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Sample records for mems devices ii

  1. Advanced mechatronics and MEMS devices II

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the state-of-the-art technologies in mechatronics, robotics, and MEMS devices in order to improve their methodologies. It provides a follow-up to "Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devices" (2013) with an exploration of the most up-to-date technologies and their applications, shown through examples that give readers insights and lessons learned from actual projects. Researchers on mechatronics, robotics, and MEMS as well as graduate students in mechanical engineering will find chapters on: Fundamental design and working principles on MEMS accelerometers Innovative mobile technologies Force/tactile sensors development Control schemes for reconfigurable robotic systems Inertial microfluidics Piezoelectric force sensors and dynamic calibration techniques ...And more. Authors explore applications in the areas of agriculture, biomedicine, advanced manufacturing, and space. Micro-assembly for current and future industries is also considered, as well as the design and development of micro and intel...

  2. MEMS variable capacitance devices utilizing the substrate: II. Zipping varactors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2010-03-22

    This paper, the second and last in this series, introduces PolyMUMPS zipping varactors that exploit the substrate and provide a high tuning range and a high quality factor. Building on the important findings of part I of this paper, the substrate was utilized effectively once again in the design and fabrication of zipping varactors to attain devices with very good performance. Two zipping varactors are proposed, analysed theoretically, simulated, fabricated and tested successfully. The tuning range, quality factor and actuation voltage of those varactors are 4.5, 16.4, 55 V and 4.2, 17, 55 V respectively. Finally, and based on one of the proposed zipping varactors, a very large capacitance value varactor array, with a tuning range of 5.3, was designed and tested. To the best of our knowledge, these zipping varactors exhibit the best reported characteristics in PolyMUMPS to date within their category in terms of tuning range, quality factor, required actuation voltage and total area consumed. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devicesdescribes state-of-the-art MEMS devices and introduces the latest technology in electrical and mechanical microsystems. The evolution of design in microfabrication, as well as emerging issues in nanomaterials, micromachining, micromanufacturing and microassembly are all discussed at length in this volume. Advanced Mechatronics also provides a reader with knowledge of MEMS sensors array, MEMS multidimensional accelerometer, artificial skin with imbedded tactile components, as well as other topics in MEMS sensors and transducers. The book also presents a number of topics in advanced robotics and an abundance of applications of MEMS in robotics, like reconfigurable modular snake robots, magnetic MEMS robots for drug delivery and flying robots with adjustable wings, to name a few. This book also: Covers the fundamentals of advanced mechatronics and MEMS devices while also presenting new state-of-the-art methodology and technology used in the application of these devices Prese...

  4. Electrostatic MEMS devices with high reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Charles L; Auciello, Orlando H; Sumant, Anirudha V; Mancini, Derrick C; Gudeman, Chris; Sampath, Suresh; Carlilse, John A; Carpick, Robert W; Hwang, James

    2015-02-24

    The present invention provides for an electrostatic microelectromechanical (MEMS) device comprising a dielectric layer separating a first conductor and a second conductor. The first conductor is moveable towards the second conductor, when a voltage is applied to the MEMS device. The dielectric layer recovers from dielectric charging failure almost immediately upon removal of the voltage from the MEMS device.

  5. MEMS glaucoma monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Smitha; Austin, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Glaucoma is a serious disease, affecting millions of people worldwide requiring continuous monitoring of Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP) to avoid the risk of blindness. Current laboratory measurements are infrequent, intrusive and do not indicate the progression of the disease. The paper reports on the development of an implantable Glaucoma monitoring system that can monitor IOP in the eye to indicate any elevation in risk to the patient. A mathematical model of the anterior chamber of the eye was used to analyze the complex fluid flow and pressure balance in the eye. This was done in order to determine the performance requirements of the actuator, sensor and transmission electronics that could be integrated on a single microchip using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, to carry out the testing internally. The accuracy of the system was theoretically tested against results from external medical tests. The results were found to be comparable.

  6. CMOS MEMS Fabrication Technologies and Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems fabrication technologies and enabled micro devices of various sensors and actuators. The technologies are classified based on the sequence of the fabrication of CMOS circuitry and MEMS elements, while SOI (silicon-on-insulator CMOS MEMS are introduced separately. Introduction of associated devices follows the description of the respective CMOS MEMS technologies. Due to the vast array of CMOS MEMS devices, this review focuses only on the most typical MEMS sensors and actuators including pressure sensors, inertial sensors, frequency reference devices and actuators utilizing different physics effects and the fabrication processes introduced. Moreover, the incorporation of MEMS and CMOS is limited to monolithic integration, meaning wafer-bonding-based stacking and other integration approaches, despite their advantages, are excluded from the discussion. Both competitive industrial products and state-of-the-art research results on CMOS MEMS are covered.

  7. Applications of MEMS devices in nanosatellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Zheng; Li Bin; Yu Shijie; Zhang Gaofei

    2012-01-01

    micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) device has the advantages of both electronic system and mechanical system. With the development of MEMS devices for satellite, it is possible to establish much lighter and smaller nanosatellites with higher performance and longer lifecyele. The power consumption of MEMS devices is usually much lower than that of traditional devices, which will greatly reduce the consumption of power. For its small size and simple architecture, MEMS devices can be easily integrated together and achieve redundancy. Launched on April 18, 2004, NS - 1 is a nanosatellite for science exploration and MEMS devices test. A mass of science data and images were acquired during its running. NS - 1 weights less than 25 kg. It consists of several MEMS devices, including one miniature inertial measurement unit(MIMU) , three micro complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)cameras, one sun sensor, three momentum wheels, and one micro magnetic sensor. By applying micro components based on MEMS technology, NS - 1 has made success in the experiments of integrative design, manufacture, and MEMS devices integration. In this paper, some MEMS devices for nanosatellite and picosatellite are introduced, which have been tested on NS -1 nanosatellite or on the ground.

  8. Fabrication of integrated metallic MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators...

  9. MEMS and microfluidics for diagnostics devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Y; Gurman, P

    2010-06-01

    There are conditions in clinical medicine demanding critical therapeutic decisions. These conditions necessitate accuracy, rapidity, accessibility, cost-effectiveness and mobility. New technologies have been developed in order to address these challenges. Microfluidics and Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems are two of such technologies. Microfluidics, a discipline that involves processing fluids at the microscale in etched microchannels, is being used to build lab- on-a-chip systems to run chemical and biological assays. These systems are being transformed into handheld devices designed to be used at remote settings or at the bedside. MEMS are microscale electromechanical elements integrated in lab chip systems or used as individual components. MEMS based sensors represents a highly developed field with successful commercialized products currently being incorporated into vitro,ex vivo and in vivo devices. In the present paper several examples of microfluidic devices and MEMS sensors are introduced together with some current examples of commercialized products. Future challenges and trends will be discussed.

  10. Movable MEMS Devices on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sally

    2013-05-05

    Flexible electronics have gained great attention recently. Applications such as flexible displays, artificial skin and health monitoring devices are a few examples of this technology. Looking closely at the components of these devices, although MEMS actuators and sensors can play critical role to extend the application areas of flexible electronics, fabricating movable MEMS devices on flexible substrates is highly challenging. Therefore, this thesis reports a process for fabricating free standing and movable MEMS devices on flexible silicon substrates; MEMS flexure thermal actuators have been fabricated to illustrate the viability of the process. Flexure thermal actuators consist of two arms: a thin hot arm and a wide cold arm separated by a small air gap; the arms are anchored to the substrate from one end and connected to each other from the other end. The actuator design has been modified by adding etch holes in the anchors to suit the process of releasing a thin layer of silicon from the bulk silicon substrate. Selecting materials that are compatible with the release process was challenging. Moreover, difficulties were faced in the fabrication process development; for example, the structural layer of the devices was partially etched during silicon release although it was protected by aluminum oxide which is not attacked by the releasing gas . Furthermore, the thin arm of the thermal actuator was thinned during the fabrication process but optimizing the patterning and etching steps of the structural layer successfully solved this problem. Simulation was carried out to compare the performance of the original and the modified designs for the thermal actuators and to study stress and temperature distribution across a device. A fabricated thermal actuator with a 250 μm long hot arm and a 225 μm long cold arm separated by a 3 μm gap produced a deflection of 3 μm before silicon release, however, the fabrication process must be optimized to obtain fully functioning

  11. Heterogeneous MEMS device assembly and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topart, Patrice; Picard, Francis; Ilias, Samir; Alain, Christine; Chevalier, Claude; Fisette, Bruno; Paultre, Jacques E.; Généreux, Francis; Legros, Mathieu; Lepage, Jean-François; Laverdière, Christian; Ngo Phong, Linh; Caron, Jean-Sol; Desroches, Yan

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, smart phone applications have both raised the pressure for cost and time to market reduction, and the need for high performance MEMS devices. This trend has led the MEMS community to develop multi-die packaging of different functionalities or multi-technology (i.e. wafer) approaches to fabricate and assemble devices respectively. This paper reports on the fabrication, assembly and packaging at INO of various MEMS devices using heterogeneous assembly at chip and package-level. First, the performance of a giant (e.g. about 3 mm in diameter), electrostatically actuated beam steering mirror is presented. It can be rotated about two perpendicular axes to steer an optical beam within an angular cone of up to 60° in vector scan mode with an angular resolution of 1 mrad and a response time of 300 ms. To achieve such angular performance relative to mirror size, the microassembly was performed from sub-components fabricated from 4 different wafers. To combine infrared detection with inertial sensing, an electroplated proof mass was flip-chipped onto a 256×1 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA and released using laser ablation. In addition to the microassembly technology, performance results of packaged devices are presented. Finally, to simulate a 3072×3 pixel uncooled detector for cloud and fire imaging in mid and long-wave IR, the staggered assembly of six 512×3 pixel FPAs with a less than 50 micron pixel co-registration is reported.

