Sample records for menace terroriste nucleaire

  1. The nuclear threat; La menace nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno


    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  2. The Phantom Menace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vium, Christian


    as a phantom menace, which asserts itself through a form of omnipresent fear, nurtured by an inherent opaqueness. As this fundamental fear progressively permeates the nomadic landscape, it engenders a recasting of mobile strategies among the nomadic pastoralist groups who inhabit the interstitial desert spaces....

  3. [Viral encephalitis virus, a new bioterrorist menace]. (United States)

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Micol, Romain; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe


    Often responsible for little known infections, today viral encephalitis viruses appear as a new bioterrorist menace, because of their easy production and their great pathogenic potential. Spraying is the best way to permit the rapid diffusion of certain encephalitis viruses. Diagnosis of viral encephalitis, predominating in tropical surroundings, is difficult. In the majority of cases, symptoms differ little from those of common flu. With supplementary examinations, the biological abnormalities are usually non-specific. There are no characteristic images on scans or MRI. Identification of the virus in the nasopharynx, blood or cerebrospinal fluid, in serology, PCR or RT-PCR permits confirmation of the virus. Treatment is essentially symptomatic and relies on appropriate reanimation measures. Ribavirin can be indicated in some cases such as the Rift Valley fever, but is formally contraindicated in West Nile encephalitis. The aim of terrorist groups who would use this type of weapon is more to provoke panic and disorganisation than to kill as many people as possible.

  4. History of the nuclear menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guelte, G.


    For a half century, the nuclear conflict represents a permanent menace for the whole humanity. Through the crisis of Cuba rockets, Israel weapons, Indian explosion, Pakistan equipment, the dismantling of South Africa weapons, the discovery of the clandestine program of Iraq or the North Korean crisis, we understand nuclear threat. 178 countries decided to extend the non proliferation treaty for an indefinite period. But some questions are still to be studied: how it is possible to avoid the clandestine making of nuclear weapons, or if it is possible to convince recalcitrant countries to adhere to a treaty and only when all the questions will find an answer, the nuclear threat will be eliminated. (N.C.)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    ABSTRACT. This study assesses how Kaduna Metropolis have been affected by flood menace incidences as it takes a look at the devastating impacts, remedial and management strategies at curbing flooding in Kaduna Metropolis which has almost become a yearly occurrence. Data for this study were obtained from.

  6. Motives of terrorist acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Marko


    Full Text Available Terrorism is a relatively new phenomenon, and data on terrorist motivations and psychological profiles of terrorists are fairly scarce and limited. In theory, there is a large number of quantitative analyses of collective violence, murder, and crime, however, none of these can be identified with terrorism. Most current studies do not consider a great heterogeneity of terrorists, and numerous practical, conceptual, and psychological barriers slow down the science of learning about terrorism. Psychology, as a science of behavior, certainly makes a great contribution to the study of terrorism as a very complex phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to analyze and synthesize social and psychological determinants which contribute to the development of terrorist motives, and to elaborate on those facts which have been discussed in scientific and professional literature so far.

  7. On Terrorists and Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellen, Konrad


    ...; it examines their socioeconomic backgrounds and their driving ideologies; and it probes into elements that may aid the cohesion of terrorist groups, as well as at elements that drive toward disintegration...

  8. Terrorists and Suicide Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Audrey K


    Suicide attacks by terrorist organizations have become more prevalent globally, and assessing the threat of suicide attacks against the United States and its interests at home and abroad has therefore...

  9. Terror breeds terrorists. (United States)

    de Zulueta, Felicity


    Terrorism can be carried out by the state or by its citizens. The latter may be labelled 'freedom fighters' or 'terrorists' depending on the political context. One of the most important aetiological factors driving Islamic terrorists is the experience of alienation and shame. This sense of being made to feel totally invalidated, of feeling worthless in the eyes of the other, is at the root of rage and violent revenge, implying that the way the current 'War on Terror' is being fought by the United States and the United Kingdom can only lead to more terrorism and danger for our society.

  10. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas


    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number...... of attempted terrorist attacks because it makes it more risky for existing terrorist units to pursue further development of capabilities. This is consistent with the events in London in 2005 where a terrorist attack on 7 July was followed by a similar but unsuccessful attack two weeks later....

  11. Flood menace in Kaduna Metropolis: impacts, remedial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses how Kaduna Metropolis have been affected by flood menace incidences as it takes a look at the devastating impacts, remedial and management strategies at curbing flooding in Kaduna Metropolis which has almost become a yearly occurrence. Data for this study were obtained from questionnaires, ...

  12. Facing the climatic threat, the nuclear illusion; Face a la menace climatique, l'illusion du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the framework of the energy problem, the network Action Climate brings many propositions to explain that the nuclear is not a solution to the global warming. A boost to the nuclear will be done to the detriment of cheaper, safer and more adapted policies, as the energy conservation and efficiency, the energy production decentralization and the renewable energies development. The three parts shows how the nuclear cannot answer to the climatic problem, the nuclear refutes the Rio declaration on the environment and the sustainable development, the nuclear is a french specificity which damages the national policy against the climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  13. Defending against a stockpiling terrorist


    Hausken, Kjell; Zhuang, Jun


    This is an electronic version of an article published in Hausken, K. & Zhuang, J. (2011) Defending against a stockpiling terrorist. The Engineering Economist: A Journal Devoted to the Problems of Capital Investment, 56(4), pp. 321-353. The Engineering Economist is available online at: A government defends against a terrorist who attacks repeatedly and stockpiles its resources over time. The government defends an ...

  14. The development of the pupillary light reflex and menace response in neonatal lambs and kids. (United States)

    Raoofi, Afshin; Mirfakhraie, Pejman; Yourdkhani, Sorush


    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of the pupillary light reflex and menace response in neonatal lambs and goat kids. Thirty lambs and 33 kids were assessed daily from birth until the pupillary light reflex and menace response had become established. All animals had a controlled pupillary light reflex within 20 h of birth. Lambs and kids had developed menace responses by 8 ± 3 and 14 ± 2 days, respectively. The Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference (P kids developed a menace response. Male kids developed this response significantly (P = 0.006) later than females. There was no sex difference in the menace response in the lambs. Overall, the findings indicated that lambs develop a menace response earlier than kids, and female kids develop this response more rapidly than their male counterparts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Deradicalisation of Terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason-Leigh Striegher


    Full Text Available Governments today tend to grapple with the development and implementation of deradicalisation programs; and as such, the results of such programs have led to varying degrees of success. The programs of three nation states—Yemen, Saudi Arabia and Indonesia have been selected for discussion due to the diversity of programs used in these Islamic states. This study focuses on the distinction between disengagement and deradicalisation; and identifying and understanding the affects that push and pull factors potentially have to extricate identified terrorists from violent extremism. It also highlights Jack Roche as an example of someone that in general deradicalised himself as a result of push and pull factors. “If the development of terrorism is a product of its own time and place, it follows that issues of disengagement (and all that that implies will also be context-specific and necessarily nuanced . . . in terms of how the programmes are constructed, implemented, and promoted . . .” (Horgan, 2008a: 7.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti


    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  17. Countering the nuclear terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H.C.


    Full text: An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to a RDD. RDDs, or 'dirty bombs' as they are often called, spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of a RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Terrorist acquisition and use of an IND is a low-probability but high-consequence threat. Terrorist use of a RDD is a threat of higher probability but lower consequence. Two threats need to be considered for civil radiological and nuclear facilities. One is the theft of materials by terrorists, and the other is an attack on a facility to disperse radiological or nuclear materials. Facilities may include reactors as well as nuclear waste and storage areas. While important elements of a layered defense against these threats are already in place, improved international cooperation and a sustained investment in the science and technology needed to win the war on terrorism is necessary. (author)

  18. "Terror and Menace" nell'opera di Harold Pinter




    La ricerca si articola nell'ambito dello studio sul teatro inglese contemporaneo. I conflitti storico-sociali del dopoguerra hanno contribuito a creare il senso di vuoto che mette in pericolo l'esistenza dell'uomo. Il maggior interprete di quest'atmosfera minacciosa del quotidiano è senza dubbio Harold Pinter. Il termine "Comedy of Menace", utilizzato per la prima volta dal critico drammaturgico Irving Wardle per definire le opere di Pinter e le definizioni di "teatro della minaccia", dell’"a...

  19. Terrorist targeting, information and secret coalitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.; Lindner, I.; McCormick, G.; Owen, G.


    We consider a game played by a state sponsor of terrorism, a terrorist group, and the target of terrorist attacks. The sponsoring state wishes to see as much damage inflicted on the target of attack as possible, but wishes to avoid retaliation. To do so, his relationship with the terrorist group

  20. Disrupting Terrorist Networks: An Analysis of the PKK Terrorist Organization (United States)


    Turkey (and the State’s Counter Measures), 361. 68 the refugees are able to find a job and provide their own financial support.271 Ultimately, the...concur, this embeddedness did not turn the PKK into a criminal group. In this part of the chapter, the study focused on the assisting factors that...PKK too. The next chapter will further analyze the role of geographical safe havens along with the embeddedness of the PKK terrorist organization in

  1. Terrorist threats of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozsef Solymosi; Jozser Ronaky; Zoltan Levai; Arpad Vincze; Laszlo Foldi


    More than one year has passed since the terrible terrorist attacks against the United States. The tragic event fundamentally restructured our security policy approach and made requirements of countering terrorism a top priority of the 21st century. In one year a lot of studies were published and the majority of them analyses primarily the beginnings of terrorism then focus on the interrelations of causes and consequences of the attacks against the WTC. In most of the cases the authors can only put their questions most of which have remained unanswered to date. Meanwhile, in a short while after the attacks the secret assessments of threat levels of potential targets and areas were also prepared. One of the high priority fields is the issue of nuclear, biological, and chemical security, in short NBC-security. Here and now we focus on component N, that is the assessment techniques of nuclear security in short, without aiming at completeness. Our definite objective is to make non-expert readers understand - and present a concrete example as it is done in risk analysis - the real danger-level of nuclear facilities and especially the terrorist threat. Our objective is not to give tips to terrorists but to provide them with deterring arguments and at the same time calm worried people. In our communique we give an overview of international practice of nuclear antiterrorism and of preventive nuclear protection in Hungary. (author)

  2. La Spectroscopie laser appliquee a la physique nucleaire

    CERN Document Server

    Le Blanc, F


    l'etude de la forme du noyau atomique est un sujet fondamental puisqu'elle constitue un excellent laboratoire pour tester et valider les differents modeles nucleaires.La spectroscopie atomique et plus particulierement la spectroscopie laser est un moyen precis et inhabituel pour caracteriser des observables liees a la forme du noyau.

  3. Siloette, Siloe mock-up; Siloette, modele nucleaire de siloe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcroix, V.; Jeanne, G.; Mitault, G.; Schulhof, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Siloette is the Siloe mock-up. The main installations are described: various tanks, building, auxiliaries, control systems... Precis ions are given about precautions taken for using spent fuel elements. (authors) [French] Siloette est le modele nucleaire de SILOE. On decrit ses diverses installations: bassins, batiments, auxiliaires, controle... Des precisions sont donnees sur les precautions prises pour y utiliser des elements uses. (auteurs)

  4. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.K.


    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  5. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H C


    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  6. Definition of Terrorist Act under Eth Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. While regional and international human rights institutions claim that the definition of a terrorist act under the Anti-terrorism Proclamation No. 652/2009 is overly broad as a result of which citizens not involved in a genuinely terrorist act are prosecuted and jailed, the Ethiopian government defends the law pointing ...

  7. The Mass Media Role in Terrorist Campaigns. (United States)

    Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.

    Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…

  8. Dutch politicians' coping with terrorist threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda


    The psychosocial effects of terrorist threat and close protection have never been studied systematically in political leaders. We conducted a study among 12 Dutch politicians and their partners who were living under terrorist threat and close protection in the aftermath of two political murders.

  9. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.


    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  10. A Review of Sources on Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet ALIU


    Full Text Available Terrorism financing is one of the most complex problems the democratic world is facing today. The transfer of funds to support terrorist activities has created enormous challenges across the world. This has fuelled several inter-religious and nationalist hate, and as such has put many nations into war with terrorist organisations. The main objective of this study is to review the sources of terrorist financing. The paper relies on secondary data that were drawn from various books, journals, as well as from institutional materials relevant to the issues raised. It concludes that terrorists are exploiting established financial systems at the global level to move their finances, and that informal systems remain the biggest challenge to thwart terrorist activities.

  11. A generative model for predicting terrorist incidents (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh C.; Verma, Archit; Felmlee, Diane; Pearson, Gavin; Whitaker, Roger


    A major concern in coalition peace-support operations is the incidence of terrorist activity. In this paper, we propose a generative model for the occurrence of the terrorist incidents, and illustrate that an increase in diversity, as measured by the number of different social groups to which that an individual belongs, is inversely correlated with the likelihood of a terrorist incident in the society. A generative model is one that can predict the likelihood of events in new contexts, as opposed to statistical models which are used to predict the future incidents based on the history of the incidents in an existing context. Generative models can be useful in planning for persistent Information Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) since they allow an estimation of regions in the theater of operation where terrorist incidents may arise, and thus can be used to better allocate the assignment and deployment of ISR assets. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of terrorist incidents, identify factors related to occurrence of terrorist incidents, and provide a mathematical analysis calculating the likelihood of occurrence of terrorist incidents in three common real-life scenarios arising in peace-keeping operations

  12. The Decision Calculus of Terrorist Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tyson Chatagnier


    Full Text Available This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizations. After reviewing the results and insights derived from this analysis, we conclude with implications for policies to counter terrorism.

  13. Liability for damage caused by terrorist attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.


    After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  14. Australian Correctional Management Practices for Terrorist Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Tompson


    Full Text Available Management practices for incarcerated terrorists is an important counterterrorism policy consideration. Moreover, there is a misconception that once incarcerated, terrorists cease to be a risk. If correctional management regimes are implemented poorly, terrorist prisoners may be afforded the opportunity to remain active while incarcerated, including the recruitment of other prisoners, and the planning of future attacks. Equally, they may be viewed as role models or martyrs for sympathisers to aspire to. Despite the magnitude of the consequences, there is no agreed approach to managing Australian terrorist prisoners. As such, a dichotomy of dominant models has emerged; that is, to either segregate terrorist prisoners, or conversely, to disperse them throughout the wider prisoner population. Each strategy presents its own set of benefits and risks. This paper compares the management practices for terrorist prisoners in the states of New South Wales and Victoria to determine the strengths and vulnerabilities of each of these approaches. The paper concludes that policy-makers should consider reassessing current strategies. It suggests that a focus that extends the immediate containment considerations to encompass post-release factors would bring benefits for society.

  15. Identifying and structuring the objectives of terrorists. (United States)

    Keeney, Gregory L; Von Winterfeldt, Detlof


    The risk of terrorism is of great concern to many countries and significant resources are spent to counter this threat. A better understanding of the motivation of terrorists and their reasons for selecting certain modes and targets of attack can help improve the decisions to allocate resources in the fight against terrorism. The fundamental question addressed in this article is: "What do terrorists want?" We take the view that terrorists' preferences for actions are based on their values and beliefs. An important missing piece in our knowledge of terrorists' preferences is an understanding of their values. This article uses a novel approach to determine these values and state them as objectives, using principles from decision analysis and value-focused thinking. Instead of interviewing decisionmakers and stakeholders, as would be normal in decision analysis, we extract the values of terrorists by examining their own writings and verbal statements. To illustrate the approach, we extract the values of Al-Qaeda and structure them in terms of strategic, fundamental, and means objectives. These objectives are interrelated through a means-ends network. This information is useful for understanding terrorists' motivations, intent, and likely actions, as well as for developing policies to counter terrorism at its root causes. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  17. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to caution measures; La menace du terrorisme nucleaire: de l'analyse aux mesures de precaution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M


    In this work are analysed the different cases of terrorism attacks, the potential sources of risks, such reprocessing plants, nuclear power plants, every facility where is stored radioactive material. The vulnerability of these facilities is also evoked. Some solutions are recommended but more specially, further thought needs to be given to that kind of problems. (N.C.)

  18. The secret society and the social dynamics of terrorist behavior. (United States)

    Mackert, Jürgen


    The article argues that individualist accounts cannot adequately explain the social dynamics of terrorist behavior as they turn analyses of terrorism into analyses of terrorists. A relational approach that concentrates on the social relations between terrorist organizations and their members would be able to do this, however. Therefore, the article presents a formal analysis that makes the "secret society" of terrorists the lynchpin of an explanation of how terrorist organizations shape the behavioral conditions of volunteers and suicide terrorists in a manner that triggers a type of behavior we might call terrorism.

  19. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist... (United States)


    ...; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... administers three sanctions programs with respect to terrorists and terrorist organizations. The Terrorism... foreign terrorists that disrupt the Middle East peace process.'' The Global Terrorism Sanctions...

  20. The social psychological makings of a terrorist. (United States)

    Webber, David; Kruglanski, Arie W


    Social psychological factors pertain to all aspects of terrorism, including how terrorist organizations operate, and the impact of terrorism on everyday people. The present analysis focuses on the aspect of terrorism where social psychology's voice is perhaps most critical: radicalization (i.e., how terrorists are made) and deradicalization (i.e., how terrorists are unmade). In reviewing the literature, we identify three factors critical to radicalization: (1) the individual need that motivates one to engage in political violence, (2) the ideological narrative that justifies political violence, and (3) the social network that influences one's decisions along the pathway to extremism. Theoretical and empirical contributions are discussed. We end with an examination of interviews conducted with former extremists of various ideological leanings to highlight these same three factors as critical to their individual deradicalization experiences. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Terrorist Precursor Crimes: Issues and Options for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Neil, Siobhan


    ... not. Terrorist precursor crimes, offenses committed to facilitate a particular attack or promote a terrorist campaign's objectives, are thought to be often carried out far away from the primary theater...

  2. Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E


    ...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...

  3. Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal Aliens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E


    ...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...

  4. 31 CFR 595.311 - Specially designated terrorist. (United States)


    ...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.311 Specially designated terrorist. (a) The term specially designated terrorist means: (1...

  5. 31 CFR 597.309 - Foreign terrorist organization. (United States)


    ... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.309 Foreign terrorist organization. The term foreign terrorist... respect to which the Secretary of State has notified Congress of the intention to designate as a foreign...

  6. Real Time Big Data Analytics for Predicting Terrorist Incidents (United States)

    Toure, Ibrahim


    Terrorism is a complex and evolving phenomenon. In the past few decades, we have witnessed an increase in the number of terrorist incidents in the world. The security and stability of many countries is threatened by terrorist groups. Perpetrators now use sophisticated weapons and the attacks are more and more lethal. Currently, terrorist incidents…

  7. French regulations in the nuclear field and standards related to nuclear pressure equipment; Reglementation francaise dans le domaine nucleaire et normes relatives aux equipements sous pression nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourlon, S.; Limousin, S.; Van Hoecke, J.C. [Autorite de surete nucleaire 6, place du Colonel Bourgoin 75012 Paris (France)


    French regulations on nuclear pressure equipment have been updated with the December 12, 2005 Order related to Nuclear Pressure Equipment, so-called 'ESPN Order'. This Order is at the junction of regulations covering safety on the one hand and pressure equipment on the other hand. As regards manufacturing, the ESPN Order extends to nuclear pressure equipment the approach and essential requirements of the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED - transposed in France by the December 13, 1999 Decree) while adding specific nuclear and radiation safety requirements. For in-service inspection, it sets additional provisions to those of the December 13, 1999 Decree so that the nuclear and radiation safety requirements applying in nuclear facilities are also taken into account for those equipment. The specific case of PWR main primary and secondary systems is covered by the November 10, 1999 Order. The ESPN Order leaves a major part to industrial codes and standards. Its publication makes it necessary to check that the codes used for nuclear pressure equipment comply with the new requirements and may induce modifications of the codes. Furthermore, as the market for operators of nuclear facilities and manufacturers of mechanical equipment is becoming global, these evolutions should be considered in a worldwide context. Last, the Nuclear Transparency and Security Act of June 13, 2006 - which created the Nuclear safety authority (ASN) with competence over nuclear and radiation safety, covering specifically nuclear pressure equipment - will induce further amendments of regulations. (authors) [French] La reglementation francaise en matiere d equipements sous pression nucleaires a ete refondee avec la parution de l arrete du 12 decembre 2005 relatif aux equipements sous pression nucleaires, dit 'arrete ESPN'. Ce texte se situe a l intersection des reglementations en matiere de surete, d une part, et d equipements sous pression, d autre part. En matiere de

  8. Parer aux menaces en matière de biosécurité provenant de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La région ne peut pas intervenir efficacement en cas d'une menace de pandémie - qu'elle soit naturelle, accidentelle ou intentionnelle - si elle ne dispose pas des mécanismes nécessaires à la recherche qui doit éclairer les programmes de surveillance sur le terrain et en laboratoire des maladies infectieuses, les ...

  9. Treatment of effluent at the Saclay Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires (1960); Le traitement des effluents du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay possesses several installations from which liquid radioactive effluent is rejected, and it has thus been found necessary to construct a station for the purification of radioactive liquids and to settle various chemical, analytical and technological problems. This report describes, in the following order: - the disposal possibilities at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay, - the effluents produced at the centre, - the set-up for collecting effluent, - treatment of the effluent, - results of these treatments. (author) [French] La presence, au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, de plusieurs installations susceptibles de rejeter des effluents liquides radioactifs a necessite la construction d'une station d'epuration d'eaux radioactives et la mise au point de differents problemes chimiques, analytiques et technologiques. Dans ce rapport, nous exposerons successivement: - les possibilites de rejet du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, - les effluents du centre, - le dispositif de collecte des effluents, - le traitement de ces effluents, - les resultats de ces traitements. (auteur)

  10. Radiotoxicity, dose and nuclear alchemy; Radiotoxiciteit, dosis en nucleaire alchemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schram, R. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, Petten (Netherlands)


    An outline is given of the nuclear fuel cycle and related products, focusing on the radiotoxicity and radioactive waste dose. Also, it is explained how those subjects form the basis of research on transmutation and recycling of radioactive waste. Finally, attention will be paid to nuclear alchemy, i.e. the steps to be taken for transmutation and recycling, based on current developments in research at NRG. [Dutch] In dit artikel zal een toelichting worden gegeven op de splijtstofcyclus en de producten die daarbij vrijkomen. Hierbij zal worden ingegaan op de radiotoxiciteit en dosis van het radioactief anal. Tevens zal worden uitgelegd hoe deze begrippen de basis vormen voor keuzes binnen het onderzoek naar transmutatie en recycling van radioactief afval. Ook zal de nucleaire alchemie, de benodigde stappen voor transmutatie en recycling, worden behandeld aan de hand van de actuele ontwikkelingen in het onderzoek zoals onder meer uitgevoerd bij NRG.

  11. The Developmental Dynamics of Terrorist Organizations (United States)

    Clauset, Aaron; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede


    We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968–2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes. PMID:23185267

  12. When Do Governments Concede to Terrorists (United States)


    Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project...crisis, 146 people were taken hostage by the terrorist group Tupac Amaru (MRTA) at the Japanese Embassy in Peru . Six of those were American...within Colombia, the primary one being social inequality between the locals and the government. Another factor is the drug dealers’ desire to

  13. Designating Domestic Terrorist Individuals or Groups (United States)


    partially defined domestic terrorism as: …the unlawful use, or threatened use, of violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within...appear intend to intimidate, or the locale in which perpetrators operate… Domestic terrorism is the unlawful use, or threatened use, of violence by...use violence and criminal activity to further their agendas. (Mueller, 2010) This research focused on the domestic terrorist threat to the homeland

  14. Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence and Suicide Bombing


    Murad Ismayilov


    This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualizat...

  15. Extremist Ideological Influence on Terrorist Decision Frameworks (United States)


    culture in terms of lists of domain-general, stable traits, such as individualist - collectivist value orientations li7J Researchers operating within this...heavily on terrorist communication of specific aspects from their ideological framework to shape the common perspective of their intended define culture from a cognitive perspective . There is a somewhat natural tendency to talk about culture as if it were a concrete, material thing

  16. Smoking behaviour under intense terrorist attacks. (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Kohn, Robert; Billig, Miriam; Levav, Itzhak


    Smoking is one of the varied psychological reactions to stress. This study examined the rate and changes in cigarette smoking among former Gaza and current West Bank Jewish settlers subjected to direct and indirect terrorist attacks during the Al-Aksa Intifada. The relationship with degree of religious observance and emotional distress was explored as well. In this cross-sectional study, the respondents were settlers randomly selected and interviewed by telephone (N = 706). The interview schedule included socio-demographic items, information on direct exposure to terrorist attacks (e.g. threat to life or physical integrity, personal losses, property damage) and on steady and changes in smoking habits, and a scale to measure emotional distress. In contrast with the country population, a larger percentage of settlers who smoked increased the number of cigarettes consumed with exposure to terrorism (10 and 27%, respectively). Respondents who were injured or had their home damaged reported a higher rate of smoking during the preceding year (30 and 20%, respectively). Emotional distress was related to cigarette smoking, but not in the controlled analysis. Religious observance had no effect. Direct or indirect exposure to terrorist attacks had an impact on smoking prevalence rates and on changes in smoking habits. Studies investigating reactions to traumatic events should include a detailed section on smoking while mental health interventions should address the needs of smokers.

  17. Treatment of effluent at the Saclay Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.


    The Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay possesses several installations from which liquid radioactive effluent is rejected, and it has thus been found necessary to construct a station for the purification of radioactive liquids and to settle various chemical, analytical and technological problems. This report describes, in the following order: - the disposal possibilities at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay, - the effluents produced at the centre, - the set-up for collecting effluent, - treatment of the effluent, - results of these treatments. (author) [fr

  18. Les Fintech sont-elles une opportunité ou une menace pour les banques traditionnelles ?


    Blanc, Aldwin; Sonney, Frédéric


    Dans ce travail, nous étudierons les potentielles opportunités et menaces que sont les Fintech pour les institutions bancaires. Cela nous permettra de savoir si, à l’avenir, ces entreprises vont s’imposer et remplacer les banques telles que nous les connaissons ou alors aider, forcer les acteurs traditionnels à effectuer leur révolution numérique pour répondre aux nouvelles attentes des clients. Afin de répondre à cette interrogation, les trois strates de l’environnement bancaire ont été anal...

  19. [Forensic-medical assessment of terroristic chemical attacks]. (United States)

    Babakhanian, R B; Bushuev, E S


    By potential damage, chemical terroristic attacks are much more dangerous than terroristic bombing. To fight chemical terrorism it is necessary to create the system of medical-environmental defense of the population. In line with emergency medicine, forensic medical service is a very important element of the antiterroristic defense. The activity of forensic-medical experts in the field of terroristic chemical attack is analysed.

  20. Will it Ever be Possible to Profile the Terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rae


    Full Text Available 'This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise their crude reductionism, an absence of internal and external validity, and their lack of practical application. Current evidence indicates that the profiling of terrorists is a futile venture.'

  1. Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rollins, John; Wilson, Clay


    .... Persistent Internet and computer security vulnerabilities, which have been widely publicized, may gradually encourage terrorists to develop new computer skills, or develop alliances with criminal...

  2. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. (United States)


    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.310 Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. The term specially...

  3. The timing of terrorist attacks: An optimal stopping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jensen


    Full Text Available I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number of attempted terrorist attacks because it makes it more risky for existing terrorist units to pursue further development of capabilities. This is consistent with the events in London in 2005 where a terrorist attack on 7 July was followed by a similar but unsuccessful attack two weeks later.

  4. Menace of E-Wastes in Developing Countries: An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu


    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, one of the most manifest indices of new age globalisation has been the transboundary movement of toxic and hazardous waste products, principally from developed countries to the developing countries otherwise known as the ‘Third World’. While waste generation is essentially a domestic problem, the issue has assumed global importance as industrialised countries continually seek convenient disposal sites outside their own shores. Despite increasing global, regional, and national legal and policy interventions to curb the menace of toxic and hazardous waste dumping, however, the problem has largely not abated. Against the backdrop of the enormous negative consequences of the transboundary movement of toxic and hazardous waste products in developing countries, and the impunity engendered by this ubiquitous practice, is it not high time that new strategies were evolved for tackling this menace? With the global proliferation of information technology continuing to escalate at an exponential rate, driven largely by the lure of exploiting the globalised info-tech market, this essay accentuates the latent dangers looming in developing countries particularly with regard to electronic wastes. Reflecting on the litany of treaties already adopted in responding to the problem of toxic and hazardous wastes, this essay attempts to highlight alternative policy and strategic initiatives against current trends.

  5. Combatting Commercial Terrorists: The PKK Case (United States)


    describes it in accordance with its own goals and political concerns. The cliché of one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter mindset causes...47 76 Justine A. Rosenthal, “For-Profit Terrorism: The Rise of Armed Entrepreneurs ,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 31, no. 6 (06/13; 2015/07...the left of Makarenko’s continuum. She sees these kinds of hybrids as “armed entrepreneurs ” and names their activity as “for- profit-terrorism

  6. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki


    Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...... and followers etc. In this research we analyze and predict the most likely role a particular node can adapt once a member of the network is either killed or caught. The adaptation is based on computing Bayes posteriori probability of each node and the level of the said node in the network structure....

  7. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat (United States)

    Muller, Richard


    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  8. Money, media and the anti-politics of terrorist finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.


    This article offers a critical analysis of the anti-politics of terrorist finance, understood as the particularly depoliticized governing practices enabled in its name. The article conceptualizes 'terrorist finance' not as an unproblematic reality which has elicited a state response, but as a

  9. National Intelligence Estimate: The Terrorist Threat to the US Homeland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Among the key judgments in this NIE are the following: the U.S. Homeland will face a persistent and evolving terrorist threat over the next 3 years, with the main threat coming from Islamic terrorist groups and cells, especially al-Qa'ida...

  10. Terrorist Use of the Internet: Information Operations in Cyberspace (United States)


    terrorist financing enterprise. Internet Ponzi schemes , identity theft, counterfeiting, and other types of computer fraud have been shown to yield high...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Terrorist Use of the Internet: Information Operations in...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  11. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif


    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions...

  12. 22 CFR 40.32 - Terrorist activities. [Reserved (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terrorist activities. 40.32 Section 40.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.32 Terrorist...

  13. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima


    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  14. Terrorist threats: Technical and policy approaches to countering them (United States)

    Fainberg, Anthony


    This paper presents a summary of the history of terrorist threats to the United States and other nations over the last few decades, and will discuss means, both technical and policy-oriented, that can counter such threats. Changing trends in terrorist attacks are discussed, together with the need to develop countermeasures to changes in the types of threats.

  15. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy......The law enforcement agencies need up-to-the minute intelligence about terrorist threats, which makes the development of expanded and improved intelligence a pre-requisite for their success As such, the intelligence community is actively developing new technologies to facilitate the identification...... and targeting of new and emerging threats. These threats can be manifested in network-centric form of organizations, doctrines, and technologies attuned to the information age. It is a widely held belief that terrorist activities are done by dispersed organizations (like non-hierarchical organizations), small...

  16. `Googling' Terrorists: Are Northern Irish Terrorists Visible on Internet Search Engines? (United States)

    Reilly, P.

    In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to

  17. North Africa’s Menace: AQIM’s Evolution and the U.S. Policy Response (United States)


    Muhammad Jamal MUJAO SOURCES: Siobhan Gorman, “Egypt Nabs Suspected Terrorist Ringleader,” Wall Street Journal , December 7, 2012; “Mali Crisis: Key in the Wall Street Journal , some of the Benghazi attackers attempted to call AQIM leadership to boast about their work.30 AQIM’s relationship...Militant Suspected in Attack in Libya Remains at Large,” Wall Street Journal , October 17, 2012, p. A1. 31. David Goodman and Souad Mekhennet

  18. Internet, chance ou menace pour la diversité culturelle et linguistique ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Amrous


    Full Text Available À l’ère des réseaux et de la société de l’information, nombreuses sont les tendances qui menacent la diversité culturelle et linguistique, en particulier sur Internet. Certes, le développement fulgurant de ces technologies offre de nouvelles opportunités pour le dialogue des cultures, mais il s’accompagne aussi de menaces réelles pour les cultures et les langues nationales. L’uniformisation culturelle et la prédominance d’une seule langue de communication représentent l’un des défis majeurs pour les réseaux électroniques. Devant ces perspectives, le présent article vise à attirer l’attention sur les enjeux de la défense et de la promotion du plurilinguisme sur les réseaux électroniques, et à proposer quelques solutions pour profiter de ces technologies et les mettre au service de l’humanité en favorisant le multiculturalisme, source d’enrichissement du patrimoine humain. At the time of networks and Information Society, many tendencies threaten cultural and linguistic diversity, more particularly, on the Internet. Admittedly, the fulgurating development of these technologies offers new opportunities for the dialogue of cultures, but it is also accompanied by real threats for national languages. The cultural standardization and the prevalence of one language of communication represent one of the major challenges for the electronic networks. With these perspectives, this article aims at drawing the attention to the stakes of defence and the promotion of the multilingualism on the electronic networks, and to propose some solutions to benefit from these technologies to put them at the service of humanity by supporting the multilingualism, source of enrichment of the human inheritance.

  19. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  20. Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence and Suicide Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Ismayilov


    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualization of suicide terrorism as one of the strategies of Fourth Generation Warfare, all studied at a strategic level. Drawing on these analyses, as well as on Tilly, this article attempts to address the question of whether suicide terrorism represents a "coherent phenomenon," and whether there is, or may be, a generalized pattern which could account for all possible causes of martyrdom operations.

  1. Nuclear energy fur civilian uses given the prospects of a changing climate; L'energie nucleaire civile dans le cadre temporel des changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautray, R. [Academy des Aciences, 75 - Paris (France); Turpin, M. [ERAP, 75 - Paris (France)


    The worrisome issues resulting from the civilian use of nuclear energy are subjected to a scientific analysis in R. Dautray's report. They include: the risks of accidents and radiation, the question of nuclear wastes (in particular, plutonium and actinides), and the dangers of atomic weapons proliferating or nuclear plants being menaced by terrorists. The nuclear industry will not be able to go on unless it comes up with solutions acceptable to citizens. Even if the decision were made to put an end to nuclear power plants, a solution would have to be found for putting an end to the aftereffects. According to this report, it is indispensable to have a base of knowledge accepted by all if we are to weigh various proposals and make decisions. It contends that the program under way in France since the 1991 Bataille Act should, for the 2006 deadline, set as its main objective to define 'a general criterion of protection and confidence of the concerned workers and populations, a criterion worked out by their elected representatives, thus by public authorities'. The report's author has proposed points for drawing up such a criterion. (author)

  2. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludwick, Keith W


    .... From that, it is further possible to use the resulting social profile to compare terrorist groups against each other in order to develop predictive models as to the propensity of violence of a particular group...

  3. The "FTO List" and Congress: Sanctioning Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Audrey K


    .... It centers on the list of terrorist groups that are formally designated by the Secretary of State pursuant to section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended under the Antiterrorism...

  4. Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rollins, John; Wilson, Clay


    ... organizations and consider attempting a cyberattack against the critical infrastructure. Cybercrime increased dramatically between 2004 and 2005, and several recent terrorist events appear to have been funded partially through online credit card fraud...

  5. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms


    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  6. Alternatives to retaliation in response to state sponsored terrorist attacks


    Evans, Paul James


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited We consider a game played between a state sponsor of international terrorism, a terrorist organization and the victim of a terrorist attack. The state sponsor wishes to inflict as much damage to the victim as possible without risking retaliation. The victim state wishes to end these attacks as soon as possible, through non-retaliatory means if possible in order to avoid the penalty associated with retaliation. In this thesis we compare...

  7. Nuclear program of Iran. Towards de-escalation of a nuclear crisis. Advisory letter; Nucleair programma van Iran. Naar de-escalatie van een nucleaire crisis. Briefadvies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Dutch government, partly at the request of the House of Representatives (Second Chamber), the AIV asked to give an opinion about the position of Iran in the region and the role of the nuclear program of Iran in the geopolitical relations, in view of the most recent developments [Dutch] De Nederlandse regering heeft, mede op verzoek van de Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal, de AIV gevraagd advies uit te brengen over de positie van Iran in de regio en de rol van het nucleaire programma van Iran in de geopolitieke verhoudingen hierin, mede gelet op de meest recente ontwikkelingen.

  8. Preventing nuclear terrorism: responses to terrorist grievances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.


    The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism

  9. Analysis of Al-Qaeda Terrorist Attacks to Investigate Rational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Hepworth


    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the collective rationality of traditional terrorist groups; this study seeks to expand this and apply collective rationality to Islamic terrorist groups. A series of statistical analyses were conducted on terrorist attacks carried out by Al-Qaeda and affiliated terrorist organization; these were then compared to two more conventional terrorist groups: the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. When viewed through the context of the groups’ various motivations and objectives, the results of these analyses demonstrates collective rationality for those terrorist groups examined. 

  10. Is ALARP applicable to the management of terrorist risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guikema, S.D.; Aven, T.


    In this paper, we discuss the applicability of the as low as reasonable practicable (ALARP) principle to terrorist risk management. ALARP is a commonly used framework for managing risk due to non-intelligent threats, but terrorism introduces difficult issues, both technically and socially. In particular, the probability of a terrorist attack is difficult to define, terrorist threats are adaptive, and some terrorist risk management actions raise issues of loss of civil liberties not raised by risk management measures for other types of risk. We discuss these issues and their implications for risk management. After showing how ALARP is used to manage the risk from other hazards in different economic sectors, we discuss both the benefits and difficulties associated with extending the ALARP framework for terrorist risk analysis. We conclude that the ALARP framework can be modified to make it appropriate for risk management for adaptive risks, provided that care is taken to explicitly consider adaptive reallocation of risk in response to risk management actions, to account for perceived or actual loss of civil liberties resulting from risk management actions, and to consider the difficulties associated with using probability to measure uncertainty in adversary actions.

  11. Sub Saharan African Terrorist Groups’ use of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Bertram


    Full Text Available Recent actions by French military forces in Niger and the global prominence of terrorist groups such as Al Shabaab and Boko Haram, have highlighted the growing counter terrorist focus on the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. Additionally in a post Bin Laden world and with the immanent withdrawal of coalition combat troops from Afghanistan, there is the possibility of Africa as a continent becoming the new front in the Global War on Terror ('Mben' et al., 2013. However, it is a mistake to assume that Africa’s story is uniformly one of violence and death. Vibrant cultures and a rugged entrepreneurial spirit have combined with a robust Internet backbone, to create the embryonic emergence of high tech hotspots across Africa. With rising IT literacy levels, more and more Africans are becoming connected to the information super highway on a daily basis (Graham, 2010. A tiny minority of these Africans are terrorists.

  12. EWAS: Modeling Application for Early Detection of Terrorist Threats (United States)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    This paper presents a model and system architecture for an early warning system to detect terrorist threats. The paper discusses the shortcomings of state-of-the-art systems and outlines the functional requirements that must to be met by an ideal system working in the counterterrorism domain. The concept of generation of early warnings to predict terrorist threats is presented. The model relies on data collection from open data sources, information retrieval, information extraction for preparing structured workable data sets from available unstructured data, and finally detailed investigation. The conducted investigation includes social network analysis, investigative data mining, and heuristic rules for the study of complex covert networks for terrorist threat indication. The presented model and system architecture can be used as a core framework for an early warning system.

  13. Counterinsurgency Meets Soft Power: An Alternative Approach to Deterring Terrorist Recruitment in Mindanao

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jason; Stroh, Rieka; Williams, John


    Terrorist activity in Southeast Asia remains a challenge to U.S. national security. In particular, terrorist organizations in the Philippines continue to conduct deadly attacks and attract more recruits despite...

  14. Defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Richard


    The book on defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law includes the following issues: Introduction: civil engineering and safety. Risk, hazards and urban planning: historical and actual examples for the constructional danger prevention, terroristic threat and urban planning. Risk, hazards and terrorism: sociology and risk, law and risk, terrorism - risk or hazard? Answer to uncertainty - risk prevention, catastrophe law as link. Risk, hazard, terrorism and the public building and regional planning law: regional planning law as point of origin, building law and terrorism, possibility of control by the legal building regulations.

  15. Terrorists and Fair Trial: The Right to a Fair Trial for Alleged Terrorists Detained in Guantánamo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ambos


    Full Text Available This paper inquires into whether the right to a fair trial can be restricted with regard to alleged terrorists within the framework of the ‘war on terror’. After briefly identifying the relevant sources of this right and its content, possible restrictions are analysed. The paper elaborates, in particular, on international humanitarian law, such as the Third and Fourth Geneva Convention, and international human rights law, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. It further deals with US constitutional law. We conclude that the right to a fair trial fully applies to alleged terrorists irrespective of the context of their detention (armed conflict or peace or the qualification of these terrorists (de facto or unlawful combatants and thus amounts to a general principle of transnational criminal law.

  16. Selection, Availability, and Opportunity: The Conditional Effect of Poverty on Terrorist Group Participation (United States)

    Kavanagh, Jennifer


    Poverty is often identified as a determinant of terrorist group participation, but existing research reveals mixed support for this relationship. Some studies find that macroeconomic decline is associated with increased production of terrorists, but micro-level research suggests terrorists have above average socioeconomic status and educational…

  17. 77 FR 56515 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks (United States)


    ... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Notice of September 11, 2012--Continuation of the National... the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the... declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11...

  18. 78 FR 56579 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks (United States)


    ... Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C..., in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing...

  19. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks (United States)


    ... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 10, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent... national emergency declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist...

