National Household and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the association between pubertal status (Tanner staging for boys and girls and menarche for girls) and alcohol use in a nationally representative sample of youths ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship. In…

  11. Part 3: Medico-legal documentation Practical completion of pages 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    revision so that the research and advances in knowledge that have taken place .... the female breasts, and not the menarche.3 The information is of medical value in .... Examination on a lap makes the prone knee-chest position difficult, but not.

  12. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Change, Gender, and Psychological Well-Being of Mexican Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Studied the role of pubertal development on depression, externalizing behavior problems, self-esteem, and body-image of 951 Mexican early adolescents. Findings show that the acute experience of menarche adversely affected the psychological well-being of girls, specifically in terms of depressive symptomatology. Pubertal change in boys did not…

  13. Gender Differences in Psychological Well-being of Mexican Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Examined gender differences in effects of menarche in females and voice change in males, specifically with regard to depression, self-esteem, body image, and externalizing problems. Analyses indicated prepubertal males had more externalizing problems and females increased in depression, externalizing problems, and negative body image post…

  14. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  15. Pubertal Onset in Boys and Girls Is Influenced by Pubertal Timing of Both Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P

    2016-01-01

    children in a longitudinal cohort study. Information on parental timing of puberty (earlier, comparable to, or later compared to peers) and menarche age was retrieved from questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 672 girls and 846 boys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset of pubic hair (PH2+), breasts (B2...

  16. Puberty: Maturation, Timing and Adjustment, and Sexual Identity Developmental Milestones among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Foss, Alexander H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined pubertal maturation, pubertal timing and outcomes, and the relationship of puberty and sexual identity developmental milestones among 507 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. The onset of menarche and spermarche occurred at the mean ages of 12.05 and 12.46, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in…

  17. Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, L.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Kaaks, R.; Gram, I.T.; Vilier, A.; Fervers, B.; Manjer, J.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Chang-Claude, J.; Boeing, H.; Steffen, A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Sarantopoulou, M.; Palli, D.; Berrino, F.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Mattiello, A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent cohort studies suggest that increased breast cancer risks were associated with longer smoking duration, higher pack-years and a dose-response relationship with increasing pack-years of smoking between menarche and first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). Studies with comprehensive quantitative

  18. Pattern of breast cancer risk factors among pre and post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In black women, breast cancer is associated with aggressive features and poor survival. Objective: Identification of risk factors such as early age of menarche, obesity and family history of breast cancer may permit preventive strategies. Study Design: A ...

  19. [Transgenerational evolution of age of the main stages of reproductive life in Guadeloupe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhel, P; Deloumeaux, J; Janky, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in the ages at which the main stages of reproductive life, including first sexual intercourse in particular, occur in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). We conducted a transverse study of three generations of men and women over the age of 20 years. We recorded age at first intercourse and at first child for all subjects, plus age at menarche, at first pregnancy and at menopause for the women. We collected information for 803 women and 169 men. For women, median age at menarche and at first intercourse had decreased significantly, reaching 12 and 17 years, respectively. The risk of first intercourse occurring before the median age was linked to the earliness of menarche. Age at first pregnancy, at menopause for women and at first intercourse for men remained roughly stable. A non-significant trend towards increasing age at the birth of the first child was observed in both sexes. Age indicators for the main stages of reproductive life in Guadeloupe follow the trends reported in most Western countries, including mainland France. However, most of the ages recorded for particular stages are below those in mainland France. The link between age at menarche and sexual precocity may justify targeted awareness programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Pubertal breast development in primary school girls in Sokoto, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is wide variation in normal pubertal timing among various populations. Objectives. To determine the mean age of pubertal stages of breast development and menarche, and the influence of nutrition and ethnicity on pubertal onset in primary school girls in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. Methods.

  1. Menstruation: Symptoms, Management and Attitude of Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study surveyed 120 student nurses from two schools of nursing in Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the symptoms experienced during menstruation, attitude towards and management of menstruation. The student nurses overall mean age at menarche was 14 years, average duration of menstrual period was five days and ...

  2. Menstrual characteristics in some adolescent girls in Accra, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Menstruation has a variable pattern within a few years of menarche which may not be well understood by many adolescent girls. Providing accurate information on menstruation is necessary to reduce anxiety, menstrual morbidity and improve reproductive health of these adolescents. Objective: To determine ...

  3. Adolescence Behaviour Problems: How to Tackle or Prevent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V. Jurist Lionial

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development that occurs between child hood and adulthood. Adolescent period starts with puberty. The period during which the capability for sexual reproduction is attained; it is marked by changes in both primary and secondary sexual characteristics and is dated from menarche in…

  4. Are Menstrual Knowledge Outcome Scores Similar Among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-14

    Jun 14, 2017 ... The cultural and social influences appear to be hurdle for .... basis and female students who had attained menarche .... Muslim. 65. 19 (29.23). 84. 37 (44.05). 149. 56 (37.58). Sikh. 3 .... social media and school teachers.

  5. Age at menopause, reproductive life span, and type 2 diabetes risk results from the EPIC-interAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J.S.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Onland-Moret, N.; Sharp, S.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEAge at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk.RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  6. EDITORIAL Methodological Implications of Longitudinal Studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1Professor of Nutrition, Jimma University, E-mail: teferabelachew@gmail.com ... security, nutrition, reproductive health, mental ... performance. Results from JLFY showed that food insecurity is associated with higher school absenteeism and lower educational attainment. (5), delayed age at menarche (6) and inadequate.

  7. Becoming a Woman: Considerations in Educating Adolescents about Menstruation. Revised 1988. Working Paper No. 169.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Margaret L.; And Others

    This paper reports findings that have emerged from several studies conducted concerning young girls' and boys' attitudes toward menstruation. The research work discussed included: (1) cross-sectional data about menarcheal experience and about attitudes toward menstruation from early adolescent girls in grades six through nine; (2) cross-sectional…

  8. Knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls in an urban slum, Bijapur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udgiri, Rekha; Angadi, M M; Patil, Shailaja; Sorganvi, Vijaya

    2010-08-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period in woman's life. The adolescent girls of today are the mothers of tomorrow in whose hand lie the future of her family, community and the nation. Because of the scarcity of information regarding the problems of adolescent girls, particularly in urban areas, the present study was undertaken to elicit information about the knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. With this objective, a community-based cross-sectional study was done in an urban field practice area of BLDEA's Shri BM Patil Medical College, Bijapur. The study subjects included all adolescent girls who had attained menarche. Data was collected by questionnaire method and analysed. Out of 342 adolescent girls 324 (94.74%) were literate. Only 63 (18.42%) had knowledge about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche and this association was found to be statistically significant. The main source of information about menstruation was mother ie, 195 (57.01%). Nearly 81.58% adolescent girls were lacking knowledge about menstruation prior to menarche, this reflects upon the standard of awareness in the society to such important event and it also leads to negative reaction to menarche.

  9. Obstructed hemivagina with pyocolpos: An unusual presentation after delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. El-Agwany

    2016-06-01

    Case report: We describe a case of mullerian anomaly that was presented 9 years after menarche. Patient presented after delivery with offensive vaginal discharge and pelvic pressure 7 month after delivery without fever. She was diagnosed with bicornuate uterus, septate cervix along with obstructed hemivagina with pus collection and ipsilateral renal agenesis. She was successfully managed by transvaginal septum resection and drainage of pus.

  10. An Ethnography of the Navajo Reproductive Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Describes the reproductive cycle (menarche, menstrual cycle, fertility and contraceptive use, and menopause) as experienced by two groups of contemporary Navajo women. Eighty Navajo women, 40 traditional and 40 acculturated, participated in the 1978 research project which focused on influences of menopause. (ERB)

  11. Puberty and Physical Self-Perceptions of Competitive Female Figure Skaters II: Maturational Timing, Skating Context, and Ability Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, Eva V.

    2008-01-01

    One study of figure skaters found that menarcheal status was a stronger predictor than age in explaining the variance in their self-perceptions. Postmenarcheal skaters had significantly lower self-esteem and physical self-concept and were less satisfied with their appearance than premenarcheal skaters. Surprisingly, skating context (i.e., skating…

  12. Exploring the Causes of Change in Adolescent Girls' Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    several factors accounting for the changes in adolescent girls' sexual and reproductive behaviour. These factors ... women aged 25-49 as 18.8 years in the urban areas ... tend to experience a long gap between menarche ... The teachers teach us how to use condoms ..... adolescent girls to pay attention to their advice on.

  13. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... As her mother described, from the menarche age of 13, she had menstruated ... DNA FISH probes were used in our study to describe the structure of ... 57 cells with. 46,XX,del(18)(p11.2) and 43 cells with 46,XX,i(18q) in the.

  14. Comparative Effects of Circuit Training Programme on Speed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    the end of the training programme, 40 subjects completed the post training ... Speed is the rate of motion or velocity of the body or any of his part (Wilmore, 1977). ... Bulugbe (1991) reported improvement in running speed as a result of interval training. ..... The pre-menarcheal girls showed higher power performance than the ...

  15. [Analysis of characteristics and influence factors of diagnostic delay of endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X T; Guo, H Y; Kong, D L; Han, J S; Zhang, L F

    2018-02-25

    Objective: To access the influence factors of diagnostic delay of endometriosis. Methods: We designed a questionnaire of diagnostic delay of endometriosis. From February 2014 to February 2016, 400 patients who had dysmenorrhea and diagnosed with endometriosis by surgery in Peking University Third Hospital were surveyed retrospectively. Time and risk factors of diagnostic delay were analyzed. Results: The diagnostic delay of 400 patients was 13.0 years (0.2-43.0 years), 78.5%(314/400) patients thought pain was a normal phenomenon and didn't see the doctor. Patients who suffered dysmenorrhea at menarche experienced longer diagnostic delay than those who had dysmenorrhea after menarche (18.0 vs 4.5 years; Z= 191.800, Pendometriosis (DIE) , family history of dysmenorrhea or endometriosis, previous surgical history of endometriosis, high stage, with infertility, adenomyoma or other symptoms, could help to shorten diagnostic delay with no significant difference ( P> 0.05) . By multiple logistic regression analysis, the results shown that whether have dysmenorrhea at menarche and clinical diagnosis time were the independent factors affecting delayed diagnosis ( Pendometriosis is common and the mean delay time is 13.0 years mainly due to the unawareness of dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea at menarche, clinical diagnosis time and dysmenorrhea intensity are the factors affecting time of diagnostic delay.

  16. Menstruation during and after caloric restriction: the 1944-1945 Dutch famine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; van Noord, Paulus A H; Peeters, Petra H M; den Tonkelaar, Isolde; Kaaks, Rudolf; Grobbee, Diederick E

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the relation between exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch famine and concurrent and subsequent menstrual disturbances. Cohort study. Doorlopend Onderzoek Mammacarcinoom breast cancer screening project, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Between 1983 and 1986, approximately 12,500 women (born 1911-41) reported their individual famine experiences. Irregular menstruation during the famine; time to regular menses after menarche, and menstrual patterns in adulthood after childhood famine. The famine had a direct impact on menstruation. The odds ratio (OR) of concurrent irregular menses in severely versus unexposed women was 8.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.31-10.70). Women exposed to severe famine before menarche were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.15-1.98) times more likely to experience irregular menses for a prolonged time after menarche compared with the unexposed. This association was stronger in women with an early menarche. When the menstrual pattern was assessed in adulthood by menstrual diaries, a nonsignificant tendency of increased irregularity (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.82-1.54) and regular but long menstrual cycles (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.89-2.23) was observed in women exposed to severe famine. Famine relates to concurrent menstrual irregularity, and exposure in childhood seems to affect the subsequent menstrual pattern.

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Olusoji

    recommended by the World Health Organisation." Port Harcourt. .... Table 1: Stage of adolescence by age in the .... Laitinen J, Power C, Järvelin MR. Family, ... Preschool. Allied Sci 2005; 2:1-4. age at menarche and adolescent height: a. 17.

  18. HUBUNGAN KOMPOSISI TUBUH DAN STATUS GIZI DENGAN PERKEMBANGAN SEKSUAL PADA REMAJA PUTRI DI PERKOTAAN DAN PERDESAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Seasty Handayani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to analyzed the association of percent body fat and nutritional status on sexual development in adolescence girls in urban and rural areas. A cross sectional study involved 100 students of 8th grade junior high school. Age of menarche and breast growth used as sexual development indicators. Results showed that proportion of subjects with stunting and severe stunting was higher in rural area (34% than urban area (14%. Subjects in urban area had earlier age of menarche (18%. Breast growth of subjects in urban and rural areas were in midpuberty phase. Statistical analysis showed a correlation between nutritional status (BMI/U and percent body fat, nutritional status and sexual development, as well as percent body fat and sexual development (p<0.05.Keywords: age of menarche, breast growth, percent body fatABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis hubungan persen lemak tubuh dan status gizi dengan perkembangan seksual pada remaja putri di perkotaan dan perdesaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross sectional yang melibatkan 100 siswi kelas VIII SMP. Usia menarche dan pertumbuhan payudara digunakan sebagai indikator perkembangan seksual. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan proporsi subjek pendek dan sangat pendek lebih banyak terdapat di SMP desa (34% dibandingkan SMP kota (14%. Subjek di SMP kota mengalami menarche lebih awal (18%. Pertumbuhan payudara subjek di SMP kota maupun di SMP desa berada pada fase midpubertas. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan terdapat hubungan antara status gizi (IMT/U dengan persen lemak tubuh, status gizi dengan perkembangan seksual dan persen lemak tubuh dengan perkembangan seksual (p<0.05.Kata kunci: persen lemak tubuh, pertumbuhan payudara, usia menstruasi

  19. [A survey of pubertal development in children born with assisted reproductive technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Yuan; Wang, Xin-Li; Han, Tong-Yan; Cui, Yun-Pu; Wang, Xue-Mei; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Song, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Li, Song

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the status of pubertal development in children born with assisted reproductive technology (ART). A retrospective analysis was performed on the pubertal development data of children born with ART in Peking University Third Hospital from 1994 to 2003 (ART group). The data in the cross-sectional study "Reports on the Physical Fitness and Health Research of Chinese School Students in 2010" were used as a control. The age at menarche and the age at spermarche were compared between the two groups. The status of pubertal development in the overweight and obese children in the ART group was evaluated to investigate the correlation between pubertal development and body mass index (BMI). A total of 200 children born with ART were enrolled in this study, and 72 of them (41 males and 31 females) completed the survey (response rate=36.0%). In the ART group, the mean age at spermarche and the mean age at menarche were 13.9 years (95%CI: 13.7-14.3 years) and 12.2 years (95%CI: 11.8-12.6 years), respectively. There were no significant differences in the age at spermarche and the age at menarche between the ART and control groups (P>0.05). In the ART group, there were no significant differences in the age at spermarche and the age at menarche between the overweight and obese children and the normal weight children (P>0.05). There were also no significant differences in overweight rate and obesity rate between the children in the ART group and the adolescents in Beijing (P>0.05). In the ART group, there was no significant correlation between the age at spermarche or menarche and BMI (P>0.05). No delayed or precocious puberty is observed in children born with ART. This is consistent with the normal control data. And there is no significant correlation between pubertal development and BMI in children born with ART.

  20. Childhood psychosocial adversity and female reproductive timing: a cohort study of the ALSPAC mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Anderson, Emma L; Howe, Laura D; Joinson, Carol J; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Fraser, Abigail

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of childhood psychosocial adversity and age at menarche mostly evaluated single or a few measures of adversity, and therefore could not quantify total psychosocial adversity. Limited knowledge is currently available regarding childhood psychosocial adversity in relation to age at menopause and reproductive lifespan. We examined the associations of total and specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity with age at menarche (n=8984), age at menopause (n=945), and length of reproductive lifespan (n=841), in mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used confirmatory factor analysis to characterise lack of care, maladaptive family functioning, non-sexual abuse, overprotective parenting, parental mental illness and sexual abuse. These specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity were combined into a total psychosocial adversity score using a second-order factor analysis. We used structural equation models to simultaneously conduct the factor analysis and estimate the association with the continuous outcomes of interest. Total childhood psychosocial adversity was not associated with age at menarche, age at menopause or length of reproductive lifespan. When we examined the separate psychosocial adversity constructs, sexual abuse was inversely associated with age at menarche, with a mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.23 to -0.12) years per SD higher factor score, and with age at menopause, with a mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.18) per SD higher factor score. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with lower age at menarche and menopause, but the latter needs to be confirmed in larger samples. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Insulin resistance, obesity, hypofibrinolysis, hyperandrogenism, and coronary heart disease risk factors in 25 pre-perimenarchal girls age < or =14 years, 13 with precocious puberty, 23 with a first-degree relative with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Wang, Ping

    2008-10-01

    Pre-peri-menarchal diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is important, because intervention with metformin-diet may prevent progression to full blown PCOS. In 25 girls age PCOS, 10 pre-, 15 post-menarchal, 13 with precocious puberty, 23 with a first-degree relative with PCOS, we hypothesized that reversible coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, insulin resistance, clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism, and hypofibrinolysis were already established. Fasting measures: insulin, glucose, total, LDL- (LDL-C), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), plasminogen activator inhibitor activity (PAI-Fx), total (T) and free testosterone (FT), androstenedione, and DHEAS. Clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism was present in all 25 girls, with elevations of T or FT, or androstenedione in seven of ten pre-menarchal girls and in all 15 post-menarche. PAI-Fx was high in 28% of the 25 girls vs 6.5% in age-gender-race matched controls (p = 0.013). Categorized by race-age-specific distributions in 870 schoolgirls, the 25 girls with probable familial PCOS were more likely to have top decile body mass index (BMI), insulin, HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), SBP, DBP, and TG, and bottom decile HDL-C. By analysis of variance, adjusting for race, age and BMI, PCOS girls had higher FT and waist circumference than controls, but did not differ for SBP, DBP, HDL-C, or TG (p>0.05). Pre-peri-menarchal acquisition of centripetal obesity amplifies CHD risk factors and hypofibrinolysis in hyperandrogenemic girls with probable familial PCOS and precocious puberty. When schoolgirls become as obese as girls with probable familial PCOS, they acquire the same CHD risk factors, and differ only by lower free T and less centripetal obesity.

  2. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of adolescents with platelet function disorders and heavy menstrual bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amesse Lawrence S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet function disorders (PFDs have emerged as an important etiology of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB in adolescents. However, neither clinical nor laboratory data have been methodically analyzed in this population subset. The objective of this study was to evaluate these parameters in order to distinguish characteristics of the disorder that in turn will lead to earlier diagnosis and therapy initiation. Methods Retrospective review of medical records from postmenarcheal adolescents with documented PFDs referred to a hemophilia treatment center and university faculty practices for bleeding diatheses with their clinical and laboratory data evaluated. Results Of 63 teens with documented PFDs, HMB was the most common clinical manifestation of PFD (43; 68.3%. Of these, 37 (86% were diagnosed with PFD either at or after menarche with the diagnosis based on HMB symptoms alone. Only 6 (14% were diagnosed with a PFD prior to menarche, based on associated bleeding, i.e., epistaxis, ecchymosis, and all developed HMB after menstruation onset. Interestingly, 20 girls were diagnosed with a PFD prior to menarche and of these, only 6 (30% went on to develop HMB after pubertal transition, while the majority (14; 70% did not. The average age-at-PFD diagnosis was 14.5yrs, significantly differing from the 10.9yrs average age-at-PFD diagnosis in their counterparts that, after menarche, did not develop HMB (PP P Conclusions Adolescents with PFDs and HMB appear to be clinically distinct from their non-HMB counterparts. This group of girls is characterized by HMB the major bleeding symptom, significantly high incidences of blood group O and the δ-SPD with a PFD diagnosed well after menarche. High false negative standard platelet function study results indicate additional diagnostic strategies, particularly for δ-SPD, should be considered.

  3. Menstrual Patterns and Treatment of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Adolescents with Bleeding Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlut-McElroy, Tazim; Williams, Karen B; Carpenter, Shannon L; Strickland, Julie L

    2015-12-01

    To characterize menstrual bleeding patterns and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in adolescents with bleeding disorders. We conducted a retrospective review of female patients aged nine to 21 years with known bleeding disorders who attended a pediatric gynecology, hematology, and comprehensive hematology/gynecology clinic at a children's hospital in a metropolitan area. Prevalence of heavy menstrual bleeding at menarche, prolonged menses, and irregular menses among girls with bleeding disorders and patterns of initial and subsequent treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding in girls with bleeding disorders. Of 115 participants aged nine to 21 years with known bleeding disorders, 102 were included in the final analysis. Of the 69 postmenarcheal girls, almost half (32/69, 46.4%) noted heavy menstrual bleeding at menarche. Girls with von Willebrand disease were more likely to have menses lasting longer than seven days. Only 28% of girls had discussed a treatment plan for heavy menstrual bleeding before menarche. Hormonal therapy was most commonly used as initial treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. Half (53%) of the girls failed initial treatment. Combination (hormonal and non-hormonal therapy) was more frequently used for subsequent treatment. Adolescents with bleeding disorders are at risk of heavy bleeding at and after menarche. Consultation with a pediatric gynecologist and/or hematologist prior to menarche may be helpful to outline abnormal patterns of menstrual bleeding and to discuss options of treatment in the event of heavy menstrual bleeding. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reproductive factors and risks of biliary tract cancers and stones: a population-based study in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, G; Hou, L; Gao, Y-T; Brinton, L A; Rashid, A; Chen, J; Shen, M-C; Wang, B-S; Han, T-Q; Zhang, B-H; Sakoda, L C; Fraumeni, J F; Hsing, A W

    2010-01-01

    Background: Parity has been linked to gallbladder cancer and gallstones, but the effects of other reproductive factors are less clear. Methods: We examined 361 incident biliary tract cancer cases, 647 biliary stone cases, and 586 healthy women in a population-based study in Shanghai. Results: The effects of parity (odds ratios, OR⩾3 vs 1 child=2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7–5.1), younger age at first birth (ORper 1-year decrease=1.2, 95% CI 0.99–1.6), and older age at menarche (ORper 1-year increase=1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.8) on gallbladder cancer risk were more pronounced among women with stones, but the interactions were not significant. Conclusion: Our results provide support for high parity, younger age at first birth, and late age at menarche in the development of gallbladder cancer, particularly among women with biliary stones. PMID:20216539

  5. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Reproductive Health of Daughters in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 1988...... dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS), estradiol, and free estrogen index (FEI), compared to the middle BMI tertile. This was supported by a sub-analysis using the WHO classification (underweight, BMI obese, BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2) as exposure groups, in which daughters...... of overweight mothers had lower levels of DHEAS and estradiol, and lower FEI compared to daughters of normal weight mothers. No associations were found for ovarian follicle count in any of the groups. Conclusions for Practice We found that higher maternal BMI is associated with earlier age of menarche...

  6. Life history theory and dental development in four species of catarrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Wendy; Bowman, Jacqui E

    2007-09-01

    Dental development was reconstructed in several individuals representing four species of catarrhine primates--Symphalangus syndactylus, Hylobates lar, Semnopithecus entellus priam, and Papio hamadryas--using the techniques of dental histology. Bar charts assumed to represent species-typical dental development were constructed from these data and estimated ages at first and third molar emergence were plotted on them along with ages at weaning, menarche, and first reproduction from the literature. The estimated age at first molar emergence appears to occur at weaning in the siamang, lar gibbon, and langur, and just after weaning in the baboon. Age at menarche and first reproduction occur earlier relative to dental development in both cercopithecoids than in the hylobatids, suggesting that early reproduction may be a derived trait in cercopithecoids. The results are examined in the context of life history theory.

  7. Physical development and sexual orientation in men and women: an analysis of NATSAL-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, three physical development characteristics-weight, height, and age of menarche-were examined for their relation to sexual orientation. Participants were men and women comprising the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles-2000 (N > 11,000). Participants completed self-report measures of sexual orientation, height, weight, and, for women, age of menarche. Results indicated that gay/bisexual men were significantly shorter and lighter than heterosexual men. There were no significant differences between lesbians and heterosexual women in height, weight, and age of puberty. The results add to literature suggesting that, relative to heterosexual men, gay/bisexual men may have different patterns of growth and development because of early biological influences (e.g., exposure to atypical levels of androgens prenatally). However, the present results do not support a number of studies suggesting that lesbian/bisexual women are taller and heavier than heterosexual women.

  8. Cyclones, bi-cycles, and psychoanalysis: the witch-of-us? complex and The Wizard of Oz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Works of applied psychoanalysis normally use psychoanalytic theory to reveal the secret meanings of works of art. An attempt is made to reverse the directionality of such analyses and see whether a work of art, The Wizard of Oz, has something to teach psychoanalysis about adolescent female psychosexual development. The author argues that the popularity and importance of the film is an effect of its symbolic representation of a girl's entry into menarche, and the meaning of this milestone for herself and for her mother. He addresses ideas about feminine castration fears (or what more recently have been called fears of genital injury), issues about menopause, and fantasies--both surprising and violent--around the meanings of menarche for both mother and daughter.

  9. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and female reproductive function in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Ernst, Erik

    2016-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects on female reproduction following intrauterine exposure to selected biopersistent organochlorines. METHODS: We used data from a Danish pregnancy cohort with follow-up on 436 eligible daughters at approximately 20years of age. Information on age of menarche (n=335), menstrual...... cycle length (n=230) and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones (n=243) was obtained. Number of antral follicles was counted by vaginal ultrasound (n=147). Of 244 daughters who attended clinical examination, 170 used hormonal contraceptives and 74 were non-users. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB...... and six PCB congeners were analysed in maternal serum samples obtained in pregnancy week 30. RESULTS: Age of menarche and menstrual cycle length were found not to be statistically significant associated with prenatal organochlorine exposure. Among non-users of hormonal contraceptives with information...

  10. Pubertal timing and substance use: associations between and within families across late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, D M; Rose, R J; Viken, R J; Kaprio, J

    2000-03-01

    In the present study, between-family analyses of data from adolescent twin girls offer new evidence that early menarche is associated with earlier initiation and greater frequency of smoking and drinking. The role of personality factors and peer relationships in that association was investigated, and little support was found for their involvement. Novel within-family analyses replicating associations of substance use with pubertal timing in contrasts of twin sisters selected for extreme discordance for age at menarche are reported. Within-family replications demonstrated that the association of pubertal timing with substance use cannot be explained solely by between-family confounds. Within-family analyses demonstrated contextual modulation of the influence of pubertal timing: Its impact on drinking frequency is apparent only among girls in urban settings. Sibling comparisons illustrate a promising analytic tool for studying diverse developmental outcomes.

  11. Analisa Faktor Risiko Dismenore Primer Pada Remaja

    OpenAIRE

    Prahatama, Apriza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dysmenorrhea is symptom of menstrual pain or discomfort at the lower abdomen. The pain sometimes can interfere daily activities. Dysmenorrhea is the most common complaint causing the young woman to seek medication. Many risk factors can increase the chances of developing dysmenorrhea such as, BMI, family history of dysmenorrhea, and age of menarche. Therefore, author is interested in analyzing the influence of risk factors in causing dysmenorrhea. Objective: To...

  12. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls

    OpenAIRE

    MoolRaj Kural; Naziya Nagori Noor; Deepa Pandit; Tulika Joshi; Anjali Patil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition with painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea is not yet clearly studied in central India. Objective: To study prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young girls and to evaluate associated clinical markers of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data was collected among 310 girls (18?25 years) on age at menarche, presence and absence of dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea durat...

  13. Risk factors for adenomyosis, leiomyoma and concurrent adenomyosis and leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Ali İrfan; Akselim, Burak; Erkılınç, Selçuk; Kokanalı, Kuntay; Tokmak, Aytekin; Dolmuş, Başar; Doğanay, Melike

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the risk factors for adenomyosis, leiomyoma and concomitant adenomyosis and leiomyoma in patients with treatment-resistant menometrorrhagia. A retrospective study was conducted on 129 women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy for treatment-resistant menometrorrhagia. The patients were divided into four groups according to the postoperative histopathology: concomitant adenomyosis and leiomyoma (n = 33), adenomyosis only (n = 26), leiomyoma only (n = 48) and controls (n = 22). Patients without any organic uterine pathology constituted the control group. Age at menarche was higher in the concomitant adenomyosis and leiomyoma group compared to the adenomyosis only group (P = 0.006). The mean age (P = 0.007), age at menarche (P = 0.001) and gravidity (P = 0.001) were higher in the concomitant adenomyosis and leiomyoma group compared to the leiomyoma only group. Preoperative hemoglobin was lower in the concomitant adenomyosis and leiomyoma, adenomyosis only, and leiomyoma only groups than the control group (P leiomyoma only, and concomitant adenomyosis and leiomyoma, from the control group. Patients in the adenomyosis group were older (OR, 1.20; 95%CI: 1.05-1.50) and had a lower age at menarche (OR, 0.42; 95%CI: 0.19-0.89) than the other groups. Preoperative anemia may be a useful predictor of adenomyosis. Older patients, and patients who had a lower age at menarche, were also more likely to have adenomyosis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Secular trends: 10 and 20-year comparisons of sexual maturation among students. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n6p680

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mateus Farias

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the secular trends of sexual matu­ration of students between 11 and 15 years old, during a period of 10 and 20 years. The sample was composed by 1,002 students aged between 11 and 15 years; 536 boys (12.6±1.3 years old and 466 girls (12.5±1.2 years old who took part in the Ilhabela Mixed-Longitudinal Project on Growth, Development, and Physical Fitness. The students’ assessment period occurred in 1990/91 (initial, 2000/01 (10 years later, and 2009/10 (20 years later. Sexual maturation was analyzed according to the self-assessment method and age at menarche (month and year was collected retrospectively. The statistical analysis used was: one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s post-hoc test. The level of significance was p<0.01. The onset of menarche in the initial analysis was at: 12.5±1.2 years old; in the 2000/01 group: 12.3±1.0 years old (Δ=-1.6%, and in the 2009/10 group: 12.2±1.0 years old (Δ=-2.4%. Although there was a tendency towards reduction in age at menarche along the periods in­vestigated, differences were not significant. There were significant differences only in genitals (G4, and pubic hair (P3 in boys after 10 and 20 years. In the same period, it did not occur any significant difference in maturational stages for girls. In conclusion, there was no secular trend of secondary sexual characteristics in boys (genital and pubic hair and girls (breast and pubic hair and in age at menarche over 10 and 20 years.

  15. Reproductive Late Effects in Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gnaneswaran, Shivany; Deans, Rebecca; Cohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer treatments can cause female reproductive late effects. Radiation to the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is associated with altered menarche, miscarriage, and implantation failure. Patients who receive chemotherapy and/or ovarian radiation are at risk of premature ovarian failure; the risk increases with increasing radiation dose, alkylating agent score, combination therapy, and older age at treatment. Ovarian reserve may be assessed using antimullerian hormone assay and u...

  16. Menstrual Cycle and the Prevalence of Premenstrual Syndrome/Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska, Mariola; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Gałązka, Iwona; Naworska, Beata; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the menstrual cycle, menstrual disorders and premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD) in girls and young women participating in competitive sports. The impact of PMS/PMDD symptoms on the quality of life was also analyzed. The prospective study encompassed 125 girls and young women with the aim to determine the presence of menstrual disorders and the prevalence of PMS/PMDD. The studied group was composed of 75 female athletes aged 16 to 22 years. The control group included 50 healthy girls and young women who did not practice competitive sports. The studied athletes and the controls prospectively evaluated their 2 consecutive menstrual cycles by using a questionnaire. The research tools were a purpose-built questionnaire, a daily log of PMS symptoms according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' guidelines, and a daily log of PMDD symptoms based on the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnostic criteria. To determine the impact of competitive sports on the menstrual cycle, menstrual disorders, and the prevalence of PMS/PMDD in girls and young women. Intensive physical exercise delayed menarche. PMDD was diagnosed in 8% and PMS in 42.4% of all respondents. The prevalence of PMDD did not differ significantly between the groups (9.33% versus 6.00%). PMS was significantly more frequent among athletes than among controls (49.33% versus 32%, P = .045). The prevalence of PMS correlated significantly with mean age (P = .00001) and age at menarche (P = .03) in athletes. PMS was more frequent in older athletes and in girls with older age at menarche. Competitive sports, older mean age, older age at menarche, length of sporting career, and intensity of training are conducive to PMS. The prevalence of PMS increases with the duration and intensification of competitive exercises. Copyright © 2015 North American Society

  17. Interrelationships of Hormones, Diet, Body Size and Breast Cancer among Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    susceptible, gain excess weight due to physical inactivity, and consume a high-fat, low-fiber diet during adolescence and adulthood. It is clear...status, and use of oral contraceptives , as well as physical activity levels. In summary, the findings of our study that serum leptin concentrations were...history of breast cancer, age at menarche, menopausal status, age at menopause, parity, age at first live birth, BMI, use of oral contraceptives , use of

  18. Design, Utility, and History of the Colorado Adoption Project: Examples Involving Adjustment Interactions1

    OpenAIRE

    Rhea, Sally Ann; Bricker, Josh B.; Corley, Robin P.; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal study in behavioral development, and discusses how adoption studies may be used to assess genetic and environmental etiologies of individual differences for important developmental outcomes. Previous CAP research on adjustment outcomes in childhood and adolescence which found significant interactions, including gene-environment interactions, is reviewed. New research suggests mediating effects of menarche and religiosity...