  12. Vacuum measurement on vacuum packaged MEMS devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Zhiyin; Lin Dong; Wang Xuefang; Chenggang; Zhang Honghai; Liu Sheng [Institute of Microsystems and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, 430074 (China)

    2007-07-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between the resonance impedance of a tuning fork quartz oscillator and the small size cavity vacuum pressure and develops an on-line vacuum measurement system to track real-time vacuum pressure in MEMS devices. Furthermore, authors completely analyze all facts that affect the resonance impedance. A set of metal vacuum packaged devices have been monitored for more than 10 months using this on-line vacuum measurement system. The results indicate that it is very critical to investigate vacuum packaging processes, reliability and durability of the vacuum devices by using this on-line vacuum measurement system.

  13. Radioisotope Power Sources for MEMS Devices,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, J.P.

    2001-06-17

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a rapidly expanding research field with potential applications varying from sensors in airbags to more recent optical applications. Depending on the application, these devices often require an on-board power source for remote operation, especially in cases requiring operation for an extended period of time. Previously suggested power sources include fossil fuels and solar energy, but nuclear power sources may provide significant advantages for certain applications. Hence, the objective of this study is to establish the viability of using radioisotopes to power realistic MEMS devices. A junction-type battery was constructed using silicon and a {sup 63}Ni liquid source. A source volume containing 64 {micro}Ci provided a power of {approx}0.07 nW. A more novel application of nuclear sources for MEMS applications involves the creation of a resonator that is driven by charge collection in a cantilever beam. Preliminary results have established the feasibility of this concept, and future work will optimize the design for various applications.

  14. Torsion based universal MEMS logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2015-10-28

    In this work we demonstrate torsion based complementary MEMS logic device, which is capable, of performing INVERTER, AND, NAND, NOR, and OR gates using one physical structure within an operating range of 0-10 volts. It can also perform XOR and XNOR with one access inverter using the same structure with different electrical interconnects. The paper presents modeling, fabrication and experimental calculations of various performance features of the device including lifetime, power consumption and resonance frequency. The fabricated device is 535 μm by 150 μm with a gap of 1.92 μm and a resonant frequency of 6.51 kHz. The device is capable of performing the switching operation with a frequency of 1 kHz.

  15. MEMS/Electronic Device Design and Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility allows DoD to design and characterize state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and electronic devices. Device designers develop their own...

  16. Stability, Nonlinearity and Reliability of Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS is a special branch with a wide range of applications in sensing and actuating devices in MEMS. This paper provides a survey and analysis of the electrostatic force of importance in MEMS, its physical model, scaling effect, stability, nonlinearity and reliability in detail. It is necessary to understand the effects of electrostatic forces in MEMS and then many phenomena of practical importance, such as pull-in instability and the effects of effective stiffness, dielectric charging, stress gradient, temperature on the pull-in voltage, nonlinear dynamic effects and reliability due to electrostatic forces occurred in MEMS can be explained scientifically, and consequently the great potential of MEMS technology could be explored effectively and utilized optimally. A simplified parallel-plate capacitor model is proposed to investigate the resonance response, inherent nonlinearity, stiffness softened effect and coupled nonlinear effect of the typical electrostatically actuated MEMS devices. Many failure modes and mechanisms and various methods and techniques, including materials selection, reasonable design and extending the controllable travel range used to analyze and reduce the failures are discussed in the electrostatically actuated MEMS devices. Numerical simulations and discussions indicate that the effects of instability, nonlinear characteristics and reliability subjected to electrostatic forces cannot be ignored and are in need of further investigation.

  17. Integrated RF MEMS/CMOS Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mansour, R R; Bakeri-Kassem, M

    2008-01-01

    A maskless post-processing technique for CMOS chips is developed that enables the fabrication of RF MEMS parallel-plate capacitors with a high quality factor and a very compact size. Simulations and measured results are presented for several MEMS/CMOS capacitors. A 2-pole coupled line tunable bandpass filter with a center frequency of 9.5 GHz is designed, fabricated and tested. A tuning range of 17% is achieved using integrated variable MEMS/CMOS capacitors with a quality factor exceeding 20. The tunable filter occupies a chip area of 1.2 x 2.1 mm2.

  18. Respiratory Magnetogram Detected with a MEMS Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Nicolas, Saul M.; Juarez-Aguirre, Raul; Herrera-May, Agustin L.; Garcia-Ramirez, Pedro; Figueras, Eduard; Gutierrez-D., Edmundo A.; Tapia, Jesus A.; Trejo, Argelia; Manjarrez, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields generated by the brain or the heart are very useful in clinical diagnostics. Therefore, magnetic signals produced by other organs are also of considerable interest. Here we show first evidence that thoracic muscles can produce a strong magnetic flux density during respiratory activity, that we name respiratory magnetogram. We used a small magnetometer based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which was positioned inside the open thoracic cage of anaesthetized and ventilated rats. With this new MEMS sensor of about 20 nT resolution, we recorded a strong and rhythmic respiratory magnetogram of about 600 nT. PMID:24046516

  19. Vibration nullification of MEMS device using input shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Scott; Lawrence, Eric M.

    2003-07-01

    The active silicon microstructures known as Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) are improving many existing technologies through simplification and cost reduction. Many industries have already capitalized on MEMS technology such as those in fields as diverse as telecommunications, computing, projection displays, automotive safety, defense and biotechnology. As they grow in sophistication and complexity, the familiar pressures to further reduce costs and increase performance grow for those who design and manufacture MEMS devices and the engineers who specify them for their end applications. One example is MEMS optical switches that have evolved from simple, bistable on/off elements to microscopic, freelypositionable beam steering optics. These can be actuated to discrete angular positions or to continuously-variable angular states through applied command signals. Unfortunately, elaborate closed-loop actuation schemes are often necessitated in order to stabilize the actuation. Furthermore, preventing one actuated micro-element from vibrationally cross-coupling with its neighbors is another reason costly closed-loop approaches are thought to be necessary. The Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) is a valuable tool for MEMS characterization that provides non-contact, real-time measurements of velocity and/or displacement response. The LDV is a proven technology for production metrology to determine dynamical behaviors of MEMS elements, which can be a sensitive indicator of manufacturing variables such as film thickness, etch depth, feature tolerances, handling damage and particulate contamination. They are also important for characterizing the actuation dynamics of MEMS elements for implementation of a patented controls technique called Input Shaping«, which we show here can virtually eliminate the vibratory resonant response of MEMS elements even when subjected to the most severe actuation profiles. In this paper, we will demonstrate the use of the LDV to determine how

  20. A MEMS Energy Harvesting Device for Vibration with Low Acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triches, Marco; Wang, Fei; Crovetto, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We propose a polymer electret based energy harvesting device in order to extract energy from vibration sources with low acceleration. With MEMS technology, a silicon structure is fabricated which can resonate in 2D directions. Thanks to the excellent mechanical properties of the silicon material...

  1. Silicon Deep Etching Techniques for MEMS Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ying; OU Yi-hong; JIANG Yong-qing; LI Bin

    2003-01-01

    Silicon deep etching technique is the key fabrication step in the development of MEMS. The mask selectivity and the lateral etching control are the two primary factors that decide the result of deep etching process. These two factors are studied in this paper. The experimental results show that the higher selectivity can be gotten when F- gas is used as etching gas and Al is introduced as mask layer. The lateral etching problems can be solved by adjusting the etching condition, such as increasing the RF power, changing the gas composition and flow volume of etching machine.

  2. A planar parallel manipulator based novel MEMS device bonding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Junhong; Sun Lining; Zhu Yuhong

    2006-01-01

    A novel MEMS device boning system is presented. Aiming at the high velocity, high precision and high flexibility requirements, a novel manipulator of planar parallel structure is developed to substitute ordinary X-Y table. In addition, the machine vision is implemented to improve the system's flexibility. The initial angular positions of the joints are estimated by the extended Kalman filter algorithm. As a result, the manipulator's absolute locating accuracy in its workspace is guaranteed indirectly. For any MEMS device, the bonding system itself can be used as measurement equipment to create the device's geometry model, which is the base to do off-line programming. A quite ideal trade-off between the system's flexibility and efficiency is got. Finally, some verified motion specification of the manipulator, the bonding experimental results and the verified qualities of the bonded devices are provided.

  3. Love-Mode MEMS Devices for Sensing Applications in Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Love-wave-based MEMS devices are theoretically investigated in their potential role as a promising technological platform for the development of acoustic-wave-based sensors for liquid environments. Both single- and bi-layered structures have been investigated and the velocity dispersion curves were calculated for different layer thicknesses, crystallographic orientations, material types and electrical boundary conditions. High velocity materials have been investigated too, enabling device min...

  4. Multi-Criteria Layout Synthesis of MEMS Devices Using Memetic Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Fan, Zhun

    2011-01-01

    sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), has been applied to find multiple trade-off solutions followed by a gradient-based local search, i.e. sequential quadratic programming (SQP), to improve the convergence of the obtained Pareto-optimal front. In order to reduce the number of function evaluations......This paper introduces a multi-objective optimization approach for layout synthesis of MEMS components. A case study of layout synthesis of a comb-driven micro-resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results accommodating two design objectives, i.e. simultaneous...... minimization of size and power input of a MEMS device, while investigating optimum geometrical configuration as the main concern. The major contribution of this paper is the application of memetic computing in MEMS design. An evolutionary multiobjective optimization (EMO) technique, in particular nondominated...

  5. The Development of MEMS Device Packaging Technology using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, J. W.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, D. H.; Sa, S. H. [Dankuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. One of the major issues in MEMS is to obtain a reliable packaging. Since conventional packaging technologies for MEMS require high temperatures and high voltages, packaging failures are frequently involved. In order to realize a reliable packaging, we propose a novel packaging technology for MEMS devices using proton beams; proton beams lose their energies inside the irradiated matter and the maximum energy loss is placed at the Bragg peak. By bonding two materials using the locally deposited heat near the Bragg peak, the packaging damage can be minimized. The energies of the proton beam energies were chosen by the calculation of the stopping and range of ions in matter(SRIM) and the heat analysis was carried out by using the analysis system (ANSYS). For experiments, proton-beam irradiation was performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The energies were 8 {approx} 45 MeV and the currents were 1 {approx} 30 {mu}A. The experimental results show good agreements with the simulation results; melting were found inside the irradiated acrylic block at the corresponding Bragg peaks, and bondings were achieved at the interface between two aluminum plates. We believe that this technique has the potential application in the pyrex-silicon bonding for MEMS packaging.

