Kumta, Sameer; Lurie, Mark; Weitzen, Sherry; Jerajani, Hemangi; Gogate, Alka; Row-kavi, Ashok; Anand, Vivek; Makadon, Harvey; Mayer, Kenneth H.
Objectives To describe sociodemographics, sexual risk behavior, and estimate HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mumbai, India. Methods Eight hundred thirty-one MSM attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at the Humsafar Trust, answered a behavioral questionnaire and consented for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and HIV testing from January 2003 through December 2004. Multivariate logistic regression was performed for sociodemographics, sexual risk behavior, and STIs with HIV result as an outcome. Results HIV prevalence among MSM was 12.5%. MSM who were illiterate [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 4.84], married (AOR 2.70; 95% CI: 1,56 to 4.76), preferred male partners (AOR 4.68; 95% CI: 1.90 to 11.51), had partners of both genders (AOR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.03 to 7.23), presented with an STI (AOR 3.31; 95% CI: 1.96 to 5.61); or presented with a reactive venereal disease research laboratory test (AOR 4.92; 95% CI: 2.55 to 9.53) at their VCT visit were more likely to be HIV infected. Conclusions MSM accessing VCT services in Mumbai have a high risk of STI and HIV acquisition. Culturally appropriate interventions that focus on sexual risk behavior and promote condom use among MSM, particularly the bridge population of bisexual men, are needed to slow the urban Indian AIDS epidemic. PMID:19934765
This article examines a proposal from PSI Energy, Inc. (formerly Public Service Company of Indiana) to allow open access to its power transmission facilities and the response of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's response to that proposal. The topics discussed include transmission tariffs, competition, market share, expansion of transmission capacity and its funding, and reciprocal agreements to provide similar service
Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Oldfield, Lucy; Loewenberger, Alana; Das, Ravi K; Bisby, James; Brewin, Chris R
Men and women show differences in performance on emotional processing tasks. Sex also interacts with personality traits to affect information processing. Here we examine effects of sex, and two personality traits that are differentially expressed in men and women - instrumentality and communality - on voluntary and involuntary memory for distressing video-footage. On session one, participants (n = 39 men; 40 women) completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, which assesses communal and instrumental traits. After viewing film-footage of death/serious injury, participants recorded daily involuntary memories (intrusions) relating to the footage on an online diary for seven days, returning on day eight for a second session to perform a voluntary memory task relating to the film. Communality interacted with sex such that men with higher levels of communality reported more frequent involuntary memories. Alternatively, a communality × sex interaction reflected a tendency for women with high levels of communality to perform more poorly on the voluntary recognition memory task. The study involved healthy volunteers with no history of significant psychological disorder. Future research with clinical populations will help to determine the generalizability of the current findings. Communality has separate effects on voluntary and involuntary emotional memory. We suggest that high levels of communality in men and women may confer vulnerability to the negative effects of stressful events either through the over-encoding of sensory/perceptual-information in men or the reduced encoding of contextualised, verbally-based, voluntarily accessible representations in women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rijken, A.J.; Merz, E.M.
We examined double standards in norms concerning voluntary childlessness. Whether the choice to remain childless is more accepted for men or women is not a priori clear; we formulated hypotheses in both directions. Parenthood might be considered as more central to women's identity than to men's,
Rijken, A.J.; Merz, E.-M.
We examined double standards in norms concerning voluntary childlessness. Whether the choice to remain childless is more accepted for men or women is not a priori clear; we formulated hypotheses in both directions. Parenthood might be considered as more central to women’s identity than to men’s,
Leta Tesfaye H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.
Full Text Available In 2010, South Africa launched a countrywide effort to scale up its voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC program on the basis of compelling evidence that circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV through heterosexual intercourse. Even though VMMC is free there, clients can incur indirect out-of-pocket costs (for example transportation cost or foregone income. Because these costs can be barriers to increasing the uptake of VMMC services, we assessed them from a client perspective, to inform VMMC demand creation policies. Costs (calculated using a bottom-up approach and demographic data were systematically collected through 190 interviews conducted in 2015 with VMMC clients or (for minors their caregivers at 25 VMMC facilities supported by the government and the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in eight of South Africa's nine provinces. The average age of VMMC clients was 22 years and nearly 92% were under 35 years of age. The largest reported out-of-pocket expenditure was transportation, at an average of US$9.20 (R 100. Only eight clients (4% reported lost days of work. Indirect expenditures were childcare costs (one client and miscellaneous items such as food or medicine (20 clients. Given competing household expense priorities, spending US$9.20 (R100 per person on transportation to access VMMC services could be a significant burden on clients and households, and a barrier to South Africa's efforts to create demand for VMMC. Thus, we recommend a more focused analysis of clients' transportation costs to access VMMC services.
Rijken, A.J.; Merz, E.-M.
We examine double standards in norms on voluntary childlessness. Whether choosing childlessness is more accepted for men or for women is not a priori clear; we formulate arguments in both directions. Multilevel analyses are conducted, including individual and societal-level variables. Our sample
Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be highly affected with the HIV infection worldwide. Studies have shown that the organization of healthcare systems and how the MSM perceive it play a major role in granting or denying them access to healthcare services. Little is known in Tanzania regarding ...
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was comparing the ground reaction forces, center of pressure and body center of mass changes in voluntary, semi-voluntary and involuntary gait termination in healthy young men. Methods: In this study, 12 young men performed termination of gait in three different patterns. The variable of peak antero-posterior and vertical forces in two directions at both limbs, the time to reach peak and average forces in every limb in both directions, the center of pressure displacement of medio-lateral and antero-posterior direction for each limb and the net center of pressure and the displacement of the center of mass motion in all three motion plates were recorded using motion analysis system and force plate.The repeated measurements test was used to compare three patterns of gait termination at significance level of p&le0.5. Results: The results showed a significant difference in variables of peak antero-posterior force, the time to reach peak antero-posterior force and mean antero-posterior forces of the leading limb, the peak antero-posterior force of the trialing limbs, the depth force of leading limbs, medio-lateral cop of leading limbs displacement and vertical displacement of the center of mass, among different patterns of gait termination. Conclusion: While walking, the probability of a fall or collision damage, when a sudden or unexpected stop is required, increases. Therefore, more coordination between neuromuscular systems is required.
Yeganeh, Nava; Simon, Mariana; Mindry, Deborah; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Chaves, Maria Cristina; Santos, Breno; Melo, Marineide; Mendoza, Brenna; Gorbach, Pamina
Providing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) to men who attend their partner's prenatal care is an intervention with potential to reduce HIV transmission to women and infants during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. Little is known about the acceptability of this intervention in global settings outside of Africa. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews to evaluate potential barriers and facilitators to prenatal care attendance for HIV VCT with 20 men who did and 15 men who did not attend prenatal care with their partners at Hospital Conceiçao in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Men were recruited at the labor and delivery unit at Hospital Conceiçao via a scripted invitation while visiting their newborn infant. Interviews lasted from 35-55 minutes and were conducted in Portuguese by a local resident trained extensively in qualitative methods. All interviews were transcribed verbatim, translated, and then analyzed using Atlast.ti software. An analysis of themes was then conducted using direct quotes and statements. We applied and adapted the AIDS Risk Reduction Theoretical Model and HIV Testing Decisions Model to the qualitative data to identify themes in the 35 interviews. If offered HIV testing during prenatal care, all men in both groups stated they would accept this intervention. Yet, individual, relationship and systemic factors were identified that affect these Brazilian men's decision to attend prenatal care, informing our final conceptual model. The men interviewed had a general understanding of the value of HIV prevention of mother to child transmission. They also described open and communicative relationships with their significant others and displayed a high level of enthusiasm towards optimizing the health of their expanding family. The major barriers to attending prenatal care included perceived stigma against HIV infected individuals, men's lack of involvement in planning of the pregnancy as well as inconvenient scheduling of prenatal care, due to
Full Text Available Providing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT to men who attend their partner's prenatal care is an intervention with potential to reduce HIV transmission to women and infants during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. Little is known about the acceptability of this intervention in global settings outside of Africa.We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews to evaluate potential barriers and facilitators to prenatal care attendance for HIV VCT with 20 men who did and 15 men who did not attend prenatal care with their partners at Hospital Conceiçao in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Men were recruited at the labor and delivery unit at Hospital Conceiçao via a scripted invitation while visiting their newborn infant. Interviews lasted from 35-55 minutes and were conducted in Portuguese by a local resident trained extensively in qualitative methods. All interviews were transcribed verbatim, translated, and then analyzed using Atlast.ti software. An analysis of themes was then conducted using direct quotes and statements. We applied and adapted the AIDS Risk Reduction Theoretical Model and HIV Testing Decisions Model to the qualitative data to identify themes in the 35 interviews.If offered HIV testing during prenatal care, all men in both groups stated they would accept this intervention. Yet, individual, relationship and systemic factors were identified that affect these Brazilian men's decision to attend prenatal care, informing our final conceptual model. The men interviewed had a general understanding of the value of HIV prevention of mother to child transmission. They also described open and communicative relationships with their significant others and displayed a high level of enthusiasm towards optimizing the health of their expanding family. The major barriers to attending prenatal care included perceived stigma against HIV infected individuals, men's lack of involvement in planning of the pregnancy as well as inconvenient scheduling of
Gillum, R Frank; Jarrett, Nicole; Obisesan, Thomas O
In order to elucidate cultural correlates of utilization of primary health services by young adult men, we investigated religion in which one was raised and service utilization. Using data from a national survey we tested the hypothesis that religion raised predicts access to and utilization of a regular medical care provider, examinations, HIV and other STD testing and counseling at ages 18-44 years in men born between 1958 and 1984. We also hypothesized that religion raised would be more predictive of utilization for Hispanic Americans and non-Hispanic Black Americans than for non-Hispanic White Americans. The study included a national sample of 4276 men aged 18-44 years. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to assess the hypotheses using data on religion raised and responses to 14 items assessing health care access and utilization. Compared to those raised in no religion, those raised mainline Protestant were more likely (p Religion raised was not associated with testicular exams, STD counseling or HIV testing. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounders, significant associations of religion raised with insurance coverage, a physician as usual source of care and physical examination remained which varied by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, although religion is a core aspect of culture that deserves further study as a possible determinant of health care utilization, we were not able to document any consistent pattern of significant association even in a population with high rates of religious participation.
Kolb, Erik M; Kelly, Scott A; Garland, Theodore
Exercise is known to be rewarding and have positive effects on mental and physical health. Excessive exercise, however, can be the result of an underlying behavioral/physiological addiction. Both humans who exercise regularly and rodent models of exercise addiction sometimes display behavioral withdrawal symptoms, including depression and anxiety, when exercise is denied. However, few studies have examined the physiological state that occurs during this withdrawal period. Alterations in blood pressure (BP) are common physiological indicators of withdrawal in a variety of addictions. In this study, we examined exercise withdrawal in four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Mice from the HR lines run almost 3-fold greater distances on wheels than those from non-selected control lines, and have altered brain activity as well as increased behavioral despair when wheel access is removed. We tested the hypothesis that male HR mice have an altered cardiovascular response (heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure [MAP]) during exercise withdrawal. Measurements using an occlusion tail-cuff system were taken during 8 days of baseline, 6 days of wheel access, and 2 days of withdrawal (wheel access blocked). During withdrawal, HR mice had significantly lower systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MAP than controls, potentially indicating a differential dependence on voluntary wheel running in HR mice. This is the first characterization of a cardiovascular withdrawal response in an animal model of high voluntary exercise. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Crowell, Trevor A; Keshinro, Babajide; Baral, Stefan D; Schwartz, Sheree R; Stahlman, Shauna; Nowak, Rebecca G; Adebajo, Sylvia; Blattner, William A; Charurat, Manhattan E; Ake, Julie A
Among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who sell sex (MSS) may be subject to increased sexual behaviour-related stigma that affects uptake of healthcare and risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The objectives of this study were to characterize stigma, access to care, and prevalence of HIV among MSS in Nigeria. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit MSM in Abuja and Lagos into the ongoing TRUST/RV368 study, which provides HIV testing and treatment. Detailed behavioural data were collected by trained interviewers. MSS were identified by self-report of receiving goods or money in exchange for sex with men. Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to explore the impact of sex-selling on the risk of HIV. From 12 initial seed participants, 1552 men were recruited from March 2013-March 2016. Of these, 735 (47.4%) reported sex-selling. Compared to other MSM, MSS were younger (median 22 vs. 24 years, p harassment (39.2% vs. 26.8%, p sexual behaviour-related stigma affecting MSS, as compared with other MSM, that limits uptake of healthcare services. The distinct characteristics and risks among MSS suggest the need for specific interventions to optimize linkage to HIV prevention and treatment services in Nigeria.
Jones, Katherine J.; Cochran, Gary; Hicks, Rodney W.; Mueller, Keith J.
Context:Low service volume, insufficient information technology, and limited human resources are barriers to learning about and correcting system failures in small rural hospitals. This paper describes the implementation of and initial findings from a voluntary medication error reporting program developed by the Nebraska Center for Rural Health…
Tian, T; Cai, A J; Huang, B X; Abidan, Ainiwaer; Wang, H; Dai, J H
Objective: To understand the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection status in men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from gay bathhouses and HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clinics in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, and identify the associated risk factors. Methods: A total of 200 MSM aged ≥18 years were recruited by using the " snowballing" sampling method from gay bathhouses and VCT clinics in Urumqi during March-May, 2016. The MSM recruited completed questionnaires after filling in the informed consent form. The information about their demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were collected, and anal swabs were collected from them for HPV genotyping. Results: The overall HPV infection rate was 54.0 % . The HPV infection rate was 66.7 % (74/111) in MSM from gay bathhouses and 38.2 % (34/89) in MSM from VCT clinics and the high risk type HPV infection rate was 39.6 % (44/111) in MSM from gay bathhouses and 14.6 % (13/89) in MSM from VCT clinics, the differences were significant ( χ (2)=16.112, P prevalence of HPV in MSM from gay bathhouses was higher than that in MSM from VCT clinics, indicating that close attention should be paid to the behavior intervention in MSM.
Wu, Qiongmiao; Cheng, Weibin; Zhong, Fei; Xu, Huifang; Liu, Qi; Lin, Peng
To understand the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status and syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) receiving voluntary counseling and testing appointed through a web-based registering system and related factors. The MSM receiving web appointed HIV counseling and testing from 2011 to 2012 in Guangzhou were recruited and a questionnaire survey was conduct among them to obtain the information about their demographic characteristics and sexual behavior. Binary and multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify the factors associated with HIV infection or syphilis prevalence. A total of 4,904 MSM were enrolled in the study, the average age of the MSM was (28.77±7.24) years, and 70.3% of them had high education level; the unmarried MSM accounted for 72.7%. The HIV infection rate and syphilis prevalence were 8.7% and 4.4% respectively. The co-infection rate of HIV and Treponema pallidum was 1.2% (59/4 904). About one in three MSM did not use condom at latest homosexual behavior, 43.5% did not use condoms at each homosexual behavior in the past three months. Lower education level, occupation (worker or farmer), non-consistent condom use at each sex with men in the past three months, receiving HIV test or not and Treponema pallidum infection were associated with HIV infection. Age≥40 years, lower education level, multi male sex partners in the past three months and HIV infection were associated with Treponema pallidum infection. MSM receiving web appointed HIV counseling and testing had high prevalence of risk behaviors and high HIV infection rate, but had low previous HIV testing rate. It is necessary to strengthen the promotion of HIV test through web based appointment and conduct target behavior intervention in older MSM with lower education level.
Liu, Y; Tang, H F; Ning, Z; Zheng, H; He, N; Zhang, Y Y
Objective: To understand the prevalence rates of HIV-syphilis and HIV-herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) co-infections and related factors among men having sex with men (MSM) who had visited the voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) clinics in Shanghai, China. Methods: 756 eligible MSM who attended the VCT clinics of Shanghai Municipality and Putuo district during March to August, 2015 were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey with questionnaire interview and blood testing for HIV, syphilis and HSV-2. Results: A total of 732 participants completed a valid questionnaire survey. The prevalence rates were 3.3 % (24/732) for HIV/Syphilis co-infection, 1.9 % (14/732) for HIV/HSV-2 co-infection, and 0.7 % (5/732) for HIV/Syphilis/HSV-2 co-infection, respectively. HIV prevalence appeared significantly higher among syphilis-infected participants (45.3 % , 24/53) than those without Syphilis (7.2 % , 61/679) (χ(2)=63.11, P Syphilis co-infection. Those participants who had high middle school or lower levels of education ( OR =6.87, 95 %CI : 1.86-25.42; OR =9.82, 95 %CI : 2.25-42.85) were under risk on HIV and HSV-2 co-infection. Conclusion: HIV/Syphilis and HIV/HSV-2 co-infection were seen among MSM who attended the VCT clinics in Shanghai that called for special attention, especially on migrants, those with low education or illicit drug users.
Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna
ABSTRACT Background: Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention—youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring—with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Methods: Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees—private providers accredited by MSM—are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher
Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna
Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention-youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring-with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees-private providers accredited by MSM-are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher program is successfully reaching the
Full Text Available This study investigated whether and to what extent an English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study (ELVIICS, a Self-Access Language Learning (SALL programme, was effective in helping first-year Greek-Cypriot students fill in the gaps in their English language learning and come closer to the required language competence level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR B1 level. It also examined students’ perceptions of such learning. The students followed the ELVIICS at their own pace, time and space until they felt they had reached the aimed level. Analysis of the achievement test results revealed that students’ language competence improved and reached the required level. Additional quantitative data also revealed that students felt ELVIICS also helped them improve their self-confidence, computer skills and autonomous learning. Moreover, students claimed that ELVIICS assisted them in getting through and successfully completing their compulsory course.
Vonk, Robert A A; Schut, Frederik T
For almost a century, the Netherlands was marked by a large market for voluntary private health insurance alongside state-regulated social health insurance. Throughout this period, private health insurers tried to safeguard their position within an expanding welfare state. From an institutional logics perspective, we analyze how private health insurers tried to reconcile the tension between a competitive insurance market pressuring for selective underwriting and actuarially fair premiums (the insurance logic), and an upcoming welfare state pressuring for universal access and socially fair premiums (the welfare state logic). Based on primary sources and the extant historiography, we distinguish six periods in which the balance between both logics changed significantly. We identify various strategies employed by private insurers to reconcile the competing logics. Some of these were temporarily successful, but required measures that were incompatible with the idea of free entrepreneurship and consumer choice. We conclude that universal access can only be achieved in a competitive individual private health insurance market if this market is effectively regulated and mandatory cross-subsidies are effectively enforced. The Dutch case demonstrates that achieving universal access in a competitive private health insurance market is institutionally complex and requires broad political and societal support.
Leone, James E; Rovito, Michael J; Mullin, Elizabeth M; Mohammed, Shan D; Lee, Christina S
Epidemiologic data suggest men often experience excessive morbidity and early mortality, possibly compromising family and community health over the lifespan. Moreover, the negative financial/economic consequences affected by poor male health outcomes also has been of great concern in the United States and abroad. Early and consistent access to preventative health care may improve health outcomes; however, men are far less likely to access these services. The purpose of this study was to understand what factors preclude men from accessing health care. We surveyed 485 participants using a 58-item online survey built from a conceptual model previously developed by the researchers using hegemonic masculinity theory, the theory of normative contentment, and the health belief model. For men, three items significantly ( ps masculine ideals may play a primary role in how men access preventative health care. Future programming targeting males should consider barriers and plan programs that are gender-sensitive in addition to being gender-specific. Clinical implications are discussed.
Koh, Kwee Choy; Yong, Lit Sin
We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9%) clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9%) as medium risk, 36 (8.5%) as high risk, and 168 (39.7%) were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4%) clients tested HIV positive (4 (4%) low risk, 9 (7....
Assefa, Yibeltal; Hill, Peter S; Ulikpan, Anar; Williams, Owain D
The recent introduction of Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) for treating Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) can significantly assist in the world reaching the international target of elimination by 2030. Yet, the challenge facing many individuals and countries today lies with their ability to access these treatments due to their relatively high prices. Gilead Sciences applies differential pricing and licensing strategies arguing that this provides fairer and more equitable access to these life-saving medicines. This paper analyses the implications of Gilead's tiered pricing and voluntary licencing strategy for access to the DAAs. We examined seven countries in Africa (Egypt, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, Rwanda and South Africa) to assess their financial capacity to provide DAAs for the treatment of HCV under present voluntary licensing and tiered-pricing arrangements. These countries have been selected to explore the experience of countries with a range of different burdens of HCV and shared eligibility for supply by licensed generic producers or from discounted Gilead prices. The cost of 12-weeks of generic DAA varies from $684 per patient treated in Egypt to $750 per patient treated in other countries. These countries can also procure the same DAA for 12-weeks of treatment from the originator, Gilead, at a cost of $1200 per patient. The current prices of DAAs (both from generic and originator manufacturers) are much more than the median annual income per capita and the annual health budget of most of these countries. If governments alone were to bear the costs of universal treatment coverage, then the required additional health expenditure from present rates would range from a 4% increase in South Africa to a staggering 403% in Cameroon. The current arrangements for increasing access to DAAs, towards elimination of HCV, are facing challenges that would require increases in expenditure that are either too burdensome to governments or potentially
This was due to lack of confidentiality, fear of stigma and ... in discouraging these men from seeking healthcare treatment at their leisure. ... Understanding the perceptions that MSM have towards healthcare services will help .... the MSM who did no, 6.9% were self-medicating and 3.4% did nothing due to lack of financial.
Full Text Available Lifetime childlessness is expected to increase in the future. Recent research suggests that also voluntary childlessness in increasing among young adults. As childbearing decisions are increasingly based on individual preferences and choices it is believed that also those who do not favor family life with children can now more freely express their preferences. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of voluntary childlessness among Finnish young adults and factors associated with it. Data come from Finnish Social Relationships and Well-being Survey, conducted in 2008 among 25-44-year-old childless or one-child men and women. This study focuses on childless respondents (N=1244. Two types of intentional childlessness are distinguished. Persons are classified as voluntarily childless if they do not intend to have children and prefer life without children. Those, who also have no intentions to have children, but whose personal ideal number of children is above zero are defined as persons who have relinquished parenthood intentions. Childhood characteristics are found to predict voluntary childlessness more, while socioeconomic circumstances and lack of a suitable partner explain relinquished parenthood intentions. Respondents personal accounts on the reasons behind their childbearing choices support the findings from multivariate analyses.
Leichliter, Jami S; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Friedman, Allison L; Habel, Melissa A; Vezi, Alex; Sello, Martha; Farirai, Thato; Lewis, David A
Men may be key players in the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and it is important that STI/HIV health services reach men. The objective of this study was to explore sexual health care access and seeking behaviours in men. This study used focus groups to examine sexual health care access and seeking behaviours in men 5 years after implementation of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the South African public sector. Six focus groups (N=58) were conducted with men ≫18 years in an urban area of Gauteng province. Men were recruited from various locations throughout the community. Men reported several barriers and facilitators to the use of public and private clinics for sexual health services including HIV testing, and many men reported seeking care from traditional healers. Men often viewed public clinics as a place for women and reported experiences with some female nurses who were rude or judgmental of the men. Additionally, some men reported that they sought sexual health care services at public clinics; however, they were not given physical examinations by health care providers to diagnose their STI syndrome. Most men lacked knowledge about ART and avoided HIV testing because of fear of death or being abandoned by their families or friends. Study findings suggest that men still require better access to high-quality, non-judgmental sexual health care services. Future research is needed to determine the most effective method to increase men's access to sexual health care services.
Scheim, Ayden I; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Makofane, Keletso; Do, Tri D; Hebert, Patrick; Thomann, Matthew; Ayala, George
Free or low-cost HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants are foundational HIV prevention strategies, yet are often inaccessible for men who have sex with men (MSM). In the global context of stigma and poor healthcare access, transgender (trans) MSM may face additional barriers to HIV prevention services. Drawing on data from a global survey of MSM, we aimed to describe perceived access to prevention services among trans MSM, examine associations between stigma and access, and compare access between trans MSM and cisgender (non-transgender) MSM. The 2014 Global Men's Health and Rights online survey was open to MSM (inclusive of trans MSM) from any country and available in seven languages. Baseline data (n=3857) were collected from July to October 2014. Among trans MSM, correlations were calculated between perceived service accessibility and anti-transgender violence, healthcare provider stigma, and discrimination. Using a nested matched-pair study design, trans MSM were matched 4:1 to cisgender MSM on age group, region, and HIV status, and conditional logistic regression models compared perceived access to prevention services by transgender status. About 3.4% of respondents were trans men, of whom 69 were included in the present analysis. The average trans MSM participant was 26 to 35 years old (56.5%); lived in western Europe, North America, or Oceania (75.4%); and reported being HIV-negative (98.6%). HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants were accessible for 43.5, 53.6, and 26.1% of trans MSM, respectively. Ever having been arrested or convicted due to being trans and higher exposure to healthcare provider stigma in the past six months were associated with less access to some prevention services. Compared to matched cisgender controls, trans MSM reported significantly lower odds of perceived access to HIV testing (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.33, 0.98) and condom-compatible lubricants (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30, 0.98). This first look at access to HIV prevention services for trans MSM
Heimer, Robert; Barbour, Russell; Khouri, Danielle; Crawford, Forrest W; Shebl, Fatma; Aaraj, Elie; Khoshnood, Kaveh
Little is known about HIV prevalence and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) in much of the Middle East, including Lebanon. Recent national-level surveillance has suggested an increase in HIV prevalence concentrated among men in Lebanon. We undertook a biobehavioral study to provide direct evidence for the spread of HIV. MSM were recruited by respondent-driven sampling, interviewed, and offered HIV testing anonymously at sites located in Beirut, Lebanon, from October 2014 through February 2015. The interview questionnaire was designed to obtain information on participants' sociodemographic situation, sexual behaviors, alcohol and drug use, health, HIV testing and care, and experiences of stigma and discrimination. Individuals not reporting an HIV diagnosis were offered optional, anonymous HIV testing. Among the 292 MSM recruited, we identified 36 cases of HIV (12.3%). A quarter of the MSM were born in Syria and recently arrived in Lebanon. Condom use was uncommon; 65% reported condomless sex with other men. Group sex encounters were reported by 22% of participants. Among the 32 individuals already aware of their infection, 30 were in treatment and receiving antiretroviral therapy. HIV prevalence was substantially increased over past estimates. Efforts to control future increases will have to focus on reducing specific risk behaviors and experience of stigma and abuse, especially among Syrian refugees.
Arreola, Sonya; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Beck, Jack; Sundararaj, Mohan; Wilson, Patrick A; Hebert, Pato; Makofane, Keletso; Do, Tri D; Ayala, George
Globally, HIV disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM). This study explored associations between access to HIV services and (1) individual-level perceived sexual stigma; (2) country-level criminalization of homosexuality; and (3) country-level investment in HIV services for MSM. 3,340 MSM completed an online survey assessing access to HIV services. MSM from over 115 countries were categorized according to criminalization of homosexuality policy and investment in HIV services targeting MSM. Lower access to condoms, lubricants, and HIV testing were each associated with greater perceived sexual stigma, existence of homosexuality criminalization policies, and less investment in HIV services. Lower access to HIV treatment was associated with greater perceived sexual stigma and criminalization. Criminalization of homosexuality and low investment in HIV services were both associated with greater perceived sexual stigma. Efforts to prevent and treat HIV among MSM should be coupled with structural interventions to reduce stigma, overturn homosexuality criminalization policies, and increase investment in MSM-specific HIV services.
Philbin, Morgan M; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Wilson, Patrick A; Ly, An Thanh; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam experience disproportionate rates of HIV infection. To advance understanding of how structural barriers may shape their engagement with HIV prevention services, we draw on 32 in-depth interviews and four focus groups (n = 31) conducted with MSM in Hanoi between October 2015- March 2016. Three primary factors emerged: (1) Diversity, both in relation to identity and income; Vietnamese MSM described themselves as segregated into Bóng kín (hidden, often heterosexually-identified MSM) and Bóng lộ ('out,' transgender, or effeminate MSM). Lower-income, 'hidden' MSM from rural areas were reluctant to access MSM-targeted services; (2) Stigma: MSM reported being stigmatized by the healthcare system, family, and other MSM; and (3) Healthcare access: this was limited due to economic barriers and lack of MSM-friendly services. Our research suggests the need for multiple strategies to reach diverse types of MSM as well as to address barriers in access to health services such as stigma and costs. While a great deal has been written about the diversity of MSM in relation to gender performance and sexual identities, our research points to the substantial structural-level barriers that must be addressed in order to achieve meaningful and effective HIV prevention for MSM worldwide.
Vonk, Robert A A; Schut, Frederik T
For almost a century, the Netherlands was marked by a large market for voluntary private health insurance alongside state-regulated social health insurance. Throughout this period, private health insurers tried to safeguard their position within an expanding welfare state. From an institutional
Tumaini M. Nyamhanga
Full Text Available Background: This article presents part of the findings from a larger study that sought to assess the role that gender relations play in influencing equity regarding access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Review of the literature has indicated that, in Southern and Eastern Africa, fewer men than women have been accessing ART, and the former start using ART late, after HIV has already been allowed to advance. The main causes for this gender gap have not yet been fully explained. Objective: To explore how masculinity norms limit men's access to ART in Dar es Salaam. Design: This article is based on a qualitative study that involved the use of focus group discussions (FGDs. The study employed a stratified purposive sampling technique to recruit respondents. The study also employed a thematic analysis approach. Results: Overall, the study's findings revealed that men's hesitation to visit the care and treatment clinics signifies the superiority norm of masculinity that requires men to avoid displaying weakness. Since men are the heads of families and have higher social status, they reported feeling embarrassed at having to visit the care and treatment clinics. Specifically, male respondents indicated that going to a care and treatment clinic may raise suspicion about their status of living with HIV, which in turn may compromise their leadership position and cause family instability. Because of this tendency towards ‘hiding’, the few men who register at the public care and treatment clinics do so late, when HIV-related signs and symptoms are already far advanced. Conclusion: This study suggests that the superiority norm of masculinity affects men's access to ART. Societal expectations of a ‘real man’ to be fearless, resilient, and emotionally stable are in direct conflict with expectations of the treatment programme that one has to demonstrate health-promoting behaviour, such as promptness in attending the care and treatment
Gurman, Tilly A; Dhillon, Preeti; Greene, Jessica L; Makadzange, Panganai; Khumlao, Philisiwe; Shekhar, Navendu
Assessing predictors of intention to circumcise can help to identify effective strategies for increasing uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Grounded in the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the current study of uncircumcised males ages 13-29 in Swaziland (N = 1,257) employed multivariate logistic regression to determine predictors of VMMC intention. The strongest predictors were strongly disagreeing/disagreeing that sex was more painful for a circumcised man (odds ratio [OR] = 4.37; p = < .007), a Christian man should not get circumcised (OR = 2.47; p < .001), and circumcision makes penetration more painful and difficult (OR = 2.44; p = .007). Several beliefs about enhanced sexual performance, normative beliefs (parents, sexual partner, and friends), and non-TRA-related factors (e.g., importance of plowing season to daily schedule) were also statistically significant predictors. TRA proved a useful theory to explore young men's intention to circumcise and can help inform interventions aimed at increasing uptake of VMMC.
Koh, Kwee Choy; Yong, Lit Sin
We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9%) clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9%) as medium risk, 36 (8.5%) as high risk, and 168 (39.7%) were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4%) clients tested HIV positive (4 (4%) low risk, 9 (7.6%) medium risk, 11 (30.6%) high risk, and 13 (7.7%) unsure risk). We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV infection in this study. Clients with high HIV risk perception have 17x the odds of testing HIV positive compared to low risk clients. High HIV risk perception was significantly associated with multiple sex partners, multiple types of sex partners, alcohol use before intercourse, unprotected sex beyond 6 months, and inconsistent condom use during anal sex compared to low risk clients. There were no statistically significant differences between medium risk and unsure risk clients compared to low risk clients. Strategies should be targeted towards change in sexual practices among those who are perceived to be at high risk.