  20. 76 FR 56631 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks (United States)


    ... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C. 1622(d... Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and...

  1. Reducing the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist attacks: dehorning rhinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.


    The terrorist attacks to two French chemical facilities in June and July 2015 raised the flag about the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist groups and the imminent risk of similar attacks in western countries. Although the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US put the security of chemical

  2. Terrorist Use of the Internet: The Real Story (United States)


    majority of cyber attacks , even viruses that cause billions of dollars of damage to an economy, are not going to cause the levels of fear desired by...influence operations. Terrorists use the Internet to harm U.S. national security interests, but not by conduct- ing large-scale cyber attacks . Instead

  3. School Preparation to the Terrorist Threat. SVRC Fact Sheet (United States)

    School Violence Resource Center, 2004


    This fact sheet provides a list of "lessons learned" to assist schools in better preparing for a crisis event. The list was compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Education specifically to assist schools in preparing for a terrorist attack. The lessons can help schools better identify appropriate…

  4. Understanding Terrorist Network Topologies and Their Resilience Against Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.


    This article investigates the structural position of covert (terrorist or criminal) networks. Using the secrecy versus information tradeoff characterization of covert networks it is shown that their network structures are generally not small-worlds, in contradistinction to many overt social

  5. Preventing Terrorist Bombings on United States Subway Systems (United States)


    extracurricular activities to deter drug use; drug and alcohol tests for railway employees to encourage safety; car stops at borders to intercept illegal...26 Table 3. Possible Signs of Suspicious Activity .............................................................27 Table 4...Mass transportation has been and remains an attractive target for terrorist activity throughout the world. In the last three years, major

  6. Freed: Ripples of the Convicted and Released Terrorist in America (United States)


    Singapore, Malaysia , Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines (The International Conference on Terrorist Rehabilitation, 2009). No single methodology to...intersection of prisoner reentry and civil society” are the issues of “public health, families and children, employment, housing and homelessness , youth

  7. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security (United States)

    Gearon, Liam


    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  8. [Preclinical and intrahospital management of mass casualties and terrorist incidents]. (United States)

    Franke, A; Bieler, D; Friemert, B; Kollig, E; Flohe, S


    Due to the recent terrorist attacks in Paris, Brussels, Ansbach, Munich, Berlin and more recently Manchester and London, terrorism is realized as a present threat to our society and social life, as well as a challenge for the health care system. Without fueling anxiety, there is a need for sensitization to this subject and to familiarize all concerned with the special kind of terrorist attack-related injuries, the operational priorities and tactics and the individual basic principles of preclinical and hospital care. There is a need to adapt the known established medical structure for a conventional mass casualty situation to the special requirements that are raised by this new kind of terrorist threat to our social life. It is the aim of this article, from a surgical point of view, to depict the tactics and challenges of preclinical care of the special kind of terrorist attack-related injuries from the site of the incident, via the advanced medical post or casualty collecting point, to the triage point at the hospital. The special needs of medical care and organizational aspects of the primary treatment in the hospital are highlighted and possible decisional options and different approaches are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Startsev


    Full Text Available Issues related to problems arising while using economic and legal facilities of counteraction to terroristic threats in Russian Federation A complex of. key national safety maintenance matters vital in modern conditions is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to economic and financial safety in interrelation with issues common to counteraction to organized and economic criminality, corruption and terrorism.

  10. Nigeria as a Potential Terrorist Haven Explaining the Convergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Nigeria a possible terrorist haven? This article aims to answer this question from two perspectives: international and domestic terrorism. From the perspective of international terrorism and in the standpoint of Western liberalism, for a foreseeable future Nigeria cannot be a haven for terrorism. This is the impossibility ...

  11. The Terrorist War against Islam: Clarifying Academic Confusions (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen


    Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…

  12. An Analysis of Modern State-Level Terrorist Deradicalization Campaigns (United States)


    of achieving temporary 68 disengagement through instant gratification , Det 88’s use of selective incentives achieves its desired effects. The...convince individuals to renounce their radical beliefs. However, this program works through the Internet . This program uses credible religious personnel...they all seek to moderate violent behavior of the individual terrorist through immediate gratification and material compensation. These mechanisms

  13. Protecting chemical plants against terrorist attacks: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.


    Protection of hazardous establishments such as chemical plants intentional incidents has drawn attention from safety and security experts since 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. Although major steps have been taken since, the recent intentional incidents in two chemical plants in France in June and

  14. Threat Barometer. Ten Years of Terrorist Threat Assessment Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.; Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.


    In this essay, which was commissioned by the NCTV to mark the occasion of the conference “Threat Barometer. Ten years of Terrorist Threat Assessments for the Netherlands 2005-2015”, we address this and other aspects of the DTN and consider how this instrument has developed over the past decade. We

  15. Queen leads tributes to nurses in wake of terrorist attacks. (United States)

    Allen, Daniel


    The Queen and the prime minister led tributes to nurses and other NHS staff caring for people injured in the recent terrorist attacks in Manchester and London. Emergency services worked through the night to assist in the immediate aftermath of the explosion at the Manchester arena, which killed 22 people and left many more injured, who were treated at hospitals across the city.

  16. [The hospital care of victims of terrorist attacks]. (United States)

    Bouhaddou, Assena; Nion, Nathalie; Riou, Bruno; Blandeau, Fanny; Moreau, Pilar; Guemache, Sofia


    The treatment of victims of terrorist attacks in a trauma centre requires the putting in place of plans, training and simulation exercises. Previous experiences have highlighted the areas which require improvement. As exceptional health situations are unpredictable, it is essential to always be vigilant and prepared for an unforeseen event. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Are Risk Assessments of a Terrorist Attack Coherent? (United States)

    Mandel, David R.


    Four experiments examined 3 types of violations of coherence criteria in risk assessments of a terrorist attack. First, the requirement that extensionally equivalent descriptions be assigned the same probability (i.e., additivity) was violated. Unpacking descriptions of an attack into subtypes led to an increase in assessed risk. Second,…

  18. Can a Copycat Effect be Observed in Terrorist Suicide Attacks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farnham, N.T.; Liem, M.C.A.


    The purpose of this paper is to explore how a copycat effect – established within the field of suicide studies – may manifest itself in terrorist suicide attacks, and takes an exploratory approach in evaluating the prospect of incorporating open-data resources in future counter-terrorism research.

  19. Women Behind Terrorists (Religiousity, Self Adaptation and Husband-Wife Relationship within Suspected Terrorists Family in Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghfur Maghfur


    Full Text Available Women and their religiosity are questioned along with the proliferation of conflict, violence, and religion-based riots which allegedly involving ‘husband’  suspected  terrorists. This article discusses the religiosity of the wives, the adjustment of wives of suspected terrorists against psychological and social burden, and the patterns of marital relations of terrorist suspects in Pekalongan-Central Java. The result of this phenomenological study revealed that the religiosity of terrorist-suspects’ wives are more dominant is exclusive patterned- if it is compared to moderate or inclusive ones. In terms of adjustment, the wives are just accept the fate and tend to be indifferent to the activities of their husbands. The wives also nullifying the public’s negative perception and judgment, but some are closed to the social interaction. While the pattern of relationships that were frequently built tent to be more owner property and head-complement in characteristics. Wives are positioned as husband’s complement for all activities in the fields of social, religious and political.

  20. Phenomena of instability along the valley of the Gulch Las Perdices and their menace for Guayabetal town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia N, Jesus; Caro P, Pablo E.


    Along the valley of the gulch Las Perdices are frequent the slips. These slips have been come presenting in the permeable and porous colluviums that are on the sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that act as waterproof barrier to the flow. The deforestation, abundant precipitation and accented topographical slope, they are considered as the main causes of uncertainty in the area in study. The reforestation and the drainage are fundamental to minimize the menaces for slips, especially in the sector bordering to the lagoon or the hydrant for the Guayabetal aqueduct. The original hydrant was destroyed soon after the slips that affect the place, being this the reason so that the water consumed at the moment is characterized to be cloudy with a high concentration of silts, phenomenon this that is accentuated in the winter times. This problem will be continued presenting while slips exist in the high part and the municipal aqueduct is continued supplying of the waters of the gulch Las Perdices. The sector bordering to the lagoon is the most critical in these moments, so that a quick water movement could originate an avalanche that would affect so much to the civil works as to the inhabitants of the oriental sector of Guayabetal. In this area, it is recommended to begin with preventive measured urgency and correctives, in order to reduce the menace for flood and slips

  1. Public health preparedness for maritime terrorist attacks on ports and coastal waters. (United States)

    Wassel, John J


    To assess the risk of mass casualties and necessary public health and provider preparation relating to maritime terrorist attacks on the US ports. Articles were obtained by searching PubMed database, Google, and Google Scholar search engines using terms such as "maritime security," "maritime terrorism,"port security," "terrorist attacks on the U.S. ports," "terrorist nuclear attacks," "terrorist attacks on liquefied natural gas tankers," and "terrorist attack on high occupancy ships." U.S. ports and coastal waters. Seventy-six journal articles were reviewed. Morbidity and mortality high for nuclear terrorist attack; mortality low but morbidity potentially high for radiological attacks. It would be more difficult for terrorist attack on natural gas tankers to cause high mortality and/or morbidity.

  2. Analytic index for nuclear physicians uses; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Bretonneau, P.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Joffre, H.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lesueur, C.; Leveque, A.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Studinowski, FJ.; Netter, F.; Raievski, V.; Valladas, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N.; Renard, G. [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of new publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this facts that we tried, in the service of Nuclear Physics of the CEA, to give to the documentation a character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between first January 1950 and first July 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le premier Janvier 1950 et le premier Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  3. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiesse, J.


    The considerable needs in research workers and scientists which are asked by the nuclear energy obliged the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to deal with a particular effort to increase the quantitative and qualitative formation of scientists. Most various ways have been used. 1- A National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Techniques was created, by a joint decree of the Prime Minister and the Minister for National Education (june 18, 1957). This Institute of Higher Teaching (250 students) indulges in the following matters: atomic engineering, quantum mechanics, theory and technic of particle accelerators, special metallurgy, radiobiology, thermic and mechanics of fluids. 2- An associated centre of the 'Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers' was created (200 students) for technical assistants, drawers, etc. 3- In contribution with both electronic industry and Ministry of Work, the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires contributes to an accelerated formation of technical assistants into Professional Centres. Conclusion: Training of scientists and research workers is one of the most important activities of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Without losing its technical efficiency, it has supplied and varied means adapted to the various purposes that we shall reach. (author) [fr

  4. Nuclear biological studies in France; Les etudes de biologie nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [French] Un colloque sur les programmes de recherche en radiobiologie nous a donne l'occasion de reunir des documents sur les realisations et les projets francais dans ce domaine. Il nous a semble utile de reunir en un rapport l'ensemble de ces documents, qui, malgre leur brievete et malgre les lacunes qu'ils comportent, donnent un certain nombre d'informations, permettent une vue d'ensemble et peuvent dessiner aussi l'ebauche d'une politique coherente en matiere de recherches biologiques 'nucleaires', c'est-a-dire de recherches basees sur la methode des indicateurs nucleaires ou consacrees a l'action des rayonnements ionisants. (auteur)

  5. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redus, Kenneth S.


    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R and D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex

  6. Public health preparedness and response to a radiological terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro


    Given the potential for intentional malevolent acts, the security of radioactive sources should be ensured. In the event of a terrorist attack using a radioactive source, we should care not only about health concerns of victims, especially including first responders who suffer from radiation injury, but also public health activities with affected people during the long recovery phase. Regarding the radiological public health viewpoint, preventive efforts are also important. In fact, regulatory reform is progressing in Japan according to the code of conduct issued by IAEA. One of the difficulties of countermeasures for the security of radioactive sources in Japan is to establish a disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources, since radioactive waste has been additionally a point of contention in society since the nuclear disaster. This paper presents an overview of countermeasures for terrorist attacks using a radioactive source, from the viewpoint of public health in Japan including the results of survey targeted hospitals equipped with blood irradiation machines. (author)

  7. Anticipating Terrorist Safe Havens from Instability Induced Conflict (United States)

    Shearer, Robert; Marvin, Brett

    This chapter presents recent methods developed at the Center for Army Analysis to classify patterns of nation-state instability that lead to conflict. The ungoverned areas endemic to failed nation-states provide terrorist organizations with safe havens from which to plan and execute terrorist attacks. Identification of those states at risk for instability induced conflict should help to facilitate effective counter terrorism policy planning efforts. Nation-states that experience instability induced conflict are similar in that they share common instability factors that make them susceptible to experiencing conflict. We utilize standard pattern classification algorithms to identify these patterns. First, we identify features (political, military, economic and social) that capture the instability of a nation-state. Second, we forecast the future levels of these features for each nation-state. Third, we classify each future state’s conflict potential based upon the conflict level of those states in the past most similar to the future state.

  8. [Blasting damage in manmade disasters and terrorist attacks]. (United States)

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M


    In the present case of explosive injuries in peacetime, when suddenly there are usually accidental or intentional explosions methane in mines, tanks with gas or explosives, fuel tanks or gas content, gas tanks, gas pipelines, product pipelines, as well as the explosion of military ordnance--grenades, mines, fuses, shells, and accidentally found child or maliciously used by terrorists. Collected statistical data on manmade disasters in coal mines and explosive injuries in terrorist attacks, the physical parameters of which were able to identify only approximately and type of damage incurred,mostly multiple and combinative combined and presented significant challenges in health care. The reasons and circumstances of the explosion in peacetime, gave a detailed description of the damaging factors, mechanisms, and characteristics arise from injuries suffered in the blast injuries. We describe the pathogenesis of blast injury, basic and clinical manifestations of lesions in the explosions.



    Beslan Alexeyevich Tarchokov


    The paper made an attempt to explore preconditions, motives, reasons and factors capable of facilitating youth’ involvement into terrorist operations, emergence of youth terrorism and its spreading around, including the specifics of social and economic domains, of ideology and politics, psychology and law, etc. all of them taken on the scene of nowadays globalized society. Specifying in greater detail the causes and circumstances that contributed to involvement of young Russians into terroris...

  10. Burdens on emergency responders after a terrorist attack in Berlin. (United States)

    Wesemann, U; Zimmermann, P; Mahnke, M; Butler, O; Polk, S; Willmund, G


    Terrorist attacks induce various responses in emergency responders. Addressing this range of responses in individual workers is of central interest. To assess the gender- and occupation-specific effects of a terrorist attack, particularly in emergency responders. This was a pilot study. Emergency responders present during the 2016 terrorist attack at Breitscheidplatz in Berlin were asked to participate. Measures for crisis management had been previously implemented. Stress (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]), quality of life (The World Health Organization Quality of Life [WHOQOL-BREF]), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 [PCL-5]) and current psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory [BSI]) were assessed. Thirty-seven subjects were included, 11 female and 26 male. The occupational groups included 16 firefighters, six police officers, five psychosocial health care personnel and nine members of aid organizations. Three months after the attack, female workers showed higher scores in stress and paranoid ideation, police officers showed higher scores in hostility and firefighters scored lower quality of life in environment and physical health. The mental health burden identified in this study plays an important role for emergency responders after terrorist attacks. Differences between occupational groups may be attributable to differences in tasks that responders perform during acute incidents. The presence of these differences 3 months after the incident suggests that these are at least medium-term conditions. This study may inform the development of treatments and policies and it thus recommended to develop a multi-level assessment and treatment programme that is gender- and occupation-specific. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia


    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  12. Evolution of Terrorist Network using Clustered approach: A Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah


    In the paper we present a cluster based approach for terrorist network evolution. We have applied hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach to 9/11 case study. We show that, how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small clusters and result in a fully...... evolved network. This method of network evolution can help intelligence security analysts to understand the structure of the network....

  13. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leonard


    Full Text Available The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily operate in conflict zones, an area of research that traditionally has not been the main focus of Terrorism Studies. Protagonists have at various times been called freedom fighters, rebels, warlords, insurgents or simply violent gangs. This article looks at the most notorious of African groups – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA. It argues that some groups like the LRA have been recast as terrorist organisations not because of a change in their activities but due to a change in the geo-strategic environment they found themselves in the post-9/11 period. The LRA’s ideology and tactics will be judged against a broad definition of terrorism in order to test whether the group can, in an objective way, be called a terrorist organisation. It is concluded that the LRA is too ambiguous an organisation to be simply labelled in such a way. It is also suggested that the terrorism label has in fact been an obstacle to attempts to end successfully a confrontation that is now going into its 24th year. 

  14. Overview of the terrorist threat to international peace and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.


    This contribution deals with the implications of terrorism for international peace and security and the escalation to mass terrorism. The topics covered are: impact of the latest terrorist events on the United States, impact on the international community; illegitimacy of terrorism; need for global action; the role of the united Nations; the crucial role for disarmament and counter-proliferation activities, especially in finding means of enhancing the security of materials that could easily be misused

  15. Mass casualty response in the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. (United States)

    Roy, Nobhojit; Kapil, Vikas; Subbarao, Italo; Ashkenazi, Isaac


    The November 26-29, 2008, terrorist attacks on Mumbai were unique in its international media attention, multiple strategies of attack, and the disproportionate national fear they triggered. Everyone was a target: random members of the general population, iconic targets, and foreigners alike were under attack by the terrorists. A retrospective, descriptive study of the distribution of terror victims to various city hospitals, critical radius, surge capacity, and the nature of specialized medical interventions was gathered through police, legal reports, and interviews with key informants. Among the 172 killed and 304 injured people, about four-fifths were men (average age, 33 years) and 12% were foreign nationals. The case-fatality ratio for this event was 2.75:1, and the mortality rate among those who were critically injured was 12%. A total of 38.5% of patients arriving at the hospitals required major surgical intervention. Emergency surgical operations were mainly orthopedic (external fixation for compound fractures) and general surgical interventions (abdominal explorations for penetrating bullet/shrapnel injuries). The use of heavy-duty automatic weapons, explosives, hostages, and arson in these terrorist attacks alerts us to new challenges to medical counterterrorism response. The need for building central medical control for a coordinated response and for strengthening public hospital capacity are lessons learned for future attacks. These particular terrorist attacks had global consequences, in terms of increased security checks and alerts for and fears of further similar "Mumbai-style" attacks. The resilience of the citizens of Mumbai is a critical measure of the long-term effects of terror attacks.

  16. The pattern of thoracic trauma after suicide terrorist bombing attacks. (United States)

    Bala, Miklosh; Shussman, Noam; Rivkind, Avraham I; Izhar, Uzi; Almogy, Gidon


    The worldwide escalation in the volume of suicide terrorist bombing attacks warrants special attention to the specific pattern of injury associated with such attacks. The goal of this study was to characterize thoracic injuries inflicted by terrorist-related explosions and compare pattern of injury to penetrating and blunt thoracic trauma. Prospectively collected database of patients with chest injury who were admitted to Hadassah Hospital Level I trauma centre, in Jerusalem, Israel, from October 2000 to December 2005. Patients were divided into three groups according to the mechanism of injury: terrorist explosions (n = 55), gunshot wounds (GSW; n = 78), and blunt trauma (n = 747). There were many female victims after suicide bombing attacks (49.1%) compared with GSW (21.8%) and blunt trauma (24.6%; p = 0.009). The number of body regions injured was significantly higher in the terror group compared with the GSW and blunt groups (median, 4, 2, and 3, respectively, p attacks was caused by a unique combination of the effects of the blast wave and penetrating shrapnel. More than half (52.7%) of the terror victims suffered from lung contusion and 25 (45.5%) required tube thoracostomy. Five patients (9.1%) underwent thoracotomy for lung lacerations (n = 3), injury to great vessels (n = 2), cardiac lacerations (n = 1), and esophageal injury (n = 1). Penetrating shrapnel was the mechanism of injury in all these cases. Injury inflicted by terrorist bombings causes a unique pattern of thoracic wounds. Victims are exposed to a combination of lung injury caused by the blast wave and penetrating injury caused by metallic objects.

  17. Are We Doing Enough to Prevent a Nuclear Terrorist Attack? (United States)


    Cesium-137 from nuclear medicine therapy units, Cobalt-60 from food sterilization irradiators, Strontium-90 from communications generators, and...Plutonium-239. A terrorist group would not use the medical isotopes to design and build a nuclear weapon, but the isotopes could be used in a...sized devices used as scanning tools to search for 18 and detect nuclear and radiological materials; hand-held radioisotope identification

  18. Can a Copycat Effect be Observed in Terrorist Suicide Attacks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Farnham


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore how a copycat effect – established within the field of suicide studies – may manifest itself in terrorist suicide attacks, and takes an exploratory approach in evaluating the prospect of incorporating open-data resources in future counter-terrorism research. This paper explores a possible ‘copycat effect’ in cases of suicide terrorism, which entails a perpetrator being inspired by a preceding attack to carry out a similar attack not long after the original. In the wake of mounting risks of lone wolf terrorist attacks today and due to the general difficulties faced in preventing such attacks, in this paper we explore a potential area of future prevention in media reporting, security and anti-terrorism policies today. Using the START Global Terrorism Database (GTD, this paper investigates terrorist suicide-attack clusters and analyses the relationship between attacks found within the same cluster. Using a mixed-method approach, our analyses did not uncover clear evidence supporting a copycat effect among the studied attacks. These and other findings have numerous policy and future research implications.

  19. Liquid Missile Fuels as Means of Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superina, V.; Orehovec, Z.


    Modern world is faced with numerous terrorist attacks whose goals, methods and means of the conduct are various. It seems that we have entered the era when terrorism, one's own little terrorism, is the easiest and the most painless way of achieving a goal. That is why that such a situation has contributed to the necessity for strengthening individual and collective protection and safety, import and export control, control of the production and illegal sale of the potential means for delivering terrorist act. It has also contributed to the necessity for devising means of the delivery. For more than 10 years, a series of congresses on CB MTS Industry has pointed at chemicals and chemical industry as potential means and targets of terrorism. The specialization and experience of different authors in the field of the missile technology and missile fuels, especially those of Eastern origin, and the threat that was the reality of the war conflicts in 1990s was the reason for making a scientific and expert analysis of the liquid missile fuels as means of terrorism. There are not many experts in the field of NBC protection who are familiar with the toxicity and reaction of liquid missile fuels still lying discarded and unprotected in abandoned barracks all over Europe and Asia. The purpose of this paper is to draw public attention to possible different abuses of liquid missile fuels for a terrorist purpose, as well as to possible consequences and prevention measures against such abuses. (author)

  20. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats (United States)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara


    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  1. Network Technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication Technologies to Modern Terrorist Organizations (United States)


    approximate such decisions here by assuming that terrorist groups make rational decisions over the long run using these group sur- 73 Orson Welles ’ War of...surveillance, and reconnais- sance (C4ISR) technologies in military parlance, as well as the consumer-oriented technologies that can often provide the...canonical military command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, surveil- lance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) technologies1 as well as the

  2. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks. (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David


    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  3. We Bomb, Therefore We Are: The Evolution of Terrorist Group Life Cycles (United States)


    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 1994 Author...Revolutionary Cell and Palestinian PFLP operation that was led by the international terrorist "Carlos." Urbano . 26 terrorist network. but does imply some...violence. In order to retain the media’s and the public’s attention, a terrorist group continually must raise "Interview with Urbano ," in Urban

  4. How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qa'ida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Seth G; Libicki, Martin C


    .... counterterrorism strategy. The ending of most terrorist groups requires a range of policy instruments, such as careful police and intelligence work, military force, political negotiations, and economic...

  5. The 1989 annual report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire-Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The activity report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire (Orsay-France) from 1 Sep 1988 to 1 Aug 1989 is presented. Theoretical and experimental investigations were carried out in the following fields: light and medium exotic nuclei, on line spectroscopy, discrete high spin states, new radioactivities, thermal fission, detection systems, giant resonances, high excitation energy structure, reaction mechanisms at energies below 10 MeV/u and at 200 MeV/u and their evolution between 10 and 100 MeV/u, meson production, transfer reactions, spin modes in nuclei, dibaryonic resonances, inelastic scattering of polarized protons. Research programs in the field of radiochemistry and relating to inter-disciplinary fields are included. The activities involving teaching, the lists of publications conferences, seminars and theses are presented [fr

  6. The French civilian nuclear: connections and stakes; Le nucleaire civil francais: filieres et enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document (18 power point slides) gives an overview of the French civilian nuclear industry and research and development: importance of the nuclear power generation in France, excellence of the education in nuclear sciences, organization of the nuclear connection (CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN), the role of the French International Nuclear Agency (AFNI), the requirements for a renewal of human resources (French and foreign engineers) in the field of nuclear energy, the degree course for a diploma, examples of engineer and university diplomas, the educational networks in various regions of France, presentation of the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Nuclear Sciences and Techniques National Institute) and its master degrees, organization of the French education system in nuclear sciences with strong relations with the research and development programs

  7. French research in the field of nuclear agronomy; Les recherches francaises en agronomie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin De Montgareuil, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    , industrial firms, university laboratories scientific institutes. The role of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is defined: on the one hand it supplies information and support, and on the other hand it takes charge of specifically nuclear aspects of the work. Its part in the field has recently found expression in the creation, within the Biology Department, of a Radio-agronomy Section; its objective are described,, as well as the, means placed att its disposal at the Centre d'etudes Nucleaires, Cadarache. (author) [French] On propose un bilan des travaux les plus significatifs effectues en France depuis la deuxieme conference internationale en matiere d'agronomie nucleaire et qui vont d'une recherche apparemment desinteressee a l'application la plus directe. Une telle differenciation recouvre de moins en moins, au fur et a mesure de l'evolution des programmes, la distinction qui est faite dans l'expose entre l'action biologique des rayonnements et les autres emplois des techniques nucleaires. C'est ainsi que les recherches do radiogenetique agricole sont poursuivies dans deux directions: d'un point de vue theorique et methodologique avec l'etude comparative de l'action des divers types de rayonnements, l'influence du debit de dose et de la temperature, l'action des agents mutagenes chimiques, la production de chimeres sous irradiation gamma; et d'autre part, sous un aspect pratique aboutissant a la creation de varietes nouvelles plus resistantes ou plus precoces (riz, mil, arachide). Les problemes de destruction des insectes (eradication) et de conservation des denrees sous irradiation se trouvent egalement abordes par des voies et avec des objectifs tres divers. A la demarche globale representee par une irradiation pure et simple (grains humides, pommes de terre...) sont parfois associees des etudes souvent originales, d'ordre biochimique ou microbiologique (par exemple: alteration de l

  8. Striking at the Underbelly: Influencing Would-Be Terrorists (United States)


    value unless he fights for what is right. … I did not want to be an eternal foreigner, a displaced person, a landless, homeless , stateless, shamed...ran dpa’s Islam was for elderly people.”159 According to Scot Atran, people behind most of the terrorist attacks in Indonesia, Malaysia and...being part of a group of youngsters. He writes, “We played soccer and remained brothers—in Malaysia , when I worked on the chicken farm … then back

  9. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas


    makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  10. Terrorist Attacks: Do We Know How to Assess the Results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning


    Full Text Available On September 11, 2001, terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center (WTC in New York City. Explosions and fires resulted in the complete collapse of the two WTC towers. The collapsing towers served as enormous point sources of gaseous and particulate air pollution, seen as huge plumes of smoke and dust. The smoke contained volatile organic compounds and fine particles and aerosols. The dust fraction contained parts of ceiling tiles, carpets, concrete, adhesives, asbestos, chromium, lead, titanium, and many other elements and materials. Whether there were unusually toxic ingredients in the plumes is largely unknown.

  11. Cultural Memory of Sorrow in Advertising after the Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Martínez Pastor


    Full Text Available The general objective of this research study is to do a comparative research to investigate the perception of sorrow in the advertising in the press after the terrorist attacks: 11/09/2001 (U.S. and 11/04/2004 (Spain. The general hypothesis considers that there are similar perceptions of the sorrow towards the ads although there are cultural differences. On a computer program the subject was shown these images about announcement advertisement published in the press after the 09/11 and 11/04 in a random order and was asked different questions that explored their perception and attitudes with regard to these advertisements

  12. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  13. Kidnapping by Terrorist Groups, 1970-2010: Is Ideological Orientation Relevant? (United States)

    Forest, James J. F.


    This article examines whether a terrorist group's ideology has a meaningful impact on its involvement in kidnapping. On a global level, incident data (1970-2010) indicate that in the past decade the number of kidnappings by terrorist groups has increased, while Muslim extremists have replaced left-wing/Marxist revolutionaries as the world's…

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the... (United States)


    ... to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other... Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of violence committed...

  15. Game Theoretic Centrality Analysis of Terrorist Networks : The Cases of Jemaah Islamiyah and Al Qaeda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Husslage, B.G.M.


    The identification of key players in a terrorist network can lead to prevention of attacks, due to efficient allocation of surveillance means or isolation of key players in order to destabilize the network. In this paper we introduce a game theoretic approach to identify key players in terrorist

  16. Cooperative game theoretic centrality analysis of terrorist networks : The cases of Jemaah Islamiyah and Al Qaeda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Husslage, B.G.M.


    The identification of key players in a terrorist organization aids in preventing attacks, the efficient allocation of surveillance measures, and the destabilization of the corresponding network. In this paper, we introduce a game theoretic approach to identify key players in terrorist networks. In

  17. TePiTri : a screening method for assessing terrorist-related pipeline transport risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.; Dullaert, W.E.H.


    The article proposes an approach to determine relative terrorist-related security risk levels of pipeline transportation. Pipeline routes are divided into smaller route segments. Subsequently, likelihood scores of possible terrorist-related incidents are determined per route segment and per

  18. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists. (United States)


    ... designated terrorists. 595.408 Section 595.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.408 Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists. (a) Unless...

  19. The Scope of Definition of a Terrorist Act under Ethiopian Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While regional and international human rights institutions claim that the definition of a terrorist act under the Anti-terrorism Proclamation No. 652/2009 is overly broad as a result of which citizens not involved in a genuinely terrorist act are prosecuted and jailed, the Ethiopian government defends the law pointing that it is ...

  20. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. (United States)


    ... of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. (a) The following system of records is exempt from 5... Candidates File System (JUSTICE/FTTTF-001). This exemption applies only to the extent that information is... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking...

  1. Training, SEVIS, and NSEERS: Will They Stop Terrorists from Entering the U.S

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bugarin, Darwina S


    .... Stopping their entry is key to preventing attacks. The 9/11 Commission's Staff Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 9/11 and Terrorist Travel, identified pre-9/11 gaps/weaknesses in U.S...

  2. Help-Seeking Behaviours of Adolescents in Relation to Terrorist Attacks: The Perceptions of Israeli Parents (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima; Kelman, Talia


    Exposure to terrorism poses a challenge for children and adolescents as well as parents. For many years, Israeli citizens have been exposed to ongoing terrorist attacks. The present article is aimed at revealing the reactions of Israeli parents when facing terrorist attacks and their perceptions regarding the help-seeking behaviours of their…

  3. 75 FR 55659 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks (United States)


    ..., 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with... Notice of September 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 176 / Monday...

  4. Terrorist Decision-Making: Insights from Economics and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Shapiro


    Full Text Available Terrorist groups repeatedly take actions that are ultimately politically counter-productive. Sometimes these are the result of deliberate calculations that happen to be mistaken - Al-Qaeda’s decision to conduct the 9/11 attacks is the most obvious example of an ultimately self-defeating operation. Sometimes they reflect the challenges groups face in controlling their operatives: Al-Qaeda in Iraq’s excessive public violence against other Sunni organisations stand out. At other times they appear to steer difficult political waters quite effectively despite of deep internal divisions—Hamas is the exemplar here. This article reviews recent developments in the literature on terrorist decision-making in economics and political science. Overall, tremendous advances have been made in the last 10 years, but much work remains to be done. In particular, it is  argued that the literature needs to do better at testing its theories in inferentially credible ways and at considering terrorism as one tactical option among many for opposition political groups.

  5. Scientific Support of Terrorist Actions by Commercial Grey Area Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzung, W.


    The publication of the Al-Quaida handbook and time and time again notes of the possibility for getting special scientific knowledge from the internet have decreased the attention for an other important source of scientific support for terrorist education and/or actions. This is the commercial available and distributed grey area literature provided by a huge amount of (book) sellers and publishing houses. Most of this literature (hard copies and CDs) with dangerous subject matter is published in the US and may be ordered fast and with low costs using the internet. This kind of support for real and potential terrorists stands strongly in contradiction to the official policy and the 'unconditional' war against terrorism. With the presented poster the above described problem should be a little bit put in the focus of the CBMTS community and so to the authorities, too. By means of selected examples from different branches, such as Narcotics, Explosives, unusual Killing Methods, special Poisons / Toxins and, last not least, CW agents inclusive application methods and devices the highly charged situation is tried to shown. (author)

  6. Killing Range: Explaining Lethality Variance within a Terrorist Organization. (United States)

    Asal, Victor; Gill, Paul; Rethemeyer, R Karl; Horgan, John


    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level.

  7. Mortality salience, political orientation and minimization of terrorists' secondary emotions. (United States)

    Piñuela Sánchez, Raúl; Yela García, Carlos


    From the framework of Terror Management Theory, the objective of the present research is to analyze the effect of mortality salience (MS) on the minimization of Muslim terrorists’ secondary emotions (MSE, which can be understood as a particular kind of dehumanization), as a function of political orientation. An experimental design was used, in which the participants (university students, N= 293) were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group, their political orientation was taken note of, and they were asked to attribute emotions to Muslim terrorists. In accordance with the hypotheses, the results indicate that, among those supporting tenets of the political left, MS originates less minimization of secondary emotions of the terrorists (MSE). However, among people who stand on the right, MS inspires greater MSE (that is, a lower attribution of these emotions). These results support the thesis that the effects of MS are not to be found exclusively in conservative people, and that they do not necessarily imply a conservative shift, but constitute a polarization in previous ideological tendencies or cultural worldview.

  8. Research reactors compared with power reactors as terrorist targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, G.; Zaitseva, L.; Steinhaeusler, F.


    Full text: Concerns about nuclear terrorism have focused on nuclear power reactors more than research reactors. Yet fuel from many research reactors could be used to make nuclear weapons, and the same is not true of power reactors. Radioactive materials from both could be used by terrorists to make 'dirty bombs'. But the used fuel from research reactors is typically easier to transport and easier to use in making a dirty bomb without becoming overcome by its radiation. Moreover, research reactors tend to be less well protected than power reactors from thieves and terrorists by guards, barriers, locks and sensors. The well-intended 'Atoms for Peace Program' initiated by US president Eisenhower in 1953 provided research reactors with weapon-usable highly-enriched uranium to countries all around the world. At the end of the Gulf War, Iraqi scientists were making a nuclear weapon from highly-enriched uranium from a research reactor supplied pursuant to a Soviet research reactor program modeled after the American one. An American program to bring home the US-supplied weapon-usable uranium from around the world has made great progress but is only about half completed. A comparable Russian return program is just beginning. Research reactors with weapon-usable uranium remain in many countries around the world. (author)

  9. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors. (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete


    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  10. Granting Concessions and Paying Ransoms to Terrorists: A Policy Options Analysis of the U.S. Policy on Hostage Recovery (United States)


    families the ability to pay ransoms. With lives at stake, it is important to understand relevant material concerning the topic of negotiating with...7 Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Bart Schuurman, “The Paradoxes of Negotiating with Terrorist and Insurgent Organisations ,” Journal of...terrorists?—it is important to understand the dynamics of negotiating with terrorists. There are many different types of terrorists, and much of the

  11. The alliance relationship analysis of international terrorist organizations with link prediction (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Fang, Haiyang; Tian, Yanfang; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing


    Terrorism is a huge public hazard of the international community. Alliances of terrorist organizations may cause more serious threat to national security and world peace. Understanding alliances between global terrorist organizations will facilitate more effective anti-terrorism collaboration between governments. Based on publicly available data, this study constructed a alliance network between terrorist organizations and analyzed the alliance relationships with link prediction. We proposed a novel index based on optimal weighted fusion of six similarity indices, in which the optimal weight is calculated by genetic algorithm. Our experimental results showed that this algorithm could achieve better results on the networks than other algorithms. Using this method, we successfully digged out 21 real terrorist organizations alliance from current data. Our experiment shows that this approach used for terrorist organizations alliance mining is effective and this study is expected to benefit the form of a more powerful anti-terrorism strategy.

  12. Islamic State and Its Attitude to the Terrorist Attacks on the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Tichý


    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is both to analyze the importance of the terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure and industry for strategy of militant terrorist organization Islamic State against the background of the influence of Islam and to describe a specific example and manifestations of the terrorist activities focused on energy sector in the Middle East and North Africa. In the theoretical level, the article is based on the concept of terrorist attack on energy sector and relation between energy and Sunni Islam. In methodological level, the article is based on the case study method framing terrorist attacks of Islamic State on energy industry and infrastructure in Iraq, Syria and Libya.

  13. 76 FR 3007 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the... (United States)


    ... Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process #0; #0; #0; Presidential... the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace... constituted by grave acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East...

  14. 77 FR 54944 - Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist... (United States)


    ... Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist; In the Matter... Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224, as Amended Acting under the...(M), as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to Section 1(b) of the Order. This notice...

  15. 31 CFR 597.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or... (United States)


    ... blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or their agents. 597.201 Section 597.201 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.201 Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations...

  16. Know thy enemy: Education about terrorism improves social attitudes toward terrorists. (United States)

    Theriault, Jordan; Krause, Peter; Young, Liane


    Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists. Study 1 compared students in a college course on terrorism (treatment) with wait-listed students, measuring prosocial attitudes toward a hypothetical terrorist. Initially, all students reported extremely negative attitudes; however, at the end of the semester, treatment students' attitudes were significantly improved. Study 2 replicated the effect within a sample of treatment and control classes drawn from universities across the United States. The present work was part of an ongoing research project, focusing on foreign policy and the perceived threat of terrorism; thus classes did not explicitly aim to reduce prejudice, making the effect of treatment somewhat surprising. One possibility is that learning about terrorists "crowds out" the initial pejorative associations-that is, the label terrorism may ultimately call more information to mind, diluting its initial negative associative links. Alternatively, students may learn to challenge how the label terrorist is being applied. In either case, learning about terrorism can decrease the extreme negative reactions it evokes, which is desirable if one wishes to implement effective counterterrorism policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡ (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige


    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  18. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC


    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  19. [Behavioral patterns of domestic terrorist groups in Japan]. (United States)

    Oue, Wataru


    This study examined the behavioral patterns of Japanese extremist groups, based on 377 terror incidents that occurred in Japan between 1990 and 2010. These incidents included bombings, rocket attacks, hostage taking, and vehicle assaults. Information was drawn primarily from on-line newspaper databases. A multiple correspondence analysis was performed using five categories: extremist group identity, time of attack, target of attack, attack strategy, and method of claiming responsibility. Extremist group characteristics varied along two dimensions: the interaction level between terrorist and victim, and the indiscriminate level of use of force. We categorized multiple far-left, far-right, and religious extremist groups based on these two dimensions. Our findings may help prevent terror attacks, and help identify the group responsible for a given incident.

  20. Consequence Assessment for Potential Scenarios of Radiological Terrorists Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeongki; Kim, Juyoul


    Radiological dispersal device (RDD) means any method used to deliberately disperse radioactive material to create terror or harm. Dirty bomb is an example of RDD, which usually consists of radioactive material and unconventional explosive. Dirty bomb was a problem long before September 11, 2001. In 1987, the Iraqi government tested a one-ton radiological bomb. The Iraqi tests confirmed that a dirty bomb is not effective as weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and that its main value is as a psychological weapon. In 1995, Chechen rebels buried a dirty bomb in a park in Moscow threatening to detonate one in the future if their demands were not met. Another good example of potential dirty bomb effects was an incident in Goiania, Brazil on September 18, 1987, where an orphaned medical source containing 1,375 Ci of Cs-137 resulted the death of four people and extensive environmental contamination. The purposes of radiological terrorists events are not to destroy or damage the target but to disperse radioactivity in the environment. They inflict panic on a public and economic damage by disruption of business. They also have influence on enormous clean-up costs by spreading radioactive contamination including secondary impacts on water supply reservoirs. Generally, two major long-term concerns following a RDD are human health and economic impacts. In this study, we developed potential scenarios of radiological terrorists events and performed their radiological consequence assessments in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE), projected cumulative external and internal dose, and ground deposition of radioactivity

  1. Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement: a case study of a new terrorist organization in China. (United States)

    Wang, John Z


    The Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) was designated a terrorist organization by Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, the United States, and the United Nations in 2002. However, no systematic studies have been published on the new terrorist organization in Xinjiang, China. Using a case-study approach and interviews, this article attempts to provide information in terms of its historical evaluation, related religious and ethnic issues, organizational agenda, activities, and role in the current international terrorist network. This article argues that better international cooperation and the improvement of social and religious policies will help curtail activities of the ETIM.

  2. The Dynamics of the Creation, Evolution, and Disappearance of Terrorist Internet Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ricardo Torres-Soriano


    Full Text Available An examination of the organizational nature of the threat posed by jihadi terrorism, supplying quantitative and qualitative data on the dynamics behind the creation, evolution, and disappearance of the main jihadi Internet forums during the period 2008–2012. An analysis of the origins and functions of the forums, their links with terrorist organizations, their internal structures, and the processes accounting for their stability in cyberspace shows that far from representinga horizontal structure where the main actors are a network of followers, the terrorist presence on the Internet is in fact a hierarchical organization in which intervention by formal terrorist organizations plays a crucial role.