  19. PSYCHOSEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE UNIVERSITY-STUDENTS IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    LEITE, RMC; BUONCOMPAGNO, EM; LEITE, ACC; MERGULHAO, EA; BATTISTONI, MMM

    1994-01-01

    Freshmen women (N = 240) at the State University of Campinas (UNI-CAMP) in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil responded to a questionnaire concerning several aspects of their sexuality from the beginning of adolescence. Topics such as body changes during puberty, menarche, menstruation, masturbation, sexual identity, virginity, sexual relations, maternity, contraceptives, abortion, and attitudes toward AIDS were investigated, as well as the level and sources of information about sex and the quali...

  20. A study on the menstruation of Korean adolescent girls in Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chul Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Westernized eating habits have been associated with earlyage menstruation, which increases the incidence of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girls. We therefore surveyed changes in menarche timing and the general menstrual characteristics of adolescent girls in Seoul, Korea. Methods : We surveyed 538 teenage girls who visited our hospital between July and November 2007. Items explored included age at menarche, general menstrual characteristics, occurrence of premenstrual syndrome and treatment thereof, and an association between present dysmenorrhea and a family history of the condition. Results : Average age at menarche was 12.6 years, with 29% (n=156 subjects beginning menstruation at age 12 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 82% (n=435. The main symptoms were abdominal (53.2% and lower back pain (34.2%, and 15.2% of girls who experienced such symptoms required medication. Present dysmenorrhea, and a family history thereof, were statistically correlated (P&lt;0.05. In addition, 58.8% (n=316 of teenage girls had symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. The most frequent psychological symptoms were fatigue (36.4% and nervousness (38.7%, whereas the most common physical symptom was menstrual cramps (46.5%. Most subjects (87.6% tolerated the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome without medication; 11.4% took medicines including painkillers; but only 0.1% of subjects visited a doctor. Conclusion : The average age at menarche in Korean girls was 12.6 years, thus younger than in the past. Most teenage girls experienced dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome, but few consulted a doctor. Organized treatment plans are required to manage menstrual problems in teenage girls.

  1. Department of Clinical Investigation, Annual Research Progress Report Fiscal Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    differences in the prevalence of amenorrhea , late menarche, parity, gynecologic age, smoking history, above or below normal weight, and exercise ...81(9): 1193-95, 1988 Kollef MH, Irvine T, Nonbacterial Thrombotic Endo- Cragun WH carditis Associated With Gold- Induced Pulmonary Disease. Ann Int Med...Coronary Artery Revascular- ization with the Internal Mammary Artery. Chest 94(1): 68-71, 1988 Kollef MH, Witte MC Pacing Wire- Induced Recurrent

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 408 ... H. E. Slater, O.C.A. Okoye, O. Okperi, N. Rajora. Vol 15, No 1 (2016), Acute pancreatic pseudocyst in an 18-month old girl in a resource limited centre, Abstract. OE Udefiagbon, C Odion, J Akerele. Vol 7, No 1-2 (2008), Age At Menarche Of School Girls In Urban Benin City, Abstract. MI Momoh, C Okonkwo.

  3. Pattern of teen menstruation among secondary school girls in south east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Ada R C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Ubesie, Agozie C; Onukwuli, Vivian I; Manyike, Pius C

    2016-03-01

    Menstruation in the teenage age has assumed variable trends which is been influenced by several variables. This study is aimed at determining the pattern and trend of menstruation among teens attending secondary school in south east Nigeria and associated factors. Menstruation patterns were investigated using a stratified random sampling method of teens from junior secondary schools in Enugu, south east Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and data analyzed using SPSS version 19. A total of 897 female teenagers aged 9-18 years completed the questionnaire with a mean age of 13.9±1.9 years. The mean age (SD) at onset of menarche was 12.5±1.2 years. Teenage girls with higher BMI achieved menarche earlier at age 8 and 9 when compared with their counterparts with lower BMI and this is statistically significant. F=7.60, df=8, p<0.001. Teens with a 14-day cycle had a higher BMI when compared with teens with longer cycle but this is not statistically significant. F=1.05, df=4, p=0.381. There is a statistical significance difference between teens duration of menstrual flow and BMI. Those with higher BMI had longer duration(4-5 days) compared with those with lower BMI. F=3.329, df=4, p=0.01 CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the mean age at onset of menarche was 12.5±1.2 years showing a continuing decreasing trend. Teens with higher BMI attain menarche earlier and had longer days of periods when compared with their counterpart with lower BMI.

  4. A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES REGARDING MENSTRUAL PATTERN IN ADOLESCENT GIRL

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    Preeti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a transitional period during which a child matures into an adult. Menstrual related problem contribute to school absenteeism. beliefs, concepts, hygiene , and knowledge attitude about menstruation is objectively analysed and found that menarche was attained by 70% girls at 12 - 13 years and the mother helped the girls with information , 76% used the old clothes and reused them . 10% of the girls had school absenteeism. There is a need for imparting knowledge by including in the school curriculum.

  5. Menstrual disorders among Zagazig University Students, Zagazig, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Nooh

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study are comparable to those in other parts of the world. Adolescents should be encouraged to chart their menstrual periods from menarche onwards in order to focus their attention on when and how to seek medical advice. Health education on menstrual disorders targeting adolescents and including education on reproductive health in the school/university curriculum may assist in early detection of these disorders.

  6. Father absence and reproduction-related outcomes in Malaysia, a transitional fertility population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paula; Snopkowski, Kristin; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Father absence is consistently associated with children's reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (n = 567), we tested the effect of father absence on daughters' age at menarche, first marriage, and first birth; parity progression rates; and desired completed family size in Malaysia, a country undergoing an economic and fertility transition. Father absence during later childhood (ages 8 to 15), although not during earlier childhood, was associated with earlier progressions to first marriage and first birth, after controlling for other confounders. Father absence does not affect age at menarche, desired family size, or progression from first to second birth. The patterns found in this transitional population partly mirror those in developed societies, where father absence accelerates reproductive events. There is, however, a notable contrast between the acceleration in menarche for father-absent girls consistently found in developed societies and the lack of any association in our findings. The mechanisms through which father absence affects reproduction may differ in different ecological contexts. In lower-income contexts, direct paternal investment or influence may be of more importance in determining reproductive behavior than whether fathers act as a cue to environmental conditions.

  7. Pubertal development in children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1 before puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, K C X; Pugliese, B S; Guimarães, M M; Gama, M P

    2015-02-01

    To investigate an association between pubertal development and timing of menarche with glycemic control, disease duration, and body mass index (BMI) in patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) before puberty. Retrospective study. The study was performed at the diabetes outpatient clinic of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira--IPPMG of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro--UFRJ. A total of 131 children, 61 girls and 70 boys, diagnosed with DM1 before puberty participated in the study. The study investigated how age at puberty onset relates to mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) before puberty, BMI percentile, and disease duration; how puberty duration relates to mean HbA1c before and during puberty and to disease duration; and how timing of menarche relates to mean HbA1c before puberty, BMI percentile, and disease duration. Age at puberty onset was positively correlated with mean HbA1c before puberty (r = 0.204, R(2) = 0.042; P = .019) and disease duration (r = 0.451, R(2) = 0.203; P puberty later than those diagnosed more recently. Girls in higher BMI percentiles reached menarche sooner.

  8. Cultural and social practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Kamiya

    2011-01-01

    The study attempts to find out the existing social and cultural practices regarding menstruation, awareness levels, and the behavioral changes that come about in adolescent girls during menstruation, their perception about menarche, how do they treat it, and the various taboos, norms, and cultural practices associated with menarche. The study was conducted on 117 adolescent girls (age 11-20 years) and 41 mothers from various communities and classes in Ranchi comprising residential colonies and urban slums. The findings unfolds many practices: cultural and social restrictions associated with menstruation, myth, and misconception; the adaptability of the adolescent girls toward it; their reaction, reaction of the family; realization of the importance of menstruation; and the changes that have come in their life after menarche and their resistance to such changes. The article also suggests the strategies to improve menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent girls. The study concludes that cultural and social practices regarding menstruation depend on girls' education, attitude, family environment, culture, and belief.

  9. A review of the risk factors for lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers.

  10. Human reproduction functions: Evaluation with radiobioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hassan, N.D.

    1983-01-01

    Many studies reveal that the ovary is capable of responding to an adequate gonadotropic stimulus long before menarche. Similarly, the pituitary is capable of producing gonadotropins in response to an adequate hypothalamic signal before menarche. Recent studies in the primate confirm that the hypothalamus signals are temporarily different before menarche as compared to the reproductive years, so that if the luteotropic hormone (LRH) stimulus is pulsed to the pituitary at the required time sequence, the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as ovulation can be achieved even in the immature monkey. HPL is another hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast that is also used to identify pregnancies at a higher risk of fetal demise. It shares structural similarities with the human growth hormone (hGH) and PRL. HPL is diabetogenic. Its effect is mediated through glucose metabolism. Circulating HPL is elevated during multiple gestations. Its circulating levels in fact correlate with the fetoplacental mass. It has a short half-life and the larger the fetoplacental mass, the higher the HPL level. Hyperglycemic states are associated with a decrease in HPL levels, and hypoglycemia is associated with elevated levels of HPL. RIA through the measurement of HPL has helped in the management of the high-risk fetus and its mother. Through RIA other fetoplacental hormones are identifiable and their levels are obtainable. There is a human chorionic ACTH, a human chorionic TSH, and a human chorionic PRL. These can be involved in health and disease

  11. Gonadal dysfunction in morbidly obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Vivian; Censani, Marisa; Lerner, Shulamit; Conroy, Rushika; Oberfield, Sharon; McMahon, Donald; Zitsman, Jeffrey; Fennoy, Ilene

    2014-04-01

    To describe gonadal dysfunction and evaluate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MeS) among girls in a morbidly obese adolescent population. In a cross-sectional study of 174 girls, height, weight, waist circumference, Tanner stage, reproductive hormones, carbohydrate and lipid markers, drug use, and menstrual history were obtained at baseline. Exclusion criteria were menarcheal age PCOS or MeS classification. University medical center outpatient clinic. Ninety-eight girls ages 13-19.6 years, Tanner 5, average body mass index of 46.6 kg/m(2), menarche at 11.4 years, and average menarcheal age of 5 years. None. Polycystic ovary syndrome and MeS. Ninety-eight girls were divided into four groups: PCOS by National Institutes of Health criteria (PCOSN, n = 24), irregular menses only (n = 25), elevated T (≥55 ng/dL) only (n = 6), and obese controls (n = 43). Metabolic syndrome by modified Cook criteria affected 32 girls or 33% overall: 6 of 24 PCOSN, 7 of 25 irregular menses only, 4 of 6 elevated T only, and 15 of 43 obese controls. Polycystic ovary syndrome by National Institutes of Health criteria and its individual components were not associated with MeS after adjusting for body mass index. Unlike obese adults, PCOSN and its individual components were not associated with MeS in the untreated morbidly obese adolescent population. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A STUDY ON MENSTRUAL HEALTH IN SCHOOL GOING ADOLESCENT GIRLS FROM SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinitra Dayalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The major Problems occurring during the adolescent period is related to menstrual cycle. Data regarding the burden of menstrual disturbances in school going children of South India is lacking. Assessing the burden in such children may aid in revealing the current state of menstrual health and hence aiding the policy makes to take appropriate measures. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of menstrual disturbances in school going adolescent girls of South India. The primary aim of this study is to assess the burden of menstrual disorders in school going adolescent girls. The secondary objective were to assess individual menstrual disturbance in the study group and to assess the various factors influencing the menstrual health. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in two government girl’s higher secondary school in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. After receiving approval, a structured questionnaire in the regional language (Tamil was distributed to the school going children between the age of 10 and 19 years. Demographic data and details regarding menstrual health were collected. Frequency of medical assistance and school absenteeism were also analysed in patients with dysmenorrhea. Data were analysed using the SPSS 13.0.1. RESULTS Data of 340 girls who have attained menarche and who have completed the questionnaire was analysed. The median age of menarche in the study group was 13 years. (IQR; 12, 14 and 13.2% attained early menarche(before12 years. There was a higher prevalence of menstrual disturbances; (46.2% with polymenorrhea and (12% with oligomenorrhea. there was a significantly higher usage of sanitary pads in our study population in our study group (98%. In addition, (41.5% had premenstrual symptoms and (36.8% had dysmenorrhea. With a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea (n=125, 35 had school absenteeism. But, only 8/35 consulted a physician and took treatment. Five of these patients were told to have

  13. [Survey on menopausal age and menstruation span in women in Pudong district of Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Feng, You-ji; Shu, Hui-min; Lu, Tian-mei; Zhu, Hong-mei; Yang, Bin-lie; Xiong, Miao

    2010-06-01

    To investigate natural spontaneous menopausal age, menstruation span and their relationship with menarche age and parity in Pudong district of Shanghai. From Jan 2007 to Jul 2008, 15 083 spontaneous menopause women undergoing cervical cancer screening were enrolled in this study. The questionnaire included menarche age, parity, spontaneous menopausal age and menstruation span. Those women were divided into four groups based on age, which were group of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing difference between menopausal age and menstruation span. Multiple factor regressions was used to analyze the relationship between menarche age, parity and menopausal age and menstruation span. (1) Spontaneous menopausal age: the minimum was 29 years old, the maximum was 61 years old, and the mean age was (50.6 ± 3.7) years old. The mean spontaneous menopause age were (50.9 ± 3.4), (50.7 ± 3.7), (50.0 ± 4.1), (49.6 ± 4.0) years in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menopausal age were observed, which the difference of 1.36 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (2) Menstruation span: the mean of menstruation span was (34.3 ± 4.1) years, which the minimal age of 12 years and maximal age of 48 years were recorded. (34.6 ± 3.8), (34.3 ± 4.1), (33.9 ± 4.6), (33.2 ± 4.5) were observed in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menstruation span were observed, which the difference of 1.41 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (3) The impact of menarche age on menopausal age and menstruation span: there was no correlation between menarche age and menopausal age (r = 0.02); however, menstruation span was found to be negatively correlated with the menarche age (r = -0.43). (4) The impact

  14. Knowledge and practices related to reproductive health amongst adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree S Gothankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess knowledge and practices related to menstruation and reproductive health amongst college going adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study done on 323 adolescent girls admitted in the year 2012 to professional colleges belonging to the health sciences faculty of a private university in Pune, India, using self-administered proforma. Results: Mean age of onset of menarche was 13.35 years. Many girls (86.65% had knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. For 68% of girls, mother was a source of menstrual information. Half of the girls reported some form of restriction in activities during menstruation due to religious reasons. 11% girls suffered from some form of reproductive tract infections (RTIs. Practices related to menstruation revealed that cloth piece is used for menstrual protection by 3% of girls. Soaked sanitary pads were disposed sanitarily by 96% of girls. Adolescent of medical faculty had significantly more knowledge than nursing faculty adolescents regarding emergency contraceptives (P < 0.05. Only four girls reported a history of sexual contact, of these, three were aware of emergency contraceptives, while one used them to prevent pregnancy. Conclusions: Adolescent girls received knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche from their mothers. Restriction in activity during menstruation due to religious reasons is practiced by many girls. Sanitary pad was used by almost all girls, and all disposed the same in a sanitary manner. More than half of the girls were aware about emergency contraceptives. Prevalence of RTI was found to be low and very few girls reported history of sexual exposure.

  15. KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES ABOUT MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Verma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Issues related to menstruation and its practices are still foggy due to taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining uninformed of the technical facts and hygienic practices to keep good health that is why sometimes it results in to adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To find out the age of menarche.(ii To elicit the beliefs, perception and source of information regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 120 adolescent girls of a higher secondary school situated in Varanasi District. Information was obtained with the help of a predesigned and pretested questionnaire in a local language. Results: About half of the girls (58.3% were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. The mean age of menarche was found to be 12.98yrs (+0.77.The most common menstrual pattern was 30/3 days. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of (41.66% of girls. Most of the girls (85.8% believed it as a physiological process. Regarding practices, only 61(50.8% girls informed about the use of sanitary pads during menstruation. Most of the girls 59 (49.16% used old plain cloth as menstrual absorbent. About (82.5% girls practiced different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusion: Menstrual hygiene is still a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections and it is a vital component of the health education to the adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/ health personnel, motivated school teachers, and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the critical messages of correct practices about menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girls of today.

  16. Enhancing the ED Approach to Pediatric Sexual Assault Care: Implementation of a Pediatric SART Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, MK; Mollen, CJ; Hayes, KL; Molnar, J; Christian, CW; Scribano, PV; Lavelle, J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the experience of a novel pediatric Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) program in the first three years of implementation, and compare patient characteristics, evaluation, and treatment among subpopulations of patients. Methods Retrospective chart review of a consecutive sample of patients evaluated at a pediatric ED who met institutional criteria for a SART evaluation. Associations of evaluation and treatment with gender, menarchal status, and presence of injuries were measured using logistic regression. Results One hundred and eighty-four patients met criteria for SART evaluation, of whom 87.5% were female; mean age was 10.1 years (+/− 4.6 years). The majority of patients underwent forensic evidence collection (89.1%), which varied by menarchal status among females (p<0.01), but not by gender. Evidence of acute anogenital injury on physical exam was found in 20.6% of patients. As per the Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for acute sexual assault evaluations in pediatric patients, menarchal females were more likely to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pregnancy (p<0.01) and to be offered pregnancy, STI, and HIV prophylaxis (p<0.01). Conclusions In an effort to improve quality and consistency of acute sexual assault examinations in a pediatric ED, development of a SART program supported the majority of eligible patients undergoing forensic evidence collection. Furthermore, a substantial number of patients had evidence of injury on exam. These findings underscore the importance of having properly trained personnel to support ED care for pediatric victims of acute sexual assault. PMID:23974714

  17. Enhancing the emergency department approach to pediatric sexual assault care: implementation of a pediatric sexual assault response team program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Monika K; Mollen, Cynthia J; Hayes, Katie L; Molnar, Jennifer; Christian, Cindy W; Scribano, Philip V; Lavelle, Jane

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the experience of a novel pediatric sexual assault response team (SART) program in the first 3 years of implementation and compare patient characteristics, evaluation, and treatment among subpopulations of patients. This was a retrospective chart review of a consecutive sample of patients evaluated at a pediatric emergency department (ED) who met institutional criteria for a SART evaluation. Associations of evaluation and treatment with sex, menarchal status, and presence of injuries were measured using logistic regression. One hundred eighty-four patients met criteria for SART evaluation, of whom 87.5% were female; mean age was 10.1 (SD, 4.6) years. The majority of patients underwent forensic evidence collection (89.1%), which varied by menarchal status among girls (P < 0.01), but not by sex. Evidence of acute anogenital injury on physical examination was found in 20.6% of patients. As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for acute sexual assault evaluations in pediatric patients, menarchal girls were more likely to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy (P < 0.01) and to be offered pregnancy, sexually transmitted infection, and HIV prophylaxis (P < 0.01). In an effort to improve quality and consistency of acute sexual assault examinations in a pediatric ED, development of a SART program supported the majority of eligible patients undergoing forensic evidence collection. Furthermore, a substantial number of patients had evidence of injury on examination. These findings underscore the importance of having properly trained personnel to support ED care for pediatric victims of acute sexual assault.

  18. Menstrual management in developmentally delayed adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Irene; McRae, Alexandra; Matthews, Kim; Maguire, Ann M; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2017-06-01

    Requests for assistance in menstrual management and menstrual suppression are a common, emotive and sometimes controversial aspect of adolescent disability care. To review the uptake and outcomes of menstrual suppression among adolescent patients with developmental delay. A retrospective review of the medical records of adolescent females with intellectual disability referred for menstrual management to the Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, for the three-year period between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2013. Eighty adolescent patients with developmental delay were identified. A third (n = 28) of the patients were pre-menarcheal at first review with parent/caregivers seeking anticipatory advice. Of the post-menarcheal patients, the median age of menarche was 12 years (range 10-15 years). First and second line interventions were documented as were reasons for change where applicable. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) was the most frequently used therapy (67%), and 19 patients in total had a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) inserted (31%). Our study population differs from similar previously published groups in the marked absence of the use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or the subdermal etonogestrel releasing device. As a paediatrician, it is important to address menstrual management issues and allay caregiver concerns with appropriate advice. Our study supports the use of the COCP as sound first line management in achieving menstrual suppression. The LNG-IUS appears to be a favourable second line option. Further investigation into longer-term outcomes and potential complications of device insertion is recommended. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea: urban-rural and multiethnic differences in perception, impacts, and treatment seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-10-01

    Attitudes toward menarche and menstruation are largely influenced by sociological, cultural, and family environmental factors. Recognizing the influential effects that these factors might have on shaping adolescents' attitudes is crucial in designing a more effective means of transmitting health information. This study aimed to gather an in-depth understanding of perceptions, impacts, and treatment seeking on menstruation-related issues from an ethnically mixed group of rural and urban girls. In total, 27 focus group discussions (172 participants) were conducted between November 2008 and April 2009. Participants were adolescent girls aged 13-19 years, recruited from 7 public secondary schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and 4 public secondary schools from the rural districts of Kelantan, in Malaysia. Many participants revealed that they were not given or had not received detailed information about the mechanism or physiology of menstruation prior to its onset. Thus, many described the onset of menarche as shocking, an event for which they were unprepared, and which has had a tremendous impact on their emotions. More positive acceptance of menarche was reported in the urban than with the rural groups. Despite the high prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea, participants across urban-rural and ethnic groups perceived the problems as completely normal, hence they relied on self-care methods and did not want to seek professional treatment. More rural girls compared to urban girls were embarrassed to talk to their mothers or consult their physicians regarding menstruation-related problems. Menstruation-related education would have a positive impact in improving adolescent girls' knowledge and in nurturing a positive attitude toward menstruation-related matters at home, at school, and in the community. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Are Elite Female Soccer Athletes at Risk for Disordered Eating Attitudes, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Stress Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; McKeon, Kathryn; Simpson, Scott; Meyer, E Blair; Yemm, Ted; Brophy, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating attitudes in elite female soccer athletes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Female soccer athletes were recruited from a national level youth soccer club, an NCAA Division I university team, and a women's professional team. Two hundred twenty female soccer athletes with a mean age of 16.4 ± 4 years and BMI of 20.8 ± 2 kg/m(2) completed the study, representing all athletes from the included teams. One-time surveys completed by the athletes. Height and weight were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each athlete. Athletes reported age of menarche, history of missing 3 or more menses within a 12-month period and stress fracture. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess the athlete's body perception and attitudes toward eating. Of the 220 soccer athletes, 3 athletes (1.6%) had a low BMI for their age, and 19 (8.6%) reported stress fractures of the lower extremity. Among athletes who had reached menarche, the average onset was 13 + 1 year; menstrual dysfunction were present in 21 (19.3%). On the EAT-26, 1 player scored in the high risk range (>20) and 17 (7.7%) scored in the intermediate risk range (10-19) for eating disorders. Athletes with an EAT-26 score ≥ 10 points had a significantly higher prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the past year compared to athletes with an EAT-26 score of less than 10 (P = .02). Elite female soccer athletes are susceptible to stress fractures and menstrual dysfunction and have delayed onset of menarche despite normal BMI and appropriate body perception and attitudes towards eating. Further studies are needed to better understand stress fracture risk in female soccer athletes and in other team sports to determine how these findings relate to long-term bone health in this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the teacher's role in sexuality education in public schools in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Dairo, Magbagbeola D; Amusan, Oluwatoyin A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitude, and perception of teachers of their role in the sexuality education of secondary school students with a viewto suggesting strategies for improvement. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Information was collected from 305 secondary school teachers selected by multi-stage random sampling method from Osun state, Nigeria using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Median age of respondents was 36 +/- 8.18 years. Male/female ratio was 1:1.2. Knowledge about key reproductive issues was poor and inadequate. Knowledge of more than one contraceptive method was low (39.0%), Condom was the most frequently mentioned (59.3%). The teachers exhibited poor perception of their role in sexuality education of their students. 52.8% placed the sole responsibility for sexuality education on parents and only 20.7% found that it should start before age 10 years. Mean menarcheal age was 13.1 +/- 1.7 y. A statistically significant association was found between respondents' gender and knowledge of menarcheal age (p = .03); and between class taught and knowledge of menarcheal age (p = .003). 86.90% had positive attitude towards inclusion of sexuality education in the school curriculum; however, 43.6% felt that contraceptive methods should not be part of the course content. An urgent need exists for education and re-orientation of teachers through seminars and workshops, in-service training education program to equip them properly for the task. Policy makers need to formulate a definite, explicit, and workable sexuality education policy.

  2. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (pmenopause, those with early menopause (agemenopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  3. Age at menopause, reproductive history, and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, Joann E

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to investigate venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized hormone therapy (HT) assignment, among postmenopausal women. Using pooled data from the Women's Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who had no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazards models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships, and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. During follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 non-procedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected, and there was not a significant association between VTE and age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy, or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to non-procedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (P menopause, those who had early menopause (age menopause (age >55 y) had a significantly increased VTE risk (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.8 [1.2-2.7] and 1.5 [1.0-2.4], respectively). Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for non-procedure-related VTE.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in adolescent ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Brooke; Fary, Robyn; Hopper, Diana

    2014-09-01

    To determine any differences between the prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in ballet dancers who are girls compared with age-matched nondancers, and to establish if any relations exist between the presence of scoliosis and generalized joint hypermobility, age of menarche, body mass index (BMI), and the number of hours of dance training per week. Cross-sectional, matched pair study. Dance school. Dancers (n=30) between the ages of 9 and 16 years were recruited from a certified dance school in Western Australia; each dancer provided a consenting age-matched nondancer (n=30). Not applicable. Measurements were taken for angle of trunk rotation using a scoliometer (presence of scoliosis) and for height and weight to produce generalized joint hypermobility using Beighton criteria and an age-adjusted BMI, respectively. A subjective questionnaire regarding age of menarche and participation in dance and other sports was completed. Thirty percent of dancers tested positive for scoliosis compared with 3% of nondancers. Odds ratio calculations suggest that dancers were 12.4 times more likely to have scoliosis than nondancers of the same age. There was a higher rate of hypermobility in the dancer group (70%) compared with the nondancers (3%); however, there were no statistically significant relations between scoliosis and hypermobility, age of menarche, BMI, or hours of dance per week. Adolescent dancers, similar to adult dancers, are at significantly higher risk of developing scoliosis than nondancers of the same age. Vigilant screening and improved education of dance teachers and parents of dance students may be beneficial in earlier detection and, consequently, reducing the risk of requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Joint associations between genetic variants and reproductive factors in glioma risk among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sophia S; Hartge, Patricia; Yeager, Meredith; Carreón, Tania; Ruder, Avima M; Linet, Martha; Inskip, Peter D; Black, Amanda; Hsing, Ann W; Alavanja, Michael; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Safaiean, Mahboobeh; Chanock, Stephen J; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2011-10-15

    In a pooled analysis of 4 US epidemiologic studies (1993-2001), the authors evaluated the role of 5 female reproductive factors in 357 women with glioma and 822 controls. The authors further evaluated the independent association between 5 implicated gene variants and glioma risk among the study population, as well as the joint associations of female reproductive factors (ages at menarche and menopause, menopausal status, use of oral contraceptives, and menopausal hormone therapy) and these gene variants on glioma risk. Risk estimates were calculated as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals that were adjusted for age, race, and study. Three of the gene variants (rs4295627, a variant of CCDC26; rs4977756, a variant of CDKN2A and CDKN2B; and rs6010620, a variant of RTEL1) were statistically significantly associated with glioma risk in the present population. Compared with women who had an early age at menarche (<12 years of age), those who reported menarche at 12-13 years of age or at 14 years of age or older had a 1.7-fold higher risk and a 1.9-fold higher risk of glioma, respectively (P for trend = 0.009). Postmenopausal women and women who reported ever having used oral contraceptives had a decreased risk of glioma. The authors did not observe joint associations between these reproductive characteristics and the implicated glioma gene variants. These results require replication, but if confirmed, they would suggest that the gene variants that have previously been implicated in the development of glioma are unlikely to act through the same hormonal mechanisms in women.

  6. The Effect of Reproductive Factors on Breast Cancer Presentation in Women Who Are BRCA Mutation Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Yeon; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Kang, Young-Joon; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Woo-Chul; Jung, Yongsik; Moon, Byung-In; Kang, Eunyoung; Park, Sung-Shin; Lee, Min Hyuk; Park, Bo Young; Lee, Jong Won; Noh, Dong-Young

    2017-09-01

    Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer increased risks for breast cancers. However, the clinical presentation of breast cancer among women who are carriers of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 ( BRCA1/2 carriers) mutations is heterogenous. We aimed to identify the effects of the reproductive histories of women with the BRCA1/2 mutations on the clinical presentation of breast cancer. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on women with proven BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations who were recruited to the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study, from 2007 to 2014. Among the 736 women who were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, a total of 483 women had breast cancers. Breast cancer diagnosis occurred at significantly younger ages in women who experienced menarche at ≤14 years of age, compared to those who experienced menarche at >14 years of age (37.38±7.60 and 43.30±10.11, respectively, p women with the BRCA2 mutation. The prevalence of advanced stages (stage II or III vs. stage I) of disease in parous women was higher than in nulliparous women (68.5% vs. 55.2%, p =0.043). This association was more pronounced in women with the BRCA2 mutation (hazard ratio, 2.67; p =0.014). Our results suggest that reproductive factors, such as the age of onset of menarche and the presence of parity, are associated with the clinical presentation patterns of breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

  7. Reproductive history and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: findings from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Erin S; Kapphahn, Kristopher; Hedlin, Haley; Desai, Manisha; Parikh, Nisha I; Liu, Simin; Parker, Donna R; Anderson, Matthew; Aroda, Vanita; Sullivan, Shannon; Woods, Nancy F; Waring, Molly E; Lewis, Cora E; Stefanick, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the association between women's reproductive history and their risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that characteristics signifying lower cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure would be associated with increased risk. Prospective cohort analysis of 124,379 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We determined age of menarche and final menstrual period, and history of irregular menses from questionnaires at baseline, and calculated reproductive length from age of menarche and final menstrual period. Presence of new onset type 2 diabetes was from self-report. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed associations between reproductive variables and incidence of type 2 diabetes. In age-adjusted models, women with the shortest (<30 y) reproductive periods had a 37% (95% CI, 30-45) greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than women with medium-length reproductive periods (36-40 y). Women with the longest (45+ y) reproductive periods had a 23% (95% CI, 12-37) higher risk than women with medium-length periods. These associations were attenuated after full adjustment (HR 1.07 [1.01, 1.14] for shortest and HR 1.09 [0.99, 1.22] for longest, compared with medium duration). Those with a final menstrual period before age 45 and after age 55 had an increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.99-1.09 and HR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14, respectively) compared to those with age of final menstrual period between 46 and 55 years. Timing of menarche and cycle regularity was not associated with risk after full adjustment. Reproductive history may be associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Women with shorter and longer reproductive periods may benefit from lifestyle counseling to prevent type 2 diabetes.

  8. Evaluation of irregular menses in perimenarcheal girls: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browner-Elhanan, Karen J; Epstein, Jonathan; Alderman, Elizabeth M

    2003-12-01

    Acyclic vaginal bleeding in girls within three years of menarche is most commonly attributed to an immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Assuming this diagnosis may preclude the practitioner from performing more definitive studies and thereby diagnosing other, treatable causes of menstrual irregularities. A retrospective chart review of 178 girls presenting to an inner-city hospital-based adolescent clinic within three years of menarche was performed. Personal and family medical and menarcheal history was assessed, and findings on physical and laboratory examination performed were evaluated. Of the 178 girls still perimenarcheal at presentation, 47 were the focus of this study. Of these, 39 had no significant findings on physical examination, while 3 had signs of functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) including obesity, hirsutism, and moderate acne with corresponding LH/FSH ratios>3, although pelvic ultrasound examination revealed normal ovaries. Four of the 39 patients with normal physical exams had LH/FSH testing done, and 1 of the 4 had an abnormal LH/FSH ratio, indicating possible FOH. Two of the 47 patients were pregnant. Other laboratory abnormalities included microcytic, hypochromic anemia in patients, and an elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in a patient later diagnosed with a rheumatologic disorder. Those perimenarcheal girls presenting with irregular menses and findings including obesity, acne, or pallor, were likely to have treatable causes of menstrual irregularities. In one of the four girls with a normal physical examination, hormonal testing indicated possible FOH, thus suggesting that hormonal evaluation of perimenarcheal girls with menstrual irregularities may be justified, as it may reveal previously unsuspected pathology.