Kwee Choy Koh
Full Text Available We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9% clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9% as medium risk, 36 (8.5% as high risk, and 168 (39.7% were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4% clients tested HIV positive (4 (4% low risk, 9 (7.6% medium risk, 11 (30.6% high risk, and 13 (7.7% unsure risk. We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV infection in this study. Clients with high HIV risk perception have 17x the odds of testing HIV positive compared to low risk clients. High HIV risk perception was significantly associated with multiple sex partners, multiple types of sex partners, alcohol use before intercourse, unprotected sex beyond 6 months, and inconsistent condom use during anal sex compared to low risk clients. There were no statistically significant differences between medium risk and unsure risk clients compared to low risk clients. Strategies should be targeted towards change in sexual practices among those who are perceived to be at high risk.
Brewin, Thurstan B
Brewin comments upon James Rachels' The End of Life (Oxford University Press; 1986) and Voluntary Euthanasia (Peter Owen; 1986), a compilation edited by A.B. Downing and B. Smoker that is an expanded version of a 1969 work by Britain's Voluntary Euthanasia Society. Rachels maintains that it is illogical to distinguish between active and passive euthanasia. In Voluntary Euthanasia, 17 contributors argue the pros and cons of the issue. The Voluntary Euthanasia Society proposes that mentally competent persons be allowed by law to request euthanasia, either when taken ill or by advance directive. Brewin says he is almost but not quite convinced by the arguments for legalized voluntary euthanasia. He is concerned about the "slippery slope," the uncertainties of prognosis and quality of life judgments, the pressures to which the terminally ill or aged might be subjected, and the potentially negative impact of euthanasia on the physician patient relationship.
Rosenwasser, Alan M; McCulley, Walter D; Fecteau, Matthew
Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian
... A A A Listen En Español Men Historically, men have not been comfortable discussing issues about their health, particularly conditions like diabetes, depression or sexual dysfunction. This has resulted in shorter ...
Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Keeney, B K; Hannon, R M; Dlugosz, E M; Garland, T
Experimental studies manipulating diet and exercise have shown varying effects on metabolic syndrome components in both humans and rodents. To examine the potential interactive effects of diet, exercise and genetic background, we studied mice from four replicate lines bred (52 generations) for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines) and four unselected control lines (C). At weaning, animals were housed for 60 days with or without wheels and fed either a standard chow or Western diet (WD, 42% kcal from fat). Four serial (three juvenile and one adult) blood samples were taken to measure fasting total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides and glucose. Western diet was obesogenic for all mice, even after accounting for the amount of wheel running and kilojoules consumed. Western diet significantly raised glucose as well as TC and HDL-C concentrations. At the level of individual variation (repeatability), there was a modest correlation (r = 0.3-0.5) of blood lipids over time, which was reduced with wheel access and/or WD. Neither genetic selection history nor wheel access had a statistically significant effect on blood lipids. However, HR and C mice had divergent ontogenetic trajectories for body mass and caloric intake. HR mice also had lower adiposity, an effect that was dependent on wheel access. The environmental factors of diet and wheel access had pronounced effects on body mass, food consumption and fasting glucose concentrations, interacting with each other and/or with genetic strain. These data underscore the importance (and often unpredictable nature) of genotype-by-environment and environment-by-environment interactions when studying body weight regulation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Ghani, Mansur A; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Khan, Farrah; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Lim, Sin How; Dhaliwal, Sangeeth K; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L
In Malaysia, compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) hold suspected drug users for two years without adjudication. Acute detoxification without healthcare access has been documented. CDDCs are criticized globally due to ineffectiveness in treating addiction and human rights violations. In response, the Malaysian government began transitioning these facilities into voluntary drug treatment centres known as "Cure and Care" (C&C) centres that embrace a holistic treatment-based approach to drug addiction rehabilitation. An explorative qualitative study was undertaken to explore patient perspectives and satisfaction regarding treatment and services at the new Cure and Care centre in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. A convenience sample of 20 patients was recruited to participate in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Content analysis was used to identify the salient themes. Patients identified methadone treatment, psychosocial programs, religious instruction, and recreational activities as important factors contributing to treatment success for addressing both health and addiction needs. Though many had previously been in a CDDC, adherence to treatment in the C&C centre was perceived to be facilitated by the degree of social support, the voluntary nature and the array of new programs available for selection. C&Cs represents a dramatic shift in the Malaysian government's approach to drug addiction. Our findings demonstrate positive patient experiences associated with the holistic treatment-based approach of these centres. This exploratory study provides additional evidence to document this ongoing policy transition and may guide continued expansion of new holistic drug treatment programs across the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ghani, Mansur A.; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Khan, Farrah; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Lim, Sin How; Dhaliwal, Sangeeth K.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.
Background In Malaysia, compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) hold suspected drug users for two years without adjudication. Acute detoxification without healthcare access has been documented. CDDCs are criticized globally due to ineffectiveness in treating addiction and human rights violations. In response, the Malaysian government began transitioning these facilities into voluntary drug treatment centres known as “Cure and Care” (C&C) centres that embrace a holistic treatment-based approach to drug addiction rehabilitation. Methods An explorative qualitative study was undertaken to explore patient perspectives and satisfaction regarding treatment and services at the new Cure and Care centre in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. A convenience sample of 20 patients was recruited to participate in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Content analysis approach was used to identify the salient themes. Results Patients identified methadone treatment, psychosocial programs, religious instruction, and recreational activities as important factors contributing to treatment success for addressing both health and addiction needs. Though many had previously been in a CDDC, adherence to treatment in the C&C centre was perceived to be facilitated by the degree of social support, the voluntary nature and the array of new programs available for selection. Conclusion C&Cs represents a dramatic shift in the Malaysian government’s approach to drug addiction. Our findings demonstrate positive patient experiences associated with the holistic treatment-based approach of these centres. This exploratory study provides additional evidence to document this ongoing policy transition and may guide continued expansion of new holistic drug treatment programs across the country. PMID:25577322
Boyce, Sabrina; Barrington, Clare; Bolaños, Herbert; Arandi, Cesar Galindo; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela
The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to accessing sexual health services among gay, bisexual and heterosexual-identifying men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender persons in Guatemala City, to inform the development of high quality and population-friendly services. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 purposively sampled individuals, including 8 transgender, 16 gay/bisexual and 5 heterosexual-identifying participants. Topical codes were applied to the data using software Atlas.ti™ to compare data between sub-groups. Analysis revealed that public clinics were most commonly used due to their lower cost and greater accessibility, but many participants experienced discrimination, violation of confidentiality and distrust of these services. Transgender and gay/bisexual-identifying participants preferred clinics where they felt a sense of belonging, while heterosexual-identifying participants preferred clinics unassociated with the men who have sex with men community. The most prominent barriers to sexual health services included fear of discrimination, fear of having HIV, cost and lack of social support. Findings highlight the need to strengthen existing public sexually transmitted infection clinics so that they address the multiple layers of stigma and discrimination that men who have sex with men and transgender persons experience.
Hubach, Randolph D; Currin, Joseph M; Sanders, Carissa A; Durham, André R; Kavanaugh, Katherine E; Wheeler, Denna L; Croff, Julie M
Biomedical intervention approaches, including antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), have been demonstrated to reduce HIV incidence among several at-risk populations and to be cost effective. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP access and uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in relatively rural states. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted (August-November 2016) to assess opinions of and perceived barriers to accessing and adopting PrEP among MSM residing in Oklahoma. Participants perceived substantial barriers to accessing PrEP including a stigmatizing environment and less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive medical care. Overall, geographic isolation limits access to health providers and resources that support sexual health for Oklahoma MSM. Addressing stigma situated across ecological levels in an effort to increase adoption of PrEP by MSM residing in rural states remains necessary. Without this, social determinants may continue to negatively influence PrEP adoption and sexual health outcomes.
Communication dated 30 May 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA concerning enrichment bonds - A voluntary scheme for reliable access to nuclear fuel
The Secretariat has received a letter dated 30 May 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA attaching a UK Non-paper entitled 'Food for Thought: Enrichment Bonds - A Voluntary Scheme for Reliable Access to Nuclear Fuel'. As requested in that letter, the letter and the attachment is now being circulated for the information of all Member States
Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is a promising strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM and men who engage in sex work. But access will require routine HIV testing and contacts with healthcare providers. This study investigated men's healthcare and HIV testing experiences to inform PrEP implementation.We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 38 in 2012 and 56 in-depth qualitative interviews in 2013-14 with male sex workers (MSWs (n = 31 and other MSM (n = 25 in Providence, RI. MSWs primarily met clients in street-based sex work venues. Facilitators asked participants about access to healthcare and HIV/STI testing, healthcare needs, and preferred PrEP providers.MSWs primarily accessed care in emergency rooms (ERs, substance use clinics, correctional institutions, and walk-in clinics. Rates of HIV testing were high, but MSWs reported low access to other STI testing, low insurance coverage, and unmet healthcare needs including primary care, substance use treatment, and mental health services. MSM not engaging in sex work were more likely to report access to primary and specialist care. Rates of HIV testing among these MSM were slightly lower, but they reported more STI testing, more insurance coverage, and fewer unmet needs. Preferred PrEP providers for both groups included primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and psychiatrists. MSWs were also willing to access PrEP in substance use treatment and ER settings.PrEP outreach efforts for MSWs and other MSM should engage diverse providers in many settings, including mental health and substance use treatment, ERs, needle exchanges, correctional institutions, and HIV testing centers. Access to PrEP will require financial assistance, but can build on existing healthcare contacts for both populations.
Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M; Colleran, Christopher M; Holcomb, Richard; Operario, Don; Calabrese, Sarah K; Galárraga, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who engage in sex work. But access will require routine HIV testing and contacts with healthcare providers. This study investigated men's healthcare and HIV testing experiences to inform PrEP implementation. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 38) in 2012 and 56 in-depth qualitative interviews in 2013-14 with male sex workers (MSWs) (n = 31) and other MSM (n = 25) in Providence, RI. MSWs primarily met clients in street-based sex work venues. Facilitators asked participants about access to healthcare and HIV/STI testing, healthcare needs, and preferred PrEP providers. MSWs primarily accessed care in emergency rooms (ERs), substance use clinics, correctional institutions, and walk-in clinics. Rates of HIV testing were high, but MSWs reported low access to other STI testing, low insurance coverage, and unmet healthcare needs including primary care, substance use treatment, and mental health services. MSM not engaging in sex work were more likely to report access to primary and specialist care. Rates of HIV testing among these MSM were slightly lower, but they reported more STI testing, more insurance coverage, and fewer unmet needs. Preferred PrEP providers for both groups included primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and psychiatrists. MSWs were also willing to access PrEP in substance use treatment and ER settings. PrEP outreach efforts for MSWs and other MSM should engage diverse providers in many settings, including mental health and substance use treatment, ERs, needle exchanges, correctional institutions, and HIV testing centers. Access to PrEP will require financial assistance, but can build on existing healthcare contacts for both populations.
Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Dubrow, Robert
The Indian government provides free antiretroviral treatment (ART) for people living with HIV. To assist in developing policies and programs to advance equity in ART access, we explored barriers to ART access among kothis (men who have sex with men [MSM] whose gender expression is feminine) and aravanis (transgender women, also known as hijras) living with HIV in Chennai. In the last quarter of 2007, we conducted six focus groups and four key-informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis to identify categories and derive themes. We identified barriers to ART access at the family/social-level, health care system-level, and individual-level; however, we found these barriers to be highly interrelated. The primary individual-level barrier was integrally linked to the family/social and health care levels: many kothis and aravanis feared serious adverse consequences if their HIV-positive status were revealed to others. Strong motivations to keep one's HIV-positive status and same-sex attraction secret were interconnected with sexual prejudice against MSM and transgenders, and HIV stigma prevalent in families, the health care system, and the larger society. HIV stigma was present within kothi and aravani communities as well. Consequences of disclosure, including rejection by family, eviction from home, social isolation, loss of subsistence income, and maltreatment (although improving) within the health care system, presented powerful disincentives to accessing ART. Given the multi-level barriers to ART access related to stigma and discrimination, interventions to facilitate ART uptake should address multiple constituencies: the general public, health care providers, and the kothi and aravani communities. India needs a national policy and action plan to address barriers to ART access at family/social, health care system, and individual levels for aravanis, kothis, other subgroups of MSM and other marginalized groups.
Rašević Mirjana M.
Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as
Santos, Glenn-Milo; Makofane, Keletso; Arreola, Sonya; Do, Tri; Ayala, George
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Criminalisation of homosexuality may impede access to HIV services. We evaluated the effect of the enforcement of laws criminalising homosexuality on access to services. Using data from a 2012 global online survey that was published in a prior paper, we conducted a secondary analysis evaluating differences in perceived accessibility to health services (ie, 'how accessible are ____' services) between MSM who responded 'yes'/'no' to: 'have you ever been arrested or convicted for being gay/MSM?' Of the 4020 participants who completed the study and were included in the analysis, 8% reported ever being arrested or convicted under laws relevant to being MSM. Arrests and convictions were most common in sub-Saharan Africa (23.6% (58/246)), Eastern Europe/Central Asia (18.1% (123/680)), the Caribbean (15% (15/100)), Middle East/North Africa (13.2% (10/76)) and Latin America (9.7% (58/599)). Those arrested or convicted had significantly lower access to sexually transmitted infection treatment (adjusted OR (aOR)=0.81; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.97), condoms (aOR=0.77; 95% CI 0.61 to 0.99) and medical care (aOR=0.70; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.90), compared with other MSM, while accounting for clustering by country and adjusting for age, HIV status, education and country-level income. Arrests and convictions under laws relevant to being MSM have a strong negative association with access to HIV prevention and care services. Creating an enabling legal and policy environment, and increasing efforts to mitigate antihomosexuality stigma to ensure equitable access to HIV services are needed, along with decriminalisation of homosexuality, to effectively address the public health needs of this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Kangmennaang, J.; Luginaah, I.
Although research demonstrates the public health burden of prostate cancer among men in the Caribbean, relatively little is known about the factors that underlie the low levels of testing for the disease among this population. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of prostate cancer testing behaviours among men aged 40-60 years in Dominican Republic using the Demographic and Health Survey (2013). Methods. We use hierarchical binary logit regression models and average treatment effects combined with propensity score matching to explore the determinants of prostate screening as well as the average effect of health insurance coverage on screening. The use of hierarchical binary logit regression enabled us to control for the effect of unobserved heterogeneity at the cluster level that may affect prostate cancer testing behaviours. Results. Screening varied significantly with health insurance coverage, knowledge of cholesterol level, education, and wealth. Insured men were more likely to test for prostate cancer (OR=1.65, P=0.01) compared to the uninsured. Conclusions. The expansion and restructuring of Dominican Republic universal health insurance scheme to ensure equity in access may improve health access that would potentially impact positively on prostate cancer screening among men.
Redley, Marcus; Banks, Carys; Foody, Karen; Holland, Anthony
Healthcare for men and women with learning disabilities (known internationally as intellectual disabilities) has risen up the political agenda in the United Kingdom, propelled by a report from the charity Mencap. This report has resulted in renewed efforts, set out in "Valuing People Now", to ensure that people with learning disabilities…
Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Isern Fernandez, Virginia; Morales Miranda, Sonia; Jacobson, Jerry O; Mendoza, Suyapa; Paredes, Mayte A; Danaval, Damien C; Mabey, David; Monterroso, Edgar
We conducted a study among HIV-positive men and women in Honduras to describe demographics, HIV risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infection prevalence, and identify correlates of unsafe sex. Participants were recruited from HIV clinics and nongovernmental organizations in Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula, Honduras in a cross-sectional study in 2006. We used audio-assisted computer interviews on demographics; behaviors in the past 12 months, 6 months, and 30 days; and access to care. Assays performed included herpes (HSV-2 Herpes Select), syphilis (rapid plasma reagin [RPR] and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay [TPPA]) serology, and other sexually transmitted infections by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess variables associated with unprotected sex across all partner types in the past 12 months. Of 810 participants, 400 were from Tegucigalpa and 410 from San Pedro Sula; 367 (45%) were men. Mean age was 37 years (interquartile range: 31-43). Consistent condom use for men and women was below 60% for all partner types. In multivariate analysis, unprotected sex was more likely among women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-3.1, P = 0.007), those with HIV diagnoses within the past year (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7, P = 0.016), those reporting difficulty accessing condoms (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4-4.7, P = 0.003), and those reporting discrimination (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0, P = 0.016). Programs targeting HIV-positive patients need to address gender-based disparities, improve condom access and use, and help establish a protective legal and policy environment free of stigma and discrimination.
Duvall, Sandra; Irani, Laili; Compaoré, Cyrille; Sanon, Patrice; Bassonon, Dieudonne; Anato, Simplice; Agounke, Jeannine; Hodo, Ama; Kugbe, Yves; Chaold, Gertrude; Nigobora, Berry; MacInnis, Ron
In Burkina Faso and Togo, key populations of men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers (SW) have a disproportionately higher HIV prevalence. This study analyzed the 2 countries' policies impacting MSM and SW; to what extent the policies and programs have been implemented; and the role of the enabling environment, country leadership, and donor support. The Health Policy Project's Policy Assessment and Advocacy Decision Model methodology was used to analyze policy and program documents related to key populations, conduct key informant interviews, and hold stakeholder meetings to validate the findings. Several policy barriers restrict MSM/SW from accessing services. Laws criminalizing MSM/SW, particularly anti-solicitation laws, result in harassment and arrests of even nonsoliciting MSM/SW. Policy gaps exist, including few MSM/SW-supportive policies and HIV prevention measures, e.g., lubricant not included in the essential medicines list. The needs of key populations are generally not met due to policy gaps around MSM/SW participation in decision-making and funding allocation for MSM/SW-specific programming. Misaligned policies, eg, contradictory informed consent laws and protocols, and uneven policy implementation, such as stockouts of sexually transmitted infection kits, HIV testing materials, and antiretrovirals, undermine evidence-based policies. Even in the presence of a supportive donor and political community, public stigma and discrimination (S&D) create a hostile enabling environment. Policies are needed to address S&D, particularly health care provider and law enforcement training, and to authorize, fund, guide, and monitor services for key populations. MSM/SW participation and development of operational guidelines can improve policy implementation and service uptake.
The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...
van der Heijden, J.
Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently
Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...
Joyce, David P; Limbos, Marjolaine
To describe the occurrence of mental health problems and cognitive impairment in a group of elderly homeless men and to demonstrate how clinical examination and screening tests used in a shelter setting might be helpful in identifying mental illness and cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional study including face-to-face interviews and review of medical records. A community-based homeless shelter in an urban metropolitan centre (Toronto, Ont). A total of 49 male participants 55 years of age or older. The average duration of homelessness was 8.8 (SD 10.2) years. Participants were admitted to a community-based shelter that offered access to regular meals, personal support and housing workers, nursing, and a primary care physician. Medical chart review was undertaken to identify mental illness or cognitive impairment diagnosed either before or after admission to the facility. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered. Previous or new diagnosis of mental illness or cognitive impairment. Thirty-six of the participants (73.5%) had previous or new diagnoses. The most prevalent diagnosis was schizophrenia or psychotic disorders (n = 17), followed by depression (n = 11), anxiety disorders (n = 3), cognitive impairment (n = 8), and bipolar affective disorder (n = 1). A total of 37% of participants were given new mental health diagnoses during the study. The GDS-15 identified 9 people with depression and the MMSE uncovered 11 individuals with cognitive impairment who had not been previously diagnosed. This study suggests that providing access to primary care physicians and other services in a community-based shelter program can assist in identification of mental illness and cognitive impairment in elderly homeless men. Use of brief screening tools for depression and cognitive impairment (like the GDS-15 and the MMSE) could be helpful in this highrisk group.
Stern, Erin; Cooper, Diane; Gibbs, Andrew
While much research has documented unsatisfactory sexual and reproductive health (SRH) awareness among young people in South Africa, understanding of gender differences in access to and evaluation of SRH information is limited. This paper concerned itself with men and women's informal sources and content of SRH, and gendered divergences around…
Brooks, Anthony Lewis
This contribution is timely as it addresses accessibility in regards system hardware and software aligned with introduction of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA) and adjoined game industry waiver that comes into force January 2017. This is an act created...... by the USA Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to increase the access of persons with disabilities to modern communications, and for other purposes. The act impacts advanced communications services and products including text messaging; e-mail; instant messaging; video communications; browsers; game...... platforms; and games software. However, the CVAA has no legal status in the EU. This text succinctly introduces and questions implications, impact, and wider adoption. By presenting the full CVAA and game industry waiver the text targets to motivate discussions and further publications on the subject...
"If You Tell People That You Had Sex with a Fellow Man, It Is Hard to Be Helped and Treated": Barriers and Opportunities for Increasing Access to HIV Services among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Uganda.
Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Matovu, Joseph K B; Kiguli, Juliet; Nuwaha, Fred; Mujisha, Geoffrey; Musinguzi, Joshua; Arinaitwe, Jim; Wagner, Glenn J
Despite the high HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about their access to HIV services. This study assessed barriers and opportunities for expanding access to HIV services among MSM in Uganda. In October-December 2013, a cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in 12 districts of Uganda. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 85 self-identified MSM by snowball sampling and 61 key informants including HIV service providers and policy makers. Data were analysed using manifest content analysis and Atlas.ti software. Three quarters of the MSM (n = 62, 72.9%) were not comfortable disclosing their sexual orientation to providers and 69 (81.1%) felt providers did not respect MSM. Half (n = 44, 51.8%) experienced difficulties in accessing health services. Nine major barriers to access were identified, including: (i) unwelcoming provider behaviours; (ii) limited provider skills and knowledge; (iii) negative community perceptions towards MSM; (iv) fear of being exposed as MSM; (v) limited access to MSM-specific services; (vi) high mobility of MSM, (vii) lack of guidelines on MSM health services; viii) a harsh legal environment; and ix) HIV related stigma. Two-thirds (n = 56, 66%) participated in MSM social networks and 86% of these (48) received support from the networks to overcome barriers to accessing services. Negative perceptions among providers and the community present barriers to service access among MSM. Guidelines, provider skills building and use of social networks for mobilization and service delivery could expand access to HIV services among MSM in Uganda.
"If You Tell People That You Had Sex with a Fellow Man, It Is Hard to Be Helped and Treated": Barriers and Opportunities for Increasing Access to HIV Services among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Uganda.
Rhoda K Wanyenze
Full Text Available Despite the high HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about their access to HIV services. This study assessed barriers and opportunities for expanding access to HIV services among MSM in Uganda.In October-December 2013, a cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in 12 districts of Uganda. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 85 self-identified MSM by snowball sampling and 61 key informants including HIV service providers and policy makers. Data were analysed using manifest content analysis and Atlas.ti software.Three quarters of the MSM (n = 62, 72.9% were not comfortable disclosing their sexual orientation to providers and 69 (81.1% felt providers did not respect MSM. Half (n = 44, 51.8% experienced difficulties in accessing health services. Nine major barriers to access were identified, including: (i unwelcoming provider behaviours; (ii limited provider skills and knowledge; (iii negative community perceptions towards MSM; (iv fear of being exposed as MSM; (v limited access to MSM-specific services; (vi high mobility of MSM, (vii lack of guidelines on MSM health services; viii a harsh legal environment; and ix HIV related stigma. Two-thirds (n = 56, 66% participated in MSM social networks and 86% of these (48 received support from the networks to overcome barriers to accessing services.Negative perceptions among providers and the community present barriers to service access among MSM. Guidelines, provider skills building and use of social networks for mobilization and service delivery could expand access to HIV services among MSM in Uganda.
Perceived medical benefit, peer/partner influence and safety and cost to access the service: client motivators for voluntary seeking of medical male circumcision in Iganga district eastern Uganda, a qualitative study.
Muhamadi, Lubega; Ibrahim, Musenze; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Peterson, Stefan; Reynolds, Steven J
Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in Iganga district was launched in 2010 as part of the Uganda national strategy to prevent new HIV infections with a target of having 129,896 eligible males circumcised by 2012, only 35,000 (27%) of the anticipated target had been circumcised by mid 2012. There was paucity of information on why uptake of VMMC was low in this setting where HIV awareness is presumably high. This study sought to understand motivators for uptake of VMMC from the perspective of the clients themselves in order to advocate for feasible approaches to expanding uptake of VMMC in Iganga district and similar settings. In Iganga district, we conducted seven key informant interviews with staff who work in the VMMC clinics and twenty in-depth interviews with clients who had accepted and undergone VMMC. Ten focus-group discussions including a total of 112 participants were also conducted with clients who had undergone VMMC. Motivators for uptake of VMMC in the perspective of the circumcised clients and the health care staff included: perceived medical benefit to those circumcised such as protection against acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, peer/partner influence, sexual satisfaction and safety and cost to access the service. Since perceived medical benefit was a motivator for seeking VMMC, it can be used to strengthen campaigns for increasing uptake of VMMC. Peer influence could also be used in advocacy campaigns for VMMC expansion, especially using peers who have already undergone VMMC. There is need to ensure that safety and cost to access the service is affordable especially to rural poor as it was mentioned as a motivator for seeking VMMC.
Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I
Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.
Full Text Available Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.
John H. Estrada M
Full Text Available Approximately 30 million people are living with hiv all around the world in 2010. The most vulnerable hiv/aids groups are sex workers, intravenous drug users, transgender people and population of men who have sex with men (msm. Up to now, the surveillance and behavioral studies on sexual transmitted diseases (sti and hiv have been conducted using intentional sampling methods like the snowball methodology, but this kind of sampling does not achieve representation and does not represent a conclusive method for the study of hidden populations in order to extend and apply its results to the general population. Furthermore, it is necessary to add to this limitation the lack of knowledge about the size of these groups that must face situations of stigma and discrimination. A decade ago a new method was designed to sample hidden and hard to reach populations based on Markov theories and on chain recruitment. This new method is known as respondent-driven sampling (rds and it has been used in several behavioral and hiv prevalence studies. This review article presents the background, the theoretical support and a description of the method. It also analyzes some studies carried out using this new methodology.
Tara E Power
Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.
Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin
Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.
Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B; Knafl, George J; Godley, P A; Carpenter, William R; Bensen, Jeannette T; Mohler, James L; Mishel, Merle
The purpose of this study was to explore whether a particular combination of individual characteristics influences patient satisfaction with the health care system among a sample of African American men in North Carolina with prostate cancer. Patient satisfaction may be relevant for improving African American men's use of regular care, thus improving the early detection of prostate cancer and attenuating racial disparities in prostate cancer outcomes. This descriptive correlation study examined relationships of individual characteristics that influence patient satisfaction using data from 505 African American men from North Carolina, who prospectively enrolled in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project from September 2004 to November 2007. Analyses consisted of univariate statistics, bivariate analysis, and multiple regression analysis. The variables selected for the final model were: participation in religious activities, mistrust, racism, and perceived access to care. In this study, both cultural variables, mistrust (p=racism (p=racism are cultural factors that are extremely important and have been negatively associated with patient satisfaction and decreased desires to utilize health care services for African American men. To overcome barriers in seeking health care services, health care providers need to implement a patient-centered approach by creating a clinical environment that demonstrates cultural competence and eliminating policies, procedures, processes, or personnel that foster mistrust and racism.
O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene
Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...
Voluntary bench-bar press guidelines have evolved over the past 15 years as a way of resolving the conflict between the right of the accused to a fair trial and the right of the press to cover such a trial. In 1980, however, a Washington state judge required reporters to sign an affidavit stating that they would follow the state's guidelines.…
Local beliefs and practices about voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) may influence uptake and effectiveness. Data were gathered through interviews with 40 people from four ethnically mixed fishing communities in Uganda. Some men believed that wound healing could be promoted by contact with vaginal fluids ...
Tanner, Amanda E; Reboussin, Beth A; Mann, Lilli; Ma, Alice; Song, Eunyoung; Alonzo, Jorge; Rhodes, Scott D
Little is known about immigrant Latino sexual minorities’ health seeking behaviors. This study examined factors associated with perceptions of access and actual care behaviors among this population in North Carolina. A community-based participatory research partnership recruited 180 Latino sexual minority men and transgender individuals within preexisting social networks to participate in a sexual health intervention. Mixed-effects logistic regression models and GIS mapping examined factors influencing health care access perceptions and use of services (HIV testing and routine check-ups). Results indicate that perceptions of access and actual care behaviors are low and affected by individual and structural factors, including: years living in NC, reported poor general health, perceptions of discrimination, micro-, meso-, and macro-level barriers, and residence in a Medically Underserved Area. To improve Latino sexual minority health, focus must be placed on multiple levels, including: individual characteristics (e.g., demographics), clinic factors (e.g., provider competence and clinic environment), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination).
Current legal, regulatory and institutional standards and practices provide several disincentives for a utility wishing to engage in voluntary wheeling transactions, and are discussed here. These disincentives largely arise from the fact that regulation, like the transmission system itself, is based on the notion of integrated utilities engaging in transactions largely for reliability reasons. Factors which fall into this category are: a pricing regime based on embedded costs, the ratemaking treatment of revenues derived from coordination and transmission services, and several provisions in legislation and FERC regulations
It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.
This paper analyzes the disclosure strategy of firms that face uncertainty regarding the investor's response to a voluntary disclosure of the firm's private information.This paper distinguishes itself from the existing disclosure literature in that firms do not use voluntary disclosures to separate
Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg
A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…
Aarts, W. [SWOKA Institute for Strategic Consumer Behaviour, Leiden (Netherlands)
Do people enjoying a higher status, especially those with a higher education, constrain their consumption more than others? In general, higher status and high levels of consumption go hand in hand. But the greater availability of luxury goods has led to a decline in their exclusivity. Since environmental awareness has increased, a countercurrent may be possible. It is possible that certain high status groups, the environmentally aware trendsetters, can now be distinguished by their voluntary restraint rather than by their conspicuous consumption. This hypothesis formed the basis for a sociological doctoral project at the University of Amsterdam. The research was conducted under the umbrella of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change.
Full Text Available Given compelling evidence associating voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC with men's reduced HIV acquisition through heterosexual intercourse, South Africa in 2010 began scaling up VMMC. To project the resources needed to complete 4.3 million circumcisions between 2010 and 2016, we (1 estimated the unit cost to provide VMMC; (2 assessed cost drivers and cost variances across eight provinces and VMMC service delivery modes; and (3 evaluated the costs associated with mobilize and motivate men and boys to access VMMC services. Cost data were systematically collected and analyzed using a provider's perspective from 33 Government and PEPFAR-supported (U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief urban, rural, and peri-urban VMMC facilities. The cost per circumcision performed in 2014 was US$132 (R1,431: higher in public hospitals (US$158 [R1,710] than in health centers and clinics (US$121 [R1,309]. There was no substantial difference between the cost at fixed circumcision sites and fixed sites that also offer outreach services. Direct labor costs could be reduced by 17% with task shifting from doctors to professional nurses; this could have saved as much as $15 million (R163.20 million in 2015, when the goal was 1.6 million circumcisions. About $14.2 million (R154 million was spent on medical male circumcision demand creation in South Africa in 2014-primarily on personnel, including community mobilizers (36%, and on small and mass media promotions (35%. Calculating the unit cost of VMMC demand creation was daunting, because data on the denominator (number of people reached with demand creation messages or number of people seeking VMMC as a result of demand creation were not available. Because there are no "dose-response" data on demand creation ($X in demand creation will result in an additional Z% increase in VMMC clients, research is needed to determine the appropriate amount and allocation of demand creation resources.
A typically voluntary agreement is signed between the authorities and an industrial sector in order to reduce the emission of environmentally harmful substances. There are many different types of agreements. Voluntary agreements are not strictly voluntary, since in the background there is often some kind of ''threat'' about taxation or fees if the industry is unwilling to cooperate. This type of agreements has become popular in many OECD countries during the last decades. In Norway there are only a few agreements of this type. Experience with the use of voluntary agreements as well as research show that they are less cost-effective than market-based instruments such as taxes and quota systems. If there are great restrictions on the use of taxes and quota systems because of information- or measurement problems, or because these instruments are not politically acceptable, then voluntary agreements may be an interesting alternative. Thus, voluntary agreements are best used as a supplement to other instruments in some niche areas of the environmental policy. In some cases, voluntary agreements may be used between two countries or at a regional level, for example within the EU
Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.