  6. NASA NDE Applications for Mobile MEMS Devices and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.; Barclay, R. O.

    2008-01-01

    NASA would like new devices and sensors for performing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace vehicles. These devices must be small in size/volume, mass, and power consumption. The devices must be autonomous and mobile so they can access the internal structures of aircraft and spacecraft and adequately monitor the structural health of these craft. The platforms must be mobile in order to transport NDE sensors for evaluating structural integrity and determining whether further investigations will be required. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology is crucial to the development of the mobile platforms and sensor systems. This paper presents NASA s needs for micro mobile platforms and MEMS sensors that will enable NDE to be performed on aerospace vehicles.

  7. MEMS packaging with etching and thinning of lid wafer to form lids and expose device wafer bond pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Rajen; Nordquist, Christopher; Olsson, Roy H; Peterson, Tracy C; Shul, Randy J; Ahlers, Catalina; Plut, Thomas A; Patrizi, Gary A

    2013-12-03

    In wafer-level packaging of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices a lid wafer is bonded to a MEMS wafer in a predermined aligned relationship. Portions of the lid wafer are removed to separate the lid wafer into lid portions that respectively correspond in alignment with MEMS devices on the MEMS wafer, and to expose areas of the MEMS wafer that respectively contain sets of bond pads respectively coupled to the MEMS devices.

  8. MEMS packaging with etching and thinning of lid wafer to form lids and expose device wafer bond pads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanchani, Rajen; Nordquist, Christopher; Olsson, Roy H; Peterson, Tracy C; Shul, Randy J; Ahlers, Catalina; Plut, Thomas A; Patrizi, Gary A

    2013-12-03

    In wafer-level packaging of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices a lid wafer is bonded to a MEMS wafer in a predermined aligned relationship. Portions of the lid wafer are removed to separate the lid wafer into lid portions that respectively correspond in alignment with MEMS devices on the MEMS wafer, and to expose areas of the MEMS wafer that respectively contain sets of bond pads respectively coupled to the MEMS devices.

  9. Nanochip: a MEMS-Based Ultra-High Data Density Memory Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolai BELOV

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available he paper provides an overview of successful development of MEMS micro-mover with large range of motion and an array of cantilevers with sharp tips (read-write heads for a probe storage device. Approaches used for integration of memory material into the MEMS process and integration of MEMS cantilever process with CMOS are briefly discussed.

  10. Reprogammable universal logic device based on mems technology

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Adbdullah Al

    2017-06-15

    Various examples of reprogrammable universal logic devices are provided. In one example, the device can include a tunable AC input (206) to an oscillator/resonator; a first logic input and a second logic input to the oscillator/resonator, the first and second logic inputs provided by separate DC voltage sources (VA, VB), each of the first and second logic inputs including an on/off switch (A, B); and the oscillator/resonator including an output terminal (215). The tunable oscillator/resonator can be a MEMS/NEMS resonator. Switching of one or both of the first or second logic inputs on or off in association with the tuning of the AC input (206) can provide logic gate operation. The device can easily be extended to a 3-bit or n-bit device by providing additional logic inputs. Binary comparators and encoders can be implemented using a plurality of oscillators/resonators.

  11. 2-Dimensional MEMS dielectrophoresis device for osteoblast cell stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, H; Mellon, S; Syms, R R A; Tanner, K E

    2006-12-01

    A fixed microelectrode device for cell stimulation has been designed and fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Dielectrophoretic forces obtained from non-uniform electric fields were used for manipulating and positioning osteoblasts. The experiments show that the osteoblasts experience positive dielectrophoresis (p-DEP) when suspended in iso-osmotic culture medium and exposed to AC fields at 5 MHz frequency. Negative dielectrophoresis (n-DEP) is obtained at 0.1 MHz. The viability of osteoblasts under dielectrophoresis has been investigated. The viability values for cells exposed to DEP are nearly three times higher than the control values, indicating that dielectrophoresis may have an anabolic effect on osteoblasts.

  12. Outlook and challenges of nano devices, sensors, and MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ziv

    2017-01-01

    This book provides readers with an overview of the design, fabrication, simulation, and reliability of nanoscale semiconductor devices, MEMS, and sensors, as they serve for realizing the next-generation internet of things. The authors focus on how the nanoscale structures interact with the electrical and/or optical performance, how to find optimal solutions to achieve the best outcome, how these apparatus can be designed via models and simulations, how to improve reliability, and what are the possible challenges and roadblocks moving forward.

  13. Self-limiting excitation of MEMS devices with surface electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Kornilovitch, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    An excitation method for MEMS devices with planar electrodes is described. The stationary part of the device (the stator) consists of three electrode arrays arranged in the 'ABCABC' order. 'A', 'B', and 'C' carry time-independent potentials and together form a spatially-periodic electrostatic profile. The moving part of the device (the translator) has two electrode arrays 'ababab', with 'a' and 'b' carrying time-dependent out-of-phase voltages. When the frequency of the time-dependent voltage is close to the natural frequency of the spring-mass system, the translator is driven into resonance. By adjusting the spatial phase of the stationary profile, the driving force on the translator can be maximized for any equilibrium position. Physical misalignment between the stator and translator resulting from imperfect fabrication can be corrected electrically. A dynamical equation describing translator motion is derived and analyzed for resonant and parametric driving. In both cases, the driving force depends on the ...

  14. Optimizing MEMS-Based Storage Devices for Mobile Battery-Powered Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, Mohammed G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    An emerging storage technology, called MEMS-based storage, promises nonvolatile storage devices with ultrahigh density, high rigidity, a small form factor, and low cost. For these reasons, MEMS-based storage devices are suitable for battery-powered mobile systems such as PDAs. For deployment in such

  15. Optimizing MEMS-Based Storage Devices for Mobile Battery-Powered Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    An emerging storage technology, called MEMS-based storage, promises nonvolatile storage devices with ultrahigh density, high rigidity, a small form factor, and low cost. For these reasons, MEMS-based storage devices are suitable for battery-powered mobile systems such as PDAs. For deployment in such

  16. Development of a MEMS device to monitor glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Smitha; Chaffey, J. P.

    2005-02-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness affecting millions of people worldwide. Regular monitoring of intra ocular pressure (IOP) in the eyes is an important component in the treatment of this affliction. Current manual measurements do not give room for continuous indication of the progression of the disease. Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) technology lends itself to the development of devices capable of in-situ monitoring of the phenomenon that occur at the micro and nano scales, inside the human body. The paper reports on the complex flow and pressure relationships in the eye and the current methods of monitoring Glaucoma. The comparison highlights the requirements of an implantable miniature device that can indicate the changes leading to an increase of IOP inside the eye. An analysis of the pressures in the anterior chamber of the eye was undertaken to estimate the out put voltages that could be obtained from a micro structure implanted in the eye.

  17. The development of MEMS device packaging technology using proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyeon, J. W.; Kong, Y. J.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, H. S.; No, S. J. [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    Wafer-bonding techniques are key issues for the commercialization of MEMS(MicroElectroMechanical Systems) devices. The anodic bonding method and the wafer direct-bonding method are well-known major techniques for wafer bonding. Due to the anodic bonding method includes high voltage processes above 1.5 kV, the MEMS devices can be damaged during the bonding process or malfunctioned while long-term operation. On the other hand, since the wafer direct-bonding method includes a high temperature processes above 1000 .deg. C, temperature-sensitive materials and integrated circuits will be damaged or degraded during the bonding processes. Therefore, high-temperature bonding processes are not applicable for fabricating or packaging devices where temperature-sensitive materials exist. During the past few years, much effort has been undertaken to find a reliable bonding process that can be conducted at a low temperature. Unfortunately, these new bonding processes depend highly on the bonding material, surface treatment and surface flatness. In this research, a new packaging method using proton beam irradiation is proposed. While the energy loss caused in an irradiated material by X-rays or electron beams decreases with the surface distance, the energy loss caused by proton beams has a maximum value at the Bragg peak. Thus, the localized energy produced at the Bragg peak of the proton beams can be used to bond pyrex glass on a silicon wafer, so the MEMS damage is expected to be minimized. The localized heating caused by as well as the penetration depth, or the proton beam has been investigated. The energy absorbed in a stack of pyrex glass/silicon wafers due to proton-beam irradiation was numerically calculated for various proton energies by using the SRIM program. The energy loss was shown to be sufficiently localized at the interface between the pyrex glass and the silicon wafer. Proton beam irradiation was performed in the common environment of room temperature and

  18. Whole wafer critical point drying of MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Paul J.; Clews, Peggy J.

    2001-10-01

    Stiction induced by capillary forces during the post-release drying step of MEMS fabrication can substantially limit the functional yield of complex devices. Supercritical CO2 drying provides a method to remove liquid from the device surface without creating a liquid/vapor interface, thereby mitigating stiction. We show that a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) model can be applied as a method to estimate the volume of liquid CO2 required to effectively displace the post release solvent. The CSTR model predicts that about 8 volume exchanges is sufficient to effectively displace the methanol to a concentration below the saturation point. Experimental data indicate that about 10 exchanges are adequate for repeatable drying of complex devices, which is in reasonable agreement to the model prediction. In addition to drying devices without inducing stiction, the process must be inherently non-contaminating. Data indicate that the majority of contaminants deposited during the drying process can be attributed to contaminants originating in the post-release solvent, rather than the supercritical CO2 process.