  9. [Catamenial pneumothorax secondary to thoracic endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Calderón, Fernando; Valladares, Virgilio; Ballesteros, Alberto; Ayala, María de la Merced

    2007-11-01

    It is a 27 years old patient, childbirths three, menarche 13 years, regular cycles, with dismenorrea incapacitante twice a year, referring light dispareunia, which was refered a our hospital. She had been hospitalized three days ago presenting left neumotorax, it was the third time she have had the same clinical square in the last four months, she had a neumotorax of 40%, Ca 125 de 102 U/ml, the pelvic ultrasound reported like positive anecoica image of five for four centimeters, through a toracoscopy in which reported two focuses endometriosicos of aproximately 0.5 centimeters, from which a biopsy was obtained and reported tissue endometrium in lung parenchyma.

  10. Endometrium adenocarcinoma: last five years retrospective case at Hospital do Servidor Publico from Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millen, Eduardo Camargo; Blesa, Ana Cristina Poli; Silva, Fabiana Ruas Domingues da; Lopes, Luis Augusto Freire; Baracat, Fausto F.; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho; Lippi, Umberto Gazzi

    2003-01-01

    The present study is an institutional review of endometrial adenocarcinoma in patients of a public hospital for state civil servants in the city of Sao Paulo, the Francisco Morato de Oliveira Civil Servants Hospital, from January 1996 to October 2000. The following factors were considered: age of disease onset, age of menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies, use of hormone-replacement therapy, and associated morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The conclusion was that a history of menstrual disorders and vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal period, such as hypermenorraghia and endometrial thickness greater than four millimeters in post menopausal women, must be accurately investigated for endometrial neoplasia. (author)

  11. [Menstrual disorders in adolescents: commonplace or worrisome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot-Guillarmod, M; Renteria, S C

    2010-06-16

    The first menstrual cycles following menarche are often caracterized by irregular and/or heavy bleeding. The adolescent patient may be worried by these episodes of bleeding. In 50-80% of cases these are anovulatory bleeding due to the immaturity of the gonadotrophic axis. Nevertheless pathologies such as von Willebrand disease, genital infection, polycystic ovary syndrom, eating disorders, a tumor or a pregnancy may be diagnosed by bleeding abnormalities. The challenge for the physician is to distinguish between bleeding abnormalities secondary to anovulation and pathologies where investigations and specific follow-up is mandatory. Adolescents who experience abnormal bleeding must be counceled according to their perceptions and expectations.

  12. Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT), Broad Band Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and Speed of Sound (SOS) in a population of normal females aged from 8 to 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagni, B.; Corazzari, T.; Bagni, I.; Garuti, F.; Franceschetto, A.; Casolo, A.; Pansini, F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate, in a population of young healthy females aged from 8 to 20 years the bone mass peak (or density), the normal ranges versus age and menarche-age using two method: pQCT (peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography) and ultrasound absorptiometry. Material and Methods: From 1998 to 2000 selective measurement of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of trabecular bone at the ultradistal radius using pQCT, BUA (Broad Band Attenuation) and SOS ( Speed Of Sound) was carried out on 426 healthy females (aged from 8 to 20 years) in north Italy. BMD were measured using a single photon miniaturized tomographic scanner in the ultradistal radius, SOS and BUA were measured at the same time, using a water bath device obtaining parametric bidimensional images of BUA and SOS. The population studied refers to normal females free of bone metabolism alteration, in pre and post-pubertal status. Results: A normal range of BMD, BUA and SOS versus age and menarche age were established. A linear correlation was found between BUA and BMD measured with pQCT. SOS does not show any correlation with BMD. The pre-puberty and the post-puberty groups show statistically significant differences between SOS, BUA and BMD. We found the peak bone density (measured with pQCT) in the trabecular bone at the ultradistal radius at 15 years of age (mean menarche age of 10 years). The same position of the peak was found for BUA, for SOS the situation is not well defined. The analytical fitting of the data highlights a polynomial correlation of BMD vs. age, SOS vs. age, BUA vs. age. Conclusions: It appears that the sexual growth influences the position of peak bone density. The results obtained show a statistically significant correlation between BUA and BMD versus age, the menarche-age and the period of exposure of bone tissue to the oestrogen. After all, pQCT and ultrasound are useful techniques to evaluate bone density and structure also in a growing population. The results of this study shows the

  13. Normal female puberty in a developmental perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is unique in the sense that its onset shows an extraordinary individual variability of about 5 years, the basis of which being still elusive despite research efforts to understand the reason why. Continuing changes in environmental influences and interaction with genetic determinants...... with less obvious changes in menarcheal age. Conceptually, puberty and subsequent reproduction appear now to be influenced by conditions not only at the time when they occur, but also during fetal and perinatal life. In addition, these influences can be apparently opposing since early maturation follows...... fetal malnourishment and postnatal overfeeding. In this review, the semiology and pathophysiology of puberty are discussed in a lifelong developmental perspective....

  14. [Menstrual cycle disorders in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, María E; Pipman, Viviana; Arcari, Andrea; Boulgourdjian, Elisabeth; Keselman, Ana; Pasqualini, Titania; Alonso, Guillermo; Blanco, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    The high prevalence of menstrual disorders during the first years after menarche is well recognized. This is usually a cause of concern for parents and patients, and a common reason for visiting the pediatrician. The immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is the major cause of these disorders, but there are also some general organic or emotional conditions that may alter the menstrual cycle, which is a sensitive indicator of health. Physiology of the menstrual cycle, its alterations, etiology, assessment, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed in this article.

  15. Working With Female Juvenile Delinquents: What Youth Practitioners Need to Know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy D. Patton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is organized in a way to help youth practitioners recognize the most pertinent issues faced by female juveniles and to provide help in guiding professional interactions, communication and decision-making. The guidelines discussed are suggestions for practice based on an empirical review of the literature. Recent research has identified ten characteristics of female juvenile offenders to consider when working with this population. These areas include: (a impaired cognitive functioning, (b low academic achievement, (c weak language skills, (d peer relationships, (e onset of menarche, (f early sexual experiences, (g mental illness, (h victimization (i low self-esteem and (j race.

  16. Menstruation in adolescents: what do we know? And what do we do with the information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Hillard, Paula J

    2014-12-01

    The menstrual cycle has been recognized as a vital sign that gives information about the overall health of an adolescent or young adult female. Significant deviations from monthly cycles can signal disease or dysfunction. This review highlights the evidence based parameters for normal puberty, menarche, cyclicity, and amount of bleeding. The review addresses sources of information available online, noting inaccuracies that appear in web sites, even and especially those targeting adolescents. The review includes a call to action to provide accurate information about the menstrual cycle as a VITAL SIGN. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Menstrual socialization, beliefs, and attitudes concerning menstruation in rural and urban Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvan, Maria Luisa; Trujillo, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Women living in rural and urban areas of Mexico answered a questionnaire about what they were told at home about menstruation before their menarche (first menstruation), and answered the Beliefs About and Attitudes Toward Menstruation Questionnaire. Around half of both urban and rural women were told that they were going to experience negative perimenstrual changes. There were fewer urban than rural women who were advised to do or not to do certain activities while menstruating. Menstrual socialization affected the beliefs and attitudes concerning menstruation held by women as adults. These findings are discussed in light of the sociocultural background of the participants.

  18. One-Carbon Metabolism and Methylation in Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Women who were currently menstruating were considered premenopausal; those women who were not 65 menstruating because of hysterectomy or other...where we did not adjust for possible confounders, and the second phase of analysis was adjusted for possible confounders such as age, education , number...149 130 Age (years) 45.8(3.9) 46.1 (3.5) 45.8 (4.1)* 46.7 (3.6) Education (years) 13.8(2.8) 14.1 (2.7) 14.0 (2.8) 13.9 (2.6) Age at menarche (years

  19. Premenarchal, recurrent vaginal discharge associated with an incomplete obstructing longitudinal vaginal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keith A; DeWitt, Jason

    2005-12-01

    To describe an unusual, premenarchal presentation of an obstructive vaginal anomaly. Case Report. University Medical Center. Premenarchal subject Vaginogram, vaginal septum resection. Vaginal septum resection with resolution of vaginal discharge. This case demonstrates some of the typical features of uterus didelphys bicollis with incomplete obstructing hemivagina, but had a unique presentation with premenarchal, recurrent vaginal discharge. Typically, patients with an obstructing mullerian anomaly present after menarche with pelvic pain and a mass. The vaginogram assists in the preoperative definition of abnormal anatomy which allows the surgeon to develop the most appropriate surgical approach. Resection of this incompletely obstructing vaginal septum resulted in resolution of the recurrent vaginal discharge.

  20. Reproductive factors and Parkinson's disease risk in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greene, N; Lassen, C F; Rugbjerg, K

    2014-01-01

    and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for smoking, caffeine and alcohol use, education, age, and family Parkinson's disease history, inverse associations between Parkinson's disease and early menarche (first period at ≤11 years), oral contraceptives, high parity (≥4 children) and bilateral...... and fertile life length, age at menopause or post-menopausal hormone treatment was found. CONCLUSIONS: Reproductive factors related to women's early- to mid-reproductive lives appear to be predictive of subsequent Parkinson's disease risk whereas factors occurring later in life seem less important....

  1. Adolescent reproductive health challenges among schoolgirls in southeast Nigeria: role of knowledge of menstrual pattern and contraceptive adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Ebele Samuel Onubogu,1 Okechukwu Bonaventure Anozie,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani,1 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,2 Emeka Ogah Onwe,3 Monique Iheoma Ajah4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, 3Department of Paediatrics, 4Well Women Centre, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Reproductive health services in the form of adolescent health and contraceptive services are fundamental in the prevention of a high incidence of teenage pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the age at menarche, menstrual pattern, and awareness of and use of modern contraception among secondary school girls in Abakaliki, Nigeria.Subjects and materials: This was a cross-sectional study in which self-administered questionnaires were completed by 482 adolescent girls at two girls’ secondary schools between August and September 2012.Results: The mean age at menarche was 13.13±1.37 years. The mean menstrual cycle length was 27.8±3.14 days, and the mean duration of menstrual flow was 4.8±1.14 days. Thirty-seven (7.7% respondents were ignorant of their cycle length, while 29 (6.0% had irregular cycles. Premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea were major menstrual issues, which resulted in 69 (14.3% and 59 (12.2% of respondents resorting to self-medication and absenteeism from school, respectively. Mothers were the main source of their daughters’ adolescent education, while friends and mass media were the main source of contraceptive information. Though there was a high level (75.7% of awareness of contraceptive information among the girls, usage (8.9% was poor. Only eight (18.6% of the 43 respondents who had ever used modern contraception were adherent to modern contraceptives. Students who were more than 15 years old, attained menarche at 13 years or less, and whose families were of

  2. Endometrium adenocarcinoma: last five years retrospective case at Hospital do Servidor Publico from Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Adenocarcinoma do endometrio: retrospectiva de casos dos ultimos cinco anos no Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millen, Eduardo Camargo; Blesa, Ana Cristina Poli; Silva, Fabiana Ruas Domingues da; Lopes, Luis Augusto Freire; Baracat, Fausto F.; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho; Lippi, Umberto Gazzi [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The present study is an institutional review of endometrial adenocarcinoma in patients of a public hospital for state civil servants in the city of Sao Paulo, the Francisco Morato de Oliveira Civil Servants Hospital, from January 1996 to October 2000. The following factors were considered: age of disease onset, age of menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies, use of hormone-replacement therapy, and associated morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The conclusion was that a history of menstrual disorders and vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal period, such as hypermenorraghia and endometrial thickness greater than four millimeters in post menopausal women, must be accurately investigated for endometrial neoplasia. (author)

  3. A study on relationship to risk factors according to menopausal status in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Han Sik [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, because the breast cancer is one of the major cause of mortality among women. Some reported that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, but the results are not constant. Many risk factors are related to the duration of estrogenic stimulation of the breast. In general, early menarche and late menopause are positive risk factors. Human breast cancer has different characteristics according to the status of menopause (premenopause and postmenopause). In premenopausal women, about 60% of circulating estrogen is from the ovaries in the form of estradiol, and the remaining 40% is estrogen formed primarily in the adipose(fat) tissue via aromatization of androstenedion from the adrenal glands. After menopause this adipose cell production of estrone is the maon source of estrogens and the level of estrone is maintained approximately at premenopausal levels. This study was undertaken to determine the role of body size and body mass index by status of menopause in development of breast cancer using retrospective case/control study. From Mach 1991 to February 1997 at the Wonkwang University Hospital, the breast cancer cases(n=3D72) and controls(n=3D86) were selected. By statistical analysis method, regression analysis, paired T-test and multiple logistic regression were done to estimate the influenced factors same as height, weight, BMI, age at menarche and age at menopause. The following results were obtained: 1. In premenopausal women, age at menarche was showed comparatively high correlation coefficients and BMI was described prominently highly in postmenopause. 2. At the results of multiple regression analysis, age at menarch, BMI and weight were showed as significant variables. In this method, critical facor(R{sup 2}) was 0.054. 3. Paired samples T-test was undertaken to test mean difference between two groups of cases and controls. The result of test performance showed a significant difference. 4

  4. A study on relationship to risk factors according to menopausal status in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Han Sik

    2000-01-01

    It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, because the breast cancer is one of the major cause of mortality among women. Some reported that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, but the results are not constant. Many risk factors are related to the duration of estrogenic stimulation of the breast. In general, early menarche and late menopause are positive risk factors. Human breast cancer has different characteristics according to the status of menopause (premenopause and postmenopause). In premenopausal women, about 60% of circulating estrogen is from the ovaries in the form of estradiol, and the remaining 40% is estrogen formed primarily in the adipose(fat) tissue via aromatization of androstenedion from the adrenal glands. After menopause this adipose cell production of estrone is the maon source of estrogens and the level of estrone is maintained approximately at premenopausal levels. This study was undertaken to determine the role of body size and body mass index by status of menopause in development of breast cancer using retrospective case/control study. From Mach 1991 to February 1997 at the Wonkwang University Hospital, the breast cancer cases(n=3D72) and controls(n=3D86) were selected. By statistical analysis method, regression analysis, paired T-test and multiple logistic regression were done to estimate the influenced factors same as height, weight, BMI, age at menarche and age at menopause. The following results were obtained: 1. In premenopausal women, age at menarche was showed comparatively high correlation coefficients and BMI was described prominently highly in postmenopause. 2. At the results of multiple regression analysis, age at menarch, BMI and weight were showed as significant variables. In this method, critical facor(R 2 ) was 0.054. 3. Paired samples T-test was undertaken to test mean difference between two groups of cases and controls. The result of test performance showed a significant difference. 4. In

  5. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome Consisting of Uterine Didelphys, Obstructed Hemivagina and Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsin Wu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW syndrome is a rare variant of Müllerian duct anomalies consisting of uterine didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Patients with HWW syndrome are usually asymptomatic until menarche, when they present with acute lower abdominal pain. Here we report a case of a female newborn with right renal agenesis diagnosed during the pregnancy. The patient presented with a protruding mass over the vaginal introitus that was associated with an obstructed hemivagina and uterine didelphys.

  6. Curve Magnitude in Patients Referred for Evaluation of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Henriksen, Jeppe L.

    2016-01-01

    Study design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Objectives To analyze the referral pattern of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in a tertiary hospital in a nationalized health care system without school screening and to compare curve magnitude on referral with results reported...... scoliosis screening. Our tertiary institution receives referrals for evaluation of AIS from general practitioners (GPs) and other hospitals or private specialists. Method A review was conducted on all patients diagnosed with AIS between 2010 and 2015. Data collection included age, gender, menarchal status...

  7. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persani Luca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.

  8. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Lima Sírio Boclin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruna Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWW is a triad of didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. It is a combined anomaly of Mullerian and mesonephric ducts. It usually presents in adolescent females after menarche with nonspecific symptoms of pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and rarely a palpable pelvic mass. We report here, a case of an 18-year-old female presenting with complaints of lower abdominal pain and dysmenorrhea where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI confirmed the diagnosis of HWW syndrome. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis of HWW syndrome and associated complications such as endometriosis.

  10. Prospective study of growth and development in older girls and risk of benign breast disease in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, Catherine S; Willett, Walter C; Frazier, A Lindsay; Rosner, Bernard; Tamimi, Rulla M; Colditz, Graham A

    2011-04-15

    In adult women with retrospective data, childhood adiposity, pubertal growth and development were associated with benign breast disease (BBD) and/or breast cancer. The authors prospectively evaluated these childhood/adolescent characteristics and BBD risk. The Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) included females, aged 9-15 years in 1996, who completed annual questionnaires through 2001, then 2003, 2005, and 2007. Participants annually/biennially provided information on menarche, height, and weight, from which the authors derived body mass index (BMI in kg/m(2) ). Peak height growth velocity (PHV in cm/year) was estimated from longitudinal data. On 2005-2007 surveys, 6899 females (18-27 years of age) reported whether a healthcare provider ever diagnosed BBD (n = 147), and whether it was confirmed by biopsy (n = 67). Logistic models investigated risk factors adjusted for age, alcohol, pregnancy, and maternal history. More childhood adiposity (odds ratio [OR], 0.91/[kg/m(2) ]; P = .04) and shorter adult height (OR, 0.93/inch shorter; P = .07) were associated with lower risk of biopsy-confirmed BBD. Girls with most rapid height growth were at increased risk (OR, 2.12; P = .09) relative to those with the slowest growth. Age at menarche was not associated (OR, 1.11/year; P = .32) nor was adult BMI (adjusted for childhood BMI: OR, 1.01/[kg/m(2) ]; P = .98); larger BMI increases (childhood to adulthood) were not protective (OR + 1.04/[kg/m(2) ]; P = .37). Among girls with maternal breast cancer, those with more rapid growth had higher risk (OR, 1.47/[cm/year]; P = .02). All estimates were age-adjusted. Increased BBD risk (likely evolving to elevated breast cancer risk) was observed in thinner girls, girls with the most rapid growth, and taller women. Contrary to expectations, later menarche age was not protective against BBD, consistent with studies that found BBD patients are not protected against breast cancer by later menarche. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  11. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presents with a history of no menses since she stopped taking oral contraceptives 6 months ago in order to conceive. She had undergone puberty that was normal in both timing and development, with menarche at 12 years of age. At 18 years of age, she started taking oral contraceptives for irregular menses. She reports stress at work. Her weight is 59 kg, and her height 1.66 m; her body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) is 21.3...

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the family members of women with polycystic ovary syndrome from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Shabir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most complex and common endocrine disorder of women in reproductive years. In addition to irregular menstrual cycles, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, it has many metabolic manifestations such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease or possibly endometrial cancer. Familial clustering of PCOS in consistence with the genetic susceptibility has been described. Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters including prevalence of metabolic syndrome by two different criteria in the first- degree relatives of patients with PCOS. Results: The average age of 37 index patients was 23 ± 3.6 years, with the mean age of menarche as 13.3 ± 1.2 years. The mean age and age of menarche in mothers (n = 22 was 48.8 ± 5.1 and 13 ± 1.3 years, respectively, whereas as it was 23.5 ± 4.7 and 13.3 ± 1.2 years in sisters (n = 22, respectively. Metabolic syndrome (MS defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria was present in 10 index patients, 1 brother, 4 sisters, 17 mothers and 15 fathers while as by Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III it was in 8 index patients, 5 sisters, 16 mothers and 11 fathers. Conclusion: The presence of MS or related metabolic derangements is high in the family members of women with PCOS.

  13. Growth and final height of children with Gaucher disease: A 15-year follow-up at an Israeli Gaucher center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Espen; Meir, Amos; Abrahamov, Aya; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari; Levy-Khademi, Floris

    2018-02-01

    It is held that enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) accelerates the growth rate in children with Gaucher disease, but its effect on final height has not been established with certainty. This study presents final heights of Gaucher patients followed up for 15years. The study included 41 adults with non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease. The final height of the patients and age at puberty was compared to their mid-parental target height and to their siblings' heights. Mean final height standard deviation score (HSDS) in the patients was -0.22, but none of the patients was abnormally short (HSDS of less than -2.2). Mean age at menarche of the female patients (14.7years) was significantly delayed compared to that of their mothers (P=0.0005), and mean age at first shaving in the boys was 16years. Our study showed that the mean final height of Gaucher patients fell below the mean of the 2000 CDC growth charts, but the patients were not of short stature (height less than the 3rd percentile). ERT treatment did not significantly impact the mean final HSDS. The onset of puberty, as indicated by the age at menarche, was delayed in girls with Gaucher disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the family members of women with polycystic ovary syndrome from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Iram; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Zargar, Mohd Afzal; Bhat, Dilafroz; Mir, Mohd Muzzafar; Jan, Aleem; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Jan, Vicar; Rasool, Riyaz; Naqati, Andleeb

    2014-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most complex and common endocrine disorder of women in reproductive years. In addition to irregular menstrual cycles, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, it has many metabolic manifestations such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease or possibly endometrial cancer. Familial clustering of PCOS in consistence with the genetic susceptibility has been described. The present study assessed the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters including prevalence of metabolic syndrome by two different criteria in the first- degree relatives of patients with PCOS. The average age of 37 index patients was 23 ± 3.6 years, with the mean age of menarche as 13.3 ± 1.2 years. The mean age and age of menarche in mothers (n = 22) was 48.8 ± 5.1 and 13 ± 1.3 years, respectively, whereas as it was 23.5 ± 4.7 and 13.3 ± 1.2 years in sisters (n = 22), respectively. Metabolic syndrome (MS) defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria was present in 10 index patients, 1 brother, 4 sisters, 17 mothers and 15 fathers while as by Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) it was in 8 index patients, 5 sisters, 16 mothers and 11 fathers. The presence of MS or related metabolic derangements is high in the family members of women with PCOS.

  15. Genetic evidence for natural selection in humans in the contemporary United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Jonathan P

    2016-07-12

    Recent findings from molecular genetics now make it possible to test directly for natural selection by analyzing whether genetic variants associated with various phenotypes have been under selection. I leverage these findings to construct polygenic scores that use individuals' genotypes to predict their body mass index, educational attainment (EA), glucose concentration, height, schizophrenia, total cholesterol, and (in females) age at menarche. I then examine associations between these scores and fitness to test whether natural selection has been occurring. My study sample includes individuals of European ancestry born between 1931 and 1953 who participated in the Health and Retirement Study, a representative study of the US population. My results imply that natural selection has been slowly favoring lower EA in both females and males, and are suggestive that natural selection may have favored a higher age at menarche in females. For EA, my estimates imply a rate of selection of about -1.5 mo of education per generation (which pales in comparison with the increases in EA observed in contemporary times). Although they cannot be projected over more than one generation, my results provide additional evidence that humans are still evolving-albeit slowly, especially compared with the rapid changes that have occurred over the past few generations due to cultural and environmental factors.

  16. Cow milk consumption, insulin-like growth factor-I, and human biology: a life history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Andrea S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the life history consequences of cow milk consumption at different stages in early life (prenatal to adolescence), especially with regard to linear growth and age at menarche and the role of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in mediating a relationship among milk, growth and development, and long-term biological outcomes. United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2004 and review of existing literature. The literature tends to support milk's role in enhancing growth early in life (prior to age 5 years), but there is less support for this relationship during middle childhood. Milk has been associated with early menarche and with acceleration of linear growth in adolescence. NHANES data show a positive relationship between milk intake and linear growth in early childhood and adolescence, but not middle childhood, a period of relatively slow growth. IGF-I is a candidate bioactive molecule linking milk consumption to more rapid growth and development, although the mechanism by which it may exert such effects is unknown. Routine milk consumption is an evolutionarily novel dietary behavior that has the potential to alter human life history parameters, especially vis-à-vis linear growth, which in turn may have negative long-term biological consequences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pubertal timing and adolescent sexual behavior in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R; Harden, K Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to physical maturation and to individual interpretations of pubertal experiences. Using a sample of female sibling pairs (n = 923 pairs) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study investigated associations among menarche and perceived pubertal timing, age of first sexual intercourse (AFI), and adolescent dating and sexual behavior using a behavioral genetic approach. Genetic factors influencing age at menarche and perceived pubertal timing predicted AFI through shared genetic pathways, whereas genetic factors related only to perceived pubertal timing predicted engagement in dating, romantic sex, and nonromantic sex in the previous 18 months. These results suggest that a girl's interpretation of her pubertal timing beyond objective timing is important to consider for the timing and the contexts of romantic and reproductive behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. External-environmental and internal-health early life predictors of adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Li, Zhi; Nettle, Daniel; Belsky, Jay

    2017-12-01

    A wealth of evidence documents associations between various aspects of the rearing environment and later development. Two evolutionary-inspired models advance explanations for why and how such early experiences shape later functioning: (a) the external-prediction model, which highlights the role of the early environment (e.g., parenting) in regulating children's development, and (b) the internal-prediction model, which emphasizes internal state (i.e., health) as the critical regulator. Thus, by using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the current project draws from both models by investigating whether the effect of the early environment on later adolescent functioning is subject to an indirect effect by internal-health variables. Results showed a significant indirect effect of internal health on the relation between the early environment and adolescent behavior. Specifically, early environmental adversity during the first 5 years of life predicted lower quality health during childhood, which then led to problematic adolescent functioning and earlier age of menarche for girls. In addition, for girls, early adversity predicted lower quality health that forecasted earlier age of menarche leading to increased adolescent risk taking. The discussion highlights the importance of integrating both internal and external models to further understand the developmental processes that effect adolescent behavior.

  19. An analysis of BMD changes with preopertive and postoperative premenopausal breast cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Su Jin; Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo; Lee, Joo Ah; Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Ma, Sang Chull; Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide basic data of comparing BMD (bone mineral density) value of preoperative breast cancer patient and postoperative breast cancer patient due to bone loss with radiation/chemical therapy. The participants consisted of 254 breast cancer patients with BMD after having surgery and treatment from March 2007 to September 2013. Except for 84 patients with menopause or hysterectomy and we have analysed 171 patients. The BMD value (lumbar spine and femur) of before and after treatment from PACS by dure-energy X-ray absorptiometry was analyzed. First, we found variation of entire BMD and BMD according to treatment type, and analyzed detailed correlation by using marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types as variable. Data was analyzed by using SPSS for Windows Program (version 18.0). BMD was decreased 7.1% in lumbar spine, 3.1% in femur respectively (p<.01). Also there is relatively high decrement (0.067 g/cm 2 ) in group who had just chemotherapy in femur (p<.05). There is decrement depend on marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types but there was no statistical significance. The results show that BMD was decreased after treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patient, patient who had relatively high decrement need to be included high-risk group. As a result, aggressive prevention policy would be necessary

  20. Incidence, puberty, and fertility in 45,X/47,XXX mosaicism: Report of a patient and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Han Hyuk; Kil, Hong Ryang; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2017-05-09

    Turner syndrome (TS), characterized by short stature and premature ovarian failure, is caused by chromosomal aberrations with total or partial loss of one of the two X chromosomes. Spontaneous puberty, menarche, and pregnancy occur in some patients depending on the abnormality of the X. Moreover, spontaneous pregnancy is uncommon (XXX karyotype is extremely rare. Previous reports have demonstrated that TS with 45,X/47,XXX is less severe than common TS due to higher occurrence of puberty (83%), menarche (57-67%), and fertility (14%) and lower occurrence of congenital anomalies (XXX mosaicism who presented with short stature. She showed mild TS phenotype including short stature but had spontaneous puberty. Based on our case and previous reports, we expect that girls with 45,X/47,XXX mosaicism may progress through puberty normally, without estrogen therapy. Therefore, it is necessary to consider specific guidelines for clinical decisions surrounding pubertal development and fertility in TS with 45,X/47,XXX karyotype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Polycystic ovary syndrome and intervening factors in adolescents from 15 to 18 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Franciane Rocha de; Gusmão, Laís Silveira; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues de; Gonçalves, Vivian Siqueira Santos; Cecon, Roberta Stofeles; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    To assess the factors related to the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study, with female adolescents from 15 to 18 years old, divided into: group 1 (with a medical diagnosis of PCOS) and group 2 (not diagnosed with PCOS). The height-for-age index and the body mass index were used for classifying the nutritional status, and a semi-structured questionnaire was applied. The Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test, Spearman correlation coefficients, and logistic regression were used. This study evaluated 485 adolescents with an average age of 16.3 ± 0.9 years old. The prevalence of PCOS was 6.2%. No difference was found between the groups regarding anthropometric parameters and period of contraceptive use; however, there were differences regarding the age at menarche (p factor against the syndrome. An association was found between younger age at menarche and the development of the PCOS in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Early puberty, negative peer influence, and problem behaviors in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend's deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls' race/ethnicity. Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend's deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend's deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the "other" racial/ethnic minority group only. Early puberty and friends' deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences.

  3. Association between Obesity and Puberty Timing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Liu, Qin; Deng, Xu; Chen, Yiwen; Liu, Shudan; Story, Mary

    2017-10-24

    This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the associations between obesity and puberty timing based on scientific evidence. Eight electronic databases were searched up to February 2017 for eligible studies, and two reviewers screened the articles and extracted the data independently. A total of 11 cohort studies with 4841 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Compared with the group of normal-weight girls, the obese group had more girls with menarche (RR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.59-2.19, 2 studies). The number of girls with early puberty was significantly higher in the obese group than the normal weight group (RR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.32-4.52, 5 studies). However, no differences were detected between girls who were obese or normal weight at age of menarche (WMD: -0.53 years, 95% CI: -1.24-0.19, 2 studies). There is no consistent result in the relationship between obesity and timing of pubertal onset in boys. Obesity may contribute to early onset of puberty in girls, while in boys, there is insufficient data. Given the limited number of cohort studies included in this meta-analysis, high-quality studies with strong markers of puberty onset, as well as standardized criteria for defining obesity are needed.

  4. The relationship between puberty and social emotion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddings, Anne-Lise; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-01-01

    The social brain undergoes developmental change during adolescence, and pubertal hormones are hypothesized to contribute to this development. We used fMRI to explore how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to brain activity during a social emotion task. Forty-two females aged 11.1 to 13.7 years underwent fMRI scanning while reading scenarios pertaining either to social emotions, which require the representation of another person’s mental states, or to basic emotions, which do not. Pubertal stage and menarcheal status were used to assign girls to early or late puberty groups. Across the entire sample, the contrast between social versus basic emotion resulted in activity within the social brain network, including dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), the posterior superior temporal sulcus, and the anterior temporal cortex (ATC) in both hemispheres. Increased hormone levels (independent of age) were associated with higher left ATC activity during social emotion processing. More advanced age (independent of hormone levels) was associated with lower DMPFC activity during social emotion processing. Our results suggest functionally dissociable effects of pubertal hormones and age on the adolescent social brain. PMID:23106734

  5. Korean risk assessment model for breast cancer risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Ma, Seung Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Myung-Chul; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Sungwan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT) based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC) using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort. The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017), while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (pKorean women, especially urban women.

  6. A case of primary familial congenital polycythemia with a novel EPOR mutation: possible spontaneous remission/alleviation by menstrual bleeding.

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    Toriumi, Naohisa; Kaneda, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Naoki; Manabe, Hiromi; Okajima, Kazuki; Sakurai, Yukari; Yamamoto, Masayo; Sarashina, Takeo; Ikuta, Katsuya; Azuma, Hiroshi

    2018-04-05

    A 10-year-old girl with persistent erythrocytosis and ruddy complexion was diagnosed with primary familial congenital polycythemia (PFCP) involving a novel heterozygous mutation of c.1220C>A, p.Ser407X in exon 8 of the erythropoietin receptor gene (EPOR). This mutation causes truncation of EPOR, resulting in loss of the cytoplasmic region, which is necessary for negative regulation of erythropoietin signal transmission. Genetic analysis showed that the mutated EPOR was inherited from her mother. Her mother had polycythemia and had undergone venesection several times when she was young, but her polycythemic state appeared to have resolved. Venesection was not needed to maintain Hct levels within normal range. For the case reported here, venesection was also conducted to maintain the blood Hct level below 50%. We observed that after the patient experienced menarche, the volume and frequency of venesection needed to maintain Hct level < 50% were clearly reduced compared with those before menarche. These findings suggest that, in female patients with this type of EPOR mutation, menstruation might reduce blood volume in a manner similar to venesection. Spontaneous remission of erythrocytosis may thus occur after the start of menstrual bleeding.

  7. An analysis of BMD changes with preopertive and postoperative premenopausal breast cancer patient

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    KIm, Su Jin; Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Ah [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University, Incheon St.Mary' s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Sang Chull [Dept. of Radiologic Science, Shin han University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide basic data of comparing BMD (bone mineral density) value of preoperative breast cancer patient and postoperative breast cancer patient due to bone loss with radiation/chemical therapy. The participants consisted of 254 breast cancer patients with BMD after having surgery and treatment from March 2007 to September 2013. Except for 84 patients with menopause or hysterectomy and we have analysed 171 patients. The BMD value (lumbar spine and femur) of before and after treatment from PACS by dure-energy X-ray absorptiometry was analyzed. First, we found variation of entire BMD and BMD according to treatment type, and analyzed detailed correlation by using marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types as variable. Data was analyzed by using SPSS for Windows Program (version 18.0). BMD was decreased 7.1% in lumbar spine, 3.1% in femur respectively (p<.01). Also there is relatively high decrement (0.067 g/cm{sup 2}) in group who had just chemotherapy in femur (p<.05). There is decrement depend on marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types but there was no statistical significance. The results show that BMD was decreased after treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patient, patient who had relatively high decrement need to be included high-risk group. As a result, aggressive prevention policy would be necessary.