Eriksson, Malin; Ng, Nawi
Until recently, most studies on social capital and health have been cross-sectional making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. This longitudinal study used data from 33,621 individuals (15,822 men and 17,799 women) from the Västerbotten Intervention Program, to analyse how changes in access to individual social capital influence self-rated health (SRH) over time. Two forms of structural social capital, i.e. informal socializing and social participation, were measured. Age, sex, education, marital status, smoking, snuff, physical activity, alcohol consumption, high blood pressure, and body mass index were analysed as potential confounders. The association between changes in access to structural social capital and SRH in the follow-up was adjusted for SRH at baseline, as well as for changes in the socio-demographic and health-risk variables over time. The results support that changes in access to structural social capital over time impact on SRH. Remaining with no/low level of informal socializing over time increased the odds ratio for poor SRH for both men and women (OR of 1.45; 95%CI = 1.22-1.73 among men and OR of 1.56; 95%CI = 1.33-1.84 among women). Remaining with no/low levels of social participation was also detrimental to SRH in men and women (OR 1.14; 95%CI = 1.03-1.26 among men and OR 1.18; 95%CI = 1.08-1.29 among women). A decrease in informal socializing over time was associated with poor SRH for women and men (OR of 1.35; 95%CI = 1.16-1.58 among men and OR of 1.57; 95%CI = 1.36-1.82 among women). A loss of social participation had a negative effect on SRH among men and women (OR of 1.16; 95%CI = 1.03-1.30 among men and OR of 1.15; 95%CI = 1.04-1.27 among women). Gaining access to social participation was harmful for SRH for women (OR 1.17; 95%CI = 1.05-1.31). Structural social capital has complex and gendered effects on SRH and interventions aiming to use social capital for health promotion purposes require an awareness of its gendered nature
Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.
Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren
Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.
Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia
Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...
This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.
After having briefly presented the voluntary offset mechanism which aims at funding a project of reduction or capture of greenhouse gas emissions, this document describes the approach to be followed to adopt this voluntary offset, for individuals as well as for companies, communities or event organisations. It describes other important context issues (projects developed under the voluntary offset, actors of the voluntary offsetting market, market status, offset labels), and how to proceed in practice (definition of objectives and expectations, search for needed requirements, to ensure the meeting of requirements with respect to expectations). It addresses the case of voluntary offset in France (difficult implantation, possible solutions)
Madero-Cabib, Ignacio; Kaeser, Laure
In Switzerland, as in many other European states, there is an increasing emphasis in public policy on promoting later retirement from the labour market. But this accelerating drive in Swiss policy-making to extend occupational activity does not mean that every worker is currently likely to retire late, nor does it imply that all those who do retire late do so voluntarily. This article uses a life-course approach, first to study the determinants of late retirement, and secondly to analyse whether the decision to postpone retirement is made voluntarily or involuntarily. Both objectives are addressed on the basis of data from the Swiss survey Vivre/Leben/Vivere. The results of logistic regression modelling indicate that, whereas self-employed and more highly educated individuals are more likely to retire late, people with access to private pension funds and workers who have benefited from periods of economic growth have a lower tendency to retire late. Regarding voluntariness, those who are more likely to opt for voluntary late retirement tend to be Swiss citizens, more highly educated, and also benefited from periods of economic expansion, while the self-employed, men and widowed individuals leaving the labour market late tend to do so involuntarily. In conclusion, the article discusses the absence of a social inequality debate in the design of active ageing policies.
... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...
Guiguet, M; Dionou, S; Volant, J; Samba, M C; Benammar, N; Chauvin, P; Simon, A
Delayed presentation to care among HIV-infected individuals continued to be frequent in France. Migrants are at high risk for late presentation. This cross-sectional study investigated barriers to HIV testing in the specific population of men from sub-Saharan Africa living in four migrant worker hostels in Paris, France. Factors associated with never having been tested for HIV were examined using logistic regression. In all, 550 men participated, coming mainly from Mali and Senegal, with 31 % having lived in France for less than 5 years, and 25 % without any health insurance. Only 37 % have ever been tested for HIV. Not having health insurance was the main risk factor for never-testing [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.4; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.4-4.0]. Despite free and anonymous HIV testing available at dedicated public screening centers, 63 % of men living in migrant worker hostels had never been tested for HIV.
Anneberg, Inger; Madsen, Bente Hjorth
In most countries men have a higher suicide rate than women. In Denmark suicide among men is almost three times as frequent as among women. For this reason we wanted to ask the following question: Is there any way to facilitate mens' access to help, when they are in a crisis? Could men be better...
... intertribal organizations working with individual Indian farmers and through outreach to nonprofit and... fruit orchards, or tree-covered areas in urban settings, such as city parks, are not considered forest...
Mar 2, 2013 ... have attributed this risk to men's poorer health-seeking behaviour, which may prevent them from accessing ART, being ... Gender inequality: Bad for men's health ..... New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2005.
The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)
Paul Dekker; Joep de Hart
Original title: Vrijwilligerswerk in meervoud. By international standards, the level of participation in voluntary work in the Netherlands is high, and the signs are that this will continue. On the other hand, the type of voluntary work and the groups in which it is concentrated are changing.
Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.
found a good relationship between the rate constant for fermentation and ... By dividing voluntary feed intake into the ... voluntary feed intake will be equal to the rate at which the rumen is ... per abomosum to prevent any deficiency in protein restricting .... McDougall's saliva and was not included in the calculation of the lust ...
Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.
Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236
Imdorf, Christian; Koomen, Maarten; Murdoch, Jake; Guégnard, Christine
International audience; Educational policy developments in France and Switzerland have increased eligibility for higher education. This paper explores the extent to which vocationally orientated pathways to higher education reduce social inequalities in France and Switzerland. More specifically, we analyse how the vocational pathway facilitates access to higher education for male and female students from lower cultural capital backgrounds. We refer to gender theory to link young people's subj...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low uptake of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT in sub-Saharan Africa is raising acceptability concerns which might be associated with ways by which it is offered. We investigated the acceptability of home-based delivery of counselling and HIV testing in urban and rural populations in Zambia where VCT has been offered mostly from local clinics. Methods A population-based HIV survey was conducted in selected communities in 2003 (n = 5035. All participants stating willingness to be HIV tested were offered VCT at home and all counselling was conducted in the participants' homes. In the urban area post-test counselling and giving of results were done the following day whereas in rural areas this could take 1-3 weeks. Results Of those who indicated willingness to be HIV tested, 76.1% (95%CI 74.9-77.2 were counselled and received the test result. Overall, there was an increase in the proportion ever HIV tested from 18% before provision of home-based VCT to 38% after. The highest increase was in rural areas; among young rural men aged 15-24 years up from 14% to 42% vs. for urban men from 17% to 37%. Test rates by educational attainment changed from being positively associated to be evenly distributed after home-based VCT. Conclusions A high uptake was achieved by delivering HIV counselling and testing at home. The highest uptakes were seen in rural areas, in young people and groups with low educational attainment, resulting in substantial reductions in existing inequalities in accessing VCT services.
Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover. Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.
Barrington, Kyle D.
Illegal drug use and abuse by the nation's secondary school students is a continuing public health issue and this is especially true for students living in rural, low-income areas where access to intervention and treatment services is often limited. To address this issue, some school districts have implemented voluntary, randomized, student …
Full Text Available Pada abad 21 ini, telekomunikasi sudah berkembang dengan pesat. Perkembangan itu dibuktikan dengan munculnya teknologi-teknologi dalam bidang telekomunikasi yang semakin memudahkan manusia untuk berkomunikasi. Layanan telekomunikasi nirkabel yang dikenal saat ini di Indonesia terdiri dari 2 jenis yaitu layanan telekomunikasi Full Mobility atau Mobile Wireless Access (MWA dan Limited Mobility atau Fixed Wireless Access (FWA, sedangkan teknologi yang digunakan terdiri dari teknologi Global System for Mobile Comunnication (GSM dan teknologi Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA. PT. TELKOM merupakan market leader dalam industri telekomunikasi seluler di Indonesia yang berlisensi FWA dengan market share mencapai 60% dari seluruh pasar FWA di Indonesia. Salah satu cara untuk mempertahankan jumlah pelanggan yaitu dengan meminimalisasi voluntary churn. Voluntary churn yaitu pelanggan yang berhenti menggunakan layanan PT TELKOM atas permintaan sendiri. PT. TELKOM mempunyai dua produk berlisensi FWA yaitu Flexi Classy dan Flexi Trendy. Jumlah pelanggan yang melakukan voluntary churn pada Flexi Trendy jauh lebih besar daripada Flexi Classy. Menurut Mattison (2005, h.53 ada dua faktor utama yang menyebabkan voluntary churn yaitu faktor taruf yang ditawarkan dan faktor kualitas yang diberikan. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini menganalisa pengaruh tarif dan kualitas terhadap voluntary churn pada produk Flexi Trendy. Penelitian ini menggunakan system dynamics sebagai alat bantu (tools dalam menganalisa pengaruh tarif dan kualitas terhadap voluntary churn. Dari penelitian ini diketahui bahwa bahwa faktor tarif memiliki pengaruh dan kontribusi yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan faktor kualitas terhadap terjadinya voluntary churn. Selain itu, faktor tarif telepon ke operator lain memiliki kontribusi terbesar terhadap tingkat voluntary churn dibandingkan dengan faktor yang lain. Strategi terbaik yang dapat dilakukan berdasarkan tingkat churn yang
This paper demonstrates that acceptance of voluntary euthanasia does not generate commitment to either non-voluntary euthanasia or euthanasia on request. This is accomplished through analysis of John Keown's and David Jones's slippery slope arguments, and rejection of their view that voluntary euthanasia requires physicians to judge patients as better off dead. Instead, voluntary euthanasia merely requires physicians to judge patients as within boundaries of appropriate deference. This paper develops two ways of understanding and defending voluntary euthanasia on this model, one focused on the independent value of patients' autonomy and the other on the evidence of well-being provided by patients' requests. Both avoid the purported slippery slopes and both are independently supported by an analogy to uncontroversial elements of medical practice. Moreover, the proposed analyses of voluntary euthanasia suggest parameters for the design of euthanasia legislation, both supporting and challenging elements of existing laws in Oregon and the Netherlands.
Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.
This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships
Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.
This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships
Mária Jármai Erzsébet
Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.
Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric
This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)
Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta
Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...
The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 10 March 2004; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC (45)/RES/9)
The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 2001; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC(45)/RES/9)
Reed, Jason Bailey; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Bacon, Melanie C; Bailey, Robert; Cherutich, Peter; Curran, Kelly; Dickson, Kim; Farley, Tim; Hankins, Catherine; Hatzold, Karin; Justman, Jessica; Mwandi, Zebedee; Nkinsi, Luke; Ridzon, Renee; Ryan, Caroline; Bock, Naomi
As the science demonstrating strong evidence for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention has evolved, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has collaborated with international agencies, donors, and partner country governments supporting VMMC programming. Mathematical models forecast that quickly reaching a large number of uncircumcised men with VMMC in strategically chosen populations may dramatically reduce community-level HIV incidence and save billions of dollars in HIV care and treatment costs. Because VMMC is a 1-time procedure that confers life-long partial protection against HIV, programs for adult men are vital short-term investments with long-term benefits. VMMC also provides a unique opportunity to reach boys and men with HIV testing and counseling services and referrals for other HIV services, including treatment. After formal recommendations by WHO in 2007, priority countries have pursued expansion of VMMC. More than 1 million males have received VMMC thus far, with the most notable successes coming from Kenya's Nyanza Province. However, a myriad of necessary cultural, political, and ethical considerations have moderated the pace of overall success. Because many millions more uncircumcised men would benefit from VMMC services now, US President Barack Obama committed PEPFAR to provide 4.7 million males with VMMC by 2014. Innovative circumcision methods-such as medical devices that remove the foreskin without injected anesthesia and/or sutures-are being rigorously evaluated. Incorporation of safe innovations into surgical VMMC programs may provide the opportunity to reach more men more quickly with services and dramatically reduce HIV incidence for all.
Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M
In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
...'' and ``hard copy'' as possible forms of direct voluntary recall notice. Because firms often lack... formatting of a voluntary recall notice in the form of a press release should comport with the most current... transmitted using an electronic medium and in hard copy form. Acceptable forms of, and means for...
Edgil, Dianna; Stankard, Petra; Forsythe, Steven; Rech, Dino; Chrouser, Kristin; Adamu, Tigistu; Sakallah, Sameer; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Albertini, Jennifer; Stanton, David; Dickson, Kim Eva; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
Background The global HIV prevention community is implementing voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs across eastern and southern Africa, with a goal of reaching 80% coverage in adult males by 2015. Successful implementation will depend on the accessibility of commodities essential for VMMC programming and the appropriate allocation of resources to support the VMMC supply chain. For this, the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, has developed a standard list of commodities for VMMC programs. Methods and Findings This list of commodities was used to inform program planning for a 1-y program to circumcise 152,000 adult men in Swaziland. During this process, additional key commodities were identified, expanding the standard list to include commodities for waste management, HIV counseling and testing, and the treatment of sexually transmitted infections. The approximate costs for the procurement of commodities, management of a supply chain, and waste disposal, were determined for the VMMC program in Swaziland using current market prices of goods and services. Previous costing studies of VMMC programs did not capture supply chain costs, nor the full range of commodities needed for VMMC program implementation or waste management. Our calculations indicate that depending upon the volume of services provided, supply chain and waste management, including commodities and associated labor, contribute between US$58.92 and US$73.57 to the cost of performing one adult male circumcision in Swaziland. Conclusions Experience with the VMMC program in Swaziland indicates that supply chain and waste management add approximately US$60 per circumcision, nearly doubling the total per procedure cost estimated previously; these additional costs are used to inform the estimate of per procedure costs modeled by Njeuhmeli et al. in “Voluntary Medical
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global HIV prevention community is implementing voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs across eastern and southern Africa, with a goal of reaching 80% coverage in adult males by 2015. Successful implementation will depend on the accessibility of commodities essential for VMMC programming and the appropriate allocation of resources to support the VMMC supply chain. For this, the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, has developed a standard list of commodities for VMMC programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This list of commodities was used to inform program planning for a 1-y program to circumcise 152,000 adult men in Swaziland. During this process, additional key commodities were identified, expanding the standard list to include commodities for waste management, HIV counseling and testing, and the treatment of sexually transmitted infections. The approximate costs for the procurement of commodities, management of a supply chain, and waste disposal, were determined for the VMMC program in Swaziland using current market prices of goods and services. Previous costing studies of VMMC programs did not capture supply chain costs, nor the full range of commodities needed for VMMC program implementation or waste management. Our calculations indicate that depending upon the volume of services provided, supply chain and waste management, including commodities and associated labor, contribute between US$58.92 and US$73.57 to the cost of performing one adult male circumcision in Swaziland. CONCLUSIONS: Experience with the VMMC program in Swaziland indicates that supply chain and waste management add approximately US$60 per circumcision, nearly doubling the total per procedure cost estimated previously; these additional costs are used to inform the estimate of per procedure costs modeled by Njeuhmeli et al. in
Edgil, Dianna; Stankard, Petra; Forsythe, Steven; Rech, Dino; Chrouser, Kristin; Adamu, Tigistu; Sakallah, Sameer; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Albertini, Jennifer; Stanton, David; Dickson, Kim Eva; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
The global HIV prevention community is implementing voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs across eastern and southern Africa, with a goal of reaching 80% coverage in adult males by 2015. Successful implementation will depend on the accessibility of commodities essential for VMMC programming and the appropriate allocation of resources to support the VMMC supply chain. For this, the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, has developed a standard list of commodities for VMMC programs. This list of commodities was used to inform program planning for a 1-y program to circumcise 152,000 adult men in Swaziland. During this process, additional key commodities were identified, expanding the standard list to include commodities for waste management, HIV counseling and testing, and the treatment of sexually transmitted infections. The approximate costs for the procurement of commodities, management of a supply chain, and waste disposal, were determined for the VMMC program in Swaziland using current market prices of goods and services. Previous costing studies of VMMC programs did not capture supply chain costs, nor the full range of commodities needed for VMMC program implementation or waste management. Our calculations indicate that depending upon the volume of services provided, supply chain and waste management, including commodities and associated labor, contribute between US$58.92 and US$73.57 to the cost of performing one adult male circumcision in Swaziland. Experience with the VMMC program in Swaziland indicates that supply chain and waste management add approximately US$60 per circumcision, nearly doubling the total per procedure cost estimated previously; these additional costs are used to inform the estimate of per procedure costs modeled by Njeuhmeli et al. in "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Modeling the Impact and Cost of
Jan 19, 2018 ... with HIV, and HIV prevalence amongst adults aged 15–49 years was estimated to be 16.6%.6. In 2015 ..... to stereotyping and assumptions of criminal and violent behaviour. ... illustrates a healthcare worker's self-reflection on their own .... very old. So she was busy writing and asking questions and.
Byrd, Courtney T; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Donaher, Joe; Stergiou, Erin
Voluntary stuttering is a strategy that has been suggested for use in the clinical literature but has minimal empirical data regarding treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore client perspectives regarding the impact of the use of this strategy on the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of stuttering. The present study used an original survey designed to explore the intended purpose. A total of 206 adults who stutter were included in the final data corpus. Responses were considered with respect to the type of voluntary stuttering the participants reportedly produced and the location of use. A client perceives significantly greater affective, behavioral, and cognitive benefits from voluntary stuttering when the production is closely matched to the client's actual stutter and when it is used outside the clinical environment. To enhance client perception of associated benefits, clinicians should encourage use of voluntary stuttering that closely matches the client's own stuttering. Clinicians should also facilitate practice of voluntary stuttering outside of the therapy room. Finally, clinicians should be aware that clients, at least initially, may not perceive any benefits from the use of this strategy.
Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services and their contribution to access to HIV diagnosis in Brazil Contribuição dos Centros de Testagem e Aconselhamento (CTA para o acesso ao diagnóstico da infecção pelo HIV no Brasil
Full Text Available The Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT Network was implemented in Brazil in the 1980s to promote anonymous and confidential access to HIV diagnosis. As a function of the population and dimensions of the local epidemic, the study assessed the network's coverage, using data from a self-applied questionnaire and data from the Information Technology Department of the Unified National Health System (SUS, UNDP, and National STD/AIDS Program. The Student t test was used for comparison of means and the chi-square test for proportions. Brazil has 383 VCT centers, covering 48.9% of the population and 69.2% of the AIDS cases. The network has been implemented predominantly in regions where the epidemic shows a relevant presence, but 85.3% of the cities with high HIV incidence lack VCT centers; absence of VCT was associated with more limited health infrastructure and worse social indicators. A slowdown in expansion of the network was observed, with VCT Centers implemented on average 16 years after the first AIDS case in the given municipality. The number of HIV tests performed under the SUS is 2.3 times higher in cities with VCT centers. The network's scope is limited, thus minimizing the contribution by these services to the supply of HIV diagnosis in Brazil.A rede nacional de Centros de Testagem e Aconselhamento (CTA foi implantada no Brasil nos anos 1980 para promover, anônima e confidencialmente, o diagnóstico do HIV. Em função da população abrangida e das dimensões da epidemia local, o estudo avaliou a cobertura dessa rede, utilizando dados de questionário auto-aplicado e de bancos de informações do DATASUS, PNUD e Programa Nacional de DST e AIDS. Aplicou-se teste t para comparações de média e qui-quadrado para proporções. Existem no Brasil 383 CTA, abrangendo 48,9% da população e 69,2% dos casos de AIDS. A rede está predominantemente implantada em regiões em que a epidemia é relevante, entretanto 85,3% das cidades com alta incid
Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.
The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.
The success of Canada's Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program was debated. The generally accepted view is that the voluntary program to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000 has failed. However, the author suggested that the issues and processes are complicated and that we should not give up too soon. Time is needed to refine the market instruments that we are dealing with. Also, there are substantial economic barriers to fully meet target figures, among them the fact that municipalities, universities, social services and health care industries are chronically capital rationed and don't have the money to respond to the VCR program. Other sectors of the economy capitalized and regulated by government, have not seen much success in the VCR program either. The central argument is that while voluntary programs are probably not the answer, binding agreements or government-run schemes are even less likely to succeed
Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja
that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation...... rests upon a docu- mentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical...... and adap- tation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon...
Full Text Available The paper highlights theoretical aspects regarding corporate mandatory and voluntary disclosure. Since financial and business reporting are important information sources for different stakeholders, especially for publicly traded companies, the business reporting is increasingly oriented to the need of different users. In order to make rational investment decisions, users of corporate annual and interim reports require an extensive range of information. The increasing needs of the users persuade different international bodies and researchers to investigate the improvements that can be done in business reporting. The results of those studies usually were different reporting models. Because voluntary dimension of corporate disclosure involve the manifestation of free choice of the firm and its managers, we have considered as necessary to achieve a theoretical analysis of the main costs and profits of the voluntary disclosure policy.
Thompson, Zoe; Argueta, Donovan; Garland, Theodore; DiPatrizio, Nicholas
The endocannabinoid system serves many physiological roles, including in the regulation of energy balance, food reward, and voluntary locomotion. Signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor has been specifically implicated in motivation for rodent voluntary exercise on wheels. We studied four replicate lines of high runner (HR) mice that have been selectively bred for 81 generations based on average number of wheel revolutions on days five and six of a six-day period of wheel access. Four additional replicate lines are bred without regard to wheel running, and serve as controls (C) for random genetic effects that may cause divergence among lines. On average, mice from HR lines voluntarily run on wheels three times more than C mice on a daily basis. We tested the general hypothesis that circulating levels of endocannabinoids (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG] and anandamide [AEA]) differ between HR and C mice in a sex-specific manner. Fifty male and 50 female mice were allowed access to wheels for six days, while another 50 males and 50 females were kept without access to wheels (half HR, half C for all groups). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture during the time of peak running on the sixth night of wheel access or no wheel access, and later analyzed for 2-AG and AEA content by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We observed a significant three-way interaction among sex, linetype, and wheel access for 2-AG concentrations, with females generally having lower levels than males and wheel access lowering 2-AG levels in some but not all subgroups. The number of wheel revolutions in the minutes or hours immediately prior to sampling did not quantitatively predict plasma 2-AG levels within groups. We also observed a trend for a linetype-by-wheel access interaction for AEA levels, with wheel access lowering plasma concentrations of AEA in HR mice, while raising them in C mice. In addition, females tended to have higher AEA
This paper examines some of the philosophical and scientific relationships involving self-control, voluntary control, and psychophysiologic self-regulation. The role of biofeedback in mediating conscious and unconscious processes is explored. Demonstrations of superior voluntary control and its relationship to belief, confidence, and expectation are examined. Biofeedback demonstrates the potential of control to oneself, creating confidence in one's ability to establish enhanced and peak performance in athletics, education, and psychophysiologic therapy. Emphasis is placed on the power of images in all human functioning, and in enhancing human potential.
Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God.
Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard
and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...... are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism....
This article examines the evidence for the empirical argument that there is a slippery slope between the legalization of voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. The main source of evidence in relation to this argument comes from the Netherlands. The argument is only effective against legalization if it is legalization which causes the slippery slope. Moreover, it is only effective if it is used comparatively-to show that the slope is more slippery in jurisdictions which have legalized voluntary euthanasia than it is in jurisdictions which have not done so. Both of these elements are examined comparatively.
Anstiss, David; Hodgetts, Darrin; Stolte, Ottilie
Transitions into retirement can be difficult at the best of times. Many men find themselves having to reflect on who they are and what their lives are about. Their access to social supports and material resources are often disrupted. Men's Sheds offer a space where retired men can actively pursue wellbeing, and respond to disruption and loneliness through emplaced community practices. This paper draws on ethnographic research in a Men's Shed in Auckland, New Zealand in order to explore the social practices through which men create a shared space for themselves in which they can engage in meaningful relationships with each other. We document how participants work in concert to create a space in which they can be together through collective labour. Their emplacement in the shed affords opportunities for supported transitions into retirement and for engaging healthy lives beyond paid employment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe
Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...
In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983. PMID:2033626
In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983.
The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency.
The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency
Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet
*Birhanu is currently working as the Manager of the Legal Research and Advisory Division ... forth voluntary interest arbitration to the attention of lawyers, employees, .... being selective is a poor design since the basic rules of this law are not .... courts to review interest arbitrators decision on the merit by way of appeal.
... measures so that Contingency planning information can be shared with Participants to enable them to plan... Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) Table of Contents Abbreviations Definitions Preface I. Purpose II... of VISA Contingency Provisions A. General B. Notification of Activation C. Voluntary Capacity D...
McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth
Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement.
... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.14 Voluntary services. (a... receiving credit for their work (i.e., student teaching) from an education institution, the agreement will... Regulations Governing Responsibilities and Conduct. (e) Travel and other expenses. The decision to reimburse...
This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A
Larsen, Jacob Norvig
that voluntary community work in relation to public urban regeneration is much more than the public’s engagement in project planning processes. Contrary to temporary urban regeneration projects, VCOs are much more permanently embedded in the neighbourhood, and volunteers are motivated by both self-interest...
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of HIV by 60%. Scaling up VMMC services requires that they be of high quality, socially accepted, and effective. We evaluated an intervention aimed at improving VMMC standards adherence and patient follow-up rates in nine ...
Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava
Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…
ABSTRACT. Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors ofages between 16 and 65 years.
Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary counseling and ... Background: In Uganda, the main stay for provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and testing uptake among students in Bahir Dar University: A case control study. ... Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing ... The objective of this study was to assess effective coverage level for Voluntary Counseling and testing services in major health facilities ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary ... The commonest reason for not donating blood was fear to damage of health as reported in ... to arouse the interest of the general public in voluntary blood donation exercises.
Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading
Tsuda, Yuko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Komiyama, Maki; Kono, Koichi
This study aimed to understand the current scenario of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among 18-month-old children of Takatsuki City, Japan. Based on 1167 parents responses, we found that voluntary vaccination coverage rates were low when compared with routine vaccination rates. The children who were not the first born of the family and who had young and poorly educated parents were less likely to receive voluntary vaccination. Japanese government-supported vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccine, had a higher coverage than the vaccines for which parents had to bear the entire vaccination cost. Furthermore, it was found that mass communication media and family pediatricians were effective means to disseminate voluntary vaccination-related information. We envisage that an active participation of medical professionals, easy access to vaccinations, and mass awareness programs will increase voluntary vaccination coverage in Takatsuki. © 2013 APJPH.
Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko
The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.
Chiu, Teresa Ml; Ku, Benny Ps
Mandatory versus voluntary requirement has moderating effect on a person's intention to use a new information technology. Studies have shown that the use of technology in health care settings is predicted by perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, social influence, facilitating conditions, and attitude towards computer. These factors have different effects on mandatory versus voluntary environment of use. However, the degree and direction of moderating effect of voluntariness on these factors remain inconclusive. This study aimed to examine the moderating effect of voluntariness on the actual use of an electronic health record (EHR) designed for use by allied health professionals in Hong Kong. Specifically, this study explored and compared the moderating effects of voluntariness on factors organized into technology, implementation, and individual contexts. Physiotherapists who had taken part in the implementation of a new EHR were invited to complete a survey. The survey included questions that measured the levels of voluntariness, technology acceptance and use, and attitude towards technology. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify factors associated with actual use of a compulsory module and a noncompulsory module of the EHR. In total, there were 93 participants in the study. All of them had access to the noncompulsory module, the e-Progress Note, to record progress notes of their patients. Out of the 93 participants, 57 (62%) were required to use a compulsory module, the e-Registration, to register patient attendance. In the low voluntariness environment, Actual Use was associated with Effort Expectancy (mean score of users 3.51, SD 0.43; mean score of non-users 3.21, SD 0.31; P=.03). Effort Expectancy measured the perceived ease of use and was a variable in the technology context. The variables in the implementation and individual contexts did not show a difference between the two groups. In the high voluntariness environment, the mean
... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey. This is a.... Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: Will be assigned upon approval. Form Number: None...
... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs...
... Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey... forms of information. Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs and...
... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... collection requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB...
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and will...
de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K
Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.
Perelman, Julian; Rosado, Ricardo; Amri, Omar; Morel, Stéphane; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chanos, Sophocles; Cigan, Bojan; Lobnik, Miha; Fuertes, Ricardo; Pichon, François; Kaye, Per Slaaen; Agustí, Cristina; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Lorente, Nicolas; Casabona, Jordi
The non-decreasing incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has motivated the emergence of Community Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing (CBVCT) services specifically addressed to MSM. The CBVCT services are characterized by facilitated access and linkage to care, a staff largely constituted by voluntary peers, and private not-for-profit structures outside the formal health system institutions. Encouraging results have been measured about their effectiveness, but these favourable results may have been obtained at high costs, questioning the opportunity to expand the experience. We performed an economic evaluation of HIV testing for MSM at CBVCT services, and compared them across six European cities. We collected retrospective data for six CBVCT services from six cities (Copenhagen, Paris, Lyon, Athens, Lisbon, and Ljubljana), for the year 2014, on the number of HIV tests and HIV reactive tests, and on all expenditures to perform the testing activities. The total costs of CBVCTs varied from 54,390€ per year (Ljubljana) to 245,803€ per year (Athens). The cost per HIV test varied from to 41€ (Athens) to 113€ (Ljubljana). The cost per HIV reactive test varied from 1966€ (Athens) to 9065€ (Ljubljana). Our results show that the benefits of CBVCT services are obtained at an acceptable cost, in comparison with the literature (values, mostly from the USA, range from 1600$ to 16,985$ per HIV reactive test in clinical and non-clinical settings). This result was transversal to several European cities, highlighting that there is a common CBVCT model, the cost of which is comparable regardless of the epidemiological context and prices. The CBVCT services represent an effective and "worth it" experience, to be continued and expanded in future public health strategies towards HIV.
Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A
BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength
The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.
Euthanasia has a wide range of classifications. Confusion exists in the application of specific concepts to various studies. To analyze the concept of voluntary active euthanasia using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A comprehensive literature review from various published literature and bibliographies. Clinical, ethical, and policy differences and similarities of euthanasia need to be debated openly, both within the medical profession and publicly. Awareness of the classifications about euthanasia may help nurses dealing with "end of life issues" properly.
Potts, AJ; Didymus, F
Background: Sports coaching has been identified as a naturally stressful occupation. Coaches must be able to competently and effectively manage stress that is inherent in competitive sport and perform under pressure. Yet, limited research exists that has explored coaches’ experiences of psychological stress. The research that does exist has mainly focused on full-time, elite coaches who represent just 3% of the coaching workforce in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Despite the voluntary coaching wo...
Wolf, Jr., C. A.
The organization of the voluntary industrial energy conservation program is described. There are 15 industrial sectors in the program and the plan implemented by the sectors including individual companies, trade associations, industry task forces, task force coordinating committee, and government is described. Targets for attack are mainly housekeeping projects, energy efficiency in retrofitting, and new processes. Problems are identified. It is concluded that compiled total performance has essentially achieved its target of 12% improved energy efficiency two years ahead of schedule. (MCW)
The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.
Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias
Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly...... in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed...... in TG (r=0.67, pactivation is improved in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms...
Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Seki, Shinobu; Kawai, Nobuhiro; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Michio
Rats voluntarily run up to a dozen kilometers per night when their cages are equipped with a running wheel. Daily voluntary running is generally thought to enhance protein turnover. Thus, we sought to determine whether running worsens or improves protein degradation caused by a lysine-deficient diet and whether it changes the utilization of free amino acids released by proteolysis. Rats were fed a lysine-deficient diet and were given free access to a running wheel or remained sedentary (control) for 4 wk. Amino acid levels in plasma, muscle, and liver were measured together with plasma insulin levels and tissue weight. The lysine-deficient diet induced anorexia, skeletal muscle loss, and serine and threonine aminoacidemia, and it depleted plasma insulin and essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. Allowing rats to run voluntarily improved these symptoms; thus, voluntary wheel running made the rats less susceptible to dietary lysine deficiency. Amelioration of the declines in muscular leucine and plasma insulin observed in running rats could contribute to protein synthesis together with the enhanced availability of lysine and other essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running under lysine-deficient conditions does not enhance protein catabolism; on the contrary, it accelerates protein synthesis and contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass. The intense nocturnal voluntary running that characterizes rodents might be an adaptation of lysine-deficient grain eaters that allows them to maximize opportunities for food acquisition.
Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, Aseem K; Ahuja, Alok; Kalra, Rakesh
Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors) and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials) who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. The sample population consisted of mostly men (67%) in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most prominent. This study illustrates how increasing awareness and
Full Text Available Introduction: Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. Aim: To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. Result: The sample population consisted of mostly men (67% in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most
Conceição, Simone C. O.; Martin, Larry G.
This chapter focuses on the role adult educators can play in assisting Black men to overcome the challenges faced in accessing and using digital technology and acquiring appropriate skills in a digital society.
Full Text Available Resettlement programmes for Syrian refugees severely restrict access to resettlement for single Syrian men, despite the conditions of vulnerability, insecurity and danger in which they live.
Snider, William Stephen
Haamid lives a modest life running a restaurant in a small market town in Uganda. A member of the minority Indian population, he is estranged from his family for reasons he prefers not to discuss. At night he cooks elaborate dinners that he eats alone. When an openly gay Peace Corps volunteer comes to town looking for more than a good meal, Haamid's comfortable routine is broken, and his life is put in danger. STRANGE MEN explores the limits of good intentions and the uneven stakes for Americ...
Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Makadon, Harvey J
Transgender people have experienced significant advances in societal acceptance despite experiencing continued stigma and discrimination. While it can still be difficult to access quality health care, and there is a great deal to be done to create affirming health care organizations, there is growing interest around the United States in advancing transgender health. The focus of this commentary is to provide guidance to clinicians caring for transgender men or other gender nonconforming people who are contemplating, carrying, or have completed a pregnancy. Terms transgender and gender nonconforming specifically refer to those whose gender identity (e.g., being a man) differs from their female sex assigned at birth. Many, if not most transgender men retain their female reproductive organs and retain the capacity to have children. Review of their experience demonstrates the need for preconception counseling that includes discussion of stopping testosterone while trying to conceive and during pregnancy, and anticipating increasing experiences of gender dysphoria during and after pregnancy. The clinical aspects of delivery itself fall within the realm of routine obstetrical care, although further research is needed into how mode and environment of delivery may affect gender dysphoria. Postpartum considerations include discussion of options for chest (breast) feeding, and how and when to reinitiate testosterone. A positive perinatal experience begins from the moment transgender men first present for care and depends on comprehensive affirmation of gender diversity.
Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Passelergue, Philippe; Dupui, Philippe
Electrical stimulation (ES) reverses the order of recruitment of motor units (MU) observed with voluntary muscular contraction (VOL) since under ES, large MU are recruited before small MU. The superimposition of ES onto VOL (superimposed technique: application of an electrical stimulus during a voluntary muscle action) can theoretically activate more motor units than VOL performed alone, which can engender an increase of the contraction force. Two superimposed techniques can be used: (i) the twitch interpolation technique (ITT), which consists of interjecting an electrical stimulus onto the muscle nerve; and (ii) the percutaneous superimposed electrical stimulation technique (PST), where the stimulation is applied to the muscle belly. These two superimposed techniques can be used to evaluate the ability to fully activate a muscle. They can thus be employed to distinguish the central or peripheral nature of fatigue after exhausting exercise. In general, whatever the technique employed, the superimposition of ES onto volitional exercise does not recruit more MU than VOL, except with eccentric actions. Nevertheless, the neuromuscular response associated with the use of the superimposed technique (ITT and PST) depends on the parameter of the superimposed current. The sex and the training level of the subjects can also modify the physiological impact of the superimposed technique. Although the motor control differs drastically between training with ES and VOL, the integration of the superimposed technique in training programmes with healthy subjects does not reveal significant benefits compared with programmes performed only with voluntary exercises. Nevertheless, in a therapeutic context, training programmes using ES superimposition compensate volume and muscle strength deficit with more efficiency than programmes using VOL or ES separately.
Sanders, K; Chaloner, C
Euthanasia is a highly emotive and contentious subject, giving rise to a great deal of debate. However, despite its frequent exposure in public and professional media, there appears to be a lack of clarity about the concepts and definitions used in the euthanasia debate. This suggests that discussions on this subject are inadequately informed and ineffectual. The ethical focus of the euthanasia debate concerns the moral legitimacy of 'voluntary euthanasia'. This article provides an overview and clarification of some of the key ethical issues at the centre of that debate.
Full Text Available Part of modifications brought through 370/2009 Act to the 192/2006 Law concerning mediation and structure of mediator profession have been interpreted as establishing a preliminary mediation procedure before intimating the courts of law, in civil and commercial matters. This interpretation is in excess of operative legal provisions. Although the law in modified form stipulates the compulsoriness of judicial authorities and other jurisdictional bodies to inform the parties about the possibility and the dvantages of using mediation procedure and the obligation to guide the parties to resort at mediation, this circumstances does not affect the mediation particular voluntary nature.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM has increased rapidly. MSM may play a bridging role in the spread of HIV and other STDs from the high-risk population to the general population. Interventions to reduce high-risk behavior are the key to controlling the spreading of HIV in the MSM population and the primary strategy for reducing the spread of AIDS in China. The purpose of the study was to examine the demographic characteristics of MSM, evaluate the HIV-related knowledge of MSM, and identify factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI among MSM to make recommendations for future research. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 293 MSM in Fushun and Huludao City, China. A total of 91 participants (34.0% reported engagement in UAI with a male partner during the previous six months. The results of univariate analysis showed that UAI was associated with older age, lower levels of education, less knowledge about HIV, and not receiving condoms, lubricant, peer education, AIDS counseling, STD checks, and informational materials (p<0.05. In a multivariate logistic regression model, awareness of the major HIV transmission routes (OR = 2.191; 95% CI: 0.869 to 5.524, receiving condoms (OR = 2.164; 95% CI: 1.149 to 4.076, receiving peer education (OR = 2.632; 95% CI: 1.566 to 4.426, and AIDS counseling (OR = 2.347; 95% CI: 1.260 to 4.372 were independently associated with a lower risk of UAI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study suggested that UAI could be decreased by improving education about AIDS, increasing the promotion of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT, and improving the accessibility and convenience of service.
This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.
Wijaya, Riesanti Edie
Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm's operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997).Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdi...
Madden, Lynn M; Farnum, Scott O; Eggert, Kathryn F; Quanbeck, Andrew R; Freeman, Robert M; Ball, Samuel A; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Shi, Julia M; Savage, Mary Ellen; Barry, Declan T
To examine retrospectively patient and programmatic outcomes following the development and implementation of an 'open-access' model in which prospective patients were enrolled rapidly in methadone maintenance treatment, irrespective of ability to pay, and provided real-time access to multiple voluntary treatment options. Medical and administrative records were abstracted to compare data for 1 year before and 9 years after initiating the implementation of an open-access treatment model in May 2007. Methadone maintenance treatment center in Connecticut, USA. Individuals with opioid use disorder entering treatment between July 2006 and June 2015. In June 2015, 64% (n = 2594) of the sample were men and 80% (n = 3133) reported that they were white. The Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment-informed open-access treatment model uses process improvement strategies to improve treatment access and capacity. Census, waiting time, retention, non-medical opioid use, patient mortality and financial sustainability (net income and state-block grants as proportions of revenue). In the 9 years following the initial implementation of the open-access model, patient census increased by 183% from 1431 to 4051, and average waiting-time days decreased from 21 to 0.3 (same day) without apparent deleterious effects on rates of retention, non-medical opioid use or mortality. Between fiscal years (FY) 06 and FY 15, net operating margin rose from 2 to 10%, while state-block grant revenues declined 14% and the proportion of total revenue from state-block grant revenue decreased from 49 to 24%. An open-access model for rapid enrolment of people with opioid use disorder in methadone treatment appears to improve treatment access, capacity, and financial sustainability without evidence of deleterious effects on treatment outcomes. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Riesanti Edie Wijaya
Full Text Available Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm’s operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997.Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdisclosure. This research used a sample of manufacture fi rms listed in Indonesian stockexchange. Based on data processing using sample above, we found that corporate governance andfi nancial distress could be associated with the voluntary disclosure level.
Luís Barreiro Carballal
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the appearance of a series of new political subjects in democratic society at the change of the millennium, political subjects that the author considers of substantial importance in the realm of Constitutional Law. These include National Law 6/1996 concerning voluntary work, the variety of laws concerning voluntary work and finally the Organic Law, which regulates the Right to Association of March 7 2002. These are all clear examples of the recent and intense interest by the part of the administration in colonizing this until recently ignored territory. In Spain, it has been curious to note how the protagonists have changed in the debate about political participation. In the 1970s, it was seen that only parties and unions could transform society. In the 1980s, the new social movements were the only voices capable of correcting savage capitalism. Since the 1990s, only volunteers are understood to be capable of offering a bit of hope to the cloudy realm of social and political participation.
Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Broadband Access. Worldwide market for broadband access $30 Billion! Over 200 million broadband subscribers worldwide! Various Competing Broadband access. Digital Subscriber line; Wireless; Optical Fiber.
Kartik K Venkatesh
Full Text Available Despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART, most of the estimated 2.3 to 2.5 million HIV-infected individuals in India remain undiagnosed. The questions of whom to test for HIV and at what frequency remain unclear.We used a simulation model of HIV testing and treatment to examine alternative HIV screening strategies: 1 current practice, 2 one-time, 3 every five years, and 4 annually; and we applied these strategies to three population scenarios: 1 the general Indian population ("national population", i.e. base case (HIV prevalence 0.29%; incidence 0.032/100 person-years [PY]; 2 high-prevalence districts (HIV prevalence 0.8%; incidence 0.088/100 PY, and 3 high-risk groups (HIV prevalence 5.0%; incidence 0.552/100 PY. Cohort characteristics reflected Indians reporting for HIV testing, with a median age of 35 years, 66% men, and a mean CD4 count of 305 cells/µl. The cost of a rapid HIV test was $3.33. Outcomes included life expectancy, HIV-related direct medical costs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, and secondary transmission benefits. The threshold for "cost-effective" was defined as 3x the annual per capita GDP of India ($3,900/year of life saved [YLS], or for "very cost-effective" was <1x the annual per capita GDP ($1,300/YLS.Compared to current practice, one-time screening was very cost-effective in the national population (ICER: $1,100/YLS, high-prevalence districts (ICER: $800/YLS, and high-risk groups (ICER: $800/YLS. Screening every five years in the national population (ICER: $1,900/YLS and annual screening in high-prevalence districts (ICER: $1,900/YLS and high-risk groups (ICER: $1,800/YLS were also cost-effective. Results were most sensitive to costs of care and linkage-to-care.In India, voluntary HIV screening of the national population every five years offers substantial clinical benefit and is cost-effective. Annual screening is cost-effective among high-risk groups and in high-prevalence districts
Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Braselton, Joshua F; Roberts, Christian K; Booth, Frank W
Metabolic disease risk is influenced by genetics and modifiable factors, such as physical activity and diet. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, rats selectively bred for high (HVR) versus low voluntary running distance (LVR) behaviors were housed in a complex design with or without voluntary running wheels being fed either a standard or Western (WD, 42% kcal from fat and added sucrose) diet for 8 weeks. Upon intervention completion, percent body fat, leptin, insulin, and mediobasal hypothalamic mRNAs related to appetite control were assessed. Wheel access led to differences in body weight, food intake, and serum leptin and insulin. Intriguingly, percent body fat, leptin, and insulin did not differ between HVR and LVR lines in response to the two levels of voluntary running, regardless of diet, after the 8 wk. experiment despite HVR eating more calories than LVR regardless of diet and voluntarily running 5-7 times further in wheels than LVR. In response to WD, we observed increases in Cart and Lepr mediobasal hypothalamic mRNA in HVR, but no differences in LVR. Npy mRNA was intrinsically greater in LVR than HVR, while wheel access led to greater Pomc and Cart mRNA in LVR versus HVR. These data suggest that despite greater consumption of WD, HVR animals respond similarly to WD as LVR as a result, in part, of their increased wheel running behavior. Furthermore, high physical activity in HVR may offset the deleterious effects of a WD on adiposity despite greater energy intake in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arola, L; Roig, R; Cascón, E; Brunet, M J; Fornós, N; Sabaté, M; Raga, X; Batista, J; Salvadó, M J; Bladé, C
It has been suggested that moderate consumption of ethanol and wine has a protective effect on human health. Animal models used to date for alcohol consumption can not mimic real situations in humans because the consumption is forced and/or excessive. The present study proposes to determine the effects of a voluntary and ad lib consumption model more similar to that of human behavior. Male Wistar rats had free access to either standard diet and water or the same diet plus red wine, sweet wine, or a solution equivalent to red wine (13.5% ethanol) or to sweet wine (20% ethanol + 130 g/L sucrose) for 30 days or 6 months. Daily wine consumption was 15.8 +/- 0.9 and 2.0 +/- 0.2 ml/day for sweet and red wines, respectively. The consumption of each of the alcoholic solutions was similar to that of the wine they were simulating. Drinking wine or ethanol did not affect food and water intakes or growth rate. Plasma metabolites were not substantially affected by consumption of wine or ethanol. Although moderate and high wine consumption did not change the activity of plasma marker enzymes of tissue damage, the consumption of the 2 alcoholic solutions caused a long-term increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase. It seems that wine consumption protects the organism from hepatic lesions induced by ethanol alone.
Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E.; Rabotyagov, Sergey S.
The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at 217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and 160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.
Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E; Rabotyagov, Sergey S
The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at $217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and $160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.
This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. METHOD: Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and ...
... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has not...
Sep 24, 2012 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Voluntary .... cigarettes, alcohol or going to night clubs before their majority and these activities are associated with sexual activity. ... Ngwakongnwi E, Quan H. Sex differentials in the use of centres for voluntary counseling and testing for HIV in Cameroon. Afr J AIDS ...
Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide
Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to <3 years of age. The voluntary vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper analyzes voluntary disclosure equilibria when the voluntary disclosure model presented inWAGENHOFER (1990) is modified so as to include fixed disclosure costs as used in VERRECCHIA (1983). It turns out that incorporating both disclosure and proprietary costs rules out full disclosure
The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia – however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, ...
Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.
The Delft Institute of Prosthetics and Orthotics has started a research program to develop an improved voluntary closing, body-powered hand prosthesis. Five commercially available voluntary closing terminal devices were mechanically tested: three hands [Hosmer APRL VC hand, Hosmer Soft VC Male hand,
Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve; McCullagh, Jo; Hacking, Sue
Objective: To evaluate a health improvement initiative aimed at enhancing the health of men in deprived areas. Design: A healthy lifestyle programme was undertaken with men to increase their health knowledge, and encourage behaviour modification and access to health improvement services. A peer mentoring programme was implemented and a training…
Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV burden and also often face multiple other challenges accessing HIV services, including legal and social issues. Although Swaziland recently started responding with interventions for MSM, significant gaps still exist both in information and programming. This study aimed ...
Britain's High Court recently overruled two decisions of the Mental Health Act Commission that denied certification of a voluntary experimental drug treatment to a mental patient, holding that the standard for informed consent is determined not by the subjective judgment of the commissioners but by whether the patient knows the nature and likely effects of treatment and that its use in his case is a novel one. The background facts of the case involving a 27-year-old pedophile receiving goserelin implantations to reduce testosterone levels are presented and the issues of jurisdiction under the Mental Health Act 1983 and the commissioners' duty to act fairly and to consider the likely benefits of treatment are discussed.
What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper...... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...... builds upon the premise that institutional dynamic is connected to peoples ability to act according to their free will. But only in the ideal version are they able to make a complete connection between free will and action. This is also the case for volunteers. The loose-coupled connection...
Banghøj, Jesper; Plenborg, Thomas
This paper examines if the level of voluntary disclosure affects the association between current returns and future earnings. Economic theory suggests that firms might find it advantageous to provide additional pieces of information (i.e., voluntary disclosure) to investors and analysts (Verrecchia...... 1983). Our results indicate that more voluntary disclosure does not improve the association between current returns and future earnings; i.e. current returns do not reflect more future earnings news. This finding raises the question whether voluntary information in the annual report contains value...... relevant information about future earnings or if investors are simply not capable of incorporating voluntary information in the firm value estimates. Key words: Disclosure, future earnings, informativeness...
I use data from the General Social Survey to evaluate several hypotheses regarding how beliefs in and about God predict attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I find that certainty in the belief in God significantly predicts negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I also find that belief in a caring God and in a God that is the primary source of moral rules significantly predicts negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I also find that respondents' beliefs about the how close they are to God and how close they want to be with God predict negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. These associations hold even after controlling for religious affiliation, religious attendance, views of the Bible, and sociodemographic factors. The findings indicate that to understand individuals' attitudes about voluntary euthanasia, one must pay attention to their beliefs in and about God.
Low-energy efficiency and environmental pollution have long been taken as key problems of Chinese industry, although a number of command-and-control and economic instruments have been adopted in the last few decades. In this paper, policy and legislation development for voluntary agreements were summarized. The voluntary agreements pilot project in two iron and steel companies in Shandong Province as well as other cases were analyzed. In order to identify the existing problems in Chinese cases, comparison was made between China and industrialized countries in the practices of energy efficiency voluntary agreements. Based on the analysis, detained recommendations, including the use of supporting policies for voluntary agreements, were raised. It is expected that voluntary agreements could play a more important role in energy efficiency improvement of Chinese industry
Zheludev, I.S.; Romanenko, A.G.
Librarians, researchers, and information specialists throughout the world now have the opportunity for direct access to coverage of almost 95% of the world's literature dealing with the peaceful uses of atomic energy and nuclear science. This opportunity has been provided by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA. INIS, with the voluntary collaboration of more than 60 of the Agency's Member States, maintains a comprehensive, computer-resident data-base, containing the bibliographic details plus informative abstracts of the bulk of the world's literature on nuclear science and technology. Since this data-base is growing at a rate of 75,000 items per year, and already contains more than 500,000 items, it is obviously important to be able to search this collection conveniently and efficiently. The usefulness of this ability is enhanced when other data-bases on related subjects are made available on an information network. During the early 1970s, on-line interrogation of large bibliographic data-bases became the accepted method for searching this type of information resource. Direct interaction between the searcher and the data-base provides quick feed-back resulting in improved literature listings for launching research and development projects. On-line access enables organizations which cannot store a large data-base on their own computer to expand the information resources at their command. Because of these advantages, INIS undertook to extend to interested Member States on-line access to its data-base in Vienna
The present study tested the hypothesis that single young adults who perceive their singlehood as voluntary would report a higher level of positive mental health (i.e., emotional, psychological and social well-being), lower levels of mental health illness (i.e., somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, severe depression) and romantic loneliness in comparison to young adults who perceive their singlehood as involuntary. This paper also investigated whether romantic loneliness mediates the relationship between voluntary and involuntary singlehood, positive mental health, and mental health illness. The study sample included 151 participants (86 females and 65 males) aged 20-26 ( M = 22.48, SD = 2.01) from Poland. The main findings were that voluntarily single young adults reported a lower level of romantic loneliness compared to involuntarily single young adults. The two groups differed neither in regard to positive mental health nor in regard to mental health problems. In addition, gender differences were observed solely in the domain of romantic loneliness, with women reporting greater romantic loneliness than men. The mediation analysis revealed that romantic loneliness does not mediate the relationship between voluntary and involuntary singlehood, positive mental health, and mental health illness. Voluntary and involuntary singlehood was predictive of somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, severe depression, and romantic loneliness.
Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M
The goal of this study was to show that voluntary autobiographical memories could be primed by the prior activation of autobiographical memories. Three experiments demonstrated voluntary memory priming with three different approaches. In Experiment 1 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their elementary school years. In a subsequent memory task primed participants were asked to recall memories from any time period, and they produced significantly more memories from their elementary school years than unprimed participants. In Experiment 2 primed participants were asked to recall what they were doing when they had heard various news events occurring between 1998 and 2005. Subsequently these participants produced significantly more memories from this time period than unprimed participants. In Experiment 3 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their teenage years. Subsequently these participants were able to recall more memories from ages 13-15 than unprimed participants, where both had only 1 second to produce a memory. We argue that the results support the notion that episodic memories can activate one another and that some of them are organised according to lifetime periods. We further argue that the results have implications for the reminiscence bump and voluntary recall of the past.
...] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency...) announces its adoption of three standards for the Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification... DHS to develop and implement a Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness Accreditation and Certification...
... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...
bequests, gifts and loans emerge as the principal means of access to land. These types of access prior to the law on state land property (assignment) still retain a large social legitimacy. Often, these forms of access (family allowance, legacy) in which men are privileged, serve as reference for local officials who administer ...
Roberts, Michael D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Wells, Kevin D; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Heese, Alexander J; Zhu, Conan; Rottinghaus, George E; Childs, Thomas E; Booth, Frank W
We compared the nucleus accumbens (NAc) transcriptomes of generation 8 (G8), 34-day-old rats selectively bred for low (LVR) versus high voluntary running (HVR) behaviours in rats that never ran (LVRnon-run and HVRnon-run), as well as in rats after 6 days of voluntary wheel running (LVRrun and HVRrun). In addition, the NAc transcriptome of wild-type Wistar rats was compared. The purpose of this transcriptomics approach was to generate testable hypotheses as to possible NAc features that may be contributing to running motivation differences between lines. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Ontology analyses suggested that ‘cell cycle’-related transcripts and the running-induced plasticity of dopamine-related transcripts were lower in LVR versus HVR rats. From these data, a hypothesis was generated that LVR rats might have less NAc neuron maturation than HVR rats. Follow-up immunohistochemistry in G9–10 LVRnon-run rats suggested that the LVR line inherently possessed fewer mature medium spiny (Darpp-32-positive) neurons (P running wheel access in our G9–10 LVRs uniquely increased their Darpp-32-positive and Dcx-positive neuron densities. In summary, NAc cellularity differences and/or the lack of running-induced plasticity in dopamine signalling-related transcripts may contribute to low voluntary running motivation in LVR rats. PMID:24665095
Gerry, Christopher J; Kaneva, Maria; Zasimova, Liudmila
With low take-up of both private health insurance and the existing public drug reimbursement scheme, it is thought that less than 5% of the Russian population have access to free outpatient drug treatment. This represents a major policy challenge for a country grappling with reforms of its healthcare system and experiencing low or no economic growth and significant associated reductions in spending on social services. In this paper, we draw on data from a 2011 Levada-Center survey to examine the attitudes and social solidarity of the Russian population towards drug policies in general and towards the introduction of a proposed voluntary drug insurance system in particular. In addition to being among the first to explore these important questions in the post-Communist setting, we make three important contributions to the emerging policy debates. First, we find that, if introduced immediately and without careful planning and preparation, Russia's voluntary drug insurance scheme is likely to collapse financially due to the over-representation of high-risk unhealthy individuals opting in to the scheme. Second, the negative attitude of higher income groups towards the redistribution of wealth to the poor may further impede government efforts to introduce voluntary drug insurance. Finally, we argue that Russia currently lacks the breadth and depth of social solidarity necessary for implementing this form of health financing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Margaret Louise Ward
Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the voluntary provision of inclusive housing. The impetus for the study is the Livable Housing Design initiative, an agreement among Australian housing industry and community leaders in 2010 to a national guideline and voluntary strategy with a target to provide minimum access features in all new housing by 2020. Situated in and around Brisbane, Australia, the study problematises the assumption that the housing industry will respond voluntarily; an assumption which this study concludes is unfounded. The Livable Housing Design initiative asks individual agents to consider the needs of people beyond the initial contract, to proceed with objective reasoning and to do the right thing voluntarily. Instead, the study found that interviewees focused on their immediate contractual obligations, were reluctant to change established practices and saw little reason to do more than was legally required of them. This paper argues that the highly-competitive and risk-averse nature of the industry works against a voluntary approach for inclusive housing and, if the 2020 target of the Livable Housing Design.
Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder (AUD is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHanTM:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for six weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over four weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHanTM:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHanTM:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHanTM:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to
Schultz, R L; Kullman, E L; Waters, Ryan
SHHF and Wistar-Furth (WF) rats were randomized to sedentary (SHHFsed and WFsed) and exercise groups (SHHFex and WFex). The exercise groups had access to running wheels from 6-22 months of age. Hindlimb muscles were obtained for metabolic measures that included mitochondrial enzyme function...... robust amounts of aerobic activity, voluntary wheel running exercise was not sufficiently intense to improve the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult SHHF animals, indicating an inability to compensate for declining heart function by improving peripheral oxidative adaptations in the skeletal...
Ayala, George; Santos, Glenn-Milo
Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men are among the small number of groups for whom HIV remains uncontrolled worldwide. Although there have been recent and notable decreases in HIV incidence across several countries, prevalence and incidence is consistently higher or rising among men who have sex with men when compared with other groups. In 2014, MSMGF (the Global Forum on MSM & HIV) conducted its third biennial Global Men's Health and Rights Study, an international, multilingual, web-based cross-sectional survey of men who have sex with men recruited through online convenience sampling. We tested hypothesized correlates (selected a priori ) of successfully achieving each step along the HIV prevention and treatment continuum by fitting separate generalized estimating equation models adjusted for clustering by country in multivariate analyses. All models controlled for ability to meet basic financial needs, age, healthcare coverage, having a regular provider, region and country-level income. Higher provider discrimination and sexual stigma were associated with lower odds of perceived access to services, service utilization and virologic suppression. Conversely, accessing services from community-based organizations focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; greater engagement in gay community; and comfort with healthcare providers were associated with higher odds of achieving steps along the prevention and treatment continuum. To meet accelerated global HIV targets, global leaders must adopt a differentiated and bolder response, in keeping with current epidemiologic trends and community-based research. The HIV-related needs of gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men must be addressed openly, quickly and with sufficient resources to support evidence-based, community-led and human rights-affirming interventions at scale.
Benson, Curtis; Paylor, John W; Tenorio, Gustavo; Winship, Ian; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, can be modulated by exercise. To examine whether limited voluntary wheel running could modulate EAE disease progression and the co-morbid symptoms of pain, mice with EAE were allowed access to running wheels for 1h every day. Allowing only 1h every day of voluntary running led to a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of the disease. The development of mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey hairs and indicated that wheel running had a modest positive effect on the pain hypersensitivity associated with EAE. These behavioral changes were associated with reduced numbers of cFOS and phosphorylated NR1 positive cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to no-run EAE controls. In addition, within the dorsal horn, voluntary wheel running reduced the number of infiltrating CD3(+) T-cells and reduced the overall levels of Iba1 immunoreactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we observed that wheel-running lead to significant changes in the spinal cord levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Oxidative stress has separately been shown to contribute to EAE disease progression and neuropathic pain. Together these results indicate that in mice with EAE, voluntary motor activity can delay the onset of clinical signs and reduce pain symptoms associated with the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nardone, A; Schieppati, M
The postural adjustments associated with a voluntary contraction of the postural muscles themselves have been studied in the legs of normal standing men. We focussed on the following questions. Do postural adjustments precede the focal movement as in the case of movements of the upper limb? Which muscle(s) are involved in the task of stabilizing posture? Can the same postural muscle be activated in postural stabilization and in voluntary movement at the same time, in spite of the opposite changes in activity possibly required by these conditions? Six subjects standing on a dynamometric platform were asked to rise onto the tips their toes by contracting their soleus muscles, or to rock on their heels by contracting their tibialis anterior muscles. The tasks were made in a reaction time (RT) situation or in a self-paced mode, standing either freely or holding onto a stable structure. Surface EMGs of leg and thigh muscles, and the foot-floor reaction forces were recorded. The following results were obtained in the RT mode, standing freely. 1. Rising onto toe tips: a striking silent period in soleus preceded its voluntary activation; during this silent period, a tibialis anterior burst could be observed in three subjects; these anticipatory activities induced a forward sway, as monitored by a change in the force exerted along the x axis of the platform. 2. Rocking on heels: an enhancement in tonic EMG of soleus was observed before tibialis anterior voluntary burst, at a mean latency from the go-signal similar to that of the silent period; this anticipatory activity induced a backward body sway. 3. Choice RT conditions showed that the above anticipatory patterns in muscle activity were pre-programmed, specific for the intended tasks, and closely associated with the focal movement. When both tasks were performed in a self-paced mode, all the above EMG and mechanical features were more pronounced and unfolded in time. If the subjects held onto the frame, the early
Full Text Available One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems. i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the
Poslončec-Petrić, V.; Vuković, V.; Frangeš, S.; Bačić, Ž.
One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems). i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the noise in real time
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.
Bird, L.; Lokey, E.
In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.
Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in
Chen, Lewis L; Chen, Y Mark; Zhou, Wu; Mustain, William D
Past studies have shown that reward contingency is critical for sensorimotor learning, and reward expectation speeds up saccades in animals. Whether monetary reward speeds up saccades in human remains unknown. Here we addressed this issue by employing a conditional saccade task, in which human subjects performed a series of non-reflexive, visually-guided horizontal saccades. The subjects were (or were not) financially compensated for making a saccade in response to a centrally-displayed visual congruent (or incongruent) stimulus. Reward modulation of saccadic velocities was quantified independently of the amplitude-velocity coupling. We found that reward expectation significantly sped up voluntary saccades up to 30°/s, and the reward modulation was consistent across tests. These findings suggest that monetary reward speeds up saccades in human in a fashion analogous to how juice reward sped up saccades in monkeys. We further noticed that the idiosyncratic nasal-temporal velocity asymmetry was highly consistent regardless of test order, and its magnitude was not correlated with the magnitude of reward modulation. This suggests that reward modulation and the intrinsic velocity asymmetry may be governed by separate mechanisms that regulate saccade generation.
The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.
This paper presents a series of findings generated during a larger study which aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the reasons why nursing students voluntarily leave pre-registration nursing programmes. In this study, significant incongruence was found to exist between student expectations of pre-registration nursing programmes and the reality of these programmes following entry. The resulting dissonance was identified as an important factor in student decisions to voluntarily withdraw. A single case study design was selected to explore the causes of voluntary attrition in nursing students within a School of Nursing and Midwifery. The study population was obtained through purposeful sampling and consisted of 15 students who had previously voluntarily withdrawn from pre-registration nursing programmes. A semi-structured interview method was used to collect data from study participants. The interview schedule developed for use in the study reflected the key components of the conceptual model of higher education (HE) student attrition (Tinto, 1975, 1987, 1993). All interviews were tape recorded to facilitate later transcription. The Cyclical or Interactive Model of Qualitative Research (Miles and Huberman, 1994) was used to analyse data collected from study participants. This paper describes the unrealistic range of expectations which nursing students have of nursing, the information sources and experiences which inform student expectations and how ambiguous expectations contributed to voluntarily attrition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ultramar Limited (Ltd.) operates a refinery in St-Romuald, Quebec, where crude oil is converted to high-grade petroleum products destined for markets in both Canada and the United States. In this document, the measures implemented to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reductions in support of the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program have been highlighted. The reference year for this report is 1990. The emphasis was placed on energy efficiency improvements. The target set by Ultramar Ltd. is a one per cent annual energy efficiency improvement, to be averaged over the period 1995-2005. The one per cent reduction in energy efficiency per year has been attained over the past three years by Ultramar Ltd. It was accomplished mainly through reduced energy consumption and increased plant capacity associated to minimal increases in energy consumption. For the year 2000, Ultramar achieved an improvement of 12 per cent over 1990. Some of the measures implemented included: personnel awareness concerning the importance of energy efficiency, maintenance and operational improvements, and capital investment program. Currently underway or recently completed initiatives included stream leaks and traps, flare losses reduction, and crude pre-heat exchangers. The various measures were briefly described, and the company indicated it fells confident that its energy efficiency, as measured by the Solomon Index, will be at least 10 per cent over the period 1995-2005. 2 figs
Norma L. Nielson
Full Text Available Several proposals have surfaced recently that government develop and offer some sort of voluntary pension plan (VPP. This paper examines areas of public policy on pensions where changes should take place with or without the development of a VPP, including those that promote greater harmonization, portability, and labour mobility. Similarly, the challenges of inertia and annuitization are areas in which a VPP is only one of several available policy devices. In the final analysis, two key arguments provide the only compelling reasons to support the establishment of large, economically efficient funds: that their assets could be managed professionally and efficiently and that they could reduce the distraction from employers’ primary goals. Neither of these arguments, however, offers convincing evidence that VPPs should be developed by government rather than by the private sector. Ultimately, the marketplace will determine whether the additional option of a VPP is needed and whether it is offered on terms that make it more attractive than the other available alternatives.
Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.
Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.
Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin’s life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childh...
Handler, Marc Zachary; Goldberg, David J
Men are interested in reducing signs of aging, while maintaining a masculine appearance. A chief concern among men is maintenance of scalp hair. Men are also concerned with reducing under eye bags and dark circles. The concern of feminization is of significant importance. Neuromodulators remain the most common cosmetic procedure performed in men. Men often prefer a reduction in facial rhytids, as opposed to elimination of the lines. Softening facial lines in men is meant to maintain an appearance of wisdom, without appearing fragile. Men also wish to maintain a taut jawline and a slim waist and reduce breast tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hankins, Catherine; Warren, Mitchell; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008) model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM) model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid-course corrections
Full Text Available Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008 model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid
Most everyday users of pornography are heterosexual men. Looking at, and masturbating to, pornography is the routine practice of large numbers of men. And most of the commercial pornographic industry caters to heterosexual men. These men – and their consumption of pornography – are the subject of a growing body of research. This chapter offers an overview of what we can learn about heterosexual boys' and young men's use of pornography, focusing particularly on quantitative studies of the exte...
Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (CVCT) is an effective HIV ... Through this project, the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group will apply more than 20 ... training, and technical assistance to pilot the expansion of CVCT in local ...
Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (CVCT) is an effective HIV ... Through this project, the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group will apply more than ... to provide support, training, and technical assistance to pilot the expansion of ...
Research has documented associations among religious affiliation, religious practice, and attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia, yet very few studies have investigated how particular religious beliefs influence these attitudes. I use data from the General Social Survey (GSS; N = 19,967) to evaluate the association between the belief in life after death and attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I find that those who believe in life after death are significantly less likely than those who do not believe in life after death or those who doubt the existence of life after death to have positive attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. These associations hold even after controlling for religious affiliation, religious attendance, views of the Bible, and sociodemographic factors. The findings indicate that to understand individuals' views about voluntary euthanasia, one must pay attention to individuals' particular religious beliefs.
Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe
Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus volunta...... concern related involuntary and voluntary memories. The findings support the view that involuntary and voluntary remembering is subject to similar motivational constraints.......Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus voluntary...... (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered current concerns measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (PCI; Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of current concern related...
OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Annual report of sales and number of customers in voluntary green power markets, including utility green pricing programs, utility green partnerships, competitive suppliers, unbundled renewable energy certificates, community choice aggregations, power purchase agreements, and community solar.
Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Prevalence of HIV Infection Amongst Patients Booked for Surgical Operations. ... The effectiveness (yield) of lay counseling in HIV testing by resident doctors who have not ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Tsehaye Tewabe1, Bikes Destaw2, Mengesha Admassu2, Bayeh Abera3. Abstract. Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the cornerstones for successful implementation of .... mosquito bites and sharing toilets. Correct ...
This volume is a logical extension of the Office of Consumer Affairs' work in the area of voluntary codes that may assist all parties in developing a better understanding of the strengths, weaknesses...
Yanikkerem, Emre; Üstgörül, Sema; Karakus, Asli; Baydar, Ozge; Esmeray, Nicole; Ertem, Gül
To evaluate Turkish nursing students' attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion.. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2015, comprising students of Ege University Nursing Faculty and Celal Bayar University School of Health, located in two different cities of Turkey. Data was collected with a three-part questionnaire, focussing on students' characteristics, the knowledge of abortion law in Turkey and attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis.. The mean score of students' attitude towards voluntary induced abortion was 39.8±7.9 which shows that nursing students moderately support abortion. Female students, students coming from upper class in society, and students who had higher family income and sexual experiences had more supportiveness attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion (pabortion.
Sources of law, voluntary obedience and human interactions: an analysis. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examines ways in which the various sources of law can be modified in such ...
Santangeli, Andrea; Arroyo, Beatriz; Dicks, Lynn V.; Herzon, Irina; Kukkala, Aija S.; Sutherland, William J.; Moilanen, Atte
The voluntary non-monetary approach to conservation refers to actions that citizens or organizations could voluntarily implement in their area of influence without the incentive of monetary compensations. To be effectively implemented by untrained actors, actions should be clearly defined, straightforward to implement and not require specific scientific knowledge. The costs of actions should also be sufficiently affordable to be widely applied without monetary incentives. A voluntary non-mone...
into a national and international market. This is especially effects land-grant institutions who can educate the citizens within their state by...RESEARCH OF NAVY VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AT OPERATIONAL COMMANDS by Christopher B. Veenhuis March 2017 Thesis Co-Advisors: William Hatch Chad...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMPARATIVE RESEARCH OF NAVY VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AT OPERATIONAL COMMANDS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S
Miller, R D
Szasz and others have pointed out that many so-called voluntary admissions to mental hospitals have various elements of coercion involved, and are thus not truly voluntary. The author contends that the converse situation is also true, that many patients admitted under involuntary commitment papers arrange for their own commitments. Reasons for such choices are discussed in the context of a review of the literature and several case histories.
Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim
Physical exercise has mood-enhancing and antidepressant properties although the mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. The present experiment investigated the effects of prolonged access to a running wheel on electrical self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus (LHSS), a measure of hedonic state, in rats. Rats with continuous voluntary access to a running wheel for either 2 or 5 weeks exhibited dramatic leftward shifts in the effective current 50 (ECu50; current value that supports half of maximum responding) of their LHSS current-response functions compared to their baselines, indicating a decrease in reward threshold, whereas control rats current-response functions after 2 or 5 weeks were not significantly different from baseline. An inverse correlation existed between the change in ECu50 from baseline and the amount an animal had run in the day prior to LHSS testing, indicating that animals that exhibited higher levels of running showed a more robust decrease in LHSS threshold. We conclude that long-term voluntary exercise increases sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, which may contribute to its antidepressant properties.
Ganos, Christos; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick
Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature. We then examine the association between voluntary inhibitory tic control with premonitory urges and review evidence linking voluntary tic inhibition to other forms of executive control of action. We discuss the somatotopic selectivity and the neural correlates of voluntary inhibitory tic control. Finally, we provide a scientific framework with regard to the clinical relevance of the study of voluntary inhibitory tic control within the context of the neurodevelopmental disorder of Tourette syndrome. We identify current knowledge gaps that deserve attention in future research. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Gregory N Ruegsegger
Full Text Available In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated with the rapid increase in adipose tissue after ending 6 wks of voluntary running at the time of puberty. Age-matched, male Wistar rats were given access to running wheels from 4 to 10 weeks of age. From the 10th to 11th week of age, one group of rats had continued wheel access, while the other group had one week of wheel locking. Perirenal adipose tissue was extracted, RNA sequencing was performed, and bioinformatics analyses were executed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA. IPA was chosen to assist in the understanding of complex 'omics data by integrating data into networks and pathways. Wheel locked rats gained significantly more fat mass and significantly increased body fat percentage between weeks 10-11 despite having decreased food intake, as compared to rats with continued wheel access. IPA identified 646 known transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05 between continued wheel access and wheel locking. In wheel locked rats, IPA revealed enrichment of transcripts for the following functions: extracellular matrix, macrophage infiltration, immunity, and pro-inflammatory. These findings suggest that increases in visceral adipose tissue that accompanies the cessation of pubertal physical activity are associated with the alteration of multiple pathways, some of which may potentiate the development of pubertal obesity and obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation that occurs later in life.
Persson, Kristina Ingemarsdotter; Berglund, Torsten; Bergström, Jakob; Eriksson, Lars E; Tikkanen, Ronny; Thorson, Anna; Forsberg, Birger C
To explore motivators and barriers to HIV testing and to assess the factors associated with testing among men who have sex with men. Previous research has considered fear, worries and structural barriers as hindrances to HIV testing among men who have sex with men. However, few studies have included assessments of actual HIV testing when exploring barriers or motivators for such testing. The design of the study was a stratified cross-sectional online survey (n = 2373). Factor analysis was conducted to analyse the barriers and motivators for HIV testing. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess predictors for HIV testing. Many men who have sex with men test for HIV regularly, and specific reasons for testing were having unprotected sex or starting/ending a relationship. A lack of awareness and a perception of being at low risk for exposure were common reasons for never being tested. Fear and anxiety as well as barriers related to the use of test services remain important hindrances for testing. Predictors associated with having been tested within the past 12 months were: younger age (15-25 years old compared with 47+); knowledge on where to take an HIV test on short notice as well as having talked with a counsellor, having received condoms for free, or having had unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners within the last 12 months. Easily accessible test services offering testing and counselling on short notice should be available for all men who have sex with men. Outreach activities, distribution of free condoms and testing at venues where men who have sex with men meet are important prevention add-ons that can contribute to increased awareness about HIV and testing. Test services must ensure confidentiality and health care professionals who meet men who have sex with men for testing need competency with regards to men who have sex with men sexual health needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Access to records and communications. 203.11 Section 203.11 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT REGISTRATION OF PRIVATE VOLUNTARY... documents that are made available to USAID pursuant to this regulation must be made available for public...
The degree to which voluntary sterilization (VS) is accepted as a form of fertility control throughout the world was assessed by examining the prevalence and legal status of VS in all countries for which information was available and by examining current religious and traditional attitudes toward VS. Information on VS prevalence for 73 countries indicates that in 28 countries, 10% of all eligible couples rely on VS. In a number of countries, including Korea, New Zealand, Panama, US, and Puerto Rico, 25% or more of all currently married women of reproductive age rely on VS. VS prevalence rates tend to be higher in Asian countries than in African, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. In a number of countries, the average age and family size of VS acceptors is declining. Information on the legal status of VS for 124 countries indicates that 22 countries have laws which permit or encourage VS. These countries contain 13.4% of the world's population. In 54 countries, representing 60% of the world's population, there are no laws restricting VS, and VS is generally assumed to be legal. In 29 countries, representing 14% of world's population, the legal status of VS is unclear. In the remaining 29 countries, sterilization is forbidden except for medical or eugenic reasons. The degree to which these laws actually restrict VS varies from country to country. For example in Indonesia VS is illegal but widely practiced. Although some religious teachings discourage sterilization, the impact of religion on VS varies considerably from country to country. In the Catholic countries of Panama, Dominican Republic, and Philippines the prevalence of VS is high, and in the Catholic countries of Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay the prevalence of VS is low. VS prevalence is generally low in Muslim countries, but high in the Muslim countries of Tunisia, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. VS prevalence is high in the Buddhist country of Thailand but low in the Buddhist country of Burma
Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S
Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family
The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…
Prof. Dennis Ocholla
The argument that access to information is an instrumental and individual as well as ... and Dean School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA. ... to scholarly publications and can be in any digital format, including text, movies and ... language barriers, censorship, lack of access to the Internet and ...
... crisis? For More Information Reprints Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... affects a large number of men. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable and has trouble ...
men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet......men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet...
... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...
Nielsen, Jakob Isak
Artiklen gør rede for Mad Mens tilblivelse, dens populærkulturelle efterdønninger, multimediale forgreninger og værkæstetiske karakteristika. "Story Matters Here" lyder AMCs motto, men Mad Men tilbyder et bredspektret engagement, der går langt ud over at følge med i en vedkommende fortælling...
Gillenwater, Michael Wayne
In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of
Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha
Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.
Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S
The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.
Nakajima, Sanae; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohta, Shigeo; Ohno, Makoto; Mikami, Toshio
Chronic stress impairs cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis. This impairment is attributed to increases in oxidative stress, which result in the accumulation of lipid peroxide. On the other hand, voluntary exercise enhances cognitive function, hippocampal neurogenesis, and antioxidant capacity in normal animals. However, the effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive function, neurogenesis, and antioxidants in stressed mice are unclear. This study was designed to investigate whether voluntary exercise cures stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by improvement of hippocampal neurogenesis and increases in antioxidant capacity. Stressed mice were exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS), which consisted of 12h immobilization daily and feeding in a small cage, for 8 weeks. Exercised mice were allowed free access to a running wheel during their exposure to CRS. At the 6th week, cognitive function was examined using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Daily voluntary exercise restored stress-induced impairment of cognitive function and the hippocampal cell proliferation of newborn cells but not cell survival. Voluntary exercise increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) protein and mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex and liver, respectively. In addition, CRS resulted in a significant increase in the number of 4-hydrosynonenal (4-HNE)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus; whereas, voluntary exercise inhibited it and enhanced glutathione s-transferases (GST) activity in the brain. These findings suggest that voluntary exercise attenuated the stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by improvement of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. This exercise-induced improvement was attributed to exercise-induced enhancement of IGF-1 protein and GST activity in the brain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nnawulezi, Nkiru; Godsay, Surbhi; Sullivan, Cris M; Marcus, Suzanne; Hacskaylo, Margaret
The purpose of community-based domestic violence crisis housing programs (e.g., shelters) is to provide a safe setting that promotes empowerment for survivors of intimate partner violence. For staff to reach this aim, the program must have formal structures and processes in place to support such efforts. This study explored how low-barrier and voluntary service policies influenced staff practices and survivor empowerment. Low-barrier policies require that programs remove barriers that prevent survivors, particularly those who have mental health concerns and/or addictions, from being able to access services. A voluntary service policy states that survivors have the right to choose which services, if any, they would like to engage in during their stay at the program. Survivors' ability to stay at the housing program is not contingent on their participation in program services. This exploratory-sequential (QUAL→ quan) mixed-method study examined how low-barrier and voluntary service policies influenced staff behavior and how these behaviors then related to survivor empowerment. Qualitative results revealed that low-barrier and voluntary service were guided by cultural values of justice and access, encouraged survivor-centered practices among staff, and were believed to promote survivor autonomy. Quantitative results suggested that when survivors perceived they had a choice to engage in program services or meet with an advocate, their empowerment increased. This study has implications for domestic violence organizational practice and provides evidence about the contextual factors that support individual empowerment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Transforming Global Information and Communication Markets: The Political Economy of ... 8 Control and Resistance: Attacks on Burmese Opposition Media 153 ...... “Reluctant Gatekeepers: Corporate Ethics on a Filtered Internet,” in Access ...
Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy
A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.
Redlich, Allison D; Hoover, Steven; Summers, Alicia; Steadman, Henry J
Mental health courts (MHCs) are rapidly expanding as a form of diversion from jails and prisons for persons with mental illness charged with crimes. Although intended to be voluntary, little is known about this aspect of the courts. We examined perceptions of voluntariness, and levels of knowingness and legal competence among 200 newly enrolled clients of MHCs at two courts. Although most clients claimed to have chosen to enroll, at the same time, most claimed not to have been told the court was voluntary or told of the requirements prior to entering. The majority knew the "basics" of the courts, but fewer knew more nuanced information. A minority also were found to have impairments in legal competence. Implications are discussed.
White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy
This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options.
Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika
Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from...... in relation to public policy arenas and activities, particularly within urban policy and the community development fields. A categorization is proposed as regards different ways and models of civic engagement and major challenges are outlined. The paper is first step of a research project exploring potential...... the apparently strong growth in voluntarism. Although there seems to be a large potential for involving volunteers and voluntary organisations, systematic analysis of recent years’ urban regeneration projects in Denmark shows that the sustainability of voluntary contributions is limited. While initial enrolling...
Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora
In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure...... implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....
In the field of public policies innovative instruments based on market mechanisms and voluntary action by economical subjects meet a growing favour. This emerges also from the proceedings of the recent National Conference on Energy and the Environment, held in Rome in November 1998. From a planning policy, directly implemented by public bodies and often characterised by a strong rigidity, we are now passing to a new policy style, based on main trends and principles and implemented, at least in a priority way, through a mechanism of pacts and agreements among a variety of actors. This article, starting from an introduction on the nature and the functioning limits of voluntary agreements and, on these bases, presents some hypothesis on the ways and the necessary conditions to develop a concrete system of voluntary agreements in the country, in order to reach the new energy and environmental policies goals [it
C. Colloca TS/FM
TS/FM group informs you that, for the replacement of the door of the main entrance at bldg. 500, the access will be closed to the public between 19 and 30 July 2004. Access to the Main Building complex will be assured at any time through both of the side doors and from bldg. 64. For more information, please contact 73273. C. Colloca TS/FM
Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Africa experience discrimination from healthcare workers (HCWs), impeding health service access. Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of an MSM sensitisation training programme for HCWs implemented in the Western Cape province (South Africa). Methods: A ...
The US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office (DOE-CAO) has completed a voluntary release assessment sampling program at selected Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Voluntary Release Assessment/Corrective Action (RA/CA) report has been prepared for final submittal to the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region 6, Hazardous Waste Management Division and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous and Radioactive Materials Bureau to describe the results of voluntary release assessment sampling and proposed corrective actions at the SWMU sites. The Voluntary RA/CA Program is intended to be the first phase in implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and corrective action process at the WIPP. Data generated as part of this sampling program are intended to update the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) for the WIPP (Assessment of Solid Waste Management Units at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), NMED/DOE/AIP 94/1. This Final Voluntary RA/CA Report documents the results of release assessment sampling at 11 SWMUs identified in the RFA. With this submittal, DOE formally requests a No Further Action determination for these SWMUs. Additionally, this report provides information to support DOE`s request for No Further Action at the Brinderson and Construction landfill SWMUs, and to support DOE`s request for approval of proposed corrective actions at three other SWMUs (the Badger Unit Drill Pad, the Cotton Baby Drill Pad, and the DOE-1 Drill Pad). This information is provided to document the results of the Voluntary RA/CA activities submitted to the EPA and NMED in August 1995.
I question whether, in those cases where physician-assisted suicide is invoked to alleviate unbearable pain and suffering, there can be such a thing as voluntary euthanasia. The problem is that when a patient asks to die under such conditions there is good reason to think that the decision to die is compelled by the pain, and hence not freely chosen. Since the choice to die was not made freely it is inadvisable for physicians to act in accordance with it, for this may be contrary to the patient's genuine wishes. Thus, what were thought to be cases of voluntary euthanasia might actually be instances of involuntary euthanasia. PMID:10390679
Waste siting gridlock in the United States and Canada has led to experimentation with voluntary and hybrid or ``mixed mode`` siting. We review nuclear and hazardous waste voluntary siting (VS) results for selected cases in the U.S, and Canada. Findings indicate that VS is not a panacea, but that current siting efforts are inadequate tests of its potential. We suggest trials of improved VS protocols and more effort on hybrid approaches in which the developer chooses the site but is required to reach agreement on conditions with local stakeholders. Mixed mode siting may be better suited to the US context and its three-tiered governmental system.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) laws are an area of exploration and there is debate over preference to voluntary CSR laws or to mandatory CSR laws. The objective is to con-duct a micro-level study to explore the employee’s preferences for mandatory CSR laws or voluntary CSR laws. There is some existing literature on this topic at the macro-level and goal is to extend and contribute to the literature about this topic by studying the pref-erence at the micro-level. A qualitative study bas...
Full Text Available This study examines the effects of board composition and mimetic behaviour on the extent and credibility of corporate voluntary disclosure. The investigation is based on the annual reports of 155 Malaysian listed companies during the period when these companies faced new corporate governance regulation. This study provides evidence that under the influence of dominant owners on board, management voluntary disclosure decisions are driven by incentives to conform when their company is structured to meet expectations of good corporate governance. Such incentive seems to override incentives to disclose credible information to outside investors
Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D
Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin's life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childhood, contributed to men's depression above and beyond current (or proximal) stressors, such as substance abuse and health problems, and social resources. The sample consisted of 309 homeless men who had entered a federally funded emergency shelter. Using the Burns Depression Checklist, the authors found that one out of three men met the threshold for moderate to severe depression during the past week. The logistic regression showed that past exposure to parent problems was related to depression after accounting for current stressors and social resources (number of close adult relationships and whether their emotional support needs were met). Past victimization was not related to depression. To address men's depression, workers should concurrently provide services that meet men's basic needs (for example, housing) and address their relationship needs, including their need for emotional support.
Waters, R.Parrish; Pringle, R.B.; Forster, G.L.; Renner, K.J.; Malisch, J.L.; Garland, T.; Swallow, J.G.
Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. PMID:23352668
Narath, E; Skalicky, M; Viidik, A
The importance of maintaining physical fitness by engaging in exercise in a life-long perspective as well as the avoidance of obesity has been emphasised in recent years by epidemiological studies on human populations as well as studies on laboratory rodents. In laboratory studies, voluntary running in wheels and forced training in a treadmill have been used with beneficial results. Restriction of the food intake of sedentary laboratory rodents can be regarded either as life prolongation or prevention of life shortening by obesity. We compared the effects of these interventions on male Sprague-Dawley rats from the age of 5 to 23 months in the following groups: (1) RW=voluntary running in wheels; (2) PW=fed to pair weight with RW animals; (3) TM=forced training in a treadmill; and (4) S1=sedentary with ad libitum access to food. Each group consisted of 32 animals, all housed individually in cages. Two RW animals died, five died in each of the PW and S1 groups and 10 in the TM group (pmuch they run.
Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas
Obtaining voluntary informed consent for research participation is an ethical imperative, yet there appears to be little consensus regarding what constitutes a voluntary consent decision. An instrument to assess influences on participants' consent decision and perceived voluntariness was developed and piloted in two South African HIV clinical trials. The pilot study found high levels of perceived voluntariness. The feeling of having no choice but to participate was significantly associated with lower perceived voluntariness. Overall the data suggest that it is possible to obtain voluntary and valid consent for research participants in ethically complex HIV clinical trials in a developing country context.
Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Armstrong, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.
Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L.
This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.
Kirkeby, Inge Mette
Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...
The current study draws on national data to explore differences in access to flexible work scheduling by the gender composition of women's and men's occupations. Results show that those who work in integrated occupations are more likely to have access to flexible scheduling. Women and men do not take jobs with lower pay in return for greater access to flexibility. Instead, jobs with higher pay offer greater flexibility. Integrated occupations tend to offer the greatest access to flexible scheduling because of their structural locations. Part-time work is negatively associated with men's access to flexible scheduling but positively associated with women's access. Women have greater flexibility when they work for large establishments, whereas men have greater flexibility when they work for small establishments.
Kelly, Scott A; Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Kolb, Erik M; Malisch, Jessica L; Rhodes, Justin S; Mitchell, Gordon S; Garland, Theodore
What is the central question of this study? We used experimental evolution to determine how selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running and exercise training (7-11 weeks) affect ventilatory chemoreflexes of laboratory mice at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? Selective breeding, although significantly affecting some traits, did not systematically alter ventilation across gas concentrations. As with most human studies, our findings support the idea that endurance training attenuates resting ventilation. However, little evidence was found for a correlation between ventilatory chemoreflexes and the amount of individual voluntary wheel running. We conclude that exercise 'training' alters respiratory behaviours, but these changes may not be necessary to achieve high levels of wheel running. Ventilatory control is affected by genetics, the environment and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test whether 37 generations of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running (genetic effects) and/or long-term (7-11 weeks) wheel access (training effects) alter acute respiratory behaviour of mice resting in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. As the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines run much more than the four non-selected control (C) lines, we also examined whether the amount of exercise among individual mice was a quantitative predictor of ventilatory chemoreflexes at rest. Selective breeding and/or wheel access significantly affected several traits. In normoxia, HR mice tended to have lower mass-adjusted rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Chronic wheel access increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in both HR and C mice during hypercapnia. Breathing frequency and minute ventilation were significantly reduced by chronic wheel access in both HR and C mice during hypoxia. Selection history, while significantly affecting some traits
Prostate cancer is a common cancer affecting men worldwide. Few men access health services with respect to early detection. Workplace health education initiatives can promote behavior change in men. A total of 12 in-depth interviews with men were conducted in this study to examine how a workplace-based educational campaign on prostate cancer influences the knowledge, awareness, and beliefs of male workers on screening for prostate cancer. Analyses of interview transcripts identified that men had a poor overall knowledge about prostate cancer, its screening, and treatment. Participants were receptive to the introduction of workplace-based health education initiatives to promote men's health issues but recommended an integrated health approach that incorporated information delivered by medical professionals, cancer survivors, supplemented with existing patient education materials. Further research is required to formally evaluate the impact of workplace-based education strategies on men's health.
Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A
Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...
Vallely, Andrew J; MacLaren, David; David, Matthew; Toliman, Pamela; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Toto, Ben; Tommbe, Rachael; Kombati, Zure; Kaima, Petronia; Browne, Kelwyn; Manineng, Clement; Simeon, Lalen; Ryan, Claire; Wand, Handan; Hill, Peter; Law, Greg; Siba, Peter M; McBride, W John H; Kaldor, John M
Various forms of penile foreskin cutting are practised in Papua New Guinea. In the context of an ecological association observed between HIV infection and the dorsal longitudinal foreskin cut, we undertook an investigation of this relationship at the individual level. We conducted a cross-sectional study among men attending voluntary confidential HIV counselling and testing clinics. Following informed consent, participants had a face-to-face interview and an examination to categorize foreskin status. HIV testing was conducted on site and relevant specimens collected for laboratory-based Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2), syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) testing. Overall, 1073 men were enrolled: 646 (60.2%) were uncut; 339 (31.6%) had a full dorsal longitudinal cut; 72 (6.7%) a partial dorsal longitudinal cut; and 14 (1.3%) were circumcised. Overall, the prevalence of HIV was 12.3%; HSV-2, 33.6%; active syphilis, 12.1%; CT, 13.4%; NG, 14.1%; and TV 7.6%. Compared with uncut men, men with a full dorsal longitudinal cut were significantly less likely to have HIV (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 0.25, 95%CI: 0.12, 0.51); HSV-2 (adjOR 0.60, 95%CI: 0.41, 0.87); or active syphilis (adjOR 0.55, 95%CI: 0.31, 0.96). This apparent protective effect was restricted to men cut prior to sexual debut. There was no difference between cut and uncut men for CT, NG or TV. In this large cross-sectional study, men with a dorsal longitudinal foreskin cut were significantly less likely to have HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis compared with uncut men, despite still having a complete (albeit morphologically altered) foreskin. The protective effect of the dorsal cut suggests that the mechanism by which male circumcision works is not simply due to the removal of the inner foreskin and its more easily accessible HIV target cells. Exposure of the penile glans and inner foreskin appear to be key mechanisms by which male circumcision confers
masculine than other men? Or do they rather represent a new, more tolerant and less stereotypical male gender role? If less restricted by stereotypes, are men then eager to challenge traditional dichotomised perceptions of man/masculinity and woman/femininity? By means of analyses of interviews with more......»Male nurses – Is that really what It’s called?« »Aren’t all male hairdressers gay?« »All preschool educators do is to wipe children’s bums, isn’t it?« »Cleaning is a job for women, not for men.« Men working in women’s professions often give rise to a lot of prejudices. But why? Are these men less...... than 160 Bulgarian, Danish, Italian and Polish men working in traditional women’s occupations, this publication tries to answer some of these questions....
Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza
OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943
... Lifestyle Adult health Understand important health issues for gay men and men who have sex with men — ... Staff All men face certain health risks. However, gay men and men who have sex with men ...
Silvestre, Anthony J.; Hylton, John B.; Johnson, Lisette M.; Houston, Carmoncelia; Witt, Mallory; Jacobson, Lisa; Ostrow, David
We describe the efforts of a 4-city campaign to recruit Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men into an established HIV epidemiological study. The campaign used community organizing principles and a social marketing model that focused on personnel, location, product, costs and benefits, and promotion. The campaign was developed at the community, group, and individual levels to both increase trust and reduce barriers. The proportion of Hispanic men recruited during the 2002–2003 campaign doubled compared with the 1987 campaign, and the proportion and number of White men decreased by 20%. The proportion of Black men decreased because of the large increase in Hispanic men, although the number of Black men increased by 56%. Successful recruitment included training recruitment specialists, involving knowledgeable minority community members during planning, and having an accessible site with convenient hours. PMID:16670218
Kristmundsdóttir, Sigríður Dúna
Around the turn of the last century the suffrage was a crucial political issue in Europe and North America. Granting the disenfranchised groups, all women and a proportion of men, the suffrage would foreseeably have lasting effects on the structure of society and its gendered organization. Accordingly, the suffrage was hotly debated. Absent in this debate were the voices of disenfranchised men and this article asks why this was so. No research has been found on why these men did not fight for...
Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips
MacDonald, Richard A.; Siegfried, John J.
The second edition of the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" was published by the Council for Economic Education in 2010. The authors examine the process for revising these precollege content standards and highlight several changes that appear in the new document. They also review the impact the standards have had on precollege…
Objective: The objective of this qualitative study was to identify psychosocial correlates of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), with an emphasis on the association between fear of AIDS-related stigma and willingness to have an HIV test. Methods: The study was executed in Limpopo Province at University of ...
The study explored the factors influencing the use of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) by university students. This was done by undertaking an exploratory and descriptive qualitative study. Data were collected using focus group discussions (FGDs) and field notes. Thematic analysis was done. The study revealed ...
Ryan, Vernon D.; Agnitsch, Kerry A.; Zhao, Lijun; Mullick, Rehan
This paper examines the influence of community attachment on voluntary citizen participation in rural community improvement projects. We do so by modifying the original systemic model of community attachment (Kasarda and Janowitz 1974) and combining it with tenets of rational choice and social embeddedness theories. The modified model is then…
Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Sargeant, Anthony J.
Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also
A registrant can cancel the registration of a pesticide product or cancel a use from the product’s label at any time as stated in Section 6(f) of FIFRA. Learn how to request a voluntary cancellation or use deletion.
... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... Creighton Center for Health Services Research and Patient Safety (CHRP) Patient Safety Organization (PSO... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...
... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... entity of Harbor Medical, Inc., of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...
... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of..., LLC of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement... or component organizations whose mission and primary activity is to conduct activities to improve...
... Organizations: Voluntary delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS ACTION: Notice... Patient Safety Corporation of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...
... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of.... Patient Safety Group (A Component of Helmet Fire, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...
... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act), Public Law 109... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...
Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control.We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ, respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ.Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control.
Hopper, Calvin Mitchell
This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.
Verdaasdonk, E.; Dankelman, J.; Schijven, M.P.; Lange, J.F.; Wentink, M.; Stassen, L.P.S.
This study assesses the issue of voluntary training of a standardized online competition (serious gaming) between surgical residents. Surgical residents were invited to join a competition on a virtual reality (VR) simulator for laparoscopic motor skills. A final score was calculated based on the
Bisio, Ambra; Casteran, Matthieu; Ballay, Yves; Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry
Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e., a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with AD. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator. PMID:27014056
Fransen, L.W.; Burgoon, B.
This article explores why companies choose some Corporate Responsibility initiatives over others. The focus is on competing voluntary programs to oversee and protect labor standards. These programs may differ with regard to two aspects: the governance of the program and the financial and managerial
Full Text Available Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.
Rogers, John D.; Glesner, Talia J.; Meyers, Herman W.
This article describes the implementation of an initiative to encourage voluntary school district mergers in Vermont. The law was intended to increase educational opportunities for Vermont students while reducing costs. Three research activities were conducted to understand how districts and supervisory unions around the state responded to the new…
Braam, G.J.M.; Borghans, L.
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore whether interlock ties between the board of directors and the external auditors facilitate the cross-firm diffusion of voluntary disclosures in annual reports. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 149 non-financial companies publicly
Verdaasdonk, E. G. G.; Dankelman, J.; Schijven, M. P.; Lange, J. F.; Wentink, M.; Stassen, L. P. S.