  3. The Proliferation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Terrorist Use, Capability, and Strategic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Ryan Jokl [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    There has been unparalleled proliferation and technological advancement of consumer unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) across the globe in the past several years. As witnessed over the course of insurgency tactics, it is difficult to restrict terrorists from using widely available technology they perceive as advantageous to their overall strategy. Through a review of the characteristics, consumer market landscape, tactics, and countertactics, as well as operational use of consumer-grade UAVs, this open-source report seeks to provide an introductory understanding of the terrorist-UAV landscape, as well as insights into present and future capabilities. The caveat is evaluating a developing technology haphazardly used by terrorists in asymmetric conflicts.

  4. Asian Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Canada, 1999-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helfand, Neil S


    This study is based on open source research into the scope of Asian organized crime and terrorist activity in Canada during the period 1999 to 2002, and the extent of cooperation and possible overlap...


    There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

  6. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudson, Rex A


    ...) and the new recruitment patterns of some groups, such as recruiting suicide commandos, female and child terrorists, and scientists capable of developing weapons of mass destruction, provide a measure...

  7. Fandoriana - 3 : terrorist-gossudarstvennik protiv terrorista-revoljutsionera / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-


    Mängufilm "Riiginõunik" Boriss Akunini romaani järgi : režissöör Filipp Jankovski. Fandorini osas Oleg Menshikov, terrorist Grin - Konstantin Habenski, krahv Pozharski - Nikita Mihhalkov : Venemaa 2005

  8. Carnage interrupted : an analysis of fifteen terrorist plots against public surface transportation. (United States)


    This report examines 13 terrorist plots against public surface transportation that were uncovered and foiled by authorities between 1997 and 2010 and two failed attempts to carry out attacks. Certainly, this is not the total universe of foiled or fai...

  9. Underlying Reasons for Success and Failure of Terrorist Attacks: Selected Case Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCleskey, Edward; McCord, Diana; Leetz, Jennifer; Markey, John


    .... This is the second of a two-phased effort: Phase I focused on assessing the underlying reasons for the success and failure of terrorist attacks against targets within the United States and against U.S. interests abroad...

  10. Military Operations Against Terrorist Groups Abroad: Implications for the United States Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ochmanek, David


    .... The purpose of this study is to help defense planners anticipate the types of demands that future operations against terrorists will place on the armed forces of the United States, particularly...

  11. The Use of Terrorist Tactics as Instruments for Causing Change in Japan: 1920-1936, (United States)


    was the ’different usage’ classically expressed by Hashimoto Sanai (Acquire mechanical arts from others, retain righteouness, sympathy, and filial piety ...AD-Ai65 976 THE USE OF TERRORIST TACTICS AS INSTRUNENTS FOR CAUSING III C4HANGE IN JAPAN: 928-i936(U) DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE COLL WASHINGTON DC J H...FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO * . 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) The Use of Terrorist Tactics

  12. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists: Research Findings and Recommendations


    Roy, de, van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.


    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone-actors based on an analysis of 120 cases from across Europe. The Research Note focuses on the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists.[1] First of all, it presents th...

  13. Authorities for Military Operations Against Terrorist Groups: The State of the Debate and Options for Congress (United States)


    public interest. RAND’s publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax -deductible...activities by forc- ing terrorists to operate under extreme secrecy and making would-be recruits and supporters risk death to participate. In other words...intent on attacking the West. It is important not to overestimate the ability to describe the tax - onomy of terrorist enemies, however. For example

  14. Bush v. Bin Laden: Effect of State Emotion on Perceived Threat is Mediated by Emotion Towards the Threat Agent (Bush vs. Ben Laden: l’Effet de l’Emotion etat sur la Menace Percue est Mediatisees par l’Emotion vis-a-vis de l’Agent Menacant) (United States)


    auteurs ont mene une etude perception j emotion j experimentale afin d’examiner les effets d’etats emotionnels Specifi- ques ( peur et colere) et globaux... peur et colère) et de l’état émotionnel général sur la perception de la menace que représentent George W. Bush ou Oussama ben Laden. Les résultats ont

  15. Analytic catalog for the use of the nuclear physicists; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lehmann, P.; Leveque, A.; Levi, C.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Olkowsky, J.; Papineau, L.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Szteinsznaider, D.; Tzara, C.; Valladas, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N.; Renard, G. [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)


    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this problem, we tried, at the Nuclear Physics Services of the CEA, to give to the documentation the character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between January 1, 1950 and July 1, 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le 1 Janvier 1950 et le 1 Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  16. Terrorist Stabbings-Distinctive Characteristics and How to Prepare for Them. (United States)

    Merin, Ofer; Sonkin, Roman; Yitzhak, Avraham; Frenkel, Hagai; Leiba, Adi; Schwarz, Alon D; Jaffe, Eli


    The number of terror attack incidents is on the increase worldwide. The knife is one of the weapons most commonly used among terrorists. Appropriate preparation in trauma units for coping with the increasing numbers of terrorist-inflicted stabbings is different from the preparation suitable for civilian stabbings. Therapeutic and logistic guidelines need to be adjusted to accommodate those differences. Characterize the unique injuries related to terrorist stabbing, and suggest preparedness actions. Retrospective data on all terrorist-inflicted stabbing incidents between September 2015 and May 2016 were retrieved from the database of the national Israeli emergency medical services and from the Israeli Defense Forces Medical Corps records. There were a total of 414 civilian victims (34 fatalities) of terror incidents. Of these, 161 involved stabbings during 106 separate incidents. There was more than 1 stab wound per patient in approximately 60% of cases, and more than 1 victim in approximately 40% of cases. Unlike civilian stabbings, terrorist stabbings were characterized by more commonly occurring to the upper part of the body, being executed by large knives with high force, and involving multiple and more severe injuries. There is a clear distinction between the characteristics of wounds resulting from civilian stabbings and those incurred by acts of terror. Terrorists intend to injure as many random victims as possible, and trauma units need to be prepared to cope with the simultaneous admission of multiple patients with penetrating and often life-threatening knife wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Major depressive disorder following terrorist attacks: a systematic review of prevalence, course and correlates. (United States)

    Salguero, José M; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo; Iruarrizaga, Itziar; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Galea, Sandro


    Terrorist attacks are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of psychological disorders for people exposed. This review aimed to systematically assess the current evidence on major depressive disorder (MDD) after terrorist attacks. A systematic review was performed. Studies included assessed the impact of human-made, intentional, terrorist attacks in direct victims and/or persons in general population and evaluated MDD based on diagnostic criteria. A total of 567 reports were identified, 11 of which were eligible for this review: 6 carried out with direct victims, 4 with persons in general population, and 1 with victims and general population. The reviewed literature suggests that the risk of MDD ranges between 20 and 30% in direct victims and between 4 and 10% in the general population in the first few months after terrorist attacks. Characteristics that tend to increase risk of MDD after a terrorist attack are female gender, having experienced more stressful situations before or after the attack, peritraumatic reactions during the attack, loss of psychosocial resources, and low social support. The course of MDD after terrorist attacks is less clear due to the scarcity of longitudinal studies. Methodological limitations in the literature of this field are considered and potentially important areas for future research such as the assessment of the course of MDD, the study of correlates of MDD or the comorbidity between MDD and other mental health problems are discussed.

  18. Hospital Preparedness to Respond to Biological and Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florin, P.


    There is a growing concern about the terrorist use of chemical or biological agents against civilian population. A large proportion of hospitals are probably poorly prepared to handle victims of chemical or biological terrorism. At national level, starting with 2008 hospitals will be under the administration and control of local authorities. That is good opportunities for local authorities and public health office to tailor the activity of the hospitals to the real needs in the area of responsibility, and to allocate the suitable budget for them. Commonly hospitals are not fully prepared to respond to massive casualty disaster of any kind, either i their capacity to care for large numbers of victims or in their ability to provide care in coordination with a regional or national incident command structure. Preparedness activities to respond properly to chemical or biological attack including the adequate logistic, the principle of training and drill for the hospital emergency units and medical personal, communication and integration of the hospital team in local and regional civil response team are developed by the author.(author)

  19. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A


    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S

  20. Foreign (Terrorist Fighter Estimates: Conceptual and Data Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid


    Full Text Available This Policy Brief – a short version of a larger Research Paper to be released by ICCT in late 2015 – focuses on the phenomenon of foreign (terrorist fighters (FTFs as it relates to Syria and Iraq. It concentrates on recruits to jihad and the astonishing growth in numbers from less than 1,000 in 2011 to more than 3,500 in 2012, 8,500+ in 2013, 18,000+ in 2014 to more than 25,000 by fall 2015. By October 2015, nearly 30,000 militants from more than 100 countries had become foreign fighters with the so-called “Islamic State” (IS in Syria and Iraq and other militant groups. This Policy Brief first discusses various definitions of FTFs by disaggregating the “foreign”, “terrorist” and “fighters” elements of FTFs of the UN Security Council definition in resolution 2178 (2014. Subsequently, an attempt is made to bring some structure and order to the widely diverging estimates of the numbers of foreign fighters and their origins, with tables presenting the best available estimates for different sides of the conflict at different moments in time since 2011. UN estimates on foreign fighters are juxtaposed with estimates from other sources. The biggest uncertainty is the ratio of foreign fighters to IS own core manpower. It is likely that at least 40 percent of the fighters of IS are foreigners and many more if Iraqis in Syria are counted as such.

  1. Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki


    Full Text Available The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %, and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %. There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% – vehicles, 9,5% – buses, 6,3% - rail covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.

  2. Review on emergency medical response against terrorist attack. (United States)

    Wang, De-Wen; Liu, Yao; Jiang, Ming-Min


    Terrorism is a global issue and a constant international threat. As a result, anti-terrorism and emergency response strategies are tasks of critical importance that have a direct impact on the national security of every country in the world. This paper reviews new characteristics of international anti-terrorism measures and offers an in-depth reflection on emergency medical response countermeasures; additionally, this paper presents the goals of related research, which include: 1) to present a model of a highly efficient medical response command; 2) to introduce the pre-planning phases of the emergency medical response; 3) to establish a response system capable of handling various types of terror attacks; 4) to promote anti-terrorism awareness to the general public and emphasize its prevention; and 5) to continue basic investigations into emergency medical responses for various types of terrorist attacks (for example, the classifications and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of the resultant stress disorders, improved high-efficiency medical response measures and equipment, etc.).

  3. An Overview of NCRP Report No. 138 on Terrorist Activities (United States)

    Poston, John, Sr.


    In late 1998, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) convened Scientific Committee 46-14 to prepare a report on the radiological safety aspects of terrorist activities involving radioactivity. The work of this committee was funded through a contract with the Planning and Preparedness Division of the Office of Emergency Management of the Department of Energy. The committee was composed of a diverse group of individuals with expertise in many areas in addition to radiation safety and emergency response. These areas included law (both federal and state), public communications, and psychosocial aspects of such incidents. The statement of work focused the work of the committee, and the resulting report did not necessarily address all issues of such activities. One of the charges of the committee was to provide guidance as to necessary research and make recommendations regarding the present infrastructure with the responsibility for responding to such incidents. This presentation will provide an overview of NCRP Report No. 138 and focus on some of the critical issues raised in the report. These issues include recognition of the event, the interface between federal, state, and local authorities, exposure limits for the first-responders, clean-up criteria, training and resources, the psychosocial aspects of such events, and communications with the media and the public. This report represented the ``beginning'' of such considerations. It pointed the way for additional studies and research in this very important area.

  4. Enhancing public health preparedness for a terrorist attack involving cyanide. (United States)

    Eckstein, Marc


    The US government considers cyanide to be among the most likely agents of chemical terrorism. Cyanide differs from many other biological or chemical agents for which little or no defense is available because its individual and public health effects are largely remediable through appropriate preparedness and response. Because the toxicity of the cyanide antidote currently available in the United States renders it ill-suited for use in terrorist incidents and other situations requiring rapid out-of-hospital treatment, hydroxocobalamin--an effective and safe cyanide antidote being used in other countries--has been introduced in the United States. Unlike the other available cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin can be administered at the scene of a cyanide disaster, and it need not be reserved for cases of confirmed cyanide poisoning but can be administered in cases of suspected poisoning. Both of these attributes facilitate the rapid intervention necessary for saving lives. To realize the potential benefits of hydroxocobalamin, progress also needs to be realized in other aspects of readiness, including but not limited to developing plans for ensuring local and regional availability of antidote, educating emergency responders and health care professionals in the recognition and management of cyanide poisoning, and raising public awareness of the potential for a chemical weapons attack and of how to respond.

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.


    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria of PTSD among highly exposed populations such as those living or working within close proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington, DC, respectively, and first responders, including rescue, cleaning, and recovery workers. The large body of research conducted after the 9/11 attacks in the past decade suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure to 9/11 was substantial. PTSD that was 9/11-related was associated with a wide range of correlates, including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, loss of life of significant others, and social support factors. Few studies used longitudinal study design or clinical assessments, and no studies reported findings beyond six years post-9/11, thus hindering documentation of the long-term course of confirmed PTSD. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21823772

  6. The gas menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Richard.


    The NSW Southern Coalfield at Bulli is Australia's most gas plagued producing region. Whilst gas drainage using long boreholes has been successfully adapted in high methane areas, these techniques are not efficient when high levels of carbon dioxide are present, as is the case at Bulli NSW. This article discusses the limitations of the current gas drainage technologies and the improvements needed in underground drilling technologies and hydrofacing for efficient gas drainage. 1 table, 1 photo

  7. Pataphysique de la menace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tavaglione


    Full Text Available Alors qu’on la croyait morte il y a à peine vingt ans, la gauche radicale forme pourtant aujourd’hui une galaxie vive et bouillonnante. « De l’extrême-gauche classique à l’altermondialisation », comme l’écrit Philippe Raynaud, la scène politique française fourmille aujourd’hui d’acteurs nourrissant « l’ambition de définir une “autre politique” en rupture avec le consensus libéral ou avec les formes actuelles de la mondialisation » (Raynaud, 2006 ...

  8. The Global Menace (United States)

    Hodges, Sarah


    Summary The history of medicine has gone ‘global.’ Why? Can the proliferation of the ‘global’ in our writing be explained away as a product of staying true to our historical subjects’ categories? Or has this historiography in fact delivered a new ‘global’ problematic or performed serious ‘global’ analytic work? The situation is far from clear, and it is the tension between the global as descriptor and an analytics of the global that concerns me here. I have three main concerns: (1) that there is an epistemic collusion between the discourses of universality that inform medical science and global-talk; (2) that the embrace of the ‘global’ authorises a turning away from analyses of power in history-writing in that (3) this turning away from analyses of power in history-writing leads to scholarship that reproduces rather than critiques globalisation as a set of institutions, discourses and practices. PMID:26345469

  9. Theoretical Aspects in Developing Directions for Risking Terroristic Threats for National Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizgar J. Aziz Galali


    Full Text Available The current stage of the existence of the world community is characterized by an ever-increasing level of threat of the emergence of undesirable effects on the world economy of acts of a terrorist nature. Historical facts show that such phenomenon as terrorism can take place in any state of the world, regardless of the standard of living of the population, education and other factors. However, studies in this area still show that countries with an underdeveloped economy and a low standard of living of the population are more likely to be affected by terrorist acts. Such states can act as the "cradle" of terrorism and this, first of all, affects their economic and social situation. But practice shows that terrorism is capable of spreading actively around the world, therefore, an important element in preventing the emergence of terrorism is the construction of an integral system of national economic security, with a special place to search for and develop methods and approaches to reduce the risks of terrorist threat. The article is devoted to the consideration of topical issues of the theory of the emergence of a terrorist threat, as well as the possible negative impact of terrorist acts on the national economy, its security and stability. In addition, the article suggests an improved scheme of risks of the national economy, as well as a scheme of types of diversification of risks of a terrorist threat, and a mechanism for managing the risk of a terrorist threat to the national economy has been developed.

  10. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact. (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom


    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed.

  11. Contribution to the study of thermal mixing between nuclear spin systems; Contribution a l'etude du melange thermique entre systemes de spins nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This work describes methods of dynamic nuclear polarization in solids based on the thermal mixing between nuclear spin systems. The description of the thermal mixing processes involves most of the fundamental aspects of the spin temperature theory. The experiments, conducted with paradichlorobenzene and para-dibromobenzene, yield a detailed confirmation of the theoretical predictions. (author) [French] Ce travail decrit des methodes de polarisation dynamique nucleaire dans les solides basees sur le melange thermique entre systemes de spins nucleaires. La description des processus de melange thermique met en jeu la plupart des aspects fondamentaux de la theorie de la temperature de spin. Les experiences, realisees avec du paradichlorobenzene et du paradibromobenzene, apportent une confirmation detaillee des previsions theoriques. (auteur)

  12. Terrorists: analogies and differences with mental diseases. A phenomenological-metaphysical perspective. (United States)

    Fisogni, Primavera


    Are islamic terrorists insane? International scholars generally concede that Al Qaeda members are not mentally ill. But, until now, there has not been a shared consensus and a strong argument that can prove it. This paper intends to throw light on the specific dehumanization of terrorists and to show that they are always responsible for their acts, unlike those who are affected by mental diseases. The members of Al Qaeda deny the world of life and take the distance from its sense and value: in their perspective only subversive action makes sense. However they always maintain a transcendent relation with the world (I-you; I-it). Persons with serious mental diseases have generally lost the sense of their self and the transcendence with the world. Terrorists and people with mental illness share a common separation from the world of life: one is voluntary, the other is the consequence of a number of factors (biological, social, etc.). Terrorists and psychotics have nevertheless something in common: the deprivation of the self. A loss of being that--I argue--is at the origin of the ordinariness of terrorists and the experience of void in psychotics. Two symptoms that reveal the condition of an intimate dryness, from a phenomenological and a metaphysical point of view as a consequence of a distorted relation with the world of life. I shall discuss how ordinariness is strictly related with the blurring definition of terrorism.

  13. Health effects of technologies for power generation: Contributions from normal operation, severe accidents and terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, Stefan; Bauer, Christian; Burgherr, Peter; Cazzoli, Eric; Heck, Thomas; Spada, Matteo; Treyer, Karin


    As a part of comprehensive analysis of current and future energy systems we carried out numerous analyses of health effects of a wide spectrum of electricity supply technologies including advanced ones, operating in various countries under different conditions. The scope of the analysis covers full energy chains, i.e. fossil, nuclear and renewable power plants and the various stages of fuel cycles. State-of-the-art methods are used for the estimation of health effects. This paper addresses health effects in terms of reduced life expectancy in the context of normal operation as well as fatalities resulting from severe accidents and potential terrorist attacks. Based on the numerical results and identified patterns a comparative perspective on health effects associated with various electricity generation technologies and fuel cycles is provided. In particular the estimates of health risks from normal operation can be compared with those resulting from severe accidents and hypothetical terrorist attacks. A novel approach to the analysis of terrorist threat against energy infrastructure was developed, implemented and applied to selected energy facilities in various locations. Finally, major limitations of the current approach are identified and recommendations for further work are given. - Highlights: • We provide state-of-the-art comparative assessment of energy health risks. • The scope of the analysis should to the extent possible cover full energy chains. • Health impacts from normal operation dominate the risks. • We present novel approach to analysis of terrorist threat. • Limitations include technology choices, geographical coverage and terrorist issues.

  14. Social, psychological, and psychiatric interventions following terrorist attacks: recommendations for practice and research. (United States)

    Foa, Edna B; Cahill, Shawn P; Boscarino, Joseph A; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Lahad, Mooli; McNally, Richard J; Solomon, Zahava


    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the constant threat of imminent terrorist activity have brought into the forefront the urgent need to prepare for the consequences of such attacks. Such preparation entails utilization of existing knowledge, identification of crucial gaps in our scientific knowledge, and taking steps to acquire this knowledge. At present, there is little empirical knowledge about interventions following terrorism and absolutely no available empirical knowledge about interventions following bioterrorism. Therefore, this paper reviews knowledge about (1) reactions following the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City and other places, (2) the practical experiences accumulated in recent years in countries (eg, Israel) that have had to cope with the threat of bioterrorism and the reality of terrorism, and (3) interventions for acute and chronic stress reactions following other types of traumatic events (eg, rape, war, accidents). Our review found several treatments efficacious in treating individuals for acute and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to other traumatic events that will likely be efficacious in treating PTSD related to terrorist attacks. However, there were significant gaps in our knowledge about how to prepare populations and individuals for the possibility of a terrorist attack and what interventions to apply in the immediate aftermath of such an attack. Accordingly, we conclude the paper with several questions designed to guide future research.

  15. Abdominal trauma after terrorist bombing attacks exhibits a unique pattern of injury. (United States)

    Bala, Miklosh; Rivkind, Avraham I; Zamir, Gideon; Hadar, Tal; Gertsenshtein, Iryna; Mintz, Yoav; Pikarsky, Alon J; Amar, Dalit; Shussman, Noam; Abu Gazala, Mahmoud; Almogy, Gidon


    The recent growth in the volume of civilian blast trauma caused by terrorist bombings warrants special attention to the specific pattern of injury associated with such attacks. To characterize the abdominal injuries inflicted by terrorist-related explosions and to compare the pattern of injury with civilian, penetrating and blunt, abdominal trauma. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 181 patients with abdominal trauma requiring laparotomy, who were admitted to the Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel, from October 2000 to December 2005. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to mechanism of injury: terror-related blast injury (n = 21), gunshot wounds (GSW) (n = 73) and blunt trauma (n = 87). Median injury severity score in the blast group was significantly higher compared with GSW and blunt groups (34, 18, and 29, respectively, P or = 3) occurred in 85.7% of blast group, 28.8% of GSW group, and 59.7% of blunt group (P Terrorist attacks generate more severe injuries to more body regions than other types of trauma. Abdominal injury inflicted by terrorist bombings causes a unique pattern of wounds, mainly injury to hollow organs. Shrapnel is the leading cause of abdominal injury following terrorist bombings.

  16. Economic consequences of the Swiss 'Sortir du nucleaire' and 'Moratoire-plus' popular initiatives - Analysis using a balanced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Wickart, M.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.


    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210359. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to assess the economic consequences of two models for the opting out of nuclear energy in Switzerland, as proposed in two popular initiatives. The 'Sortir du nucleaire' (electricity without atomic power) initiative calls for the shutting down of the existing nuclear power stations and the 'Moratoire-plus' initiative calls for a stop on the building of new atomic power stations for 10 years. The method used for assessing the costs and benefits resulting if the initiatives were accepted in a public vote is described. Basic assumptions made on further factors concerning the electricity and energy markets are discussed. Results of analyses made for various scenarios with respect to CO 2 emissions are presented and include discussions on risk costs, effects on employment and welfare aspects

  17. Angry at the unjust, scared of the powerful: emotional responses to terrorist threat. (United States)

    Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Maitner, Angela T


    The threat of terrorist attacks motivates emotional reactions that elicit functional behavioral responses to characteristics of a threatening group. We argue that the more the group is seen as unjust, the more anger arises, whereas the more it is seen as powerful, the more fear arises. In Experiment 1, British participants read about terrorist groups with varied levels of injustice and power. As expected, the manipulation of injustice increased anger, and power increased fear. Anger and fear predicted offensive and defensive reactions. Experiment 2 used a representative sample of U.S. residents and again found distinct effects of an injustice manipulation on anger, and a power manipulation on fear. Anger was a primary motivator of support for offensive and defensive measures in both experiments. Willingness to negotiate was reduced with more injustice and anger, but increased with more outgroup power and fear. These findings have implications on public reactions to terrorist organizations.

  18. Clinical and psychological aspects of adolescent involvement in extremist and terrorist activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the clinical and psychological aspects of including minors in terrorist and extremist activities. In the historical perspective, it was traced how the views on the role of mental disorders in the genesis of such crimes changed. It is shown that terrorist and extremist activity must be viewed as a complex multi-factor phenomenon, in which socio-psychological components play a leading role. It is noted that the psychopathological process can act as a prerequisite for inclusion in such radical groups. Psychoanalytic, sociological, cognitive approaches, theories of social learning and the concept of diffuse ego-identity making attempts to explain the mechanisms of terrorist and extremist activity in minors are analyzed. The problem of insufficient study of the influence of the Internet and social networks on the formation of readiness for admission to adolescents in radical organizations is posed.

  19. Do terrorist attacks affect ethnic discrimination in the labour market? Evidence from two randomized field experiments. (United States)

    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth; Chan, Tak Wing; Ugreninov, Elisabeth; Midtbøen, Arnfinn H; Rogstad, Jon


    Terrorist attacks are known to influence public opinion. But do they also change behaviour? We address this question by comparing the results of two identical randomized field experiments on ethnic discrimination in hiring that we conducted in Oslo. The first experiment was conducted before the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway; the second experiment was conducted after the attacks. In both experiments, applicants with a typical Pakistani name were significantly less likely to get a job interview compared to those with a typical Norwegian name. But the ethnic gap in call-back rates were very similar in the two experiments. Thus, Pakistanis in Norway still experienced the same level of discrimination, despite claims that Norwegians have become more positive about migrants after the far-right, anti-migrant terrorist attacks of 2011. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  20. [Approach to liver, spleen and pancreatic injuries including damage control surgery of terrorist attacks]. (United States)

    Stavrou, G A; Lipp, M J; Oldhafer, K J


    Terrorist attacks have outreached to Europe with more and more attacks on civilians. Derived from war surgery experience and from lessons learned from major incidents, it seems mandatory for every surgeon to improve understanding of the special circumstances of trauma following a terrorist attack and its' management. A short literature review is followed by outlining the damage control surgery (DCS) principle for each organ system with practical comments from the perspective of a specialized hepatobiliary (HPB) surgery unit. Every surgeon has to become familiar with the new entities of blast injuries and terrorist attack trauma. This concerns not only the medical treatment but also tailoring surgical treatment with a view to a lack of critical resources under these circumstances. For liver and pancreatic trauma, simple treatment strategies are a key to success.

  1. Mobile system for radiation reconnaissance after terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resehetin, V. P.


    Well-timed radiation reconnaissance aimed at identifying a source of radiation contamination and drawing up a contamination map represents an important and complex problem, the solution of which allows for the reduction of the irradiation dose, the implementation of decontamination works, and finally minimizing the consequences of a terrorist attack. New opportunities for operational gathering of radiation contamination data and corresponding space coordinates can be associated with the development of mobile systems which provide measurements of ionizing radiation dose rate and corresponding space coordinates, and subsequent transferral to the crisis centre server where these data are processed and used for mapping radiation contamination. In such a way, the data obtained on radiation contamination could be incorporated in a timely manner as input data to computer models, describing the dispersion of radionuclides in an environment that makes it possible not only to forecast the development of a situation but to define necessary protection measures for mitigating and localizing the consequences. The mobile reconnaissance system was developed as a prototype of such a solution, based on a cellular terminal such as the Nokia 12i (Teltonika BoxGPS). A Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine space coordinates. A Russian BDMG device measured the dose rate of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent data were transferred to the server of the crisis centre of the Nuclear Safety Institute of RAS (IBRAE). The main operation regime involved setting the GPRS connection, transferring data, and switching off the connection. A change of the operation regime can be produced via SMS commands from the crisis centre's terminal or with the help of a cellular phone. When a connection is not available, the data are aggregated in memory and transferred to the server when the connection channel arises. A few data transfer protocols, including FTP and HTTP/HTTPS, are provided

  2. Practising of radiological emergency caused by a terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racana, R.; Terrado, C.


    After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the

  3. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature. (United States)

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David


    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required.

  4. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities following a terrorist attack. (United States)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Janecky, David R; Doerr, Ted B


    Terrorist actions are aimed at maximizing harm (health, psychological, economical, and political) through the combined physical impacts of the act and fear. Immediate and effective response to a terrorist act is critical to limit human and environmental harm, effectively restore facility function, and maintain public confidence. Though there have been terrorist attacks in public facilities that we have learned from, overall our experiences in restoration of public facilities following a terrorist attack are limited. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. For example, there may be a great need to quickly restore the facility to full operation and allow public access even though it was not designed for easy or rapid restoration, and critical information is needed for quantitative risk assessment and effective restoration must be anticipated to be incomplete and uncertain. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the "adaptive management" paradigm provides a constructive parallel paradigm for restoration of public facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, inefficiencies, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a public facility after a terrorist attack suggest that integration of adaptive management principles explicitly into restoration processes will result in substantially enhanced and flexible responses necessary to meet the uncertainties of potential terrorist attacks.

  5. The Rise and the Fall of Terrorist Organizations in Post-Dictatorial Greece: The Role and the Lessons for the Intelligence Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fakitsas, Miltiadis


    The Greek government unsuccessfully battled leftist terrorist groups from 1975 to 2002, The two most notorious terrorist organizations during this period were the "November 17" group and another group...

  6. 77 FR 3065 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the... (United States)


    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace... the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a... the United States constituted by grave acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists who threaten...

  7. 75 FR 3845 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the... (United States)


    ... the National Emergency With Respect To Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace... constituted by grave acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998, by Executive Order 13099, the President modified the Annex to...

  8. 78 FR 4303 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the... (United States)


    ... the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace... constituted by grave acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998, by Executive Order 13099, the President modified the Annex to...

  9. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah


      - Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network.  It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks.  It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researche...

  10. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah


    of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist...

  11. 78 FR 59751 - Designation of Badruddin Haqqani as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Designation of Badruddin Haqqani as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of... Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to section 1(b) of the Order. This notice shall be published...

  12. 78 FR 39057 - In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant To... aforementioned individual as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to section 1(b) of the Order. This...

  13. The Financial Impact of Terrorist Attacks on the Value of the Oil and Gas Industry: An International Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, David; Scholtens, Bert; Dorsman, André; Arslan-Ayaydin, Özgür; Baha Karan, Mehmet


    Energy firms operate in a strategic industry and their operations are vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We investigate how terrorism impacts stock returns of these firms. We analyze the effect of 105 terrorist attacks on oil and gas companies during 2001–2012. We find that there is no evidence that


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С П Базылева


    Full Text Available The beginning of the XXI century was marked by a number of serious problems, including cancer, world hunger, environmental problems and increasing every year the problem of global terrorism, which poses a great threat to the security of the modern multipolar world. Uzbekistan today occupies a firm position in fight against terrorist threat. The principled position of Uzbekistan in the fight against terrorism is that “no country should exclude their participation in the fight against global terrorism, there must be no transit zones and "green corridors" for terrorist organizations”. The Central Asian region is one of the most vulnerable, because it is necessary to pay special attention to the strategy of the anti-terrorist security of the countries included in the structure of the Central Asian region. In this article, we consider the anti-terrorist policy of Uzbekistan in the framework of the regional anti-terrorist policy of the SCO.

  15. Elements of the terrorism reviewed through instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlate Dimovski


    Full Text Available Terrorism is a global threat to all countries regardless their social, economic and religious setting. For the realization of their activities, terrorists use different models. As funds for realization of the terrorist act they use different types of weapons, mainly firearms. Terrorist organizations that practice modern forms of terrorism also use weapons of mass destruction. According to that, they improve the ways of getting funds for the realization of the terrorist acts, its internal organization and the ways of practicing terrorism. In this article, we will give a brief overview of the instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act, with special emphasis on the situation in the Republic of Macedonia.

  16. 48 CFR 252.209-7004 - Subcontracting with firms that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist country. (United States)


    ... that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7004 Section 252.209....209-7004 Subcontracting with firms that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist... Controlled by the Government of a Terrorist County (DEC 2006) (a) Unless the Government determines that there...

  17. 75 FR 78336 - Review of the Designation of Gama'a al-Islamiyya, (IG and Other Aliases); as a Foreign Terrorist... (United States)


    ... of the Designation of Gama'a al-Islamiyya, (IG and Other Aliases); as a Foreign Terrorist... for the 2004 re-designation of the aforementioned organization as a foreign terrorist organization... determine that the designation of the aforementioned organization as a foreign terrorist organization...

  18. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton


    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  19. In Their Own Words? Methodological Considerations in the Analysis of Terrorist Autobiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Altier


    Full Text Available Despite the growth of terrorism literature in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, there remain several methodological challenges to studying certain aspects of terrorism. This is perhaps most evident in attempts to uncover the attitudes, motivations, and intentions of individuals engaged in violent extremism and how they are sometimes expressed in problematic behavior. Such challenges invariably stem from the fact that terrorists and the organizations to which they belong represent clandestine populations engaged in illegal activity. Unsurprisingly, these qualities make it difficult for the researcher to identify and locate willing subjects of study—let alone a representative sample. In this research note, we suggest the systematic analysis of terrorist autobiographies offers a promising means of investigating difficult-to-study areas of terrorism-related phenomena. Investigation of autobiographical accounts not only offers additional data points for the study of individual psychological issues, but also provides valuable perspectives on the internal structures, processes, and dynamics of terrorist organizations more broadly. Moreover, given most autobiographies cover critical events and personal experiences across the life course, they provide a unique lens into how terrorists perceive their world and insight into their decision-making processes. We support our advocacy of this approach by highlighting its methodological strengths and shortcomings.

  20. 15 CFR 744.14 - Restrictions on exports and reexports to designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs). (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on exports and reexports to designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs). 744.14 Section 744.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY...

  1. Reasoning about Emotional Contents Following Shocking Terrorist Attacks: A Tale of Three Cities (United States)

    Blanchette, Isabelle; Richards, Anne; Melnyk, Laura; Lavda, Anastasia


    The authors examined reasoning following the terrorist attacks carried out in London in July 2005. They tested participants in London (United Kingdom), Manchester (United Kingdom), and London (Canada) within 1 week of the attacks and again 6 months later. Participants reasoned about syllogisms of 3 types: neutral, generally emotional, and…

  2. European Lone Actor Terrorists Versus “Common” Homicide Offenders : An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, M.C.A.; Buuren, van G.M.; Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.H.; Schönberger, H.J.M.; Bakker, E.


    The term “Lone Actor” has been applied to a variety of violent individuals who are thought to act out of ideological motivations using terrorist tactics. So far, much of the research is U.S.-based. There is an empirical vacuum of Lone Actor violence in Europe and a conceptual gap in how these acts

  3. Terrorist attack of 15 January 2016 in Ouagadougou: how resilient was Burkina Faso's health system? (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Lechat, Lucie; Meda, Ivlabehire Bertrand


    In Africa, health systems are often not very responsive. Their resilience is often tested by health or geopolitical crises. The Ebola epidemic, for instance, exposed the fragility of health systems, and recent terrorist attacks have required countries to respond to urgent situations. Up until 2014, Burkina Faso's health system strongly resisted these pressures and reforms had always been minor. However, since late 2014, Burkina Faso has had to contend with several unprecedented crises. In October 2014, there was a popular insurrection. Then, in September 2015, the Security Regiment of the deposed president attempted a coup d'état. Finally, on 15 January 2016, a terrorist attack occurred in the capital, Ouagadougou. These events involved significant human injury and casualties. In these crises, the Burkinabè health system was sorely tried, testing its responsiveness, resiliency and adaptability. We describe the management of the recent terrorist attack from the standpoint of health system resilience. It would appear that the multiple crises that had occurred within the previous 2 years led to appropriate management of that terrorist attack thanks to the rapid mobilisation of personnel and good communication between centres. For example, the health system had put in place a committee and an emergency response plan, adapted blood bank services and psychology services, and made healthcare free for victims. Nevertheless, the system encountered several challenges, including the development of framework documents for resources (financial, material and human) and their use and coordination in crisis situations.

  4. There and back again: The study of mental disorder and terrorist involvement. (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily


    For the past 40 years, researchers studied the relationship between mental disorder and terrorist involvement. The literature developed in 4 paradigms, each of which differs in terms of their empirical evidence, the specific mental disorders studied, and their conceptualizations of terrorist involvement. These paradigms have not, however, witnessed linear and incremental improvements upon 1 another. Although 1 paradigm has generally tended to dominate a temporal period, many false assumptions and incorrect interpretations of earlier work permeate into today's discourse. This article provides a history of the study of mental disorders and the terrorist. First, we briefly outline the core fundamental principles of the first 2 paradigms, The article then outlines the core arguments produced by the seminal reviews conducted in Paradigm 3. We highlight how these findings were consistently misinterpreted in subsequent citations. We then highlight recent innovations in the study of terrorism and mental disorder since the various influential literature reviews of 1997-2005. We conclude by outlining how future research in this area may improve in the coming years by broadening our understanding of both terrorist involvement and psychopathology away from simple dichotomous thinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Activist or Terrorist? Negotiating Discourses of Eco-Terror in "If a Tree Falls" (United States)

    Olson, Jade


    Environmentalist voices like the Earth Liberation Front have been labeled "eco-terrorists." The 2011 documentary film "If a Tree Falls" explores how "eco-terrorism" troubles the unstable border between activism and terrorism. This essay offers a textual analysis of the film's negotiation of the activism/terrorism…

  6. Terrorist-Insurgent Thinking and Joint Special Operational Planning Doctrine and Procedures (United States)


    gent threat and challenges the reader to expand his own planning paradigm to more fully encompass the implications of terrorist-insurgent thinking in...counterinsurgency doctrine. She has served in Canada’s Reserve Forces with the Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa. Dr. Paquette’s Web site is at

  7. Providing Crisis Counseling to New Yorkers after the Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center. (United States)

    Jordan, Karin


    This article provides an overview of two crisis intervention techniques used by a marriage and family counselor who served as a crisis counselor in New York City after the September 11th terrorist attack. The intervention techniques described are Critical Incident Stress Debriefing and one-on-one crisis counseling. An overview of both techniques…

  8. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists : Research Findings and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.


    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of

  9. The Myth of My Widow: A Dramatistic Analysis of News Portrayals of a Terrorist Victim. (United States)

    Lule, Jack

    Dramatistic analysis suggests that the "New York Times" portrayals of the 1985 terrorist killing of Leon Klinghoffer, the 69 year old American tourist on the Achille Laurs, may contain a mythic dimension. Through the myth of the hero, the news stories invoked the symbol of the self, inviting intense identification of the individual…

  10. Iraagi väitel tuleb iga teine terrorist Süüriast / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor


    Bagdadis elurajooni turul hukkus enesetapurünnakus 130 inimest. Iraagi kõrge valitsusametniku sõnul tuleb 50% terrorist üle Süüria piiri. Iraagi peaminister Nuri al-Maliki arvamus. Vt. samas: Mässulised leiavad tuge internetist

  11. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks? (United States)

    Eshed, Iris; Kushnir, Tamar; Shabshin, Noga; Konen, Eli


    Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  12. Social categorization and fear reactions to the September 11th terrorist attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, M; Yzerbyt, [No Value; Wigboldus, D; Gordijn, EH


    Two experiments were run in The Netherlands and Belgium 1 week after the terrorist attacks against the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001. The aim was to investigate whether social categorization affected emotional reactions, behavioral tendencies, and actual behaviors. Results

  13. The Traumatic Impact of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks and the Potential Protection of Optimism (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Santangelo, Linda K.; Cascio, Toni


    This study examined the impact of the September 11 terrorist attacks on graduate and undergraduate students and the role of optimism in posttraumatic distress. A sample of 457 students who attended courses at three schools of social work (Nevada, Pennsylvania, and Washington) participated in the study. A quarter of them had a known person as an…

  14. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna


    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  15. Terrorist attack of 15 January 2016 in Ouagadougou: how resilient was Burkina Faso's health system? (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Lechat, Lucie; Meda, Ivlabehire Bertrand


    In Africa, health systems are often not very responsive. Their resilience is often tested by health or geopolitical crises. The Ebola epidemic, for instance, exposed the fragility of health systems, and recent terrorist attacks have required countries to respond to urgent situations. Up until 2014, Burkina Faso's health system strongly resisted these pressures and reforms had always been minor. However, since late 2014, Burkina Faso has had to contend with several unprecedented crises. In October 2014, there was a popular insurrection. Then, in September 2015, the Security Regiment of the deposed president attempted a coup d’état. Finally, on 15 January 2016, a terrorist attack occurred in the capital, Ouagadougou. These events involved significant human injury and casualties. In these crises, the Burkinabè health system was sorely tried, testing its responsiveness, resiliency and adaptability. We describe the management of the recent terrorist attack from the standpoint of health system resilience. It would appear that the multiple crises that had occurred within the previous 2 years led to appropriate management of that terrorist attack thanks to the rapid mobilisation of personnel and good communication between centres. For example, the health system had put in place a committee and an emergency response plan, adapted blood bank services and psychology services, and made healthcare free for victims. Nevertheless, the system encountered several challenges, including the development of framework documents for resources (financial, material and human) and their use and coordination in crisis situations. PMID:28588927

  16. Vulnerability analysis and critical areas identification of the power systems under terrorist attacks (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Mingwei; Min, Xu


    This paper takes central China power grid (CCPG) as an example, and analyzes the vulnerability of the power systems under terrorist attacks. To simulate the intelligence of terrorist attacks, a method of critical attack area identification according to community structures is introduced. Meanwhile, three types of vulnerability models and the corresponding vulnerability metrics are given for comparative analysis. On this basis, influence of terrorist attacks on different critical areas is studied. Identifying the vulnerability of different critical areas will be conducted. At the same time, vulnerabilities of critical areas under different tolerance parameters and different vulnerability models are acquired and compared. Results show that only a few number of vertex disruptions may cause some critical areas collapse completely, they can generate great performance losses the whole systems. Further more, the variation of vulnerability values under different scenarios is very large. Critical areas which can cause greater damage under terrorist attacks should be given priority of protection to reduce vulnerability. The proposed method can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of other infrastructure systems, they can help decision makers search mitigation action and optimum protection strategy.