  8. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Naturally Menopausal Women with Various Durations of Premenarche, Reproductive Periods, and Postmenopausal Stages

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    Xuhang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC exhibits a higher incidence in women. Due to various ages at menarche and menopause, estrogen levels vary, which may account for the differences in the occurrence, development, and prognosis of female patients with PTC. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between various durations in different estrogen levels and PTC and to provide important information to guide clinical management and treatment of this disease. Methods. First, we selected naturally menopausal female study subjects diagnosed with PTC at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital from 2007 to 2012 and then compared the differences in clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis among subjects with various lengths of premenarche, reproductive periods, and postmenopausal stages. Results. We found that all patients showed a significantly higher incidence of tumor multicentricity and intrathyroidal dissemination as the time after menopause increased. Additionally, women with shorter (38 reproductive lives had increased recurrence rates of PTC. Conclusions. In this study, we did not find any relationship of self-reported menarche and menopausal ages with the prognosis of PTC patients. More importantly, natural postmenopausal PTC patients with shorter or longer reproductive life, compared to the normal groups, had a higher rate of cancer recurrence and the patients with these characteristics could be recommended a more aggressive surgical treatment.

  9. Menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana: A cross sectional study

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    Garima Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The World Health Organization (WHO has defined adolescence as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents in India comprise 19.3% of the total Indian population. Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child becomes an adult. It is characterized by rapid growth and development; physiologically, psychologically and socially. This period is marked by the onset of menarche. Menstruation is a natural, normal biological process experienced by all adolescent girls and women in reproductive age. Objectives To study the menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana. Methods There were 18 government high and senior secondary schools in block Lakhanmajra. Out of these 5 were exclusively girls’ schools, 10 were co-ed schools and 3 were exclusively boys’ schools. All the 5 schools meant exclusively for girls were included in the study. All girls studying in 6th to 12th classes from these schools, after applying the exclusion criteria were included in the study. Results The mean age at menarche was 12.83±1.326 years. The inter-menstrual interval was 21 to 35 days in majority (80.1% of the adolescent girls and the duration of menstruation was more than 7 days in 9.4% of the girls. Majority of the girls (52.1% reported the duration of menstruation to be 2-3 days.

  10. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

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    Adrija Datta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  11. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

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    Adrija Datta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  12. STUDY OF ANEMIA IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS OF BHOPAL

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    Rakesh Kakkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition, early intervention during adolescence (girls can prevent high morbidity and mortality of these future mothers. Objectives: To study prevalence & factors contributing to anaemia among adolescent school girls. Material and Methods: Area or region addressed – Iron deficiency anemia in adolescent girls. Present study was conducted among 317 adolescent (10-19Yrs government schoolgirls of Bhopal city from June2005-July2006. Three study groups were selected from three different girls’ school by random sampling method. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS. Result & Conclusion: Overall prevalence was 58.4% among adolescent schoolgirls. Prevalence of anemia was dependent on the knowledge about prevention of anemia, literacy level, food habits, birth order & also frequency of Iron rich source viz. green leafy vegetable & non vegetarian diet. While there was no significant relation of anemia with duration of menstrual flow but there was significant (P<0.05 difference in number of anaemic cases with age at menarche i.e. with higher age at menarche; there was more chances of anemia. Level of anemia was higher (p<0.05 in early adolescent (10 -13 Years age group (81% as compared to middle (58.3% and late adolescent (17-19 years age group girls (48.7%.

  13. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

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    Nazir, N.; Waheed, A.; Farhat, K.; Ismail, M.

    2015-01-01

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)

  14. A breast cancer case-control study in Girona, Spain. Endocrine, familial and lifestyle factors.

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    Viladiu, P; Izquierdo, A; de Sanjosé, S; Bosch, F X

    1996-10-01

    This study was designed to explore risk factors for breast cancer with emphasis on the detection of clinical markers of the hormonal imbalance during the perimenarche. Three hundred and thirty women diagnosed with breast cancer and 346 population controls were identified and interviewed in Girona, Spain between 1986 and 89. Cases were more likely than controls to have had long menstrual periods in the first 5 years after menarche [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0], to experience menopause at a late age (OR = 1.5) and to report acne during adolescence (OR = 1.6). Family history of breast cancer was associated with an increased risk (OR = 2.3). Cases reported a lower use of drug treatments for anxiety and sleep disorders than controls. Moderate alcohol drinkers and smokers were at lower risk for breast cancer. No statistically significant association with breast cancer was observed for number of children, age at last pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, hormonal treatment after menopause and weight perception during the teenage years. Hormonal changes in the years following menarche may be relevant to breast cancer risk. The roles of menstrual period length and acne during adolescence should be further explored.

  15. Association between Obesity and Puberty Timing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Wenyan Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the associations between obesity and puberty timing based on scientific evidence. Eight electronic databases were searched up to February 2017 for eligible studies, and two reviewers screened the articles and extracted the data independently. A total of 11 cohort studies with 4841 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Compared with the group of normal-weight girls, the obese group had more girls with menarche (RR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.59–2.19, 2 studies. The number of girls with early puberty was significantly higher in the obese group than the normal weight group (RR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.32–4.52, 5 studies. However, no differences were detected between girls who were obese or normal weight at age of menarche (WMD: −0.53 years, 95% CI: −1.24–0.19, 2 studies. There is no consistent result in the relationship between obesity and timing of pubertal onset in boys. Obesity may contribute to early onset of puberty in girls, while in boys, there is insufficient data. Given the limited number of cohort studies included in this meta-analysis, high-quality studies with strong markers of puberty onset, as well as standardized criteria for defining obesity are needed.

  16. 'This is a natural process': managing menstrual stigma in Nepal.

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    Crawford, Mary; Menger, Lauren M; Kaufman, Michelle R

    2014-01-01

    Menstrual stigma has been demonstrated in many societies. However, there is little research on menstrual attitudes in South Asia, despite religiously-based menstrual restrictions imposed on women. To understand menstrual stigma in this context, we conducted qualitative research with women in Nepal. Nepali Hinduism forbids menstruating women to enter a temple or kitchen, share a bed with a husband or touch a male relative. During menstruation, women are 'untouchable'. There has been virtually no research on how Nepali women make meaning of these practices. The current study employed focus groups and individual interviews to understand how some Nepali women experience menarche and menstrual stigma. We explored how women describe their experiences and the strategies they adopt to manage age-old stigma in a rapidly modernising society where they have multiple roles as workers, wives and mothers. Participants reported they experienced menarche with little preparation, which caused distress, and were subjected to ongoing stigmatisation as menstruating women. They described coping strategies to reduce the effects of this stigma. This study provides a unique perspective on coping with menstrual stigma in South Asia.

  17. The timing and role of initiation rites in preparing young people for adolescence and responsible sexual and reproductive behaviour in Malawi.

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    Munthali, Alister C; Zulu, Eliya M

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines timing of puberty and mechanisms through which society prepares adolescents to understand and deal with it in Malawi. Data from a national representative survey of adolescents and in-depth interviews also conducted with adolescents are used. SPSS was used to analyse survey data while N6 was used to analyse qualitative data. Results show that the onset of menarche in girls and various pubertal body changes in boys can be a cause of joy, excitement, or distress depending on how adolescents understand what this means to them at this critical stage when they start defining and comprehending their sexuality. Much more emphasis is put on educating girls about reproductive implications of menarche than on what is expected of boys as sexual beings, which may contribute to boys' greater indulgence in risky sexual behaviors than girls. The significance of initiation ceremonies in some communities provides an important platform through which programs can reach many adolescents and intervene, particularly in addressing the widely held notion among initiates that attending these ceremonies symbolizes that one is not a child anymore and can have sex.

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical and laboratory evaluation

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    Marcos Yorghi Khoury

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinically, and with laboratory, tests, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO. PATIENTS: One hundred and twelve women with PCO were studied. METHODS: The following data was recorded: Current age; age at menarche; menstrual irregularity, occurrence of similar cases in the family; fertility, obstetric history; body mass index (BMI; and presence of hirsutism. Serum measurements of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin, free testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were taken. RESULTS: All patients presented either oligomenorrhea (31 percent, periods of secondary amenorrhea (9 percent, or both alterations (60 percent. The majority of the patients were infertile (75.6 percent. The LH/FSH ratio was higher than 2:1 in 55 percent of the patients and higher than 3:1 in 26.2 percent. The ultrasonographic aspect of the ovaries was considered to be normal in 31 percent. CONCLUSION: The main clinical feature of the PCO is the irregularity of menses since menarche, and that the laboratory tests would be important to exclude other disorders such as hyperprolactinemia or hyperandrogenemia caused by late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  19. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

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    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  20. Reproductive period, endogenous estrogen exposure and dementia incidence among women in Latin America and China; A 10/66 population-based cohort study.

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    Prince, Martin J; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Chua, Kia-Chong; Dewey, Michael E; Liu, Zhaorui; Mayston, Rosie; Valhuerdi, Adolfo

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to endogenous estrogen may protect against dementia, but evidence remains equivocal. Such effects may be assessed more precisely in settings where exogenous estrogen administration is rare. We aimed to determine whether reproductive period (menarche to menopause), and other indicators of endogenous estrogen exposure are inversely associated with dementia incidence. Population-based cohort studies of women aged 65 years and over in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, including ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause, and parity, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. 9,428 women participated at baseline, with 72-98% responding by site. The 'at risk' cohort comprised 8,466 dementia-free women. Mean age varied from 72.0 to 75.4 years, lower in rural than urban sites and in China than in Latin America. Mean parity was 4.1 (2.4-7.2 by site), generally higher in rural than urban sites. 6,854 women with baseline reproductive period data were followed up for 26,463 person years. There were 692 cases of incident dementia, and 895 dementia free deaths. Pooled meta-analysed fixed effects, per year, for reproductive period (Adjusted Sub-Hazard Ratio [ASHR] 1.001, 95% CI 0.988-1.015) did not support any association with dementia incidence, with no evidence for effect modification by APOE genotype. No association was observed between incident dementia and; ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause: nulliparity; or index of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure. Greater parity was positively associated with incident dementia (ASHR 1.030, 95% CI 1.002-1.059, I2 = 0.0%). We found no evidence to support the theory that natural variation in cumulative exposure to endogenous oestrogens across the reproductive period influences

  1. Menstrual hygiene management and school absenteeism among female adolescent students in Northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Sisay, Mitike Molla

    2014-10-29

    Adolescence in girls has been recognized as a special period marked with the onset of menarche. Even though menstruation is a natural process, it is associated with misconceptions, malpractices and challenges among girls in developing countries. However, much is not documented; school-absenteeism and dropout are a common problem among girls in rural Ethiopia. Focusing among school girls, this study has examined knowledge about menstruation, determinants of menstrual management and its influence on school-attendance in Northeast Ethiopia. We conducted a mixed-method research combining quantitative and qualitative methods in Northeast Ethiopia. The quantitative study was conducted among 595 randomly selected adolescent school girls. Nine in-depth interviews; five school-dropout girls and four female teachers, and four focus group discussions among school girls were conducted in 2013. The mean age at menarche was 13.98 (±1.17) years. About 51% of girls had knowledge about menstruation and its management. Only a third of the girls used sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent during their last menstruation. Girls from urban areas, had mothers of secondary and above education and, families of higher monthly expenditure had more chance of using sanitary napkins than their counterparts. More than half of the girls reported to have been absent from school during their menstruation period. Those who did not use sanitary napkins were more likely to be absent from school [AOR-95% C.I: 5.37 (3.02 - 9.55)]. Fifty eight percent of girls reported that their school-performance had declined after they had menarche. In addition, the qualitative study indicated that school-dropout was common among girls who experienced teasing and humiliation by classmates when their clothes were stained with blood as they do not use sanitary napkins. Though there is an effort to increase girls' school enrollment, lack of basic needs, like sanitary napkins that facilitate routine activates of girls

  2. The Role of Mother in Informing Girls About Puberty: A Meta-Analysis Study

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    Sooki, Zahra; Shariati, Mohammad; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Effatpanah, Mohammad; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Family, especially the mother, has the most important role in the education, transformation of information, and health behaviors of girls in order for them to have a healthy transition from the critical stage of puberty, but there are different views in this regard. Objectives Considering the various findings about the source of information about puberty, a meta-analysis study was conducted to investigate the extent of the mother’s role in informing girls about puberty. Data Sources This meta-analysis study was based on English articles published from 2000 to February 2015 in the Scopus, PubMed, and Science direct databases and on Persian articles in the SID, Magiran, and Iran Medex databases with determined key words and their MeSH equivalent. Study Selection Quantitative cross-sectional articles were extracted by two independent researchers and finally 46 articles were selected based on inclusion criteria. STROBE list were used for evaluation of studies. Data Extraction The percent of mothers as the current and preferred source of gaining information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls was extracted from the articles. The results of studies were analyzed using meta-analysis (random effects model) and the studies’ heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 calculation index. Variance between studies was analyzed using tau squared (Tau2) and review manager 5 software. Results The results showed that, from the perspective of teenage girls in Iran and other countries, in 56% of cases, the mother was the current source of information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation. The preferred source of information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation was the mother in all studies at 60% (Iran 57%, and other countries 66%). Conclusions According to the findings of this study, it is essential that health professionals and officials of the ministry of health train

  3. Menstrual hygiene management among Bangladeshi adolescent schoolgirls and risk factors affecting school absence: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Islam, Khairul; Opel, Aftab; Shoab, Abul K; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mahon, Therese; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-07-09

    Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche. We sampled 700 schools from 50 urban and 50 rural clusters using a probability proportional to size technique. We interviewed 2332 schoolgirls and conducted spot checks in each school for menstrual hygiene facilities. To assess factors associated with reported school absence, we estimated adjusted prevalence difference (APD) for controlling confounders' effect using generalised estimating equations to account for school-level clustering. Among schoolgirls who reached menarche, 41% (931) reported missing school, an average of 2.8 missed days per menstrual cycle. Students who felt uncomfortable at school during menstruation (99% vs 32%; APD=58%; CI 54 to 63) and who believed menstrual problems interfere with school performance (64% vs 30%; APD=27; CI 20 to 33) were more likely to miss school during menstruation than those who did not. School absence during menstruation was less common among girls attending schools with unlocked toilet for girls (35% vs 43%; APD=-5.4; CI -10 to -1.6). School absence was more common among girls who were forbidden from any activities during menstruation (41% vs 33%; APD=9.1; CI 3.3 to 14). Risk factors for school absence included girl's attitude, misconceptions about menstruation, insufficient and inadequate facilities at school, and family restriction. Enabling girls to manage menstruation at school by providing knowledge and management methods prior to menarche, privacy and a

  4. Reproductive period, endogenous estrogen exposure and dementia incidence among women in Latin America and China; A 10/66 population-based cohort study

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    Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Valhuerdi, Adolfo

    2018-01-01

    Background Exposure to endogenous estrogen may protect against dementia, but evidence remains equivocal. Such effects may be assessed more precisely in settings where exogenous estrogen administration is rare. We aimed to determine whether reproductive period (menarche to menopause), and other indicators of endogenous estrogen exposure are inversely associated with dementia incidence. Methods Population-based cohort studies of women aged 65 years and over in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, including ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause, and parity, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. Results 9,428 women participated at baseline, with 72–98% responding by site. The ‘at risk’ cohort comprised 8,466 dementia-free women. Mean age varied from 72.0 to 75.4 years, lower in rural than urban sites and in China than in Latin America. Mean parity was 4.1 (2.4–7.2 by site), generally higher in rural than urban sites. 6,854 women with baseline reproductive period data were followed up for 26,463 person years. There were 692 cases of incident dementia, and 895 dementia free deaths. Pooled meta-analysed fixed effects, per year, for reproductive period (Adjusted Sub-Hazard Ratio [ASHR] 1.001, 95% CI 0.988–1.015) did not support any association with dementia incidence, with no evidence for effect modification by APOE genotype. No association was observed between incident dementia and; ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause: nulliparity; or index of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure. Greater parity was positively associated with incident dementia (ASHR 1.030, 95% CI 1.002–1.059, I2 = 0.0%). Conclusions We found no evidence to support the theory that natural variation in cumulative exposure to endogenous

  5. Association between Small Fetuses and Puberty Timing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xu; Li, Wenyan; Luo, Yan; Liu, Shudan; Wen, Yi; Liu, Qin

    2017-11-13

    Background : Epidemiological studies reporting the effect of small fetuses (SF) on puberty development have shown inconsistent results. Objective : To examine current study evidence and determine the strength and direction of the association between SF and puberty timing. Methods : PubMed, OVID, Web of Science, EBSCO, and four Chinese databases were searched from their date of inception to February 2016. All cohort studies that examined the association between SF and puberty timing in children were identified. Two reviewers independently screened the studies, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data. The quality of the included cohort studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Risk ratio (RR), Weighted Mean Difference (WMD), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and pooled by RevMan5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, London, UK). Results : A total of 10 cohort studies involving 2366 subjects was included in the final analysis. The pooled estimates showed that SF did not significantly increase the number of pubertal children in boys (RR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.15), or in girls (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.04). Compared with the control group, the SF group had an earlier onset of puberty in girls (WMD: -0.64; 95% CI: -1.21 to -0.06), and in precocious pubarche (PP) girls (WMD: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.13 to -0.07). There was no difference in the onset of puberty in boys (WMD: -0.48; 95% CI: -1.45 to 0.50) between SF and control groups. The pooled result indicated an earlier age at menarche in girls born small for gestational age (WMD: -0.30; 95% CI: -0.58 to -0.03), but no difference in the age at menarche in the SF group of PP girls. Conclusions : SF may be associated with an earlier age of onset of puberty, especially among girls, as well as earlier age at menarche for girls. Well-designed studies with larger sample sizes and long-term follow-up among different countries and ethnicities are needed.

  6. [Pubertal growth of 1,453 healthy children according to age at pubertal growth spurt onset. The Barcelona longitudinal growth study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Antonio; Yeste, Diego; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Gussinyé, Miquel; Ferrández, Ángel; Clemente, María; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica

    2018-02-20

    Pubertal growth pattern differs according to age at pubertal growth spurt onset which occurs over a five years period (girls: 8-13 years, boys: 10-15 years). The need for more than one pubertal reference pattern has been proposed. We aimed to obtain five 1-year-age-interval pubertal patterns. Longitudinal (6 years of age-adult height) growth study of 1,453 healthy children to evaluate height-for-age, growth velocity-for-age and weight-for-age values. According to age at pubertal growth spurt onset girls were considered: very-early matures (8-9 years, n=119), early matures (9-10 years, n=157), intermediate matures (10-11 years, n=238), late matures (11-12 years, n=127) and very-late matures (12-13 years, n=102), and boys: very-early matures (10-11 years, n=110), early matures (11-12 years, n=139), intermediate matures (12-13 years, n=225), late matures (13-14 years, n=133) and very-late matures (14-15 years, n=103). Age at menarche and growth up to adult height were recorded. In both sexes, statistically-significant (P<.0001) and clinically-pertinent differences in pubertal growth pattern (mean height-for-age, mean growth velocity-for-age and mean pubertal height gain, values) were found among the five pubertal maturity groups and between each group and the whole population, despite similar adult height values. The same occurred for age at menarche and growth from menarche to adult height (P<.05). In both sexes, pubertal growth spurt onset is a critical milestone determining pubertal growth and sexual development. The contribution of our data to better clinical evaluation of growth according to the pubertal maturity tempo of each child will obviate the mistakes made when only one pubertal growth reference is used. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. A cross-sectional study to assess awareness about menstruation in adolescent girls of an urban slum in western Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudeja, Puja; Sindhu, Apoorva; Shankar, Pooja; Gadekar, Tukaram

    2016-10-14

    Reproductive health of adolescent girls is crucial as it determines the health of future generations. School girls when experiencing menarche find themselves in a setting without water, toilets or a supportive female teacher to explain the changes happening in their body. An important concern for adolescent girls is to have adequate, correct knowledge along with facilities and the cultural environment to manage menstruation hygienically and with dignity. Hence, the present study was done to assess knowledge and practices about menstruation in adolescent school girls of an urban slum. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among girls of a Government School located in an urban slum of western Maharashtra. A total of 250 girls participated. Data collection was through a pilot-tested questionnaire. The data thus collected were entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed using the SPSS 20 software. All girls were educated about menstrual hygiene after the study. The mean age of the students was 14.9±1.75 years. The mean age at menarche was 11.97 (95% CI: 11.94-11.99). It was observed that only half (56.4%) had acquired prior knowledge about attaining menarche. Out of these in a large proportion, the knowledge was imparted to them by their mothers (60.7%), followed by friends (31.8%). There was no significant association between educational status of mother and awareness in respondent about menstruation. Regarding the organ of menstrual blood flow, half (50.7%) knew the correct answer (i.e. uterus); whereas the rest believed that it was stomach/kidney, etc. Most of the school girls (90.5%) used sanitary pads. Almost 90% of the young women faced physical complaints or health problems during menstruation. Most of the participants had some kind of restrictions on them during the menstruation and most of these were religious restrictions (69.7%) followed by physical (41.2%) and social restrictions (22.3%). All of them were unsatisfied with the toilets and

  8. Common Menstrual Problems among Slum Adolescent Girls of Western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganganahalli P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation, an important part of female reproductive cycle but menstrual dysfunction in adolescent girls may affect normal life of adolescent and young adult women.Objectives: To assess the percentage of common menstrual problems among adolescent girls from urban slums and to determine the correlation between common menstrual problems with nutritional status of these girls. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among adolescent girls residing in urban slum area under the field practice area of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Karad of Western Maharashtra, India during the month of November - December 2011. 237 adolescent girls,age between 12-19 years were interviewed and examined using pretested semistructured questionnaire. Data was collected by researchers with the help of Medical Officer and Medical Social Worker of Urban Health Training Center by personal interview and clinical examination method. Data was compiled and presented into frequency percentage distribution. Chisquare test was applied to determine the association between common menstrual problem swith body mass index and anemia. Results: Out of total 237 adolescent girls, 230 (97.04% had attained menarche of which, 147 girls(63.91% had regular and 83(36.08% had irregular menstrual cycle with mean age at menarche by recall method was 12.8 yrs. The percentage of common menstrual problems such as oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia,hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were 16.08%, 17.82%, 27.39%,59.56%, 49.13% and 46.52% respectively,however amenorrhea ( primary was seen in 3(0.01% girls. Prevalence of under nutrition and anemia was 40.86% and 60.43%. Health seeking behavior for common menstrual problem was seen in only 25.75% girls. Oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were significantly associated with anemia; however BMI was significantly associated with dysmenorrhea

  9. Reproductive period, endogenous estrogen exposure and dementia incidence among women in Latin America and China; A 10/66 population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Prince

    Full Text Available Exposure to endogenous estrogen may protect against dementia, but evidence remains equivocal. Such effects may be assessed more precisely in settings where exogenous estrogen administration is rare. We aimed to determine whether reproductive period (menarche to menopause, and other indicators of endogenous estrogen exposure are inversely associated with dementia incidence.Population-based cohort studies of women aged 65 years and over in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, including ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause, and parity, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 dementia, and mortality, three to five years later.9,428 women participated at baseline, with 72-98% responding by site. The 'at risk' cohort comprised 8,466 dementia-free women. Mean age varied from 72.0 to 75.4 years, lower in rural than urban sites and in China than in Latin America. Mean parity was 4.1 (2.4-7.2 by site, generally higher in rural than urban sites. 6,854 women with baseline reproductive period data were followed up for 26,463 person years. There were 692 cases of incident dementia, and 895 dementia free deaths. Pooled meta-analysed fixed effects, per year, for reproductive period (Adjusted Sub-Hazard Ratio [ASHR] 1.001, 95% CI 0.988-1.015 did not support any association with dementia incidence, with no evidence for effect modification by APOE genotype. No association was observed between incident dementia and; ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause: nulliparity; or index of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure. Greater parity was positively associated with incident dementia (ASHR 1.030, 95% CI 1.002-1.059, I2 = 0.0%.We found no evidence to support the theory that natural variation in cumulative exposure to endogenous oestrogens across the reproductive period

  10. The effect of fibromyalgia syndrome to gravidity, parity and duration of breastfeeding; A prospective study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulay, Koca Tuba; Emrullah, Tanrikut; Aydin, Arslan; Ciledag, Ozdemir Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) is a chronic pain disorder usually affecting women in their fertile period of life. However, the relationship between FS and pregnancy has not been studied in depth. The effect of FS on the course of pregnancy is poorly investigated in the current literature. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of FS to menarche age, gravidity, parity and duration of breastfeeding. One hundred and eighty-seven non-pregnant females attending between March 2015-June 2015, to Malatya State Hospital Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Outpatient Clinic, were included in this prospective study. One hundred eleven (111) of them were diagnosed with FS according to the American Rheumatology Association (ACR) 2010 criteria and were defined as group 1; group 2 comprised of seventy six (76) non-pregnant healthy volunteers. All participants were asked about their menarche age, marriage age, gravidity, parity, duration of breastfeeding by conducting a basic questionnaire survey. Patients' body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Depression parameters were evaluated by Beck Depression Scale (BDS). The average age of the patients was 39.04±9.21 (FS) and 38.47±9.65 (Control) years; first menarche age was at 13.28±1.38 (FS) and 13.59±1.54 years (Control), and marriage age was 20.1±3.62 (FS) and 20.69±3.90 years (Control), respectively. No statistically significant difference was found (p=0.598) between BMI values (FS, 27.76±4.95; Control 26.90±4.56 kg/m(2)). The results from both groups were similar in terms of gravidity, parity, and breastfeeding duration, with no statistically significant differences (p=0.252, 0.093, 0.075, respectively). The only significant difference was found in the depression parameter. The BDS results were statistically different between the groups, found higher in FS group (p=0.000). FS occurs as a result of symptoms such as mood disorder, anxiety, cognitive and sleep disorders, and also hormonal changes; no exact cause has yet been

  11. Headache classification and aspects of reproductive life in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhado, Eliana M; Bigal, Marcelo E; Galego, Andressa R; Galdezzani, João P; Queiroz, Luiz P

    2014-01-01

    To classify headaches as a function of the menstrual cycle and to contrast aspects relating to the reproductive cycle as a function of headache type. Participants responded to a structured questionnaire consisting of 44 questions. Detailed headache information, enabling the classification of headaches, and questions relating to the menstrual cycle were obtained. The sample consisted of 422 students. Menstrual headaches were experienced by 31.8%. Migraine without aura (MO) occurred in 13.3%, migraine with aura (MA) in 7.8%, and probable migraine in 6.4%. Women with MA were significantly more likely to have reached menarche at earlier ages than women without headaches (p=0.03). Use of a hormonal contraceptive was related to the function of having MA headaches or not. Most female college students are affected by menstrual headaches. Although the vast majority experience MO, other headaches also occur. Women with MA are equally likely to receive hormonal contraceptives as others.

  12. Study of adolescents exposed in utero: clinical and laboratory data 1958-1959, Nagasaki. Report 2. Growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrow, G N; Hamilton, H B; Hrubec, Z; Amamoto, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Fumie; Brill, A B

    1964-04-23

    A group of 286 adolescent children, all of whom were in utero at the time of the atomic bombing in Nasasaki, were examined as part of a long-term program to determine possible differences in growth and development that might be attributable to exposure to ionizing radiation. Three comparison groups were studied: Group I, whose mothers were within 2000 m from the hypocenter; Group II, whose mothers were located between 3000 to 4999 m; Group III, whose mothers were not in the city at the time of the bomb. Group I was further subdivided into high and low dose categories as judged by direct dose estimates, whether or not the mother experienced the acute radiation syndrome, or whether she was more or less than 1500 m from the hypocenter. The age at menarche and degree of epiphyseal closure in the wrist were determined. In addition, measurements were made of head circumference, standing and sitting heights, weight, and chest circumference.

  13. Hormonal control of p53 and chemoprevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry, D Joseph; Minter, Lisa M; Becker, Klaus A; Blackburn, Anneke C

    2002-01-01

    Improvements in the detection and treatment of breast cancer have dramatically altered its clinical course and outcome. However, prevention of breast cancer remains an elusive goal. Parity, age of menarche, and age at menopause are major risk factors drawing attention to the important role of the endocrine system in determining the risk of breast cancer, while heritable breast cancer susceptibility syndromes have implicated tumor suppressor genes as important targets. Recent work demonstrating hormonal modulation of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway draws together these established determinants of risk to provide a model of developmental susceptibility to breast cancer. In this model, the mammary epithelium is rendered susceptible due to impaired p53 activity during specific periods of mammary gland development, but specific endocrine stimuli serve to activate p53 function and to mitigate this risk. The results focus attention on p53 as a molecular target for therapies to reduce the risk of breast cancer

  14. Primary subfertility with partial septate uterus and longitudinal vaginal septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesmine Banu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year old married woman presented with the complaints of severe dyspareunia, difficulty in conceiving for 18 months, menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea since menarche. Clinical examination revealed longitudinal vaginal septum. Ultrasound scan revealed two endometrial cavities with a single cervix. Hysterosalpingogram revealed septum which had separated the endometrial cavity with no free spillage of contrast media on both fallopian tubes. Ultrasound KUB and intravenous urethrography did not reveal any abnormality in the urinary system. Resection of vaginal septum, hysteroscopic septoplasty and diagnostic laparoscopy were performed. Three months after the surgery, she was relieved from the symptoms. However, no comments on fertility issue can be made at the moment as the couple is practicing contraceptive methods.

  15. Detrimental Effects of Higher Body Mass Index and Smoking Habits on Menstrual Cycles in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, An Na; Park, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Seok Hyun; Jee, Byung Chul; Cha, Byung Heun; Sull, Jae Woong; Jun, Jin Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Alteration of menstrual cycle by individual lifestyles and unfavorable habits may cause menstrual irregularity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between lifestyle factors and menstrual irregularity in Korean women using data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. This cross-sectional study included 3779 nondiabetic Korean women aged 19-49 years who did not take any oral contraceptives or sex hormonal compounds. We examined the association of menstrual irregularity with age, body mass index (BMI), drinking experience, and smoking habits. Age, Asian BMI, marriage status, age at menarche, and smoking habits were significantly associated with menstrual cycle irregularity (p smoking habits in middle-aged women aged 30-39 years (p smoking habits in nondiabetic Korean women. Weight loss and smoking cessation should be recommended to promote women's reproductive health.

  16. [The Effects of Exercising in Childhood on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Torii, Suguru; Masujima, Atsushi

    In contemporary Japan, there is a polarizing trend in children who exercise more than 1,800 minutes a week and those who exercise less than 60 minutes a week. Quite a lot of girls in particular hate exercise,and therefore they don't get enough of it. Osteoporosis is a preventable disease from childhood. It is crucial for girls to exercise and to provide appropriate stimulation to bones before menarche, which increases bone mineral content. Exercise and sports in childhood are characterized as the ways to the lifelong prevention strategies against osteoporosis and fractures. It is hoped that all children practice appropriate exercise program based on scientific evidence to promote bone health. In this review article, the effects of exercising in childhood on bone health, and the points to be noted regarding childhood sports are described.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  18. Changing trends in reproductive/lifestyle factors in UK women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Glazer, Clara; Burnell, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    of the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS). DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort analysis. SETTING: Population cohort invited between 2001 and 2005 from age-sex registers of 27 Primary Care Trusts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and recruited through 13 National Health Service......-reported data on reproductive factors provided at recruitment were explored using tabular and graphical summaries to examine for differences between the birth cohorts. OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in mean age at menarche and menopause, use of oral contraceptives, change in family size, infertility treatments, tubal...... to reflect the reproductive history of the UK female postmenopausal population of similar age. Since these are risk factors for hormone-related cancers, these trends are important in understanding the changing incidence of these cancers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: International Standard Randomised Controlled...