This study assesses the issue of voluntary training of a standardized online competition (serious gaming) between surgical residents. Surgical residents were invited to join a competition on a virtual reality (VR) simulator for laparoscopic motor skills. A final score was calculated based on the
... following: (1) An Agency application form; (2) A current financial statement. If the borrower is an entity, all entity members must provide current financial statements; (3) Information on present and future... subpart B of 7 CFR part 1956 before or in conjunction with the voluntary conveyance offer if the value of...
Background. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a priority HIV preventive intervention. To facilitate VMMC scale-up, the World Health Organization is seeking circumcision techniques that are faster, easier, and safer than open surgical methods. Objective. To compare open surgical circumcision with suturing v.
Robyn A. Jackowich, BA
Conclusions: This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others. Jackowich RA, Vale R, Vale K, Wassersug RJ, and Johnson TW. Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med 2014;2:121–132.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodermal reactions (EDRs can be attributed to many origins, including spontaneous fluctuations of electrodermal activity (EDA and stimuli such as deep inspirations, voluntary mental activity and startling events. In fields that use EDA as a measure of psychophysiological state, the fact that EDRs may be elicited from many different stimuli is often ignored. This study attempts to classify observed EDRs as voluntary (i.e., generated from intentional respiratory or mental activity or involuntary (i.e., generated from startling events or spontaneous electrodermal fluctuations. Methods Eight able-bodied participants were subjected to conditions that would cause a change in EDA: music imagery, startling noises, and deep inspirations. A user-centered cardiorespiratory classifier consisting of 1 an EDR detector, 2 a respiratory filter and 3 a cardiorespiratory filter was developed to automatically detect a participant's EDRs and to classify the origin of their stimulation as voluntary or involuntary. Results Detected EDRs were classified with a positive predictive value of 78%, a negative predictive value of 81% and an overall accuracy of 78%. Without the classifier, EDRs could only be correctly attributed as voluntary or involuntary with an accuracy of 50%. Conclusions The proposed classifier may enable investigators to form more accurate interpretations of electrodermal activity as a measure of an individual's psychophysiological state.
... confidential commercial or financial information and in § 20.63 for personal privacy. (b) If the report is... would identify the person submitting the report and any data or information falling within the exemption... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary product defect reports. 20.113 Section...
..., or any other agency of the United States Government, has learned the same or substantially similar... be deemed to have made a voluntary self-disclosure under this section unless the individual making... disclosure subsequently completes the narrative account required by paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the...
of South Africa (1996) and applicable legislation, it is apparent that voluntary informed ... Seoul, 2008);4 Ethics in Health Research: Principles, Structures and. Processes (Department of Health 2004 – 'ethical guidelines' for the purpose of this ... workers have a legal duty to obtain a patient's informed consent for any medical ...
Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.
Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)
Pettersson, H; Theander, G; Danielsson, L [Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology
The clinical and radiologic findings in a child with habitual voluntary dislocation of the hip are reported. Observations made in this case and in 6 others on record suggest that this rare condition is a specific pediatric entity with a good prognosis.
Boven, Magda; Slender, Hans; Wiggers, Peter
Local governments, traditionally an important partner of voluntary sport clubs in the Netherlands, are increasingly influencing clubs into involvement in social projects and activities. Although it is not clear what contribution sports clubs can play in this social policy agenda, or whether this
Franco Garcia, Maria Maria; Sosa, A.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.
This paper provides a descriptive historical analysis of failure and success factors during the implementation phase of environmental voluntary agreements (VAs) in Mexico. Secondary source data suggest that over the past two decades, perceptions of VAs have changed, and the purpose of this paper was
This study assessed the demographic variables predicting the practice of HIV Voluntary Counselling among secondary school adolescents in Edo State. Thus, a descriptive survey research was adopted for the study. One thousand, nine hundred and eighty eight (1988) secondary school adolescents were sampled from ...
Background/Objective: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to two-thirds of all people living with HIV/AIDS. Nigeria has the third highest population of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is rapidly becoming an important component of HIV/AIDS prevention and care strategy.
De Visser, H.; Herder, J.L.
This paper presents the design of a body-powered voluntary closing prosthetic hand. It is argued that the movement of the fingers before establishing a grip is much less relevant for good control of the object held than the distribution of forces once the object has been contacted. Based on this
individually on a diet with a metabolizable energy content of 10,26 MJ/kg. Measurements were made continuously of livemass, voluntary intake and body composition wsing tritium dilution. The growth results were analysed and interpreted relative to percentage of mature mass to account for differences in size. The intake of ...
Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease (AD primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e. a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator.
Murphy, Jerome R.
This report describes a voluntary audit program implemented by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). The comprehensive audit program was developed to assure that all corporate programs adhere to the ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness. The standards address issues which relate to all ETS activities such as accountability, confidentiality of…
"Based on five months anthropological field study in a British affiliate of an American charity in London, Revsbech asks what does learning look like in a social voluntary organization for youth. Her chapter argues that volunteers develop entrepreneurial abilities by shifting flexibly between...
Denant-Boemont, L.; Masclet, D.; Noussair, C.N.
In this paper, we study the effect of pre-play announcements and ex-post observation of decisions on voluntary public good provision. We find that requiring announcements, in conjunction with making contribution decisions public, has a significantly positive effect on the average level of
Full Text Available Several studies have addressed the question of the time it takes for attention to shift from one position in space to another. Here we present a behavioural paradigm which offers a direct access to an estimate of voluntary shift time by comparing, in the same task, a situation in which subjects are required to re-engage their attention at the same spatial location with a situation in which they need to shift their attention to another location, all other sensory, cognitive and motor parameters being equal. We show that spatial attention takes on average 55 ms to voluntarily shift from one hemifield to the other and 38 ms to shift within the same hemifield. In addition, we show that across and within hemifields attentional processes are different. In particular, attentional spotlight division appears to be more difficult to operate within than across hemifields.
Alexandersen, Nina; Anell, Anders; Kaarboe, Odvar
and capped. Nevertheless, the markets for voluntary private health insurance (VPHI) have been rapidly expanding. In this paper we describe the development of the market for VPHI in the Nordic countries. We outline similarities and differences and provide discussion of the rationale for the existence......The Nordic countries represent an institutional setting with tax-based health care financing and universal access to health care services. Very few health care services are excluded from what are offered within the publically financed health care system. User fees are often non-existing or low...... of different types of VPHI. Data is collected on the population covered by VPHI, type and scope of coverage, suppliers of VPHI and their relations with health providers. It seems that the main roles of VPHI are to cover out-of-pocket payments for services that are only partly financed by the public health care...
Review of antenatal-linked voluntary counseling and HIV testing in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons and options for Ghana. ... Voluntary counselling and HIV testing has become an integral part of HIV prevention ... AJOL African Journals Online.
... Voluntary Customer Satisfaction Surveys ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of... Treasury is soliciting comments concerning the Customer Satisfaction Survey. DATES: Written comments should..., WV 26106-1328, (304) 480- 8150. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Voluntary Customer Satisfaction...
... 1250-ZA00 Interpretive Standards for Systemic Compensation Discrimination and Voluntary Guidelines for... Order 11246 with respect to Systemic Compensation Discrimination (Standards) and Voluntary Guidelines... Compensation Discrimination [[Page 63
Wand, Sean; Thermos, Adam C.
Explains the issues to consider before a college decides to purchase a card-access system. The benefits of automation, questions involving implementation, the criteria for technology selection, what typical card technology involves, privacy concerns, and the placement of card readers are discussed. (GR)
Keith, Diana R; Hart, Carl L; Robotham, Margaret; Tariq, Maliha; Le Sauter, Joseph; Silver, Rae
The circadian timing system influences a vast array of behavioral responses. Substantial evidence indicates a role for the circadian system in regulating reward processing. Here we explore time of day effects on drug anticipation, locomotor activity, and voluntary methamphetamine (MA) and food intake in animals with ad libitum food access. We compared responses to drug versus a palatable treat during their normal sleep times in early day (zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400) or late day (ZT 1000). In the first study, using a between-subjects design, mice were given daily 1-h access to either peanut butter (PB-Alone) or to a low or high concentration of MA mixed in PB (MA+PB). In study 2, we repeated the experiment using a within-subjects design in which mice could choose between PB-Alone and MA+PB at either ZT 0400 or 1000. In study 3, the effects of MA-alone were investigated by evaluating anticipatory activity preceding exposure to nebulized MA at ZT 0400 vs. ZT 1000. Time of day effects were observed for both drug and palatable treat, such that in the between groups design, animals showed greater intake, anticipatory activity, and post-ingestional activity in the early day. Furthermore, there were differences among mice in the amount of MA ingested but individuals were self-consistent in their daily intake. The results for the within-subjects experiment also revealed robust individual differences in preference for MA+PB or PB-Alone. Interestingly, time of day effects on intake were observed only for the preferred substance. Anticipatory activity preceding administration of MA by nebulization was also greater at ZT 0400 than ZT 1000. Finally, pharmacokinetic response to MA administered intraperitoneally did not vary as a function of time of administration. The results indicate that time of day is an important variable mediating the voluntary intake and behavioral effects of reinforcers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total or were given access only to water (control. Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4-desaturase (Degs2, an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels
Hall, Nicoline Marie; Gjedde, Albert; Kupers, Ron
Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies on episodic memory retrieval have primarily focused on volitional memory tasks. However, some conscious memories arise involuntarily, i.e. without a strategic retrieval attempt, yet little is known about the neural network underlying involuntary episodic memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether voluntary and involuntary recall are mediated by separate cortical networks. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy subjects during voluntary and involuntary cued recall of pictures and a control condition with no episodic memory requirements. Involuntary recall was elicited by using an incidental memory task. Compared to the control condition, voluntary and involuntary recall were both associated with significant regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) increases in posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG; BA 23), left precuneus (BA 7), and right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35/36). In addition, rCBF in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC; BA 8/9) and left precuneus (BA 7) was significantly larger during voluntary compared to involuntary recall, while rCBF was enhanced in left dorsolateral PFC (BA 9) during involuntary recall. The findings corroborate an association of the right PFC with a strategic component of episodic memory retrieval. Moreover, they show for the first time that it is possible to activate the medial temporal lobe, the PCG, and the precuneus, regions normally associated with retrieval success, without this strategic element. The relatively higher activity in precuneus during voluntary compared to involuntary recall suggests that activity in this region co-varies not only with retrieval success but also with retrieval intentionality.
During negotiations of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) concerns were expressed by non-nuclear-weapon States that their acceptance of Agency safeguards would put them at a disadvantage vis-a-vis the nuclear-weapon States. To allay these concerns, the United States and the United Kingdom in December 1967 made voluntary offers to accept Agency safeguards on their peaceful nuclear activities. Subsequently, France made a voluntary offer, the safeguards agreement for which was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in February 1978, with a view to encouraging acceptance of Agency safeguards by additional States. More recently, in February 1985 the Board approved the safeguards agreement for the voluntary offer of the USSR, made inter alia to encourage further acceptance of Agency safeguards. These safeguards agreements with nuclear-weapon-States have two important features in common: Namely, they result from voluntary offers to accept safeguards rather than from multilateral or bilateral undertakings, and they give the Agency the right but generally not an obligation to apply its safeguards. The agreements differ in certain respects, the most noteworthy of which is the scope of the nuclear activities covered by each offer. The agreements of the United States and United Kingdom are the broadest, covering all peaceful nuclear activities in each country. The safeguards agreement for the US voluntary offer has been in force since December 1980. Now is an appropriate time to review the experience with the agreement's implementation during its first four years, as well as its history and salient features
Jubeau, Marc; Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori
This study compared between maximal voluntary (VOL) and electrically stimulated (ES) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors for changes in indirect markers of muscle damage to investigate whether ES would induce greater muscle damage than VOL. Twelve non-resistance-trained men (23-39 years) performed VOL with one arm and ES with the contralateral arm separated by 2 weeks in a randomised, counterbalanced order. Both VOL and ES (frequency 75 Hz, pulse duration 250 μs, maximally tolerated intensity) exercises consisted of 50 maximal isometric contractions (4-s on, 15-s off) of the elbow flexors at a long muscle length (160°). Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC), range of motion, muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before, immediately after and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following exercise. The average peak torque over the 50 isometric contractions was greater (P < 0.05) for VOL (32.9 ± 9.8 N m) than ES (16.9 ± 6.3 N m). MVC decreased greater and recovered slower (P < 0.05) after ES (15% lower than baseline at 96 h) than VOL (full recovery). Serum CK activity increased (P < 0.05) only after ES, and the muscles became more sore and tender after ES than VOL (P < 0.05). These results showed that ES induced greater muscle damage than VOL despite the lower torque output during ES. It seems likely that higher mechanical stress imposed on the activated muscle fibres, due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment in ES, resulted in greater muscle damage.
van Vugt, M.; Iredale, W.
Insights from sexual selection and costly signalling theory suggest that competition for females underlies men's public good contributions. We conducted two public good experiments to test this hypothesis. First, we found that men contributed more in the presence of an opposite sex audience, but
... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...
Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.
This issue on gender and the media contains the following (1) "Home, Home on the Remote"; (2) "Dads Through the Decades" (Mark Crispin Miller); (3) "The New Man: That's Entertainment!" (John Lehrer); (4) "Singing Men's Songs" (Kerry Skorlich); (5) "Media Myths and Men's Work" (Ian Harris); (6) "Why Are There No Asian Male Anchors?" (Ben…
It has long been established that voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) are ascribed a prominent social role by governments. Several scholars highlight the ascribed social values in sport policy to voluntary sports clubs and their possible implications for these voluntary organizations. Most of these
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank programs. 630.1014 Section 630.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1014 Movement between voluntary leave bank...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary self-disclosures for boycott... ENFORCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES § 764.8 Voluntary self-disclosures for boycott violations. This section... provisions. Voluntary self-disclosures are a mitigating factor with respect to any enforcement action that...
...] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency... concerns in the Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program (PS-Prep...-53 (the 9/11 Act) mandated DHS to establish a voluntary private sector preparedness accreditation and...
Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.
Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.
...-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. 353.64 Section 353.64 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations..., Incompetents, Aged Persons, Absentees, et al. § 353.64 Payment, reinvestment, or exchange—voluntary guardian of... recognition as voluntary guardian for the purpose of redeeming the owner's bonds, if the total redemption...
...-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. 315.64 Section 315.64 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... exchange—voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. (a) Payment of bonds. When an adult owner of bonds... an application for recognition as voluntary guardian for the purpose of redeeming the owner's bonds...
Meissner, Maxi; Lombardo, Elisa; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J F; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K
Regular physical activity decreases the risk for atherosclerosis but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We questioned whether voluntary wheel running provokes specific modulations in cholesterol turnover that translate into a decreased atherosclerotic burden in hypercholesterolemic mice. Male LDLR-deficient mice (8 weeks old) had either access to a voluntary running wheel for 12 weeks (RUN) or remained sedentary (CONTROL). Both groups were fed a western-type/high cholesterol diet. Running activity and food intake were recorded. At 12 weeks of intervention, feces, bile and plasma were collected to determine fecal, biliary and plasma parameters of cholesterol metabolism and plasma cytokines. Atherosclerotic lesion size was determined in the aortic root. RUN weighed less (∼13%) while food consumption was increased by 17% (p=0.004). Plasma cholesterol levels were decreased by 12% (p=0.035) and plasma levels of pro-atherogenic lipoproteins decreased in RUN compared to control. Running modulated cholesterol catabolism by enhancing cholesterol turnover: RUN displayed an increased biliary bile acid secretion (68%, p=0.007) and increased fecal bile acid (93%, p=0.009) and neutral sterol (33%, p=0.002) outputs compared to control indicating that reverse cholesterol transport was increased in RUN. Importantly, aortic lesion size was decreased by ∼33% in RUN (p=0.033). Voluntary wheel running reduces atherosclerotic burden in hypercholesterolemic mice. An increased cholesterol turnover, specifically its conversion into bile acids, may underlie the beneficial effect of voluntary exercise in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gostlow, Hannah; Marlow, Nicholas; Babidge, Wendy; Maddern, Guy
To examine and report on evidence relating to surgical trainees' voluntary participation in simulation-based laparoscopic skills training. Specifically, the underlying motivators, enablers, and barriers faced by surgical trainees with regard to attending training sessions on a regular basis. A systematic search of the literature (PubMed; CINAHL; EMBASE; Cochrane Collaboration) was conducted between May and July 2015. Studies were included on whether they reported on surgical trainee attendance at voluntary, simulation-based laparoscopic skills training sessions, in addition to qualitative data regarding participant's perceived barriers and motivators influencing their decision to attend such training. Factors affecting a trainee's motivation were categorized as either intrinsic (internal) or extrinsic (external). Two randomised control trials and 7 case series' met our inclusion criteria. Included studies were small and generally poor quality. Overall, voluntary simulation-based laparoscopic skills training was not well attended. Intrinsic motivators included clearly defined personal performance goals and relevance to clinical practice. Extrinsic motivators included clinical responsibilities and available free time, simulator location close to clinical training, and setting obligatory assessments or mandated training sessions. The effect of each of these factors was variable, and largely dependent on the individual trainee. The greatest reported barrier to attending voluntary training was the lack of available free time. Although data quality is limited, it can be seen that providing unrestricted access to simulator equipment is not effective in motivating surgical trainees to voluntarily participate in simulation-based laparoscopic skills training. To successfully encourage participation, consideration needs to be given to the factors influencing motivation to attend training. Further research, including better designed randomised control trials and large
Torres-Rueda, Sergio; Wambura, Mwita; Weiss, Helen A; Plotkin, Marya; Kripke, Katharine; Chilongani, Joseph; Mahler, Hally; Kuringe, Evodius; Makokha, Maende; Hellar, Augustino; Schutte, Carl; Kazaura, Kokuhumbya J; Simbeye, Daimon; Mshana, Gerry; Larke, Natasha; Lija, Gissenge; Changalucha, John; Vassall, Anna; Hayes, Richard; Grund, Jonathan M; Terris-Prestholt, Fern
Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of HIV acquisition, demand for services is lower among men in most at-risk age groups (ages 20-34 years). A randomised controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of locally-tailored demand creation activities (including mass media, community mobilisation and targeted service delivery) in increasing uptake of campaign-delivered VMMC among men aged 20-34 years. We conducted an economic evaluation to understand the intervention's cost and cost-effectiveness. Tanzania (Njombe and Tabora regions). Cost data were collected on surgery, demand creation activities and monitoring and supervision related to VMMC implementation across clusters in both trial arms, as well as start-up activities for the intervention arm. The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool was used to estimate the number of HIV infections averted and related cost savings given total VMMCs per cluster. Disability-adjusted life years were calculated and used to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Client load was higher in the intervention arms than in the control arms: 4394 v. 2901, respectively, in Tabora and 1797 v. 1025 in Njombe. Despite additional costs of tailored demand creation, demand increased more than proportionally: mean costs per VMMC in the intervention arms were $62 in Tabora and $130 in Njombe, and in the control arms $70 and $191, respectively. More infections were averted in the intervention arm than in the control arm in Tabora (123 v. 67, respectively) and in Njombe (164 v. 102, respectively). The intervention dominated the control as it was both less costly and more effective. Cost-savings were observed in both regions stemming from the antiretroviral treatment costs averted as a result of the VMMCs performed. Spending more to address local preferences as a way to increase uptake of VMMC can be cost-saving.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Full Text Available Osteoporotic fractures are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among aging men. 30% of all hip fractures occur in men, and mortality resulting from not only the hip fracture, but also the spine and other major osteoporotic fractures, is significantly higher in men than in women. As in women, hypogonadism is the best documented risk factor for developing osteoporosis in men. In older men, testosterone levels are negatively correlated with the risk of fractures, and it seems that this age-related testosterone deficiency should not be considered as one of the many causes of secondary osteoporosis, rather one of the major and most important mechanisms of senile osteoporosis. Acute hypogonadism induced by ablation treatment for prostate cancer (surgical or pharmacological castration, antiandrogen therapy is associated with an extremely high risk of fracture. Other documented causes of bone loss in men are cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse, and a number of diseases that require corticosteroid treatment. Pharmacotherapy of osteoporosis should be recommended to all men with a diagnosed osteoporotic fracture and all men with a high 10-year absolute fracture risk (FRAXTM. Not all drugs registered for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis have been registered for the treatment of osteoporosis in men, and others have not been the subject of long-term and costly clinical trials required for such registration. The risk reduction of new fractures was documented only for treatment with zoledronic acid. Risedronate, strontium ranelate, teriparatide, and denosumab in men increase in bone mineral density comparable to that seen in postmenopausal women.
Metcalfe, Rebecca; Laird, George; Nandwani, Rak
Despite advances in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender equality in recent years, some men who have sex with men remain at increased risk of ill-health. Positive interventions in primary care include psychological support and strategies for risk reduction. It is important that men who have sex with men can disclose sexual orientation in primary care. To quantify disclosure of sexual orientation by men who have sex with men attending general practice and identify barriers to disclosure we surveyed a group of Scottish men. A questionnaire was distributed by voluntary organisations and the National Health Service in the West of Scotland, to rural and urban populations. Two hundred and four gave evaluable responses, with all ages represented. A total of 199 (98%) were registered with a General Practitioner and 167 (83%) attended in the previous year. A total of 81 (40%) stated staff were aware of their sexual orientation. A total of 93/121 (75%) men who have sex with men whose GP was unaware stated this was because they had never been asked. A total of 36/81(44%) men who have sex with men rated support from practices since disclosure as 'excellent' and qualitative responses were positive. It is reassuring that almost all respondents were registered with GPs and attending primary care services. However, only 40% had disclosed sexual orientation. This was not because of fear of negative impact on care but because men who have sex with men felt it was irrelevant to their attendance. GPs appear to be reluctant to raise the issue of sexual orientation without prompting. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wong, Mee Lian; Teo, Alvin Kuo Jing; Tai, Bee Choo; Ng, Alwyn Mao Tong; Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Tham, Dede Kam Tyng; Kaur, Nashwinder; Tan, Rayner Kay Jin; Kros, Sarath; Touch, Savun; Chhit, Maryan; Lubek, Ian
Following Cambodia's implementation of the 100% condom use program with enforcement of condom use and STI treatment services for sex workers in 2001, sexually transmitted infection and HIV declined markedly. In 2008, Cambodia implemented a law to ban brothel-based sex work. We reported trends in unprotected vaginal intercourse with sex workers among heterosexual men buying sex before (2003-2008) and after (2009-2012) the brothel ban in Cambodia. We also determined the association of brothel ban with these men's reports of unprotected intercourse with sex workers. In this serial cross-sectional study, we collected yearly behavioural data on random cross-sectional samples of heterosexual men buying sex who attended the only government health centre in Siem Reap for voluntary confidential counselling and testing (VCCT) between 2003 and 2012. We used multivariable Poisson regression analysis on the 10-year data of 976 men to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of unprotected intercourse in the last 6 months by brothel closure. Men buying sex from non-brothel-based sex workers increased almost 3-fold from 17% in 2007-2008 before brothel closure to 55% in 2011-2012 after brothel closure (p < 0.001). Unprotected intercourse with sex workers in the last week increased significantly from 37% (2003-2004) before brothel closure to 65% (2011-2012) after brothel closure. This increase corresponded closely with the increase in self-reported unprotected intercourse from 35% to 61% by the sex workers (n = 1805) attending the same clinic for VCCT. Brothel closure was associated with an increased risk (aPR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.40-1.94) of unprotected intercourse with sex workers. HIV prevalence in the heterosexual men declined significantly from 26% in 2003-2004 to 4.8% in 2007-2008 and 0 case in 2009-2010 before increasing to 5.6% in 2011-2012. Our findings suggest that the brothel ban had led to an increase in unprotected intercourse with all sex workers for men buying
O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
The voluntary green power market refers to the sale and procurement of renewable energy for voluntary purposes by residential and commercial customers. This report reviews seven green power procurement mechanisms: utility green pricing programs, utility green tariffs, voluntary unbundled renewable energy certificates, competitive supplier green power, community choice aggregations, voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs), and community solar. This report details the status of trends of those seven green power procurement mechanisms in 2015. Three trends -- significant growth of the voluntary PPA project pipeline, innovative green power mechanisms developed by utilities, and geographic expansion of green power mechanisms -- suggest that the green power market is likely to continue to grow in coming years.
In the nuclear energy industry, and also in other fields, excellent experience has been gained from the regular accumulation of expert evidence of power station operation through external organizations or teams. In 1991, the World Association of Nuclear Operations (WANO) initiated a pilot programme for voluntary 'Peer Reviews'. The success of this first exercise in gathering expert evidence led to the introduction of the 'Peer Review' programme in 1993 as one of the standard programmes of WANO. The object was to increase the safety and reliability of nuclear power stations throughout the world. WANO Peer Reviews are voluntary and are carried out at the request of a member. They are oriented towards special WANO performance objectives and criteria, which have been established by the management of WANO. (orig.) [de
Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan
China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.
Agricultural businesses contribute to sustainability problems, but they are also increasingly central to the effort to develop solutions. One way of moving toward sustainability is through regulatory governance. In this thesis, I analyze a tool of regulatory governance called voluntary market-based regulatory initiatives. Specifically, I investigate two types of initiatives, certification and disclosure, involving businesses and consumers in regulatory governance. I researched these types of ...
Vaquita marina, a small species of porpoise endemic to the Northern Gulf of California in Mexico, is the world’s most endangered cetacean species. With the purpose of preserving vaquita, the Mexican government launched PACE-Vaquita in 2008. This voluntary program offers an innovative schedule of compensations: as in a payment for conservation program, PACE-Vaquita compensates for temporary reductions in fishing reductions in fishing effort; as in a program to accelerate technology adoption,PA...
Jesús Albero Boadas Morales
Full Text Available The strychnine is a stimulating alkaloid of the central nervous system of restricted use in Venezuela for the elimination of dogs by the Coordination of Zoonosis of the Ministry of the Popular Power for the Health. In this paper a case is described of a patient with voluntary poisoning with a greater than lethal dose of strychnine. The opportune diagnosis and the satisfactory response to the treatment allowed to preserve the life of the patient and to limit the complications.
Gächter, Simon; Kessler, Esther; Königstein, Manfred
Efficiency under contractual incompleteness often requires voluntary cooperation in situations where self-regarding incentives for contractual compliance are present as well. Here we provide a comprehensive experimental analysis based on the gift-exchange game of how explicit and implicit incentives affect cooperation. We first show that there is substantial cooperation under non-incentive compatible contracts. Incentive-compatible contracts induce best-reply effort and crowd out any voluntar...
Vandierendonck, André; Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist; Verbruggen, Frederick
To account for the findings obtained in voluntary task switching, this article describes and tests the chain-retrieval model. This model postulates that voluntary task selection involves retrieval of task information from long-term memory, which is then used to guide task selection and task execution. The model assumes that the retrieved information consists of acquired sequences (or chains) of tasks, that selection may be biased towards chains containing more task repetitions and that bottom-up triggered repetitions may overrule the intended task. To test this model, four experiments are reported. In Studies 1 and 2, sequences of task choices and the corresponding transition sequences (task repetitions or switches) were analyzed with the help of dependency statistics. The free parameters of the chain-retrieval model were estimated on the observed task sequences and these estimates were used to predict autocorrelations of tasks and transitions. In Studies 3 and 4, sequences of hand choices and their transitions were analyzed similarly. In all studies, the chain-retrieval model yielded better fits and predictions than statistical models of event choice. In applications to voluntary task switching (Studies 1 and 2), all three parameters of the model were needed to account for the data. When no task switching was required (Studies 3 and 4), the chain-retrieval model could account for the data with one or two parameters clamped to a neutral value. Implications for our understanding of voluntary task selection and broader theoretical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramani, S.V.; Mukherjee, V.
The present paper examines how an innovating firm decides between two forms of voluntary agreements (VA) in a context, where a non-governmental organization (NGO) rather than a regulator watches over citizens' interests. The innovation generates profit and consumer surplus as well as environmental damage. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the innovation process is considered in terms of a redistribution of profit towards community development, with or without additional abatement e...
Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...
Zhang Haifeng; Wang Binghong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)], E-mail: email@example.com; Zhang Jie; Small, Michael [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Zhou Changsong [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)
It is commonly believed that epidemic spreading on scale-free networks is difficult to control and that the disease can spread even with a low infection rate, lacking an epidemic threshold. In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on complex networks under the framework of game theory, in which a voluntary vaccination strategy is incorporated. In particular, individuals face the 'dilemma' of vaccination: they have to decide whether or not to vaccinate according to the trade-off between the risk and the side effects or cost of vaccination. Remarkably and quite excitingly, we find that disease outbreak can be more effectively inhibited on scale-free networks than on random networks. This is because the hub nodes of scale-free networks are more inclined to take self-vaccination after balancing the pros and cons. This result is encouraging as it indicates that real-world networks, which are often claimed to be scale free, can be favorably and easily controlled under voluntary vaccination. Our work provides a way of understanding how to prevent the outbreak of diseases under voluntary vaccination, and is expected to provide valuable information on effective disease control and appropriate decision-making.
Zhang Haifeng; Wang Binghong; Zhang Jie; Small, Michael; Zhou Changsong
It is commonly believed that epidemic spreading on scale-free networks is difficult to control and that the disease can spread even with a low infection rate, lacking an epidemic threshold. In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on complex networks under the framework of game theory, in which a voluntary vaccination strategy is incorporated. In particular, individuals face the 'dilemma' of vaccination: they have to decide whether or not to vaccinate according to the trade-off between the risk and the side effects or cost of vaccination. Remarkably and quite excitingly, we find that disease outbreak can be more effectively inhibited on scale-free networks than on random networks. This is because the hub nodes of scale-free networks are more inclined to take self-vaccination after balancing the pros and cons. This result is encouraging as it indicates that real-world networks, which are often claimed to be scale free, can be favorably and easily controlled under voluntary vaccination. Our work provides a way of understanding how to prevent the outbreak of diseases under voluntary vaccination, and is expected to provide valuable information on effective disease control and appropriate decision-making.
Adler, Robert A
Osteoporosis and consequent fracture are not limited to postmenopausal women. There is increasing attention being paid to osteoporosis in older men. Men suffer osteoporotic fractures about 10 years later in life than women, but life expectancy is increasing faster in men than women. Thus, men are living long enough to fracture, and when they do the consequences are greater than in women, with men having about twice the 1-year fatality rate after hip fracture, compared to women. Men at high ri...
... ultrasound or a breast MRI cannot rule out breast cancer then you will need a biopsy to confirm diagnosis. If diagnosed When first diagnosed with breast cancer, many men are in shock. After all, ...
Levisen, Vinie Diana Hvidbak; Castaño, Francisco Mansilla; Jensen, Camilla Skovbjerg
Preferences Keywords: Men with little or no education, physical health, mobile health application. Types of presentations: First presentation preference: E-Poster presentations Second presentation preference: Pitch presentation Abstract Background: Men mobile health contributes knowledge of how mobile health...... applications affect the physical activity levels by men with little or no education and the frequency of how often they think and do something to promote their health. Men with little or no education have both the lowest life expectancy and longest patient delay, and there are not conducted researches...... of steps, minutes of physical activity. Every two weeks they receive a male health promotion sms. Checking steps, minutes of physical activity and the measurement of VAS every fourth week. Hypotheses – The intervention group will: • More often think of their own physical health • More often do something...
... Research Information Find a Study Resources and Publications Contraception and Birth Control About NICHD Research Information Find ... Contact Us Condition Information How effective is male contraception? How can men reduce the risk of STDs? ...
... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...
Joel M. Palefsky
Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.
Finger, W R
There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods.