  17. Impact of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks on Teenagers' Mental Health (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lubell, Keri; Provenzano, Danielle


    The impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on adolescents' mental health is reported. Two successive cohorts of students in 6 New York state high schools, identified from health courses, completed an in-school self-report baseline assessment of hopelessness, impairment, and help-seeking behavior. One year later, these students completed a…

  18. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna


    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  19. Patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in Iraq: retrospective study. (United States)

    Gataa, I S; Muassa, Q H


    Over the past 5 years, Iraq has witnessed daily terrorist attacks mainly using improvised explosive devices. The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in a sample of Iraqi casualties. Records from two hospitals, including 551 patients who sustained maxillofacial injuries due to terrorists attacks, were analyzed according to the patients' age, sex, site of injury, type of injury and cause of injury. Concomitant injuries and mortality were also considered. The most common age group affected was those aged 15-29 years. Most of these injuries were caused by improvised explosive devices (71%). More than one facial zone was injured in 212 patients (38%). Isolated soft tissues injuries were detected in (54%) of victims. Pure maxillofacial injuries comprised 33%. The most common injuries associated with this type of trauma were eye injuries (29%). The mortality rate was 2% from pure maxillofacial injuries. Terrorist attacks cause unique maxillofacial injuries, which should be considered a new entity in the trauma field. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Terrorist Attacks on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. (United States)

    Squires, Sandra K.


    This article discusses the effects of the terrorist attacks on children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. These children may be adversely affected in a number of ways including inattentiveness, increased restlessness, crying, sleeplessness, use of profanity, and even inappropriate laughter. Several suggestions are offered to…

  1. Suggestions for Adults: Talking and Thinking with Children about the Terrorist Attacks. (United States)

    Communication Disorders Quarterly, 2002


    Fifteen suggestions for adults talking with children about the terrorist attacks include taking the time to listen, separating fact from fiction, stressing the senselessness of violence, recognizing the impact of their own reactions on children, and addressing religious and moral concerns. (DB)

  2. Aptitude for Destruction. Volume 2: Case Studies of Organizational Learning in Five Terrorist Groups (United States)


    Shinrikyo’s Organization and Terrorist Attacks with Chemical and Biological Weapons," Archives of Toxicology, Kinetics and Xenobiotic Metabolism, Vol. 7...attack in which nine bombs were planted on a fleet of refrigerated meat trucks. And although both the ELF and the ALF have avoided tactics that directly

  3. Physics for future Presidents - nuclear power, terrorism, global warming; La physique expliquee a notre futur president - Nucleaire, terrorisme, rechauffement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Richard A.


    This book explains the science behind the concerns that our nation faces in the immediate future. It outlines the tools of terrorists, the dangers of nuclear power, and the reality of global warming. As citizens who will elect future presidents of the most powerful and influential countries in the world, we need to know-truly understand if Iran's nascent nuclear capability is a genuine threat to the West, if biochemical weapons are likely to be developed by terrorists, if there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that should be nurtured and supported by the government, if nuclear power should be encouraged, and if global warming is actually happening. This book is written in everyday, nontechnical language on the science behind the concerns that our nations faces in the immediate future. This book is translated from 'Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines', published by W. W. Norton and Company in August 2008. Contents: 1 - Terrorism: Nine-eleven, Terrorist nukes, The next terrorist attack, Biological terrorism; 2 - Energy: Key energy surprises, Solar Power, The end of oil; 3 - Nukes: Radioactivity and death, Radioactive decay, Nuclear weapons, Nuclear madness, Nuclear power, Nuclear waste, Controlled fusion; 4 - Space: Space and satellites, Gravity applications, Humans in space, Spying with invisible light; 5 - Global Warming: A brief history of climate, The greenhouse effect, A very likely cause, Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the ground, New technologies

  4. 40 years of terrorist bombings - A meta-analysis of the casualty and injury profile. (United States)

    Edwards, D S; McMenemy, L; Stapley, S A; Patel, H D L; Clasper, J C


    Terrorists have used the explosive device successfully globally, with their effects extending beyond the resulting injuries. Suicide bombings, in particular, are being increasingly deployed due to the devastating effect of a combination of high lethality and target accuracy. The aim of this study was to identify trends and analyse the demographics and casualty figures of terrorist bombings worldwide. Analysis of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and a PubMed/Embase literature search (keywords "terrorist", and/or "suicide", and/or "bombing") from 1970 to 2014 was performed. 58,095 terrorist explosions worldwide were identified in the GTD. 5.08% were suicide bombings. Incidents per year are increasing (Pterrorist attacks. Overall 32 deaths and 180 injuries per incident were seen, however significantly more deaths occurred in explosions associated with a BC. Comparing OS and CS no difference in the deaths per incident was seen, 14.2(SD±17.828) and 15.63 (SD±10.071) respectively. However OS explosions resulted in significantly more injuries, 192.7 (SD±141.147), compared to CS, 79.20 (SD±59.8). Extremity related wounds were the commonest injuries seen (32%). Terrorist bombings continue to be a threat and are increasing particularly in the Middle East. Initial reports, generated immediately at the scene by experienced coordination, on the type of detonation (suicide versus non-suicide), the environment of detonation (confined, open, building collapse) and the number of fatalities, and utilising the Kill:Wounded ratios found in this meta-analysis, can be used to predict the number of casualties and their likely injury profile of survivors to guide the immediate response by the medical services and the workload in the coming days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick M.


    Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

  6. Nuclear developments at the international inter govern mental level (1961); Developpements nucleaires sur le plan international intergouvernemental (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynbaum, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The United Nations organisation and nuclear energy rose simultaneously, in 1945, to occupy an important place in the public eye. The spiritual succession of the League of Nations which had foundered during the war was taken up by the new organisation which sought to implant its political ideal in a more tangible reality, so that it might thereby be inspired by concrete and substantial objectives. This is one of the reasons for the existence of the dozen specialized agencies created by the family of the United Nations and dealing with Health, Culture, Agriculture, Finance, etc. Nuclear energy is one of these techniques. Becoming suddenly an important power factor and exploiting for itself the prestige of Science, it became the favorite domain for the growth of this new spirit, as much in its universal form in 1945 as in its more regional form which it was later to adopt. The achievements are numerous and of varying importance; they deserve te be studied carefully. (author) [French] L'organisation des Nations Unies et le nucleaire ont ete places simultanement, en 1945, au premier plan de la scene mondiale. La Societe des Nations ayant sombre pendant la guerre, son heritage spirituel fut recueilli par la nouvelle organisation qui chercha a enraciner son ideal politique dans une realite plus materielle, de facon a y puiser une nourriture concrete et substantielle. C'est une des raisons d'existence de la douzaine d'institutions specialisees gravitant dans la famille des Nations Unies et s'occupant de Sante, de Culture, d'Agriculture, de Finances, etc. Le nucleaire est l'une de ces techniques. Devenu soudainement un facteur primordial de puissance, Cristallisant a son benefice le prestige de la Science, c'etait un terrain de predilection pour le developpement du nouvel esprit, aussi bien sous la forme universelle de 1945, que sous les formes regionales qui ont vu le jour ensuite. Les travaux realises que nombreux, d

  7. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bunchuk


    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to determine the mechanism for implementing the financial instruments of the state policy to counter terrorist acts in the territory not controlled by Ukrainian authorities in Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Methodology. Within the scientific research, for the most effective approaches at the national level to prevent the threat of international terrorism, under the conditions of the deep internal political crisis and extremely difficult economic situation, in order to improve the efficiency of public administration in developing and implementing the anti-terrorism state policies in Ukraine, the paper analyses international and domestic regulations on preventing the terrorist financing, considers factors that affect the deterioration of the social and economic situation of the temporarily occupied parts of Donbas. Results of the research allow formulating the definition of financial instruments of antiterrorist policies, the paper develops and proposes a series of organizational measures in order to prevent the terrorist financing in Ukraine. Practical implications. Based on the above, we propose an option of classification of main illegal mechanisms that may be used to finance terrorist activities in the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions uncontrolled by Ukrainian authorities, dividing them into internal and external. Given the above studied factors and classification of financing of terrorist acts in eastern Ukraine, we can assume that for the purpose of evading duty payable to relevant state bodies of Ukraine, external supplies of inventories in the uncontrolled areas of the Donetsk region, which are later obtained by illegal armed groups, are possibly carried out as follows: on behalf of a commercial entity registered in a foreign country for the Ukrainian commercial entity, registered in settlements located in the uncontrolled territory; crossing of international transit traffic that moves through the

  9. Review of the Estimates for the Impact of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on New York Tax Revenues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    As a follow-up to our May 2002 report, reviewing the estimates of the economic impact of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York, Congress requested additional information on New York tax revenues...

  10. Probabilistic Project Management for a Terrorist Planning a Dirty Bomb Attack on a Major US Port [video


    John, Richard


    Video: Richard John and Heather Rossoff: Probabilistic Project Management for a Terrorist Planning a Dirty Bomb Attack on a Major US Port. A talk for the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Metrics and Tools Conference, June 2008

  11. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country. (United States)


    ...) (a) Definitions. As used in this provision— (1) Government of a terrorist country includes the state... the government of which has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism. As of the...

  12. Offensive Counterterrorism Targeted killing in eliminating terrorist target: the case of the USA and Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio Matos


    Full Text Available Due to the "global terrorism project", some States have adopted offensive counterterrorism measures which, though within national strategies on security and defense, contemplate the use of military power and the use of lethal force against non-state actors - individuals, groups or terrorist organizations - beyond their national borders. Reformulating the security paradigm has led, in these cases, to policies against terrorism. This is the case of targeted killing - the killing of selected targets - by the USA and Israel. Targeted killing actions - using essentially but not only drones - in Pakistan and Yemen by the American administration, a well as the Israeli response to Palestinian terrorism, are under heated debate in terms of their efficiency and legality. Thus, this paper aims to not only provide an analytical framework on this theme but also analyze the scope and impact of these counter terrorist strategies by the two countries.

  13. Licensing issues in the context of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danwitz, T. von


    The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in September 2001 has prompted enhanced nuclear risk awareness among the German population. But in the current public debate about the safety of nuclear power plants in Germany in times of new dimensions of danger, aspects such as the role of the constitutional law, the German Atomic Energy Act, and the regulatory system governing nuclear power plant licensing in the context of protection and safety have not been addressed. The author therefore discusses the German nuclear power plant licensing law and administrative regime, elaborating on the significance attributed in those bodies of law to risks like terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants. (orig./CB) [de

  14. The process of institutionalising the EU’s anti-terrorist policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Argomaniz


    Full Text Available This article applies the perspective of historical institutionalism to the empirical analysis of the motors and characteristics of the institutionalisation process of the European Union’s anti-terrorist policies. Based on a theoretical model developed by Stone Sweet, Sandholtz and Fligstein, this contribution critically analyses the impact of external crises in the form of a series of terrorist attacks on the emergence of antiterrorism as an sphere of European governance. The article also examines political developments and key institutions, studies the role of policy entrepreneurs during this period and compares the importance of “revolutionary” and “evolutionist” perspectives to our understanding of the process of institutional change in this field.

  15. Controversies of Conversions: The Potential Terrorist Threat of European Converts to Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika G. Bartoszewicz


    Full Text Available This article summarising some findings from a doctoral dissertation discusses European converts to Islam. It explores the conditions under which conversion leads to radicalisation and terrorist violence; it analyses recrudescent concomitances of causal mechanisms of this phenomenon. Furthermore, it explores possible pathways existing between conversion, radicalisation and terrorist violence; identifies key variables pertaining to causal pathways and processes; provides hypotheses regarding the radicalisation pathways, and establishes a typology that can serve as a basis for further studies. By dispelling stereotypes on European New Muslims (ENM this research note offers a new, contextual approach to the issue under consideration. In doing so it invites the reader to reconsider the concepts of “convert”, “radicalisation” and “potential”- concepts crucial for questioning the widely expressed assumptions that European converts to Islam are a homogenous “risk group” and a security threat.

  16. Transporting nuclear wastes from energy production sites: What can terrorists do and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattee-Ballard, D.R.; Ballard, J.D.; Dilger, F.


    Full text: Recent discussions in the United States and among NATO allies have debated the vulnerability of nuclear waste shipments, their transports, and the engineered packaging they transport within to terrorist attack. These debates generally focus on the regulatory and engineered controls necessary to protect such shipments, but in the post-September 11, 2001 reality of a potential mass suicide attack using asymmetrical weapons and tactics, can the underlying 'safe' assumptions of regulators and security personnel be questioned? This paper will offer a history of the debates surrounding how safe such shipments from energy faculties are to dedicated terrorist attack and then focus on recent research that looks at several transportation related scenarios that may bring into question heretofore un-assessed vulnerabilities for highway and railway transports, routes, and cargoes of highly radioactive wastes that come from such energy production sites. (author)

  17. ‘Let the Punishment Match the Offence’: Determining Sentences for Australian Terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola McGarrity


    Full Text Available To date, 38 men have been charged with terrorism offences in Australia. Twenty-six have been convicted. The article commences with an overview of the factual circumstances leading to these convictions. This provides important background for the following discussion of a largely unexplored issue in Australian anti-terrorism law and policy, namely, the difficulties faced by the Australian courts in adapting traditional sentencing principles to the (for the most part, preparatory terrorism offences enacted by the Commonwealth Parliament after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Of particular interest are how the courts determine the objective seriousness of these offences and the respective weight placed upon deterrence (both specific and general and the rehabilitation of convicted terrorists.

  18. Experiences from coordinating research after the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway. (United States)

    Refsdal, Nils O


    This brief report presents some of the lessons learned from coordinating research in which people directly affected by terrorist attacks in Norway in 2011 are taking part. After the terrorist attacks, it was decided to establish a national coordinating function in order to protect those who were affected when they participate in research. By gathering key stakeholders, it is possible to avoid duplication of research through practical measures such as information sharing, facilitating cooperation, and working toward sharing of data. In addition, a coordinating function provides a platform for working to increase the impact of the research among practitioners and policy makers, and inform the general public. The conclusions are that coordination should be interdisciplinary, that it is important to plan for the sharing and reuse of data, and that both the research community and the research infrastructure should take steps to improve preparedness when disaster inevitably strikes again.

  19. The impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on psychiatric patients: a review. (United States)

    Franz, Victoria A; Glass, Carol R; Arnkoff, Diane B; Dutton, Mary Ann


    Studies of the general population have shown that the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had a well-documented psychological effect, regardless of whether or not individuals were directly exposed to the events. In light of findings that pre-existing mental illness and prior exposure to trauma are associated with vulnerability to PTSD following a subsequent traumatic event, this article reviews research on the impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on psychiatric patients. Findings suggest that, in general, psychiatric patients experienced immediate and long-term posttraumatic symptoms at levels greater than normal controls, although there were differential effects by diagnostic group and symptoms as observed did not always match complaints of subjective impairment. Studies sampling inpatients and outpatients, as well as research regarding service utilization, are evaluated. Assessment and treatment implications for clinicians responsible for the care of psychiatric patients following a national trauma are discussed, and recommendations for future research are presented.

  20. Unhealthy complacency: The vulnerability of US hospitals to direct terrorist attacks. (United States)

    Finucane, David J


    Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, terrorists have demonstrated both the intent and capability to execute direct attacks on US public hospitals. Nonetheless, hospital administrators have basically ignored this threat, as they do not view hospitals as likely targets. Unfortunately, it may take a catastrophic event before policymakers appreciate this threat enough to take appropriate actions. However, analyzing and managing these threats is just another part of risk management, as the cost of doing so up front to protect against such loss is no different than other risk management assessments. While the threat may never be completely eradicated, failing to implement reasonable security measures to specifically address the threat of direct terrorist attacks leaves hospitals vulnerable to severe loss. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  1. [Treatment strategies for mass casualty incidents and terrorist attacks in trauma and vascular surgery : Presentation of a treatment concept]. (United States)

    Friemert, B; Franke, A; Bieler, D; Achatz, A; Hinck, D; Engelhardt, M


    The treatment of patients in the context of mass casualty incidents (MCI) represents a great challenge for the participating rescue workers and clinics. Due to the increase in terrorist activities it is necessary to become familiar with this new kind of threat to civilization with respect to the medical treatment of victims of terrorist attacks. There are substantial differences between a "normal" MCI and a terrorist MCI with respect to injury patterns (blunt trauma vs. penetrating/perforating trauma), the type and form of the incident (MCI=static situation vs. terrorist attack MCI= dynamic situation) and the different security positions (rescue services vs. police services). This article is concerned with question of which changes in the surgical treatment of patients are made necessary by these new challenges. In this case it is necessary that physicians are familiar with the different injury patterns, whereby priority must be given to gunshot and explosion (blast) injuries. Furthermore, altered strategic and tactical approaches (damage control surgery vs. tactical abbreviated surgical care) are necessary to ensure survival for as many victims of terrorist attacks as possible and also to achieve the best possible functional results. It is only possible to successfully counter these new challenges by changing the mindset in the treatment of terrorist MCI compared to MCI incidents. An essential component of this mindset is the acquisition of a maximum of flexibility. This article would like to make a contribution to this problem.

  2. Styles of International Mediation in Peace Processes Between States and Terrorist Organizations (United States)


    armed groups in Northern Ireland had decommissioned their arms.230 While the intractable and deeply-rooted political conflict in Northern Ireland still...As a conflict management strategy, mediation has offered a way to abate or resolve conflicts , and it is a solid alternative to escalating hostilities...terrorism conflicts , this thesis explores the styles of international mediation that have been employed in peace processes between states and terrorist

  3. The Study of New Religious Movements and the Process of Radicalization in Terrorist Groups (United States)


    and the cross-cutting management pressures confronting leaders of controversial new religions, and potentially terrorist organizations as well...aggravate this situation in ways that foster ever more extreme behaviour. Four of the relevant management issues are: (1) maintaining the leader’s...catalyseurs vers le changement , mais la vraie raison est un sens éternel de privation morale relative. Le processus est essentiellement viii DRDC CSS

  4. Air Force Critical Incident Stress Management outreach with Pentagon staff after the terrorist attack. (United States)

    Rowan, Anderson B


    This article describes the Critical Incident Stress Management outreach to Pentagon staff conducted after the terrorist attack by a team of Air Force mental health and chaplain personnel. Also discussed are lessons learned from the author's experience while leading the mental health component and working in a larger tri-service outreach. Finally, the observed impacts of the outreach effort are examined along with recommendations for future postcritical incident outreach efforts.

  5. Internet Posting of Chemical Worst Case Scenarios: A Roadmap for Terrorists (United States)


    with homework and connect with friends. As a parent, the greatest concern I used to have about the Internet was porn and the other things that sickos...states, terrorists, and orga- nized criminals .’’ Indeed, the President’s budget for 1999, pending congressional ap- proval, devotes hundreds of millions...Brutalized groups that either bum with revenge following a genocide against their nation or face the prospect of imminent destruction without any

  6. Cross-Milieu Terrorist Collaboration: Using Game Theory to Assess the Risk of a Novel Threat. (United States)

    Ackerman, Gary A; Zhuang, Jun; Weerasuriya, Sitara


    This article uses a game-theoretic approach to analyze the risk of cross-milieu terrorist collaboration-the possibility that, despite marked ideological differences, extremist groups from very different milieus might align to a degree where operational collaboration against Western societies becomes possible. Based upon theoretical insights drawn from a variety of literatures, a bargaining model is constructed that reflects the various benefits and costs for terrorists' collaboration across ideological milieus. Analyzed in both sequential and simultaneous decision-making contexts and through numerical simulations, the model confirms several theoretical arguments. The most important of these is that although likely to be quite rare, successful collaboration across terrorist milieus is indeed feasible in certain circumstances. The model also highlights several structural elements that might play a larger role than previously recognized in the collaboration decision, including that the prospect of nonmaterial gains (amplification of terror and reputational boost) plays at least as important a role in the decision to collaborate as potential increased capabilities does. Numerical simulation further suggests that prospects for successful collaboration over most scenarios (including operational) increase when a large, effective Islamist terrorist organization initiates collaboration with a smaller right-wing group, as compared with the other scenarios considered. Although the small number of historical cases precludes robust statistical validation, the simulation results are supported by existing empirical evidence of collaboration between Islamists and right- or left-wing extremists. The game-theoretic approach, therefore, provides guidance regarding the circumstances under which such an unholy alliance of violent actors is likely to succeed. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qa’ida (United States)


    Some argue that greater economic inequality creates broad grievances that favor terrorism.26 “Governments that fail to meet the basic welfare and eco...p. 78); Cronin (2002–2003, pp. 39–42). 26 On civil conflict, see Edward N. Muller, “Income Inequality , Regime Repressiveness, and Political...7,000” (Hekmat Karzai, Afghanistan and the Globalisation of Terrorist Tactics, Singapore: Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, January 2006

  8. Maritime tourism and terrorism: Customer perceptions of the potential terrorist threat to cruise shipping


    Bowen, C.; Fidgeon, P.; Page, S.J.


    Maritime terrorism is a neglected area of research in tourism, particularly the use of scenario planning to understand potential threats to the cruise industry. Since the events of 9/11, terrorism, and the threat of terrorism, has become a major concern within the tourism industry. This article analyses tourist perception of perceived terrorist threats given that many ships are American owned. Using the scenario analysis presented by Greenberg, Chalk, Willis, Khilko, and Ortiz, this study sug...

  9. A Chronology of Terrorist Attacks and Other Criminal Actions Against Maritime Targets (United States)


    incidents. Other groups include the IRA, Moslem separatists in the Southern Philippines, right -wing Christian extremists in Lebanon, Polisario guerrillas... emigres , Palestinian groups, and the IRA alone account for nearly 40 percent of the terrorist attacks recorded in this chronology. These groups are...opponent of Dr. Salazar’s government. The liner was on a holiday cruise witn over 600 Portuguese, American, Dutch, Venezuelan and Spanish passengers on

  10. Ku Klux Rising: Toward an Understanding of American Right Wing Terrorist Campaigns (United States)


    achieved its goals. Once comfortable with its status, the sponsor will simply turn off its Frankenstein- like creation and put it into hibernation until Organizational design, leadership, recruitment strategies, and communication outlets of the terrorist group thus bear analyzing. The...Reconstruction, the Klan would go into hibernation , only to be reawakened four decades later. E. CONCLUSIONS With regard to the applicability

  11. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris]. (United States)

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle


    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. A data fusion approach to indications and warnings of terrorist attacks (United States)

    McDaniel, David; Schaefer, Gregory


    Indications and Warning (I&W) of terrorist attacks, particularly IED attacks, require detection of networks of agents and patterns of behavior. Social Network Analysis tries to detect a network; activity analysis tries to detect anomalous activities. This work builds on both to detect elements of an activity model of terrorist attack activity - the agents, resources, networks, and behaviors. The activity model is expressed as RDF triples statements where the tuple positions are elements or subsets of a formal ontology for activity models. The advantage of a model is that elements are interdependent and evidence for or against one will influence others so that there is a multiplier effect. The advantage of the formality is that detection could occur hierarchically, that is, at different levels of abstraction. The model matching is expressed as a likelihood ratio between input text and the model triples. The likelihood ratio is designed to be analogous to track correlation likelihood ratios common in JDL fusion level 1. This required development of a semantic distance metric for positive and null hypotheses as well as for complex objects. The metric uses the Web 1Terabype database of one to five gram frequencies for priors. This size requires the use of big data technologies so a Hadoop cluster is used in conjunction with OpenNLP natural language and Mahout clustering software. Distributed data fusion Map Reduce jobs distribute parts of the data fusion problem to the Hadoop nodes. For the purposes of this initial testing, open source models and text inputs of similar complexity to terrorist events were used as surrogates for the intended counter-terrorist application.

  13. Evolution of nuclear chemical industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie chimique nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fould, M.H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    'impulsion du CEA, mais aussi de maitres d'oeuvres tels qu'Electricite de France et la Marine Marchande, l'effort nucleaire fran is atteint pour les annees 1957-1961, environ 600 milliards de francs: plus de la moitie de cette somme sera depensee par l'industrie chimique en recherches, installations pilotes, constructions d'usines et livraisons. Faire bien, vite et rentable sont les buts recherches. Ces objectifs sont atteints grace a une collaboration intime des grands services de l'etat et de l'industrie privee. Ce gros effort s'exerce principalement dans les voies suivantes: - Un traitement chimique pousse de tonnages croissants des minerais de l'Union fran ise, visant a produire un uranium pur, abondant et bon marche. - Une preparation soigneuse de combustibles nucleaires economiques et parfaitement adaptes aux divers types de reacteurs en fonctionnement ou en construction. - Un retraitement des combustibles irradies pour en extraire le plutonium de facon complete ainsi que l'uranium et certains produits de fission. - Une fabrication industrielle des materiaux nucleairement purs ou resistants a la corrosion exiges par la technologie des reacteurs producteurs d'energie et de recherches. - La fourniture aux multiples utilisateurs etrangers et fran is d'isotopes et de traceurs radioactifs reclames par la medecine, l'industrie et l'agriculture en nombre toujours croissant. - Un traitement chimique meticuleux des effluents gazeux ou liquides dans des stations au controle rigoureux afin de rendre les reacteurs et leurs annexes parfaitement surs d'emploi. Cet expose aura montre l'ampleur de l'effort deploye par une industrie chimique nucleaire jeune, dynamique et en plein essor. Ayant assure ses techniques, realise de nombreuses installations, elle est largement en etat de faire face au programme atomique fran is. En outre, elle est capable et desireuse d'etre associee aux developpements de l

  14. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  15. A New Paradigm of Injuries From Terrorist Explosions as a Function of Explosion Setting Type. (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Givon, Adi; Shenhar, Gili; Renert, Liran; Peleg, Kobi


    Examine the impact of setting on the magnitude and pattern of civilian injuries from terrorist explosions. This may help surgical staffs anticipate the resources required to treat victims of terrorist attacks. A retrospective study of 823 patients from 65 explosive events of the Second Intifada (2000-2005) in the National Trauma Registry. After verification all the events were divided into 5 categories: explosions inside buildings (CS), explosions near buildings (SO), explosions inside buses (IB), explosions near buses (AB), and explosions in an open space (OS). The categories were then compared in terms of sustained injuries, utilization of hospital resources and clinical outcomes. CS and IB scenarios were found to cause the most severe injuries, demanded the most hospital resources and had the worst outcomes, but had several important differences in injury profiles. AB setting proved to be a stand-alone scenario with the lowest severity, possibly due to protection provided to the passengers by the bus. The high volume of blast injuries in SO scenario supports the idea that the explosion wave could be reflected onto the people standing outside a building next to its wall. OS patients had the lowest proportion of blast trauma and burns. The existing taxonomy of terrorist bombings, which distinguishes explosions in open spaces from those occurring in closed environments, does not fully differentiate patterns of injury that follow blasts in intermediate environments. Expanding the framework from 2 categories to 5 appears to provide greater precision and may be clinically useful to health care providers.

  16. Lone Actor Terrorist Attack Planning and Preparation: A Data-Driven Analysis. (United States)

    Schuurman, Bart; Bakker, Edwin; Gill, Paul; Bouhana, Noémie


    This article provides an in-depth assessment of lone actor terrorists' attack planning and preparation. A codebook of 198 variables related to different aspects of pre-attack behavior is applied to a sample of 55 lone actor terrorists. Data were drawn from open-source materials and complemented where possible with primary sources. Most lone actors are not highly lethal or surreptitious attackers. They are generally poor at maintaining operational security, leak their motivations and capabilities in numerous ways, and generally do so months and even years before an attack. Moreover, the "loneness" thought to define this type of terrorism is generally absent; most lone actors uphold social ties that are crucial to their adoption and maintenance of the motivation and capability to commit terrorist violence. The results offer concrete input for those working to detect and prevent this form of terrorism and argue for a re-evaluation of the "lone actor" concept. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Forensic Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank


    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  18. The Internet information infrastructure: Terrorist tool or architecture for information defense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadner, S.; Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rees, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    The Internet is a culmination of information age technologies and an agent of change. As with any infrastructure, dependency upon the so-called global information infrastructure creates vulnerabilities. Moreover, unlike physical infrastructures, the Internet is a multi-use technology. While information technologies, such as the Internet, can be utilized as a tool of terror, these same technologies can facilitate the implementation of solutions to mitigate the threat. In this vein, this paper analyzes the multifaceted nature of the Internet information infrastructure and argues that policymakers should concentrate on the solutions it provides rather than the vulnerabilities it creates. Minimizing risks and realizing possibilities in the information age will require institutional activities that translate, exploit and convert information technologies into positive solutions. What follows is a discussion of the Internet information infrastructure as it relates to increasing vulnerabilities and positive potential. The following four applications of the Internet will be addressed: as the infrastructure for information competence; as a terrorist tool; as the terrorist`s target; and as an architecture for rapid response.

  19. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We? (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo


    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism.

  20. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism. (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M


    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks.

  1. Impact of a general practitioners' strike and of terrorist attacks on a call centre. (United States)

    Reuter, Paul-Georges; Orsini, Charlotte; Grave, Mélanie; Linval, Frédéric; Akodad, Hayatte; Goix, Laurent; Adnet, Frédéric; Lapostolle, Frédéric


    We aimed to evaluate the impact of the same-day GPs' strike and terrorist attacks on a call centre's activity. We compared the number of calls received, the number of patient's medical files (PMFs) created and the number of mobile ICU (MICU) dispatched per hour on Friday, 13 November, to the repository established on the five previous Fridays. As previously published, the variation criterion was set to an activity variation above 20% for more than 2 h. On Friday, 13 November, 1745 calls were received compared with 1455 calls, on average, for the five previous Fridays. The number of calls received increased after the terrorist attacks (≤90%) and remained above the threshold for 3 h. The number of PMFs exceeded the threshold from 10:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m., but was not affected by the attacks. The number of MICUs dispatched exceeded the threshold (>500%) in the first hour after the attacks. The GPs' strike and the terrorist attacks did not impact our call centre's activity in the same manner. The strike increased the number of PMFs without increasing the number of calls received. The attacks increased the number of calls received and MICU dispatched without increasing the number of PMFs. Many markers are at the disposal of call centres to evaluate the impact of healthcare events.

  2. Terrorist Threats in the Basque Country: its Impact on the Psychosocial Sphere of Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín-Peña


    Full Text Available The ceasefire of armed activities announced by ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom in 2011 has fostered a debate about the violence and the victims of the terrorist organization. During those years, the violence perpetrated by ETA was characterized by bomb attacks and assassinations. In addition to this blatant violent behavior, a low-intensity violence was also taking place in the Basque Country, consisting of terrorist threats against their targets. There is, however, a lack of evidence-based research into this phenomenon. This investigation studies the impact of terrorist threats on the psychosocial functioning of people threatened by ETA in the Basque Country. Seventy-six people targeted by ETA completed self-reported survey. Terrorist threats and their derived psychosocial consequences were assessed by this way. The findings point out a relationship between terrorist threats and their psychosocial effects, which greatly affected the immediate environment of the targets too. The implications of these findings are discussed. El cese de la actividad armada anunciado por ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – Euskadi y Libertad en 2011 ha promovido un debate sobre la violencia y las víctimas de la organización terrorista. Durante esos años, la violencia perpetrada por ETA se caracterizó por ataques con bombas y asesinatos. Además de este comportamiento claramente violento, en el País Vasco también se estaba produciendo una violencia de baja intensidad, consistente en amenazas terroristas contra sus objetivos. Sin embargo, no hay una investigación basada en la evidencia sobre este fenómeno. Esta investigación estudia el impacto de las amenazas terroristas en el funcionamiento psicosocial de las personas amenazadas por ETA en el País Vasco. Setenta y seis personas amenazadas por ETA completaron una encuesta de autoevaluación. Se evaluaron de esta forma las amenazas terroristas y sus consecuencias psicosociales derivadas. Los resultados indicaron

  3. Pattern of Fatal Injuries in Counter Terrorist Operations: An Innovative Analysis through Embalming Services. (United States)

    Arora, M M; Bhatia, J K; Rana, Kvs


    Mortal remains of the soldiers killed in counter-terrorist operations in Kashmir valley are sent to their home after undergoing mandatory embalming. Injuries on the mortal remains of the soldiers killed in counter terrorist operations between Jan 1999 to Dec 2006 were analysed with respect to the agent, mode of injury, age, rank structure, body parts involved, seasonal variations and changing trends. Fatalities consequent to enemy action across line of control and fatalities of Kargil war were also analysed for comparison. Statistical analysis was done using chi square test for difference in proportions. Over the study period, terrorist induced injuries accounted for 8.16 deaths per thousand troops deployed whereas enemy action from across the line of control accounted for 0.63 deaths per thousand. Terrorist induced fatalities peaked in 2001 and thereafter revealed a declining trend ('p' terrorist induced fatalities, 78.2% died of gunshot wounds and 21.5% by splinters and improvised explosive devices (IED). The ratio was reversed in enemy induced fatalities and in Kargil war. Fatalities peaked during June to November and declined in winters. Body region wise, 23.4% of all deaths were due to head injury, 8.4% due to neck and maxillofacial injury, 18.4% due to injury to lungs and 11% due to heart injury. Most frequent target of the fatal bullet was brain (25.4%), closely followed by lungs (22.5%) and heart (12.3%). When soldier died of splinters / IED, multiple body parts were injured in 57.5%, brain in 17.3%, face & neck in 3.5%, heart in 6.6%, lungs in 5.3%, abdomen in 3.5% and limbs in 5.8%. Fatality due to head and heart injury peaked in 2001, while multiple injuries peaked in 2000, declined in 2001 and peaked again in 2004 and 2005 ('p' < 0.001). In fatalities of Kargil war, chest injuries were less but multiple injuries were more. Most of the fatalities were due to gunshot wounds selectively aimed at head, face, neck and thorax. Therefore, a lightweight

  4. The atomic energy course of the 'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires' at the centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay; L'enseignement de genie atomique de l'Institut national des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires au Centre d'Etudes nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baissas, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    foreign students. 8- Annexe: list of courses, practical work, pile projects drawn up by the 1957 students. (author)Fren. [French] 1- Les raisons de sa creation. L'electricite de France et l'industrie interessee par le developpement de l'Energie atomique ont demande au Commissariat a l'Energie atomique de former des ingenieurs capables d'etudier des projets de piles et de diriger leur construction. 2- Recrutement et Droits d'inscription. Les demandes d'inscription ont toujours depasse les possibilites. Cette annee, les cours sont suivis par 74 eleves permanents, dont 20 etrangers, et une centaine d'auditeurs libres. Tous les elevont deja ingenieurs ou nantis de grades universitaires eleves. Droit d'inscription: 250 000 F pour les eleves, 125 000 F pour les auditeurs. 3- Organisation de l'Enseignement. II comprend deux options: physique et chimie et dans chaque option: une centaine de conferences, une trentaine de travaux pratiques, des stages dans les services, l'etude d'un projet de reacteur par un groupe de 4 ou 5 eleves. L'ensemble occupe l'annee universitaire du 1 novembre au 14 juillet. 4- Sanction. Un examen final combinant les notes de deux epreuves theoriques, des travaux pratiques, du stage, et du projet conduit a un diplome d'ingenieur en genie atomique. Il n'est pas cree en realite de nouveaux ingenieurs; une mention nouvelle est seulement ajoutee a un diplome deja acquis. Les resultats ont toujours ete excellents. Le pourcentage des echecs est tres faible. 5- Placement des Diplomes. Ils reviennent tous dans leurs industries d'origine qui ont paye leurs salaires et les droits d'inscription en se privant de leurs services pendant les neuf mois de duree des cours. 6- Creations analogues. Un cours analogue a ete cree au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble. Tandis que celui de SACLAY s'adresse plus specialement aux ingenieurs deja en fonctions, celui de Grenoble

  5. [Quality indicators for rescue operations in terrorist attacks or other threats : A pilot study after the Würzburg terrorist attack of July 2016]. (United States)

    Wurmb, T; Justice, P; Dietz, S; Schua, R; Jarausch, T; Kinstle, U; Greiner, J; Möldner, G; Müller, J; Kraus, M; Simon, S; Wagenhäuser, U; Roewer, N; Helm, M


    Terrorist attacks have become reality in Germany. The aim of this work was, after the Würzburg terrorist attack, to define quality indicators and application characteristics for rescue missions in life-threatening situations. The results can be used to record data from future missions using this template in order to make them comparable with each other. After approval of the local ethic committee, the first step was to designate a group of experts in order to define the template in a consensus process. The next step was to perform the consensus process by defining the template. An independent expert for emergency medicine and disaster management reviewed and approved the results afterwards. The expert group defined 13 categories and 158 parameters that will further serve the systematic evaluation of the rescue mission of the Würzburg terror attack. Preliminary results of this evaluation process are given in this paper; the full evaluation has not yet been completed. In this study we first describe quality indicators and parameters suitable for the German rescue system in order to evaluate rescue operations for violence caused mass casualties. There is similar international documentation, but it does not specifically focus on life-threatening operations and are not adapted to the German context. There is an important need to systematically evaluate rescue missions after mass killing incidents. In this study we report a template of parameters and quality indicators in order to systematically evaluate mass violence events. The presented template is the result of an expert consensus process and may serve as a basis for further development and research.

  6. Prends soin du métro. Le contrôle-soin, forme émergente des régulations et menaces souterraines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Jouffe


    Full Text Available Le métro de Santiago a subi une dégradation significative de ses conditions de transport du fait de son intégration au Transantiago, le réseau de bus urbains. L’opérateur du métro a donné beaucoup de visibilité à ses dispositifs de contrôle des nouvelles masses d’usagers : barrières optimisées, signalétique omniprésente, agents démultipliés, etc. L’étude du discours officiel de l’entreprise et surtout l’observation ethnographique de ces dispositifs révèlent que les modalités de contrôle ont elles-mêmes évoluées. En plus de la menace légale exercée contre les étrangers et de la régulation des flux par une discipline des corps, un contrôle-soin s’exerce sur une population à protéger : la population qui bénéficie du soin de l’opérateur lui est redevable d’un contre-soin. Le contrôle-soin constitue non seulement une modalité émergente de contrôle mais aussi la forme générale du contrôle dans le métro de Santiago.

  7. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960); Les centrales nucleaires de puissance du programme francais (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Roux, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)


    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele l'integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en France, les auteurs se penchent surtout sur l'evolution des techniques appliquees dans l'equipement des centrales nucleaires francaises et decrivent les moyens mis en oeuvre pour reduire les prix de revient du kWh d'EDF2 et d'EDF3 par rapport a EDF1: la puissance electrique par tonne d'uranium varie de 493 kW/t pour EDF1 a 970 kW/t pour EDF3. C'est dans ce but que les puissances thermiques et la puissance unitaire des groupes turbo-alternateurs passent respectivement de 290 MWt pour EDF1 a 1200 ou 1600 MWt pour EDF3 et de 82 a 250 MW. Les resultats sont obtenus par une amelioration des caracteristiques neutroniques, des progres realises sur la technologie des elements

  8. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirime Çukaj


    Full Text Available Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious means to combat these terrorist acts. One of these efficacious means has been the seizure and confiscation of licit and illicit assets possessed by terrorist groups. This is the focus of this short study, which will be inclusive by viewing this topic under the general framework of international acts, our domestic legislation, as well as the American one. This paper aims at presenting the legislative measures taken by the Albanian state to meet international requirements. It endeavors to provide arguments why all licit and illicit assets associated with terrorist acts are seized and confiscated. Special attention is paid to the way these assets are administered. Moreover, this study tries to analyze the achievements and problems in Albania, as well as provide conclusions and recommendations.

  9. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti


    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  10. Previous exposure to the World Trade Center terrorist attack and posttraumatic symptoms among older adults following Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Palgi, Yuval; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Goodwin, Robin; Ben-Ezra, Menachem


    The present study tested the maturation and inoculation hypotheses by examining whether age and previous exposure to the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack moderated the relationship between degree of exposure to Hurricane Sandy and related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. An online sample of 1,000 participants from affected states completed self-report questionnaires one month after Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast. Participants reported their degree of exposure to the WTC terrorist attack and to Hurricane Sandy, and their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following Hurricane Sandy. The positive relationship between degree of exposure to Hurricane Sandy and level of PTSD symptoms was weaker among older adults. An additional significant three-way interaction suggested that both age and previous exposure to the WTC terrorist attack moderated the relationship between degree of exposure to Hurricane Sandy and level of PTSD symptoms. Previous high degree of exposure to the WTC terrorist attack was related to a weaker effect of current exposure to Hurricane Sandy on PTSD symptoms among older adults. However, among younger adults, previous high degree of exposure to the WTC terrorist attack was related to a stronger effect of current exposure on PTSD symptoms. When confronted by a natural disaster, American older adults are generally resilient. Supporting the inoculation hypothesis, resilience of older adults may be partly related to the strength successfully extracted from previous exposure to adverse events.