  19. Large area MEMS based ultrasound device for cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodnicki, Robert, E-mail: wodnicki@research.ge.com [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Thomenius, Kai [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Ming Hooi, Fong; Sinha, Sumedha P.; Carson, Paul L. [Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lin Dersong; Zhuang Xuefeng; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Woychik, Charles [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

    2011-08-21

    We present image results obtained using a prototype ultrasound array that demonstrates the fundamental architecture for a large area MEMS based ultrasound device for detection of breast cancer. The prototype array consists of a tiling of capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (cMUTs) that have been flip-chip attached to a rigid organic substrate. The pitch on the cMUT elements is 185 {mu}m and the operating frequency is nominally 9 MHz. The spatial resolution of the new probe is comparable to those of production PZT probes; however the sensitivity is reduced by conditions that should be correctable. Simulated opposed-view image registration and Speed of Sound volume reconstruction results for ultrasound in the mammographic geometry are also presented.

  20. Carbon material based microelectromechanical system (MEMS): Fabrication and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun

    This PhD dissertation presents the exploration and development of two carbon materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon fiber (CF), as either key functional components or unconventional substrates for a variety of MEMS applications. Their performance in three different types of MEMS devices, namely, strain/stress sensors, vibration-powered generators and fiber solar cells, were evaluated and the working mechanisms of these two non-traditional materials in these systems were discussed. The work may potentially enable the development of new types of carbon-MEMS devices. Carbon nanotubes were selected from the carbon family due to several advantageous characteristics that this nanomaterial offers. They carry extremely high mechanical strength (Ey=1TPa), superior electrical properties (current density of 4x109 A/cm2), exceptional piezoresistivity (G=2900), and unique spatial format (high aspect ratio hollow nanocylinder), among other properties. If properly utilized, all these merits can give rise to a variety of new types of carbon nanotube based micro- and nanoelectronics that can greatly fulfill the need for the next generation of faster, smaller and better devices. However, before these functions can be fully realized, one substantial issue to cope with is how to implement CNTs into these systems in an effective and controllable fashion. Challenges associated with CNTs integration include very poor dispersibility in solvents, lack of melting/sublimation point, and unfavorable rheology with regard to mixing and processing highly viscous, CNT-loaded polymer solutions. These issues hinder the practical progress of CNTs both in a lab scale and in the industrial level. To this end, a MEMS-assisted electrophoretic deposition technique was developed, aiming to achieve controlled integration of CNT into both conventional and flexible microsystems at room temperature with a relatively high throughput. MEMS technology has demonstrated strong capability in developing

  1. MEMS device for mass market gas and chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkade, Brian R.; Daly, James T.; Johnson, Edward A.

    2000-08-01

    in the house. Internet grocery delivery services could check for spoiled foods in their clients' refrigerators. City emissions regulators could monitor the various emissions sources throughout the area from their desk to predict how many pollution vouchers they will need to trade in the next week. We describe a new component architecture for mass-market sensors based on silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. MEMS are micrometer-scale devices that can be fabricated as discrete devices or large arrays, using the technology of integrated circuit manufacturing. These new photonic bandgap and MEMS fabricataion technologies will simplify the component technology to provide high-quality gas and chemical sensors at consumer prices.

  2. Fully integrated MEMS TGA device for inspection of nano-masses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iervolino, E.

    2012-01-01

    TGA is employed to determine degradation temperatures, absorbed moisture content, level of inorganic and organic components in milligram amount of materials. When such amounts of sample material are too dangerous to handle or not available MEMS TGA devices are a valuable option. To realize a MEMS TG

  3. Love-Mode MEMS Devices for Sensing Applications in Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Love-wave-based MEMS devices are theoretically investigated in their potential role as a promising technological platform for the development of acoustic-wave-based sensors for liquid environments. Both single- and bi-layered structures have been investigated and the velocity dispersion curves were calculated for different layer thicknesses, crystallographic orientations, material types and electrical boundary conditions. High velocity materials have been investigated too, enabling device miniaturization, power consumption reduction and integration with the conditioning electronic circuits. The electroacoustic coupling coefficient dispersion curves of the first four Love modes are calculated for four dispersive coupling configurations based on a c-axis tilted ZnO layer on wz-BN substrate. The gravimetric sensitivity of four Love modes travelling at a common velocity of 9318 m/s along different layer thicknesses, and of three Love modes travelling at different velocity along a fixed ZnO layer thickness, are calculated in order to design enhanced-performance sensors. The phase velocity shift and attenuation due to the presence of a viscous liquid contacting the device surface are calculated for different thicknesses of a c-axis inclined ZnO layer onto BN half-space.

  4. Characterization of piezoelectric polymer composites for MEMS devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C V Madhusudhana Rao; G Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Composite piezoelectric ceramics are important materials for transducer applications in medical diagnostic devices and MEMS devices. In micrometer scale the material properties of piezopolymers or piezoceramics do not coincide with that of bulk materials. The present work is aimed at simulating the material properties of piezoceramics and piezo-polymer composite thin films in the micrometer scale and then to determine the piezo-composite material properties. Piezoceramics have very high electromechanical coupling coefficient (). But they have very high acoustic impedance and they are very brittle especially when thin films are fabricated. Piezopolymer like PVDF has low acoustic impedance and can be fabricated into thin films but it has very low value and high dielectric losses. The combination of piezoceramics and piezopolymers form the piezocomposites, which have suitable material properties for transducer applications. The composites can have different connectivities. For 2–2 composite, we can select two layers or a stack of PZT and PVDF layers. It is intended to determine the material properties both analytically and by simulation using computer simulation ANSYS software which implements finite element method (FEM). Although the simulation process presents approximate results, it can be verified from the large available experimental data from the literature with the simulated data.

  5. Diamond MEMS: wafer scale processing, devices, and technology insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Diamond has long held the promise of revolutionary new devices: impervious chemical barriers, smooth and reliable microscopic machines, and tough mechanical tools. Yet it's been an outsider. Laboratories have been effectively growing diamond crystals for at least 25 years, but the jump to market viability has always been blocked by the expense of diamond production and inability to integrate with other materials. Advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes have given rise to a hierarchy of carbon films ranging from diamond-like carbon (DLC) to vapor-deposited diamond coatings, however. All have pros and cons based on structure and cost, but they all share some of diamond's heralded attributes. The best performer, in theory, is the purest form of diamond film possible, one absent of graphitic phases. Such a material would capture the extreme hardness, high Young's modulus and chemical inertness of natural diamond. Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc., Romeoville, Ill., is the first company to develop a distinct chemical process to create a marketable phase-pure diamond film. The material, called UNCD® (for ultrananocrystalline diamond), features grain sizes from 3 to 300 nm in size, and layers just 1 to 2 microns thick. With significant advantages over other thin films, UNCD is designed to be inexpensive enough for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, microelectromechanical machines (MEMS), cell phone circuitry, radio frequency devices, and even biosensors.

  6. Separation of Cells using a Fluidic MEMS Device and a Quantitative Analysis of Cell Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Takaaki; Ishida, Yasuaki

    Fluidic micro electro mechanical system (fluidic MEMS) devices, composed of a micro pump, mixer, valve, reactor, sensor and an electric circuit on a chip, have been widely applied in biotechnology and medical analyses. This study describes the design and fabrication of a fluidic MEMS device that can separate living leukocyte cells from a single droplet of blood (blood sample was flowed into the gap (40μm) between the two substrates driven by the difference in surface tension of the two materials. Leukocyte cells were left adhered to the lower hydrophobic surface, whereas red corpuscles flowed toward the exit of the fluidic MEMS device. The separation rate of the red corpuscles has been achieved to 91 ± 9% in a unit area of 0.1 mm2. Further, the change in an area of a living leukocyte cell separated in the chip, was quantitatively analyzed. This study proposes a method for separating and measuring living cells in a fluidic MEMS device.

  7. MEMS variable capacitance devices utilizing the substrate: I. Novel devices with a customizable tuning range

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2010-03-22

    This paper, the first in a series of two, presents a paradigm shift in the design of MEMS parallel plate PolyMUMPS variable capacitance devices by proposing two structures that utilize the substrate and are able to provide predetermined, customizable, tuning ranges and/or ratios. The proposed structures can provide theoretical tuning ranges anywhere from 4.9 to 35 and from 3.4 to 26 respectively with a simple, yet effective, layout modification as opposed to the previously reported devices where the tuning range is fixed and cannot be varied. Theoretical analysis is carried out and verified with measurements of fabricated devices. The first proposed device possessed initially a tuning range of 4.4. Two variations of the structure having tuning ranges of 3 and 3.4, all at 1 GHz, were also successfully developed and tested. The second proposed variable capacitance device behaved as a switch. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. A Review on Key Issues and Challenges in Devices Level MEMS Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review provides information relevant to issues and challenges in MEMS testing techniques that are implemented to analyze the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS behavior for specific application and operating conditions. MEMS devices are more complex and extremely diverse due to the immersion of multidomains. Their failure modes are distinctive under different circumstances. Therefore, testing of these systems at device level as well as at mass production level, that is, parallel testing, is becoming very challenging as compared to the IC test, because MEMS respond to electrical, physical, chemical, and optical stimuli. Currently, test systems developed for MEMS devices have to be customized due to their nondeterministic behavior and complexity. The accurate measurement of test systems for MEMS is difficult to quantify in the production phase. The complexity of the device to be tested required maturity in the test technique which increases the cost of test development; this practice is directly imposed on the device cost. This factor causes a delay in time-to-market.

  9. Open-loop versus closed-loop control of MEMS devices: choices and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovic, B.; Liu, A. Q.; Popa, D.; Cai, H.; Lewis, F. L.