  19. Estimating volumes of the pituitary gland from T1-weighted magnetic-resonance images: effects of age, puberty, testosterone, and estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Angelita Pui-Yee; Pipitone, Jon; Park, Min Tae M; Dickie, Erin W; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, Bruce G; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-07-01

    The pituitary gland is a key structure in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis--it plays an important role in sexual maturation during puberty. Despite its small size, its volume can be quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we study a cohort of 962 typically developing adolescents from the Saguenay Youth Study and estimate pituitary volumes using a newly developed multi-atlas segmentation method known as the MAGeT Brain algorithm. We found that age and puberty stage (controlled for age) each predicts adjusted pituitary volumes (controlled for total brain volume) in both males and females. Controlling for the effects of age and puberty stage, total testosterone and estradiol levels also predict adjusted pituitary volumes in males and pre-menarche females, respectively. These findings demonstrate that the pituitary gland grows during adolescence, and its volume relates to circulating plasma-levels of sex steroids in both males and females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiometabolic Risk in PCOS: More than a Reproductive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchen, Laura C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of Review Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is diagnosed by its characteristic reproductive features. However, PCOS is also associated with metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. The severity of these abnormalities varies according to the reproductive phenotype, with the so-called NIH or classic phenotype conferring the greatest metabolic risk. The increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) is well-established among affected women with the NIH phenotype, but whether PCOS also confers an increased risk for cardiovascular events remains unknown. Recent Findings Recent studies in daughters of affected women have found evidence for pancreatic β-cell dysfunction prior to menarche. Further, genetic analyses have provided evidence that metabolic abnormalities such as obesity and insulin resistance contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Summary PCOS increases the risk for T2D. However, the risk for cardiovascular disease has not been quantified, and prospective, longitudinal studies are still critically needed. PMID:29128916

  1. Identification of new genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer through consideration of gene-environment interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeps, Anja; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra

    2014-01-01

    recently proposed hybrid methods and a joint test of association and interaction. Analyses were adjusted for age, study, population stratification, and confounding factors as applicable. Three SNPs in two independent loci showed statistically significant association: SNPs rs10483028 and rs2242714......,475 cases and 34,786 controls of European ancestry from up to 23 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were included. Overall, 71,527 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), enriched for association with breast cancer, were tested for interaction with 10 environmental risk factors using three...... in perfect linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 21 and rs12197388 in ARID1B on chromosome 6. While rs12197388 was identified using the joint test with parity and with age at menarche (P-values = 3 × 10(-07)), the variants on chromosome 21 q22.12, which showed interaction with adult body mass index (BMI) in 8...

  2. Metabolic syndrome and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Jenny V; Moreno, Dolores; Garcia, Alexis H; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a syndrome that involves at least three disorders dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity and/or hypertension. MetS has been associated with several chronic diseases in the adulthood; however, in the recent years, the syndrome was redefined in children. Girls with early menarche and asthma, and children with MetS and asthma that reach adulthood appear to have higher risk to develop severe or difficult to control asthma and a higher probability to suffer cardiovascular diseases. It has been proposed that patients with MetS and endocrinological disorders should be considered a different entity in which pharmacologic treatment should be adjusted according to the individual. Recent patents on the field have addressed new issues on how endocrine control should be managed along with asthma therapeutics. In the near future, new approaches should decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated to these types of patients.

  3. A first case of primary amenorrhea with i(X(qter---q10::---qter, rob(13;14(q10;q10, inv(9(p13q33 karyotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Korgaonkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary amenorrhea (PA refers to the absence of menarche by the age of 16-18 years although secondary sexual characters are developed. PA occurs in 1-3% of women in the reproductive age group. Various factors such as anatomical, genetic and hormonal factors reported to influence PA. We report triple chromosomal abnormalities of rob(13;14(q10;q10,inv(9(p13q33, i(Xq(qter---q10::---qter in a case of PA and short stature. Though proband has multiple chromosome aberrations, genotypic effect of only i(Xq is evident as proband has PA and short stature. The rob(13;14 and inv(9, which are paternally derived may have role in later reproductive age. Therefore, chromosomal analysis is essential in such cases for the accurate diagnosis and management of the disease.

  4. GnRH-dependent precocious puberty manifested at the age of 14 months in a girl with 47,XXX karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordis, Nicos; Ferrari, Eleana; Antoniadou, Aria; Phylactou, Leonidas A; Fanis, Pavlos; Neocleous, Vassos

    2017-07-01

    This case report describes a 47,XXX girl who presented very early, at the age of 14 months, with signs of sexual precocity (breast and pubic hair development, menarche) and was finally diagnosed with GnRH dependent precocious puberty with no evidence of underlying central nervous system pathology. Molecular testing did not identify any genetic defect in any of the genes tested (KISS1, KISS1R, DLK1 and the intronless MKRN3). Though previous studies have shown a link between karyotype 47,XXX and precocious puberty, this is the youngest patient reported so far. Treatment with GnRH analog was commenced and proved to be effective, indicating a successful suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.

  5. A rare cause of acute abdominal pain: Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ramazan; Ozdemir, Ayse Zehra; Ozturk, Bahadir; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Tosun, Migraci

    2014-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a rare müllerian duct anomaly with uterus didelphys, unilateral obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Patients with this syndrome generally present after menarche with pelvic pain and mass and, rarely, primary infertility in later years. Strong suspicion and knowledge of this syndrome are mandatory for an accurate diagnosis. A 14-year-old female patient presented with acute retention of urine and abdominopelvic pain. Her condition was diagnosed with the use ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging as a case of HWW syndrome. She was treated with vaginal hemiseptal resection. The HWW syndrome should be considered among the differential diagnoses in girls with renal anomalies presenting with pelvic mass, symptoms of acute abdominal pain, and acute urinary retention.

  6. Herlyn-werner-wunderlich syndrome: MRI findings, radiological guide (two cases and literature review), and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Battisti, Sofia; Di Paola, Valerio; Piccolo, Claudia L; Cazzato, Roberto L; Sansoni, Ilaria; Grasso, Rosario F; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2012-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract involving Müllerian ducts and Wolffian structures, and it is characterized by the triad of didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. It generally occurs at puberty and exhibits non-specific and variable symptoms with acute or pelvic pain shortly following menarche, causing a delay in the diagnosis. Moreover, the diagnosis is complicated by the infrequency of this syndrome, because Müllerian duct anomalies (MDA) are infrequently encountered in a routine clinical setting. two cases of HWW syndrome in adolescents and a differential diagnosis for one case of a different MDA, and the impact of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology to achieve the correct diagnosis. MR imaging is a very suitable diagnostic tool in order to perform the correct diagnosis of HWW syndrome

  7. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and pubertal development among sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, M L; Håkonsen, L B; Vested, A

    2014-01-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy has been associated with earlier age of menarche in daughters as well as reduced semen quality in sons. We aimed at investigating pubertal development in sons born by mothers with a high body mass index (BMI). The study included 2522 sons of mothers...... indicators of pubertal development, results also indicated earlier pubertal development among sons of obese mothers. After excluding sons of underweight mothers in a subanalysis, we observed an inverse trend between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and age at regular shaving, acne and first nocturnal emission....... In conclusion, maternal pre-pregnant obesity may be related to earlier timing of pubertal milestones among sons. More research, preferably based on prospectively collected information about pubertal development, is needed to draw firm conclusions....

  8. A Twin Study of Objective and Subjective Pubertal Timing and Peer Influence on Risk-Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, Natalie; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K Paige

    2016-03-01

    The current study used a behavioral genetic design to test whether three measures of pubertal timing moderated peer influence on risk-taking in a sample of 248 female adolescent twin pairs ( M age =16.0, SD =1.5) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Peer influence was operationalized as the quasi-causal association between girls' self-reported risk-taking and the risk-taking reported by their friends. Girls with earlier ages at menarche and who perceived themselves as more developed than peers were more susceptible to peer influence on risk-taking. However, age-standardized ratings of body changes did not moderate peer influence. This study highlights distinctions between multiple measures of pubertal timing, using an innovative synthesis of genetically informative data and peer nomination data.

  9. Hypothesis: exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may interfere with timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Aksglaede, L; Sørensen, K

    2010-01-01

    A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors...... of normal puberty are poorly understood. This hampers investigation of the possible role of environmental influences. There are many types of EDCs. One chemical may have more than one mode of action and the effects may depend on dose and duration of the exposure, as well as the developmental stage...... in life. Most known EDCs have oestrogenic and/or anti-androgenic actions and only few have androgenic or anti-oestrogenic effects. Thus, it appears plausible that they interfere with normal onset of puberty. The age at menarche has only declined by a few months whereas the age at breast development has...

  10. Idiopathic precocious puberty in girls: Psychosexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, H F; Ehrhardt, A A; Bell, J J; Cohen, S F; Healey, J M; Feldman, J F; Morishima, A; Baker, S W; New, M I

    1985-08-01

    A promising model syndrome for the examination of the role of physical maturation in the development of female sexuality is idiopathic precocious puberty (IPP). In this first controlled study of psychosexual development in IPP females, 16 females between 13 and 20 years of age with a history of IPP were compared to 16 control subjects with a history of normal puberty pair-matched to the index subjects on the basis of sex, race, age, socioeconomic level, and menarcheal status. The psychosexual history and the current psychosexual status were assessed by a systematic half-structured interview. The IPP females on average passed the psychosexual milestones at an earlier age than their normal maturing peers, with a particularly early onset of masturbation. Those who were sociosexually active tended to report a higher total orgasmic outlet and a higher sex drive. There was no increase in homosexuality among IPP girls. The timing of puberty has a (modest) influence on psychosexual development in females.

  11. Psychosexual characteristics of female university students in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, R M; Buoncompagno, E M; Leite, A C; Mergulhao, E A; Battistoni, M M

    1994-01-01

    Freshmen women (N = 240) at the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil responded to a questionnaire concerning several aspects of their sexuality from the beginning of adolescence. Topics such as body changes during puberty, menarche, menstruation, masturbation, sexual identity, virginity, sexual relations, maternity, contraceptives, abortion, and attitudes toward AIDS were investigated, as well as the level and sources of information about sex and the quality of the subjects' relationships with their parents. The majority of the subjects revealed satisfactory development in most of the aspects surveyed, as well as in their relationships with their parents except where sexual issues were concerned. Nevertheless, most of the students reported menstrual disturbances, and a significant number of the sexually active reported inappropriate behavior in relation to contraception and AIDS prevention. The results of the research are analyzed using psychodynamic theories of sexual development.

  12. Un caso de Síndrome de Wünderlich y revisión de la bibliografía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mederos-Mollineda, Katiuska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of congenital malformations is still a universal problem nowadays. The present work is a study of a case of a 14-year-old patient at the Cancer Hospital Dr. Julio Villacreces Colmont (SOLCA in Manabí, Ecuador, that from September 2014 begins with clinical symptoms of steady pelvic pain, a persistent and fetid leukorrhea without menarche and response to a specific treatment. Once carried ultrasound and MRI, multiple congenital malformations are defined to give the diagnosis Wünderlich Syndrome; a rare disease, which is frequent at a 40%. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the high frequency of this disease to reduce unnecessary surgical treatment (hysterectomy, which is an aggravating factor for possible reproductive status. In Ecuador there is no statistical report of this syndrome, or there is underreporting of this disease.

  13. Conditions in the Channel Islands during the 1940–45 German Occupation and their impact on the health of islanders: A systematic review of published reports and first-hand accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T. H. Ellison

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1940-45 German occupation of the Channel Islands culminated in a 10-month siege between the liberation of Normandy in 1944 and the fall of Berlin in May 1945. This paper systematically reviews published reports and first-hand accounts of conditions in the Channel Islands during the occupation, and assesses the impact of these conditions on the health of islanders. Vital registration data, official reports and first-hand accounts all suggest that the occupation was accompanied by widespread weight loss and an increase in mortality, particularly among the elderly and other vulnerable groups. Children, adolescents and young adults may have also suffered disproportionately as these groups (teenagers in particular were allocated rations that underestimated their full nutritional requirements. Indeed, data collected before, during and after the occupation reveal that the height and weight of school children was significantly lower during the occupation, while age at menarche was significantly delayed amongst girls entering puberty.

  14. Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, Susan Y; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E; Lee, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    or girls. A majority of the panelists agreed that data are sufficient to suggest a trend toward an earlier breast development onset and menarche in girls but not for other female pubertal markers. A minority of panelists concluded that the current data on girls' puberty timing for any marker...... are insufficient. Almost all panelists concluded, on the basis of few studies and reliability issues of some male puberty markers, that current data for boys are insufficient to evaluate secular trends in male pubertal development. The panel agreed that altered puberty timing should be considered an adverse effect......Whether children, especially girls, are entering and progressing through puberty earlier today than in the mid-1900s has been debated. Secular trend analysis, based on available data, is limited by data comparability among studies in different populations, in different periods of time, and using...

  15. Initial experience with the providence nighttime bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quisth, Lena; Beuschau, Inge; Simony, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2008 the primary non-surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the southern part of Denmark, went from full-time bracing with Boston brace, to Providence nighttime bracing. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of nighttime bracing, with the Providence brace...... with the Providence nighttime brace and an acceptable 18 % failure rate. The nighttime brace is an excellent alternative to standard conservative treatment, and reduces the need for physiotherapy after brace termination. The patients tolerate the nighttime brace treatment well, and compliance within the cohort......, in AIS. Method: Patients diagnosed with AIS. With an apex from TH7 and below and with a cobb angel between 20-45 degrees. The patients were evaluated every 6 months with standing x-rays and the brace treatment was continued until two years post menarche. Cobb angle of the major curve pretreatment, in...

  16. Reproductive profiles and risk of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouckaert, Olivier; Rudolph, Anja; Laenen, Annouschka

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis. Methods: We used...... pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer...... the risk for TNBC (OR = 0.78, CI 0.70-0.88, p diagnosis, whereas the association with luminal HER2-like BC was present only for early onset BC....

  17. Hypogonadism and Sex Steroid Replacement Therapy in Girls with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Aneta; Hankus, Magdalena; Such, Kamila; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Madej, Paweł; Borkowska, Marzena; Zachurzok, Agnieszka; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Turner syndrome is the most common example of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism resulting from gonadal dysgenesis. Most patients present delayed, or even absent, puberty. Premature ovarian failure can be expected even if spontaneous menarche occurs. Laboratory markers of gonadal dysgenesis are well known. The choice of optimal hormone replacement therapy in children and adolescents remains controversial, particularly regarding the age at which therapy should be initiated, and the dose and route of estrogen administration. On the basis of a review of the literature, we present the most acceptable schedule of sex steroid replacement therapy in younger patients with Turner syndrome. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    differences between USA and Denmark, as well as to look for possible secular trends in pubertal development. Healthy Caucasian children from public schools in Denmark participated in the study which was carried out in 1991-1993. A total number of 826 boys and 1,100 girls (aged 6.0-19.9 years) were included......, and pubertal stages were assessed by clinical examination according to methods of Tanner. In boys testicular volume was determined using an orchidometer. We found that age at breast development 2 (B2) was 10.88 years, and mean menarcheal age was 13.42 years. Girls with body mass index (BMI) above the median...... genetic polymorphisms, nutrition, physical activity or endocrine disrupting chemicals must therefore also be considered. Therefore, we believe it is crucial to monitor the pubertal development closely in Denmark in the coming decades....

  19. [Growth and development of children in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán Rodríguez, J; Bebel Agua, A; Rubén, M; Hernández, J

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1972 to 1974, a great scale study was carried out on development and growth taking at random a stratified sample of multiple stages of 50,311 children from birth to 20 years. Fifteen anthropometric dimensions were considered and evaluation was made of sexual development in both sexes. In girls, the age of menarche was registered. An X-ray of the hand was taken to 10% of the sample. One year later, 30% of the sample was X-rayed again to determine speed of growth. Response of the population was close to 94%. The importance of a national system of growth is recognized, together with the colaboration of the orgaism of masses to achieve these purposes. Information related with some of measurements reported is offered and comments related with these findings are made.

  20. A Case of Distal Vaginal Agenesis Presenting with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Pyuria in a Prepubertal Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Ozlem; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Yasa, Cenk; Bastu, Ercan; Eren, Hulya; Yuksel, Bahar; Celik, Serdal; Akhan, Suleyman Engin

    2017-02-01

    Isolated distal vaginal agenesis is a rare anomaly and mostly becomes symptomatic after menarche. We describe an unusual presentation of this anomaly in a prepubertal girl. An 11-year-old prepubertal girl presented with recurrent urinary tract infection, pyuria, and right-sided renal agenesis. The findings of perineal inspection, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a distal vaginal agenesis with pyometrocolpos. Discharging pyometrocolpos with dissection of the atretic portion and a pull-through vaginoplasty were performed. A cystoscopy showed no sign of a vesicovaginal or uterine fistula. This rare presentation of distal vaginal agenesis reminds us that congenital malformations of the female genital tract should be considered in patients with congenital anomalies of the urinary system and/or recurrent urinary tract infection, even during the prepubertal period. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G

    1999-01-01

    To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.

  2. Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Cho, On Koo; Kim, Yong Soo; Hahm, Chang Kok [School of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary is a rare benign neoplasm, with distinctive clinical and pathologic features. It occurs predominantly in females during the second and third decades of life. Histologically, it is composed of cellular and acellular collagenized areas, and edematous stromal areas, and at ultrasonography and computed tomography is seen as a distinctive mixed solid and cystic mass lesion. We report a case of sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a 15-year-old girl with a history of menorrhagia since menarche. Ultrasonography revealed the tumor as a well-defined, lobulated, heterogenous echogenic pelvic mass, while at CT, a huge pelvic mass 9 x 9 x 10 cm in size, was seen. This comprised a well-enhanced internal solid portion, a capsule, septa, and a non-enhanced cystic portion.

  3. Menstruation: symptoms, management and attitude of female nursing students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moronkola, O A; Uzuegbu, V U

    2006-12-01

    This study surveyed 120 student nurses from two schools of nursing in Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the symptoms experienced during menstruation, attitude towards and management of menstruation. The student nurses overall mean age at menarche was 14 years, average duration of menstrual period was five days and mean of menstrual cycle was 28 days. Out of the 120 study participants, 93% were having menstruation regularly. More participants experienced symptoms during premenstrual periods than menstrual periods. Majority (70%) used sanitary pad to manage their menstruation, 93% had positive attitude towards menstruation while only 20% consulted medical doctors whenever they experienced menstrual symptoms. Paracetamol was the drug of choice for many of the participants whenever they experienced menstrual symptoms It was recommended that authorities in schools of nursing should not overlook reproductive health needs of students. Also teaching of reproductive health education early in primary and secondary schools should be encouraged.

  4. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene amongst adolescent school girls in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawan, U M; Yusuf, Nafisa Wali; Musa, Aisha Bala

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the knowledge and practices of adolescent school girls in Kano, Nigeria around menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Data was collected quantitatively and analyzed using Epi info version 3.2.05. The mean age of the students was 14.4 +/- 1.2 years; majority was in their mid adolescence. The students attained menarche at 12.9 +/- 0.8 years. Majority had fair knowledge of menstruation, although deficient in specific knowledge areas. Most of them used sanitary pads as absorbent during their last menses; changed menstrual dressings about 1-5 times per day; and three-quarter increased the frequency of bathing. Institutionalizing sexuality education in Nigerian schools; developing and disseminating sensitive adolescent reproductive health massages targeted at both parents and their adolescent children; and improving access of the adolescents to youth friendly services are veritable means of meeting the adolescent reproductive health needs in Nigeria.

  5. Malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old girl with fatal clinical outcome. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sidra; Ud Din, Nasir; Kayani, Naila

    2016-01-27

    Phyllodes tumors are rare biphasic tumors occur predominantly in middle aged women. Malignant phyllodes tumor in children is very rare. To report a case of malignant phyllodes tumor in a pre-menarchal girl. H&E slides of the case were reviewed and follow up was obtained. The patient was 11-year-old girl who noticed a lump in her right breast 1 year back which grew rapidly in size. Wide local excision of the mass was done and histopathology revealed a malignant phyllodes tumor. Patient underwent mastectomy one month later due to recurrence. Two years later, she presented with dyspnea and chest pain. CT showed lung metastasis. The patient died of disease 1 year later due to widespread metastasis in liver and bone. We report a case of malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old girl, which behaved aggressively and patient died of disease due to widespread metastases 3 years after diagnosis.

  6. Unilateral occlusion of duplicated uterus with ipsilateral renal anomaly in young girls: a study with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.W.; Shieh, C.P.; Chen, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four young girls (mean age 13.0 years) with unilateral occlusion of a duplicated uterus and ipsilateral renal agenesis, dysplasia or hypoplasia were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following ultrasound examination. Hydrocolpos (n=4), hydrometrocolpos (n=2), hematocolpos (n=11), hematometrocolpos (n=5), hematocolpometra, hematosalpinx (n=3) and hematometra, hematosalpinx (n=1) were noted (two of these patients had presented with hydrocolpos and hematocolpos before and after the menarche). Twenty-two of these girls presented with ipsilateral renal agenesis (right 11, left 11) with ectopic ureters to Gartner's dust cysts (GDC) in two, in one renal hypoplasia and in one renal dysplasia with ectopic ureters to GDC. MRI offered specific images of the genital tract, showing the exact type of muellerian duct anomaly and providing high diagnostic accuracy. Such preoperative identification of a uterine anomaly, complemented with appropriate surgical intervention, can assist young girls in achieving normal fertility in the future. (orig.)

  7. Recurrent, purulent vaginal discharge associated with longstanding presence of a foreign body and vaginal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Deborah A; Berry, Scott; Brannian, John; Hansen, Keith

    2003-12-01

    A 13-year-old presented with malodorous, purulent, vaginal discharge following each menses for the last three months since menarche. This discharge resolved following antibiotic therapy but recurred with each menses. On exam, the patient was found to have a blind ending vagina with a small, midline perforation. Ultrasound and MRI examinations done prior to surgery did not identify the vaginal foreign body. She was taken to the operating room for examination under anesthesia and vaginoscopy. During surgery this area was found to be comprised of dense adhesions which nearly obliterated the distal vagina. The vaginal adhesions were lysed and a plastic foreign body was discovered in the upper vagina. After removing the foreign body the superior vagina was undermined, pulled down, and sutured to normal inferior vagina. A Mentor mold was placed in the vagina to maintain patency.

  8. Atitudes alimentares e imagem corporal em meninas adolescentes de ascendência nipônica e caucasiana em São Paulo (SP Eating attitudes and body image in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescent girls in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam A. Sampei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Há muita controvérsia nos estudos que analisam a relação entre etnia e transtornos alimentares a despeito do rápido aumento desses distúrbios em diversos grupos étnicos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar as atitudes alimentares em adolescentes de ascendência nipônica e caucasiana no Brasil. A influência do índice de massa corporal (IMC, da menarca e das relações socioafetivas no desenvolvimento dos transtornos alimentares também foi discutida. MÉTODOS: Questionários sobre atitudes alimentares e influências socioafetivas foram aplicados a 544 adolescentes de origem nipo-brasileira e caucasiana: adolescentes pré-menarca de 10 e 11 anos nipo-brasileiras (n = 122 e caucasianas (n = 176 e adolescentes pós-menarca de 16 e 17 anos nipo-brasileiras (n = 71 e caucasianas (n = 175. RESULTADOS: Adolescentes caucasianas apresentaram maiores escores no Teste de Atitudes Alimentares (EAT-26, mostraram maior insatisfação com suas imagens corporais, faziam mais dieta e tinham mais modelos de dietas representados pelas mães e pares do que as adolescentes nipo-brasileiras. CONCLUSÃO: As adolescentes caucasianas, de um modo geral, parecem sentir mais as pressões culturais e estéticas sobre a imagem corporal do que as nipônicas. A frequência alta de meninas caucasianas pré-menarca com escore acima de 20 no EAT-26 mostra que a preocupação com a imagem corporal vem ocorrendo cada vez mais cedo. A análise de regressão múltipla revelou muitas associações entre a interação das adolescentes com suas mães e o desenvolvimento de atitudes alimentares inadequadas.OBJECTIVE: Despite investigations into the rapid increase in eating disorders across diverse ethnic groups, conclusions concerning ethnicity and eating disorders are contradictory. The objective of the present study was to investigate eating attitudes in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescents in Brazil. The influence of body mass index (BMI, menarche and

  9. Microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a 14-year-old adolescent: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vitola Gonçalves

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Cancer of the uterine cervix is rare during adolescence. The reported rates are 0/100,000 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years and 1.7/100,000 women aged 20 to 24 years. However, several studies have shown increasing incidence of preneoplastic lesions at increasingly early ages. CASE REPORT: This paper reports a case of microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a 14-year-old patient with menarche at 10 years of age and first coitus at 12 years of age. The objective of the present report was to alert gynecologists and pediatricians regarding the need for cervical carcinoma prevention among sexually active adolescents, based on educational programs that explain the purpose of colpocytological examinations and encourage their use, along with condom use and limitation of the number of sexual partners.

  10. Mulheres XY e a Síndrome de Insensibilidade aos Andrógenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Edson Marques Bandeira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims are to report a case of Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS and discuss aspects of opportune diagnosis and treatment of AIS. Case Report: C.F.F., 35, sought medical assistance reporting overweight and hypertension. During the anamnesis did not present menarche; with normal breast development, but late, around 14 years. Physical examination shows normal female external genitalia, with scarce pubic hair (P2 and the absence of axillary hair; breasts with normal development (M5. Conclusions: The result of the G band karyotype was 46, XY for the sisters and the screening in relatives revealed prepubescent girl with XY karyotype. The risk of tumor development is difficult to be predicted recently markers were identified that may be useful in determining individual risk and suggest the time of gonadectomy. The current consensus on the approach related to intersex disorders recommends gonadectomy at diagnosis for patients with AIS, after puberty, due to the ease of hormone replacement.

  11. Atresia Hymenalis with Haematometrocolpos: A Benefit of Teaching a Case Series and Review of the Literature

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitla, L

    2017-09-01

    Imperforate hymen or atresia hymenalis is a rare clinical presentation, the condition is estimated to be present in 0.5\\/1000 females1. It is the most common obstructive anomaly of the female genital tract, and results from failure of canalization of the vaginal plate in utero. Atresia hymenalis can present in neonates as bulging hymen due to accumulation of secretions by the uterovaginal mucosa2,3. Usually the imperforate hymen is asymptomatic until menarche, when haematometrocolpos results in symptoms such as abdominal pain, abdominal mass, urinary retention and constipation. Many cases are diagnosed in the evaluation of primary amenorrhoea or recurrent abdominal pain2,3. We present 4 cases diagnosed over a 7 month period in our ED.

  12. Cardiometabolic Risk in PCOS: More than a Reproductive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchen, Laura C

    2017-11-11

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is diagnosed by its characteristic reproductive features. However, PCOS is also associated with metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. The severity of these abnormalities varies according to the reproductive phenotype, with the so-called NIH or classic phenotype conferring the greatest metabolic risk. The increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) is well established among affected women with the NIH phenotype, but whether PCOS also confers an increased risk for cardiovascular events remains unknown. Recent studies in daughters of affected women have found evidence for pancreatic β-cell dysfunction prior to menarche. Further, genetic analyses have provided evidence that metabolic abnormalities such as obesity and insulin resistance contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. PCOS increases the risk for T2D. However, the risk for cardiovascular disease has not been quantified, and prospective, longitudinal studies are still critically needed.

  13. Gene-environment interactions involving functional variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Rudolph, Anja; Hopper, John L

    2017-01-01

    .36, 95% CI: 1.16-1.59, pint  = 1.9 × 10(-5) ) in relation to ER- disease risk. The remaining two gene-environment interactions were also identified in relation to ER- breast cancer risk and were found between 3p21-rs6796502 and age at menarche (ORint  = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.12-1.43, pint =1.8 × 10...... epidemiological breast cancer risk factors in relation to breast cancer. Analyses were conducted on up to 58,573 subjects (26,968 cases and 31,605 controls) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, in one of the largest studies of its kind. Analyses were carried out separately for estrogen receptor (ER......) positive (ER+) and ER negative (ER-) disease. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP) was computed to assess the noteworthiness of the results. Four potential gene-environment interactions were identified as noteworthy (BFDP 

  14. Urinary incontinence in very young and mostly nulliparous women with a history of regular organised high-impact trampoline training: occurrence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Kerstin; Edner, Ann; Mattsson, Eva

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of urinary incontinence (UI) in mostly nulliparous women with a history of regular organised trampoline training as adolescents and to identify possible predictors. Female trampolinists in Sweden with licence for trampolining between 1995--1999 (n = 305), with a median age of 21 (range 18-44) years answered retrospectively a validated questionnaire. Competition with double somersaults had been performed by 85 women, the "competition group" (CG), while 220 women comprised the "recreational group" (RG). Of the trampolinists with UI during trampolining, 76% continued to leak. In CG, 57% and, in RG, 48% reported current UI. Strong predictors for UI were inability to interrupt micturition (p trampolining (p trampolining after menarche increased the risk of UI (p trampolining cannot be ruled out.

  15. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: X chromosome defects and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persani, Luca; Rossetti, Raffaella; Cacciatore, Chiara; Bonomi, Marco

    2009-08-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years. However, in several instances the distinction between definitive or intermittent POF may be difficult on clinical bases, therefore the more appropriate term Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) has been recently proposed and will be used in this review. POI is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women disappearance of menstrual cycles (secondary amenorrhea) associated with a defective folliculogenesis. POI is generally characterized by low levels of gonadal hormones (estrogens and inhibins) and high levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) (hypergonadotropic amenorrhea). Heterogeneity of POI is reflected by the variety of possible causes, including autoimmunity, toxics, drugs, as well as genetic defects. Several data indicate that POI has a strong genetic component. In this manuscript we discuss the X chromosome abnormalities that are associated with POI.

  16. Risk factors of breast cancer among women in eastern India: a tertiary hospital based case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soumen; Sen, Santanu; Mukherjee, Anindya; Chakraborty, Debadatta; Mondal, Pankaj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers of women in India with high fatality rate. Over a 1 year study period 105 consecutive biopsy or fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed breast cancer patients were interviewed by direct questionnaire method regarding risk factors attending Surgery and Radiotherapy OPD of Medical College Kolkata, West Bengal while taking other 105 patients attending Surgery Department for some other disease as controls. The data were compiled in MS Excel 2007 and analyzed by Epi info 3.5.1 software. Among the cases, rural residence, illiteracy and low socio-economic status was significantly higher than controls. Late onset of menarche, late onset of menopause, ever OCP usage, breast feeding for 1-2 years and age of 1st childbirth between 20-30 years were found to be significant protective factors. People should be made aware regarding the modifiable risk factors to prevent breast cancer.

  17. Health-related Quality of Life in Young Adult Girls with Dysmenorrhea among University Medical Students in Shah Alam, Malaysia: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumeshini Sukalingam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea is a notably serious crisis among young adult girls and it distresses their quality of life. After menarche, most young adult girls suffer severe pain, irregular menses, too much bleeding, and dysmenorrhea. It is a common gynecological complication affecting more than half of the young adult girls resulting in episodic school absenteeism coupled with a negative impact on social behavior, educational, and sports activities. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive, conducted from September to November 2013 among 210 young adult, female medical students of Management and Science University, using a semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire used in this study was associated with the health-related quality of life among young adult girls; questions were related to demography, family menstrual history, prevalence, symptoms, absentees of school, involvement in sports activities, and self-care strategies. This survey was completed and the data was analyzed for the results with percentages and chi-square test applied.

  18. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its correlating lifestyle factors in Japanese female junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Mie; Maruyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-06-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual disorder experienced by adolescents, and its major symptoms, including pain, adversely affect daily life and school performance. However, little epidemiologic evidence on dysmenorrhea in Japanese adolescents exists. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with dysmenorrhea in Japanese female junior high school students. Among 1,167 girls aged between 12 and 15 years, 1,018 participants completed a questionnaire that solicited information on age at menarche, menstruation, and lifestyle, as well as demographic characteristics. Dysmenorrhea was defined based on menstrual pain using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), with moderate or severe (moderate-severe) dysmenorrhea, which adversely affects daily life, defined as VAS ≥ 4, and severe dysmenorrhea defined as VAS ≥ 7. The prevalence of moderate-severe dysmenorrhea was 476/1,018 (46.8%), and that of severe dysmenorrhea was 180/1,018 (17.7%). Higher chronological and gynecological ages (years after menarche) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea regardless of severity (P for trend dysmenorrhea (OR = 3.05, 95%CI: 1.06-8.77), and sports activity levels were associated with severe dysmenorrhea (P for trend = 0.045). Our findings suggest that dysmenorrhea that adversely affects daily activities is highly prevalent, and may be associated with certain lifestyle factors in junior high school students. Health education teachers should be made aware of these facts, and appropriately care for those suffering from dysmenorrhea symptoms, absentees, and those experiencing difficulties in school life due to dysmenorrhea symptoms.

  19. Menstrual Disorders from Puberty to Early Adult Age: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Hitesh Shah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A female encounters various menstrual disorders from puberty to menopause. We evaluated menstrual disturbances in post-menarche age and young adult age. Aim: To know the prevalence and impact of menstrual abnormalities at early adolescent and young adult age and to evaluate course of disorders identified at early adolescent age. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out through self-administered questionnaire on 367 consented students at Melaka Manipal Medical College at Manipal, during December 2015- April 2016. Data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Prevalence and pattern of menstrual disorders at early adolescent and at young adult age were noted. The mean age of menarche was 12.1 ±1.1 years. Menorrhagia was the most frequent (14.7% and 11.7% and polymenorrhea (7.6 % and 6% was least frequent menstrual disorder at adolescent age and young adult age respectively. Resolution of pubertal menstrual disorders was observed in all disorders, but noticed highest in oligomenorrhea (91%, (p-value <0.05. Prevalence of menstrual related disorder like dysmenorrhea was 88.7% at adolescent age and 67.6% at the young adult age. It was statistically significant reduction. Hindrance in academic performance and social behavior was noted more at young adult age, which was in 23.9% and 46.7% respectively (p-value <0.05. Conclusion: The most prevalent menstrual abnormality was menorrhagia at the early adolescent and the young adult age. Associated the most prevalent menstrual related symptoms were dysmenorrhea at early adolescent age, and premenstrual symptom at the young adult age. The study demonstrates the natural course (decreasing prevalence of all menstrual disorders from early adolescent to young adult age.