  11. Who deserves basic rights? People condone violations of procedural and physical rights in the treatment of terrorist suspects. (United States)

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; DeMarco, Tina C


    Public discourse regarding the treatment of terrorist suspects typically emphasizes utilitarian "greater-good" justifications related to ensuring public safety. By contrast, we hypothesized that laypeople's judgments of how suspected terrorists ought to be treated are more strongly informed by retributive concerns related to deservingness. Participants (N = 607, M age = 34.25, recruited via Mechanical Turk) read about a terrorist suspect who was (vs. was not) presented as deserving of punishment and described as posing (vs. not posing) a continued threat to public safety. Participants rated the acceptability of procedural and physical rights violations occurring during the arrest and interrogation of the suspect and provided their perceptions of the suspect's dangerousness and deservingness of lawful treatment. We found that participants were more willing to condone rights violations when the suspect was (vs. was not) deserving of punishment. This willingness was not affected by the continued threat manipulation. Moreover, the effect of the punishment deservingness manipulation was mediated by perceptions that suspected terrorists are less deserving of having their rights upheld, but not by perceived dangerousness. Retributive concerns related to deservingness can thus lead people to condone the denial of suspected terrorists' basic rights, which may have consequences for the curtailment of all citizens' civil liberties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Formation and linear amplification of signals in nuclear spectroscopy; Formation et amplification lineaire des signaux en spectroscopie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Du, R.; Mettes, J.D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The apparatus described can be associated to various detectors used in nuclear physics, either rapid - its rise time is always under 30 nanoseconds - or slow, because of its continuous connections. Its gain can be increased very progressively from 2000 to 10 by increasing the feedback factors. The maximum permissible entry voltage, without causing any increase in the dead-time is 12 volts, whatever the value of the gain. The device is fitted with two continuous exits giving signals of equal amplitude but of opposite sign (10 volt pulses followed by a 4 volt undershoot). Its controls, all accessible, make it possible to adapt the apparatus very rapidly to various measurements. It is completely transistorized and the amplifier is fitted into a RENATRAN 2/8 drawer. A gain 4 preamplifier in the same drawer makes it possible to obtain a total gain of 8000. (authors) [French] L'appareil que nous decrivons peut etre associe aux divers detecteurs utilises en physique nucleaire, rapides - son temps de montee propre est toujours inferieur a 30 ns - ou lents, du fait de ses liaisons continues. Son gain peut etre amene tres progressivement de 2000 a 10 par l'augmentation graduelle des taux de contre-reaction utilises. La tension maxima admissible a l'entree, sans augmentation anormale du temps mort, est de 12 volts quel que soit le gain. L'appareil comporte deux sorties continues, delivrant des signaux d'amplitudes egales et de signes opposes (impulsions de 10 volts suivies d'un undershoot de 4 volts). Ses reglages, tous accessibles, permettent d'adapter tres rapidement l'appareil aux diverses mesures. Entierement transistorise, l'amplificateur est monte dans un tiroir RENATRAN 2/8. Un preamplificateur de gain 4, inclus dans le meme tiroir permet de porter le gain a 8000. (auteurs)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Крылов


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the history and evolution of the jihadist terrorist organization “Jab-hat al-Nusra” (“The Support Front for the People of the Levant”. It also reveals the ideological principals of the organization, its main goals and objectives and the methods used to achieve them. “Jabhat al-Nusra” was created as a branch of “Al Qaeda” in Syria. Subsequently, the organization changed its name twice. From July 2016 known as the “Jabhat Fateh al-Sham” (“The Liberation Front of the Levant” and from January 2017 - as the “Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham” (“Organization for the Liberation of the Levant”. The replacement of the signboard was determined primarily by the fact that “Al-Nusra” had been designated as a terrorist organization in many countries around the world, including Russia. The main goals of “Jabhat al-Nusra” are follows: first - to overthrow the legitimate government of the Syrian President Bashar al-Assad; second - to create a Muslim Sunni state governed by the laws of Sharia on the territory of Syria. The article shows that now the front “Al-Nusra” is the most powerful military and political force among all political organizations and military groups of the Syrian opposition. “Al-Nusra” is actively trying to become a more respectable movement and persistently seeks to get rid of the image of a terrorist organization. The article reflects the official position of the Russian Federation toward “Jabhat al-Nusra”.

  14. Effect of 7 July 2005 terrorist attacks in London on suicide in England and Wales. (United States)

    Salib, Emad; Cortina-Borja, Mario


    A reduction in suicide in England and Wales has been reported after the attacks of 11 September 2001 in the USA. It may be plausible therefore to expect a much greater impact on suicide in the UK in response to the events of 7 July 2005, caused by the first suicide terrorist attack by Islamic extremists on British soil. To examine the effect of the 7 July 2005 terrorist attacks in London on suicide rates in England and Wales. Analysis of number of suicide (ICD-10 codes X60-X84) and undetermined injury deaths (ICD-10 codes Y10-Y34) reported in England and Wales in the 12 weeks before and after 7 July 2005. We used Shewhart Control Charts based on Poisson rates to explore adjusted daily and weekly suicide rates and rate differences with respect to 7 July 2005. A brief but significant reduction in daily suicide rate was observed a few days after the terrorist attack in London on 7 July 2005. Further reduction was also observed on the 21 July 2005, coinciding with the second wave of attacks. No similar reduction in suicide was seen during the same period in the previous 4 years. Poisson regression models with indicator variables for each day in July 2005 revealed a reduction of 40% of the expected daily rate for these 2 days only. We found no evidence of any longer-term effect on suicide. The study findings are contrary to our expectation and only weakly support Durkheim's theory that periods of national threat lower the suicide rate through the impact on social cohesion. It is possible that previous experience of IRA terrorism in the UK may have limited the effect of the 7 July 2005 attacks on suicide in England and Wales. The shock value of suicide terrorism and its psychological potency appear to diminish over time as the tactic becomes overused.

  15. [And if it happened to children? Adapting medical care during terrorist attacks with multiple pediatric victims]. (United States)

    Alix-Séguin, L; Lodé, N; Orliaguet, G; Chamorro, E; Kerroué, F; Lorge, C; Moreira, A


    In light of the recent terrorist attacks in Europe, we need to reconsider the organization of rescue and medical management and plan for an attack involving multiple pediatric victims. To ensure quick surgical management, but also to minimize risk for on-site teams (direct threats from secondary terrorist attacks targeting deployed emergency services), it is crucial to evacuate patients in a swift but orderly fashion. Children are vulnerable targets in terrorist attacks. Their anatomical and physiological characteristics make it likely that pediatric victims will suffer more brain injuries and require more, often advanced, airway management. Care of multiple pediatric victims would also prove to be a difficult emotional challenge. Civilian medical teams have adapted the military-medicine principles of damage control in their medical practice using the MARCHE algorithm (Massive hemorrhage, Airway, Respiration [breathing], Circulation, Head/Hypothermia, Evacuation). They have also learned to adapt the level of care to the level of safety at the scene. Prehospital damage control principles should now be tailored to the treatment of pediatric patients in extraordinary circumstances. Priorities are given to hemorrhage control and preventing the lethal triad (coagulopathy, hypothermia, and acidosis). Managing hemorrhagic shock involves quickly controlling external bleeding (tourniquets, hemostatic dressing), using small volumes for fluid resuscitation (10-20ml/kg of normal saline), quickly introducing a vasopressor (noradrenaline 0.1μg/kg/min then titrate) after one or two fluid boluses, and using tranexamic acid (15mg/kg over 10min for loading dose, maximum 1g over 10min). Prehospital resources specifically dedicated to children are limited, and it is therefore important that everyone be trained and prepared for a scene with multiple pediatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Stochastic nanopore sensors for the detection of terrorist agents: Current status and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aihua; Zhao Qitao; Guan Xiyun


    Nanopore stochastic sensor works by monitoring the ionic current modulations induced by the passage of analytes of interest through a single pore, which can be obtained from a biological ion channel by self-assembly or artificially fabricated in a solid-state membrane. In this minireview, we overview the use of biological nanopores and artificial nanopores for the detection of terrorist agents including explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, nitrogen mustards, organoarsenic compounds, toxins, and viruses. We also discuss the current challenge in the development of deployable nanopore sensors for real-world applications.

  17. Terrorists, Geopolitics and Kenya’s Proposed Border Wall with Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon John Cannon


    Full Text Available Addressing border security appears to be a plausible approach for states that suffer from terrorism. Kenya’s border wall is to keep terrorists out of Kenya. Utilizing a comparative approach, this paper explores the efficacy of border walls, particularly Kenya’s wall with Somalia. Findings show that walls rarely accomplish stated goals and have unintended consequences. In Kenya’s case, it may reignite border disputes and separate communities. The success of Kenya’s border wall is low given the high levels of corruption and the fact that walls have been demonstrated to only be as good as the people who guard them.

  18. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination. (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan


    This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity.

  19. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001. (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Kim, Yonsu; Lubens, Pauline; Singh, Amrita; Snowden, Lonnie; Chakravarthy, Bharath


    Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children's emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999-2003; N = 127,200 visits). Findings in California indicate an 8.7% increase of children's emergency mental health visits statistically attributable to 9/11. Non-Hispanic white more than African American children account for this acute rise in emergency services.

  20. David, Charles-Philippe et la Chaire Raoul-Dandurand (éds : Repenser la sécurité, nouvelles menaces, nouvelles politiques, Quebec : Fides la Presse, 315 p, annexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Groc


    Full Text Available La Remmm couvrant essentiellement le monde arabe et musulman, le livre Repenser la sécurité, nouvelles menaces et nouvelles politiques dont nous faisons ici le compte-rendu, nous interpelle moins dans le fourmillement de considérations militaires, stratégiques, balistiques extrêmement techniques qu'en fonction de la prémisse à partir de laquelle est faite cette réévaluation de la sécurité, à savoir l'aire musulmane mais aussi l'islam. L'objet global de ce livre, réalisé par toute une équipe ...

  1. Political terrorism and affective polarization in "black" and "red" terrorists in Italy during the years 1968-1988. (United States)

    Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Icro


    Psychiatric evaluations of violent political crime were mostly performed on a case-by-case basis in a forensic environment, which made them unduly dependent on categories of presumed dangerousness and legal responsibility, rather than on a clinical definition of their mental status. In referring to such "clinical" definitions, the disorder we have in mind is not limited to the major, agitated psychotic manias or mixed states. The presence of a dominant temperament, or protracted hypomania, is enough by itself to explain an individual's engagement in a wide range of activities, not necessarily sociopathic or violent. We put forward the hypothesis that formal and transpolitical radical choices, either in favor of an illegal lifestyle or of activities involving a high level of risk, may be linked with certain mental states, especially when considering small clandestine groups showing a high level of internal ideological consensus, and a no-return attitude toward a commitment to radical choices. Available data about the psycho(patho)logical profile of terrorists are still hard to come by. The only available studies are those on identified living terrorists (judging by the trials of those who personally admitted to having been terrorists), and statistical data imply a number of documented cases belonging to the same terrorist organization. In Italy, the period often called the "years of lead [bullets]" displays an interesting viewpoint for the study of terrorist psychology, for two main reasons: first of all, it is a historically defined period (1968-1988), and second, the number of ascertained participants in terrorist activities was quite large.

  2. The game-theoretic national interstate economic model : an integrated framework to quantify the economic impacts of cyber-terrorist behavior. (United States)


    This study suggests an integrated framework to quantify cyber attack impacts on the U.S. airport security system. A cyber attack by terrorists on the U.S. involves complex : strategic behavior by the terrorists because they could plan to invade an ai...

  3. 77 FR 58203 - In the Matter of the Designation of the Haqqani Network Also Known as HQN as a Foreign Terrorist... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of the Haqqani Network Also Known as HQN as a Foreign Terrorist Organization... designate the aforementioned organization and its aliases as a Foreign Terrorist Organization pursuant to...

  4. [Analysis on the individual-response behavior and the influence factors to violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates in Guangzhou]. (United States)

    Ye, Yunfeng; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Zhang, Siheng; Li, Yang; Wang, Shengyong; Dong, Xiaomei


    To analyze related behaviors of individual preparedness and influencing factors on violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates. A total of 1 800 undergraduates from 5 colleges or universities in Guangzhou were selected, using the stratified cluster method. A questionnaire involving the response to violent terrorist attack behavior was used to assess the individual preparedness behaviors among undergraduates. A self-made questionnaire was applied to collect information on demographic factors, cognitive and preparedness behaviors. The mean score of individual preparedness behavior among undergraduates was 13.49 ± 5.02 while information on seeking behavior was 4.27 ± 1.64, avoidance behavior was 5.97 ± 2.16 and violent terrorist attack response behaviors was 23.73 ± 7.21, with 30.0 percent of undergraduates behaved properly. Significant differences were found in the scores of behaviors on the response to violent terrorist attack with different gender, major they pursue or religious belief (P undergraduates involved in this study. Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that persons being girls (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.06-2.01), with bigger perceived probability (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.12-2.30), with higher alertness (OR = 3.77, 95% CI: 2.15-6.61), with stronger coping confidence (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.24-0.48) and bigger affective response (OR1 = 3.42, 95% CI: 2.40-4.86; OR2 = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.13-0.41), would present more prominent behavior responses when facing the violent terrorist attack. Individual response behaviors to violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates were relatively ideal. Perceived probability, alertness, coping confidence and affective response appeared to be independent influencing factors related to response behaviors against violent terrorist attack. In colleges and universities, awareness on violent terrorist attacks should be strengthened among undergraduates. Focus should target on psychological education dealing with

  5. Radiological preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.


    During the Cold War, every information about weapons of mass destruction was treated as top secret, regardless of whether the information concerned friend or foe. The most serious threat in our post Cold War era are terrorist radiological dispersal devices. Dirty nukes are what you may choose to build if you're unable to create a real nuclear bomb, i.e. one whose explosion is based on a nuclear reaction. A dirty bomb is a conventional explosive salted with radioactive isotopes in order to spew out that nuclear material and contaminate a wide area. The military usefulness of such devices have always been in dispute. In fact, the TNT in such a bomb may still be more dangerous than the nuclear material. Its destructive power would really depend on the size of the conventional bomb, and the volume and nature of nuclear material. This paper addresses the possibilities of decontamination and preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or accident.(author)

  6. Tracking and Analyzing Individual Distress Following Terrorist Attacks Using Social Media Streams. (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Margolin, Drew; Wen, Xidao


    Risk research has theorized a number of mechanisms that might trigger, prolong, or potentially alleviate individuals' distress following terrorist attacks. These mechanisms are difficult to examine in a single study, however, because the social conditions of terrorist attacks are difficult to simulate in laboratory experiments and appropriate preattack baselines are difficult to establish with surveys. To address this challenge, we propose the use of computational focus groups and a novel analysis framework to analyze a social media stream that archives user history and location. The approach uses time-stamped behavior to quantify an individual's preattack behavior after an attack has occurred, enabling the assessment of time-specific changes in the intensity and duration of an individual's distress, as well as the assessment of individual and social-level covariates. To exemplify the methodology, we collected over 18 million tweets from 15,509 users located in Paris on November 13, 2015, and measured the degree to which they expressed anxiety, anger, and sadness after the attacks. The analysis resulted in findings that would be difficult to observe through other methods, such as that news media exposure had competing, time-dependent effects on anxiety, and that gender dynamics are complicated by baseline behavior. Opportunities for integrating computational focus group analysis with traditional methods are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. The need to counter extremist terrorist manifestations in society and in the penal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazberov P.N.


    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for inter-agency work to minimize the extremist-terrorist activities in the community. The problem of the psychology of extremism and terrorism are increasingly in the spotlight representatives of various scientific disciplines. First of all, there is no single legal science in all respects understanding of phenomena such as extremism and terrorism, their classification and evaluation, although a number of positive examples in this respect international cooperation is present. According to current data provided by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation, the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, as well as the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights, extremism is a real threat to the national security of the Russian Federation. From the data of law enforcement should be the fact that most of the crimes of extremist and terrorist nature committed by persons of young age, the consciousness of which are susceptible to nationalist propaganda. A significant increase in informal youth movements extremist-nationalist orientation. The problem of expansion of extremism is also relevant for the penitentiary system of modern society. The very fact that a significant number of prisoners serving sentences for extremism and terrorism, illustrates the need for them special psychological and educational work

  8. Catastrophizing, rumination, and reappraisal prospectively predict adolescent PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack. (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Heleniak, Charlotte; Beck, Aaron T; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A


    Disruptions in emotion regulation are a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. However, scant research has examined whether emotion regulation strategies are related to the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among youths exposed to trauma. We investigated whether pretrauma emotion regulation strategies prospectively predicted PTSD symptom onset after the 2013 Boston Marathon terrorist attack among adolescents and whether these associations were moderated by the degree of exposure to media coverage of the attack. A sample of 78 Boston-area adolescents (mean age = 16.72 years, 65% female) who previously participated in studies assessing emotion regulation and psychopathology were recruited following the terrorist attack. Within 4 weeks of the attack, we assessed self-reported PTSD symptoms and attack-related media exposure via an online survey. We examined the association of pretrauma emotion regulation strategies with PTSD symptom onset after adjustment for pretrauma internalizing symptoms and violence exposure. Greater pretrauma engagement in rumination predicted onset of PTSD symptoms following the attack. Adolescents who engaged in catastrophizing also had greater PTSD symptoms postattack, but only when exposed to high levels of media coverage of the attacks; the same pattern was observed for adolescents who engaged in low levels of cognitive reappraisal. Engagement in specific emotion regulation strategies prior to a traumatic event predicts the onset of PTSD symptoms among youths exposed to trauma, extending transdiagnostic models of emotion regulation to encompass trauma-related psychopathology in children and adolescents. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Optimizing Visits to the Site of Death for Bereaved Families After Disasters and Terrorist Events. (United States)

    Kristensen, Pål; Dyregrov, Atle; Weisæth, Lars; Straume, Marianne; Dyregrov, Kari; Heir, Trond; Bugge, Renate Grønvold


    In recent years it has been common after disasters and terrorist events to offer bereaved families the opportunity to visit the place where their loved ones died. Many report that such visits are beneficial in processing their loss. Various factors, both cognitive (eg, counteracting disbelief) and existential or emotional (eg, achieving a sense of closeness to the deceased), are associated with the experienced benefit. Nonetheless, exacerbations of trauma and grief reactions (eg, re-enactment fantasies) are common, with some of the bereaved also reporting adverse reactions after the visit. Subsequently, proper preparations are a prerequisite before such visits take place. This article describes how to optimize collective visits to the site of death after disasters or terrorist events for bereaved families. Important questions-for example, concerning those who should be responsible for organizing a visit and those who should be invited, the timing of the visit, what can be done at the site, the need for support personnel, and other practical issues-are discussed and general guidelines are recommended. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 5).

  10. Medical aspects of terrorist bombings - a focus on DCS and DCR. (United States)

    Mutafchiyski, Ventsislav M; Popivanov, Georgi I; Kjossev, Kirien C


    Although terrorist bombings have tormented the world for a long time, currently they have reached unprecedented levels and become a continuous threat without borders, race or age. Almost all of them are caused by improvised explosive devices. The unpredictability of the terrorist bombings, leading to simultaneous generation of a large number of casualties and severe "multidimensional" blast trauma require a constant vigilance and preparedness of every hospital worldwide. Approximately 1-2.6% of all trauma patients and 7% of the combat casualties require a massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is presented in 65% of them with mortality exceeding 50%. Damage control resuscitation is a novel approach, developed in the military practice for treatment of this subgroup of trauma patients. The comparison with the conventional approach revealed mortality reduction with 40-74%, lower frequency of abdominal compartment syndrome (8% vs. 16%), sepsis (9% vs. 20%), multiorgan failure (16% vs. 37%) and a significant reduction of resuscitation volumes, both crystalloids and blood products. DCS and DCR are promising new approaches, contributing for the mortality reduction among the most severely wounded patients. Despite the lack of consensus about the optimal ratio of the blood products and the possible influence of the survival bias, we think that DCR carries survival benefit and recommend it in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.

  11. [Terrorist attack trauma - an individual entity of polytrauma : A 10-year update]. (United States)

    Güsgen, C; Franke, A; Hentsch, S; Kollig, E; Schwab, R


    The incidence of terrorist attacks is increasing worldwide, and they have also become a permanent threat in European cities. Due to its complexity, terrorist attack trauma places high demands on the strategy of surgical treatment. The combination of various mechanisms, explosions and gunshot injuries, with the characteristic pressure (blast) damage and a high proportion of penetrating trauma with simultaneous burns are characteristic features. Unlike in military conflicts, injuries to people of all ages and without ballistic body protection (body armor) are to be expected. The mechanism of the attack and its local conditions are of relevance for the assessment of the situation and the expected injury patterns. Thus, suicide attacks result in several times higher numbers of fatalities and casualties. Explosions on free ground lead to different types of injury than those in closed or semi-enclosed spaces. The treatment principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS®) are based on the intrahospital care of casualties as well as damage control strategies with trigger factors. In order to prepare and educate clinics and surgeons in Germany for such scenarios, various course formats of the professional societies, the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) and the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU) have now been established.

  12. Hitting a Moving Target: A Strategic Tool for Analyzing Terrorist Threats. (United States)

    Coleman, Ken; Ishisoko, Noriko; Trounce, Milana; Bernard, Kenneth

    The subject of terrorism risk can be confusing for both the general public and for those responsible for protecting us from attack. Relatively minor terrorist threats are often conflated with much more serious ones, in part because it is hard to quantify either intent or technical ability to carry out an attack. Plotting threats on a "potential mass casualties" versus "ease of obtainment or production" matrix creates some order out of a seemingly endless array of worldwide threats, and it highlights those threats that are in need of more urgent attention. The specific threats on this 2x2 matrix can fall into one or multiple quadrants, which can be qualitatively described as "most dangerous," "dangerous but difficult," "worrisome," and "persistent terror." By placing threats into these quadrants and illustrating movement within and between them, the matrix can help (1) visualize and parse a diverse set of threats, (2) view how threats have changed over time and judge the efficacy of current countermeasures, and (3) evaluate the merit of future actions and investments. Having a dynamic matrix that can visually map the comparative risk of terrorist threat events in toto and that can help us monitor the effectiveness of present and future resource investments can add intellectual rigor to some of the most difficult and daunting decisions pertaining to our nation's safety and security.

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder and exposure to trauma reminders after a terrorist attack. (United States)

    Glad, Kristin A; Jensen, Tine K; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Dyb, Grete


    The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to systematically describe the type and frequency of trauma reminders reported after a terrorist attack and (b) to examine whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. A total of 285 survivors (M age = 22.2, SD = 4.3, 53% males) of the 2011 massacre on Utøya Island, Norway, were interviewed face to face 14-15 months after the terror. Participants were asked how often they had experienced a range of different trauma reminders in the past month and which was most distressing. Current posttraumatic stress reactions were measured using the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index. In all, 33.3% of the survivors reported having experienced 1 or more trauma reminders often/very often in the past month. Auditory reminders were most frequently encountered and were reported to be the most distressing, especially sudden and sharp noises. Meeting the diagnostic criteria for PTSD was significantly associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. The findings suggest that trauma reminders are common among survivors of a terrorist attack almost 1.5 years after the trauma and that PTSD is strongly related to the frequency of exposure to reminders. It is important that clinicians are aware of the significant role trauma reminders may play in maintaining PTSD and help trauma survivors recognize and manage reminders.

  14. Reflection in phraseological neology of traumatic historical events connected with the terrorist threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorobogatova Taisiya Ivanovna


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of phraseological units - neologisms which are associated with such traumatic historical events, as the implementation of terrorist acts. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of English, Russian and French phraseological units that have introduced the memory of the terrorist threat in the XX-XXI centuries.: Eng. That’s so 10th September (lit. today September 10, fig: Do not worry ahead of time about nothing; Rus. мочить в сортире (descriptor: беспощадно расправиться; фр. le prince s’est mari, le m chant est mort, c’est une semaine Walt Disney (lit. prince married the villain died, week Walt Disney; descriptor: Idyll, g n ration Bataclan (lit. Bataklan generation; descriptor: young people age of the victims who died in the “Bataklane”, i.e. young people aged 25-35. Phraseology description of new, emerging units is one of the most important problems in theoretical linguistics, namely: to illustrate and confirm the fact that the phrasebook body of a single national language is the result of the two memories - historical and linguistic. At the same time important to consider such a significant factor that determines the specificity of the national phraseological fund as memory selectivity in general and historical memory in particular.

  15. Plastic Surgery Management of Victims of Terrorist Violence in Ankara, Turkey. (United States)

    İğde, Murat; Kaplan, Ahmet


    Terror attacks have been progressively increasing worldwide through the present era. The management of the consequences of terrorism events is under debate in almost every scientific area. The organization and advancement of health services constitute important components of the crisis management. Similar to other specialty areas in medicine, the medical management of terrorist attacks is becoming important in terms of plastic and reconstructive surgery.Ankara, the capital of Turkey, has been subject to 2 terrorist events in public places within a year. The total number of patients involved in both cases was 434. Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital is a tertiary health care institution and one of the most important trauma centers in the region. A total of 178 Patients exposed to these events referred to our hospital. Of the total, 34 patients were completely or partially treated in the plastic and reconstructive surgery clinic. In this study, we tried to discuss the difficulties encountered in the classification of patients and plastic surgery during the treatment period of patients who experienced these attacks.Data were obtained from The National News Agency, hospital, and our own clinic registries. Patient classification was based on the injured parts of the body. Statistical analysis was performed for all data. In conclusion, the role and the importance of plastic surgery department especially in trauma management have been emphasized in the light of our findings.

  16. The Representation of Islam in Western Media: The Coverage of Norway Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Alghamdi


    Full Text Available Undeniably mass media have become the primary source of information and communication for the majority of, if not all, members of modern societies. The nature of the information thus communicated and the manner in which it is dispensed through media certainly have a profound influence on people’s perceptions of the world around them. The relation between the media, on one hand, and culture, social life, and politics on the other, is an interesting one in which media fulfills dual functions, reflecting and also shaping issues occurring within these three domains (Bell & Garrett, 1998. In the initial media coverage of the 2011 Norway terrorist attacks, some western media authors, inaccurately and unjustly, held Muslims and Islamic groups as being responsible for the attacks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, this study seeks to ascertain how language was manipulated in this coverage of the terrorist attacks in order to give expression to blind prejudice against Islam and Muslims. As findings of the analyses reveal, the tones of allegation in these articles and reports differed dramatically from one article to another ranging from tones of mere suspicion to those of overt accusation. The varying degrees of uncertainty or assertion of the authors’ statements were reflected in the varied linguistic forms and devices used within the discourse.

  17. Catastrophizing, rumination, and reappraisal prospectively predict adolescent PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Heleniak, Charlotte; Beck, Aaron T.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.


    Background Disruptions in emotion regulation are a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. However, scant research has examined whether emotion regulation strategies are related to the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among youths exposed to trauma. We investigated whether pretrauma emotion regulation strategies prospectively predicted PTSD symptom onset after the 2013 Boston Marathon terrorist attack among adolescents and whether these associations were moderated by the degree of exposure to media coverage of the attack. Methods A sample of 78 Boston-area adolescents (mean age =16.72 years, 65% female) who previously participated in studies assessing emotion regulation and psychopathology were recruited following the terrorist attack. Within 4 weeks of the attack, we assessed self-reported PTSD symptoms and attack-related media exposure via an online survey. We examined the association of pretrauma emotion regulation strategies with PTSD symptom onset after adjustment for pretrauma internalizing symptoms and violence exposure. Results Greater pretrauma engagement in rumination predicted onset of PTSD symptoms following the attack. Adolescents who engaged in catastrophizing also had greater PTSD symptoms postattack, but only when exposed to high levels of media coverage of the attacks; the same pattern was observed for adolescents who engaged in low levels of cognitive reappraisal. Conclusions Engagement in specific emotion regulation strategies prior to a traumatic event predicts the onset of PTSD symptoms among youths exposed to trauma, extending transdiagnostic models of emotion regulation to encompass trauma-related psychopathology in children and adolescents. PMID:27557454

  18. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks. (United States)

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara


    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Male fetal loss in the U.S. following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Catalano, Ralph; Ahern, Jennifer


    The secondary sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male birth) reportedly declines following natural disasters, pollution events, and economic collapse. It remains unclear whether this decline results from an excess of male fetal loss or reduced male conceptions. The literature also does not converge as to whether the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 induced "communal bereavement", or the widespread feeling of distress among persons who never met those directly involved in the attacks. We test the communal bereavement hypothesis among gravid women by examining whether male fetal deaths rose above expected levels in the US following September 11, 2001. We apply interrupted time-series methods to all fetal deaths at or greater than the 20th week of gestation in the US from 1996 to 2002. Time-series methods control for trends, seasonality, and other forms of autocorrelation that could induce spurious associations. Results support the hypothesis in that the fetal death sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male fetal death) increased above its expected value in September 2001. Additional analysis of the secondary sex ratio indirectly supports that the terrorist attacks may have threatened the gestation of male more than female fetuses. Societal responses to events such as September 11, 2001 do not appear confined only to persons who have ever met the deceased. The fetal death sex ratio in the US population may serve as a sentinel indicator of the degree to which pregnant women react to population stressors.

  20. Psychological consequences of terrorist attacks: prevalence and predictors of mental health problems in Pakistani emergency responders. (United States)

    Razik, Saiqa; Ehring, Thomas; Emmelkamp, Paul M G


    Earlier research showing moderate to high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems in emergency personnel has mostly been carried out in Western countries. Data from non-Western countries are largely lacking. The current study aimed to gather evidence on the prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression in N=125 Pakistani emergency workers, most of whom (n=100; 80%) had been exposed to terrorist attacks. Fifteen percent of participants showed clinically relevant levels of PTSD, and 11-16% of participants reported heightened levels of anxiety or depression. Neither the experience of terrorist attacks per se nor the severity of the attack experienced was related to symptom severities. However, symptom levels of PTSD were related to a number of predictor variables, including subjective threat, peritraumatic dissociation, past traumas, rumination, and avoidant coping. Only a few variables were predictive of levels of anxiety and depression. In sum, a substantial subgroup of emergency workers experienced mental health problems, and prevalences were in the high range of those reported in earlier studies focusing on emergency personnel in Western countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on the Role of Behavioral Science in Physical Security (10th) - Outthinking the Terrorist: An International Challenge Held at Springfield, Virginia on 23-24 April 1985 (United States)


    and the surrendered to terrorists, and its resolve to stand up to favourite form of attack is the bomb. Terrorist them now extends beyond the are corrupt , inadequate, oppressing. The terrorist is at war available and, since the problem is not solved and its with it and has lost. The

  2. Terrorist threat and perceived Islamic support for terrorist attacks as predictors of personal and institutional out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies: evidence from 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, B.; Zimmermann, A.; Küpper, B.; Zick, A.; Meertens, R.


    Traditionally, research has shown that subtle and blatant prejudices are important predictors of out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies. The present paper shows that, when controlling for these types of prejudices and for political conservatism, terrorist threat and

  3. Pakistan combats hidden AIDS menace. (United States)


    The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the National AIDS Program. He says families conceal AIDS patients because of the stigma, and, although counseling services are provided, most are reluctant to contact the program.

  4. Neonatal Tetanus: A Continuing Menace

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    WHO/EPI/GEN/86/7 REVE 1 (ENGLISH). 27. UNICEF. Neonatal tetanus: protecting mothers and children. The State of World's Children 1994: 10. 28. WHO. EPI: Disease incidence and immunization coverage (Saudi Arabia). Weekly Epidem. Record. 1986;. 61(7): 45-46. 29. WHO. EPI. Neonatal tetanus mortality surveys.

  5. Tropic lightning: myth or menace? (United States)

    McCarthy, John


    Lightning is one of the leading causes of death related to environmental disaster. Of all lightning fatalities documented between 2006 and 2012, leisure activities contributed the largest proportion of deaths, with water-associated, sports, and camping being the most common. Despite the prevalence of these activities throughout the islands, Hawai'i has had zero documented lightning fatalities since weather data tracking was initiated in 1959. There is a common misconception that lightning does not strike the ground in Hawai'i. This myth may contribute to a potentially dangerous false sense of security, and recognition of warning signs and risk factor modification remain the most important prevention strategies. Lightning damage occurs on a spectrum, from minor burns to multi-organ dysfunction. After injury, initial treatment should focus on "reverse triage" and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation when indicated, followed by transfer to a healthcare facility. Definitive treatment entails monitoring and management of potential sequelae, to include cardiovascular, neurologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, audiovestibular, and psychiatric complications.

  6. Identifying foreign terrorist fighters: The Role of Public-Private Partnership, Information Sharing and Financial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Keatinge


    Full Text Available Since 9/11, financial institutions have found themselves placed squarely on the front line of efforts to combat terrorism: countering terrorist financing has been a core element of the global counter-terrorism architecture since President George W Bush signed Executive Order 13224 promising to starve terrorists of funding. Financial institutions have played valuable “post-event” forensic roles, but despite the apparently immense troves of data they hold, their effective involvement in the identification and disruption of terrorist intentions or activity remains elusive. With global authorities consumed with the mushrooming growth of “foreign terrorist fighters” (FTFs, it seems timely to revisit the question of how financial institutions can play a more preventative role in countering terrorist threats. As the intergovernmental Financial Action Task Force (FATF noted recently, “greater domestic cooperation among AML/CFT [anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism] bodies and other authorities” is needed to tackle funding of FTFs. Banks must play a key role in the development of this architecture. The issue of FTFs flowing to and from the conflict in Syria is likely to shape the international security agenda for the foreseeable future. Identifying citizens who have joined terrorist groups in Syria and Iraq pose a threat to the UK. The UK is certainly not alone in Europe in facing this threat. Evidence suggests these fears are now being realised. Both the scale of the issue in the context of the Syrian conflict and the speed with which the numbers have risen have caught international security authorities off guard, which – it would seem – have only belatedly appreciated the magnitude of the challenge. Whilst there has been much discussion and debate about who these travelling fighters are, their motivations, and the threats they pose, the majority of this analysis has focused on the role of social media in this

  7. Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists (by Jeffrey Kahn, University of Michigan Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ginsburg


    Full Text Available Since 9/11, migration-related security measures, including a growing reliance on watch-lists, have limited the right to travel. Jeffrey Kahn’s book, Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists, examines the legal and policy questions raised by prohibitions on travel by US citizens. 

  8. What Are We Really Afraid Of? The Practitioner View of the Terrorist Threat in the United States (United States)


    mental disorders listed in the DSM-III that are most frequently associated with terrorists: sociopathy or psychopathy, narcissism, Freudian “thanatos...death wish), and organic or physiological disorders (Corrado 1982:295). Sociopathy and psychopathy are used interchangeably, although sociopathy

  9. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan


    Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  10. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors. (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ercan, Tuncay


    Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  11. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue


    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  12. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and Their Aftermath (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley


    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping…

  13. Radicalization patterns and modes of attack planning and preparation among lone-actor terrorists : an exploratory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindekilde, L.; O'Connor, F.; Schuurman, B.W.


    This article explores the link between radicalization patterns and modes of attack planning and preparation among lone-actor terrorists. Building on theorized patterns of lone-actor radicalization, we discuss and compare their modes of pre-attack behavior, including target and weapon choice,

  14. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J


    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks: A Review of the Literature among Highly Exposed Populations (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; Digrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.


    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly…

  16. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.


    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  17. The Effect of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks on Suicide and Deliberate Self-Harm: A Time Trend Study (United States)

    Lange, Aart W.; Neeleman, Jan


    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following the attacks. These findings contrast with…

  18. The Reporting of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks in American Social Studies Textbooks: A Muslim Perspective (United States)

    Saleem, Mohammed M.; Thomas, Michael K.


    This study analyzes the reporting of the September 11th terrorist attacks in social studies textbooks from a Muslim perspective and reports on findings from a study of the responses of American Muslim children to the treatment of the events of September 11th in social studies textbooks. Constructivist grounded theory was used to centralize the…

  19. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States (United States)

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.


    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  20. Pre-Attack Stress-Load, Appraisals, and Coping in Children's Responses to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.


    Background: Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific…

  1. Suicide Bombers in Israel: Their Motivations, Characteristics, and Prior Activity in Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revital Sela-Shayovitz


    Full Text Available This paper examines the characteristics of suicide bombers as reflected in the Israeli press during the Second Intifada in Israel. The analysis aims to determine whether there were significant differences in the characteristics of suicide bombers with religious motives versus those with nationalist motives. The findings reveal that gender, education level, and organizational affiliation correlated significantly with motives for carrying out suicide attacks. Most of the suicide bombers with religious motives were men with elementary education. In addition, the results show that most of the suicide bombers who were affiliated with the Hamas organization acted out of religious motives. No significant differences were found between suicide bombers with religious and those with nationalist motives with regard to age, marital status, and prior activity in terrorist organizations.

  2. War on Terror: Fantasy and Fiction Behind the Mythology of Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Fatih A. Abdel Salam


    Full Text Available Documentary evidence shows that the series of financial crackdowns initiated since 9/11 have had virtually no impact on terrorism. This is because these efforts are based on a fundamental misconception on how terrorism works. The financial warriors’ predisposition to stereotypes about “Arabs and their money” allowed unsubstantiated rumours–such as Bin Laden’s personal fortune of $300 million–to become established as facts. This study exposes the extent to which Washington policymakers simply transposed the template for the war on drugs on to the war on terror, despite the fact that terrorism is not a profit–driven enterprise. The collateral damage inflicted on organisations like Al-Barakaat, the Somali remittance network, wrongly accused of channeling money to the terrorists, and others are counter-productive as they dent the image of the US in the Muslim world.

  3. The (Non)Impact of the 2015 Paris Terrorist Attacks on Political Attitudes. (United States)

    Castanho Silva, Bruno


    Previous research has consistently found widespread attitudinal impacts of terrorist attacks. Using data from the European Social Survey, which was conducting interviews in 11 countries when the Charlie Hebdo attacks happened in January 2015, I compare respondents from before and after the shootings to test whether the event shifted public opinion on several topics. There is no evidence of average impacts across a range of issues, from xenophobia to ideological self-placement and immigration policy preferences. Data collected when the Paris November 2015 shootings happened also present no evidence of public opinion change on immigration and refugee policy matters in France, but there appears to be an effect in other countries-which varies according to contextual vulnerability. Results suggest that views on immigration and immigrants have, to a certain extent, stabilized in Europe and are less susceptible to shifts from dramatic events.

  4. Non-terrorist suicidal death by oral explosion: A rare case from India. (United States)

    Farooqui, Jamebaseer Masiuddin; Farooqui, Anjum Ara Jamebaseer; Mukherjee, Bimbisar Bikas; Manjhi, Shiv Narayan


    Suicidal deaths involving explosives are rare. Their occurrence depends on both the availability of materials and the victim's expertise in handling explosive material. We report here a rare case from India of non-terrorist suicidal death involving explosives. The victim was around 25 years old, a blaster by occupation. He committed suicide by detonating dynamite in his mouth. The materials he used to operate this explosion were found near his body at the crime scene. There was characteristic bilateral symmetrical laceration around the oral cavity. Considering all the facts of the case in relation to history, location, nature, distribution and extent of injuries and recovered material at crime scene enables the cause and manner of death to be ascertained. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. PTSD and Depression Among Museum Workers After the March 18 Bardo Museum Terrorist Attack. (United States)

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Chennoufi, Leila; Cheour, Mejda


    On March 18, 2015, two gunmen attacked the Bardo museum in Tunis, Tunisia, killing 23 foreign tourists. We assessed PTSD and depression symptoms 4-6 weeks after the event among museum workers, in relation to sociodemographic factors and social support, and we analysed the determinants and predictor factors of PTSD and depression symptoms among the participants. Our findings indicated that 68.6% of the respondents had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cutoff point (IER-S scores >33), and 40.6% reported severe levels of depressive symptoms (DASS-depression scores >20). Male and female participants did not significantly differ in terms of their symptom severities. Low social support was the best predictor of PTSD and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that interventions designed to reinforce ties within social networks may be particularly helpful for victims in the aftermath of a terrorist attack.

  6. Chronic thought suppression and posttraumatic symptoms: data from the Madrid March 11, 2004 terrorist attack. (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Hervás, Gonzalo; Pérez-Sales, Pau


    Although a considerable number of people either witnessed directly or in the mass media the traumatic scenes of the terrorist attack that took place on March 11th, 2004 in Madrid, only a fraction of Madrid citizens developed posttraumatic symptoms. In this study, posttraumatic stress-related symptoms, degree of exposure, coping strategies related to the attack, and chronic attempts to avoid intrusive thoughts (i.e., thought suppression) were assessed in a general population Madrid sample (N=503) 2-3 weeks after the attacks. Our results showed that participants with higher scores in chronic thought suppression exhibited higher levels of PTSD symptoms. Higher scores in chronic thought suppression also correlated positively with the use of avoidant coping strategies after the attacks. We discuss the possible common roots of avoidance of intrusive thoughts and avoidant coping strategies and the implications of this relationship for the emergence of stress-related symptoms as well as for public health policies.

  7. The effects of collective anger and fear on policy support in response to terrorist attacks. (United States)

    Kim, Jaeshin


    Both correlational and experimental studies examined how perceived emotional responses of the majority of Americans to 9/11 affect individuals' support for government counter-terrorism policies (i.e., military intervention, anti-immigration, restricting civil liberties). Study 1 found associations between perceived collective emotions (i.e., anger, fear) and individuals' own corresponding emotions and those between perceived collective anger and counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated the associations of collective anger with policy support. Using experimental manipulations, Study 2 showed that collective anger had a significant effect on individuals' own anger and one significant and two marginal effects on counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated one of the marginal effects of collective anger on policy support. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of terrorist threat.

  8. Addressing the Foreign Terrorist Fighters Phenomenon From a European Union Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Singleton


    Full Text Available With the outbreak of civil war and sectarian violence in Syria, Iraq, and Libya, over 15,000 men and women from more than 80 countries around the world have left their homes to become foreign fighters. The security challenge they pose is immense and there are concerns about radicalised fighters returning to their countries of origin or residence, hardened by experience and with the possible intent – and the know-how – to engage in terrorist activities. On 24 September, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2178 (2014 with the support of over 120 states representing a broad cross-section of the UN membership. Resolution 2178 called on all UN member states to ensure increased border security and to screen for or arrest so-called “foreign terrorist fighters” (FTFs travelling to or returning from conflict areas. Rightly so, it also urges states to counter violent extremism by taking preventive measures, such as engaging with communities at the local level to stop the spread of extremist ideologies. On 23 October 2014, the Global Center on Cooperative Security, the Human Security Collective, and ICCT convened an expert meeting at the European Union (EU in Brussels to discuss the implications of the resolution and to explore appropriate and effective responses to the threat of FTFs, both within the EU and as part of the Union’s foreign security and development programming. Building upon the discussion in Brussels, this policy brief is a compilation of essays from all three organisations on the challenges and opportunities for addressing the FTF threat from a European Union perspective. It also examines the implementation of Resolution 2178 as an integral part of national and multilateral foreign security and development policies and initiatives.