    2005-10-01

    From a controls point of view, micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) can be driven in an open-loop and closed-loop fashion. Commonly, these devices are driven open-loop by applying simple input signals. If these input signals become more complex by being derived from the system dynamics, we call such control techniques pre-shaped open-loop driving. The ultimate step for improving precision and speed of response is the introduction of feedback, e.g. closed-loop control. Unlike macro mechanical systems, where the implementation of the feedback is relatively simple, in the MEMS case the feedback design is quite problematic, due to the limited availability of sensor data, the presence of sensor dynamics and noise, and the typically fast actuator dynamics. Furthermore, a performance comparison between open-loop and closed-loop control strategies has not been properly explored for MEMS devices. The purpose of this paper is to present experimental results obtained using both open- and closed-loop strategies and to address the comparative issues of driving and control for MEMS devices. An optical MEMS switching device is used for this study. Based on these experimental results, as well as computer simulations, we point out advantages and disadvantages of the different control strategies, address the problems that distinguish MEMS driving systems from their macro counterparts, and discuss criteria to choose a suitable control driving strategy.

  10. Method and system for automated on-chip material and structural certification of MEMS devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    2003-05-20

    A new approach toward MEMS quality control and materials characterization is provided by a combined test structure measurement and mechanical response modeling approach. Simple test structures are cofabricated with the MEMS devices being produced. These test structures are designed to isolate certain types of physical response, so that measurement of their behavior under applied stress can be easily interpreted as quality control and material properties information.

  11. MEMS-based Circuits and Systems for Wireless Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    MEMS-based Circuits and Systems for Wireless Communication provides comprehensive coverage of RF-MEMS technology from device to system level. This edited volume places emphasis on how system performance for radio frequency applications can be leveraged by Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Coverage also extends to innovative MEMS-aware radio architectures that push the potential of MEMS technology further ahead.  This work presents a broad overview of the technology from MEMS devices (mainly BAW and Si MEMS resonators) to basic circuits, such as oscillators and filters, and finally complete systems such as ultra-low-power MEMS-based radios. Contributions from leading experts around the world are organized in three parts. Part I introduces RF-MEMS technology, devices and modeling and includes a prospective outlook on ongoing developments towards Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) and phononic crystals. Device properties and models are presented in a circuit oriented perspective. Part II focusses on ...

  12. RF MEMS devices for multifunctional integrated circuits and antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios

    Micromachining and RF Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (RF MEMS) have been identified as two of the most significant enabling technologies in developing miniaturized low-cost communications systems and sensor networks. The key components in these MEMS-based architectures are the RF MEMS switches and varactors. The first part of this thesis focuses on three novel RF MEMS components with state-of-the-art performance. In particular, a broadband 6 V capacitive MEMS switch is presented with insertion loss of only 0.04 and 0.17 dB at 10 and 40 GHz respectively. Special consideration is given to particularly challenging issues, such as residual stress, planarity, power handling capability and switching speed. The need for switches operating below 1 GHz is also identified and a spring-loaded metal-to-metal contact switch is developed. The measured on-state contact resistance and off-state series capacitance are 0.5 O and 10 fF respectively for this switch. An analog millimeter-wave variable capacitor is the third MEMS component presented in this thesis. This variable capacitor shows an ultra high measured tuning range of nearly 4:1, which is the highest reported value for the millimeter-wave region. The second part of this thesis primarily concentrates on MEMS-based reconfigurable systems and their potential to revolutionize the design of future RF/microwave multifunctional systems. High-isolation switches and switch packets with isolation of more than 60 dB are designed and implemented. Furthermore, lowpass and bandpass tunable filters with 3:1 and 2:1 tuning ratios respectively are demonstrated. Similar methods have been also applied to the field of slot antennas and a novel design technique for compact reconfigurable antennas has been developed. The main advantage of these antennas is that they essentially preserve their impedance, radiation pattern, polarization, gain and efficiency for all operating frequencies. The thesis concludes by discussing the future challenges

  13. MEMS fabricated energy harvesting device with 2D resonant structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Wang, Fei; Triches, Marco

    This paper reports on a MEMS energy harvester able to generate power from two perpendicular ambient vibration directions. CYTOP polymer is used both as the electret material for electrostatic transduction and as a bonding interface for low-temperature wafer bonding. With final chip size of ~1 cm2...

  14. An arrayed accelerometer device of a wide range of detection for integrated CMOS-MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Toshifumi; Yamane, Daisuke; Matsushima, Takaaki; Masu, Kazuya; Machida, Katsuyuki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports the design and experimental results of an arrayed accelerometer device in 3 × 3 format that can detect wide range of acceleration between 1G and 20G (1G = 9.8 m/s2). Implemented in a single chip has been performed by gold electroplating for integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor-microelectromechanical systems (CMOS-MEMS) technology. An equivalent circuit of a MEMS accelerometer has been developed with an electrical circuit simulator to demonstrate the mixed-behavior of the arrayed sensor device and sensing CMOS circuits. Mechanical and electrical crosstalk between the arrayed elements is analyzed on the electrical field distributions. Experimental results show that the resonant frequency and readout capacitance as a function of applied acceleration have been well explained by the results of the multi-physics simulation. As a result, it is confirmed that the proposed device is applicable to an integrated CMOS-MEMS arrayed accelerometer.

  15. Manufacturing process and material selection in concurrent collaborative design of MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xuan F.; Du, H.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we present knowledge of an intensive approach and system for selecting suitable manufacturing processes and materials for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices in concurrent collaborative design environment. In the paper, fundamental issues on MEMS manufacturing process and material selection such as concurrent design framework, manufacturing process and material hierarchies, and selection strategy are first addressed. Then, a fuzzy decision support scheme for a multi-criteria decision-making problem is proposed for estimating, ranking and selecting possible manufacturing processes, materials and their combinations. A Web-based prototype advisory system for the MEMS manufacturing process and material selection, WebMEMS-MASS, is developed based on the client-knowledge server architecture and framework to help the designer find good processes and materials for MEMS devices. The system, as one of the important parts of an advanced simulation and modeling tool for MEMS design, is a concept level process and material selection tool, which can be used as a standalone application or a Java applet via the Web. The running sessions of the system are inter-linked with webpages of tutorials and reference pages to explain the facets, fabrication processes and material choices, and calculations and reasoning in selection are performed using process capability and material property data from a remote Web-based database and interactive knowledge base that can be maintained and updated via the Internet. The use of the developed system including operation scenario, use support, and integration with an MEMS collaborative design system is presented. Finally, an illustration example is provided.

  16. MEMS Device for Quantitative In Situ Mechanical Testing in Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we designed a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS device that allows simultaneous direct measurement of mechanical properties during deformation under external stress and characterization of the evolution of nanomaterial microstructure within a transmission electron microscope. This MEMS device makes it easy to establish the correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties of nanomaterials. The device uses piezoresistive sensors to measure the force and displacement of nanomaterials qualitatively, e.g., in wire and thin plate forms. The device has a theoretical displacement resolution of 0.19 nm and a force resolution of 2.1 μN. The device has a theoretical displacement range limit of 5.47 μm and a load range limit of 55.0 mN.

  17. Devices Based on Co-Integrated MEMS Actuators and Optical Waveguide: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Chollet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS and optics was, at the end of the last century, a fertile ground for a new breed of technological and scientific achievements. The weightlessness of light has been identified very early as a key advantage for micro-actuator application, giving rise to optical free-space MEMS devices. In parallel to these developments, the past 20 years saw the emergence of a less pursued approach relying on guided optical wave, where, pushed by the similarities in fabrication process, researchers explored the possibilities offered by merging integrated optics and MEMS technology. The interest of using guided waves is well known (absence of diffraction, tight light confinement, small size, compatibility with fiber optics but it was less clear how they could be harnessed with MEMS technology. Actually, it is possible to use MEMS actuators for modifying waveguide properties (length, direction, index of refraction or for coupling light between waveguide, enabling many new devices for optical telecommunication, astronomy or sensing. With the recent expansion to nanophotonics and optomechanics, it seems that this field still holds a lot of promises.

  18. Policies for Probe-Wear Leveling in MEMS-Based Storage Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.; Hartel, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Probes (or read/write heads) in MEMS-based storage devices are susceptible to wear. We study probe wear, and analyze the causes of probe uneven wear. We show that under real-world traces some probes can wear one order of magnitude faster than other probes leading to premature expiry of some probes.

  19. Screen printed PZT/PZT thick film bimorph MEMS cantilever device for vibration energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. Most piezoelectric energy harvesting devices use a cantilever beam of a non piezoelectric material as support beneath or in-between the piezoelectri...

  20. Mems Q-Factor Enhancement Using Parametric Amplification: Theoretical Study and Design of a Parametric Device

    CERN Document Server

    Grasser, L; Parrain, F; Roux, X Le; Gilles, J -P

    2008-01-01

    Parametric amplification is an interesting way of artificially increasing a MEMS Quality factor and could be helpful in many kinds of applications. This paper presents a theoretical study of this principle, based on Matlab/Simulink simulations, and proposes design guidelines for parametric structures. A new device designed with this approach is presented together with the corresponding FEM simulation results.

  1. Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Device Being Developed for Active Cooling and Temperature Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Duane E.

    2003-01-01

    High-capacity cooling options remain limited for many small-scale applications such as microelectronic components, miniature sensors, and microsystems. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) using a Stirling thermodynamic cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to meet this need. The device can be used strictly in the cooling mode or can be switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temperature control. Fabrication and assembly employ techniques routinely used in the semiconductor processing industry. Benefits of the MEMS cooler include scalability to fractions of a millimeter, modularity for increased capacity and staging to low temperatures, simple interfaces, limited failure modes, and minimal induced vibration. The MEMS cooler has potential applications across a broad range of industries such as the biomedical, computer, automotive, and aerospace industries. The basic capabilities it provides can be categorized into four key areas: 1) Extended environmental temperature range in harsh environments; 2) Lower operating temperatures for electronics and other components; 3) Precision spatial and temporal thermal control for temperature-sensitive devices; and 4) The enabling of microsystem devices that require active cooling and/or temperature control. The rapidly expanding capabilities of semiconductor processing in general, and microsystems packaging in particular, present a new opportunity to extend Stirling-cycle cooling to the MEMS domain. The comparatively high capacity and efficiency possible with a MEMS Stirling cooler provides a level of active cooling that is impossible at the microscale with current state-of-the-art techniques. The MEMS cooler technology builds on decades of research at Glenn on Stirling-cycle machines, and capitalizes on Glenn s emerging microsystems capabilities.