  20. Early-life nutritional status and metabolic syndrome: gender-specific associations from a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskiewicz, Bruna Lucas; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; do Amaral, Joana Ferreira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Giatti, Luana

    2018-06-01

    In the present study we investigated gender-specific associations of low birth weight (LBW) and shorter relative leg length with metabolic syndrome (MetS) after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviours. We also investigated whether these associations are independent of age at menarche and BMI at 20 years old. Cross-sectional analysis. Baseline data from 12 602 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), 2008-2010. MetS was defined according to the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. LBW (<2·5 kg) and age- and sex-standardized relative leg length (high, medium and low) were the explanatory variables studied. The strength of the associations between the explanatory variables and MetS was estimated by Poisson regression with robust variance. MetS prevalence was 34·2 %; it was more prevalent in men (36·8 %) than in women (32·2 %). In multivariate analysis, LBW was associated (prevalence ratio; 95 % CI) with MetS only in women (1·28; 1·24, 1·45). Shorter leg length was associated with MetS in both men (1·21; 1·09, 1·35 and 1·46; 1·29, 1·65 for low and medium lengths, respectively) and women (1·12; 1·00, 1·25 and 1·40; 1·22, 1·59 for low and medium lengths, respectively). Additional adjustments for age at menarche and BMI at 20 years old did not change the associations. Poor nutritional status as estimated by LBW and lower leg length in childhood was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS, although LBW was a significant factor only among women.

  1. Coming of age in Roman Britain: Osteological evidence for pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nichola A; Gowland, Rebecca L; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2016-04-01

    Puberty is a key transitional phase of the human life course, with important biological and social connotations. Novel methods for the identification of the pubertal growth spurt and menarche in skeletal remains have recently been proposed (Shapland and Lewis, 2013, 2014). In this study we applied the methods to two Romano-British cemetery samples (1st-early 5th centuries AD) in order to investigate the timing of puberty during this period and further assess the veracity of the methods. Shapland and Lewis' methods (2013, 2014) were applied to 38 adolescents (aged 8-20 years) from the British cemetery sites of Roman London (1st-early 5th centuries AD) and Queenford Farm, Oxfordshire (4th-early 5th centuries AD). Overall, the Romano-British males and females experienced the onset of puberty at similar ages to modern European adolescents, but subsequently experienced a longer period of pubertal development. Menarche occurred between the ages of 15 and 17 years for these Romano-British females, around 2 to 4 years later than for present-day European females. The observed Romano-British pattern of pubertal timing has various possible explanations, including exposure to environmental stressors in early urban environments. The pattern of pubertal timing is largely congruent with social age transitions alluded to in ancient texts and funerary evidence for this period. While there are limitations to the application of these techniques to archaeological samples, they were successfully applied in this study, and may have important implications for understandings of past life courses, as well as providing a long-term perspective on pubertal timing and biocultural interactions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS in High School Students in Rasht in 2009 According to NIH Criteria

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    Maryam Asgharnia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder inwomen associated with many reproductive, endocrine, metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions.This study aimed to determine the prevalence of PCOS among high school students in Rasht.Materials and Methods: In a cross–sectional study, 1850 students were selected by a multi-stage clustersampling from all high schools in Rasht. The inclusion criteria were: age 17-18 years, menarche from10-16 years, normal prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH values, no history of anatomicalmalformation, no use of medication or hair-removal techniques, and a history of oligo- or amenorrhea.PCOS was diagnosed if both menstrual dysfunction and clinical hyperandrogenism were detected.Results: Mean age of subjects was 17.2 ± 0.7 years and the age of menarche was 12.8 ± 0.9 years. Ofall students, 378 (20.4% had oligomenorrhea and PCOS was diagnosed in 210 (11.34 % accordingto the National Institute of Health (NIH definition. PCOS subjects, mean body mass index (BMI,waist circumference, and waist/hip (W/H ratio were 21.1 ± 3.6, 73.4 ± 8.0 cm and 0.77 ± 0.05,respectively. A family history of diabetes mellitus type 2 was reported in 24.7% of subjects.Conclusion: The prevalence of PCOS in this study was similar to the international estimatesof 10-20% in Caucasians. A long-term follow-up is needed to compare the accuracy of clinicaldetermination of the disease versus diagnosis based on hormonal and/or sonographic assessments.

  3. The time since last menstrual period is important as a clinical predictor for non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Miyuki; Morimoto, Masami; Honda, Junko; Nagao, Taeko; Nakagawa, Misako; Takahashi, Masako; Tangoku, Akira; Sasa, Mitsunori

    2011-01-01

    The clinical predictors of aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia (AIA), a drug-related adverse reaction of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), remain unclear. AIA was prospectively surveyed every 4 months in 328 postmenopausal breast cancer patients administered a non-steroidal AI (anastrozole). Various clinicopathological parameters were recorded and analyzed (chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression analysis). The mean observation period was 39.9 months. AIA manifested in 114 patients (34.8%), with peaks of onset at 4 (33.7%) and 8 months (11.4%) after starting AI administration. Some cases manifested even after 13 months. AIA tended to occur in younger patients (incidences of 46.3%, 37.4% and 28.0% for ages of < 55, 55-65 and > 65 years, respectively (p = 0.063)) and decreased significantly with the age at menarche (53.3%, 35.3% and 15.4% for < 12, 12-15 and > 15 years, respectively (p = 0.036)). The incidences were 45.1%, 46.3 and 25.1% for the time since the last menstrual period (LMP) < 5 years, 5-10 years and > 10 years, being significantly lower at > 10 years (p < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, the AIA incidence was significantly lower in the time since LMP > 10-year group versus the < 5-year group (odds ratio 0.44, p = 0.002), but the age at menarche showed no association. AIA manifested significantly earlier (≤ 6 months) as the time since LMP became shorter (< 5 years). AIA tends to manifest early after starting AI, but some cases show delayed onset. The incidence was significantly lower in patients with a duration of > 10 years since LMP. When the time since LMP was short, the onset of AIA was significantly earlier after starting AI administration

  4. Successful pregnancy with donor eggs in-vitro fertilization after premature ovarian insufficiency in a tertiary hospital in a low-income setting: a case report

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    Thomas Obinchemti Egbe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature Ovarian Insufficiency (POI is classically defined as 4–6 months of cessation of menses (amenorrhea in women under 40, associated with menopausal level of serum gonadotropins FSH > 40 IU/L and hypo-estrogenism and is also referred to as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. This disorder can manifest as primary amenorrhea without the onset of menses (menarche, or as secondary amenorrhea after menarche and pubertal development. The diagnosis of this condition in Cameroon is sometimes difficult because of the high cost of hormonal assays and the few laboratories offering these services. Case presentation The patient was a 38-year-old G2P0020, blood group O Rh positive, genotype AA and BMI 19 kg/m2 who came to our service because of secondary amenorrhea and infertility of 2 years’ duration. She has a history of pulmonary tuberculosis that was treated in Cameroon. After laparoscopy and hormonal profile, the diagnosis of premature ovarian insufficiency was reached. The woman underwent a successful donor egg in-vitro fertilization cycle and delivered a female fetus. Two years later YE requested IVF with autologous eggs, which was not possible, and since then she has remained with one child. Conclusion The diagnosis of premature ovarian insufficiency is difficult in Cameroon because of the high cost of laboratory investigations and difficult access to the tests. In-vitro fertilization with donor egg is a better treatment option. Unfortunately, it is not accessible to most Cameroonians because of lack of technical ability and the existence of cultural and financial barriers.

  5. The phenomenology of premenstrual syndrome in female medical students: a cross sectional study

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    Magdy Hassan Balaha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The premenstrual syndrome (PMS is particularly common in the younger age groups and, therefore represents a significant public health problem in young girls. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, severity, determinants of premenstrual syndrome (PMS and its impact among the female medical students in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This study was performed at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, from June through December 2009. It included 250 medical students. They filled different questionnaires covering American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG criteria to diagnose PMS, demographic and reproductive factors, physical activity and mental condition. Regression analysis was conducted for all the predictors. RESULTS: PMS was diagnosed in 35.6% of cases, distributed as 45% mild, 32.6% moderate and 22.4% severe. There were significant trends for older age, rural residence, family income and family history of PMS. The dominant limited activity was concentration in class (48.3%. Limitations of activities were significantly more frequent among severe cases. The preva lence of anxiety and depression was statistically more evident in the PMS group. Regression analysis revealed that, PMS was significantly associated with older age groups, rural residence, lower age at menarche, regularity of menses and family history. CONCLUSION: PMS is a common problem in young Saudi students in Al Ahsa. Severe PMS was associated with more impairment of daily activities and psychological distress symptoms. Older student age, rural residence, earlier age of menarche, regular cycles and positive family history are possible risk factors for PMS.

  6. Radiological and pathological features of nonpalpable breast lesions marked with harpoon guided by mammography as a method for the diagnosis of early breast cancer: descriptive retrospective study of the period between January 2009 and May 2010 at the Hospital San Juan de Dios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Silva, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective study, descriptive was performed, whose main objective has been to analyze the radiological and pathological features of nonpalpable breast lesions for which surgical biopsy was performed guided by harpoon in the Servicio de Radiologia at the Hospital San Juan de Dios during the period between January 2009 and May 2010. The study has consisted in reviewing of all biopsies guided radio by harpoon made during this period. For each procedure was recorded the classification BI-RADS, pathological anatomy reports and epidemiological data of patients. The analysis has included the variables of age, presence or absence of previous mammograms for comparison, presence or absence of menopause, presence of early menarche (by reference to women with menarche before age 12), parity of the patients, history of breastfeeding, use or nonuse of hormone replacement therapy, personal history of relevance and a positive history for breast cancer in patients in first, second or third degree of consanguinity. A total of 129 markings were performed in the study period. Three patients were excluded because the classification BI-RADS given was 3 or 0, in which cases the biopsy is not indicated. All markings were done in an analog mammography brand Bennett and chair designed for positioning patients. Prior to the biopsy, the technical specialist in mammography interviewed patients to complete the epidemiological data sheet. Following the verification of the correct placement on the harpoon, the patients were carried to operating room for the realization of the biopsy. Subsequently, the presence or absence of surgical specimen was evaluated to verify the proper extraction of the lesion under study. (author) [es

  7. Early Puberty, Negative Peer Influence, and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R.; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend’s deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls’ race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend’s deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend’s deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the “other” racial/ethnic minority group only. CONCLUSIONS: Early puberty and friends’ deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences. PMID:24324002

  8. The maturation rate of girls living in rich and poor rural regions of Poland before and after the transformation of 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska-Mierzejewska, T; Olszewska, E

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out whether the political and economic system transformation in Poland in 1989 had an influence on the rate of maturation of girls from various categories of the rural population in two regions, differing in wealth. The stratification of the villagers was based on the source of the family income (farmers, farmer-workers and non-farmers), on parents' education, and on the number of children per family. The age at menarche (AM) was used as biological indicator of living conditions. Rural girls aged 9.5-18.5 years were studied in 1987 in Leszno (L), a rich region (n = 2049), and in 1989 in Suwałki (S), a poor region (n = 2077). The study was repeated in 2001 in the same villages, the numbers of subjects amounting to 2440 and 2122, respectively. In the 1980s, AM in regions L and S amounted to 13.18 and 13.88 years, respectively, and was strongly related to social stratification. The earliest AM was found in daughters of non-farmers and the latest in the girls from farmers' families. In 2001, the acceleration in AM amounted to 0.14 years in the rich region and to 0.46 years in the poor region. The percentage of families owning a car, freezer, colour TV and automatic washing machine markedly increased and the education of parents improved. Such results are indicative of an improvement in the living standard of the groups investigated, but the villagers regard themselves as the losers as a result of the system transformation in Poland. Since the Polish population is considered as ethnically homogenous, the great differences in AM within the rural population, as well as the differences between the inhabitants of villages and large cities should be regarded as biological effects of social inequalities. Such differences indicate that Polish rural girls are far below the genetic potential for menarcheal age.

  9. Pooled analysis of menstrual irregularities from three major clinical studies evaluating everolimus for the treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex.

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    Steven Sparagana

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of everolimus on female fertility, including menstrual irregularities, secondary amenorrhea, and luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone levels in female patients.A pooled analysis from 3 prospective studies consisting of a core phase (≥6 months and a long-term follow-up open-label extension.One phase 2 single-center and two phase 3 multicenter studies.Data were obtained from female participants, restricted to those between 10 and 55 years of age, during 1 of 3 of the described clinical trials of everolimus. Patients had received ≥ 1 dose of everolimus.Incidence of fertility events.A total of 43/112 patients (38.4% experienced at least 1 menstrual irregularity. The most common events were amenorrhea (24.1% and irregular menstruation (17.0%. Seven patients (6.3% experienced grade 3/4 amenorrhea. When only the longest duration period of amenorrhea for each patient was considered, the median duration was 291 days. Fifteen patients attained menarche during the treatment period in any of the pooled studies. The mean age of menarche for this group was 12.4 years, similar to that of patients who were postmenarche at study entry (12.2 years. A total of 19/92 patients (20.7% who were postmenarche at baseline or during the study experienced an irregular menstruation event. An increased luteinizing hormone level was reported as an adverse event in 3/112 patients (3%, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were within normal limits for these patients.No new safety concerns emerged regarding endocrine function and menstruation in female patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma or angiomyolipoma, who were receiving everolimus.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00411619, NCT00789828, NCT00790400.

  10. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  11. Contributions of Function-Altering Variants in Genes Implicated in Pubertal Timing and Body Mass for Self-Limited Delayed Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sasha R; Guasti, Leonardo; Poliandri, Ariel; David, Alessia; Cabrera, Claudia P; Barnes, Michael R; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Aiken, Catherine E; Coll, Anthony P; Ma, Marcella; Rimmington, Debra; Yeo, Giles S H; Dunkel, Leo

    2018-02-01

    Self-limited delayed puberty (DP) is often associated with a delay in physical maturation, but although highly heritable the causal genetic factors remain elusive. Genome-wide association studies of the timing of puberty have identified multiple loci for age at menarche in females and voice break in males, particularly in pathways controlling energy balance. We sought to assess the contribution of rare variants in such genes to the phenotype of familial DP. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 67 pedigrees (125 individuals with DP and 35 unaffected controls) from our unique cohort of familial self-limited DP. Using a whole-exome sequencing filtering pipeline one candidate gene [fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO)] was identified. In silico, in vitro, and mouse model studies were performed to investigate the pathogenicity of FTO variants and timing of puberty in FTO+/- mice. We identified potentially pathogenic, rare variants in genes in linkage disequilibrium with genome-wide association studies of age at menarche loci in 283 genes. Of these, five genes were implicated in the control of body mass. After filtering for segregation with trait, one candidate, FTO, was retained. Two FTO variants, found in 14 affected individuals from three families, were also associated with leanness in these patients with DP. One variant (p.Leu44Val) demonstrated altered demethylation activity of the mutant protein in vitro. Fto+/- mice displayed a significantly delayed timing of pubertal onset (P puberty in the general population may contribute to the pathogenesis of self-limited DP. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  12. Increased functional connectivity with puberty in the mentalising network involved in social emotion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that puberty plays an important role in the structural and functional brain development seen in adolescence, but little is known of the pubertal influence on changes in functional connectivity. We explored how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to functional connectivity between components of a mentalising network identified to be engaged in social emotion processing by our prior work, using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. Female adolescents aged 11 to 13 years were scanned whilst silently reading scenarios designed to evoke either social emotions (guilt and embarrassment) or basic emotions (disgust and fear), of which only social compared to basic emotions require the representation of another person’s mental states. Pubertal stage and menarcheal status were used to assign participants to pre/early or mid/late puberty groups. We found increased functional connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during social relative to basic emotion processing. Moreover, increasing oestradiol concentrations were associated with increased functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the right TPJ during social relative to basic emotion processing, independent of age. Our analysis of the PPI data by phenotypic pubertal status showed that more advanced puberty stage was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the left anterior temporal cortex (ATC) during social relative to basic emotion processing, also independent of age. Our results suggest increased functional maturation of the social brain network with the advancement of puberty in girls. PMID:23998674

  13. Growth & development of Indian children adopted in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proos, Lemm A

    2009-11-01

    More than 6800 children from India have been adopted in Sweden over the last four decades. At arrival many were undernourished and suffered from infectious diseases. Catch-up growth was common. Unexpectedly, cases of early pubertal development were subsequently reported. In order to investigate the growth and development of adopted children more in detail we studied 114 children adopted from India prospectively during two years. The majority were stunted at arrival and caught up in height and weight after two years. Psychomotor retardation and common infections diminished fairly soon. Those that were stunted did not attain the higher catch-up levels of those not stunted at arrival. Low birthweight also limited the degree of catch-up growth. 107 girls were analysed retrospectively in another study. The median menarcheal age was 11.6 yr (range 7.3-14.6 yr) which is significantly earlier than the mean in Swedish and privileged Indian girls (13.0 and 12.4-12.9 yr, respectively). The pubertal linear growth component was normal in duration and magnitude but likewise started 1.5 yr earlier. The final height/age was 154 cm (-1.4 SDS) and the weight/age 46.9 kg (-1.1 SDS) 8 per cent were 145 cm or shorter. Stunting limited catch-up growth and final height. Those that were most stunted at arrival, and had the fastest catch-up growth, had the earliest menarche. Good maternal and child nutrition is necessary for full expression of a child's growth potential. What is lost in growth early in life can only partially be recovered by catch-up growth. Such growth is associated with risk for early pubertal development which abbreviates the childhood growth period and limits final height. The mechanism underlying the early pubertal development, and the optimal management of nutrition rehabilitation after chronic malnutrition, need to be clarified by further studies.

  14. Factors impacting on menstrual hygiene and their implications for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahme, Anne Mutunda; Stern, Ruth; Cooper, Diane

    2018-03-01

    In the lives of women, puberty is marked by the onset of menarche. From this stage onwards until menopause, reproductive health and menstrual hygiene are important aspects of women's lives. In Zambia's Western Province, the natural process of menstruation is a taboo and dealt with secretly. Information and knowledge about menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls is inadequate. This paper explores the factors influencing the understanding, experiences and practices of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in Mongu District, Western Province of Zambia. An explorative study design was used by means of six focus group discussions conducted with 51 respondents, aged 13-20 years, from three secondary schools. Their age at menarche was 11-15. For data analysis thematic content analysis was used. The paper shows that the girls suffer from poor menstrual hygiene, originating from lack of knowledge, culture and tradition, and socio-economic and environmental constraints, leading to inconveniences, humiliation and stress. This leads to reduced school attendance and poor academic performance, or even drop outs, and ultimately infringes upon the girls' human rights. To address these shortcomings, a 'super setting approach' is recommended, in which a Health Promoting School could improve the girls' individual and group needs, and a community setting which would address the broader socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions. This would enable creating a supportive environment for the girls to manage their periods. To successfully utilize the approach, all stakeholders (parents, teachers, children, governments and communities) should cooperate to generate context-specific solutions for creating safe menstrual care, and better and dignified conditions for adolescent girls. Therefore, this calls for comprehensive, strident advocacy for policy changes at national level, and mediation and involvement at community level.

  15. The interplay of multiple sclerosis and menstrual cycle: Which one affects the other one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmosayyeb, Omid; Badihian, Shervin; Manouchehri, Navid; Basiri, Akram Kahid; Barzegar, Mahdi; Esmaeil, Nafiseh; Fayyazi, Emad; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2018-02-02

    Menstruation is suggested to affect multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms, while the effect of MS on menstruation is not studied before. Here, we aimed to compare the pattern of menstrual cycle and its symptoms between MS patients and healthy controls. This is a cross-sectional study conducted during 2015-2016 in MS clinic of Kashani hospital, Isfahan, Iran. We included female patients > 14 years with diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS, and healthy subjects as the control group. We collected data regarding menarche age, menstrual characteristics, history of premenstrual syndrome, the amount of menstrual bleeding, and the possible perimenstrual symptoms from all subjects. Also, MS patients were asked to report changes in menstrual characteristics after MS occurrence. The final study population contained 181 MS patients and 202 healthy subjects. The mean age in MS and control group were 36.04 ± 9.86 and 35.16 ± 11.30, respectively (P-value = 0.426). Menarche age in MS patients and control group were not statistically different (13.59 ± 1.87 and 13.29 ± 1.53, respectively; P-value = 0.087). Changing menstrual characteristics was reported in 70 MS patients (38.7%). Irregular menstrual cycle increased from 21% to 40.3% after occurrence of MS (P-value < 0.001) and was reported 24.7% in the control group. MS patients versus controls reported more symptoms before, during, and after their menstrual period (P-values < 0.001). We found no difference regarding menstrual characteristics in MS patients before onset of the disease and healthy controls. Irregular menstrual cycle was observed more after the disease occurrence while other menstrual characteristics did not change. Moreover, MS patients reported many more perimenstrual symptoms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Menstrual Characteristics and Related Problems in 9-18 Year- Old Turkish School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Gül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Gül, Ülkü

    2018-03-14

    To determine the cross-sectional characteristics of menstruating girls, dysmenorrhea and the frequencies of related problems. Descripitive, cross-sectional study. Randomly selected primary, junior and high schools in the city center of Kayseri. 2000 female adolescents of ages between 9 and 18 years. We used a questionnaire addressing the epidemiological characteristics of menstruation, such as age at menarche, duration of menstrual intervals, average days of bleeding, and any menstrual problems and their frequencies. This study consists of a sufficient number of participants from all age groups. Of the participant (n= 2000) girls, 63.7% (n: 1274) had started menstruating. The mean age at menarche was 12.74 ± 1.03 years. With a prevalence of 84.8% (n: 1080), dysmenorrhea was the most prevalent menstrual problem and the average pain score was 5.87 ± 2.45. Of the menstruating girls, 34% (n: 439) used painkillers, the most commonly used was acetaminophen; during their period the prevalence of non-medical methods to relieve pain was % 35.2; the rate of seeking medical help for dysmenorrhea was 9.3 % (n: 119). In menstruating participants, 90.8 % was discussed their menstrual problems with their mothers. The rate of school absenteeism in menstruating girls was 15.9 % in general and 18 % in those with dysmenorrhea. Problems related to menstruation are common in adolescents and these problems affect their social life. In adolescent girls, the most common menstrual problem is dysmenorrhea and it affects school performance and attendance. Girls with menstrual problems showed a low rate of seeking medical help. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. NAFLD as a Sexual Dimorphic Disease: Role of Gender and Reproductive Status in the Development and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Inherent Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestri, Stefano; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Baldelli, Enrica; Marrazzo, Alessandra; Romagnoli, Dante; Lonardo, Amedeo

    2017-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue. Ovarian senescence facilitates both the development of massive hepatic steatosis and the fibrotic progression of liver disease in an experimental overfed zebrafish model. Consistently, estrogen deficiency, by potentiating hepatic inflammatory changes, hastens the progression of disease in a dietary model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) developing in ovariectomized mice fed a high-fat diet. In humans, NAFLD more often affects men; and premenopausal women are equally protected from developing NAFLD as they are from cardiovascular disease. It would be expected that early menarche, definitely associated with estrogen activation, would produce protection against the risk of NAFLD. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that early menarche may confer an increased risk of NAFLD in adulthood, excess adiposity being the primary culprit of this association. Fertile age may be associated with more severe hepatocyte injury and inflammation, but also with a decreased risk of liver fibrosis compared to men and postmenopausal status. Later in life, ovarian senescence is strongly associated with severe steatosis and fibrosing NASH, which may occur in postmenopausal women. Estrogen deficiency is deemed to be responsible for these findings via the development of postmenopausal metabolic syndrome. Estrogen supplementation may at

  18. Women-specific risk factors for heart failure: A genetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kemp, Jet; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Heart failure is a complex disease, which is presented differently by men and women. Several studies have shown that reproductive factors, such as age at natural menopause, parity and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), may play a role in the development of heart failure. Shared genetics may provide clues to underlying mechanisms; however, this has never been examined. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore whether any reproductive factor is potentially related to heart failure in women, based on genetic similarities. Conducting a systematic literature review, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with reproductive factors, heart failure and its risk factors were extracted from recent genome-wide association studies. We tested whether there was any overlap between the SNPs and their proxies of reproductive risk factors with those known for heart failure or its risk factors. In total, 520 genetic variants were found that are associated with reproductive factors, namely age at menarche, age at natural menopause, menstrual cycle length, PCOS, preeclampsia, preterm delivery and spontaneous dizygotic twinning. For heart failure and associated phenotypes, 25 variants were found. Genetic variants for reproductive factors did not overlap with those for heart failure. However, age at menarche, gestational diabetes and PCOS were found to be genetically linked to risk factors for heart failure, such as atrial fibrillation, diabetes and smoking. Corresponding implicated genes, such as TNNI3K, ErbB3, MKL2, MTNR1B and PRKD1, may explain the associations between reproductive factors and heart failure. Exact effector mechanisms of these genes remain to be investigated further. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. HPV infection in premalign and malign cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yetimalar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to detect the incidence and rate of high risk HPV-DNA in patients with cervical cancer,HGSIL,LGSIL or ASCUS and compare those findings with patients presenting with totally benign servical smears as well as to search for the factors influencing these rates. Materials and Methods: 85 patients with cytologic and histologic proven cervical carcinoma, HGSIL, LGSIL, ASCUS and 178 patients with totally benign (normal or infecton smear results as a control group who attented to Atatürk Training and Research Hospital 3rd Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics between the dates of January 2006- July 2008 were included to our study. Within these patients age, first sexual intercourse, age, smoking habit, number of sexual partners, age of menarche and contraception methods were recorded. Pap smears and smears for detection of high risk HPV were taken concurrently from cervical transformation zone and external cervical ostium and the incidence of high risk HPV-DNA were examined. Results: High risk HPV DNA rate was detected as 65.2% positive in cervical carcinoma patients in our study. High risk HPV-DNA was positive in 54.8% of patients with HGSIL while it was positive in 25% of patients with LGSIL. High risk HPV-DNA was positive in 5% of patients with benign cervical cytology results. Discussion: The positivity rates of high risk HPV-DNA results in cervical carcinoma, HGSIL, LGSIL patients and in patients with benign cervical cytologies were statistically significant. When the age of menarche and contraception method were considered the HPV-DNA positivity rates’ differences were statistically insignificant.The differences for the age of first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, age and smoking habits were statistically significant.

  20. Long-term auxological and pubertal outcome of patients with hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I deficiency (Laron and growth hormone-gene deletion syndrome) treated with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, M F; Arrigo, T; Valenzise, M; Ghizzoni, L; Caruso-Nicoletti, M; Zucchini, S; Chiabotto, P; Crisafulli, G; Zirilli, G; De Luca, F

    2011-04-01

    GH-IGF-I axis is mainly involved in the complex process of somatic growth but emerging evidence suggests that it also influences hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function. We report some data regarding long-term auxological and pubertal outcome of five female patients with hereditary forms of GH-IGF-I deficiency (Laron and GH-gene deletion syndrome) and a mean age of 23.4±5.3 yr (range 19-32). All the patients received recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I, Pharmacia and Upjohn, Stockholm, Sweden, and rhIGF-I, Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA) from a mean age of 8.6 yr (range 3.2-14.2) up to the final height. Final height was very disappointing (≤ -5.0 SD scores) and lower than target height in all the patients. Pubertal onset was delayed in most of them but menarche occurred spontaneously in all the patients. Median age at menarche was 15.1 yr. Menstrual cycles were regular for several years. Median duration of gynecological follow- up was 8.3 yr with the longest span of 17.2 yr. We can assert that GH-IGF-I axis has an essential role in promoting linear growth in humans and its physiological action cannot be replaced by pharmacological treatment in most patients with hereditary forms of IGF-I insufficiency as demonstrated by their subnormal final height. Our clinical observations can also support an essential role of IGF-I in genitalia growth but not in the function of HPG axis as demonstrated by the maintenance of regular menstrual cycles in the presence of subnormal levels of IGF-I after treatment discontinuation.

  1. Interaction between radiation and other breast cancer risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.; Stone, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    A follow-up study was conducted of 1764 women institutionalized for pulmonary tuberculosis between 1930 and 1954. Among 1047 women exposed to fluoroscopic chest X-rays during air collapse therapy of the lung, an excess of breast cancer was observed and previously reported (41 cases observed versus 23.3 expected). Among 717 comparison patients who received other treatments, no excess breast cancer risk was apparent (15 cases observed versus 14.1 expected). To determine whether breast cancer risk factors modify the carcinogenic effect of radiation, analyses were performed evaluating the interaction of radiation with indicators of breast cancer risk. The greatest radiation risk was found when radiation exposure occurred just before and during menarche. Similarly, exposures during first pregnancy appeared substantially more hazardous than exposures occurring before or after first pregnancy, suggesting that the condition of the breast at the time of pregnancy modifies the effect of radiation in such a way as to enhance the risk. Age at menopause did not appear to influence the risk of radiation exposure. Other than radiation, benign breast disease was the most significant breast cancer risk indicator. Benign breast disease was not seen to modify the effect of radiation exposure; however, excessive radiation exposure might have increased the incidence of benign breast disease, complicating the interaction analysis. Because of the uncertainty due to small-number sampling variation, these study results will require confirmation by a larger series. They do, however, suggest that stages when breast tissue undergoes high mitotic activity, e.g. menarche and pregnancy, are times of special vulnerability to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation

  2. Assessing Breast Cancer Risk Estimates Based on the Gail Model and Its Predictors in Qatari Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Çatan, Funda; El Ayoubi, Hanadi R; Acar, Ahmet; Ibrahim, Wanis H

    2017-07-01

    The Gail model is the most widely used breast cancer risk assessment tool. An accurate assessment of individual's breast cancer risk is very important for prevention of the disease and for the health care providers to make decision on taking chemoprevention for high-risk women in clinical practice in Qatar. To assess the breast cancer risk among Arab women population in Qatar using the Gail model and provide a global comparison of risk assessment. In this cross-sectional study of 1488 women (aged 35 years and older), we used the Gail Risk Assessment Tool to assess the risk of developing breast cancer. Sociodemographic features such as age, lifestyle habits, body mass index, breast-feeding duration, consanguinity among parents, and family history of breast cancer were considered as possible risks. The mean age of the study population was 47.8 ± 10.8 years. Qatari women and Arab women constituted 64.7% and 35.3% of the study population, respectively. The mean 5-year and lifetime breast cancer risks were 1.12 ± 0.52 and 10.57 ± 3.1, respectively. Consanguineous marriage among parents was seen in 30.6% of participants. We found a relationship between the 5-year and lifetime risks of breast cancer and variables such as age, age at menarche, gravidity, parity, body mass index, family history of cancer, menopause age, occupation, and level of education. The linear regression analysis identified the predictors for breast cancer in women such as age, age at menarche, age of first birth, family history and age of menopausal were considered the strong predictors and significant contributing risk factors for breast cancer after adjusting for ethnicity, parity and other variables. The current study is the first to evaluate the performance of the Gail model for Arab women population in the Gulf Cooperation Council. Gail model is an appropriate breast cancer risk assessment tool for female population in Qatar.