  9. Amygdala response to negative stimuli predicts PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack. (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Busso, Daniel S; Duys, Andrea; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alves, Sonia; Way, Marcus; Sheridan, Margaret A


    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit heightened amygdala reactivity and atypical activation patterns in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to negative emotional information. It is unknown whether these aspects of neural function are risk factors for PTSD or consequences of either trauma exposure or onset of the disorder. We had a unique opportunity to investigate this issue following the terrorist attacks at the 2013 Boston Marathon and the ensuing manhunt and shelter in place order. We examined associations of neural function measured prior to the attack with PTSD symptom onset related to these events. A sample of 15 adolescents (mean age = 16.5 years) who previously participated in a neuroimaging study completed a survey assessing posttraumatic symptoms related to the terrorist attack. We examined blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to viewing and actively down-regulating emotional responses to negative stimuli in regions previously associated with PTSD, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and mPFC, as prospective predictors of posttraumatic symptom onset. Increased BOLD signal to negative emotional stimuli in the left amygdala was strongly associated with posttraumatic symptoms following the attack. Reduced bilateral hippocampal activation during effortful attempts to down-regulate emotional responses to negative stimuli was also associated with greater posttraumatic symptoms. Associations of amygdala reactivity with posttraumatic symptoms were robust to controls for pre-existing depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms and prior exposure to violence. Amygdala reactivity to negative emotional information might represent a neurobiological marker of vulnerability to traumatic stress and, potentially, a risk factor for PTSD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Who can I trust? Extended fear during and after the Utøya terrorist attack. (United States)

    Filkuková, Petra; Hafstad, Gertrud Sofie; Jensen, Tine K


    The aim of the study was to investigate specific peritraumatic reactions among adolescent and young adult survivors of the 2011 terrorist attack on Utøya Island, Norway. The authors focused specifically on a phenomenon that has so far not been thoroughly investigated: fear of nondangerous stimuli ("extended fear") during and immediately after the traumatic event. In total, 325 survivors of the shooting on Utøya Island were interviewed 4-5 months after the attack and provided a free narrative of the event. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index; depression and anxiety were assessed using HSCL-8. For the purpose of the current study, the authors chose participants who were under the age of 26 at the time of the terrorist attack (M = 18.4 years), which constituted the vast majority of the total sample (93%). The authors found that 54% of the sample felt threatened during and immediately after the attack, not only by the perpetrator himself, but by other people as well; in most cases by people who came to help them (medical personnel, policemen, volunteers). The participants who mentioned experiencing extended fear in their trauma narratives had significantly higher scores of posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression 5 months after the attack than participants who did not peritraumatically experience extended fear. Early detection of extended fear can help in identifying individuals who will later develop symptomatology. In addition, knowledge of the phenomenon could help policemen and medical personnel understand survivors' seemingly irrational reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Local emergency medical response after a terrorist attack in Norway: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Brandrud, Aleidis S; Bretthauer, Michael; Brattebø, Guttorm; Pedersen, May Jb; Håpnes, Kent; Møller, Karin; Bjorge, Trond; Nyen, Bjørnar; Strauman, Lars; Schreiner, Ada; Haldorsen, Gro S; Bergli, Maria; Nelson, Eugene; Morgan, Tamara S; Hjortdahl, Per


    On 22 July 2011, Norway suffered a devastating terrorist attack targeting a political youth camp on a remote island. Within a few hours, 35 injured terrorist victims were admitted to the local Ringerike community hospital. All victims survived. The local emergency medical service (EMS), despite limited resources, was evaluated by three external bodies as successful in handling this crisis. This study investigates the determinants for the success of that EMS as a model for quality improvement in healthcare. We performed focus group interviews using the critical incident technique with 30 healthcare professionals involved in the care of the attack victims to establish determinants of the EMS' success. Two independent teams of professional experts classified and validated the identified determinants. Our findings suggest a combination of four elements essential for the success of the EMS: (1) major emergency preparedness and competence based on continuous planning, training and learning; (2) crisis management based on knowledge, trust and data collection; (3) empowerment through multiprofessional networks; and (4) the ability to improvise based on acquired structure and competence. The informants reported the successful response was specifically based on multiprofessional trauma education, team training, and prehospital and in-hospital networking including mental healthcare. The powerful combination of preparedness, competence and crisis management built on empowerment enabled the healthcare workers to trust themselves and each other to make professional decisions and creative improvisations in an unpredictable situation. The determinants for success derived from this qualitative study (preparedness, management, networking, ability to improvise) may be universally applicable to understanding the conditions for resilient and safe healthcare services, and of general interest for quality improvement in healthcare. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  12. Management of Vascular Trauma during the Paris Terrorist Attack of November 13, 2015. (United States)

    Tresson, Philippe; Touma, Joseph; Gaudric, Julien; Pellenc, Quentin; Le Roux, Marielle; Pierret, Charles; Kobeiter, Hicham; Julia, Pierre; Goeau-Brissonniere, Olivier; Desgranges, Pascal; Koskas, Fabien; Castier, Yves


    On November 13, 2015, Paris and Saint-Denis were the targets of terrorist attacks. The Public Hospitals of Paris Organization and the Percy Armed Forces Instruction Hospitals were mobilized to face the mass casualty situation. The objective of this study is to analyze the management of the victims presenting with a nonthoracic vascular trauma (NTVT). All the data relating to the victims of NTVT who required a specific vascular open or endovascular treatment were analyzed retrospectively. A 6-month follow-up was obtained for all the patients. Among the 351 wounded, 20 (5.7%) patients had an NTVT and were dispatched in 8 hospitals (11 men of average age 32). NTVTs were gunshots in 17 cases (85%) or due to a handmade bomb in 3 cases (15%). Twelve patients (60%) received cardiopulmonary resuscitation during prehospital care. NTVT affected the limbs (14 cases, 70%) and the abdomen or the small pelvis (6 cases, 30%). All the patients were operated in emergency. Arterial lesions were treated with greater saphenous vein bypasses, by ligation, and/or embolization. Eleven venous lesions were treated by direct repair or ligation. Associated lesions requiring a specific treatment were present in 19 patients (95%) and were primarily osseous, nervous, and abdomino-pelvic. Severe postoperative complications were observed in 9 patients (45%). Fourteen patients (70%) required blood transfusion (6.4 U of packed red blood cells on average, range 0-48). There were no deaths or amputation and all vascular reconstructions were patent at 6 months. The effectiveness of the prehospital emergency services and a multisite and multidisciplinary management made it possible to obtain satisfactory results for NTVT casualties. All the departments of vascular surgery must be prepared to receive many wounded victims in the event of terrorist attacks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Amygdala Response to Negative Stimuli Predicts PTSD Symptom Onset following a Terrorist Attack (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Busso, Daniel S.; Duys, Andrea; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alves, Sonia; Way, Marcus; Sheridan, Margaret A.


    OBJECTIVE Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit heightened amygdala reactivity and atypical activation patterns in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to negative emotional information. It is unknown whether these aspects of neural function are risk factors for PTSD or consequences of either trauma exposure or onset of the disorder. We had a unique opportunity to investigate this issue following the terrorist attacks at the 2013 Boston Marathon and the ensuing manhunt and shelter in place order. We examined associations of neural function measured prior to the attack with PTSD symptom onset related to these events. METHODS A sample of 15 adolescents (mean age=16.5 years) who previously participated in a neuroimaging study completed a survey assessing posttraumatic symptoms related to the terrorist attack. We examined blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response to viewing and actively down-regulating emotional responses to negative stimuli in regions previously associated with PTSD, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and mPFC, as prospective predictors of posttraumatic symptom onset. RESULTS Increased BOLD signal to negative emotional stimuli in the left amygdala was strongly associated with posttraumatic symptoms following the attack. Reduced bilateral hippocampal activation during effortful attempts to down-regulate emotional responses to negative stimuli was also associated with greater posttraumatic symptoms. Associations of amygdala reactivity with posttraumatic symptoms were robust to controls for pre-existing depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms and prior exposure to violence. CONCLUSIONS Amygdala reactivity to negative emotional information might represent a neurobiological marker of vulnerability to traumatic stress and, potentially, a risk factor for PTSD. PMID:24995938

  14. Posse Comitatus and the Use of the Military in Denying Terrorist Access to the United States Along the Border with Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Greg A


    .... The largely unsecured border we share with Mexico is an enticing avenue for illegal immigrants and drug smugglers but also, and more importantly, for potential terrorists hostile to the United States...

  15. Involvement of Russian Organized Crime Syndicates, Criminal Elements in the Russian Military, and Regional Terrorist Groups in Narcotics Trafficking in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Chechnya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E


    ... (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and in Chechnya. The purpose of the report is to reveal the role of Russian organized crime and Central Asian terrorist organizations in narcotics trafficking in those areas...

  16. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)


    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  17. Securing public transportation systems an integrated decision analysis framework for the prevention of terrorist attacks as example

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Florian


    Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...

  18. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il'kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I.


    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks

  19. How Belfius Bank's response to the terrorist attacks in Brussels helped embed business continuity in the company culture. (United States)

    Jappens, Ludo


    Until 2015, major terrorist incidents in Belgium were considered a 'black swan'. However, the suicide attacks in Paris on 13th November, 2015 provided a wake-up call. Investigations revealed that the raid was prepared in Belgium by jihadists who grew up in Brussels and was coordinated by Belgian ISIS fighters in Syria. In an instant, it became clear that terror had been embedded in Belgian society and could erupt at any moment. At Belfius Bank Belgium, the subsequent months were a rollercoaster ride of terrorist-related events. Business activities were strongly affected, as the company's head office is located in the centre of Brussels. This paper focuses on the way Belfius responded to the events and how the lessons learned have helped to improve its business continuity and crisis management capability.

  20. Psychological reactions to terrorist attacks: findings from the National Study of Americans' Reactions to September 11. (United States)

    Schlenger, William E; Caddell, Juesta M; Ebert, Lori; Jordan, B Kathleen; Rourke, Kathryn M; Wilson, David; Thalji, Lisa; Dennis, J Michael; Fairbank, John A; Kulka, Richard A


    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, represent an unprecedented exposure to trauma in the United States. To assess psychological symptom levels in the United States following the events of September 11 and to examine the association between postattack symptoms and a variety of indices of exposure to the events. Web-based epidemiological survey of a nationally representative cross-sectional sample using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist and the Brief Symptom Inventory, administered 1 to 2 months following the attacks. Sample of 2273 adults, including oversamples of the New York, NY, and Washington, DC, metropolitan areas. Self-reports of the symptoms of PTSD and of clinically significant nonspecific psychological distress; adult reports of symptoms of distress among children living in their households. The prevalence of probable PTSD was significantly higher in the New York City metropolitan area (11.2%) than in Washington, DC (2.7%), other major metropolitan areas (3.6%), and the rest of the country (4.0%). A broader measure of clinically significant psychological distress suggests that overall distress levels across the country, however, were within expected ranges for a general community sample. In multivariate models, sex, age, direct exposure to the attacks, and the amount of time spent viewing TV coverage of the attacks on September 11 and the few days afterward were associated with PTSD symptom levels; sex, the number of hours of television coverage viewed, and an index of the content of that coverage were associated with the broader distress measure. More than 60% of adults in New York City households with children reported that 1 or more children were upset by the attacks. One to 2 months following the events of September 11, probable PTSD was associated with direct exposure to the terrorist attacks among adults, and the prevalence in the New York City metropolitan area was substantially higher than elsewhere in the country. However

  1. Austria and the Threats from Islamist Radicalisation and Terrorist Involvement: An Overview of Governmental and Non-Governmental Initiatives and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Götsch


    Full Text Available Unlike other European countries, Austria has so far been spared from terrorist attacks in the context of radical Islamism. However, the perceived threat, several criminal cases of terrorist involvement as well as being indirectly affected by attacks in other countries led to a high level of public and governmental attention to the issues of radicalisation, terrorist involvement and deradicalisation in Austria. Due to strong public pressure and growing recognition of the existing problem and hazard areas by governmental and non-governmental actors, a number of (1 initiatives providing support and counselling in case of radicalisation have been launched (e.g. Extremism Information Centre; DERAD or extended. Furthermore, (2 governmental agencies and political stakeholders have been pushing for enhanced means for the criminal prosecution and conviction of criminal offenses in the context of terrorism. The article presents an overview and review of new and renewed initiatives as well as (planned policy changes countering radicalisation and deradicalisation and terrorist involvement (support of terrorist organisations, membership, plans for terrorist attacks, etc. and thus a summarising insight into the case of Austria.

  2. Understanding the Form, Function, and Logic of Clandestine Insurgent and Terrorist Networks: The First Step in Effective Counternetwork Operations (United States)


    incompetence, 3 Clandestine Insurgent and Terrorist Networks but were smart enough to learn from those not so fortunate, to adapt and increase produce • clandestine propaganda Hospital and veterinary clinics that can be used for after hours surgery • of critically wounded insurgents Shop...make counterinsurgent surveillance easier if the subordinate was in fact working for them. Instead, the superior wants to blend in and use the human

  3. Resilience In Arab American Couples in the Wake of the Terrorist Attacks on New York City: A Family Systems Perspective


    Beitin, Ben K


    This research explored how Arab American couples found the strength and resilience that empowered them to overcome the terrorist attacks of September 11th and the aftereffects that followed. Utilizing a family resiliency model grounded in systems theory and social constructionism, I interviewed 18 Arab American couples from the New York and New Jersey areas. I applied a phenomenological method of inquiry to gather the experiences of Arab American couples in order to understand the protective ...



    Vasile POPA; Răzvan C. OPREA; Octavian COCOȘ


    After the conquest of independence, Algeria experienced major socio-economic changes, but it also faced a civil war that has been responsible for more than 150,000 casualties. Despite the efforts made by the auhorities in the direction of national reconciliation, the terrorist activities, like the one of January 2013, still feed the insecurity feeling. In its economic and social development, Algeria depends to a very large extent both on its oil fields and on the oil price on t...

  5. Disentangling Islamophobia: The Differential Effects of Symbolic, Realistic, and Terroristic Threat Perceptions as Mediators Between Social Dominance Orientation and Islamophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Uenal


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is threefold. First, based on ongoing theoretical discussions on the dimensionality of Islamophobia, this study analyzes whether Islamophobia empirically constitutes a one-dimensional construct or rather a multidimensional construct consisting of anti-Muslim prejudice and anti-Islam sentiment. Second, the effects of symbolic, realistic, and terroristic (safety threats on Islamophobia were analyzed concurrently. Finally, within the framework of the revised Integrated Threat Theory (Stephan & Renfro, 2002, and in order to test the mediating effect of threats, SDO is tested as an antecedent of perceived threat and Islamophobia. Respondents from Berlin (N = 355 participated in an online survey. The results indicate that Islamophobia empirically constitutes a two-dimensional phenomenon, consisting of anti-Muslim and anti-Islam sentiment. Whereas symbolic threat is related to both types of Islamophobia, realistic threat is associated only with anti-Muslim prejudice, and terroristic threat is associated only with anti-Islam sentiment. Finally, the results indicate that the relationship between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia is mediated by threats. Symbolic threats mediate the relationships between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia. Realistic threats mediate the relationship between SDO and anti-Muslim prejudice and terroristic threats between SDO and anti-Islam sentiment.

  6. The Terrorist Attacks and the Human Live Birth Sex Ratio: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Masukume, Gwinyai; O'Neill, Sinéad M; Khashan, Ali S; Kenny, Louise C; Grech, Victor


    The live birth sex ratio is defined as male/total births (M/F). Terrorist attacks have been associated with a transient decline in M/F 3-5 months later with an excess of male losses in ongoing pregnancies. The early 21st century is replete with religious/politically instigated attacks. This study estimated the pooled effect size between exposure to attacks and M/F. Registration number CRD42016041220. PubMed and Scopus were searched for ecological studies that evaluated the relationship between terrorist attacks from 1/1/2000 to 16/6/2016 and M/F. An overall pooled odds ratio (OR) for the main outcome was generated using the generic inverse variance method. Five studies were included: 2011 Norway attacks; 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting; 2001 September 11 attacks; 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings. OR at 0.97 95% CI (0.94-1.00) (I2 = 63%) showed a small statistically significant 3% decline in the odds (p = 0.03) of having a male live birth 3-5 months later. For lone wolf attacks there was a 10% reduction, OR 0.90 95% CI (0.86-0.95) (p = 0.0001). Terrorist (especially lone wolf) attacks were significantly associated with reduced odds of having a live male birth. Pregnancy loss remains an important Public Health challenge. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses considering other calamities are warranted.

  7. The contribution of on-call, volunteer first responders to mass-casualty terrorist attacks in Israel. (United States)

    Alpert, Evan Avraham; Lipsky, Ari M; Elie, Navid Daniel; Jaffe, Eli


    To describe the contributions of on-call, volunteer first responders to mass-casualty terrorist attacks in Israel during the Second Intifada. Descriptive study evaluating data obtained from postevent debriefings after 15 terrorist attacks in Israel between 2001 and 2004. An average of 7.9 deaths (median 7.0, interquartile range [IQR] 2.5-12.5) and 53.8 injuries (median 50.0, IQR 34.0-62.0) occurred in each of these attacks. The average number of volunteers responding to each event was 50.3 (median 43.0, IQR 27.5-55.5). The volunteers were involved in extricating victims from imminent danger, and performing emergent tasks such as bag-valve ventilation, tourniquet application, and intravenous line insertion. They were also integral to the rapid evacuation of casualties from the scene. On-call, volunteer first responders are an integral part of Israel's emergency medical response to mass-casualty terrorist attacks. This system may be used as a model for the development of similar services worldwide.

  8. Operation the laboratory for NBC protection and bio monitoring in the case of terrorist attack with NBC weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusek, D.; Vucemilovic, A; Klobucar, J.


    The aim of this study was to develop efficacy of Operation the Laboratory for NBC protection and Bio monitoring in the case of terrorist attack with chemical weapons. When is necessary quickly, adeptly Operation and unambiguous confirmation about use chemical warfare agent, the Laboratory must be ready and qualified for reaction. The Laboratory had to develop capability for the timely sampling and unambiguous identification chemical warfare agents in a battlefield or in case of the terrorist attack. The need for quality sample collection and analyses is critical to verify use of chemical weapon (CW) by an enemy or terrorists. Collection, packaging, transport and analysis of samples must be carried out on proper way and quickly enough for military, medical or political purposes. Precise records must accompany each sample but these records must not contaminate samples anyway. All sampling team personnel have to be equipped with appropriate equipment and qualified in its handling. After arriving samples at our Laboratory, we will handle with them on standard procedures; carry out preparation such as Headspace, Liquid/liquid extraction, Solid phase extraction, Liquid/solid extraction, concentration and derivatization. After that we will analyze samples by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) method.(author)

  9. Is it possible to recycle nuclear wastes? Costs, risks and stakes of the plutonium industry; Peut-on recycler les dechets nucleaires? Couts, risques et enjeux de l'industrie du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on the chain reaction from uranium to plutonium, the difference between reprocessing (which does not reduce waste volumes but multiply waste types) and recycling, the high risks associated with plutonium transport, La Hague as the most dangerous nuclear site in France, reprocessing as the alibi for the French nuclear industry, Areva as an expert in propaganda, reprocessing as an absurd world strategy, plutonium as a fuel for proliferation, the myth of unlimited energy with the breeder reactors, and so on

  10. A spiritual-hypnosis assisted treatment of children with PTSD after the 2002 Bali terrorist attack. (United States)

    Lesmana, C B J; Suryani, L K; Jensen, G D; Tiliopoulos, Niko


    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a spiritual-hypnosis assisted therapy (SHAT) for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. All children, age 6-12 years (N=226; 52.7% females), who experienced the terrorist bomb blasts in Bali in 2002, and subsequently were diagnosed with PTSD were studied, through a longitudinal, quasi-experimental (pre-post test), single-blind, randomized control design. Of them, 48 received group SHAT (treatment group), and 178 did not receive any therapy (control group). Statistically significant results showed that SHAT produced a 77.1% improvement rate, at a two-year follow up, compared to 24% in the control group, while at the same time, the mean PTSD symptom score differences were significantly lower in the former group. We conclude that the method of spiritual-hypnosis is highly effective, economic, and easily implemented, and has a potential for therapy of PTSD in other cultures or other catastrophic life-threatening events.

  11. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider. (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi


    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up.

  12. Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms after a Terrorist Attack: A Network Approach. (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne S; Blix, Ines; Solberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond


    Background: Posttraumatic stress symptoms are more prevalent in women than in men. To improve our understanding of gender differences in PTSD, detailed knowledge about the underlying symptom networks and gender specific symptom profiles is needed. Objective: We aimed to describe the gender differences in levels of individual posttraumatic stress symptoms after a terrorist attack, as well as identify possible gender differences in associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms. Method: This study used survey data from ministerial employees directly ( n = 190) and indirectly ( n = 1,615) exposed to the 2011 Oslo bombing. Data was collected approximately 10 months after the event. In order to investigate gender differences in levels of symptoms, we used bootstrapped means and standard deviations. Network analyses were conducted to identify gender differences in the associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results: Women reported higher levels of all symptoms, and the strongest effect sizes were found for symptoms of re-experiencing, and anxious and dysphoric arousal. Among individuals with considerable levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms, women reported higher levels of physiological cue activity and exaggerated startle response. No significant gender differences in the networks of posttraumatic stress were found. Conclusions: The present results find no indication that the gender difference in prevalence of PTSD can be explained by differences in associations between symptoms. In order to determine if this finding can be applied to other participants and circumstances, future studies should seek to replicate this study in both community and clinical samples.

  13. [Emergency child psychiatry response following the 14 July 2016 terrorist attack in Nice, France]. (United States)

    Askenazy, F; Chauvelin, L; Gindt, M; Thümmler, S


    The attack on 14 July 2016 in Nice on the Promenade des Anglais caused major trauma for individuals directly or indirectly impacted by the horror of the terrorist attack, mainly families and children. It was the first time in France that a pediatric population aged from several months to 18 years was impacted by an event of such magnitude. The literature underlines the importance of taking into account, over the longer term, the side effects of such a psychotrauma in the pediatric population, especially in children under 6 years of age. From the night of 14 July 2016, a pediatric medical and psychological emergency unit (CUMP) was set up within the CHU-Lenval pediatric hospital. This has been a unique experience in Europe, which mobilized 227 caregivers. A total of 728 individuals were seen in consultations, including 385 children between 3 months and 17.7 years. The article outlines the main lines of its organization and its objectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Media Effects in Youth Exposed to Terrorist Incidents: a Historical Perspective. (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Nelson, Summer D; Nitiéma, Pascal; Newman, Elana


    This paper reviews the evidence on the relationship between contact with media coverage of terrorist incidents and psychological outcomes in children and adolescents while tracing the evolution in research methodology. Studies of recent events in the USA have moved from correlational cross-sectional studies examining primarily television coverage and posttraumatic stress reactions to longitudinal studies that address multiple media forms and a range of psychological outcomes including depression and anxiety. Studies of events in the USA-the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, the September 11 attacks, and the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing-and elsewhere have used increasingly sophisticated research methods to document a relationship between contact with various media forms and adverse psychological outcomes in children with different event exposures. Although adverse outcomes are associated with reports of greater contact with terrorism coverage in cross-sectional studies, there is insufficient evidence at this time to assume a causal relationship. Additional research is needed to investigate a host of issues such as newer media forms, high-risk populations, and contextual factors.

  15. Holy Terror, Batman! Frank Miller’s Dark Knight and the Superhero as Hardboiled Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Croci


    Full Text Available Conceived in the late thirties as “bold humanist response to Depression-era fears of runaway scientific advance and soulless industrialism” (Morrison 2012, 6, the superhero has flourished as one of the most resilient archetypes of American popular culture. This essay analyses the literary and cultural contaminations that have engendered an unprecedented revision of the paradigm since the 1980s. In particular, it will take into account three graphic novels by American cartoonist Frank Miller (1957 - , one of leading figures of the mainstream comics renaissance, whose ideas have indelibly influenced the artistic development of both medium and genre. The Dark Knight Returns (1986, The Dark Knight Strikes Again (2002 and Holy Terror (2011 constitute an ideal Batman trilogy that charts the character’s evolution as political counterpoint to the perceived crisis of American identity. In this regard, Reaganism and 9/11 are polarized as historical discontinuities triggering the need for a new kind of a criminal (superhero. It will be in fact demonstrated how the novels hybridise the latent generic links to hardboiled pulp novels (R. Chandler, D. Hammet with narrative and aesthetics elements appropriated from the culturally-received concepts of terrorism and terrorists. This fruitful contamination on the one hand “play[s] with reader assumptions about genre” (Baetens and Frey 2015, 46, while on the other hand deconstructs the ideological underpinnings of the archetype, as the moral dichotomy and the alienation of justice from the law.

  16. An autopsy case related to a terrorist attack using a ball-bearing bomb. (United States)

    Takamiya, Masataka; Biwasaka, Hitoshi; Niitsu, Hisae; Saigusa, Kiyoshi; Aoki, Yasuhiro


    We encountered an autopsy case related to a terrorist attack using a ball-bearing bomb. The decedent was a 51-year-old male without significant medical histories. During dinner in a restaurant, the perpetrator suddenly exploded a ball-bearing bomb, the blast from which blew the victim off his chair. The victim was found to be unresponsive, and pronounced dead. X-ray photographs taken before autopsy revealed six spherical shadows. Three penetrating wounds in the head, one in the neck and chest, and two in the left upper arm were observed in vivo. Six projectiles recovered from the body were identified as ball-bearings, one of which traveled through the midbrain, diencephalon, and left temporal lobe. Although blast injuries and penetrating wounds are often combined in bomb attack victims, penetrating brain injury would be the cause of death in this case. Lethal injuries to major organs can thus occur even though the destructive force of a ball-bearing bomb is weak. X-ray films were informative for detecting the ball-bearings in this case, suggesting that autopsy imaging is essential in cases of terrorism victims.

  17. A Game-Theoretical Model to Improve Process Plant Protection from Terrorist Attacks. (United States)

    Zhang, Laobing; Reniers, Genserik


    The New York City 9/11 terrorist attacks urged people from academia as well as from industry to pay more attention to operational security research. The required focus in this type of research is human intention. Unlike safety-related accidents, security-related accidents have a deliberate nature, and one has to face intelligent adversaries with characteristics that traditional probabilistic risk assessment techniques are not capable of dealing with. In recent years, the mathematical tool of game theory, being capable to handle intelligent players, has been used in a variety of ways in terrorism risk assessment. In this article, we analyze the general intrusion detection system in process plants, and propose a game-theoretical model for security management in such plants. Players in our model are assumed to be rational and they play the game with complete information. Both the pure strategy and the mixed strategy solutions are explored and explained. We illustrate our model by an illustrative case, and find that in our case, no pure strategy but, instead, a mixed strategy Nash equilibrium exists. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Terrorist attacks in Paris: Surgical trauma experience in a referral center. (United States)

    Gregory, Thomas M; Bihel, Thomas; Guigui, Pierre; Pierrart, Jérôme; Bouyer, Benjamin; Magrino, Baptiste; Delgrande, Damien; Lafosse, Thibault; Al Khaili, Jaber; Baldacci, Antoine; Lonjon, Guillaume; Moreau, Sébastien; Lantieri, Laurent; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Dufourcq, Jean-Baptiste; Mantz, Jean; Juvin, Philippe; Halimi, Philippe; Douard, Richard; Mir, Olivier; Masmejean, Emmanuel


    On November 13th, 2015, terrorist bomb explosions and gunshots occurred in Paris, France, with 129 people immediately killed, and more than 300 being injured. This article describes the staff organization, surgical management, and patterns of injuries in casualties who were referred to the Teaching European Hospital Georges Pompidou. This study is a retrospective analysis of the pre-hospital response and the in-hospital response in our referral trauma center. Data for patient flow, resource use, patterns of injuries and outcomes were obtained by the review of electronic hospital records. Forty-one patients were referred to our center, and 22 requiring surgery were hospitalized for>24h. From November 14th at 0:41 A.M. to November 15th at 1:10 A.M., 23 surgical interventions were performed on 22 casualties. Gunshot injuries and/or shrapnel wounds were found in 45%, fractures in 45%, head trauma in 4.5%, and abdominal injuries in 14%. Soft-tissue and musculoskeletal injuries predominated in 77% of cases, peripheral nerve injury was identified in 30%. The mortality rate was 0% at last follow up. Rapid staff and logistical response, immediate access to operating rooms, and multidisciplinary surgical care delivery led to excellent short-term outcomes, with no in-hospital death and only one patient being still hospitalized 45days after the initial event. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early psychological impact of Paris terrorist attacks on healthcare emergency staff: A cross-sectional study. (United States)

    De Stefano, Carla; Orri, Massimiliano; Agostinucci, Jean Marc; Zouaghi, Haroun; Lapostolle, Frederic; Baubet, Thierry; Adnet, Frederic


    The terrorist attacks in Paris and Saint Denis on November 13, 2015 were an unprecedented traumatic event in France. It was an especially distressing ordeal for the healthcare personnel involved in the care of the victims. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of direct participation in the rescue on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among these workers. Less than a month later, 613 healthcare providers (professionals and paraprofessionals) from three hospitals in the Paris suburbs were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. A multivariable Poisson model estimated the effect of participating onsite in the rescue (exposure variable) on the number of PTSD symptoms measured by the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ; outcome variable), adjusted for covariates. Two hundred thirty-three providers completed the assessment (38% response rate), 130 participated directly in the rescue (56%). Participation was associated with a higher number of symptoms of PTSD (RR = 1.34, P = .002) than for nonparticipants. Female gender (RR = 1.39, P attacks reported a significantly higher psychological impact, defined by PTSD symptoms, than those not directly involved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Framework for Research on Children’s Reactions to Disasters and Terrorist Events (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.


    Clinical work and research relative to child mental health during and following disaster are especially challenging due to the complex child maturational processes and family and social contexts of children’s lives. The effects of disasters and terrorist events on children and adolescents necessitate diligent and responsible preparation and implementation of research endeavors. Disasters present numerous practical and methodological barriers that may influence the selection of participants, timing of assessments, and constructs being investigated. This article describes an efficient approach to guide both novice and experienced researchers as they prepare to conduct disaster research involving children. The approach is based on five fundamental research questions: “Why?, Who?, When?, What?, and How?” Addressing each of the “four Ws” will assist researchers in determining “How” to construct and implement a study from start to finish. A simple diagram of the five questions guides the reader through the components involved in studying children’s reactions to disasters. The use of this approach is illustrated with examples from disaster mental health studies in children, thus simultaneously providing a review of the literature. PMID:23034149

  1. Framework for research on children's reactions to disasters and terrorist events. (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H


    Clinical work and research relative to child mental health during and following disaster are especially challenging due to the complex child maturational processes and family and social contexts of children's lives. The effects of disasters and terrorist events on children and adolescents necessitate diligent and responsible preparation and implementation of research endeavors. Disasters present numerous practical and methodological barriers that may influence the selection of participants, timing of assessments, and constructs being investigated. This article describes an efficient approach to guide both novice and experienced researchers as they prepare to conduct disaster research involving children. The approach is based on five fundamental research questions: "Why?, Who?, When?, What?, and How?" Addressing each of the "four Ws" will assist researchers in determining "How" to construct and implement a study from start to finish. A simple diagram of the five questions guides the reader through the components involved in studying children's reactions to disasters. The use of this approach is illustrated with examples from disaster mental health studies in children, thus simultaneously providing a review of the literature.

  2. The bomb black market - Inquiry about nuclear proliferation; Le marche noir de la bombe - Enquete sur la proliferation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B


    Nuclear weapons remain for a long time in the hands of the five big powers: USA, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and China. Things started to change when Israel, and then India acquired the atomic bomb as well. Pakistan took up the race too but Abdul Qadeer Khan, one of the nuclear program maker of the country, took profit of the situation to set up a huge international proliferation network for the spreading of the technologies, tools and materials necessary for weapons fabrication. He offered his services not only to Iran and North Korea, but to Iraq and Libya as well and probably to some other countries. Today, the Iranian nuclear program generates both envy and fear in the Middle East. Who is going to be the next domino of the nuclear game? Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Turkey are potential candidates. But while Pakistan sinks into crisis, the terrorists are taking interest in nukes. The author of this book has worked for more than 10 years on this dossier. He has had access to the most sensible documents and to essential testimonies. He now lifts the curtain on the secrets of nuclear proliferation. In this book, where reality sometimes surpasses fiction, he explains how the CIA finally succeeded in infiltrating the 'Khan ring' after having closed its eyes on his deals for a long time. He describes the branches of the Pakistani atomic complex and analyses with lucidity the nuclear terrorism risk.

  3. Thermal energy of nuclear origin produced in non-fissile materials (1962); Energie calorifique d'origine nucleaire degagee dans les materiaux non fissiles (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Millies, P.; Berger, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A first part is devoted to the description of the interaction phenomena between elementary particles and material that may be observed during the irradiation process in a nuclear reactor: nuclear reactions due to neutrons, production of gamma rays and absorption of those gamma rays through various processes. In a second part the phenomena producing calorific energy in irradiated material are quantitatively examined. In the third part results are summed up in a formulary. The fourth part presents tables and figures giving to the reader all the numerical values necessary for practical calculations. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie est consacree a l'examen des principaux phenomenes d'interaction des particules avec la matiere qui interviennent lors d'une irradiation dans un reacteur: reactions nucleaires dues aux neutrons, production des rayons gamma et absorption de ces derniers par les divers processus. Une deuxieme partie etudie quantitativement les phenomenes qui conduisent a l'apparition d'energie calorifique dans le materiau irradie. En troisieme partie, un formulaire resume les resultats etablis. Dans une quatrieme partie, des tableaux et des courbes fournissent a l'experimentateur toutes les valeurs numeriques necessaires aux calculs pratiques. (auteurs)

  4. The ins and outs of terrorist bus explosions: injury profiles of on-board explosions versus explosions occurring adjacent to a bus. (United States)

    Golan, Ron; Soffer, Dror; Givon, Adi; Peleg, Kobi


    Terrorist explosions occurring in varying settings have been shown to lead to significantly different injury patterns among the victims, with more severe injuries generally arising in confined space attacks. Increasing numbers of terrorist attacks have been targeted at civilian buses, yet most studies focus on events in which the bomb was detonated within the bus. This study focuses on the injury patterns and hospital utilisation among casualties from explosive terrorist bus attacks with the bomb detonated either within a bus or adjacent to a bus. All patients hospitalised at six level I trauma centres and four large regional trauma centres following terrorist explosions that occurred in and adjacent to buses in Israel between November 2000 and August 2004 were reviewed. Injury severity scores (ISS) were used to assess severity. Hospital utilisation data included length of hospital stay, surgical procedures performed, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The study included 262 victims of 22 terrorist attacks targeted at civilian bus passengers and drivers; 171 victims were injured by an explosion within a bus (IB), and 91 were injured by an explosion adjacent to a bus (AB). Significant differences were noted between the groups, with the IB population having higher ISS scores, more primary blast injury, more urgent surgical procedures performed, and greater ICU utilisation. Both groups had percentages of nearly 20% for burn injury, had high percentages of injuries to the head/neck, and high percentages of surgical wound and burn care. Explosive terrorist attacks detonated within a bus generate more severe injuries among the casualties and require more urgent surgical and intensive level care than attacks occurring adjacent to a bus. The comparison and description of the outcomes to these terrorist attacks should aid in the preparation and response to such devastating events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The possibility of a human-borne with bioagent (HBBA) terrorist at foreign FOB ECPs: the perceptions of U.S. military or security personnel, a preliminary report. (United States)

    Alakpa, George Edafese; Collins, John W


    The global war on terrorism has prompted an increase in the deployment of security personnel from multi-national forces on foreign lands, especially in places where known terrorist groups are based. The aim of this study was to obtain U.S. military and security personnel's perceptions of the possibility of encountering a human-borne with bioagent (HBBA) terrorist at an entry control point (ECP). This study was a mixed-method, cross-sectional, survey-based, time-limited study. A validated, five-option Likert scale questionnaire with Cronbach's alphas of 0.82 and 0.894 for Constructs 1 and 2 was distributed to over 113 respondents with combat experience. The results indicated that 92.3 % of the respondents thought it was possible for a terrorist to employ a biological agent to cause terror; 61.5 % claimed it was either possible or very possible, and 26.9 % claimed it was somewhat possible for a terrorist carrying a biological agent to successfully breach a combat Forward Operating Bases (FOB) ECP undetected. 26.9 % of the respondents agreed that "ECP soldiers are knowledgeable about bioagents (BA)", only 15.4 % responded that ECP soldiers have effective devices for detecting a BA on a terrorist at an ECP. Despite some limitations, this pre-study tends to indicate that while many U.S. military or security personnel acknowledge the possibility of an HBBA terrorist breach and the vulnerability of U.S. combat post ECPs to a BA breach, the soldiers at the ECPs lack adequate knowledge or devices to effectively detect a BA on a terrorist at an ECP.

  6. The counter-terrorist campus: Securitisation theory and university securitisation – Three Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Gearon


    Full Text Available With intensified threats to global security from international terrorism, universities have become a focus for security concerns and marked as locus of special interest for the monitoring of extremism and counter-terrorism efforts by intelligence agencies worldwide. Drawing on initiatives in the United Kingdom and United States, I re-frame three – covert, overt and covert–overt – intersections of education, security and intelligence studies as a theoretical milieu by which to understand such counter-terrorism efforts. Against the backdrop of new legislative guidance for universities in an era of global terrorism and counter-terrorism efforts by security and intelligence agencies and their Governments, and through a review of Open-Source security/intelligence concerning universities in the United Kingdom and the United States, I show how this interstitial (covert, overt and covert– overt complexity can be further understood by the overarching relationship between securitisation theory and university securitisation. An emergent securitised concept of university life is important because de facto it will potentially effect radical change upon the nature and purposes of the university itself. A current-day situation replete with anxiety and uncertainty, the article frames not only a sharply contested and still unfolding political agenda for universities but a challenge to the very nature and purposes of the university in the face of a potentially existential threat. Terrorism and counterterrorism, as manifest today, may well thus be altering the aims and purposes of the university in ways we as yet do not fully know or understand. This article advances that knowledge and understanding through a theoretical conceptualisation: the counter-terrorist campus.

  7. "Evita Una Muerte, Esta en Tus Manos" Program: Bystander First Aid Training for Terrorist Attacks. (United States)

    Pajuelo Castro, J J; Meneses Pardo, J C; Salinas Casado, P L; Hernandez Martin, P; Montilla Canet, R; Del Campo Cuesta, J L; Incera Bustio, G; Martin Ayuso, D

    The latest terrorist attacks in Europe and in the rest of the world, and the military experience in the most recent conflicts leave us with several lessons learned. The most important is that the fate of the wounded rests in the hands of the one who applies the first dressing, because the victims usually die within the first 10 minutes, before professional care providers or police personnel arrive at the scene. A second lesson is that the primary cause of preventable death in these types of incidents involving explosives and firearms is massive hemorraghe. There is a need to develop a training oriented to citizens so they can identify and use available resources to avoid preventable deaths that occur in this kind of incidents, especially massive hemorrhage. A 7-hour training intervention program was developed and conducted between January and May 2017. Data were collected from participants' answers on a multiple-choice test before and after undertaking the training. Improved mean score for at least 75% of a group's members on the posttraining test was considered reflective of adequate knowledge. A total of 173 participants (n = 74 men [42.8%]; n = 99 women [57.2%]) attended the training. They were classified into three groups: a group of citizens/ first responders with no prior health training, a group of health professionals, and a group of nursing students. Significant differences (ρ training test scores occurred in each of the three groups. There was a clear improvement in the knowledge of the students after the training when pre- and post-training test scores were compared within the three groups. The greatest improvement was seen in the citizens/first responders group. 2017.