  2. Research on the attitude of small UAV based on MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojie; Lu, Libin; Jin, Guodong; Tan, Lining

    2017-05-01

    This paper mainly introduces the research principle and implementation method of the small UAV navigation attitude system based on MEMS devices. The Gauss - Newton method based on least squares is used to calibrate the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope for calibration. Improve the accuracy of the attitude by using the modified complementary filtering to correct the attitude angle error. The experimental data show that the design of the attitude and attitude system in this paper to meet the requirements of small UAV attitude accuracy to achieve a small, low cost.

  3. A method for wafer level hermetic packaging of SOI-MEMS devices with embedded vertical feedthroughs using advanced MEMS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert Torunbalci, Mustafa; Emre Alper, Said; Akin, Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a novel, inherently simple, and low-cost fabrication and hermetic packaging method developed for SOI-MEMS devices, where a single SOI wafer is used for the fabrication of MEMS structures as well as vertical feedthroughs, while a single glass cap wafer is used for hermetic encapsulation and routing metallization. Hermetic encapsulation can be achieved either with the silicon-glass anodic or Au-Si eutectic bonding techniques. The dies sealed with anodic and Au-Si eutectic bonding provide a low vertical feedthrough resistance around 50 Ω. Glass-to-silicon anodically and Au-Si eutectic bonded seals yield a very stable cavity pressure below 10 mTorr with thin-film getters, which are measured to be stable even after 311 d. The package pressure can be adjusted from 5 mTorr to 20 Torr by using different outgassing, cavity depth, and gettering options. The packaging yield is observed to be around 64% and 84% for the anodic and Au-Si eutectic packages, respectively. The average shear strength of the anodic and eutectic packages is measured to be higher than 17 MPa and 42 MPa, respectively. Temperature cycling, high temperature storage, and ultra-high temperature shock tests result in no degradation in the hermeticity of the packaged chips, proving perfect thermal reliability.

  4. Robust Modeling of Low-Cost MEMS Sensor Errors in Mobile Devices Using Fast Orthogonal Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tamazin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility to inertial navigation systems (INS has been severely limited by cost in the past. The introduction of low-cost microelectromechanical system-based INS to be integrated with GPS in order to provide a reliable positioning solution has provided more wide spread use in mobile devices. The random errors of the MEMS inertial sensors may deteriorate the overall system accuracy in mobile devices. These errors are modeled stochastically and are included in the error model of the estimated techniques used such as Kalman filter or Particle filter. First-order Gauss-Markov model is usually used to describe the stochastic nature of these errors. However, if the autocorrelation sequences of these random components are examined, it can be determined that first-order Gauss-Markov model is not adequate to describe such stochastic behavior. A robust modeling technique based on fast orthogonal search is introduced to remove MEMS-based inertial sensor errors inside mobile devices that are used for several location-based services. The proposed method is applied to MEMS-based gyroscopes and accelerometers. Results show that the proposed method models low-cost MEMS sensors errors with no need for denoising techniques and using smaller model order and less computation, outperforming traditional methods by two orders of magnitude.

  5. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Characteristics of a novel biaxial capacitive MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linxi, Dong; Yongjie, Li; Haixia, Yan; Lingling, Sun

    2010-05-01

    A novel MEMS accelerometer with grid strip capacitors is developed. The mechanical and electrical noise can be reduced greatly for the novel structure design. ANSOFT-Maxwell software was used to analyze the fringing electric field of the grid strip structure and its effects on the designed accelerometer. The effects of the width, thickness and overlapping width of the grid strip on the sensing capacitance are analyzed by using the ANSOFT-Maxwell software. The results show that the parameters have little effect on the characteristics of the presented accelerometer. The designed accelerometer was fabricated based on deep RIE and silicon-glass bonding processes. The preliminary tested sensitivities are 0.53 pF/g and 0.49 pF/g in the x and y axis directions, respectively. A resonator with grid strip structure was also fabricated whose tested quality factor is 514 in air, which proves that the grid strip structure can reduce mechanical noise.

  6. Controlled delivery of antiangiogenic drug to human eye tissue using a MEMS device

    KAUST Repository

    Pirmoradi, Fatemeh Nazly

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an implantable MEMS drug delivery device to conduct controlled and on-demand, ex vivo drug transport to human eye tissue. Remotely operated drug delivery to human post-mortem eyes was performed via a MEMS device. The developed curved packaging cover conforms to the eyeball thereby preventing the eye tissue from contacting the actuating membrane. By pulsed operation of the device, using an externally applied magnetic field, the drug released from the device accumulates in a cavity adjacent to the tissue. As such, docetaxel (DTX), an antiangiogenic drug, diffuses through the eye tissue, from sclera and choroid to retina. DTX uptake by sclera and choroid were measured to be 1.93±0.66 and 7.24±0.37 μg/g tissue, respectively, after two hours in pulsed operation mode (10s on/off cycles) at 23°C. During this period, a total amount of 192 ng DTX diffused into the exposed tissue. This MEMS device shows great potential for the treatment of ocular posterior segment diseases such as diabetic retinopathy by introducing a novel way of drug administration to the eye. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Characterization of a bonding-in-liquid technique for liquid encapsulation into MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayama, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keijiro; Arouette, Xavier; Ninomiya, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Yasuaki; Orimo, Yoshinori; Hotta, Atsushi; Omiya, Masaki; Miki, Norihisa

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate and characterize a new bonding-in-liquid technique (BiLT) for the encapsulation of liquids in MEMS devices. Liquid encapsulation enables innovative MEMS devices with various functions exploiting the unique characteristics of liquids, such as high deformation and spherical shape due to surface tension. Interfusion of air bubbles, variation of the liquid quantity and leakage of the encapsulated liquid must be avoided, or device performance will deteriorate. In BiLT, two structural layers are passively aligned and brought into contact in a solution, and the encapsulation cavities are filled uniformly with liquid, without air bubbles. A UV-curable resin is used as an adhesive that does not require heat or vacuum to bond the layers, but UV irradiation. DI water, glycerin and phosphate buffer saline were successfully encapsulated in silicon structural layers with PDMS membranes. We experimentally evaluated the bond strengths and alignment accuracy of BiLT in order to provide crucial information for the application of this process to the packaging and/or manufacturing of MEMS devices. Since conventional aligners are not applicable to BiLT, we experimentally evaluated the accuracy of an in-solution passive alignment process, which made use of matching concave and convex structures.

  8. Selection of High Strength Encapsulant for MEMS Devices Undergoing High Pressure Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hamzah, A A; Husaini, Y; Majlis, B Y; Ahmad, I

    2008-01-01

    Deflection behavior of several encapsulant materials under uniform pressure was studied to determine the best encapsulant for MEMS device. Encapsulation is needed to protect movable parts of MEMS devices during high pressure transfer molded packaging process. The selected encapsulant material has to have surface deflection of less than 5 ?m under 100 atm vertical loading. Deflection was simulated using CoventorWare ver.2005 software and verified with calculation results obtained using shell bending theory. Screening design was used to construct a systematic approach for selecting the best encapsulant material and thickness under uniform pressure up to 100 atm. Materials considered for this study were polyimide, parylene C and carbon based epoxy resin. It was observed that carbon based epoxy resin has deflection of less than 5 ?m for all thickness and pressure variations. Parylene C is acceptable and polyimide is unsuitable as high strength encapsulant. Carbon based epoxy resin is considered the best encapsula...

  9. Solid state MEMS devices on flexible and semi-transparent silicon (100) platform

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sally

    2014-01-01

    We report fabrication of MEMS thermal actuators on flexible and semi-transparent silicon fabric released from bulk silicon (100). We fabricated the devices first and then released the top portion of the silicon (≈ 19 μm) which is flexible and semi-transparent. We also performed chemical mechanical polishing to reuse the remaining wafer. A tested thermal actuator with 3 μm wide 240 μm hot arm and 10 μm wide 185 μm long cold arm deflected by 1.7 μm at 1 V. The fabricated thermal actuators exhibit similar performance before and after bending. We believe the demonstrated process will expand the horizon of flexible electronics into MEMS world devices. © 2014 IEEE.

  10. PolyMUMPs MEMS device to measure mechanical stiffness of single cells in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnat, S.; King, H.; Forbrigger, C.; Hubbard, T.

    2015-02-01

    A method of experimentally determining the mechanical stiffness of single cells by using differential displacement measurements in a two stage spring system is presented. The spring system consists of a known MEMS reference spring and an unknown cellular stiffness: the ratio of displacements is related to the ratio of stiffness. A polyMUMPs implementation for aqueous media is presented and displacement measurements made from optical microphotographs using a FFT based displacement method with a repeatability of ~20 nm. The approach was first validated on a MEMS two stage spring system of known stiffness. The measured stiffness ratios of control structures (i) MEMS spring systems and (ii) polystyrene microspheres were found to agree with theoretical values. Mechanical tests were then performed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast) in aqueous media. Cells were placed (using a micropipette) inside MEMS measuring structures and compressed between two jaws using an electrostatic actuator and displacements measured. Tested cells showed stiffness values between 5.4 and 8.4 N m-1 with an uncertainty of 11%. In addition, non-viable cells were tested by exposing viable cells to methanol. The resultant mean cell stiffness dropped by factor of 3 × and an explicit discrimination between viable and non-viable cells based on mechanical stiffness was seen.