  3. Menstruation, objectification and health-related quality of life: A questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Herdís

    2018-02-01

    To explore young women's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and investigate whether menstrual and menarche experiences and objectification predict mental and physical health components of HRQOL. Menstruation plays a fundamental role in female biology, in women's relationship to their bodies and consequently in women's health and their HRQOL. Cross-sectional explorative survey design. A questionnaire that included the SF-36v2, the Self-objectification Questionnaire (SOQ), the Body Surveillance and Body Shame subscales of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Belief and Attitudes Towards Menstruation Questionnaire (four subscales), and questions on menarche and menstruation was administered at the end of 2013 to 319 Icelandic women who represented the population by age. The SF-36v2 includes eight dimensions addressing the mental and physical components of HRQOL. Scores are presented as raw data scores and scores based on standardised score of American women and range from 0 to 100 with higher scores indicating better HRQL. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model was employed to calculate significant predictors of mental and physical health components of HRQOL. Mean raw data scores on SF36-v2 dimensions ranged from 54.7 to 91.5. The participants scored below the standardised, mean norm-based score for all dimensions. Secrecy of menstruation, experience of body shame and pain during menstruation predicted worse mental HRQOL. To believe in the proscriptive role and the unpleasantness of menstruation, experience of body shame, medication for menstrual pain and not holding a university education predicted worse physical HRQOL. These two models explained 30% and 22% of the variance of the mental and physical components of SF36-v2, respectively. Young women's mental and physical HRQOL is influenced by the specific context of their lives. Women's health education should take into account the various relationships women may have with their bodies. © 2017

  4. 'We keep it secret so no one should know'--a qualitative study to explore young schoolgirls attitudes and experiences with menstruation in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Linda; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Alexander, Kelly; Odhiambo, Frank O; Eleveld, Alie; Vulule, John; Rheingans, Richard; Laserson, Kayla F; Mohammed, Aisha; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A

    2013-01-01

    Keeping girls in school offers them protection against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and sexual harms, and enhances social and economic equity. Studies report menstruation exacerbates school-drop out and poor attendance, although evidence is sparse. This study qualitatively examines the menstrual experiences of young adolescent schoolgirls. The study was conducted in Siaya County in rural western Kenya. A sample of 120 girls aged 14-16 years took part in 11 focus group discussions, which were analysed thematically. The data gathered were supplemented by information from six FGDs with parents and community members. Emergent themes were: lack of preparation for menarche; maturation and sexual vulnerability; menstruation as an illness; secrecy, fear and shame of leaking; coping with inadequate alternatives; paying for pads with sex; and problems with menstrual hygiene. Girls were unprepared and demonstrated poor reproductive knowledge, but devised practical methods to cope with menstrual difficulties, often alone. Parental and school support of menstrual needs is limited, and information sparse or inaccurate. Girls' physical changes prompt boys and adults to target and brand girls as ripe for sexual activity including coercion and marriage. Girls admitted 'others' rather than themselves were absent from school during menstruation, due to physical symptoms or inadequate sanitary protection. They described difficulties engaging in class, due to fear of smelling and leakage, and subsequent teasing. Sanitary pads were valued but resource and time constraints result in prolonged use causing chafing. Improvised alternatives, including rags and grass, were prone to leak, caused soreness, and were perceived as harmful. Girls reported 'other girls' but not themselves participated in transactional sex to buy pads, and received pads from boyfriends. In the absence of parental and school support, girls cope, sometimes alone, with menarche in practical and sometimes hazardous

  5. ‘We Keep It Secret So No One Should Know’ – A Qualitative Study to Explore Young Schoolgirls Attitudes and Experiences with Menstruation in Rural Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Linda; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Alexander, Kelly; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Eleveld, Alie; Vulule, John; Rheingans, Richard; Laserson, Kayla F.; Mohammed, Aisha; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Keeping girls in school offers them protection against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and sexual harms, and enhances social and economic equity. Studies report menstruation exacerbates school-drop out and poor attendance, although evidence is sparse. This study qualitatively examines the menstrual experiences of young adolescent schoolgirls. Methods and Findings The study was conducted in Siaya County in rural western Kenya. A sample of 120 girls aged 14–16 years took part in 11 focus group discussions, which were analysed thematically. The data gathered were supplemented by information from six FGDs with parents and community members. Emergent themes were: lack of preparation for menarche; maturation and sexual vulnerability; menstruation as an illness; secrecy, fear and shame of leaking; coping with inadequate alternatives; paying for pads with sex; and problems with menstrual hygiene. Girls were unprepared and demonstrated poor reproductive knowledge, but devised practical methods to cope with menstrual difficulties, often alone. Parental and school support of menstrual needs is limited, and information sparse or inaccurate. Girls’ physical changes prompt boys and adults to target and brand girls as ripe for sexual activity including coercion and marriage. Girls admitted ‘others’ rather than themselves were absent from school during menstruation, due to physical symptoms or inadequate sanitary protection. They described difficulties engaging in class, due to fear of smelling and leakage, and subsequent teasing. Sanitary pads were valued but resource and time constraints result in prolonged use causing chafing. Improvised alternatives, including rags and grass, were prone to leak, caused soreness, and were perceived as harmful. Girls reported ‘other girls’ but not themselves participated in transactional sex to buy pads, and received pads from boyfriends. Conclusions In the absence of parental and school support, girls cope, sometimes

  6. Knowledge, Practices, and Restrictions Related to Menstruation among Young Women from Low Socioeconomic Community in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from the quantitative survey and to study the factors affecting menstrual practices in young women. The mean age at menarche reported was 13.4 years and 30–40% of young girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. It is thus seen that very few young girls between the age group 15 and 24 years did receive any information before the onset of menstruation. Among those who received some information, it was not adequate enough. The source of information was also not authentic. Both young and adult women agreed on this. Due to the inadequate knowledge, there were certain unhygienic practices followed by the young girls resulting in poor menstrual hygiene. It also leads to many unnecessary restrictions on young girls and they faced many health problems and complaints, which were either ignored or managed inappropriately. The role of health sector was almost negligible from giving information to the management of health problems of these young girls. This paper reemphasizes the important, urgent, and neglected need of providing correct knowledge to the community including adolescent girls. PMID:25072044

  7. The role of menstruation in women's objectification: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Herdís

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concepts of objectification and self-objectification among young women in the context of attitudes towards menstruation, menstrual suppression, menstrual and menarche experiences, disorder eating and exercise habits and to detect predictors of objectification and self-objectification. The negative effects of objectification are well founded. Considering the central role menstruation plays in female biology, it comes as quite a surprise that so little attention is given to the subject in the research on objectification. Cross-sectional explorative survey design. A questionnaire that included the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Belief and Attitudes Towards Menstruation Questionnaire and the Suppress Menstruation subscale of the Attitudes Towards Menstrual Suppression Questionnaire was administered at the end of 2013 to 319 Icelandic women who represented the population by age. A stepwise multiple linear regression model was employed to calculate significant predictors of objectification and self-objectification. Four models of objectification are presented: the self-objectification model, the body surveillance model, the body shame model and the control belief model. Taken together, the strongest predictors of these models were related to eating habits. However, the findings also support the proposition that menstrual-related experiences influence women's objectification, particularly in terms of age at menarche, of belief in the prescriptive role of menstruation and of use of pain medication for menstrual pain. Healthcare providers in general and nurses in particular could and should assist girls and women in developing a positive view of their body and its reproductive functions by discussing the body and menstruation based on women's concerns. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mothers perception of sexuality education for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, P I; Eke, G K; Akani, N A

    2010-01-01

    Sexuality education is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, relationships and intimacy. It develops young people's skills so that they make informed choices about their behaviour, and feel confident and competent about acting on these choices. It also equips children to face developmental challenges and empowers them against the ills of abuse, exploitation, unwanted pregnancies amongst others. Mothers who are the primary caregivers should be well informed about sexuality issues. The objective of the study is to determine mothers' perception of sexuality education in children, in Port Harcourt. A structured, anonymous and self-administered questionnaire, used as instrument for data collection, was distributed amongst a convenient sample of women attending a Christian women's convention in Port Harcourt. One hundred and fifty eight women participated in the study. Most of them were married (80.4%), and belonged to the 30-49 years age bracket. Seventy one (44.9%) of the respondents had tertiary education. Over 80% agreed that children needed sexuality education but only 15 women (9.5%) had a good knowledge of the concept of sexuality education. One hundred and eleven (70.2%) believed it was the responsibility of both parents to educate their children and over 70% acknowledged that the home was the best place for such education. 64 (40.5%) believed that 6-10 years was the ideal age for starting sex education while 49% thought that the ideal age was 11-15 years. 65% of respondents discussed sexuality issues with their children at least occasionally, the content mostly involved description of body parts and reproductive organs. The average age of menarche amongst respondents was 14.0. One hundred (63%) of the women had prior knowledge of menstruation before menarche. About half of them had received information from their mothers. The study highlights the need for enlightenment of women on sexuality education

  9. The impact of menstruation in adolescents with disabilities related to cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharin, Margaret; Savasi, Ingrid; Grover, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    Information regarding menstrual difficulties for adolescents with developmental disabilities and their families is limited. To assess the impact of menstruation on adolescents with developmental disabilities and their families, and to compare this to previously reported experiences of age-matched normal girls. Families of girls aged 12-18 years with known disabilities, attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, were recruited into a questionnaire based study evaluating issues of menstruation and associated problems, together with the consequent psychological, social and emotional impact on their families and carers. Information was sought regarding menstrual management strategies, outcome satisfaction and specific areas of family concern. 103 questionnaires were completed. The average age of participating girls was 15.11 years, mean menarchal age 12.3 years. 79 girls were postmenarchal. The severity of menstrual problems was similar to a normal population. 59 (76%) were happy with the impact of menses on their social activities. More than 50% sought menstrual advice before menarche. Advice seeking strongly correlated with disability severity (p=0.01) and impact of menses on social activities (p=0.01), which in turn were highly predictive of seeking assistance (p=0.005). Carer satisfaction with current management inversely correlated with treatment seeking behaviour (p=0.034). Menstrual characteristics in this population are similar to those without disabilities. There is a high level of parental anxiety regarding the impact of menses, particularly when disability is severe. Medical therapies may be required but information for families is lacking. Clinicians should play a proactive and educational role with families and adolescents with disabilities.

  10. Menstrual characteristics amongst south-eastern Nigerian adolescent school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, E D; Adinma, J I B

    2009-03-01

    Information on pattern of menstruation and its implications is lacking amongst adolescents in Nigeria. To examine the characteristics of menstruation amongst adolescent Igbo school girls with respect to the biosocial characteristics, the pattern of menstruation, associated complications, and the source of information on menstruation. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 550 students recruited from a multi-sampling of 50 secondary schools in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria, using pre-tested, semistructured, and interviewer administered questionnaires. Four hundred and sixteen (75.6%) respondents were aged 15-17 years; 338 (61.4%) of whom were Catholics. Menarcheal age range of respondents was 11-16 years, with a mean age of 13.40 +/- 1.15 years. Menstruation was regular in 410 (74.5%), and irregular in 124 (22.5%) of respondents. Duration of menstrual flow ranged between two and eight days, although a four-day flow occurred most commonly, 268 (53.6%). Abdominal pain, (66.2%), and waist pain, (38.5%), constituted the major problems associated with menstruation, followed by depression, (24.4%); vomiting, (6.9%); school absenteeism, (4.5%); anorexia, (1.8%); weakness, (1.5%); and increased appetite, (1.1%). The commonest source of information on menstruation (prior to menarche) amongst respondents was from the mother, 48.4%, followed by elder sister, and friends --14.2%, and 8.7% respectively, while the teacher constituted the least source, 1.1%. The characteristics of menstruation in this study do not differ considerably from what obtains amongst other adolescent girls. Associated complications may have profound psychosocial impact on the growing adolescent girl, requiring address, best achieved through the empowerment of mothers and teachers under a comprehensive family life education scheme.

  11. Impact of menstrual awareness and knowledge among adolescents in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Langer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-cultural factors have a bearing on women's attitude towards menstruation. Health care providers should be aware of how women react to menstruation while providing health care. Aims & Objectives: To elicit menstrual awareness and knowledge of the rural adolescent girls and assess how this awareness, knowledge and demographics influence their menstrual attitude. Methodology: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among 245 adolescent school going girls in a rural area. Adolescent Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (AMAQ was used as a data collection device. Data were compared by using SPSS (ver. 20.0 at the level of 0.05. Results: At menarche, 59.9% adolescents were aware of menstruation and in 3/4th of them, mothers were the source of information. There was a statistically significant effect of menstrual awareness (yes or no and menstrual knowledge (nil, partial and complete on the combined dependent variables (F(6,238=9.0, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.81, partial eta square=0.29 and F(6,237=8.01, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.69, partial eta square=0.20  respectively. Older adolescents had favorable attitude towards menstruation in three significant dimensions i.e. living with menarche, openness and acceptance. Significant effect of mother’s educational level was observed on five dimensions of menstrual attitude. Conclusion: Menstrual attitude is significantly affected by menstrual awareness and knowledge.  Demographics too contributed in bringing positive attitude. There is a need to plan menstrual health education programme for adolescent girls and their mothers.

  12. KNOWLEDGE ABOUT MENSTRUAL PROBLEMS AND MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG COLLEGE GOING UNMARRIED GIRLS IN CHANDIGARH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sachdeva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Menstruation is a vital part of the reproductive health of a woman. There is evident neglect of problems related to menstruation especially in young girls and they are lacking scientific knowledge regarding menstruation. The study was undertaken with the objective to assess the prevalence & patterns of menstrual problems, knowledge, belief, restrictions, menstrual hygiene and treatment seeking practice among college going unmarried girls of Chandigarh. MATERIALS AND METHODS A stratified multistage random sampling design was adopted for selection of participants from the selected colleges of Chandigarh. A total of 1000 girls who had attained menarche were selected. Information was collected through personal interviews conducted in privacy using semi -structured survey schedule. RESULTS The mean age of menarche was ± 13.89 years. Prior knowledge regarding menses was reported by 82.6% girls and 56.9% girls reported mother as the first source of information followed by 21.6% friends. 86.1% have regular menstrual history 86.8% of the respondents experienced pre menstrual syndrome while overall prevalence of menstrual problem in the present study was found 68.4%. Abdominal pain was the most common menstrual problem reported by 51.3% of participants having menstrual problems. 47.7% girls did not visit holy places during periods. 95.5% preferred sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent. Treatment seeking behavior of the girls was poor and only about 34.9% of girls having menstrual problems approached for treatment. 72.4% of respondents were aware of emergency contraceptives. CONCLUSION The study revealed that there was an inappropriate knowledge and hygiene practice due to various Misconceptions, beliefs and taboos among college girls regarding menstruation. Reproductive health education in the school curriculum should be introduced for improving awareness regarding menstrual care practices.

  13. Impact of menstrual awareness and knowledge among adolescents in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Langer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-cultural factors have a bearing on women's attitude towards menstruation. Health care providers should be aware of how women react to menstruation while providing health care. Aims & Objectives: To elicit menstrual awareness and knowledge of the rural adolescent girls and assess how this awareness, knowledge and demographics influence their menstrual attitude. Methodology: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among 245 adolescent school going girls in a rural area. Adolescent Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (AMAQ was used as a data collection device. Data were compared by using SPSS (ver. 20.0 at the level of 0.05. Results: At menarche, 59.9% adolescents were aware of menstruation and in 3/4th of them, mothers were the source of information. There was a statistically significant effect of menstrual awareness (yes or no and menstrual knowledge (nil, partial and complete on the combined dependent variables (F(6,238=9.0, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.81, partial eta square=0.29 and F(6,237=8.01, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.69, partial eta square=0.20  respectively. Older adolescents had favorable attitude towards menstruation in three significant dimensions i.e. living with menarche, openness and acceptance. Significant effect of mother’s educational level was observed on five dimensions of menstrual attitude. Conclusion: Menstrual attitude is significantly affected by menstrual awareness and knowledge.  Demographics too contributed in bringing positive attitude. There is a need to plan menstrual health education programme for adolescent girls and their mothers.

  14. Risk factors for stress fracture among young female cross-country runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Jennifer L; Bachrach, Laura K; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Nieves, Jeri; Greendale, Gail A; Sowers, Maryfran; Brown, Byron W; Matheson, Kim A; Crawford, Sybil L; Cobb, Kristin L

    2007-09-01

    To identify risk factors for stress fracture among young female distance runners. Participants were 127 competitive female distance runners, aged 18-26, who provided at least some follow-up data in a randomized trial among 150 runners of the effects of oral contraceptives on bone health. After completing a baseline questionnaire and undergoing bone densitometry, they were followed an average of 1.85 yr. Eighteen participants had at least one stress fracture during follow-up. Baseline characteristics associated (Pstress fracture occurrence were one or more previous stress fractures (rate ratio [RR] [95% confidence interval]=6.42 (1.80-22.87), lower whole-body bone mineral content (RR=2.70 [1.26-5.88] per 1-SD [293.2 g] decrease), younger chronologic age (RR=1.42 [1.05-1.92] per 1-yr decrease), lower dietary calcium intake (RR=1.11 [0.98-1.25] per 100-mg decrease), and younger age at menarche (RR=1.92 [1.15-3.23] per 1-yr decrease). Although not statistically significant, a history of irregular menstrual periods was also associated with increased risk (RR=3.41 [0.69-16.91]). Training-related factors did not affect risk. The results of this and other studies indicate that risk factors for stress fracture among young female runners include previous stress fractures, lower bone mass, and, although not statistically significant in this study, menstrual irregularity. More study is needed of the associations between stress fracture and age, calcium intake, and age at menarche. Given the importance of stress fractures to runners, identifying preventive measures is of high priority.

  15. Reproductive factors and serum uric acid levels in females from the general population: the KORA F4 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Stöckl

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. There are pronounced sex differences in the levels of uric acid. It is largely unknown whether or not reproductive parameters which induce hormonal changes are responsible for this. We examined if there are associations between reproductive parameters and uric acid levels in a female population-based sample. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, data of 1530 women aged 32 to 81 years participating in the KORA F4 study, conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Southern Germany were used. Reproductive parameters were obtained by standardized interviews. Uric acid levels were tested by the uricase method. The whole study sample and stratified in pre- and postmenopausal women was analyzed. RESULTS: Menopausal status and earlier age at menarche were associated with higher serum uric acid levels (age-adjusted: p-values 0.003, <0.001 respectively; after multivariable adjustment, including BMI: p-values 0.002, 0.036. A history of oral contraceptive use showed an association with uric acid levels only after multivariable adjustment (p-value 0.009. Hot flushes showed an association with uric acid levels only after age-adjustment (p-value 0.038, but lost significance after adding other confounders. Other reproductive factors, including parity, current or ever use of hormone replacement therapy, current use of oral contraceptives, hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, or depressive mood related to menopausal transition were not associated with uric acid levels. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal status, earlier age at menarche and a history of oral contraceptive use were independently associated with higher serum uric acid concentrations in women from the general population. Further studies, especially longitudinal population-based studies investigating the relationship of female reproductive parameters with uric acid levels are necessary to confirm our findings.

  16. The effects of nutrition, puberty and dancing on bone density in adolescent ballet dancers.

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    Burckhardt, Peter; Wynn, Emma; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Bagutti, Carlo; Faouzi, Mohamed

    2011-06-01

    Ballet dancers have on average a low bone mineral content (BMC), with elevated fracture-risk, low body mass index (BMI) for age (body mass index, kg/m2), low energy intake, and delayed puberty. This study aims at a better understanding of the interactions of these factors, especially with regard to nutrition. During a competition for pre-professional dancers we examined 127 female participants (60 Asians, 67 Caucasians). They averaged 16.7 years of age, started dancing at 5.8 years, and danced 22 hours/week. Assessments were made for BMI, BMC (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, pubertal stage (Tanner score), and nutritional status (EAT-40 questionnaire and a qualitative three-day dietary record). BMI for age was found to be normal in only 42.5% of the dancers, while 15.7% had a more or less severe degree of thinness (12.6% Grade2 and 3.1% Grade 3 thinness). Menarche was late (13.9 years, range 11 to 16.8 years). Food intake, evaluated by number of consumed food portions, was below the recommendations for a normally active population in all food groups except animal proteins, where the intake was more than twice the recommended amount. In this population, with low BMI and intense exercise, BMC was low and associated with nutritional factors; dairy products had a positive and non-dairy proteins a negative influence. A positive correlation between BMAD and years since menarche confirmed the importance of exposure to estrogens and the negative impact of delayed puberty. Because of this and the probable negative influence of a high intake of non-dairy proteins, such as meat, fish, and eggs, and the positive association with a high dairy intake, ballet schools should promote balanced diets and normal weight and should recognize and help dancers avoid eating disorders and delayed puberty caused by extensive dancing and inadequate nutrition.

  17. 'We keep it secret so no one should know'--a qualitative study to explore young schoolgirls attitudes and experiences with menstruation in rural western Kenya.

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    Linda Mason

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keeping girls in school offers them protection against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and sexual harms, and enhances social and economic equity. Studies report menstruation exacerbates school-drop out and poor attendance, although evidence is sparse. This study qualitatively examines the menstrual experiences of young adolescent schoolgirls. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was conducted in Siaya County in rural western Kenya. A sample of 120 girls aged 14-16 years took part in 11 focus group discussions, which were analysed thematically. The data gathered were supplemented by information from six FGDs with parents and community members. Emergent themes were: lack of preparation for menarche; maturation and sexual vulnerability; menstruation as an illness; secrecy, fear and shame of leaking; coping with inadequate alternatives; paying for pads with sex; and problems with menstrual hygiene. Girls were unprepared and demonstrated poor reproductive knowledge, but devised practical methods to cope with menstrual difficulties, often alone. Parental and school support of menstrual needs is limited, and information sparse or inaccurate. Girls' physical changes prompt boys and adults to target and brand girls as ripe for sexual activity including coercion and marriage. Girls admitted 'others' rather than themselves were absent from school during menstruation, due to physical symptoms or inadequate sanitary protection. They described difficulties engaging in class, due to fear of smelling and leakage, and subsequent teasing. Sanitary pads were valued but resource and time constraints result in prolonged use causing chafing. Improvised alternatives, including rags and grass, were prone to leak, caused soreness, and were perceived as harmful. Girls reported 'other girls' but not themselves participated in transactional sex to buy pads, and received pads from boyfriends. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of parental and school support, girls cope

  18. Comparison of Reflexology and Connective Tissue Manipulation in Participants with Primary Dysmenorrhea.

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    Demirtürk, Funda; Erkek, Zümrüt Yilar; Alparslan, Özgür; Demirtürk, Fazlı; Demir, Osman; Inanir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this interventional correlational study is to compare the effects of foot reflexology (FR) and connective tissue manipulation (CTM) in subjects with primary dysmenorrhea. A total of 30 participants having primary dysmenorrhea completed the study. Data, including demographics (age, body-mass index), menstrual cycle (age at menarche, menstrual cycle duration, time since menarche, bleeding duration), and menstrual pain characteristics (intensity and duration of pain, type and amount of analgesics), were recorded. Effect of dysmenorrhea on participants' concentration in lessons and in sports and social activities was assessed by using the visual analog scale. Participants rated their menstruation-related symptom intensity through the Likert-type scale. FR was applied to 15 participants for 3 days a week and CTM was performed on 15 participants for 5 days a week. Treatments were performed during one cycle, which started at the third or fourth day of menstruation and continued till the onset of next menstruation. Assessments were performed before treatment (first menstruation), then after termination of the treatment because of the next menstruation's onset (second menstruation), and ∼1 month after at the consecutive menstrual period (third menstrual cycle). Time-dependent changes in duration and intensity of pain along with analgesic amount show that both treatments provided significant improvements (p  0.05). A similar result was obtained in terms of time-dependent changes in concentration in lessons and difficulty in sports and social activities due to dysmenorrhea. Menstruation-related symptoms were found to be decreased after treatment and in the following cycle with both treatments (p  0.05). Both FR and CTM can be used in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and menstruation-related symptoms as these methods are free from the potentially adverse effects of analgesics, noninvasive, and easy to perform.

  19. Testosterone concentrations in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders.

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    Łagowska, Karolina; Kapczuk, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual disorders are common among female athletes and ballet dancers. Endocrine changes, such as high testosterone (HT) levels and high luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratios, may suggest functional ovarian hyperandrogenism which may induce such dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate endocrine status in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders. Their nutritional status and dietary habits were analysed in relation to the testosterone levels. In a cross-sectional approach, 31 female athletes (18.1 ± 2.6 years) and 21 ballerinas (17.1 ± 0.9) with menstrual disorders participated in the study. The levels of serum LH, FSH, progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulinwere measured to assess hormonal status. In addition, the free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Nutritional status, total daily energy expenditure and nutritional habits were evaluated. Girls were assigned to one of the following groups: low testosterone (LT) level, normal testosterone level or HT level. There were significant differences between ballerinas and other female athletes in terms of testosterone levels, FAI, age at the beginning of training, length of training period and age at menarche. The PRL level was lowest in the LT group while the FAI index was highest in the HT group. Daily energy and carbohydrate intakes were significantly lower in the HT group. T levels in the study subjects were found to be associated with nutritional factors, energy availability, age at the beginning of training and frequency of training. This is the first report of HT levels being associated with the status of a female ballet dancer, the age of menarche and the length of the training history. Further research is necessary to confirm the results in a larger study group.

  20. Awareness of menstrual abnormality amongst college students in urban area of Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

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    Esimai O

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disturbances of menstrual bleeding are major social and medical problem for women and account for high percentage of gynecological visit. Objectives: The objective of the study was to document menstrual abnormalities experienced by female college students, their awareness and health seeking behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken, 400 students were selected using stratified sampling technique and interviewed using semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Inferential statistical analysis such as Chi-square test and logistic regressions were carried out. Results: The mean age at menarche was 14.18 years. Irregular menstrual cycles were reported in 9.0%. Dysmenorrhea was present in 62.5%, and 12.5% reported school absenteeism. Students′ awareness of menstrual abnormalities was poor (29%. A few of them (10.5% decided to seek help for menstrual abnormalities. The awareness of students on menstrual abnormalities was significantly influenced by their age (OR = 2.33, P = 0.03; however, age at menarche and level of study did not influence their awareness (OR = 0.45, P = 0.24 and OR = 1.42, P = 0.12. History of dysmenorrheal (OR = 10.2, P = 0.001 and academic disturbance (OR = 5.45, P = 0.001 had significant influence on the health seeking behavior of the students. Conclusion: There was a general lack of information about menstrual issues and when to seek help. There is a need to educate female college students about menstrual issues in order to improve their health seeking behavior as regards menstrual abnormalities.

  1. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AND REPRODUCTIVE TRACT INFECTION AMONG SLUM DWELLING ADOLESCENT GIRLS AGED 15-19 YEARS OF DIBRUGARH TOWN, ASSAM

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    Pushpita Barman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Menstruation is a natural physiological process linked with several misconceptions and practices having crucial role for health and dignity of girls and women. Hygiene-related practices increases vulnerability to reproductive tract infections. Adolescent girls dwelling in slums are vulnerable to poor reproductive health due to lack of awareness about reproductive health. Keeping in view the above, study has been undertaken with the following aim and objective. The aim of the study is to assess the menstrual hygiene practices and reproductive tract infection among slum dwelling adolescent girls aged 15-19 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted for 1 year from June 2014 to May 2015 covering 210 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years living in the slums of Dibrugarh Town, Assam. An interview using a predesigned and pretested format conducted by house to house survey. For analysis, mean, standard deviation and proportions were calculated, Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test was done to see the association. RESULTS Mean age of girls was (16.57 ± 1.48 years and mean age of menarche was (12.73 ± 1.44 years. Awareness about menstruation was 27.1% prior to attainment of menarche. Rate of sanitary napkins use was 68.6% and 53.2% girls cleaned external genitalia >2 times per day. Regarding cultural practices of restriction, 100% girls did not attend any religious occasions during menstruation. Prevalence of reproductive tract infection was 43.3%, which was significantly more among girls using homemade reusable pad and washing external genitalia ≤2 times per day during menstruation. CONCLUSION There is a need to improve menstrual hygiene practices amongst adolescent girls. Awareness building on menstrual hygiene and other factors like traditional beliefs and practices needs to be addressed.

  2. Timing and rate of spheno-occipital synchondrosis closure and its relationship to puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Eduardo; Palomo, J. Martin; Hans, Mark; Latimer, Bruce; Simpson, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the relationship between spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) closure and puberty onset in a modern American population. It also investigates the timing and the rate of SOS closure in males and females. Materials and methods The sample includes cross-sectional and longitudinal 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of 741 individuals (361 males and 380 females) aged 6–20 years. Each CBCT scan is visualized in the mid-sagittal plane, and the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) is scored as completely open, partially fused, mostly fused, and completely fused. The Menarche commencement is used as an indicator of puberty onset in females. Results Mean ages of open, partially-fused, mostly-fused, and completely fused SOS were 11.07, 12.95, 14.44, and 16.41 years in males, and 9.75, 11.67, 13.25, and 15.25 in females, respectively. The results show there is a significant association between the SOS closure stage and the commencement of menarche (Fisher's Exact Test p < 0.001). It was found that females had a higher SOS closure rate (38.60%) per year than males at the age of 10 years. The closure rate in males appears slower than females at age 10, but it lasts a longer time, ranging between 22 and 26% per year from age 11 to 14 years. Conclusion There is a significant relationship between puberty onset and SOS closure, suggesting its closure is at least partially affected by systemic, hormonal changes in the growing adolescent. Also, SOS closure occurs at a faster rate and at an earlier age in females compared to males. PMID:28827837

  3. Validation of the multiplier method for leg-length predictions on a large European cohort and an assessment of the effect of physiological age on predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, J J; Cheesman, C L; Schade, A T; Monsell, F P

    2017-01-01

    The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective cohort was used to determine the accuracy of the Paley multiplier method for predicting leg length. Using menarche as a proxy, physiological age was then used to increase the accuracy of the multiplier. Chronological age was corrected in female patients over the age of eight years with documented date of first menses. Final sub-ischial leg length and predicted final leg length were predicted for all data points. Good correlation was demonstrated between the Paley and ALSPAC data. The average error in prediction depended on the time of assessment, tending to improve as the child got older. It varied from 2.2 cm at the age of seven years to 1.8 cm at the age of 14 years. When chronological age was corrected, the accuracy of multiplier increased. Age correction of 50% improved multiplier predictions by up to 28%. There appears to have been no significant change in growth trajectories of the two populations who were chronologically separated by 40 years. While the Paley data were based on extracting trends from averaged data, the ALSPAC dataset provides descriptive statistics from which it is possible to compare populations and assess the accuracy of the multiplier method. The data suggest that the accuracy improves as the patient gets close to the average skeletal maturity but that results need to be interpreted in conjunction with a radiological assessment of the growth plates. The magnitude of the errors in prediction suggest that when using the multiplier, the clinician must remain vigilant and prepared to perform a contralateral epiphyseodisis if the prediction proves to be wrong. The data suggest a relationship between the multiplier and menarche. There appears to be a factorisation and when accounting for physiological age, one needs to correct by 50% of the difference between chronological and physiological age.

  4. Reproductive effects on skeletal health in Shuar women of Amazonian Ecuador: a life history perspective.

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    Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon, Tara J; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological research suggest that bone mineral density (BMD) in women is shaped by various reproductive factors such as parity and lactation patterns. However, the extent of these effects on BMD remains unclear because of contradictory findings and a focus on industrialized populations. Because fertility patterns in these groups are vastly different than those of women from non-Western, subsistence populations, our current understanding of the reproductive effects on skeletal health is incomplete. Using a life history perspective, this study examines the relationship between reproductive factors and bone density among women from the Indigenous Shuar population, an Amazonian Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist group. This preliminary, cross-sectional study included 130 premenopausal and postmenopausal women (14-86 years old) from the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador. Anthropometrics were recorded, as was estimated BMD using a calcaneal ultrasonometer. A reproductive history questionnaire was administered that included questions regarding menarche, parity, lactation patterns, and menopause. Among postmenopausal women, early menarche and greater stature were significantly associated with higher bone density values. Among premenopausal women, few significant relationships between bone values and reproductive variables were documented; effects of lactation appeared to be transient and restored following weaning. Although preliminary and not based on longitudinal data, these findings suggest that the effects of reproduction are transient as the system of calcium homeostasis in premenopausal women efficiently restores the bone loss that results from metabolically active reproductive states. Further, this research suggests that the timing of early life history events may canalize bone density phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Knowledge, Practices, and Restrictions Related to Menstruation among Young Women from Low Socioeconomic Community in Mumbai, India.

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    Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from the quantitative survey and to study the factors affecting menstrual practices in young women. The mean age at menarche reported was 13.4 years and 30-40% of young girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. It is thus seen that very few young girls between the age group 15 and 24 years did receive any information before the onset of menstruation. Among those who received some information, it was not adequate enough. The source of information was also not authentic. Both young and adult women agreed on this. Due to the inadequate knowledge, there were certain unhygienic practices followed by the young girls resulting in poor menstrual hygiene. It also leads to many unnecessary restrictions on young girls and they faced many health problems and complaints, which were either ignored or managed inappropriately. The role of health sector was almost negligible from giving information to the management of health problems of these young girls. This paper reemphasizes the important, urgent, and neglected need of providing correct knowledge to the community including adolescent girls.

  6. Mechanical Loading during Growth Is Associated with Plane-specific Differences in Vertebral Geometry: A Cross-sectional Analysis Comparing Artistic Gymnasts vs. Non-gymnasts

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    Dowthwaite, Jodi N.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Scerpella, Tamara A.