  8. The restoration project : decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Duncan, L.; Best, M.; Krishnan; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Bioterrorism poses a real threat to the public health and national security, and the restoration of affected facilities after a chemical, biological or radiological attack is a major concern. This paper reviewed aspects of a project conducted to collect information, test and validate procedures for site restoration after a terrorist attack. The project began with a review of existing technology and then examined new technologies. Restoration included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction and deposition of contaminants as well as cleaning and neutralization of material and contaminated waste from decontamination. The project was also intended to test existing concepts and develop new ideas. Laboratory scale experiments consisted of testing, using standard laboratory techniques. Radiation decontamination consisted of removal and concentration of the radioisotopes from removal fluid. General restoration guidelines were provided, as well as details of factors considered important in specific applications, including growth conditions and phases of microorganisms in biological decontamination, or the presence of inhibitors or scavengers in chemical decontamination. Various agents were proposed that were considered to have broad spectrum capability. Test surrogates for anthrax were discussed. The feasibility of enhanced oxidation processes was examined in relation to the destruction of organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The goal was to identify a process for the treatment of surfaces contaminated with pesticides. Tests included removal from carpet, porous ceiling tile, steel plates, and floor tiles. General radiation contamination procedures and techniques were reviewed, as well as radiological decontamination waste treatment. It was concluded that there is no single decontamination technique applicable for all contaminants, and decontamination methods depend on economic, social and health factors. The amount of

  9. Identification With Terrorist Attack Victims: Association With Television Viewing and Prior Life Threat. (United States)

    Mash, Holly B Herberman; Fullerton, Carol S; Benevides, K Nikki; Ursano, Robert J


    A series of sniper attacks in the Washington, DC, area left 10 people dead and 3 wounded. We developed and tested a model that examined the unique and interdependent relationships of sniper-related television viewing, prior life-threatening events, and parental status to identification with attack victims. Participants were 1238 residents of the DC area (aged 18-90 years, mean=41.7 years; 51% female; 68% white) who completed an online survey that assessed identification with sniper attack victims, amount of television viewing, and prior life-threatening events. Identification was measured by using a previously developed scale that assessed to what extent participants identified victims as similar to themselves, a friend, or a family member. The relationship of television viewing to identification was examined by using multivariate linear regression analyses. In univariate analyses, female gender, having children, higher levels of television viewing, and past life-threatening events were independently related to greater identification. After adjustment for demographics and life-threatening events, sniper-related television viewing continued to be associated with identification (B=0.61, P≤0.001, ∆R2=0.07). Examination of the interactions of television viewing by parental status and television viewing by life-threatening event revealed significant relationships. Attention to events preceding and during a terrorist event could help in the recognition of those at particular risk for increased identification with attack victims. These findings also have implications for recommendations for media exposure during an event. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017; page 1 of 8).

  10. Selected birth defects among males following the United States terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. (United States)

    Singh, Parvati; Yang, Wei; Shaw, Gary M; Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A


    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) preceded an increase in male fetal deaths and reduced male live births among exposed gestational cohorts across several geographic locations in the United States, including California. We analyze whether the extreme stressor of 9/11 may have selected against frail males in utero by testing if the prevalence of male births with selected defects in California fell among cohorts exposed to the stressor during gestation. We used data from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program from July 1985 to January 2004 (223 conception cohorts). We included six birth defects that as a group of phenotypes disproportionately affect males. We applied time-series methods and defined as "exposed to 9/11" the cohorts conceived in February, March, April, May, June, July, and August 2001. Three of the seven monthly conception cohorts exposed to 9/11 in utero show lower than expected odds of live born males with the studied defects: February 2001 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.71), May 2001 (OR = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.81), and August 2001 (OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28-0.93). The population-wide stressor of 9/11 precedes a reduction in the risk of live born males with selected birth defects. Our analysis contributes to the understanding of adaptation to stress among pregnant women exposed to large and unexpected ambient stressors. Results further support the notion that the prevalence of live born defects may reflect temporal variation in cohort selection in utero against frail males. Birth Defects Research 109:1277-1283, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identification With Terrorist Victims of the Washington, DC Sniper Attacks: Posttraumatic Stress and Depression. (United States)

    Herberman Mash, Holly B; Ursano, Robert J; Benevides, K Nikki; Fullerton, Carol S


    In October 2002, a series of sniper attacks in the Washington, DC area left 10 people dead and 3 wounded. We examined the association between identification with terrorist victims and psychological and behavioral outcomes. Participants were 1,238 residents of the Washington, DC area (ages 18-90 years; M = 41.73, SD = 12.56) who completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and items pertaining to identification with attack victims approximately 3 weeks following the first sniper shooting. We examined 3 types of identification with the victims: (a) as like oneself, (b) as like a friend, and (c) as like a family member. The relationships of identification to posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms were examined using linear regression analyses. Greater total identification was associated with more posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms (B = 0.27, p < .001, and B = 0.44, p < .001, respectively), after adjusting for demographics. Those who specifically identified with the victims as either self (B = 0.24, p < .001), friend (B = 0.30, p < .001), or family member (B = 0.27, p < .001) reported more PTSD symptoms (n = 1,101). Identifying with victims as like a friend or family member, but not as like oneself, was associated with increased depressive symptoms (B = 0.61, p < .001, and B = 0.45, p = .01, respectively; n = 1,222). Presence and type of identification play a differential role in psychological and behavioral responses during traumatic events. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  12. How identity crisis, relative deprivation, personal characteristics, and empathy contribute to the engagement of Western individuals in Islamist terrorist behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khouwaga Yusoufzai


    Full Text Available The growing sense of insecurity in the Western world due to home-grown Islamist terrorism prompts further research on the topic. Based on previous literature, the current paper attempts to determine whether factors can be identified which contribute to Western individuals joining Islamic extremist organizations and engaging in terrorist behavior in the West. Four factors are discussed: While extensive scientific literature supports the view that identity crises and relative deprivation play a crucial role in turning Western individuals to terrorism, evidence on the role of personal characteristics and empathy, on the other hand, is still too scarce to allow any clear scientific judgment.

  13. What we need to know ...and when. Educating the public about nuclear terrorist risks can help raise levels of security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khripunov, I.


    Nuclear power infrastructures could be the target of terrorist acts of theft, sabotage, unauthorized access or other malicious acts given their radiological and chemical content and potential for building weapons. Attacks on its major components, including fuel production, reactors, waste handling, and reprocessing facilities, would lead to serious consequences-even if there is little or no damage to a nuclear power plant itself and other related structures. Public fear of nuclear radiation, in combination with a possibly massive resultant blackout and other aggravating factors, could create significant distress and panic. In other words, successful terrorist attempts to attack nuclear power infrastructure can easily bring about systemic disaster. Systemic risks impact society on a large scale and their effects may spread much further from the original hazardous source. Those risks widely affect systems that society depends on, such as health, transport, environment, telecommunications. Their consequences may be technical, social, environmental, psychological and economic and involve different stakeholders. In this context, however, one important stakeholder has been under-appreciated, under-utilized and somewhat misunderstood: the general public. The nuclear power infrastructure must learn how to efficiently communicate to the public and develop better options for public risk communication that relate to deliberate attacks or accidents. The public is also a challenging stockholder because citizens are deeply split regarding the acceptability and value of nuclear power generation and tend to express their feelings emotionally. However, there is growing recognition that because of skyrocketing oil prices and evidence of the greenhouse effect, nuclear power may be approaching renaissance. Hence, the public must no longer be looked upon only as potential victims or panicked masses but rather as an important contributing factor for better nuclear security throughout

  14. Computer modelling for risk assessment of emergency situations and terrorist attacks during transportation using methods of fuzzy set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosterev, V.V.; Boliatko, V.V.; Gusev, S.M.; Panin, M.P.; Averkin, A.N.


    Computer software for risk assessment of transportation of important freight has been developed. It incorporates models of transport accidents, including terrorist attacks. These models use, among the others, input data of cartographic character. Geographic information system technology and electronic maps of a geographic area are involved as an instrument for handling this kind of data. Fuzzy set theory methods as well as standard methods of probability theory have been used for quantitative risk assessment. Fuzzy algebraic operations and their computer realization are discussed. Risk assessment for one particular route of railway transportation is given as an example. (author)

  15. Crisis-induced depression, physical activity and dietary intake among young adults: evidence from the 9/11 terrorist attacks. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Muzhe


    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we provide evidence that young adults respond to crisis-induced depression by exercising less and having breakfast less often. Exogenous variation in the crisis-induced depression is obtained through a unique event in our sample period - the 9/11 terrorist attacks. We compare those who were interviewed just before and just after 9/11 and find a significant and sharp increase in the symptoms of depression. We also provide evidence that this increase is not a September effect, but an effect of the external traumatic event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  17. Nuclear energy; Le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  18. 9/11, Act II: a fine-grained analysis of regional variations in traffic fatalities in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks. (United States)

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd


    Terrorists can strike twice--first, by directly killing people, and second, through dangerous behaviors induced by fear in people's minds. Previous research identified a substantial increase in U.S. traffic fatalities subsequent to the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were accounted for as due to a substitution of driving for flying, induced by fear of dread risks. Here, we show that this increase in fatalities varied widely by region, a fact that was best explained by regional variations in increased driving. Two factors, in turn, explained these variations in increased driving. The weaker factor was proximity to New York City, where stress reactions to the attacks were previously shown to be greatest. The stronger factor was driving opportunity, which was operationalized both as number of highway miles and as number of car registrations per inhabitant. Thus, terrorists' second strike exploited both fear of dread risks and, paradoxically, an environmental structure conducive to generating increased driving, which ultimately increased fatalities.

  19. Prise en charge d'une menace d'accouchement prématuré sur béance cervico-utérine au moyen d'un pessaire-cerclage obstétrical (United States)

    Nohuz, Erdogan; Albaut, Maël; Brunel, Angélique; Champel, Nadine; Pellizzaro, Julie; Gallot, Denis; Lemery, Didier; Vendittelli, Françoise


    Nous rapportons le recours efficace à un pessaire dans la prise en charge d'une menace d'accouchement prématuré. Une patiente de 28 ans, G2P1, ayant présenté une fausse-couche tardive à 20 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) un an auparavant, bénéficiait d'un cerclage cervical à 15 SA. L’échographie endovaginale réalisée à 24 SA (sensation de pesanteur pelvienne) révélait un funnelling majeur et une longueur cervicale à 7 mm. Un pessaire obstétrical permettait la poursuite de la grossesse jusqu'au terme de 36 SA. Ce dispositif semble intéressant chez des patientes présentant une béance cervico-isthmique et chez qui un cerclage cervical s'est révélé inefficace. PMID:26161207


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used

  1. Restorative Encounters in Terrorist Victimization in Spain: Theoretical Reflections and Practical Insights from Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jose Olalde


    Full Text Available After the ceasefire announcement by the terrorist organization ETA in 2011, new horizons and scenarios of peace have opened in the Basque Country, a land that has been badly hurt by violence over several decades.Restorative justice, a new paradigm for an old kind of justice, the reparation of the harm caused to victims and their consequent importance in the judicial process, has been knocking at our door for a long time. Since the beginning of this decade, following European trends, our country has begun to implement restorative justice at different levels.This article wants to bring the reader closer to understanding of the possibilities which restorative justice offers to the victims of terrorism. We describe the central elements of the restorative encounters held between ex-members of ETA and direct or indirect victims. Furthermore, we support our restorative intervention with theoretical arguments and practical examples from social work. Tras el anuncio del cese de la actividad armada por parte de la organización armada ETA, en 2011, nuevos escenarios y horizontes de pacificación se abren en la historia para esta tierra, castigada por la violencia durante decenas de años.La Justicia restaurativa, un nuevo paradigma para una vieja reivindicación, la reparación de la víctima y su protagonismo en la resolución y abordaje de las consecuencias de los conflictos penales, lleva años asomando a nuestro contexto. Tras la incorporación de España a principios de esta década a las corrientes europeas, se constata la validación de la práctica restaurativa.Este artículo quiere acercar a la persona lectora la comprensión de las posibilidades de justicia restaurativa en victimización terrorista. Describimos los elementos centrales de los encuentros restaurativos celebrados entre ex miembros de ETA y víctimas directas e indirectas. Y nos apoyamos en elementos teóricos y prácticos del trabajo social para nuestra intervención restaurativa.

  2. African-American adolescents’ stress responses after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks (United States)

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.; Ludwig, David A.


    Purpose To examine the impact of indirect exposure to the 9/11/01 attacks upon physical and emotional stress-related responses in a community sample of African-American (AA) adolescents. Methods Three months after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks, 406 AA adolescents (mean age [SD] of 16.1 ± 1.3 years) from an inner-city high school in Augusta, GA were evaluated with a 12-item 5-point Likert scale measuring loss of psychosocial resources (PRS) such as control, hope, optimism, and perceived support, a 17-item 5-point Likert scale measuring post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PCL), and measures of state and trait anger, anger expression, and hostility. Given the observational nature of the study, statistical differences and correlations were evaluated for effect size before statistical testing (5% minimum variance explained). Bootstrapping was used for testing mean differences and differences between correlations. Results PCL scores indicated that approximately 10% of the sample was experiencing probable clinically significant levels of post-traumatic distress (PCL score > 50). The PCL and PRS were moderately correlated with a r = .59. Gender differences for the PCL and PRS were small, accounting for 1% of the total variance. Higher PCL scores were associated with higher state anger (r = .47), as well as measures of anger-out (r = .32) and trait anger (r = .34). Higher PRS scores were associated only with higher state anger (r = .27). Scores on the two 9/11/01-related scales were not statistically associated (i.e., less than 5% of the variance explained) with traits of anger control, anger-in, or hostility. Conclusions The majority of students were not overly stressed by indirect exposure to the events of 9/11/01, perhaps owing to the temporal, social, and/or geographical distance from the event. Those who reported greater negative impact appeared to also be experiencing higher levels of current anger and exhibited a characterologic style of higher overt anger

  3. New features of nuclear excitation by {alpha} particles scattering; Nouveaux aspects de l'excitation nucleaire par diffusion de particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saudinos, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Inelastic scattering of medium energy a particles by nuclei is known to excite preferentially levels of collective character. We have studied the scattering of isotopically enriched targets of Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. In part I, we discuss the theoretical features of the interaction. In part II, we describe the experimental procedure. Results are presented and analysed in part III. {alpha} particles scattering by Ca{sup 40} is showed to excite preferentially odd parity levels. In odd nuclei we have observed multiplets due to the coupling of the odd nucleon with the even-even core vibrations. For even-even nuclei, a few levels are excited with lower cross-sections between the well-known first 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states. Some could be members of the two phonon quadrupole excitation and involve a double nuclear excitation process. (author) [French] On sait que la diffusion inelastique des particules alpha de moyenne energie excite preferentiellement des niveaux de caractere collectif. Nous avons etudie la diffusion des particules alpha de 44 MeV du cyclotron de Saclay par des isotopes separes de Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. Dans la premiere partie nous exposons les theories de cette interaction. Dans la seconde nous decrivons le systeme experimental. Les resultats sont donnes dans la troisieme partie. Nous montrons que les niveaux excites preferentiellement pour {sup 40}Ca par diffusion ({alpha},{alpha}') sont de parite negative. Dans les noyaux pair-impair nous avons observe des multiplets dus au couplage du nucleon celibataire avec les vibrations du coeur pair-pair. Pour les noyaux pair-pair nous avons pu etudier entre le premier niveau 2{sup +} et le niveau 3{sup -} deja bien connus certains etats plus faiblement excites. Il semble qu'ils sont dus a une excitation quadrupolaire a deux phonons et impliquent un processus de double excitation nucleaire. (auteur)

  4. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.


    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  5. The Role of Behavioral Responses in the Total Economic Consequences of Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Air Travel Targets. (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Avetisyan, Misak; Rosoff, Heather; Burns, William J; Slovic, Paul; Chan, Oswin


    U.S. airports and airliners are prime terrorist targets. Not only do the facilities and equipment represent high-value assets, but the fear and dread that is spread by such attacks can have tremendous effects on the U.S. economy. This article presents the methodology, data, and estimates of the macroeconomic impacts stemming from behavioral responses to a simulated terrorist attack on a U.S. airport and on a domestic airliner. The analysis is based on risk-perception surveys of these two scenarios. The responses relate to reduced demand for airline travel, shifts to other modes, spending on nontravel items, and savings of potential travel expenditures by U.S. resident passengers considering flying domestic routes. We translate these responses to individual spending categories and feed these direct impact results into a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy to ascertain the indirect and total impacts on both the airline industry and the economy as a whole. Overall, the estimated impacts on GDP of both types of attacks exceed $10B. We find that the behavioral economic impacts are almost an order of magnitude higher than the ordinary business interruption impacts for the airliner attack and nearly two orders of magnitude higher for the airport attack. The results are robust to sensitivity tests on the travel behavior of U.S. residents in response to terrorism. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Fear of Terrorism in New York After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Implications for Emergency Mental Health and Preparedness (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.


    To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction. PMID:14730761

  7. Trajectory and predictors of depression in a 12-month prospective study after the Madrid March 11 terrorist attacks. (United States)

    Salguero, J M; Cano-Vindel, A; Iruarrizaga, I; Fernández-Berrocal, P; Galea, S


    Few longitudinal studies have examined the trajectory of and the risk factors for depression in a representative sample of the population exposed to terrorism. A 12 month prospective study was conducted among a sample of Madrid city residents after the March 11, 2004 terrorist attacks. We aimed to document the trajectories of depressive symptoms and determine the risk factors associated with these trajectories. We conducted telephone surveys among a representative sample of Madrid citizens (N = 1589) to recruit baseline respondents approximately 1 month after the March 11 terrorist attacks. Participants were re-contacted at 6 and 12 months after baseline for further telephone interviews. Findings reveal heterogeneity in the longitudinal trajectories of depression ranging from the absence of depressive symptoms over time, to transient or chronic depression. Life and recent stressors, experiencing direct exposure to the attacks, personality traits, poor physical health and other psychological disorders were principally associated with a worse trajectory of depression after this event. Consistent with a stress diathesis model, ongoing stressors and intense event exposure are key drivers of a chronic depression trajectory after a mass traumatic event. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Short and intermediate economic impacts of a terrorist-initiated loss of electric power: case study of New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, M.; Mantell, N.; Lahr, M.; Felder, F. [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Edward J. Bloustein School; Zimmerman, R. [New York University (United States). Robert F. Wagner School of Public Service


    The economic impacts of potential terrorist attacks on the New Jersey electric power system are examined using a regional econometric model. The magnitude and duration of the effects vary by type of business and income measure. We assume damage is done during in the summer 2005 quarter, a peak period for energy use. The state economy recovers within a year, if we assume that economic activity is restored in the next time period. However, if the attacks prompt an absolute of loss of activity due to firm relocation, closing, and geographical changes in expansion plans, then the economy does not fully recover by the year 2010. Hence, the electrical power system's resiliency to damage is the key to the extent and duration of any economic consequences of a terrorist attack, at least in New Jersey. The policy implication is that the costs and benefits of making the electric power system more resilient to plausible attacks should be weighed and that the restorative capacity of the system should be strengthened. (author)

  9. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents; Problemes sanitaires poses par l'elimination des dechets radioactifs et par les accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H.; Mechali, D.; Dousset, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The rapid development of nuclear energy demands an urgent solution to the health problems arising from the discharge into the environment of radioactive residues produced by nuclear installations. - To be able to evaluate the risks run by the population and to fix tolerance limits for waste discharge, it is necessary to possess an exact knowledge of the course taken by the radioelements discharged, from their source until they reach man. The incorporation of radioelements in food cycles is the first risk to take into consideration. The factors involved in all stages of this transmission must be foreseen, whether they concern physical or biological media, because of their continuity and their interdependence. Finally, socio-economic and dietetic data must be collected in order that the risks and tolerance levels estimated are based on concrete and experimental rather than theoretical knowledge. The risk of nuclear accidents in the atomic industry, although very improbable, must be taken into consideration because of the seriousness of their consequences. The health problems arise in the field of professional hygiene on the one hand and in that of public hygiene on the other. In the first field the risk is two-fold and involves irradiation and contamination. The public sphere is reduced essentially to the risk of contamination by radioactive substances accidentally released in the surrounding medium. The health studies to be conducted in this field therefore include research not only on irradiation or contamination therapeutics but also on the transfer of radioelements from the accident site to man, mainly through food cycles, in their physical and in their biological components. Studies of this kind form the basis of decisions in the health field which would have to be taken in the case of an accident. (authors) [French] Le developpement rapide de l'energie nucleaire rend urgente la solution des problemes sanitaires poses par le rejet dans le milieu ambiant des

  10. Pathological personality development after the Chornobyl disaster and the anti terrorist operation. (United States)

    Loganovsky, K M; Gresko, M V


    Objective of the study was to determine pathological changes of the personality of the clean up workers (liquida tors) of the Chornobyl accident and the participants in the anti terrorist operation (ATO) in Eastern Ukraine and radiation threat perception assessment.Design, object and methods. The cross sectional and retrospective assessments of the clean up workers of the Chornobyl accident (n = 185), evacuees from the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (n = 112) from the randomized sample of individuals who are registered in the Clinical and epidemiological registry (CER) of the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» [NRCRM] and partici pants of the ATO in Eastern Ukraine (n = 62) who underwent treatment and rehabilitation in the Department of Radiation Psychoneurology of the NRCRM Clinic have been done. The neuropsychiatric clinical and psychometric methods as General Health Questionnaire, GHQ 28; Eysenck Personality Inventory, EPI; method of personality diag nostic by H. Schmischek - K. Leongard, and modified social psychological questionnaire (Joint Study Project 1993) - «dangers questionnaire» were used. Extraversion, hyperthymia and demonstrativity in the clean up workers of the Chornobyl accident and evac uees decreased, while emotiveness, pedantry, anxiety, cyclothymia, excitability and dysthymia increased. Extraversion and hyperthymia decreased in the ATO participants while jams, pedantry, cyclothymia, excitability and dysthymia increased. According to the social psychological assessment («dangers questionnaire») there were found that at present the «national conflict» factor takes among the clean up workers the 22th rank place, evacuees - the 18th, while the participants ATO - the 11th, however the risk perception of disease associated with the presence in the environment of radioactive substances in the ATO participants takes the 6th place, the liquidators - the 8th, the evac

  11. Terrorist Event Training in US Medical Schools. A Survey of Chemical, Biologic, Radiologic, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives Training in US Medical Schools. (United States)

    Feeney, James M; Ziegler, Kristina; Armstrong, Jessica M; Shapiro, David


    September 11, 2001 saw the dawn of the US-led global war on terror, a combined diplomatic, military, social, and cultural war on terrorist activities. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), as a group of tactics, are often the preferred weapons of terrorists across the globe. We undertook a survey of US medical schools to determine what their self-reported level of training for terrorist events encompasses during the four years of undergraduate medical education. We surveyed 170 medical schools in the US and Puerto Rico using a five-question, internet-based survey, followed by telephone calls to curriculum offices for initial nonresponders. We used simple descriptive statistics to analyze the data. A majority of US medical schools that completed the survey (79 schools or 65.3%) have no required lecture or course on CBRNE or terrorist activities during the first or second year (preclinical years). Ninety-eight out of the 121 respondents (81.0%), however, believed that CBRNE training was either very important or somewhat important, as reflected in survey answers. Most physician educators believe that training in CBRNE is important; however this belief has not resulted in widespread acceptance of a CBRNE curriculum in US medical schools.


    Local monitoring of post-treatment drinking water using bench-top mass spectrometers could identify target compounds in a mass spectral library. However, a terrorist might seek to incite greater hysteria by injecting or infusing a mixture of unanticipated compounds of unknown tox...

  13. DoD Identity Matching Engine for Security and Analysis (IMESA) Access to Criminal Justice Information (CJI) and Terrorist Screening Databases (TSDB) (United States)


    IMESA) Access to Criminal Justice Information (CJI) and Terrorist Screening Databases (TSDB) References: See Enclosure 1 1. PURPOSE. In...including the Coast Guard at all times, including when it is a Service in the Department of Homeland Security by agreement with that Department), accordance with national, international, and host nation laws, and applicable agreements and arrangements with host nations. 4

  14. Children Who Lost a Parent as a Result of the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001: Registry Construction and Population Description (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Conroy, David L.; Hochauser, Carl J.; Laraque, Danielle; Banks, Josette; Schmeidler, James; Dela Cruz, Maan; Nelsen, William C.; Landrigan, Philip J.


    Children who experience traumatic bereavement in the context of catastrophic disasters are at increased risk for developing post-disaster problems. Despite massive loss of life on September 11th, 2001, no public data were collected on those children who lost a parent in the multiple terrorist attacks. Such a registry would be an important public…

  15. No Evidence of Suicide Increase Following Terrorist Attacks in the United States: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of September 11 and Oklahoma City (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Trahan, Adam; Chamlin, Mitchell B.


    There is substantial evidence of detrimental psychological sequelae following disasters, including terrorist attacks. The effect of these events on extreme responses such as suicide, however, is unclear. We tested competing hypotheses about such effects by employing autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model the impact of…

  16. Comment on the first anniversary of the terrorist attacks in the United States of America. Vienna, 11 September 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.


    The IAEA has long been active in encouraging States to make security an integral part of the management of their nuclear programmes. The attacks in September 2001 were, however, a wake-up call to the world nuclear community that more can and must be done. In the wake of the terrorist attacks, Member States of the IAEA meeting in the Agency's General Conference adopted a resolution requesting that the IAEA Director General initiate a thorough review of the Agency's activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of terrorism involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The Agency moved rapidly to respond. It devised and is presently implementing an integrated action plan which includes enhanced and new activities to upgrade nuclear security worldwide and to combat nuclear terrorism. The plan covers eight areas: (1) physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities; (2) detection of malicious activities (such as illicit trafficking) involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; (3) strengthening of State systems for nuclear material accountancy and control; (4) security of radioactive sources; (5) the assessment of safety and security related vulnerabilities at nuclear facilities; (6) response to malicious acts or threats thereof; (7) the adherence to international agreements and guidelines; and (8) co-ordination and information management for nuclear security related matters. National measures for protecting nuclear material and facilities remain uneven in their substance and application. There is wide recognition that the international physical protection regime needs to be further strengthened. Through its International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS), the Agency provides Member States with assessment services, together with associated advice and follow up actions to improve security arrangements at nuclear facilities. It also provides training and workshops, notably in assessing threats, as well as other supporting

  17. Futurs antérieurs et précédents uchroniques : l’anti-utopie comme conjuration de la menace future perfect and counterfactual precedents: Dystopia as a way to thwart threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Claisse


    Full Text Available Traditionnellement traitée dans la continuité générique de l’utopie dont elle ne serait que l’inversion critique, l’anti-utopie est ici caractérisée comme cas particulier d’une posture critique plus générale, à travers les concepts de « futur antérieur » et de « précédent uchronique ». Relevant d’une logique de l’alerte, un futur antérieur en diffère par ses modalités temporelles ainsi que par son recours à la fiction : le futur dystopique est proposé comme déjà survenu, dans l’actualité du présent de narration, par un acte paradoxal de conjuration lequel vise à faire advenir la menace dans l’espace de représentation du destinataire pour mieux en empêcher la réalisation. Les exemples traités relèvent du dossier des nouvelles technologies de surveillance et de contrôle social, dont les acteurs ont déployé, ces vingt dernières années, une intense activité de mise à jour de leurs repères critiques et de leurs capacités d’anticipation. L’analyse en termes de futur antérieur permet de comprendre le basculement de configuration à l’œuvre : Big Brother fait désormais figure de « précédent uchronique » en regard de la nouvelle menace que ferait peser l’avènement des « sociétés de contrôle ». L’homologie de fonctionnement entre ces dispositifs fictionnels souligne leur double dimension cognitive (l’articulation entre le réel et les mondes possibles portés par l’anticipation et pragmatique (le réengagement d’un avenir par la communauté politique à laquelle s’adresse le futur antérieur. Au terme du parcours, la fiction apparaît comme un mode de connaissance et une prise sur le monde.Traditionally regarded as a mere critical inversion of utopia, dystopia will be characterized here as an instance of a more general critical posture, through the concepts of ‘future perfect’ and ‘counterfactual precedent’. The future perfect belongs to, but differs

  18. Improvement of pressure-vessel surveillance of a PWR-power plant of the Societe d'Energie Nucleaire Franco-Belge des Ardennes (S.E.N.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, A.; Lloret, R.; Riehl, R.


    This paper describes a new dosimetry, installed inside and outside the Pressure Vessel of CHOOZ Nuclear Power Plant of the Societe d'Energie Nucleaire Franco-Belge des Ardennes (S.E.N.A.), during its 1982-83 operation cycle. The inner dosimetry deals with a simulated capsule located under the reactor plate, and includes copper, nickel, iron, niobium, copper-cobalt, neptunium and uranium dosimeters. Its aim is to qualify the information given by the existing copper dosimetry. The spectrum used with these measurements is obtained by the 1 D ANISN Code and BIP-N 2 library. The outer dosimety is the fluence determination along the outer wall of the vessel. Two tubes, equiped by neutron dosimeters, seven meters long, were fixed along the vessel. On the median plane, the results are compared to a 2 D DOT transport calculation. Preliminary results are given which improve the vessel and specimens neutronic characterisation. (Auth.)

  19. "A Mixed Blessing": Social Support as a Coping Resource for Parents Who Lost a Child in Terrorist Attacks in Israel. (United States)

    Saka, Yael


    This article deals with the issue of perceived social support among 40 bereaved parents who have lost a child in a terrorist attack in Israel. The aim is to gain a better understanding of the nature and quality of the formal and informal support that the parents received. The parents were interviewed using semistructured in-depth interviews. The content analysis revealed that alongside the positive aspects, the parents also emphasized the negative side of the encounter with the social environment. The positive aspects included feeling of appreciation for the assistance in the coping process. The negative aspects included a sense of abandonment and distress. The dialectic nature of the domain, together with a recognition of its importance, points to the need to reconcile between the desire on the part of the social environment to assist the bereaved parent on one hand and ways to implement it on the other hand.

  20. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski


    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.


    Maqsood, Rasikh; Rasikh, Alia; Abbasi, Tariq; Shukr, Irfan


    As a front line state in war against terror, Pakistan has been a victim of terrorism, for the last many years & Baluchistan has been the hub of all such terror activities. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and type of injuries in mass casualties in terrorist activities in Baluchistan. The study was done by the review of the record of all patients of terrorist attacks who were admitted in Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Quetta from 27th Aug 2012 to 31st Jul 2015. The final injuries sustained by the victims were documented in the patient charts after repeated examination. The data was collected from these patient charts. Data was analysed using SPSS-21. Frequency & percentages of different injuries was calculated to determine the injury pattern. A total of 3034 patients reported to the hospital (n-3034), 2228 were admitted (73.4%). Out of the injured, 1720 (56.69%) were patients of multi system trauma, whereas 1314 (43.3%) had a single site injury. Out of these 537 patients had fractures of long bones (17.6%), those with head & spinal injuries with neurological deficit were 455 (14.9%), 266 had abdominal injuries requiring surgical intervention (8.7%), 75 (2.47%) had thoracic injuries were whereas 25 (0.82%) were vascular injuries, requiring emergent limb saving surgeries. Sex ratio was M/F=5.7: 1 Mean hospital stay was 6.31 days. Majority of the injured had multisystem injuries; therefore the hospital should have a well-trained multi-disciplinary team of surgeons. In addition to general surgery, the subspecialties' should include orthopaedics, vascular, thoracic and neurosurgery.

  2. Countering health threats by chemicals with a potential terrorist background--creating a rapid alert system for Europe. (United States)

    Schaper, A; Desel, H; Wyke, S; Orford, R; Griffiths, M R; Edwards, N; Kupferschmidt, H; Mathieu, M; Pelclova, D; Duarte-Davidson, R


    The acronym "ASHT" stands for "Alerting System and Development of a Health Surveillance System for the Deliberate Release of Chemicals by Terrorists". Imagine this scenario: 15 patients with respiratory symptoms following a concert in Rome and 12 patients coughing after lunch in a cafeteria in the Czech Republic; are these events related? Today these events would never be connected as there is no mechanism to allow EU Member States to share this type of information effectively. The main objective of the ASHT project was to improve data sharing between EU Member States. In part, this was achieved by an internet accessible EU-wide alerting system with the aim to detect the deliberate (i.e. criminal or terrorist) or accidental release of chemicals. Nevertheless more information from police, fire brigades and health professionals is needed. Description of the design, development, functionality and testing of the relational database system called "RAS-CHEM" (Rapid Alert System for Chemicals). A database structure appropriate for the description of "events" with sophisticated retrieval functions was developed. For evaluation purposes 37 events were entered into the database including 29 scenarios and 8 historical mass intoxications. The alert level was "background information" for 21 events, "suspected mass intoxication" for 6 cases and "confirmed mass intoxication" for 10 events. The RAS-CHEM database works and will be integrated into the Health Emergency Operations Facility (HEOF) with other European Rapid Alert Systems. Poisons centres receive a large number of enquiries and could be important sentinels in this field of toxicovigilance. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mass-casualty terrorist bombings in Istanbul, Turkey, November 2003: report of the events and the prehospital emergency response. (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkümen; Arnold, Jeffrey L; Tokyay, Rifat; Ersoy, Gurkan; Cetiner, Serkan; Yücel, Tayfun


    This paper describes the two mass-casualty, terrorist attacks that occurred in Istanbul, Turkey in November 2003, and the resulting pre-hospital emergency response. A complex, retrospective, descriptive study was performed, using open source reports, interviews, direct measurements of street distances, and hospital records from the American Hospital (AH) and Taksim Education and Research State Hospital (TERSH) in Istanbul. On 15 November, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in trucks were detonated outside the Neve Shalom and Beth Israel Synagogues, killing 30 persons and injuring an estimated additional 300. Victims were maldistributed to 16 medical facilities. For example, AH, a private hospital located six km from both synagogues, received 69 injured survivors, of which 86% had secondary blast injuries and 13% were admitted to the hospital. The TERSH, a government hospital located 1 km from both synagogues, received 48 injured survivors. On 20 November, IEDs in trucks were detonated outside the Hong Kong Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) headquarters and the British Consulate (BC), killing 33 and injuring an estimated additional 450. Victims were maldistributed to 16 medical facilities. For example, TERSH, located 18 km from the HSBC site and 2 km from the the BC received 184 injured survivors, of which 93% had secondary blast injuries and 15% were hospitalized. The AH, located 9 km from the HSBC site and 6 km from the BC, received 16 victims. The twin suicide truck bombings on 15 and 20 November 2003 were the two largest terrorist attacks in modern Turkish history, collectively killing 63 persons and injuring an estimated 750 others. The vast majority of victims had secondary blast injuries, which did not require hospitalization. Factors associated with the maldistribution of casualties to medical facilities appeared to include the distance from each bombing site, the type of medical facility, and the personal preference of injured survivors.

  4. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de

  5. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event]. (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y


    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  6. The emergence of transnational terrorist safe havens: a comparative analysis of the federally administered tribal areas in Pakistan and Kabylia in Algeria


    Mirza, Naeem Ashraf; Hocine, Adda; Riad, Abu Helaleh


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis analyzes the similarities and unique conditions that have made the FATA and Kabylia safe havens for transnational terrorist groups. The thesis uses five variables to compare the cases geography, governance, society, security, and outside influences on both areas. The thesis finds that geography has a strong influence on the creation of safe havens, particularly terrain that is difficult to access, as does weak federal gove...

  7. The Importance of International Law in Counter-Terrorism: The Need for New Guidelines in International Law to Assist States Responding to Terrorist Attacks


    Schlagheck, Heidi Michelle


    Terrorism, in one way or another, touches everyone's lives. Its affect could be as small as watching media stories on the nightly news and waiting longer in a security line at the airport or as significant as losing a loved one in an attack. As individuals come to grips with living with increased terrorist violence, individual nation-states and the international community have to prepare themselves to prevent, react to, and counter terrorism. This thesis examines whether international law ...

  8. Lone-Wolf Terrorist Radicalization and the Prisoner’s Dilemma: Ensuring Mutual Cooperation Between at-Risk Muslim Americans and Local Communities (United States)


    and, presumably to bolster his self - esteem , began to reach out to terrorist organizations in an attempt to belong to a larger cause.134 He began and the need to leave a lasting contribution in the world. During my periods of study and self - reflection, I came across an arresting quote...Success is rarely achieved without the help of a strong support system. Athletes cannot achieve victory without a coach to drive their daily practice, and

  9. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Strategies in a Globalised World : alternative perceptiveness of terrorist emergence theory and policing strategies confrontation with human rights


    Kikkas, Margit


    Globalisation and development in technology have advanced terrorism to reach a broader target audience. Especially focussing at the international co-operation strategies and combined social networks, terrorist activities have an direct- and indirect effect on private households, international commerce and local governments. Security institutions and state organisations use various combinations of counter- terrorism measures, that are mostly social-, political-, or financial in nature. Neverth...

  10. The EU Legislative Framework Against Money Laundering and Terrorist Finance:A Critical Analysis in the Light of Evolving Global Standards


    Gilmore, William; Mitsilegas, Valsamis


    This article examines the evolution of the EU anti-money laundering legislative framework (which in recent years has also included measures to counter terrorist finance), by focusing in particular on recent legislation such as the third money laundering Directive and the Regulation on controls of cash entering the EU, both adopted in 2005. The analysis highlights the relationship between these instruments and international initiatives in the field (in particular FATF standards), and addresses...

  11. Long-Term Memory for the Terrorist Attack of September 11: Flashbulb Memories, Event Memories, and the Factors that Influence Their Retention (United States)

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lustig, Cindy; Lyle, Keith B.; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.


    More than 3,000 individuals from 7 U.S. cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, 1 week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas…

  12. Short-Term Public Health Impact of the July 22, 2011, Terrorist Attacks in Norway: A Nationwide Register-Based Study. (United States)

    Strand, Linn Beate; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Halasz, Jozsef; Vatten, Lars J; Janszky, Imre


    To examine increases in several health outcomes after the July 22, 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway. Retrospective analysis of nationwide registers (n = 4,953,000) where incidences of schizophrenia/psychosis hospitalizations, suicides, acute myocardial infarctions, and preterm births after the terrorist attacks were compared with corresponding periods the previous 3 years. Compared with the same period the preceding 3 years, the observed number of hospitalizations from schizophrenia/psychosis was 14% higher during the first 4 weeks after the terrorist attack (incidence ratio [IR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-1.21). The corresponding IRs for the first 3 days and the first week were 1.26 (95% CI = 0.99-1.58) and 1.10 (95% CI = 0.96-1.24). The observed number of suicides was increased by 45% the first 4 weeks (IR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.86), 163% the first 3 days (IR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.15-5.20), and 105% the first week (IR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.14-3.42). For acute myocardial infarction, there was an increase of 5% the first 4 weeks. There were also more births the 4 weeks (IR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07, but this increase was not seen in preterm births of less than 37 weeks of gestation (IR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.83-1.04). We observed a general nationwide increase of health outcomes investigated in this study the first 4 weeks after the terrorist attacks. These results may contribute to the growing body of evidence on the adverse health outcomes that may accompany national stressors.

  13. Lessons Learnt from the Westgate Shopping Mall Terrorist Attack in Nairobi, Kenya: Involving the Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions Sector in Crisis Communications


    Schroeder, Ashley; Pennington-Gray, Lori; Bricker, Kelly


    The terrorist attacks in Nairobi Kenya have been widely disseminated by the world media, thus, affecting the long-term interests of stakeholders. The tourism industry is made up of a vast number of these stakeholders, with the operating sector alone including the accommodation, tourism services, transportation, entertainment, food services, adventure and outdoor recreation, attractions, meetings, incentive, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE), and travel trade sectors. Within each operating s...

  14. Endotoxemia—menace, marker, or mistake? (United States)

    Munford, Robert S.


    Endotoxemia is in its scientific ascendancy. Never has blood-borne, Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (LPS) been invoked in the pathogenesis of so many diseases—not only as a trigger for septic shock, once its most cited role, but also as a contributor to atherosclerosis, obesity, chronic fatigue, metabolic syndrome, and many other conditions. Finding elevated plasma endotoxin levels has been essential supporting evidence for each of these links, yet the assays used to detect and quantitate endotoxin have important limitations. This article describes several assays for endotoxin in plasma, reviews what they do and do not measure, and discusses why LPS heterogeneity, LPS trafficking pathways, and host LPS inactivation mechanisms should be considered when interpreting endotoxin assay results. PMID:27418356

  15. Endotoxemia-menace, marker, or mistake? (United States)

    Munford, Robert S


    Endotoxemia is in its scientific ascendancy. Never has blood-borne, Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (LPS) been invoked in the pathogenesis of so many diseases-not only as a trigger for septic shock, once its most cited role, but also as a contributor to atherosclerosis, obesity, chronic fatigue, metabolic syndrome, and many other conditions. Finding elevated plasma endotoxin levels has been essential supporting evidence for each of these links, yet the assays used to detect and quantitate endotoxin have important limitations. This article describes several assays for endotoxin in plasma, reviews what they do and do not measure, and discusses why LPS heterogeneity, LPS trafficking pathways, and host LPS inactivation mechanisms should be considered when interpreting endotoxin assay results. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  16. Internet Radicalization: Actual Threat or Phantom Menace? (United States)


    morphine of ideas—self-induced at initiation, but involuntary once hooked. In correlation with this picture, juveniles have been identified at that she ultimately sought to assist. 5. Mohammed Hassan Khalid: Mohammed Hassan Khalid was radicalized as a juvenile and is believed to be...S. Mueller III define his case as homegrown terror recruitment.204 The high unemployment and tough integration into the U.S. culture have been

  17. Procedural rules as a menace to investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, O.


    The current doubts about Germany's attractivity as an industrial site are not wholly unfounded. What we need in this situation is a new partnership between state and industry in order to win the confidence of investors and the public. It is high time for all sides to recognise that a consensus across all parties is badly needed in order to maintain this country's economic potential. We should not go further astray by setting up our own political and administrative obstacles. (orig.) [de

  18. Cancer stem cells: a metastasizing menace!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandhavkar, Saurabh


    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and is estimated to be a reason of death of more than 18 billion people in the coming 5 years. Progress has been made in diagnosis and treatment of cancer; however, a sound understanding of the underlying cell biology still remains an unsolved mystery. Current treatments include a combination of radiation, surgery, and/or chemotherapy. However, these treatments are not a complete cure, aimed simply at shrinking the tumor and in majority of cases, there is a relapse of tumor. Several evidences suggest the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating stem-like cells, a small population of cells present in the tumor, capable of self-renewal and generation of differentiated progeny. The presence of these CSCs can be attributed to the failure of cancer treatments as these cells are believed to exhibit therapy resistance. As a result, increasing attention has been given to CSC research to resolve the therapeutic problems related to cancer. Progress in this field of research has led to the development of novel strategies to treat several malignancies and has become a hot topic of discussion. In this review, we will briefly focus on the main characteristics, therapeutic implications, and perspectives of CSCs in cancer therapy

  19. Dietary Nitrite: from menace to marvel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S. Bryan


    Full Text Available The health benefits of nitrite are now indisputable when administered in a clinical setting for specific diseases. Currently, most published reports identify the production of nitric oxide (NO as the mechanism of action for nitrite. Basic science, in addition to clinical studies, demonstrate that nitrite and/or nitrate cannot restore NO homeostasis as an endothelium independent source of NO that may be a redundant system for endogenous NO production. Nitrate must first be reduced to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria; nitrite can then be further reduced to NO along the physiological oxygen gradient. But despite decades of rigorous research on sodium nitrate’s safety and efficacy as a curing agent, sodium nitrite is still regarded by many as a toxic undesirable food additive. However, research within the biomedical science community has revealed enormous therapeutic benefits of nitrite which are being developed as novel therapies for conditions associated with nitric oxide insufficiency. Thus, this review will highlight the fundamental biochemistry of nitrite in human physiology and provide evidence that nitrite be considered an essential nutrient. Foods or diets enriched with nitrite can have profound positive health benefits.