  11. Devices for fatigue testing of electroplated nickel (MEMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Ravnkilde, J. T.; Ginnerup, Morten;

    2002-01-01

    In-situ fatigue test devices with integrated electrostatic actuator were fabricated in electroplated nanocrystalline nickel (nano-nickel). The devices feature in-plane approximately pure bending with fixed displacement of the test specimen of the dimensions: widths from 2μm to 3.7μm, a height of 7......μm and an effective length from 4μm to 27μm. Maximum stresses of the test beam were calculated to be 500MPa to 2100MPa by use of FEM tools. The test results indicate very promising fatigue properties of nano-nickel, as none of the test devices have shown fatigue failure or even initiation of cracks...

  12. Routes to failure in rotating MEMS devices experiencing sliding friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.L.; LaVigne, G.; Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Waters, J.P.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    Gear systems rotating on hubs have been operated to failure using Sandia`s microengine as the actuation device. Conventional failure modes such as fatigue induced fracture did not occur, indicating that the devices are mechanically extremely robust. The generic route to failure observed for all rotating devices involves sticking of structures that are in sliding contact. This sticking evidently results from microscopic changes in the sliding surfaces during operation. The rate at which these changes occur is accelerated by excessive applied forces, which originate from non-optimized designs or inappropriate drive voltages. Precursors to failure are observed, enabling further understanding of the microscopic changes that occur in the sliding surfaces that ultimately lead to failure.

  13. Low temperature hermetically sealed three-dimensional MEMS device for wireless optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rahul

    Novel processes were developed that resulted in a self-packaged device during the system integration, along with a transparent lid for inspection or optical probing. A new process was developed for improving the verticality in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) structures using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE). A self-pattered, mask-less photolithography technique was developed to metallize these vertical structures while maintaining a transparent window, for packaging of various MEMS devices. The verticality and metallization coverage were evaluated by incorporating the MEMS structures into an optical Corner Cube Retroreflector (CCR). A low temperature, hermetic sealing technique was also developed using In-Au thermo-compression bonding at 160°C. Cross-shaped 550microm deep vertical mirrors, with sidewall angles of 90.08° were etched with this new DRIE technique. This is the best reported sidewall angle for such deep structures. The typical scalloped DRIE sidewall roughness was reduced to 40nm using wet polishing. A bonded Pyrex wafer was used as the handle wafer during DRIE; it eventually forms the package window after DRIE. The metallized, vertical mirrors were bonded to a MEMS device chip to assemble and package the CCR. The MEMS device chip consisted of an array of torsion mirrors. The mirrors were designed to modulate at 6Vp-p--20V p-p, with the resonant frequencies ranging from 25 KHz--50 KHz. The design and simulation results are presented. To test the hermetic seal, helium leak tests were performed on the packaged device. Leak rates of as low as 2.8x10-8atm cc/s air were detected, which is better than the MIL-STD-883G of 5x10-8 atm cc/s air for a package volume of 7.8x10-3 CC. A microprocessor and temperature/humidity sensor was then integrated with the CCR to assemble a passive optical digital data communicator. A flexible circuit design and a folded packaging scheme were utilized to minimize the overall form factor. Flat, flexible polymer

  14. Multi-try Counter-meshing Gears Discrimination Device Based on MEMS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-yong; CHEN Wen-yuan; ZHANG Wei-ping; GAO Xiao-yu; XIAO Qi-jun; TAN Shun-yi; FENG Min-hua

    2008-01-01

    A multi-try counter-meshing gears (CMG) discrimination device based on micro electromechani-cal system (MEMS) technology was designed for some specified information fields. The discrimination deviceconsists of two groups of metal CMG, two pawl/ratchet mechanisms, two driving micromotors and two re-setting micromotors, which make the CMG withdraw by raising the pawls. The energy-coupling element isa photoelectric sensor with a circular plate which is notched. Micromotor is fabricated using the ultravioletLiGA (UV-LiGA) fabrication process and precision mechanical engineering. The discrimination device has thefunction which can automatically reset, with the correct resetting code, it can be tried another times.

  15. Screen printed PZT/PZT thick film bimorph MEMS cantilever device for vibration energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Christiansen, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. The most common piezoelectric energy harvesting devices utilize a cantilever beam of a non piezoelectric material as support beneath or in-between the piezoelectric material....... It provides mechanical support but it also reduces the power output. Our device replaces the support with another layer of the piezoelectric material, and with the absence of an inactive mechanical support all of the stresses induced by the vibrations will be harvested by the active piezoelectric elements....

  16. MEMS Devices Packaging Technology%MEMS器件封装技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁永举; 王静

    2012-01-01

    综述了微电子机械系统(MEMS)封装主流技术,包括芯片级封装、器件级封装和系统及封装技术进行了。重点介绍了圆片级键合、倒装焊等封装技术。并对MEMS封装的技术瓶颈进行了分析。%The technologies of MEMS packaging are introduced, including three promising technologies: Wafer Level Packaging, Device Level, System Level Packaging. And the emphasis about using wafer level bonding, flip chip bonding technology. Then several reliability issues in MEMS packaging are pointed out, and a forecast is given for its future trends.

  17. MEMS Micro-Translation Device with Improved Linear Travel Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushagur, Mustafa A. G. (Inventor); Ferguson, Cynthia K. (Inventor); Nordin, Gregory P. (Inventor); English, Jennifer M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A microscopic translation device for a microelectromechanical system includes a pair of linear stator assemblies disposed in spaced relation to define an elongate channel. Each assembly is formed by a plurality of stators arranged in a row along the channel. A shuttle member is disposed between the stator assemblies for translating movement along the channel. The shuttle member includes a plurality of rotors extending outwardly from opposite sides. The shuttle is grounded through the stator assemblies and includes a mounting area for an object to be translated. Electrical lines are individually connected to alternate stators of a plurality of groups of the stators. A current supply sequentially supplies current through the electrical lines to the alternate stators so as to effect charging of the stators in a predetermined sequence. This produces a tangential capacitive force that causes translation of the shuttle.

  18. Design and fabrication of a MEMS Lamb wave device based on ZnO thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Mengwei; Li Junhong; Ma Jun; Wang Chenghao, E-mail: liumw@mail.ioa.ac.cn [Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-04-15

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of a Lamb wave device based on ZnO piezoelectric film. The Lamb waves were respectively launched and received by both Al interdigital transducers. In order to reduce the stress of the thin membrane, the ZnO/Al/LTO/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si multilayered thin plate was designed and fabricated. A novel method to obtain the piezoelectric constant of the ZnO film was used. The experimental results for characterizing the wave propagation modes and their frequencies of the Lamb wave device indicated that the measured center frequency of antisymmetric A{sub 0} and symmetric S{sub 0} modes Lamb wave agree with the theoretical predictions. The mass sensitivity of the MEMS Lamb wave device was also characterized for gravimetric sensing application. (semiconductor devices)

  19. Sensing magnetic flux density of artificial neurons with a MEMS device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Jesus A; Herrera-May, Agustin L; García-Ramírez, Pedro J; Martinez-Castillo, Jaime; Figueras, Eduard; Flores, Amira; Manjarrez, Elías

    2011-04-01

    We describe a simple procedure to characterize a magnetic field sensor based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, which exploits the Lorentz force principle. This sensor is designed to detect, in future applications, the spiking activity of neurons or muscle cells. This procedure is based on the well-known capability that a magnetic MEMS device can be used to sense a small magnetic flux density. In this work, an electronic neuron (FitzHugh-Nagumo) is used to generate controlled spike-like magnetic fields. We show that the magnetic flux density generated by the hardware of this neuron can be detected with a new MEMS magnetic field sensor. This microdevice has a compact resonant structure (700 × 600 × 5 μm) integrated by an array of silicon beams and p-type piezoresistive sensing elements, which need an easy fabrication process. The proposed microsensor has a resolution of 80 nT, a sensitivity of 1.2 V.T(-1), a resonant frequency of 13.87 kHz, low power consumption (2.05 mW), quality factor of 93 at atmospheric pressure, and requires a simple signal processing circuit. The importance of our study is twofold. First, because the artificial neuron can generate well-controlled magnetic flux density, we suggest it could be used to analyze the resolution and performance of different magnetic field sensors intended for neurobiological applications. Second, the introduced MEMS magnetic field sensor may be used as a prototype to develop new high-resolution biomedical microdevices to sense magnetic fields from cardiac tissue, nerves, spinal cord, or the brain.

  20. Designing of a Si-MEMS device with an integrated skeletal muscle cell-based bio-actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideaki; Van Dau, Thanh; Shimizu, Kazunori; Hatsuda, Ranko; Sugiyama, Susumu; Nagamori, Eiji

    2011-02-01

    With the aim of designing a mechanical drug delivery system involving a bio-actuator, we fabricated a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) device that can be driven through contraction of skeletal muscle cells. The device is composed of a Si-MEMS with springs and ratchets, UV-crosslinked collagen film for cell attachment, and C2C12 muscle cells. The Si-MEMS device is 600 μm x 1000 μm in size and the width of the collagen film is 250 ~ 350 μm, which may allow the device to go through small blood vessels. To position the collagen film on the MEMS device, a thermo-sensitive polymer was used as the sacrifice-layer which was selectively removed with O₂ plasma at the positions where the collagen film was glued. The C2C12 myoblasts were seeded on the collagen film, where they proliferated and formed myotubes after induction of differentiation. When C2C12 myotubes were stimulated with electric pulses, contraction of the collagen film-C2C12 myotube complex was observed. When the edge of the Si-MEMS device was observed, displacement of ~8 μm was observed, demonstrating the possibility of locomotive movement when the device is placed on a track of adequate width. Here, we propose that the C2C12-collagen film complex is a new generation actuator for MEMS devices that utilize glucose as fuel, which will be useful in environments in which glucose is abundant such as inside a blood vessel.