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar spine geometry, density and indices of bone strength were assessed relative to menarche status, using artistic gymnastics exposure during growth as a model of mechanical loading. Paired posteroanterior (PA) and supine lateral (LAT) DXA scans of L3 for 114 females (60 ex/gymnasts and 54 non-gymnasts) yielded output for comparison of paired (PALAT) versus standard PA and LAT outcomes. BMC, areal BMD, vertebral body dimensions, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), axial compressive strength (IBS) and a fracture risk index were evaluated, modeling vertebral body geometry as an ellipsoid cylinder. Two-factor ANCOVA tested statistical effects of gymnastic exposure, menarche status and their interaction, adjusting for age and height as appropriate. Compared to non-gymnasts, ex/gymnasts exhibited greater PABMD, PABMC, PAWIDTH, PA CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (CSA), PAVOLUME, LATBMD, LATBMAD, PALATCSA and PALATIBS (p<0.05). Non-gymnasts exhibited greater LATDEPTH/PAWIDTH, LATBMC/PABMC, LATVHEIGHT, LATAREA and Fracture Risk Index. Using ellipsoid vertebral geometric models, no significant differences were detected for PA or PALAT BMAD. In contrast, cuboid model results (Carter 1992) suggested erroneous ex/gymnast PABMAD advantages, resulting from invalid assumptions of proportional variation in linear skeletal dimensions. Gymnastic exposure was associated with shorter, wider vertebral bodies, yielding greater axial compressive strength and lower fracture risk, despite no BMAD advantage. Our results suggest the importance of plane-specific vertebral geometric adaptation to mechanical loading during growth. Paired scan output provides a more accurate assessment of this adaptation than PA or LAT plane scans alone. PMID:21839871

  7. The Severity of Dysmenorrhea and its Relationship with Body Mass Index among Female Adolescents in Hamadan, Iran

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    Batool Khodakarami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common problem among women, resulting in a decline in their performance level and quality of life. Previous studies have not indicated a definite relationship between body mass index (BMI and dysmenorrhea. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the severity of dysmenorrhea and investigate its relationship with BMI among female adolescents in Hamadan, Iran. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 579 single, female adolescents in schools of Hamadan, Iran in 2011. Students with primary dysmenorrhea (without any other conditions were selected, using random cluster sampling. Demographic characteristics and menstrual cycle information were collected, using two separate questionnaires. BMI was recorded in all participants and visual analogue scale was applied for pain assessment. Chi-square, t-test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between variables. Data were analyzed, using SPSS version 16. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age, BMI and age at menarche in participants were 15.94±1.17 years, 21.16±3.36 kg/m2 and 12.92± 1.05 years, respectively. The frequency of dysmenorrhea was estimated to be 85.31%. The frequency and severity of dysmenorrhea was higher in the normal-weight group than other subjects. No relationship was seen between the severity and duration of dysmenorrhea with BMI. But dysmenorrhea had a significant relationship with age at menarche and premenstrual syndrome (P

  8. Endometriosis in Adolescent and Young Girls: Report on a Series of 55 Cases.

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    Matalliotakis, Michail; Goulielmos, George N; Matalliotaki, Charoula; Trivli, Alexandra; Matalliotakis, Ioannis; Arici, Aydin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate endometriosis in adolescent and young girls and further to review the menstrual, reproductive characteristics, and risk factors. We reviewed the medical records of adolescent and young girls with endometriosis from 2 different countries. Data were collected and analyzed from charts of 900 patients with endometriosis. Fifty-five female adolescents aged between 13 and 21 years (mean age 18.3 years) participated in our series. This study was conducted in the Obstetric and Gynecology Department of Venizeleio General Hospital of Crete and involved all patients diagnosed with endometriosis between 1996 and 2016. Statistical methods included χ 2 and Mann-Whitney U test. Of 900 patients with endometriosis we found 55 female adolescents (6.1%). The mean age was 18.3 ± 2.3 years, significantly younger compared with the advanced endometriosis patients (32.7 ± 7.2; P endometriosis group. The factors associated with an increased risk for young women include age at menarche, dysmenorrhea, history of asthma, and a positive family history of endometriosis. Additionally, we report on 16 of 55 (32%) adolescent women with endometriosis and congenital malformations (P endometriosis in adolescent and young women and risk factors including early menarche, early onset of dysmenorrhea, history of asthma, previous surgical procedures, obstructive genital anomalies, and family history of endometriosis. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Malignant breast tumors among Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hirsoshima and Nagasaki, 1950 to 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, M.; Norman, J.E. Jr.; Asano, M.; Tokuoka, S.; Ezaki, H.; Nishimori, I.; Tsuji, Y.

    1979-01-01

    From 1950 to 1974, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche

  10. Nature and Prevalence of Menstrual Disorders among Teenage Female Students at Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooh, Ahmed M; Abdul-Hady, Atiea; El-Attar, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    To determine the nature and prevalence of menstrual disorders among teenage girls. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study. Zagazig University Students' Hospital, Zagazig, Egypt. A representative sample of female students who attended the university pre-enrollment medical examination. Self-administered questionnaire covering items on the adolescents' demographic data and menstruation characteristics. Information about menarche, body mass index, physical exercise, cycle length and regularity, duration of menses, menstrual blood loss, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome. A total of 285 questionnaires were analyzed. Mean age at menarche was 12.3 ± 1.5 years. Oligomenorrhea was reported by 18 participants (6.3%) and 5 others (1.8%) mentioned having polymenorrhea. Hypomenorrhea was noted in 25 students (8.8%), and hypermenorrhea was reported by 12 (4.2%). Irregular periods were mentioned by 24 students (8.4%). Dysmenorrhea was reported in 188 students (66.0%). Of these, 81 (28.4%) graded their pain as mild, 69 (24.2%) as moderate, and 38 (13.3%) as severe. Premenstrual syndrome was mentioned by 160 girls (56.1%). Consulting somebody regarding their menstrual problems was reported by 36 students (12.6%). Our results are not greatly different from those in other parts of the world. Data on nature and prevalence of menstrual disorders and their effect on young women's health status, quality of life, and social integration suggest that management of these disorders should be given more attention within the available reproductive health care programs. Further research into prevalence of and risk factors for menstrual disorders and their morbidity is warranted and anxiously awaited. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

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    Lingling Zhai

    Full Text Available To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls.Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups.Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years than normal girls (9.2 years and lean girls (9.3 years. The prevalence (% of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1. None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5% and lean girls (8.1%. The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05.Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  12. Scoliosis detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment in the absence of a screening program in Norway

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    Adobor Raphael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis allows for observation and timely initiation of brace treatment in order to halt progression. School scoliosis screening programs were abolished in Norway in 1994 for lack of evidence that the programs improved outcome and for the costs involved. The consequences of this decision are discussed. Objectives To describe the detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at a scoliosis clinic during the period 2003–2011, when there was no screening and to compare treatment modalities to the period 1976–1988 when screening was performed. Methods Patient demographics, age at detection, family history, clinical and radiological charts of consecutive patients referred for scoliosis evaluation during the period 2003–2011, were prospectively registered. Patients were recruited from a catchment area of about 500000 teenagers. Maturity was estimated according to Risser sign and menarcheal status. Severity of pain was recorded by a verbal 5-point scale from no pain to pain at all times. Physical and neurological examinations were conducted. The detector and patient characteristics were recorded. Referral patterns of orthopedic surgeons at local hospitals and other health care providers were recorded. Patient data was obtained by spine surgeons. Treatment modalities in the current period were compared to the period 1976–1988. Results We registered 752 patients with late onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 2003–2011. There were 644 (86% girls and 108 (14% boys. Mean age at detection was 14.6 (7–19 years. Sixty percent had Risser sign ≥ 3, whilst 74% were post menarche with a mean age at menarche of 13.2 years. Thirty-one percent had a family history of scoliosis. The mean major curve at first consultation at our clinic was 38° (10°-95°. About 40% had a major curve >40°. Seventy-one percent were detected by patients

  13. The epidemiology of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Daniel W; Missmer, Stacey A

    2002-03-01

    Advances in understanding the epidemiology of endometriosis have lagged behind other diseases because of methodologic problems related to disease definition and control selection. Nevertheless, a better picture of the epidemiology of endometriosis has emerged over the past few decades. Prevalence estimates of the disease in clinic populations vary from about a 4% occurrence of largely asymptomatic endometriosis found in women undergoing tubal ligation to 50% of teenagers with intractable dysmenorrhea. General population incidence during the 1970s in this country has been suggested to be 1.6 per 1000 white females aged 15-49, while a more current study based upon hospital discharges finds endometriosis as a first listed diagnosis in 1.3 per 1000 discharges in women aged 15-44. There is a clinical impression that blacks have lower rates of endometriosis and Orientals have higher rates than whites. A variety of personal risk factors for endometriosis have also been described. Women with endometriosis may be taller and thinner. Menstrual factors reported to increase risk include dysmenorrhea, early menarche, and shorter cycle lengths. There is support for the idea that lifestyle exposures that might raise or lower estrogen levels could affect risk, including a decreased risk associated with smoking and exercise and an increased risk associated with caffeine or alcohol use. These risk factors appear to be compatible with the central importance of retrograde menstruation influenced by outflow obstruction that might affect its amount, immune factors that might affect its ability to be cleared, or hormonal stimuli that might affect its growth. In this model, dysmenorrhea could be either a disease symptom or a manifestation of outflow obstruction. Nulliparity could be either a consequence of disease or a cause since nulliparous women would not have the benefit of cervical dilation associated with labor and delivery. Since there is evidence that family history is a risk

  14. The relationship of maternal bone density with nutritional rickets in Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M; Thacher, Tom D

    2017-04-01

    Factors that affect maternal bone mineral density may be related to the risk of nutritional rickets in their offspring. Our aim was to determine the relationship between maternal areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and rickets in Nigerian children. Using a case-control design, we measured forearm aBMD in 56 and 135 mothers of children with and without nutritional rickets, respectively. Active rickets was confirmed or excluded in all children radiographically. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association of maternal aBMD, adjusted for parity, pregnancy and lactation status, duration of most recent completed lactation, age of menarche, height, body mass index, and maternal age with nutritional rickets. The median (range) age of all mothers was 30years (17-47years), and parity was 4 (1-12). A total of 36 (19%) were pregnant and 55 (29%) were currently breast feeding. Mean (±SD) metaphyseal forearm aBMDs were 0.321±0.057 and 0.316±0.053g/cm 2 in mothers of children with and without rickets, respectively (P=0.60). Diaphyseal forearm aBMDs were 0.719±0.071 and 0.715±0.072g/cm 2 , respectively (P=0.69). In an adjusted analysis, maternal forearm aBMD, bone mineral content and bone area at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites were not associated with rickets in the child. In the adjusted analysis, rickets was associated with shorter duration of most recently completed lactation (aOR 0.91 for each additional month; 95% CI 0.83-0.99), older maternal age (aOR 1.07 for each additional year; 1.00-1.14), and less frequent maternal use of lead-containing eye cosmetics (aOR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05-0.64), without any difference in maternal blood lead levels. Maternal age, parity, age of menarche, height, and body mass index were not associated with having had a child with rickets in multivariate analysis. Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children was not associated with maternal forearm aBMD. Other unidentified maternal characteristics and practices likely contribute to the risk

  15. Caracterización del síndrome climatérico en mujeres hipertensas y normotensas

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    Miguel Lugones Botell

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en 8 consultorios médicos del Policlínico Docente "26 de julio", del municipio Playa, de las mujeres hipertensas esenciales comprendidas entre las edades de 40 a 59 años, desde el 1ro de febrero hasta el 31 de diciembre de 1999. En cada consultorio se partió del registro de dispensarización y se excluyeron las mujeres diabéticas, las que presentaran complicaciones renales y del sistema nervioso central. Fueron estudiadas todas las hipertensas esenciales, a las que se les aplicó un cuestionario que recogía la edad, la ocupación, el estado civil, la tensión arterial según la etapa del climaterio o la menopausia, así como la edad de la menarquia y de la menopausia. Se concluyó que la mayoría de las pacientes, tanto hipertensas como normotensas, no tenían vínculo laboral, predominó el número de mujeres hipertensas sin pareja y las presiones arteriales sistólicas y diastólicas fueron superiores en mujeres hipertensas perimenopáusica. La edad de la menarquia y de la menopausia fue discretamente más tardía en las hipertensasA crosswise descriptive study of essential hypertensive females aged 40-59 years was conducted from February 1st to December 31st, 1999 in 8 physician’s offices in "26 de Julio" teaching polyclinics, Playa municipality. The classification register was used in each office. Women with diabetes, renal disorders and control nervous system problems were excluded. All the essential hypertensive women were studied by applying a questionnaire which included age, occupation, mental status, blood pressure according to the stage of climateric or menopause as well as ages at which menarche and menopause occurred. It was concluded that most of the patients either hypertensive or normotensive did not work; the hypertensive women without partners prevailed and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in perimenopausal hypertensive females. Ages at which menarche

  16. Cumulative effect of reproductive factors on ideal cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study in central south China.

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    Cao, Xia; Zhou, Jiansong; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Zhiheng

    2015-12-21

    The American Heart Association developed the Life's Simple 7 metric for defining cardiovascular health. Little is known, however, whether co-occurring reproductive factors, which affects endogenous oestrogen levels during a woman's life, also influences ideal cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. Using data on a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 1,625 postmenopausal women (median age, 60.0 years) in a medical health checkup program at a general hospital in central south China 2013-2014, we examined the association between cumulative reproductive risk and ideal cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. A cumulative risk score (range 0 to 4) was created by summing four reproductive risk factors (age at menarche, age at menopause, number of children, and pregnancy losses) present in each individual from binary variables in which 0 stands for favorable and 1 for less-than-favorable level. Ideal levels for each component in Life's Simple 7 (blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose, BMI, smoking, physical activity, and diet) were used to create an ideal Life's Simple 7 score [0-1 (low), 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6-7 (high)]. Participants with earlier age at menarche (odds ratio [OR] =0.42 [95 % CI 0.26-0.48]), earlier age at menopause [0.46 (0.32-0.58)], who have more than three children (0.42 [0.38-0.56]) and have history of pregnancy losses [0.76 (0.66-0.92)] were more likely to attain low (0-1) ideal Life's Simple 7 after adjustment for age. Participants were more likely to attain low (0-1) ideal Life's Simple 7 as exposure to the number of reproductive risk factors increased [OR (95 % CI) of 0.52 (0.42-0.66), 0.22 (0.16-0.26), and 0.16 (0.12-0.22) for cumulative reproductive risk scores of 1, 2, and 3 or 4, respectively, each versus 0]. The postmenopausal Chinese women with an increasing number of reproductive risk factors were progressively less likely to attain ideal levels of cardiovascular health factors.

  17. Higher BMC and areal BMD in children and grandchildren of individuals with hip or knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specker, Bonny L; Wey, Howard E; Binkley, Teresa L; Beare, Tianna M; Smith, Eric P; Rauch, Frank

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between aBMD and osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. We compared aBMD, BMC and bone size among children and grandchildren of Hutterites with hip or knee replacement (n=23 each) to children and grandchildren of age- and sex-matched controls (178 children and 267 grandchildren). There were no differences in anthropometric measures or activity levels between case and control probands, but femoral neck (FN) and spine (LS) aBMD and Z-scores were greater in cases than controls (0.89 vs. 0.80 g/cm2; 1.15 vs. 1.03 g/cm2; 1.5 vs. 0.8; 2.4 vs. 1.2: all pBMC (34.1 vs. 32.0, 4.58 vs. 4.27, 69.5 vs. 62.4 g) and Z-scores (1.0 vs. 0.4; 0.9 vs. 0.2; 1.3 vs. 0.2) were greater in daughters of cases than controls (hip BMC p=0.06, others p or =2 years post-menarcheal or males> or =18 years): 33 were not classified. Post-menarcheal, but not premenarcheal, granddaughters of cases had greater hip, FN and LS aBMD Z-scores (0.7 vs. -0.1; 0.6 vs. -0.1; 0.8 vs. -0.3); greater hip and spine aBMD (1.03 vs. 0.95, 1.10 vs. 0.98 g/cm2); greater femoral neck and spine BMC (4.77 vs. 4.21, 66.7 vs. 55.4 g); and greater spine bone area (60.7 vs. 56.6 cm2) compared to granddaughters of controls (all, p<0.05), which remained significant when height, weight, and age were included as covariates. Growing grandsons of cases were taller and heavier than control grandsons, and a greater hip aBMD among grandsons of cases (0.88 vs. 0.76 g/cm2) was the only bone difference that remained significant after taking into account body size differences. Grandsons who were not growing had greater spine bone area (1.19 vs. 1.08 cm2) if their grandparent had OA compared to grandsons whose grandparents did not have OA. We speculate that there is a genetic basis for OA that leads to early differences in growth patterns among boys and greater peak bone mass and aBMD among girls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Linear growth and final height characteristics in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa.

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    Dalit Modan-Moses

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growth retardation is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN. However, findings concerning final height of AN patients are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess these phenomena in female adolescent inpatients with AN. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all 211 female adolescent AN patients hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders department from 1/1/1987 to 31/12/99. Height and weight were assessed at admission and thereafter routinely during hospitalization and follow-up. Final height was measured in 69 patients 2-10 years after discharge. Pre-morbid height data was available in 29 patients. RESULTS: Patients' height standard deviation scores (SDS on admission (-0.285±1.0 and discharge (-0.271±1.02 were significantly (p<0.001 lower than expected in normal adolescents. Patients admitted at age ≤13 years, or less than 1 year after menarche, were more severely growth-impaired than patients admitted at an older age, (p = 0.03. Final height SDS, available for 69 patients, was -0.258±1.04, significantly lower than expected in a normal population (p = 0.04, and was more severely compromised in patients who were admitted less than 1 year from their menarche. In a subgroup of 29 patients with complete growth data (pre-morbid, admission, discharge, and final adult height, the pre-morbid height SDS was not significantly different from the expected (-0.11±1.1, whereas heights at the other time points were significantly (p = 0.001 lower (-0.56±1.2, -0.52±1.2, and -0.6±1.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that whereas the premorbid height of female adolescent AN patients is normal, linear growth retardation is a prominent feature of their illness. Weight restoration is associated with catch-up growth, but complete catch-up is often not achieved.

  19. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  20. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the estrogen pathway and mammographic density

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    Dumas Isabelle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in the estrogen pathway appear to be associated with breast cancer risk and possibly with mammographic density (MD, but little is known of these associations among premenopausal women. This study examines the association of 11 polymorphisms in five estrogen-related genes (estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD17B1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1 with premenopausal MD. Effect modification of four estrogen-related factors (parity, age at menarche, hormonal derivatives use and body mass index (BMI on this relation is also assessed. Methods Polymorphisms were genotyped in 741 premenopausal Caucasian women whose MD was measured in absolute density (AD, cm2 and percent density using a computer-assisted method. Multivariate linear models were used to examine the associations (Ptrend and interactions (Pi. Results None of the SNPs showed a statistically significant association with AD. However, each additional rare allele of rs1056836 CYP1B1 was associated with a reduction in AD among nulliparous women (Ptrend = 0.004, while no association was observed among parous women (Ptrend = 0.62; Pi = 0.02. An increase in the number of rare alleles of the HSD17B1 SNP (rs598126 and rs2010750 was associated with an increase in AD among women who never used hormonal derivatives (Ptrend = 0.06 and Ptrend = 0.04, respectively, but with a decrease in AD among past hormonal derivatives users (Ptrend = 0.04; Pi = 0.02 and Ptrend = 0.08; Pi = 0.01, respectively. Moreover, a negative association of rs598126 HSD17B1 SNP with AD was observed among women with higher BMI (>median (Ptrend = 0.01; Pi = 0.02. A negative association between an increased number of rare alleles of COMT rs4680 SNP and AD was limited to women who never used hormonal derivatives (Ptrend = 0.02; Pi = 0.03 or with late age at menarche (>median

  1. Menstrual taboos among Havik Brahmin women: a study of ritual change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, H E

    1992-01-01

    Field work among the Havik Brahmins in a 1 village in the Malnad area of Karnataka State, South India provides some understanding of menstrual practices in 1964, 1985, and 1987. Changes in the pollution and purity rituals which were part of their belief system lead to the replacement of religious ritual with hygiene. Women's status reflected in the change from a subordinate one with a menstrual taboos to a more urbanized one with educational opportunities and economic independence. Ethnographic background is provide on social organization, education, women's professions, ritual organization, and the reasons for change. Menstrual beliefs and practices, reproductive beliefs, menarche, and the significance of rituals are also described for 1966 and 1987. The Havik Brahmin have a patrilocal, patrilineal, and patriarchal society with joint family practices. The ideal of a nuclear family was still not predominately attained even in 1987 with 14 nuclear families out of 32 families or in 1964 with 12 out of 28. Women in 1964 supported their husbands, were not included in decision making and had little contact with the outside world. Higher education is still secondary to marriage, and frequently women spend time in college while kin seek a suitable groom. Women 40 years had primarily a 7th grade education, while only 3 40 years did not have at least a high school education. Employment now enhances a woman's marital options. Fathers still view security for their daughters in marriage. Women's religious involvement is restricted to 1 service and they are prohibited from learning sacred Vedic prayers. The village structure is based on castes, residential sites, and ritual statuses. Havik Brahmins are the highest status and their men have a ritual status of purity (maDi) or neutrality, while women during menses become polluted (muTTuceTtu). The rationale for change is the opinion that decreased ritual observance is essential to economic viability, and there are cheating rules

  2. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

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    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  3. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  4. The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

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    Dadgostar Haleh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods This study performed as a cross-sectional study. All elite Iranian female athletes of 34 sports federation, including female athletes in national teams and medalists of Tehran were invited to participate. A total of 788 (95% response rate returned the questionnaires and were examined. Younger athletes under the age of menarche were excluded. Each athlete completed a self-administered questionnaire, which covered the following questions about participant's demographic information, athletic history, history of injuries and menstrual pattern. In order to diagnose the causes of amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea including polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS, participants with amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea underwent further investigation. They were evaluated by following Para clinic investigation, and an ultrasonographic study of ovary. Results The age ranged from 13–37 (mean = 21.1, SD = 4.5. Seventy one (9.0% individuals had amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, among those, 11 (15.5% had PCOS. There was also a positive association between amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and the following: age under 20 OR; 2.67, 95%CI(1.47 – 4.85, weight class sports OR; 2.09, 95%CI(1.15 – 3.82, endurance sports OR; 2.89, 95%CI(1.22 – 6.84, late onset of menarche OR; 3.32 95%CI(1.04–10.51, and use of oral contraceptive pills OR; 6.17, 95%CI(3.00 – 12.69. Intensity of training sport or BMI were not risk factors. Conclusion These findings support the previous findings in the literature

  5. Menstruation-related Headache in Adolescents: Point Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, K B; Arslantas, D; Unsal, A; Atay, E; Ocal, E E; Demirtas, Z; Saglan, R; Dinleyici, M; Yarar, C

    2018-04-02

    To study the prevalence of menstruation-related headache and the impact of associated factors in adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven randomly selected high schools, and 3,886 girls attending those schools were invited. After the consent of the school principals, a final total of 2,485 girls (63.9%) were involved in the study. A specific questionnaire was distributed to adolescent girls (14-19 years old). The first part of the survey investigated the features of menstruation (age of first menstruation, duration of period, pad fully soaked per day). The last part of the questionnaire surveyed the presence of headache during the menstruation period. The severity of headache was measured by a visual analogue scale. Lastly, participants were requested to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The prevalence of menstruation-related headache and associated factors were studied. The mean age of the study group was 15.89 ± 1.07 (14-19) years old. The age of onset of menarche was younger than 12 years old in 32.4% of girls, and mean age of onset of menarche was 12.96 ± 1.09 years old. The prevalence of menstruation-related headache was calculated to be 25.9% (n = 646). The onset of menstruation before the age of 12 years old, longer duration of menstruation period, dysmenorrhea, daily consumption of coffee and cola and smoking significantly affected the frequency of menstruation-related headache. The mean scores of the BDI were calculated as 21.68 ± 13.65 and a significant relationship was found between headache and BDI scores. Our study indicates that menstruation-related headache is a common problem of adolescent girls. It might be associated with different comorbidities such as depression. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary treatment approach must be considered to improve their life quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Menstrual hygiene management among adolescent girls in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Anna Maria; Sivakami, M; Thakkar, Mamita Bora; Bauman, Ashley; Laserson, Kayla F; Coates, Susanne; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the status of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among adolescent girls in India to determine unmet needs. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, The Global Health Database, Google Scholar and references for studies published from 2000 to September 2015 on girls’ MHM. Setting India. Participants Adolescent girls. Outcome measures Information on menarche awareness, type of absorbent used, disposal, hygiene, restrictions and school absenteeism was extracted from eligible materials; a quality score was applied. Meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled prevalence (PP), and meta-regression to examine the effect of setting, region and time. Results Data from 138 studies involving 193 subpopulations and 97 070 girls were extracted. In 88 studies, half of the girls reported being informed prior to menarche (PP 48%, 95% CI 43% to 53%, I2 98.6%). Commercial pad use was more common among urban (PP 67%, 57% to 76%, I2 99.3%, n=38) than rural girls (PP 32%, 25% to 38%, I2 98.6%, n=56, pMenstruating girls experienced many restrictions, especially for religious activities (PP 0.77, 0.71 to 0.83, I2 99.1%, n=67). A quarter (PP 24%, 19% to 30%, I2 98.5%, n=64) reported missing school during periods. A lower prevalence of absenteeism was associated with higher commercial pad use in univariate (p=0.023) but not in multivariate analysis when adjusted for region (p=0.232, n=53). Approximately a third of girls changed their absorbents in school facilities (PP 37%, 29% to 46%, I2 97.8%, n=17). Half of the girls’ homes had a toilet (PP 51%, 36% to 67%, I2 99.4%, n=21). The quality of studies imposed limitations on analyses and the interpretation of results (mean score 3 on a scale of 0–7). Conclusions Strengthening of MHM programmes in India is needed. Education on awareness, access to hygienic absorbents and disposal of MHM items need to be addressed. Trial registration number CRD42015019197. PMID:26936906

  7. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V; Ingles, Sue A; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D

    2013-03-01

    Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, the few studies that have investigated whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have yielded mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women overall and by smoking history. We investigated the association between long-term physical activity (h/wk/y) and age at natural menopause among 97,945 women in the California Teachers Study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The impact of cigarette smoking (never smoker, former light smoker, former heavy smoker, current light smoker, and current heavy smoker) as an effect modifier was evaluated. In a multivariable model adjusted for body mass index at age 18 years, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and age at first full-term pregnancy, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause (P(trend) = 0.005). Higher body mass index at age 18 years (P(trend) = 0.0003) and older age at menarche (P(trend) = 0.0003) were also associated with older age at natural menopause. Hispanic ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic whites; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26), current smokers (vs never smokers; HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.60-1.75 for current light smokers; HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.33-1.44 for current heavy smokers), and older age at first full-term pregnancy (HR(≥29, 2+ full-term pregnancies) vs HR(menopause. Upon stratification by smoking history, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers only (HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.97; P(trend) = 0.02 for former heavy smokers; HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99; P(trend) = 0.04 for current heavy

  8. [Breast cancer and heredity: results of a population case-control study in Girona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjosé, S; Viladiu, P; Cordón, F; Vilardell, L; Marcos, R; Izquìerdo, A

    1998-03-21

    To characterise the relationship between breast cancer and different aspects of the reproductive life, use of drugs and alcohol by family history of breast cancer. From the cancer registry of Girona, Spain, 330 women were identified with histologically confirmed breast cancer during 1986-1989. For each case, a control woman was selected from a random sample of the population living in the matched area to the case by age (+/- 5 yr.). The information was collected by a personal interview and included: family history of breast cancer, reproductive history, presence of acne during the teenage years, use of oral contraceptives and drugs for sleep and anxiety disorders, and alcohol consumption. 18.5% of breast cancer cases and 8.9% of all controls had a family history of breast cancer. Family history on a first degree relative (mother or sister) was present in 10.6% of the cases and 2.8% of controls, which represented an odds ratio for breast cancer of 3.7 (95% CI, 1.8-7.8) higher than the general population. Women with a first degree family history of breast cancer were at higher risk for breast cancer if they had a history of acne during the teenage period (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.2) and if they referred long menstrual periods in the early years of menarche (OR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.0). Women with no family history had a higher breast cancer risk if they had a late menarche, long menstrual periods, late first full term pregnancy, and history of acne during puberty. Alcohol consumption and use of drugs for anxiety and sleep disorders were associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. First degree family history of breast cancer seems to be the best risk indicator for developing breast cancer. Long menstrual periods and presence of acne during puberty may indicate hormonal imbalance that act independently of the family history in breast cancer development.

  9. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

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    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  10. The Risk Effect of Primary Dysmenorrhea on Women of Childbearing Age in Ploso Subdistrict of Tambaksari Surabaya

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    Ulya Rohima Ammar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary dysmenorrhea was menstrual pain without any real abnormalities in genitals and could be a sign of reproductive system disorders. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was quite high, but the lack of attention from the medical world, whereas primary dysmenorrhea can lead to decreased productivity and hinder daily activities. This  study  aimed  to  analyze  the  risk factors  of  primary  dysmenorrhea  in  Ploso  subdistrict  of Tambaksari Surabaya. The study was an observational analytic cross sectional design. Sampling was done by multistage cluster sampling. Respondents were 80 women of childbearing age 15-35 years old. Based on the results the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was at 71.3% . Most of the impact of primary dysmenorrhea that respondents perceived were declining productivity that is equal to 77.2%. Most of respondents not been examined primary dysmenorrhea to the doctor or midwife (84.2% with the majority reason was respondents think that symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea perceived is reasonable (54.2% . The highest proportion of respondents characteristics are aged 15-25 years (51.3%, had family history (52.5%, never given birth (60%, duration of menstruation 3-7 days (86%, age of menarche 12-13 years (53.8%, not did exercise (53.8%, had a normal nutritional status (38.8%, and severe stress (25%. The results of the bivariate analysis showed that there was a relationship between age and family history with primary dysmenorrhea, and there was no relationship between the experience of childbirth, length of menstruation, age of menarche, exercise habits, nutritional status, and state of stress with primary dysmenorrhea. The advice is to check primary dysmenorrhea to the doctor or midwife if find symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea to get treatment (psychotherapy or medication therapy, so that respondents could still work or do activities and productivity is not compromised. Keywords : primary dysmenorrhea

  11. Cultural change, polygyny, and fertility among the Shipibo of the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Hern, W M

    1994-03-01

    Household interview in 8 Shipibo communities on the Ucayali and Pisqui Rivers in Peru in 1983 and 1984 were conducted in order to obtain reproductive histories of 386 women aged 13 years and older. Polygyny was defined in three ways: as ever experienced, as operant during a specific birth interval, and as the mean length of closed birth intervals and the proportion polygynous. The aim was to determine the effect of the decline in polygyny on increased fertility. The results showed that of 1445 individuals in 8 villages, 585 (over 33%) lived in Paoyhan village. The sex ratio was 104 men to 100 women and varied among the villages. 49.3% were younger than 15 years and 60.3% younger than 20 years. Crude birth rates varied from 42.6 to 89.6/1000. Crude death rates ranged from 14 to 63.8/1000. Infant mortality was 138/1000. The village of 9 de Octubre had the lowest compared fertility and also had the highest rate of polygyny. Irazola village had the highest man completed fertility, and the lowest polygyny. The median reported age at marriage was 14 years; median reported age at menarche was 13 years. Age at menarche was the same regardless of marriage type, but polygynous women tended to marry about a year earlier. First delivery averaged about 15.6 years and was lower for polygynous women. 75 (19.4%) had ever engaged in a polygynous unions. The highest polygynous unions were in 9 de Octubre, Vencedor, Tupac Amaru, and charashmanan villages, and ranged from 56.5% to 5.3%. The proportion of men in polygynous unions ranged from 3.4% in Paoyhan to 21.9% in Vencedor. 84.5% of women aged 15 years and older had had at least one pregnancy. The mean reproductive span was 13 years. The mean age at delivery was 28.8 years. The mean birth interval was 31.5 months; mean interval for women aged 45 years and older was 36.2 years. There was found no correlation between birth interval number and birth interval length, or mother's age at birth interval and length of birth interval

  12. COMMUNITY SCREENING FOR PCOS AMONGST ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A SEMIURBAN AREA IN WEST BENGAL

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    Jayanta Pal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adolescent PCOS in many cases is considered to be the forerunner of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases in women. Therefore, early detection of PCOS existing in adolescent period and implementation of appropriate lifestyle measures will hopefully have long-term endocrinometabolic beneficial effect. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of PCOS in adolescent girls who are otherwise symptomless and/or having trivial symptoms, which according to such girls and their parents do not mandate any medical attention whatsoever. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 2015 adolescent school girls of West Bengal, India, were enquired about their age of initiation of menarche and current menstrual cyclicity like oligomenorrhoea, hypomenorrhoea or secondary amenorrhoea. They were also examined for clinical features of androgen excess like acne/abnormal hair growth (hirsutism. Girls exhibiting any one such symptom or sign like history oligomenorrhoea, which is persisting two years beyond the initiation of menarche and/or having excessive acne and or hirsutism were primarily labeled as “probable PCOS” and later evaluated by endocrine assessment and sonography. RESULTS Out of 2015 adolescent girls interviewed at school premises, there were as many as 307 adolescent girls who disclosed that they have either oligomenorrhoea and/or were noticed to have acne/hirsutism giving rise to a prevalence rate of 15.23% of probable PCOS by symptom alone. But, when laboratory examinations were completed, the actual prevalence rate came down to 13.1%, because few girls neither had raised serum testosterone, the hallmark of androgen excess disorders nor do they exhibit PCOS morphology in ultrasonography. As many as 84.77% students had no abnormal history or clinical feature to suggest PCOS. But, what worries authors is that, there is raised prevalence of adolescent PCOS in comparison to a similar study carried out at South India where

  13. Amenorrhea: an approach to diagnosis and management.

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    Klein, David A; Poth, Merrily A

    2013-06-01

    Although amenorrhea may result from a number of different conditions, a systematic evaluation including a detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory assessment of selected serum hormone levels can usually identify the underlying cause. Primary amenorrhea, which by definition is failure to reach <