  20. 500 emplois menacés

    CERN Multimedia


    Around 1000 staff in total, demonstrated at CERN today, to protest against radical measures proposed by CERN management. CERN needs to find around 850 million CHF to supplement the budget of the LHC project (2 pages).

  1. 2008 The Menace of HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    costs related to HIV/AIDS consume household incomes. The combined effect of reduced income .... reflecting on contacting a virus whose effect does not manifest until 6 months to 10 years. The. Nigerian National .... subjects on video cassettes, video games and some of the resources that may be needed for the provision of ...

  2. Dengue vaccine: come let's fight the menace. (United States)

    Chawla, Sumit; Sahoo, Soumya Swaroop; Singh, Inderjeet; Verma, Madhur; Gupta, Vikas; Kumari, Sneh


    Although dengue has a global distribution, the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia region together with Western Pacific region bears nearly 75% of the current global disease burden. Globally, the societal burden has been estimated to be approximately 528 to 1300 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per million to populations in endemic regions Dengue is believed to infect 50 to 100 million people worldwide a year with half a million life-threatening infections requiring hospitalization, resulting in approximately 12,500 to 25,000 deaths. Despite being known for decades and nearly half the world's population is at risk for infection with as many as 100 million cases occurring annually, the pitiable state is that we still have no antiviral drugs to treat it and no vaccines to prevent it. In recent years, however, the development of dengue vaccines has accelerated dramatically in tandem with the burgeoning dengue problem with a rejuvenated vigour. However, recent progress in molecular-based vaccine strategies, as well as a renewed commitment by the World Health Organization (WHO) to co-ordinate global efforts on vaccine development, finally provides hope that control of this serious disease may be at hand. Today, several vaccines are in various stages of advanced development, with clinical trials currently underway on 5 candidate vaccines. Trials in the most advanced stages are showing encouraging preliminary data, and the leading candidate could be licensed as early as 2015.

  3. Long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms among 3,271 civilian survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. (United States)

    DiGrande, Laura; Neria, Yuval; Brackbill, Robert M; Pulliam, Paul; Galea, Sandro


    Although the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were the largest human-made disaster in US history, there is little extant research documenting the attacks' consequences among those most directly affected, that is, persons who were in the World Trade Center towers. Data from a cross-sectional survey conducted 2-3 years after the attacks ascertained the prevalence of long-term, disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 3,271 civilians who evacuated World Trade Center towers 1 and 2. Overall, 95.6% of survivors reported at least 1 current posttraumatic stress symptom. The authors estimated the probable rate of PTSD at 15.0% by using the PTSD Checklist. Women and minorities were at an increased risk of PTSD. A strong inverse relation with annual income was observed. Five characteristics of direct exposure to the terrorist attacks independently predicted PTSD: being on a high floor in the towers, initiating evacuation late, being caught in the dust cloud that resulted from the tower collapses, personally witnessing horror, and sustaining an injury. Working for an employer that sustained fatalities also increased risk. Each addition of an experience of direct exposure resulted in a 2-fold increase in the risk of PTSD (odds ratio = 2.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.84, 2.36). Identification of these risk factors may be useful when screening survivors of large-scale terrorist events for long-term psychological sequelae.

  4. Insights Into French Emergency Planning, Response, and Resilience Procedures From a Hospital Managerial Perspective Following the Paris Terrorist Attacks of Friday, November 13, 2015. (United States)

    Ghanchi, Ali


    On Friday, November 13, 2015, Paris was subjected to a multiple terrorist attack that caused widespread carnage. Although French emergency planning, response, and resilience procedures (Plan Blanc) anticipated crisis management of a major incident, these had to be adapted to the local context of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Teaching Hospital. Health care workers had undergone Plan Blanc training and exercises and it was fortunate that such a drill had occurred on the morning of the attack. The procedures were observed to work well because this type of eventuality had been fully anticipated, and staff performance exceeded expectations owing to prior in-depth training and preparations. Staff performance was also facilitated by overwhelming staff solidarity and professionalism, ensuring the smooth running of crisis management and improving victim survival rates. Although lessons learned are ongoing, an initial debriefing of managers found organizational improvements to be made. These included improvements to the activation of Plan Blanc and how staff were alerted, bed management, emergency morgue facilities, and public relations. In conclusion, our preparations for an eventual terrorist attack on this unprecedented scale ensured a successful medical response. Even though anticipating the unthinkable is difficult, contingency plans are being made to face other possible terrorist threats including chemical or biological agents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  5. An Estimation of a Nonlinear Dynamic Process Using Latent Class Extended Mixed Models: Affect Profiles After Terrorist Attacks. (United States)

    Burro, Roberto; Raccanello, Daniela; Pasini, Margherita; Brondino, Margherita


    Conceptualizing affect as a complex nonlinear dynamic process, we used latent class extended mixed models (LCMM) to understand whether there were unobserved groupings in a dataset including longitudinal measures. Our aim was to identify affect profiles over time in people vicariously exposed to terrorism, studying their relations with personality traits. The participants were 193 university students who completed online measures of affect during the seven days following two terrorist attacks (Paris, November 13, 2015; Brussels, March 22, 2016); Big Five personality traits; and antecedents of affect. After selecting students whose negative affect was influenced by the two attacks (33%), we analysed the data with the LCMM package of R. We identified two affect profiles, characterized by different trends over time: The first profile comprised students with lower positive affect and higher negative affect compared to the second profile. Concerning personality traits, conscientious-ness was lower for the first profile compared to the second profile, and vice versa for neuroticism. Findings are discussed for both their theoretical and applied relevance.

  6. Exploring the Iran-Hezbollah Relationship: A Case Study of how State Sponsorship affects Terrorist Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc R. DeVore


    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of state sponsorship on the decision-making of violent non-state actors is among the more important issues to scholars of security studies. This article addresses the issue by examining the relationship between Iran and Lebanon’s Hezbollah. To preview its conclusions, there are two main perspectives to consider with regard to the terrorist group – state sponsor relationship. First, state support has a powerful, yet indirect effect on violent non-state actor decision-making by shaping the options available to groups’ leaders.  Second, state sponsors can also directly leverage their aid to shape the strategic decisions of armed non-state actors, forcing their clients to either expand or restrict their activities. Because of inevitable lacunae and contradictions amongst published accounts, this study relies heavily upon primary sources and data collected during field research in Lebanon, including interviews with leaders from Hezbollah, the Lebanese Army, the United Nations' Peacekeeping Mission in Southern Lebanon (UNIFIL and the rival Shia organization, Amal.

  7. Forecasting the “Arab Spring” of 2011: Terrorist Incident Data from 2000-2010 Offered No Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi


    Full Text Available One of the single most predominant questions associated with the so-called “Arab Spring” is whether or not any social research indicators associated with terrorism data are available with predictive value for such profound structural political changes. The underlying aim of this “Research Note” is to take a first pass at the terrorism data and to compare certain terrorism data trends for four countries that experienced successful regime change in 2011, namely Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, to terrorism trends in nine countries where political strains and tensions did not result in full blown regime change. In this essay, those countries include Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, UAE, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. From the start, it should be clear that even though there was non-violent protest in many of these countries, this analysis places singular attention on what both Gurr and Ross and Miller call “oppositional” or “insurgent” terrorism where terrorist assaults are directed at state governments.

  8. On the Path of Election and Martyrdom: Some Psychic Mechanisms Involved in the Anders Behring Breivik's Determination as a Terrorist. (United States)

    Cotti, Patricia


    On 22 July 2011, the Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik carried out two attacks in Oslo that cost the lives of 77 people, injured many others, and plunged the entire Norwegian nation into mourning. When he was arrested, Breivik presented himself as a member of the Knights Templar, whose mission is to defend the Christian Western world. He considers that he has sacrificed himself by his actions for his people and says that he has prepared himself for martyrdom. In analysing Breivik's words and writings, this article attempts to identify the thought mechanisms involved in Breivik's idea of election (megalomania) and martyrology. It highlights the importance of a mechanism of "return to the sender," whereby Breivik returns the reproaches directed at him by an agency of judgment (ego ideal or superegoic object). It emphasizes the existence of a "burning desire" and yearning (Sehnsucht) for this same persecuting superegoic object, an object that Breivik constantly wants to find again, even if in death. Taking into consideration Searles's hypothesis that the sense of being persecuted is a defence against the impossibility of mourning, and also H. Blum's hypothesis that persecutory feelings are indicative of fears of a "regressive loss of object constancy," the different psychic mechanisms and modes of functioning underlying Breivik's terrorist determination are related here to what we know about his affective development and infantile relationships.

  9. Head and neck cancers associated with exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks. (United States)

    Leeman, Jonathan E; McBride, Sean M; Spielsinger, Daniel; Sherman, Eric J; Wong, Richard; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Nancy Y; Tsai, Chiaojung Jillian


    Exposure at the World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist collapse site on September 11, 2001 has been associated with increased cancer risk, though observational studies have identified very few cases of head and neck cancer (HNC) in exposed individuals. Eighty seven patients were identified who presented to our institution with HNC diagnosed from 2002 to 2017 who reported WTC exposure. The annual number and proportion of WTC-exposed HNC patients has been steadily increasing since 2002, with most cancers developing >10 years following the event. Furthermore, WTC-exposed patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive OPC experienced significantly inferior outcomes compared with non-WTC exposed patients with HPV+ OPC (disease free survival 80.1% vs. 65.6% at 4 years, p = 0.04). This single institution study cannot establish evidence of exposure-mediated causation but higher recurrence rates in the WTC-exposed HPV+ OPC population suggest a treatment refractory tumor biology and possible exposure synergism with HPV-mediated oncogenesis. © 2018 UICC.

  10. Age-related differences in the phenomenal characteristics of long-term memories of March 11, 2004 terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Vallet


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore age-related differences in the phenomenal characteristics of long-term memories of the terrorist attacks that took place in Madrid (Spain on March 11, 2004. One hundred and ninety-six individuals participated in this experiment: 92 were 9.60 years old on average and 104 were 39.41 years old on average at the time of the event. To evaluate their real memories of the event twelve years later, the Phenomenological Questionnaire on Autobiographical Memory was used. Differences were shown between the two groups in terms of memory quality, emotions associated with the event, and accessibility of the information remembered. Results were also represented using high-dimensional visualization (HDV graphs, supporting the assertion that long-term event memories have different characteristics depending on the age of the individual at the time the event took place. Memories in adult people meet the criteria to be considered flashbulb memories, while in the case of the younger people this kind of memory does not seem to emerge. Young people are probably less capable of evaluating the consequences of an event which results in reduced emotional arousal and a different elaboration of the event memory in comparison to older adults.

  11. Predictors of the impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on victims of intimate partner violence. (United States)

    Franz, Victoria A; Arnkoff, Diane B; Glass, Carol R; Mete, Mihriye; Dutton, Mary Ann


    This study examined the role of several hypothesized predictors of the impact of a potentially traumatic event, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), on a sample of women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and related posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). We found that IPV-related PTSS mediated the relationship between IPV and 9/11-related PTSS, confirming the hypothesis that severity of symptoms related to prior trauma plays a role in the development and severity of PTSS related to subsequent potentially traumatic events. Media exposure and threat appraisal were significantly positively associated with 9/11-related PTSS, whereas social support was significantly negatively associated with 9/11-related PTSS, with none of these variables serving as moderators of the relationship between IPV-related and 9/11-related PTSS. Our results suggest that trauma-related psychiatric history is an important factor in the development of PTSS subsequent to an additional potentially traumatic event, even after adjusting for relevant variables occurring at the time of that event. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  12. Surgical support during the terrorist attacks in Paris, November 13, 2015: Experience at Bégin Military Teaching Hospital. (United States)

    Barbier, Olivier; Malgras, Brice; Choufani, Camille; Bouchard, Antoine; Ollat, Didier; Versier, Gilbert


    Recent conflicts have allowed the French Army Health Service to improve management quality for wartime-injured people during military operations. On November 13, 2015, it was in Paris that France was directly attacked and Bégin Military Teaching Hospital, like several hospitals in Paris, had to face a large number of gunshot victims. Thanks to our operational experience, injured people hospitalized in military hospitals benefited from a management based on triage and damage control (DC) principles. Forty-five patients were taken care of in our hospital with an average age of 32 years. During triage, eight patients were categorized T1 (with four extreme emergencies) and 10 were classified T2 and 27 as T3. Twenty-two patients underwent emergency surgery, 15 for soft tissue lesions of limbs, 8 for ballistic fractures (one of which was a cervical wound), and 5 for abdominal wounds. Two patients classified T1 died early. In total, more than 50 operations were performed including iterative debridements, bone fixation, three amputations, and two flaps. After 9 months, all of the patients had healed. One woman with limb stiffness required an arthrolysis. This event showed that terrorist attacks and mass casualties with war wounds can occur in France. Acquired experience regarding war wounds by the French Army Health Service is precious. Everyone must understand the importance of triage and the principles of damage control. Every hospital must be ready to face this type of massive influx of injured people (white plan). Epidemiological study, level V.

  13. Occupational practitioner's role in the management of a crisis: lessons learned from the Paris November 2015 terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Descatha


    Full Text Available In massive catastrophic events, occupational health practitioners are more and more frequently involved in the management of such situations. We aim to describe the multiple aspects of the role that occupational health practitioners might play, by focusing on the recent example of the Paris terrorist attack of November 2015.During and after the Paris attack, occupational practitioners in collaboration with emergency and security professionals were involved in psychological care, assembling information, follow-up, return-to-work, and improving in-company safety plans.Based on this experience and other industrial disasters, we distinguish three phases: the critical phase, the post-critical phase, and the anticipation phase. In the critical phase, the occupational practitioner cares for patients before the emergency professionals take charge, initiates the psychological management, and may also play an organizational role for company health aspects. In the post-critical phase, he or she would be involved in monitoring those affected by the events, and participate in preventing, to the extent possible, post-traumatic stress disorder, helping victims in the return-to-work process, and improving procedures and organizing drills. In addition to their usual work of primary prevention, occupational practitioners should endeavor to improve preparedness in the anticipation phase, by taking part in contingency planning, training in first aid, and defining immediately applicable protocols.In conclusion, recent events have highlighted the essential role of occupational health services in anticipation of a crisis, management during the crisis, and follow-up.

  14. Detection of the sarin hydrolysis product in formalin-fixed brain tissues of victims of the Tokyo subway terrorist attack. (United States)

    Matsuda, Y; Nagao, M; Takatori, T; Niijima, H; Nakajima, M; Iwase, H; Kobayashi, M; Iwadate, K


    One of the hydrolysis products of sarin (isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) was detected in formalin-fixed brain tissues of victims poisoned in the Tokyo subway terrorist attack. Part of this procedure, used for the detection of sarin hydrolysis products in erythrocytes of sarin victims, has been described previously. The test materials were four individual cerebellums, which had been stored in formalin fixative for about 2 years. Sarin-bound acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was solubilized from these cerebellums, purified by immunoaffinity chromatography, and digested with trypsin. Then the sarin hydrolysis products bound to AChE were released by alkaline phosphatase digestion, subjected to trimethylsilyl derivatization (TMS), and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Peaks at m/z 225 and m/z 240, which are indicative of TMS-methylphosphonic acid, were observed within the retention time range of authentic methylphosphonic acid. However, no isopropyl methylphosphonic acid was detected in the formalin-fixed cerebellums of these 4 sarin victims, probably because the isopropoxy group of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid underwent chemical hydrolysis during storage. This procedure will be useful for the forensic diagnosis of poisoning by protein-bound, highly toxic agents, such as sarin, which are easily hydrolysed. This appears to be the first time that intoxication by a nerve agent has been demonstrated by analyzing formalin-fixed brains obtained at autopsy.

  15. Contribution to the study of the evolution of radiation induced He in Be O; Etudes sur l'evolution de l'helium produit par reactions nucleaires dans l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The purpose of this work in-pile investigation of He formed by (n, 2n) and (n, {alpha}) nuclear reactions, released from irradiated BeO, in the temperature range 1000 - 1350 deg. C. The experimental results show that, for an instantaneous neutron fast flux of 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, an equilibrium is attempted, after several days, for a part lower than 20 per cent of the quantity of He formed, theoretically calculated from the neutron cross sections of nuclear reactions, and from the analytical form of the neutron fast flux, releases from the solid. The validity of the values of calculated helium and the gas chromatographic analytical method are also verified by dissolution of the BeO pellets in cryolite. A new fast neutron flux measuring method may be so defined. The discussion of the experimental results enables to establish that the processus of He release is characterized by two phenomena: the first one which controls the release of He atoms out of the solid and the second which reveals a capture processus, connected to the irradiation and probably due to the vacancies induced in the lattice. (author) [French] On etudie en pile le degagement de l'helium forme par reactions nucleaires (n, 2 n) et (n, {alpha}) dans l'oxyde de beryllium irradie entre 1000 et 1350 deg. C. Les resultats experimentaux montrant que, pour un flux rapide instantane de 10{sup 13} n{sub r} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, on aboutit, au bout de quelques jours, a un etat d'equilibre pour lequel une partie, inferieure a 20 pour cent de la quantite d'helium forme, calculee theoriquement a partir des sections efficaces des reactions nucleaires et de la forme analytique du flux rapide, s'echappe du solide. On verifie egalement par dissolution des echantillons de BeO dans la cryolithe la validite du calcul de l'helium et de la methode de dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. On peut ainsi definir une methode nouvelle de mesure des flux rapides. La

  16. Le volcan Cayambe (Equateur: son activité au cours des 5000 dernières années et les menaces qui en résultent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available L’étude des produits récents émis par les dômes dacitiques qui constituent la partie sommitale du volcan Cayambe, situé à 60 km au NE de Quito, révèle quatre unités volcaniques comprenant des coulées pyroclastiques à blocs et cendres, des déferlantes et des lahars associés. La plus jeune de ces unités a été émise vers 360 ans BP. Par ailleurs, l’étude des dépôts d’une tourbière du Cayambe met en évidence 23 niveaux de retombées (cendres et lapilli émis au cours de 3 grands cycles d’activité, de 7 à 10 siècles de durée, depuis 4 000 ans. Le dernier de ces cycles, auquel peuvent être rattachées les quatre phases de coulées pyroclastiques, n’est peut-être pas terminé, comme le suggère une petite éruption intervenue en 1785-1786. Ces résultats donnent un éclairage nouveau sur les menaces que ce volcan, fortement englacé, fait peser sur les populations vivant à son pied. EL VOLCÁN CAYAMBE (ECUADOR: SU ACTIVIDAD DESDE LOS ÚLTIMOS 5 000 AÑOS Y LAS AMENAZAS CORRESPONDIENTES. El estudio de los productos recientes emitidos por los domos dacíticos que forman la cumbre del volcán Cayambe, ubicado a 60 km al noreste de Quito, revela cuatro unidades de flujos piroclásticos de bloques y ceniza, oleadas y lahares asociados. La unidad más reciente fue emitida alrededor de 360 BP. Además, el estudio de los depósitos de una turbera del Cayambe muestra 23 niveles de caídas (cenizas y lapilli, que corresponden a tres ciclos de actividad, de 7 a 10 siglos de duración cada uno, durante los 4 000 últimos años. El último ciclo, que incluye las cuatro unidades de flujos piroclásticos mencionadas, puede no haber terminado todavía, como lo sugiere la pequeña erupción ocurrida en 1785-1786. Estos resultados enfatizan el peligro que este volcán, cubierto por un espeso casquete glaciar, puede representar para las poblaciones y las infraestructuras establecidas en sus alrededores. CAYAMBE VOLCANO (ECUADOR: ERUPTIVE

  17. Relations between PTSD and distress dimensions in an Indian child/adolescent sample following the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Mehta, Panna; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Hovey, Joseph D; Geers, Andrew L; Charak, Ruby; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Elhai, Jon D


    Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) four-factor dysphoria model has substantial empirical support (reviewed in Elhai & Palmieri, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 849-854, 2011; Yufik & Simms, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 764-776, 2010). However, debatable is whether the model's dysphoria factor adequately captures all of PTSD's emotional distress (e.g., Marshall et al., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(1), 126-135, 2010), which is relevant to understanding the assessment and psychopathology of PTSD. Thus, the present study assessed the factor-level relationship between PTSD and emotional distress in 818 children/adolescents attending school in the vicinity of the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. The effective sample had a mean age of 12.85 years (SD = 1.33), with the majority being male (n = 435, 53.8 %). PTSD and emotional distress were measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) assessed the PTSD and BSI-18 model fit; Wald tests assessed hypothesized PTSD-distress latent-level relations; and invariance testing examined PTSD-distress parameter differences using age, gender and direct exposure as moderators. There were no moderating effects for the PTSD-distress structural parameters. BSI-18's depression and somatization factors related more to PTSD's dysphoria than PTSD's avoidance factor. The results emphasize assessing for specificity and distress variance of PTSD factors on a continuum, rather than assuming dysphoria factor's complete accountability for PTSD's inherent distress. Additionally, PTSD's dysphoria factor related more to BSI-18's depression than BSI-18's anxiety/somatization factors; this may explain PTSD's comorbidity mechanism with depressive disorders.

  18. Symptom-based, algorithmic approach for handling the initial encounter with victims of a potential terrorist attack. (United States)

    Subbarao, Italo; Johnson, Christopher; Bond, William F; Schwid, Howard A; Wasser, Thomas E; Deye, Greg A; Burkhart, Keith K


    This study intended to create symptom-based triage algorithms for the initial encounter with terror-attack victims. The goals of the triage algorithms include: (1) early recognition; (2) avoiding contamination; (3) early use of antidotes; (4) appropriate handling of unstable, contaminated victims; and (5) provisions of force protection. The algorithms also address industrial accidents and emerging infections, which have similar clinical presentations and risks for contamination as weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The algorithms were developed using references from military and civilian sources. They were tested and adjusted using a series of theoretical patients from a CD-ROM chemical, biological, radiological/nuclear, and explosive victim simulator. Then, the algorithms were placed into a card format and sent to experts in relevant fields for academic review. Six inter-connected algorithms were created, described, and presented in figure form. The "attack" algorithm, for example, begins by differentiating between overt and covert attack victims (A covert attack is defined by epidemiological criteria adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations). The attack algorithm then categorizes patients either as stable or unstable. Unstable patients flow to the "Dirty Resuscitation" algorithm, whereas, stable patients flow to the "Chemical Agent" and "Biological Agent" algorithms. The two remaining algorithms include the "Suicide Bomb/Blast/Explosion" and the "Radiation Dispersal Device" algorithms, which are inter-connected through the overt pathway in the "Attack" algorithm. A civilian, symptom-based, algorithmic approach to the initial encounter with victims of terrorist attacks, industrial accidents, or emerging infections was created. Future studies will address the usability of the algorithms with theoretical cases and utility in prospective, announced and unannounced, field drills. Additionally, future studies will assess the

  19. The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island. (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian


    Terrorism may create fear and stress reactions not only in the direct victims, but also in the general population. This study investigated emotional responses in the Norwegian population following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks. We hypothesized that Oslo residents would report a higher level of fear responses compared with people living outside Oslo and that proximity would be associated with early distress and later post-traumatic stress reactions. Representative samples were drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry. Telephone interviews were conducted 4-5 months after the attacks. The response rate for the Oslo sample (N=465) was 24% of the total sample, and 43% of those who were actually reached by phone and asked to participate. Corresponding figures for the sample living outside Oslo (N=716) were 19% and 30%. Our results show strong immediate emotional responses, particularly sadness and a feeling of unreality, in both samples. Jumpiness and other fear responses were significantly higher among Oslo residents. Current level of risk perception was low 4-5 months after the attacks; however, a significant minority reported to feel less safe than before. Geographical and psychological proximity were associated with early emotional responses. Psychological proximity was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions, while measures of geographical proximity were not. Immediate emotional responses, first-week reactions, and first-week jumpiness were uniquely and significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. Post-traumatic stress reactions were elevated in ethnic minorities. The terrorist attacks seem to have had a significant effect on the Norwegian population, creating sadness and insecurity, at least in the short term. Proximity to the terrorist attacks was strongly associated with distress in the population, and early distress was strongly related to later post-traumatic stress reactions. Our results indicate that

  20. "Second class loss": political culture as a recovery barrier--the families of terrorist casualties' struggle for national honors, recognition, and belonging. (United States)

    Lebel, Udi


    Israeli families of terrorist victims have undertaken initiatives to include their dearest in the national pantheon. The objections opposed the penetration of "second-class loss" into the symbolic closure of heroic national bereavement. The "hierarchy of bereavement" is examined through the lens of political culture organized around the veneration held for the army fallen and their families, which has symbolic as well as rehabilitative outcomes. Families of civilian terror victims claims for similar status and treatment had to frame their loss as national in the eyes of the social policy. The article claimed linkage between collective memory and rehabilitation.

  1. Représentations cartographiques des facteurs de vulnérabilité des populations exposées à une menace volcanique. Application à la région du volcan Cotopaxi (Equateur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Suivant une définition sociale, la vulnérabilité est la propension plus ou moins prononcée à subir des dommages. L’atténuation des risques naturels auxquels les hommes sont confrontés suppose la réduction de la vulnérabilité en matière de vies humaines, de biens et d’activités. Il s’agit au préalable d’identifier les facteurs de vulnérabilité, d’en mesurer la portée, et de localiser dans l’espace les secteurs les plus sensibles. La cartographie de la vulnérabilité et de ses facteurs est une étape indispensable vers une cartographie globale du risque à laquelle de nombreux chercheurs et décideurs aspirent. À partir de l’exemple des régions des provinces du Pichincha et du Cotopaxi exposées aux conséquences de l’activité du volcan Cotopaxi, l’article propose quelques jalons méthodologiques pour une cartographie de la vulnérabilité des populations menacées. Des typologies spatiales de vulnérabilité sont représentées à partir d’une analyse factorielle. La carte intégrée des facteurs de vulnérabilité permet la réalisation de diagnostics locaux, tandis qu’une troisième carte fournit des orientations pour des actions de préparation. Une réflexion est également menée sur l’intérêt et sur les limites d’utilisation de ces cartes. CARTOGRAFÍA DE LOS FACTORES DE VULNERABILIDAD DE LAS POBLACIONES EXPUESTAS A UNA AMENAZA VOLCÁNICA. APLICACIÓN A LA REGIÓN DEL VOLCÁN COTOPAXI (ECUADOR. Según una definición social, la vulnerabilidad es la propensión más o menos pronunciada a sufrir perjuicios cuando ocurre un fenómeno natural destructor. La mitigación de los riesgos naturales que enfrentan los hombres supone la reducción de la vulnerabilidad de éstos, de sus bienes y actividades económicas. Se trata previamente de identificar los factores de vulnerabilidad, medir sus consecuencias y localizar los sectores más sensibles. La cartografía de la vulnerabilidad y sus factores constituye una

  2. Evaluation of non-response bias in a cohort study of World Trade Center terrorist attack survivors. (United States)

    Yu, Shengchao; Brackbill, Robert M; Stellman, Steven D; Ghuman, Sharon; Farfel, Mark R


    Few longitudinal studies of disaster cohorts have assessed both non-response bias in prevalence estimates of health outcomes and in the estimates of associations between health outcomes and disaster exposures. We examined the factors associated with non-response and the possible non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association estimates in a longitudinal study of World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack survivors. In 2003-04, 71,434 enrollees completed the WTC Health Registry wave 1 health survey. This study is limited to 67,670 adults who were eligible for both wave 2 and wave 3 surveys in 2006-07 and 2011-12. We first compared the characteristics between wave 3 participants (wave 3 drop-ins and three-wave participants) and non-participants (wave 3 drop-outs and wave 1 only participants). We then examined potential non-response bias in prevalence estimates and in exposure-outcome association estimates by comparing one-time non-participants (wave 3 drop-ins and drop-outs) at the two follow-up surveys with three-wave participants. Compared to wave 3 participants, non-participants were younger, more likely to be male, non-White, non-self enrolled, non-rescue or recovery worker, have lower household income, and less than post-graduate education. Enrollees' wave 1 health status had little association with their wave 3 participation. None of the disaster exposure measures measured at wave 1 was associated with wave 3 non-participation. Wave 3 drop-outs and drop-ins (those who participated in only one of the two follow-up surveys) reported somewhat poorer health outcomes than the three-wave participants. For example, compared to three-wave participants, wave 3 drop-outs had a 1.4 times higher odds of reporting poor or fair health at wave 2 (95% CI 1.3-1.4). However, the associations between disaster exposures and health outcomes were not different significantly among wave 3 drop-outs/drop-ins as compared to three-wave participants. Our results show that

  3. Asthma and posttraumatic stress symptoms 5 to 6 years following exposure to the World Trade Center terrorist attack. (United States)

    Brackbill, Robert M; Hadler, James L; DiGrande, Laura; Ekenga, Christine C; Farfel, Mark R; Friedman, Stephen; Perlman, Sharon E; Stellman, Steven D; Walker, Deborah J; Wu, David; Yu, Shengchao; Thorpe, Lorna E


    The World Trade Center Health Registry provides a unique opportunity to examine long-term health effects of a large-scale disaster. To examine risk factors for new asthma diagnoses and event-related posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms among exposed adults 5 to 6 years following exposure to the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack. Longitudinal cohort study with wave 1 (W1) enrollment of 71,437 adults in 2003-2004, including rescue/recovery worker, lower Manhattan resident, lower Manhattan office worker, and passersby eligibility groups; 46,322 adults (68%) completed the wave 2 (W2) survey in 2006-2007. Self-reported diagnosed asthma following September 11; event-related current PTS symptoms indicative of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assessed using the PTSD Checklist (cutoff score > or = 44). Of W2 participants with no stated asthma history, 10.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.9%-10.5%) reported new asthma diagnoses postevent. Intense dust cloud exposure on September 11 was a major contributor to new asthma diagnoses for all eligibility groups: for example, 19.1% vs 9.6% in those without exposure among rescue/recovery workers (adjusted odds ratio, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.4-1.7]). Asthma risk was highest among rescue/recovery workers on the WTC pile on September 11 (20.5% [95% CI, 19.0%-22.0%]). Persistent risks included working longer at the WTC site, not evacuating homes, and experiencing a heavy layer of dust in home or office. Of participants with no PTSD history, 23.8% (95% CI, 23.4%-24.2%) reported PTS symptoms at either W1 (14.3%) or W2 (19.1%). Nearly 10% (9.6% [95% CI, 9.3%-9.8%]) had PTS symptoms at both surveys, 4.7% (95% CI, 4.5%-4.9%) had PTS symptoms at W1 only, and 9.5% (95% CI, 9.3%-9.8%) had PTS symptoms at W2 only. At W2, passersby had the highest rate of PTS symptoms (23.2% [95% CI, 21.4%-25.0%]). Event-related loss of spouse or job was associated with PTS symptoms at W2. Acute and prolonged exposures were both

  4. Assessment and reduction of proliferation risk of reactor-grade plutonium regarding construction of ‘fizzle bombs’ by terrorists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfontein, Dawid E.; Mulder, Eben J.; Reitsma, Frederik


    The approximately 23.7 wt% 240 Pu in reactor-grade plutonium denatures the 239 Pu to the extent that it cannot fuel high yield nuclear weapons. 240 Pu has a high spontaneous fission rate, which increases the spontaneous neutron flux within the fuel. When such a nuclear weapon is triggered, these neutrons cause the nuclear fission chain reaction to pre-detonate which blows the imploding fuel shell apart before the designed level of compression and reactivity could be attained, thereby greatly reducing the average energy yield of such “fizzle” bombs. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium is normally viewed as highly proliferation resistant. In this article the literature on the proliferation resistance of reactor-grade plutonium and on the mechanism and effect of fizzle bombs is reviewed in order to test this view. It is shown that even very low yield fizzle bombs, exploded in urban areas, would still cause serious blast damage as well as radioactive contamination. Combined with the high levels of induced terror, fizzle bombs might thus be attractive psychological weapons for terrorists. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium may not be sufficiently proliferation resistant against nuclear terrorism. However, denaturisation with more than 9% 238 Pu produces high levels of decay heat which will melt or explode the high explosives around uncooled implosion type weapons, rendering them useless. Unfortunately, reactor-grade Pu contains only 2.7% 238 Pu and is thus not sufficiently proliferation resistant in this respect. It is also shown that the associated neptunium poses a substantial proliferation risk. In the present study strong improvement of the proliferation resistance was demonstrated by simulation of incineration of reactor-grade plutonium in the 400 MW th Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. Results for modified fuel cycles, aimed at transmutating 237 Np to 238 Pu are also reported. However, these modifications increased the disloaded heavy metal

  5. Conformity of nuclear construction codes with the requirements of the French order dated December 12, 2005 related to nuclear pressure equipment; Conformite des codes de construction nucleaires avec les exigences de l'arrete du 12 decembre 2005 relatif aux equipements sous pression nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandemange, J.M.; Renaut, P. [Areva-NP, Tour AREVA, 92084 - Paris La Defense cedex, (France); Paris, D. [EDF-Ceidre 2 rue Ampere - 93206 SAINT-DENIS Cedex (France); Faidy, C. [EDF-Septen 12/14, Avenue Dutrievoz 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)


    The French Decree dated December 13, 1999 transposing the Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) has replaced the fundamental texts on which up to now the regulation for pressure equipment important for the safety of nuclear reactors was also founded. By a Ministerial Order - called 'ESPN Order' - dated December 12, 2005, a new regulation has been issued for nuclear pressure equipment. This text makes reference to the Decree transposing the PED while completing these provisions by supplementary requirements having the objective to provide a very high level of integrity guarantee for equipments which are the most important for safety, and to cover the prevention of radioactive release risks. These regulatory evolutions are presented in the Plenary Session of the ESOPE conference. Referencing the Decree and thus the PED, and including specific provisions, the Ministerial Order implies that the Manufacturers update their documents and, if necessary, their prescriptions in the following two domains: - that of the conformity of Codes and Standards used, generally inspired from the ASME Code Section III, with the essential safety requirements of the PED, - that of the respect of the complementary provisions brought by the ESPN Order. This paper presents the more significant conclusions of this work and the resulting amendments of the RCC-M Code, introduced by the 2007 addendum to that Code. The analysis will lead to specify the same type of complementary requirements to Code when a manufacturer wishes to use the German KTA Rules or the ASME Code Section III. (authors) [French] Le decret du 13 decembre 1999 transposant la directive europeenne (DESP) relative aux equipements sous pression a remplace les textes fondamentaux sur lesquels se fondait egalement jusque la la reglementation des appareils a pression importants pour la surete des reacteurs nucleaires. Par arrete - dit 'arrete ESPN' - du 12 decembre 2005, une nouvelle reglementation a ete dictee. Ce

  6. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlin Ava Marie S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002. We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes.

  7. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following Chemical Terrorist Attack: Introduction and Key Assessment Considerations (United States)

    Watson, Annetta; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Dolislager, Fredrick; Love, Adam H.; Hanna, M. Leslie


    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility reuse and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information, and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. A conceptual site model and human health-based exposure guidelines are developed and reported as an aid to site-specific pre-planning in the current absence of U.S. state or Federal values designated as compound-specific remediation or re-entry concentrations, and to safely expedite facility recovery to full operational status. Chemicals of concern include chemical warfare nerve and vesicant agents and the toxic industrial compounds phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination. PMID:21390292

  8. Post-traumatic stress reactions following the March 11, 2004 terrorist attacks in a Madrid community sample: a cautionary note about the measurement of psychological trauma. (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Pérez-Sales, Pau; Matt, Georg


    Posttraumatic stress reactions related to the Madrid March 11, 2004, terrorist attacks were examined in a sample of Madrid residents (N = 503) 18-25 days after the attacks, using multiple diagnostic criteria and different cut-off scores. Based on the symptoms covered by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, and Keane, 1993), rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ranged from 3.4% to 13.3%. Taking into account additional criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 200; i.e., the impact of initial reaction and problems in daily functioning as a consequence of the traumatic event), only 1.9% of respondents reported probable PTSD. These results suggest that inferences about the impact of traumatic events on the general population are strongly influenced by the definition of traumatic response. Our findings also revealed that the magnitude of posttraumatic reactions is associated with several risk factors, including living close to the attacked locations, physical proximity to the attacks when they occurred, perception of one's life being at risk, intensity of initial emotional reactions, and being a daily user of the attacked train lines. The use of different cut-off scores did not affect the pattern of risk to develop traumatic stress. The implications of these results for public health policies related to terrorist attacks are discussed.

  9. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. (United States)

    Endara, Skye M; Ryan, Margaret A K; Sevick, Carter J; Conlin, Ava Marie S; Macera, Caroline A; Smith, Tyler C


    Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002). We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes.

  10. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction (United States)

    Bennett, Russell L.


    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twenty-three people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a

  11. Exploring Terrorist Targeting Preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Libicki, Martin C; Chalk, Peter; Sisson, Melanie


    ... that reflect the value and vulnerability of each potential target. Yet those buildings, institutions, and icons perceived as being of utmost value to the United States may not be perceived as such to its potential attackers...

  12. Terrorist Group Profiles (United States)


    Oya. June 1987 - Attacked a busload of Buddhist monks traveling south of Batticaloa, killing 29 and wounding 17. October 1987- When 12 captured LITrE...independent strike teams to be spread across Germany and carefully "covered" by the appearance of normal civilian lifestyles . From this position, they

  13. Profile of a Terrorist. (United States)


    homeland in the Iberian region. (6:12) ’it1day, after 20 years of insurgent actions, the Basque separatists have embraced Marxist political theory as their...34 Current News, Special Edition, Terrorism, August 5, 1986, pp. 20-22. 37. Wolf , John. "Arab Terror Draws upon Diverse iilosophical .Rots." New York City

  14. Leftist Terrorist Motivation. (United States)


    intelligence. Educationally they tend to be enrolled in such studies as sociology, law or the arts . The next group is the large silent majority of passive...hence there are strong motivations on each side. Clutterbuck further reported that the Catholic Irish consider themselves to be under alien, colonial ...members other than Fusako Shigenobu. Murray Sayle also noted that: Japanese students live in squalid lodgings, eat poorly and study in grotesquely

  15. On Deceiving Terrorists (United States)


    parallel to those offered by Lansdale. Both Valeriano and 108 68 NAMFREL stands for the National...Eye of God” ruse.69 A light liaison airplane assigned to the BCT would over-fly the Huk unit. The pilot or a passenger—sometimes Valeriano unknown number of insurgents (Lansdale, 1991, p. 74; Leites and Wolf, 1970, p. 143). According to both Lansdale and Valeriano , this tactic

  16. Terrorist tactics in taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.


    Under the catching title given above G.B. MONTEITH, Queensland Museum, has written an editorial in the Austr. Entom. Soc. News Bull. 21 (1985) 66—69, which has been copied in the Austr. Syst. Bot. Soc. Newsletter 44 (1985) with a comment by A. KANIS (CANB). Although it mainly concerns Australian

  17. Foreign Terrorist Organizations (United States)


    Familiar Road Map to Terror,” Associated Press, Dec. 18, 2001. Armed Islamic Group (GIA) Name(s). Armed Islamic Group, GIA Goals and Objectives. GIA...known as La Violencia (1948-1958).390 The violence ended in 1958 with a reconciliation between key parties in the government. Meanwhile, landless

  18. Exploring Terrorist Targeting Preferences (United States)


    criteria proceed to the next phase of operational planning, surveillance and assessment. Alternatively, al Qaeda operatives, with a sense of what serves...OutThereNews, December 6, 2002b, 8:41 a.m. As of January 19, 2006: modules . php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=47&topic...York: Berkley Books, 2003. ———, “The al-Qaeda Threat and the International Response,” in David Martin Jones, ed., Globalisation and the New Terror: The

  19. Nuclear medicine; La medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibille, L. [Hopital Lapeyronie CHU Montpellier, Medecine Nucleaire, 34 - Montpellier (France); Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V. [CHU de Nimes, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et de biophysique, 30 - Nimes (France)


    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)

  20. Information sur les technologies nucleaires

    CERN Multimedia


    "La base Inis (International Nuclear Information System) de l'Agence Internationale d'Energie Atomique (IAEA) dispose desormais de liens vers les textes complets de documents internationaux" (1 paragraph).