Hagbarth, K E; Kunesch, E J; Nordin, M; Schmidt, R; Wallin, E U
A local anaesthetic drug was injected around the peroneal nerve in healthy subjects in order to investigate whether the resulting loss in foot dorsiflexion power in part depended on a gamma-fibre block preventing 'internal' activation of spindle end-organs and thereby depriving the alpha-motoneurones of an excitatory spindle inflow during contraction. The motor outcome of maximal dorsiflexion efforts was assessed by measuring firing rates of individual motor units in the anterior tibial (t.a.) muscle, mean voltage e.m.g. from the pretibial muscles, dorsiflexion force and range of voluntary foot dorsiflexion movements. The tests were performed with and without peripheral conditioning stimuli, such as agonist or antagonist muscle vibration or imposed stretch of the contracting muscles. As compared to control values of t.a. motor unit firing rates in maximal isometric voluntary contractions, the firing rates were lower and more irregular during maximal dorsiflexion efforts performed during subtotal peroneal nerve blocks. During the development of paresis a gradual reduction of motor unit firing rates was observed before the units ceased responding to the voluntary commands. This change in motor unit behaviour was accompanied by a reduction of the mean voltage e.m.g. activity in the pretibial muscles. At a given stage of anaesthesia the e.m.g. responses to maximal voluntary efforts were more affected than the responses evoked by electric nerve stimuli delivered proximal to the block, indicating that impaired impulse transmission in alpha motor fibres was not the sole cause of the paresis. The inability to generate high and regular motor unit firing rates during peroneal nerve blocks was accentuated by vibration applied over the antagonistic calf muscles. By contrast, in eight out of ten experiments agonist stretch or vibration caused an enhancement of motor unit firing during the maximal force tasks. The reverse effects of agonist and antagonist vibration on the
Cane, Tam Pheona Chipawe
Increasingly as people living with HIV (PLWHIV) aim to become parents, they engage with HIV voluntary services for support through either fertility or adoption services. Yet, little is known about the role of HIV support services workers in facilitating access to fertility treatment or child adoption. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of HIV support workers based in HIV voluntary organisations who have a key role helping PLWHIV in navigating relevant fertility and adoption processes. This was an exploratory qualitative study which involved interviewing six HIV support workers, from across the UK. Interviews were conducted using face to face interviews, recorded and transcribed. Findings revealed that HIV services support workers provide practical support in advocating service provision, and emotional and social support along the journey. They also face challenges in their role from health care professionals including information sharing and gatekeeping. The role of HIV support workers is important in facilitating access to resources and complex systems. HIV support workers should be recognised and as they are often a trusted professional to address stigma, discrimination and barriers to services. The study contributes to research seeking to understand the emerging needs and support requirements for people living with HIV seeking fertility and adoption. Further work in this area is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deng, P; Iwazaki, E; Suchy, S A; Pallotto, M R; Swanson, K S
Low physical activity has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of feline obesity and diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increased meal frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in cats fed to maintain BW. Ten adult lean neutered male cats were used in 2 tests, both crossover studies composed of a 14-d adaptation period, followed by a 7-d measurement of physical activity from d 15 to d 22 using Actical activity collars. Cats were group housed for most of the day, except for times when they were individually housed in cages to access their diet under a 16:8 h light:dark cycle. In Exp. 1, the difference in voluntary physical activity among cats fed 1, 2, 4, or a random number of meals per day were tested in a 4 × 4 Latin square design in 4 individual rooms. In Exp. 2, the effect of increasing dietary water content on voluntary physical activity was tested in a crossover design including a 5-d phase for fecal and urine collection from d 22 to 27. Cats were randomly assigned to 2 rooms and fed a dry commercial diet with or without added water (70% hydrated) twice daily. Activity levels were expressed as "activity counts" per epoch (15 s). In Exp. 1, average daily activity level for 1-meal-fed cats was lower than 4-meal-fed (P = 0.004) and random-meal-fed (P = 0.02) cats, especially during the light period. The activity level of cats during the dark period was greater in 1-meal-fed cats compared with cats fed 2 meals (P = 0.008) or 4 meals (P = 0.007) daily. Two-hour food anticipatory activity (FAA) before scheduled meal times for 1-meal-fed cats was lower (P meal-fed cats. In Exp. 2, average daily activity level of cats fed the 70% hydrated diet tended to be higher (P = 0.06) than cats fed the dry diet, especially during the dark period (P = 0.007). Two-hour FAA before the afternoon meal for cats fed the 70% hydrated diet was lower (P frequency and dietary water content, without changing energy intake or
Karahanian, Eduardo; Quintanilla, Maria Elena; Fernandez, Katia; Israel, Yedy
The administration of disulfiram raises blood acetaldehyde levels when ethanol is ingested, leading to an aversion to alcohol. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of fenofibrate on voluntary ethanol ingestion in rats. Fenofibrate reduces blood triglyceride levels by increasing fatty acid oxidation by liver peroxisomes, along with an increase in the activity of catalase, which can oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde. UChB drinker rats were allowed to consume alcohol 10% v/v freely for 60 days, until consumption stabilized at around 7 g ethanol/kg/24 h. About 1-1.2 g ethanol/kg of this intake is consumed in the first 2 h of darkness of the circadian cycle. Fenofibrate subsequently administered (50 mg/kg/day by mouth [p.o.]) for 14 days led to a 60-70% (p intake was determined within the first 2 h of darkness, the reduction was 85-90% (p chronically allowed access to ethanol and subsequently treated with fenofibrate, would a) increase liver catalase activity, and b) increase blood acetaldehyde levels after a 24-h ethanol deprivation and the subsequent administration of 1 g ethanol/kg. The oral administration of 1 g ethanol/kg produced a rapid increase in blood (arterial) acetaldehyde in fenofibrate-treated animals versus controls also administered 1 g/kg ethanol (70 μM vs. 7 μM; p alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase) remained unchanged. No liver damage was induced, as measured by serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activity. The effect of fenofibrate in reducing alcohol intake was fully reversible. Overall, in rats allowed chronic ethanol intake, by mouth (p.o.), fenofibrate administration increased liver catalase activity and reduced voluntary ethanol intake. The administration of 1 g ethanol/kg (p.o.) to these animals increased blood acetaldehyde levels in fenofibrate-treated animals, suggesting the possible basis for the reduction in ethanol intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M
Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The Nordic countries represent an institutional setting with tax-based health care financing and universal access to health care services. Very few health care services are excluded from what are offered within the publically financed health care system. User fees are often non-existing or low and capped. Nevertheless, the markets for voluntary private health insurance (VPHI have been rapidly expanding. In this paper we describe the development of the market for VPHI in the Nordic countries. We outline similarities and differences and provide discussion of the rationale for the existence of different types of VPHI. Data is collected on the population covered by VPHI, type and scope of coverage, suppliers of VPHI and their relations with health providers. It seems that the main roles of VPHI are to cover out-of-pocket payments for services that are only partly financed by the public health care system (complementary, and to provide preferential access to treatments that are also available free of charge within the public health care system, but often with some waiting time (duplicate.
Muthalib, Makii; Jubeau, Marc; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori
This study compared voluntary (VOL) and electrically evoked isometric contractions by muscle stimulation (EMS) for changes in biceps brachii muscle oxygenation (tissue oxygenation index, DeltaTOI) and total haemoglobin concentration (DeltatHb = oxygenated haemoglobin + deoxygenated haemoglobin) determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. Twelve men performed EMS with one arm followed 24 h later by VOL with the contralateral arm, consisting of 30 repeated (1-s contraction, 1-s relaxation) isometric contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for the first 60 s, and maximal intensity contractions thereafter (MVC for VOL and maximal tolerable current at 30 Hz for EMS) until MVC decreased approximately 30% of pre-exercise MVC. During the 30 contractions at 30% MVC, DeltaTOI decrease was significantly (P < 0.05) greater and DeltatHb was significantly (P < 0.05) lower for EMS than VOL, suggesting that the metabolic demand for oxygen in EMS is greater than VOL at the same torque level. However, during maximal intensity contractions, although EMS torque (approximately 40% of VOL) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than VOL, DeltaTOI was similar and tHb was significantly (P < 0.05) lower for EMS than VOL towards the end, without significant differences between the two sessions in the recovery period. It is concluded that the oxygen demand of the activated biceps brachii muscle in EMS is comparable to VOL at maximal intensity.
Full Text Available Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC. However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC and MVC (VOL-MVC level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y. Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.
Muthalib, Makii; Kerr, Graham; Nosaka, Kazunori; Perrey, Stephane
Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL) at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC). However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb) during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC) and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC) and MVC (VOL-MVC) level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y). Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.
Downing, Martin J
Public and commercial sex venues typically provide easy access to sexual encounters that are often anonymous and, therefore, may facilitate HIV/STD transmission among those men who attend. Recently, researchers have suggested that men who have sex with men may be using the Internet to search for sexual encounters to occur within sex venues. The current study explored the extent to which men who advertise for public or commercial sexual encounters initially communicate to potential partners their safe-sex intentions. Advertisements for sexual encounters (n = 99) were collected from a publicly accessible website and examined for content related to venue type, sexual behavior, and indications of sexual safety or risk. Word frequencies were calculated to provide a closer investigation of how individuals negotiate safe sex within these communications. The findings revealed that approximately half of the men who advertised for sex in a public or commercial sex venue failed to communicate to potential partners in their initial advertisement a desire to be safe during sexual encounters involving oral and anal practices. Additionally, a small percentage of men advertised specifically for risky encounters (e.g., barebacking). Together, these findings suggest that men do use the Internet to coordinate public sexual encounters, some of which may be unprotected from HIV/STD transmission. Future research should address the process of condom negotiation among men who initially meet their male sex partners on the Internet for subsequent encounters in sex venues.
Sep 2, 2017 ... Yes, the family had harvested more maize, more than they had ever harvested. ... machinery and information as men, they could increase yields on their ... But closing this gap in access to resources does not automatically ...
Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Serrao, G; Colombo, A; Schmitz, J H
In 13 healthy subjects (eight men and five women, mean age, 22 years), an aluminum intercuspal interference (height, 0.25 mm) was placed on the maxillary right first premolar to study its effect on the contractile symmetry of the right and left masseter and anterior temporalis muscles when measured through a Percentage Overlapping Coefficient (POC), derived from surface electromyographic recordings of maximum voluntary teeth clenching. Additionally, and to estimate the potential of the experimental intercuspal interference to induce lateral displacement of the mandible, a Torque Coefficient (TC) was derived from surface electromyographic recordings. The conclusion was that the experimental occlusal interference gave rise to asymmetric contractile activity in the studied mandibular elevator muscles as well as a potential to displace the mandible in a lateral direction.
de Visser, Richard O; Robinson, Emily; Bond, Rod
Research suggests that temporary abstinence from alcohol may convey physiological benefits and enhance well-being. The aim of this study was to address a lack of information about: (a) correlates of successful completion of a planned period of abstinence, and (b) how success or failure in planned abstinence affects subsequent alcohol consumption. 857 British adults (249 men, 608 women) participating in the "Dry January" alcohol abstinence challenge completed a baseline questionnaire, a 1-month follow-up questionnaire, and a 6-month follow-up questionnaire. Key variables assessed at baseline included measures of alcohol consumption and drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE). In bivariate analysis, success during Dry January was predicted by measures of more moderate alcohol consumption and greater social DRSE at baseline. Multivariate analyses revealed that success during Dry January was best predicted by a lower frequency of drunkenness in the month prior to Dry January. Structural equation modeling revealed that participation in Dry January was related to reductions in alcohol consumption and increases in DRSE among all respondents at 6-month follow-up, regardless of success, but indicated that these changes were more likely among people who successfully completed the challenge. The findings suggest that participation in abstinence challenges such as Dry January may be associated with changes toward healthier drinking and greater DRSE, and is unlikely to result in undesirable "rebound effects": very few people reported increased alcohol consumption following a period of voluntary abstinence. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether mental practice facilitates the development of voluntary control over the recruitment of the abductor hallucis muscle to produce isolated big toe abduction. A sample of convenience of 15 women and 20 men with a mean age of 28.8 yr. (SD=5.7) and healthy feet, who were unable voluntarily to abduct the big toe, were randomly assigned to one of three groups, a mental practice group, a physical practice group, and a group who performed a control movement during practice. Each subject received neuromuscular electrical stimulation to introduce the desired movement prior to each of five practice bouts over a single session lasting 2 hr. Big toe abduction active range of motion and surface electromyographic (EMG) output of the abductor hallucis and extensor digitorum brevis muscles were measured prior to the first practice bout and following each practice bout, yielding seven acquisition trials. Acquisition is defined as an improvement in both active range of motion and in the difference between the integrated EMG of the abductor hallucis and extensor digitorum brevis muscles during successive acquisition trials. Seven members of both the mental and physical practice groups and one member of the control group met the acquisition criteria. Chi-square analysis indicated the group difference was statistically significant, suggesting mental practice was effective for this task.
Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L
Homeless men are frequently unsheltered and isolated, disconnected from supportive organizations and individuals. However, little research has investigated these men's social networks. We investigate the structure and composition of homeless men's social networks, vis-a-vis short- and long-term homelessness with a sample of men drawn randomly from meal lines on Skid Row in Los Angeles. Men continuously homeless for the past six months display networks composed of riskier members when compared to men intermittently homeless during that time. Men who report chronic, long-term homelessness display greater social network fragmentation when compared to non-chronically homeless men. While intermittent homelessness affects network composition in ways that may be addressable with existing interventions, chronic homelessness fragments networks, which may be more difficult to address with those interventions. These findings have implications for access to social support from network members which, in turn, impacts the resources homeless men require from other sources such as the government or NGOs.
Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve
Objective: To understand the views of men and service providers concerning the health information needs of men. Design: A men's health programme was implemented aimed at developing new health information resources designed for use by local organizations with men in socially disadvantaged groups. Research was carried out at the scoping stage to…
White, Jaclyn M; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Mayer, Kenneth H
Using the Internet to meet sexual partners is associated with increased HIV risk behavior, including substance use, sex with multiple or anonymous partners, and unprotected anal sex (UAS), among diverse samples of MSM, yet little is known about Internet use and HIV risk among Black MSM specifically. In 2008, a sample of 197 Black MSM completed an interviewer-administered assessment and voluntary HIV counseling and testing. One fifth of the sample (20 %) reported meeting a sexual partner via the Internet in the past 12 months. Men who met sexual partners over the Internet had significantly more male sex partners (M = 13.44, SD = 20.01) than men who did not meet partners in this manner (M = 4.11, SD = 4.14, p Internet, identifying as gay, and lower knowledge about HIV transmission. These findings highlight the unique HIV risk behaviors among Black MSM meeting sexual partners via the Internet and warrant tailoring of prevention activities to address the specific behaviors and social influences that may contribute to increased HIV spread among this population.
Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P
The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All
Taboas, A.L.; Freeman, R.; Peterson, J.
The U.S. Department of Energy completed a voluntary removal action at the Ames chemical disposal site, a site associated with the early days of the Manhattan Project. It contained chemical and low-level radioactive wastes from development of the technology to extract uranium from uranium oxide. The process included the preparation of a Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study, Baseline Risk Assessment, and, ultimately, issuance of a Record of Decision. Various stakeholder groups were involved, including members of the regulatory community, the general public, and the landowner, Iowa State University. The site was restored and returned to the landowner for unrestricted use.
Results of logistic regression analysis of data from the General Social Survey (N = 1,799) find that those who have a strong belief in miracles are more likely to say that a person with an incurable illness should not be allowed to accept medical treatments that painlessly hasten death than those who have a less strong belief in miracles or do not believe in miracles, net of respondents' religious affiliations, frequency of religious attendance, views of the Bible, and other sociodemographic controls. Results highlight the need to consider specific religious beliefs when predicting individuals' attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.
Nawaz, Yasir; Rahman, Tanzil ur; Siraji, Md. Naeemullah
The role of voluntary employee turnover (VET) in textile industry has significance in this era over the globe. Textile industry is labour intensive with similar to agriculture industry in Pakistan and it has excessive VET as compared to other industries. Pakistan’s textile products are high quality and much exploit in the world. It contributes in economic growth with 8.5% share in GDP. This industry mainly based on domestic labour and major portion of cost includes in the textile garment prod...
This paper compares, in a polluting oligopoly, an emission tax and a form of environmental policy called voluntary agreement (VA). There are here two ways of reducing pollution: output contraction and endof- pipe abatement. Given the imperfect competition, firms' reaction to the tax is sub-optimal. They reduce output excessively in order to raise the price and do not abate enough. The VA is a take-it-or-leaveit contract on abatement effort, offered to the firms with the threat of a tax. It ha...
von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken
that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We...... of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas...
Social scientists are accumulating a growing body of research to guide the development of communications models for siting controversial facilities. The models emphasize building consensus by involving all stakeholders, including opponents, in the decision-making process from its earliest stages. Communications should focus on issues and concerns that are most relevant to the people in the involved community. Finally, trust must be built through local control of the decision-making process. This paper presents experiences in the voluntary siting process for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility for spent nuclear fuel in three locations: Grant County, North Dakota, Fremont County, Wyoming, and the Mescalero Apache nation in New Mexico
Mostafa Baladi, S. [Laurits R. Christensen Associates, Inc. Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Herriges, Joseph A. [Iowa State University, 280D Heady Hall, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Sweeney, Thomas J. [MidAmerican Energy, Des Moines, Iowa (United States)
The response of residential households to voluntary Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity rates is estimated using data from a recent experiment at Midwest Power Systems of Iowa. The study`s design allows us to examine both the participation decision and the customer`s load pattern changes once the TOU rate structure was in effect. Substitution elasticities between on-peak and off-peak electricity usage are estimated and compared to those obtained in earlier mandatory programs, indicating whether program volunteers are more responsive to TOU pricing than the typical household. Attitudinal questionnaires allow us to examine the role of usage perceptions in program participation
This paper discusses the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator which was created by Congress with the purpose of seeking a voluntary host State or Indian tribe for a high level nuclear waste repository or monitored retrievable storage facility. Given the history of the Federal government's efforts at siting such facilities, this would appear to be an impossible mission. Since commencing operations in August 1990, the Office has accomplished perhaps more than had been expected. Some of the approaches it has taken to implementing this mission may be applicable to other endeavors
Md. Abdur Rouf
Full Text Available This is an exploratory study designed to investigate the extant and nature of corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD in corporate annual reports of Bangladesh. Specifically, examine the relationship between board diversity and corporate voluntary disclosures. The paper is based on a sample of 106 listed non-financial companies in Dhaka Stock Exchanges (DSE from the period 2007-2011 and all the companies are selected by Judgment Sampling. The study is used ordinary least squares regression model to examine the relationship between explanatory variables and voluntary disclosure. Using an unweighted relative disclosure index for measuring voluntary disclosure, the empirical results indicate that Percentage Female Director (PFD, Board Leadership Structure (BLS and Total Assets (TA are positively association with corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD. In contrast, the extent of corporate voluntary disclosure is negatively associated with a Percentage of equity owned by the insiders to all equity of the firm higher management ownership
Consolo, Michael J; Syed, Kirin K; Robison, Christopher; McFadden, Jacob; Shalowitz, David I; Brown, Gordon A; Sussman, David O; Figler, Bradley D
Urethroplasty is an effective treatment for men with anterior urethral strictures, but is utilized less frequently than ineffective treatments such as internal urethrotomy. We sought to identify provider-level barriers to urethroplasty. An anonymous online survey was emailed to all Mid-Atlantic American Urological Association members. Six scenarios in which urethroplasty was the most appropriate treatment were presented. Primary outcome was recommendation for urethroplasty in ≥ three clinical scenarios. Other factors measured include practice zip code, urethroplasty training, and proximity to a urethroplasty surgeon. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with increased likelihood of urethroplasty recommendation. Of 670 members emailed, 109 (16%) completed the survey. Final analysis included 88 respondents. Mean years in practice was 17.2. Most respondents received formal training in urethroplasty: 43 (49%) in residency, 5 (6%) in fellowship, and 10 (11%) in both; 48 respondents (55%) had a urethroplasty surgeon in their practice, whereas 18 (20%) had a urethroplasty surgeon within 45 minutes of his or her primary practice location. The only covariate that was associated with an increased likelihood of recommending urethroplasty in ≥ three scenarios was formal urethroplasty training. Most members (68%) reported no barriers to referring patients for urethroplasty; the most common barriers cited were long distance to urethroplasty surgeon (n 5 13, 15%) and concern about complications (n 5 8, 9%). Urethroplasty continues to be underutilized in men with anterior urethral strictures, potentially due to lack of knowledge dissemination and access to a urethroplasty surgeon. Appropriate urethroplasty utilization may increase with greater exposure to urethroplasty in training.
The prospect of voluntary euthanasia has created strong debate for decades and provoked passionate opinions from both sides of the fence. While not legal in Australia, a recent revived push for national voluntary euthanasia legislation has once again opened up the conversation and nurses have been encouraged to join the debate. Robert Fedele investigates the latest thinking and why more people are supporting voluntary euthanasia and the right to die with dignity.
Davidow, Jason H; Grossman, Heather L; Edge, Robin L
Voluntary stuttering techniques involve persons who stutter purposefully interjecting disfluencies into their speech. Little research has been conducted on the impact of these techniques on the speech pattern of persons who stutter. The present study examined whether changes in the frequency of voluntary stuttering accompanied changes in stuttering frequency, articulation rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort. In total, 12 persons who stutter aged 16-34 years participated. Participants read four 300-syllable passages during a control condition, and three voluntary stuttering conditions that involved attempting to produce purposeful, tension-free repetitions of initial sounds or syllables of a word for two or more repetitions (i.e., bouncing). The three voluntary stuttering conditions included bouncing on 5%, 10%, and 15% of syllables read. Friedman tests and follow-up Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were conducted for the statistical analyses. Stuttering frequency, articulation rate, and speech naturalness were significantly different between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Speech effort did not differ between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Stuttering frequency was significantly lower during the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition, and speech effort was significantly lower during two of the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition. Due to changes in articulation rate across the voluntary stuttering conditions, it is difficult to conclude, as has been suggested previously, that voluntary stuttering is the reason for stuttering reductions found when using voluntary stuttering techniques. Additionally, future investigations should examine different types of voluntary stuttering over an extended period of time to determine their impact on stuttering frequency, speech rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort.
Talpur Shabana; Lizam Mohd; Keerio Nazia
This study examined the level of voluntary corporate governance disclosures and the influence of firm characteristics (i.e., firm size, firm age, and firm market listing) on the level of these disclosures among Malaysian property listed companies. The check-list to measure the voluntary corporate governance disclosures was adopted from Malaysian corporate governance index 2011 by Minority Shareholder Watchdog Group (MSWG). The voluntary corporate governance disclosure practices and firm speci...
Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Wi, Kristianna; Van, Lindsay; Garland, Theodore
The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines. HR mice also have higher endurance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) during forced treadmill exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that Gatorade or Red Bull might cause or allow mice to increase their voluntary wheel running. On days 5 and 6 of 6days of wheel access, as is used to select breeders, HR mice ran 3.3-fold more than C, and females ran 1.2-fold more than males, with no linetype by sex interaction. On day 7, mice were administered Gatorade, Red Bull or tap water. During the subsequent 19-hour period, Gatorade had no statistical effect on running, but Red Bull significantly increased distance run by both sexes and in both HR and C lines. The increase in distance run caused by Red Bull was attributable to time spent running, not an increase in mean (or maximum) speed. As previous studies have found that sucrose alone does not generally increase wheel running, we tested two other active ingredients in Red Bull, caffeine and taurine, in Experiment 2. With a similar testing protocol, caffeine alone and caffeine+taurine increased running by about half the magnitude of Red Bull. In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that Red Bull or caffeine alone can increase physiological performance ability during aerobic exercise, measured as VO 2
Tucker, Murray G; Kavanagh, Justin J; Morrison, Steven; Barrett, Rod S
Falls amongst older people have been linked to reduced postural stability and slowed movement responses. The objective of this study was to examine differences in postural stability and the speed of response between young adults, low fall-risk older adults, and high fall-risk older adults during voluntary postural sway movements. Twenty-five young adults (25+/-4 years), and 32 low fall-risk (74+/-5 years), and 16 high fall-risk (79+/-7 years) older adults performed voluntary sway and rapid orthogonal transitions of voluntary sway between the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Measures included reaction and movement time and the amplitudes of the centre of pressure, centre of mass, and the separation distance between the centre of pressure and centre of mass. Both fall-risk groups compared to the young had slower reaction and movement time, greater centre of pressure and/or centre of mass amplitude in the orthogonal (non-target) direction during voluntary sway, and reduced anterior-posterior and medial-lateral separation between the centre of pressure and centre of mass during voluntary sway and orthogonal transitions. High compared to low fall-risk individuals had slower reaction and movement time, increased non-target centre of mass amplitude during voluntary sway, and reduced medial-lateral centre of pressure and centre of mass separation during voluntary sway and orthogonal transitions. Age-related deterioration of postural control resulted in slower reactive responses and reduced control of the direction of body movement during voluntary sway and orthogonal transitions. Slower postural reaction and movement time and reduced medial-lateral control of the centre of mass during voluntary sway movements are associated with increased fall-risk in community-living older people.
... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspector to have access to plant at all times. 355.20 Section 355.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...
Wilson, Bianca D M; Miyashita, Ayako
Epidemiological categories not only reflect existing frameworks for public health, but reify how subpopulations are defined, understood, and targeted for interventions. The sweeping categorization of Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) used in HIV research and intervention work is one such example. The current paper builds upon previous critiques of the "MSM" nomenclature by delineating the sexual and gender diversity embedded in the term as it pertains specifically to Black peoples. The emphasis is on developing greater specificity about the sociocultural and structural factors that may be shared among these subgroups, such as racism and poverty, and the factors that are likely to distinguish the groups, such as levels of sexual minority identification, access to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) services and community, and experiences with anti-bisexual or anti-transgender bias. The aim then is to provide a framework for HIV health policy work for Black sexual minority cisgender men (SMCM) and gender minorities (GM).
Hansen, Steffen Foss; Tickner, J.
to participate for various stakeholders, agency guidance and technical assistance, and transparency both in design, reporting and evaluation. The authors also recommend that any voluntary program become mandatory after 3 no more than three years to motivate voluntary participation.......This article explores the use of voluntary environmental programs in the United States in the past, and applies the lessons learned from these experiences to the regulation of nanomaterials. The authors found that the key elements of any voluntary environmental program should be incentives...
According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table
... government or industrial model code development activities, so as to develop uniformity and minimize... as hosting meetings and secretarial assistance. (11) Providing funding support for voluntary...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA-industry effort accomplishes the following:1) Lead collaboration between NASA Centers, other government agencies, industry, academia, and voluntary census...
Knox, David; Breed, Rhonda; Zusman, Marty
Cultural meanings (e.g. the green eyed monster) and research interests have traditionally focused on female jealousy. In contrast, this research focused on male jealousy. Two-hundred ninety-one undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential, anonymous forty-four-item questionnaire on jealousy. Men reacted differently…
Tait, Charles W.
An excellent way to teach history is by focusing on the lives of individual historical figures. History is the story of living persons, who for good or ill have made history as it is. To understand history, students must learn about the men and women who shaped events. (RM)
Mojola, Sanyu A
This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming providing women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and providing for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to provide a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121
Hansen, Kristian Frausing; Munk, Karen Pallesgaard
. 1. An electronic survey is distributed nationwide to municipal preventive home visitors in order to obtain information about their views on the men’s particular needs and the suitability of current health care services. 2. A group of elderly men living alone is interviewed about their own opinions...
Skogsberg, KatieAnn; Grabowecky, Marcia; Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William; Iordanescu, Lucica; Suzuki, Satoru
Many studies have examined attention mechanisms involved in specific behavioral tasks (e.g., search, tracking, distractor inhibition). However, relatively little is known about the relationships among those attention mechanisms. Is there a fundamental attention faculty that makes a person superior or inferior at most types of attention tasks, or do relatively independent processes mediate different attention skills? We focused on individual differences in voluntary visual-attention abilities using a battery of eleven representative tasks. An application of parallel analysis, hierarchical-cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling to the inter-task correlation matrix revealed four functional clusters, representing spatiotemporal attention, global attention, transient attention, and sustained attention, organized along two dimensions, one contrasting spatiotemporal and global attention and the other contrasting transient and sustained attention. Comparison with the neuroscience literature suggests that the spatiotemporal-global dimension corresponds to the dorsal frontoparietal circuit and the transient-sustained dimension corresponds to the ventral frontoparietal circuit, with distinct sub-regions mediating the separate clusters within each dimension. We also obtained highly specific patterns of gender difference, and of deficits for college students with elevated ADHD traits. These group differences suggest that different mechanisms of voluntary visual attention can be selectively strengthened or weakened based on genetic, experiential, and/or pathological factors. PMID:25867505
Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah
We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.
Full Text Available Voluntary control of information processing is crucial to allocate resources and prioritize the processes that are most important under a given situation; the algorithms underlying such control, however, are often not clear. We investigated possible algorithms of control for the performance of the majority function, in which participants searched for and identified one of two alternative categories (left or right pointing arrows as composing the majority in each stimulus set. We manipulated the amount (set size of 1, 3, and 5 and content (ratio of left and right pointing arrows within a set of the inputs to test competing hypotheses regarding mental operations for information processing. Using a novel measure based on computational load, we found that reaction time was best predicted by a grouping search algorithm as compared to alternative algorithms (i.e., exhaustive or self-terminating search. The grouping search algorithm involves sampling and resampling of the inputs before a decision is reached. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the implications of voluntary control via algorithms of mental operations.
Full Text Available The significance of social capital, including social trust, has in recent decades been acknowledged by many scholars across different disciplines as a key resource. This has led to many studies and scientific articles investigating this topic. Few studies, however, have focused upon social trust within marginalised groups. This study is based upon data gathered from one of the larger research projects investigating the vulnerable recipients of voluntary welfare assistance in Norway. The aim of the study is to investigate the level of social trust in a sample of 80 recipients of welfare assistance within two large voluntary welfare organisations in the capital city of Oslo, Norway. In particular, the study will explore whether and to what degree the level of social trust can be explained by conditions experienced while growing up and as an adult. Results indicate that adult life experiences, such as drug abuse and life satisfaction are the most important explanatory variables. However problems experienced while growing-up seems to be indirectly related to social trust. The results of the study highlight the significance of acknowledging processes of marginalisation in socially vulnerable groups, such as drug users and children experiencing problems growing up.
Full Text Available In Christianity, there is an ideology of motherhood that pervades scripture, ritual, and doctrine, yet there is an academic silence that means relatively little space has been given to motherhood and mothering, and even less to voluntary childlessness, from a faith perspective. By drawing on qualitative in-depth interviews with Christian women living in Britain, narrating their experiences of motherhood and voluntary childlessness, I suggest there are also lived maternal silences encountered by women in contemporary Christianity. There is a maternal expectation produced through church teaching, liturgy and culture that constructs women as ‘maternal bodies’ (Gatrell 2008; this silences and marginalises women from articulating their complex relationship with religion, motherhood, and childlessness in ways that challenge their spiritual development. However, this article also introduces the everyday and intentional tactics women employ to disrupt the maternal expectation, and hereby interrupt the maternal silence.
von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken
Vascular pathology and protein accumulation contribute to cognitive decline, whereas exercise can slow vascular degeneration and improve cognitive function. Recent investigations suggest that glymphatic clearance measured in aged mice while anesthetized is enhanced following exercise. We predicted that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We injected fluorescent tracers in cisterna magna of awake behaving mice and in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice, and later assessed tracer distribution in coronal brain sections. Voluntary exercise consistently increased CSF influx during wakefulness, primarily in the hypothalamus and ventral parts of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas of the mouse brain, which may contribute to the pro-cognitive effects of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kononowicz Andrzej A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of virtual patients (VPs encompasses a great variety of predominantly case-based e-learning modules with different complexity and fidelity levels. Methods for effective placement of VPs in the process of medical education are sought. The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of a voluntary virtual patients module into a basic life support with an automated external defibrillator (BLS-AED course improved the knowledge and skills of students taking the course. Methods Half of the students were randomly assigned to an experimental group and given voluntary access to a virtual patient module consisting of six cases presenting BLS-AED knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-course knowledge tests and skills assessments were performed, as well as a survey of students' satisfaction with the VP usage. In addition, time spent using the virtual patient system, percentage of screen cards viewed and scores in the formative questions in the VP system throughout the course were traced and recorded. Results The study was conducted over a six week period and involved 226 first year medical students. The voluntary module was used by 61 (54% of the 114 entitled study participants. The group that used VPs demonstrated better results in knowledge acquisition and in some key BLS-AED action skills than the group without access, or those students from the experimental group deliberately not using virtual patients. Most of the students rated the combination of VPs and corresponding teaching events positively. Conclusions The overall positive reaction of students and encouraging results in knowledge and skills acquisition suggest that the usage of virtual patients in a BLS-AED course on a voluntary basis is feasible and should be further investigated.
Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Krawczyk, Paweł; Cebula, Grzegorz; Dembkowska, Marta; Drab, Edyta; Frączek, Bartosz; Stachoń, Aleksandra J; Andres, Janusz
The concept of virtual patients (VPs) encompasses a great variety of predominantly case-based e-learning modules with different complexity and fidelity levels. Methods for effective placement of VPs in the process of medical education are sought. The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of a voluntary virtual patients module into a basic life support with an automated external defibrillator (BLS-AED) course improved the knowledge and skills of students taking the course. Half of the students were randomly assigned to an experimental group and given voluntary access to a virtual patient module consisting of six cases presenting BLS-AED knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-course knowledge tests and skills assessments were performed, as well as a survey of students' satisfaction with the VP usage. In addition, time spent using the virtual patient system, percentage of screen cards viewed and scores in the formative questions in the VP system throughout the course were traced and recorded. The study was conducted over a six week period and involved 226 first year medical students. The voluntary module was used by 61 (54%) of the 114 entitled study participants. The group that used VPs demonstrated better results in knowledge acquisition and in some key BLS-AED action skills than the group without access, or those students from the experimental group deliberately not using virtual patients. Most of the students rated the combination of VPs and corresponding teaching events positively. The overall positive reaction of students and encouraging results in knowledge and skills acquisition suggest that the usage of virtual patients in a BLS-AED course on a voluntary basis is feasible and should be further investigated.
Olivardia, R; Pope, H G; Mangweth, B; Hudson, J I
This study was designed to assess the characteristics of men with eating disorders in the community. The authors recruited 25 men meeting DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders and 25 comparison men through advertisements in college newspapers. A second comparison group comprised 33 women with bulimia nervosa who were recruited and interviewed with virtually identical methods. The men with eating disorders closely resembled the women with eating disorders but differed sharply from the comparison men in phenomenology of illness, rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and dissatisfaction with body image. Homosexuality did not appear to be a common feature of men with eating disorders in the community. Childhood physical and sexual abuse appeared slightly more common among the eating-disordered men than among the comparison men. Eating disorders, although less common in men than in women, appear to display strikingly similar features in affected individuals of the two genders.
Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V
In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock
Behler, Rachel L; Cornwell, Benjamin T; Schneider, John A
Little work has examined how individuals' social affiliations-the venues in which they meet friends and engage in informal social interaction-influence their engagement with public health services. We investigate how links to these local places shape access to information and exposure to health-seeking behavior. Using longitudinal data from a respondent-driven sample of 618 young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in Chicago, we identify different sets of social venues that connect YBMSM. We then examine how YBMSM's connections within this network influence their receipt of HIV prevention and treatment services and knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Our results show that YBMSM's positions within Chicago's venue network shape the types of health-related services they access, net of demographic, structural, and community covariates. Men with affiliations that are linked to the city's gay enclave are most likely to know about PrEP, while men with affiliations that are predominately in the black community demonstrate improved HIV treatment outcomes. Outreach engaging MSM beyond venues in gay enclaves is needed.
Full Text Available Men’s increased risk of death in ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is widely reported but poorly understood. Some studies have attributed this risk to men’s poorer health-seeking behaviour, which may prevent them from accessing ART, being adherent to treatment, or remaining in care. In a multicentre analysis of 46 201 adults starting ART in urban and rural settings in South Africa, these factors only partly explained men’s increased mortality while receiving ART. Importantly, the gender difference in mortality among patients receiving ART (31% higher for men than women was substantially smaller than that among HIV-negative South Africans, where men had twice the risk of death compared with women. Yet, this extreme gender inequality in mortality, both within and outside of ART programmes, has not given rise to widespread action. Here it is argued that, despite their dominance in society, men may be subject to a wide range of unfair discriminatory practices, which negatively affect their health outcomes. The health needs of men and boys require urgent attention. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:12-14. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.894
Herda, Trent J; Walter, Ashley A; Hoge, Katherine M; Stout, Jeffrey R; Costa, Pablo B; Ryan, Eric D; Cramer, Joel T
The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and peak force prediction capability of the interpolated twitch technique (ITT) performed during submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in subjects with the ability to maximally activate their plantar flexors. Twelve subjects performed two MVCs and nine submaximal contractions with the ITT method to calculate percent voluntary inactivation (%VI). Additionally, two MVCs were performed without the ITT. Polynomial models (linear, quadratic and cubic) were applied to the 10–90% VI and 40–90% VI versus force relationships to predict force. Peak force from the ITT MVC was 6.7% less than peak force from the MVC without the ITT. Fifty-eight percent of the 10–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with nonlinear models; however, all 40–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with linear models. Regardless of the polynomial model or the contraction intensities used to predict force, all models underestimated the actual force from 22% to 28%. There was low sensitivity of the ITT method at high contraction intensities and the predicted force from polynomial models significantly underestimated the actual force. Caution is warranted when interpreting the % VI at high contraction intensities and predicted peak force from submaximal contractions
Hodgetts, Darrin; Chamberlain, Kerry
Men have higher rates of premature death than women, and may arguably have higher rates of serious illness. One explanation often suggested to account for this is that men are considered to be stoical about illness and reluctant to seek help for it. This article explores the role of media representations in the construction of men's views about health. We investigate how a small group of lower socio-economic status men make sense of the reluctance to seek help notion through an analysis of texts from three sources: a television health documentary, individual interviews with the men and a focus group discussion in which the men discuss the documentary. The television documentary frames its presentation to promote early detection and help-seeking. We conclude that televised coverage of men's health is an important site of social discourse through which men's health is rendered meaningful. However, it is not accepted passively, but negotiated, resisted and interpreted into men's lives.
Adler, Robert A
Osteoporosis and consequent fracture are not limited to postmenopausal women. There is increasing attention being paid to osteoporosis in older men. Men suffer osteoporotic fractures about 10 years later in life than women, but life expectancy is increasing faster in men than women. Thus, men are living long enough to fracture, and when they do the consequences are greater than in women, with men having about twice the 1-year fatality rate after hip fracture, compared to women. Men at high risk for fracture include those men who have already had a fragility fracture, men on oral glucocorticoids or those men being treated for prostate cancer with androgen deprivation therapy. Beyond these high risk men, there are many other risk factors and secondary causes of osteoporosis in men. Evaluation includes careful history and physical examination to reveal potential secondary causes, including many medications, a short list of laboratory tests, and bone mineral density testing by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of spine and hip. Recently, international organizations have advocated a single normative database for interpreting DXA testing in men and women. The consequences of this change need to be determined. There are several choices of therapy for osteoporosis in men, with most fracture reduction estimation based on studies in women.
Hanlon, Neil; Skinner, Mark W; Joseph, Alun E; Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg
Resource-dependent communities in hinterland regions of Australia, Canada and elsewhere are rapidly aging, yet many features that distinguish them (e.g., geographic remoteness, small populations, infrastructure built with younger persons in mind) also pose significant challenges for healthy aging. These challenges can lead to substantial gaps in access to formal health and social services, with negative implications for older residents aging-in-place and the development aspirations of resource frontier communities. In this paper, we explore the efforts of voluntary sector leaders to transform resource communities into more livable and supportive places for older adults. We offer a case study of two small towns in Canada׳s aging resource frontier; one forestry-dependent and the other dependent on coal mining. Our findings suggest that place integration develops through volunteer work and explains how voluntarism works as both a process and outcome of 'placemaking'. We argue that greater attention to place integration is needed to bring into focus the transformative potential of the voluntary sector in creating supportive and sustainable environments for healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Vogt, Miriam A; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta; Gass, Peter
We investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running as model for intervention on the development of contextual fear and hyperarousal in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Physical exercise in general has been associated with improved hippocampus-dependent memory performance both in animals and humans. However, studies that have tried to link physical exercise and contextual conditioning in an animal model of PTSD, revealed mixed findings. Here we tested contextual fear conditioning, generalized fear response, acoustic startle response and emotionality in C57BL/6NCrl mice which had free access to a running wheel for 28 days, compared with control animals which did not run and mice which did not receive a shock during the conditioning phase. We found no significant effects of voluntary running on the above-mentioned variables, except for enhanced anxiety levels in the Dark-Light-Box and O-Maze tests of running mice. Our results suggest that running as a model for intervention does not ameliorate contextual aversive learning but has the potency to change emotional behaviours.
Lu, Jiaying; Schuett, Michael A.
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of voluntary associations involved in forest management. The specific areas examined in this study include organizational attributes, membership profile, attitudes toward forest-management priorities, and concerns about forest-management issues. To achieve this purpose, data were collected using a case study approach with mixed-methods (document reviews, personal interviews, and a Web survey) at a national forest in Texas, USA. Overall, the voluntary associations in this study can be described as place-based, small to moderate in scale, activity-oriented, and active groups that are adaptive to sociopolitical and environmental changes. General group members placed high importance on aesthetic, ecological, and recreation management of the national forest. In addition, this study showed five key forest management issues: (1) limited recreation access; (2) financial challenges for forest management; (3) conflict among recreation user groups; (4) inadequate communication by the United States Forest Service to the general public, and (5) sustainability of the forest. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.
Ndong, I; Steele, C; Mahony, E
When men are provided with information about reproductive health issues, they are more likely to support their partners' family planning decisions. Such support is particularly important in cultures where women are unable to negotiate sexual relationships, and may therefore be exposing themselves to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unwanted pregnancies. Good communication between partners ensures that women receive the reproductive health care they need. AVSC International developed the Men As Partners (MAP) initiative with the goals of increasing men's awareness and support of their partners' reproductive health choices; men's awareness of the need to safeguard reproductive health, especially through the prevention of STDs; and the use of contraceptive methods which require the participation and cooperation of men among couples who want to use them. In May 1997, AVSC organized the first-ever interregional workshop on men's involvement in reproductive health. More than 150 participants from 5 continents attended the event in Mombasa, Kenya, where they discussed ways to involve men in the health of their female partners. Main workshop themes were gender issues, reproductive health services for men, community outreach and workplace programs, access to services, and adolescents.
Full Text Available Introduction: Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues.The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Results: Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07% followed by D (95.40%, C (88.77%, c (55.89% and E (17.88%. The frequency of the Kell antigen (K was 1.78 %. Discussion: The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4% and north Indian donors (93.6 was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85% and lower than in the Chinese (99%. The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the ′e′ antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K was found in only 101 (1.78 % donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5% but
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a novel single-switch access technology based on infrared thermography was proposed. The technology exploits the temperature differences between the inside and surrounding areas of the mouth as a switch trigger, thereby allowing voluntary switch activation upon mouth opening. However, for this technology to be clinically viable, it must be validated against a gold standard switch, such as a chin switch, that taps into the same voluntary motion. Methods In this study, we report an experiment designed to gauge the concurrent validity of the infrared thermal switch. Ten able-bodied adults participated in a series of 3 test sessions where they simultaneously used both an infrared thermal and conventional chin switch to perform multiple trials of a number identification task with visual, auditory and audiovisual stimuli. Participants also provided qualitative feedback about switch use. User performance with the two switches was quantified using an efficiency measure based on mutual information. Results User performance (p = 0.16 and response time (p = 0.25 with the infrared thermal switch were comparable to those of the gold standard. Users reported preference for the infrared thermal switch given its non-contact nature and robustness to changes in user posture. Conclusions Thermal infrared access technology appears to be a valid single switch alternative for individuals with disabilities who retain voluntary mouth opening and closing.
... Search form Search What is Men's Endocrine Health? Men's endocrine health incorporates physical activity and sound nutrition to maintain a strong body; however, a major emphasis includes male sexuality ...
Engaging men in health care involves a multifaceted approach that has as its main principle the recognition that men consume health care differently to women. This article identifies barriers to engaging men in health care and offers potential and existing solutions to overcome these barriers in a range of health care settings. The concept of multiple masculinities recognises that not all men can be engaged via a particular technique or strategy. The perception that men are disinterested in their health is challenged and a range of approaches discussed, both in the community and in health care facilities. In the general practice setting opportunities exist for the engagement of men at the reception desk and waiting room, as well as during the consultation. Use of the workplace in engaging men is discussed. Future activities to build the capacity of health care providers to better engage men are identified and the role of policy and program development is addressed.
Little, Christopher M.; Needham, Mark D.
Many alpine ski areas have recently adopted voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) such as using recycling, renewable energy, and biofuels to help reduce their environmental impacts. Studies have addressed the performance of these VEPs in mitigating environmental impacts of this industry, but little is known about visitor awareness and perceptions of these programs. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring skier and snowboarder knowledge of VEPs at a ski area and the influence of these programs on their motivations to visit this area currently and behavioral intentions to visit again in the future. Data were obtained from an onsite survey at the Mt. Bachelor ski area in Oregon, USA ( n = 429, 89.7% response rate). Few skiers and snowboarders were knowledgeable of VEPs at this area and fewer than 20% were motivated to visit on their current trip because of these programs. Other attributes such as scenery, snow conditions, and access were more important for influencing visitation. Up to 38% of skiers and snowboarders, however, intend to visit this ski area more often if it adopts and promotes more VEPs. Managers can use these results to inform communication and marketing of their environmental programs and performance to visitors. Additional implications for management and future research are discussed.
Jakubowski, Kelly; Bashir, Zaariyah; Farrugia, Nicolas; Stewart, Lauren
Comparisons between involuntarily and voluntarily retrieved autobiographical memories have revealed similarities in encoding and maintenance, with differences in terms of specificity and emotional responses. Our study extended this research area into the domain of musical memory, which afforded a unique opportunity to compare the same memory as accessed both involuntarily and voluntarily. Specifically, we compared instances of involuntary musical imagery (INMI, or "earworms")-the spontaneous mental recall and repetition of a tune-to deliberate recall of the same tune as voluntary musical imagery (VMI) in terms of recall accuracy and emotional responses. Twenty participants completed two 3-day tasks. In an INMI task, participants recorded information about INMI episodes as they occurred; in a VMI task, participants were prompted via text message to deliberately imagine each tune they had previously experienced as INMI. In both tasks, tempi of the imagined tunes were recorded by tapping to the musical beat while wearing an accelerometer and additional information (e.g., tune name, emotion ratings) was logged in a diary. Overall, INMI and VMI tempo measurements for the same tune were strongly correlated. Tempo recall for tunes that have definitive, recorded versions was relatively accurate, and tunes that were retrieved deliberately (VMI) were not recalled more accurately in terms of tempo than spontaneous and involuntary instances of imagined music (INMI). Some evidence that INMI elicited stronger emotional responses than VMI was also revealed. These results demonstrate several parallels to previous literature on involuntary memories and add new insights on the phenomenology of INMI.
Cook, Hadrian; Inman, Alax
The voluntary sector is value driven, issue focussed and considered economically efficient due to volunteer engagement and low administrative overheads in meeting conservation objectives. Independence and flexibility make it an intermediary between stakeholders and government and it is proving an effective vehicle for public engagement. NGOs are emerging as a key player in environmental action, making them a partial replacement for 'big government action' and may be heralding a 'Big Green Society'. The sector ranges in scale from small, local conservation charities to nationally important organisations. This article focuses on functionality because resource issues relate to funding, competences of personnel, continuity of mission and access to expertise, and all are affected during times of austerity. NGOs were largely task-oriented, yet they rapidly developed a campaigning role encapsulating an ever deeper role in both planning and policy formulation. Subsequently, they have developed community inclusion at the core of their function. While the portents remain good, potential problems relate to economic resources, task allocation, impacts on labour markets, interactions with the statutory sector, operational independence and to relations with local democracy. Outlined in this paper are historic functions, operation and development of the sector and perceived issues for the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davis, L E
To evaluate the causes of dizziness in elderly men. A descriptive study involving the clinical and laboratory features of elderly men with dizziness. A university-affiliated Veterans Affairs medical center. One hundred seventeen consecutive men more than 50 years of age attending a general neurology clinic with the chief complaint of dizziness. The median duration of dizziness at first office visit was 45 weeks. Forty-nine percent of patients had more than one diagnosis that contributed to their dizziness. Dysfunctions of the peripheral vestibular system were found in 71% and were the principal causes in 56%. Benign positional vertigo was present in 34%. Disorders of the visual system were found in 26% but were the major cause in only 1%. Diagnoses involving the proprioceptive system were present in 17% and were the principal cause in 7%. Structural lesions of the brainstem or cerebellum or metabolic disorders that affected normal brainstem function were identified in 59% and were the major diagnoses in 22%. A psychophysiologic diagnosis was made in 6% but was the major diagnosis in only 3%. At the 6-months follow-up, 55% of patients improved, 34% were unchanged, 4% worsened, and 7% were lost to follow-up. Contrary to reports in the literature, dizziness in the elderly is more persistent, has more causes, is less often due to a psychophysiologic cause, and seems to be more incapacitating than dizziness in younger patients.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. 5.32a Section 5.32a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Labeling Requirements for Distilled Spirits § 5.32a Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. (a...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. 4.32a Section 4.32a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Requirements for Wine § 4.32a Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. (a) Definitions. For purposes of...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. 7.22a Section 7.22a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Labeling Requirements for Malt Beverages § 7.22a Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. (a...
... authority, and the changes in organizational structure it expects to make as the result of projected... description of the types of personnel actions anticipated as a result of the agency's need for voluntary early... voluntary early retirement, which may be made based on the following criteria: (A) 1 or more organizational...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Emergency Medicine Patient Safety Foundation AGENCY: Agency for... notification of voluntary relinquishment from Emergency Medicine Patient Safety Foundation of its status as a...
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of the subjective evaluation of job characteristics on voluntary mobility, the impact of voluntary mobility on changes in these job characteristics, and differential education and gender patterns. Design/methodology/approach – Ordered and
Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.
Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary
Rasmussen, Anne S; Johannessen, Kim B; Berntsen, Dorthe
Cognitive psychologists have often equaled retrieval of personal events with voluntary recall from autobiographical memory, but more recent research shows that autobiographical memories often come to mind involuntarily-that is, with no retrieval effort. Voluntary memories have been studied in numerous laboratory experiments in response to word-prompts, whereas involuntary memories primarily have been examined in an everyday living context, using a structured diary procedure. However, it remains unclear how voluntary memories sampled in the laboratory map onto self-prompted voluntary memories in daily life. Here, we used a structured diary procedure to compare different types of voluntary autobiographical memories to their involuntary counterparts. The results replicated previous findings with regard to differences between word-prompted voluntary and involuntary memories, whereas there were fewer differences between self-prompted voluntary and involuntary memories. The findings raise the question as to what is the best way of sampling voluntary memories and the best comparison for involuntary memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voluntary repayment agreement in lieu of salary... SALARY OFFSET § 33.8 Voluntary repayment agreement in lieu of salary offset. (a)(1) In response to the... notice of intent to offset. An employee who wishes to repay the debt without salary offset shall also...
... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E... National Model Building Codes The following documents address the health and safety aspects of buildings and related structures and are voluntary national model building codes as defined in § 1924.4(h)(2) of...
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of the subjective evaluation of job characteristics on voluntary mobility, the impact of voluntary mobility on changes in these job characteristics, and differential education and gender patterns. Design/methodology/approach - Ordered and
... Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for... notification of voluntary relinquishment from Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety...
... Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From UAB Health System Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for... notification of voluntary relinquishment from the UAB Health System Patient Safety Organization of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005...
... Request; Generic Clearance To Conduct Voluntary Customer/Partner Surveys SUMMARY: In compliance with the... to Conduct Voluntary Customer/Partner Surveys; Type of Information Collection Request: Extension of... directly to the public to survey customers to determine the kind and quality of services they want and...
Gribnau, Hans; Peeters, B.; Gribnau, H.; Badisco, J.
This chapter deals with the obligation to pay taxes. It starts from the idea of voluntary taxation. In ancient Athens, the wealthy had a moral obligation to pay a periodic voluntary contribution (‘liturgy’). They paid for religious festivals and military expeditions which benefited society. This
... notification of voluntary relinquishment from Apollo Publishing, Inc., of its status as a Patient Safety... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Apollo Publishing, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...
... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare... Organization: AHRQ has accepted a notification of voluntary relinquishment from Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization, a component entity of Colorado Hospital Association, of its status as a Patient Safety...
... Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From HSMS Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare... voluntary relinquishment from the HSMS Patient Safety Organization of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act), Public Law 109...
... Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Violations of the Export Administration Regulations AGENCY: Bureau... violators. Voluntary self-disclosure of EAR violations strengthens BIS's enforcement efforts by allowing BIS... detect the violations without such disclosures. BIS evaluates the seriousness of the violation and either...
... Request; Procedure for Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Violations of the Export Administration Regulations... violators. Voluntary self-disclosure of EAR violations strengthens BIS's enforcement efforts by allowing BIS... detect the violations without such disclosures. BIS evaluates the seriousness of the violation and either...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributions to political action committees through voluntary payroll allotments prohibited. 734.504 Section 734.504 Administrative Personnel... through voluntary payroll allotments prohibited. An employee described in § 734.502(a) may not financially...
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2008-0017] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency... on an initial small business plan to address small business concerns in the Voluntary Private Sector...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.23 Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license. A license issued under...
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2012-1066] Final Guidance Regarding Voluntary Inspection of Vessels for Compliance With the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 AGENCY: Coast Guard... procedures regarding the inspection of U.S. vessels for voluntary compliance with the Maritime Labour...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From the Patient Safety Group AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... voluntary relinquishment from The Patient Safety Group of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO...
...'s Regulatory Capital. 108.585 Section 108.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a NMVC Company Voluntary Decrease in Regulatory Capital § 108.585 Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital. You must...
Pain, Karen D.
The primary purpose of the study was to explore the potential impact of voluntary remediation on success in gateway credit courses (ENC1101 and MAT1033) and on minority and low-income students in Florida. Mean grades and proportions of successful students were compared based on remediation policies and students' voluntary completion of a…
... guardian of an incapacitated person. 360.64 Section 360.64 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating..., Absentees, et al. § 360.64 Payment or reinvestment—voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. (a..., responsible for the owner's care and support may submit an application for recognition as voluntary guardian...
Matković Puljić, Vlatka; Kosanović Ličina, Mirjana Lana; Kavić, Marija; Nemeth Blažić, Tatjana
HIV testing plays a critical role in preventing the spread of the virus and identifying infected individuals in need of care. Voluntary counseling and testing centers (VCTs) not only conduct testing but they also provide counseling. Since a proportion of people who test negative for HIV on their previous visit will return for retesting, the frequency of retesting and the characteristics of those who retest may provide insights into the efficacy of testing and counseling strategies. In this cross-sectional, retrospective study of 1,482 VCT clients in Croatia in 2010, 44.3% had been tested for HIV before. The rate of repeat HIV testing is lower in Croatia than in other countries. Men who have sex with men (MSM) clients, those with three or more sexual partners in the last 12 months, consistent condom users with steady partners, and intravenous drug users were more likely to be repeat testers. This finding suggests that clients presenting for repeat HIV testing are those who self-identify as being at a higher risk of infection. Our data showed that testing positive for HIV was not associated with repeat testing. However, the effects of repeat testing on HIV epidemiology needs to be explored. PMID:24705595
Dahodwala, Nabila; Shah, Krunal; He, Ying; Wu, Samuel S; Schmidt, Peter; Cubillos, Fernando; Willis, Allison W
To compare access to caregiving between men and women with Parkinson disease (PD). This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal study among participants with PD enrolled in the National Parkinson Foundation Parkinson's Outcomes Project from 2009 to 2014 at 21 international sites. The primary outcome measures were presence of a caregiver at the baseline visit, caregiver burden as measured by the Multidimensional Caregiver Strain Index (MCSI) at baseline, and time to first paid caregiver. A total of 7,209 participants (63% men, 37% women) with PD were evaluated. Men had a mean age of 66.0 (SD 9.8) years, and women had a mean age of 66.9 (SD 9.7) years. More men than women had a caregiver (88.4% vs 79.4%, p men reported greater strain than those of women (MCSI score 19.9 vs 16.4, p women compared to men (odds ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.86), and women had a faster rate to using a paid caregiver than men (hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.35-2.28) after controlling for potential confounders. Informal caregiving resources are lower for women than men with PD, despite the finding that their caregivers report less strain than those of men. In addition, women are more likely to use formal, paid caregivers. Strategies to improve access to caregiving, particularly for women, are needed. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse
The article explores the pedagogical recommendations within late nineteenth century psychological literature on voluntary attention, focusing on what was then understood as pathological conditions of attention. The purpose of the article is double. First, to investigate the reasoning embedded...... in the educational exercises with which to capture and retain the attention of students. What is the link between the educational practices of the late nineteenth century and the psychological interest in the concept of attention within this time period? And second, to explore the epistemological and methodological...... power of the pathological. Is it possible to examine the concept of attention through a focus on its pathological forms? The article demonstrates how the pedagogical recommendations embedded in the late nineteenth century psychological literature on attention aim to develop disinterested citizens...
Sayers, Gwen M
Non-voluntary passive euthanasia, the commonest form of euthanasia, is seldom mentioned in the UK. This article illustrates how the legal reasoning in Airedale NHS Trust v Bland contributed towards this conceptual deletion. By upholding the impermissibility of euthanasia, whilst at the same time permitting 'euthanasia' under the guise of 'withdrawing futile treatment', it is argued that the court (logically) allowed (withdrawing futile treatment and euthanasia). The Bland reasoning was incorporated into professional guidance, which extended the court's ruling to encompass patients who, unlike Anthony Bland, were sentient. But since the lawfulness of (withdrawing futile treatment and euthanasia) hinges on the futility of treatment, and since the guidance provides advice about withdrawing treatment from patients who differ from those considered in court, the lawfulness of such 'treatment decisions' is unclear. Legislation is proposed in order to redress the ambiguity that arose when moral decisions about 'euthanasia' were translated into medical decisions about 'treatment'.
Diah Astuti Saputri Retnaningsih
Full Text Available The Study aims to know further about the implementation of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT to people with the possibility of being infected by HIV/AIDS. It is governmental service program starting from counseling, testing, and post testing in order to minimize the contagious risk of HIV/AIDS. Through the qualitative-descriptive approach, this study showed that the implementation of VCT program is very important because the process emphasizes the acceptance of client, building relationship, exploring, identifying, giving information, planning activity, determining decision, testing, up to developing the readiness of client, making planning, reading off the tests result, explaining result of the test, giving support and motivation. All of these are purposed to minimize the contagious risk, and make the infected one more optimistic in experiencing life.
Wolfenden, A.K.; Cambridge, M. [California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Toxic Substances Control
In California, the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) has developed a more equitable and expedited approach for the redevelopment of sites contaminated with hazardous substances. Senate Bill 923 enacted in 1994, established the Expedited Remedial Action Program (ERAP) under Chapter 6.85 of the California Health and Safety Code. This bill responds to a nationwide demand to reform Superfund laws and promote the restoration of blighted and contaminated parcels--often referred to as Brownfields. The program was designed as an alternative to CERCLA, which has come under criticism for being inefficient, unfair and restricting opportunities for effective cleanups. Cal/EPA`s Department of Toxic Substances Control will implement this pilot program. This pilot program, which will eventually comprise 30 sites, provides incentives for voluntary remediation by addressing key economic issues associated with the remediation and redevelopment of contaminated properties.
Serowik, Kristin L; Bellamy, Chyrell D; Rowe, Michael; Rosen, Marc I
A large proportion of people diagnosed with mental illnesses have difficulty managing their money, and therefore many psychiatric treatments involve providing money management assistance. However, little is known about the subjective experience of having a money manager, and extant literature is restricted to people forced to work with a representative payee or conservator. In this study, fifteen people were interviewed about their experience receiving a voluntary money management intervention designed to minimize substance use. Clients emphasized the importance of trusting the money manager, financial mindfulness (an enhanced awareness of the financial transactions in clients' day-to-day lives), agency over their own affairs, and addiction. In contrast to evaluations of people assigned representative payees and/or conservators, there was little mention of feeling coerced. These findings suggest that money management programs can address client concerns by building trust, relating budgeting to clients' day-to-day lives, and encouraging clients' control over their own affairs.
Tupac, R G
A total of 136 dentulous patients were divided into three groups for purposes of quantitative pantographic comparison of voluntary and induced Bennett movement. The effects of patient age and operator experience on recording the Bennett movement were also studied. The results indicates that for patients studied with Bennett movement iduced in the manner described: 1. Experienced operators can obtain more induced Bennett movement that inexperienced operators. 2. Inducing Bennett movement has a greater effect on the immediate side shift component than it has on the progressive side shift component. 3. For older individuals the amount and direction of induced immediate side shift is greater than for younger patients, statistically highly significant, and therefore clinically important. In conclusion, if the objective of a pantographic survey is to record the complete capacity of the joint to move, *lateral jaw movements must be induced.
Eyal, Tal; Epley, Nicholas
Stereotypes are often presumed to exaggerate group differences, but empirical evidence is mixed. We suggest exaggeration is moderated by the accessibility of specific stereotype content. In particular, because the most accessible stereotype contents are attributes perceived to differ between groups, those attributes are most likely to exaggerate actual group differences due to regression to the mean. We tested this hypothesis using a highly accessible gender stereotype: that women are more socially sensitive than men. We confirmed that the most accessible stereotype content involves attributes perceived to differ between groups (pretest), and that these stereotypes contain some accuracy but significantly exaggerate actual gender differences (Experiment 1). We observe less exaggeration when judging less accessible stereotype content (Experiment 2), or when judging individual men and women (Experiment 3). Considering the accessibility of specific stereotype content may explain when stereotypes exaggerate actual group differences and when they do not.
Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H
The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lisi, Matteo; Zorzi, Marco
Growing evidence suggests that orienting visual attention in space can influence the processing of numerical magnitude, with leftward orienting speeding up the processing of small numbers relative to larger ones and the converse for rightward orienting. The manipulation of eye movements is a convenient way to direct visuospatial attention, but several aspects of the complex relationship between eye movements, attention orienting and number processing remain unexplored. In a previous study, we observed that inducing involuntary, reflexive eye movements by means of optokinetic stimulation affected number processing only when numerical magnitude was task relevant (i.e., during magnitude comparison, but not during parity judgment; Ranzini et al., in J Cogn Psychol 27, 459-470, (2015). Here, we investigated whether processing of task-irrelevant numerical magnitude can be modulated by voluntary eye movements, and whether the type of eye movements (smooth pursuit vs. saccades) would influence this interaction. Participants tracked with their gaze a dot while listening to a digit. The numerical task was to indicate whether the digit was odd or even through non-spatial, verbal responses. The dot could move leftward or rightward either continuously, allowing tracking by smooth pursuit eye movements, or in discrete steps across a series of adjacent locations, triggering a sequence of saccades. Both smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements similarly affected number processing and modulated response times for large numbers as a function of direction of motion. These findings suggest that voluntary eye movements redirect attention in mental number space and highlight that eye movements should play a key factor in the investigation of number-space interactions.
Fontana, Giovanni A
No information exists on the effects of hyperpnea on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), and the index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in 12 healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise, and during voluntary isocapnic hyperventilation (VIH) to the same level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge-to-cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was also recorded throughout the trials. The log-log relationship between inhaled fog concentrations and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, was also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the mean cough threshold was increased from a control value of 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.25 +/- 1.14 ml/min (p VIH, the mean (+/-SD) threshold increased from 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.42 +/- 1.16 ml/min (p VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were not significantly changed: control, 3.83 +/- 1.11 cm; exercise, 3.12 +/- 0.82 cm; VIH, 4.08 +/- 1.67 cm. Since the slopes of the log fog concentration/log UTC value were approximately halved during exercise and VIH compared with control, the UTC sensitivity to fog was depressed (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperventilation exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.