  1. A dicing-free SOI process for MEMS devices based on the lag effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J.; Hao, Y.; Shen, Q.; Chang, H.; Yuan, W.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a dicing-free process for silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). In the process, the lag effect in deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) is used to form the breaking trenches. In the backside DRIE, the wide backside cavities are etched down to the buried oxide layer. The narrow breaking trenches, in contrast, are not etched to the buried oxide layer. Therefore, the narrow trench can be used to break the wafer after the entire process; in addition, the handle layer can still act as a bracing structure before ‘breaking’. Finally, the device layer is patterned, and a DRIE step is used to form the MEMS devices. In this way, the dicing step can be omitted to prevent further damages from high pressure water jets and silicon dust. Meanwhile, the process can also prevent notching simply because the insulating layer is removed before device etching. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed fabrication process, a micromachined gyroscope is designed and fabricated.

  2. Nanotechnology: MEMS and NEMS and their applications to smart systems and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2003-10-01

    The microelectronics industry has seen explosive growth during the last thirty years. Extremely large markets for logic and memory devices have driven the development of new materials, and technologies for the fabrication of even more complex devices with features sizes now down at the sub micron and nanometer level. Recent interest has arisen in employing these materials, tools and technologies for the fabrication of miniature sensors and actuators and their integration with electronic circuits to produce smart devices and systems. This effort offers the promise of: (1) increasing the performance and manufacturability of both sensors and actuators by exploiting new batch fabrication processes developed including micro stereo lithographic and micro molding techniques; (2) developing novel classes of materials and mechanical structures not possible previously, such as diamond like carbon, silicon carbide and carbon nanotubes, micro-turbines and micro-engines; (3) development of technologies for the system level and wafer level integration of micro components at the nanometer precision, such as self-assembly techniques and robotic manipulation; (4) development of control and communication systems for MEMS devices, such as optical and RF wireless, and power delivery systems, etc. A novel composite structure can be tailored by functionalizing carbon nano tubes and chemically bonding them with the polymer matrix e.g. block or graft copolymer, or even cross-linked copolymer, to impart exceptional structural, electronic and surface properties. Bio- and Mechanical-MEMS devices derived from this hybrid composite provide a new avenue for future smart systems. The integration of NEMS (NanoElectroMechanical Systems), MEMS, IDTs (Interdigital Transducers) and required microelectronics and conformal antenna in the multifunctional smart materials and composites results in a smart system suitable for sending and control of a variety functions in automobile, aerospace, marine and

  3. Design and fabrication of a MEMS Lamb wave device based on ZnO thin film*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Mengwei; Li Junhong; Ma Jun; Wang Chenghao

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of a Lamb wave device based on ZnO piezoelectric film.The Lamb waves were respectively launched and received by both Al interdigital transducers. In order to reduce the stress of the thin membrane, the ZnO/A1/LTO/Si3N4/Si multilayered thin plate was designed and fabricated. A novel method to obtain the piezoelectric constant of the ZnO film was used. The experimental results for characterizing the wave propagation modes and their frequencies of the Lamb wave device indicated that the measured center frequency of antisymmetric A0 and symmetric S0 modes Lamb wave agree with the theoretical predictions. The mass sensitivity of the MEMS Lamb wave device was also characterized for gravimetric sensing application.

  4. SPICE Level 3 and BSIM3v3.1 characterization of monolithic integrated CMOS-MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staple, Bevan D.; Watts, Herman A.; Dyck, Christopher W.; Griego, A. P.; Hewlett, F. W.; Smith, James H.

    1998-09-01

    Thy monolithic integration of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) with the driving, controlling, and signal processing electronics promises to improve the performance of micromechanical devices as well as lower their manufacturing, packaging, and instrumentation costs. Key to this integration is the proper interleaving, combining, and customizing of the manufacturing processes to produce functional integrated micromechanical devices with electronics. We have developed a MEMS-first monolithic integrated process that first seals the micromechanical devices in a planarized trench and then builds the electronics in a conventional CMOS process. To date, most of the research published on this technology has focused on the performance characteristics of the mechanical portion of the devices, with little information on the attributes of the accompanying electronics. This work attempts to reduce this information void by presenting the results of SPICE Level 3 and BSIM3v3.1 model parameters extracted for the CMOS portion of the MEMS-first process. Transistor-level simulations of MOSFET current, capacitance, output resistance, and transconductance versus voltage using the extracted model parameters closely match the measured data. Moreover, in model validation efforts, circuit-level simulation values for the average gate propagation delay in a 101-stage ring oscillator are within 13 - 18% of the measured data. These results establish the following: (1) the MEMS-first approach produces functional CMOS devices integrated on a single chip with MEMS devices and (2) the devices manufactured in the approach have excellent transistor characteristics. Thus, the MEMS-first approach renders a solid technology foundation for customers designing in the technology.

  5. Use of nanoporous columnar thin film in the wafer-level packaging of MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Kee; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new packaging technology that uses a nanoporous columnar thin film to seal microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices at the wafer level. In the proposed packaging process, the processing temperature is 350 °C. The process is relatively inexpensive compared to wafer level packaging processes, because the wafer-bonding step is eliminated and the die size is shrunk. In the suggested approach, a sputtered columnar thin film at room temperature forms vertical nanopores as etch holes, and an air cavity is formed by the removal of a sacrificial layer through the nanopores in the columnar membrane. Subsequent hermetic vacuum packaging of the cavity is achieved by depositing thin films over the membrane under low pressure. The hermeticity of the packaging was verified by using an optical surface morphology microscope to measure the deflection change of the sealing membrane before and after breaking of the vacuum through an interconnected membrane. The long-term hermeticity was monitored by measuring the maximum central deflection of the PECVD sealing layer over a period of 170 days. The precise pressure (0.7 Torr) and short-term (30 days) pressure change inside the cavity were measured by encapsulated Ni Pirani gauges, representing packaged freestanding MEMS devices.

  6. Release of MEMS devices with hard-baked polyimide sacrificial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand Azad, Javaneh; Rezadad, Imen; Nath, Janardan; Smith, Evan; Peale, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Removal of polyimides used as sacrificial layer in fabricating MEMS devices can be challenging after hardbaking, which may easily result by the end of multiple-step processing. We consider the specific commercial co-developable polyimide ProLift 100 (Brewer Science). Excessive heat hardens this material, so that during wet release in TMAH based solvents, intact sheets break free from the substrate, move around in the solution, and break delicate structures. On the other hand, dry reactive-ion etching of hard-baked ProLift is so slow, that MEMS structures are damaged from undesirably-prolonged physical bombardment by plasma ions. We found that blanket exposure to ultraviolet light allows rapid dry etch of the ProLift surrounding the desired structures without damaging them. Subsequent removal of ProLift from under the devices can then be safely performed using wet or dry etch. We demonstrate the approach on PECVD-grown silicon-oxide cantilevers of 100 micron × 100 micron area supported 2 microns above the substrate by ~100-micron-long 8-micron-wide oxide arms.

  7. Improving the Validity of Squeeze Film Air-Damping Model of MEMS Devices with Border Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of squeezed film air damping is critical in the design and control of dynamic MEMS devices. The published squeezed film air damping models are generally derived from the analytical solutions of Reynolds equation or its other modified forms under the supposition of trivial pressure boundary conditions on the peripheral borders. These treatments ignoring the border effect can not give faithful result for structure with smaller air venting gap or the double-gimbaled structure in which the inner frame and outer one affect the air venting. In this paper, we use Green’s function to solve the nonlinear Reynolds equation with inhomogeneous boundary conditions. For two typical normal motion cases of parallel plate, the analytical models of squeeze film damping force with border effect are established. The viscous and inertial losses with real values and image values acoustic impedance are all included in the model. These models reduced the time consumption while giving satisfactory result. Without multifield coupling analysis, the estimation of the dynamic behavior of MEMS device is also allowed, and the simulation of the system performance is more convenient.

  8. MEMS Based Broadband Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Energy Harvester (PUEH) for Enabling Self-Powered Implantable Biomedical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiongfeng; Wang, Tao; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic energy transfer is a promising energy harvesting technology candidate for implantable biomedical devices. However, it does not show competitive strength for enabling self-powered implantable biomedical devices due to two issues - large size of bulk piezoelectric ultrasound transducers and output power fluctuation with transferred distance due to standing wave. Here we report a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based broadband piezoelectric ultrasonic energy harvester (PUEH) to enable self-powered implantable biomedical devices. The PUEH is a microfabricated lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm array and has wide operation bandwidth. By adjusting frequency of the input ultrasound wave within the operation bandwidth, standing wave effect can be minimized for any given distances. For example, at 1 cm distance, power density can be increased from 0.59 μW/cm2 to 3.75 μW/cm2 at input ultrasound intensity of 1 mW/cm2 when frequency changes from 250 to 240 kHz. Due to the difference of human body and manual surgical process, distance fluctuation for implantable biomedical devices is unavoidable and it strongly affects the coupling efficiency. This issue can be overcome by performing frequency adjustment of the PUEH. The proposed PUEH shows great potential to be integrated on an implanted biomedical device chip as power source for various applications.

  9. MEMS Based Broadband Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Energy Harvester (PUEH) for Enabling Self-Powered Implantable Biomedical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiongfeng; Wang, Tao; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-04-26

    Acoustic energy transfer is a promising energy harvesting technology candidate for implantable biomedical devices. However, it does not show competitive strength for enabling self-powered implantable biomedical devices due to two issues - large size of bulk piezoelectric ultrasound transducers and output power fluctuation with transferred distance due to standing wave. Here we report a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based broadband piezoelectric ultrasonic energy harvester (PUEH) to enable self-powered implantable biomedical devices. The PUEH is a microfabricated lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm array and has wide operation bandwidth. By adjusting frequency of the input ultrasound wave within the operation bandwidth, standing wave effect can be minimized for any given distances. For example, at 1 cm distance, power density can be increased from 0.59 μW/cm(2) to 3.75 μW/cm(2) at input ultrasound intensity of 1 mW/cm(2) when frequency changes from 250 to 240 kHz. Due to the difference of human body and manual surgical process, distance fluctuation for implantable biomedical devices is unavoidable and it strongly affects the coupling efficiency. This issue can be overcome by performing frequency adjustment of the PUEH. The proposed PUEH shows great potential to be integrated on an implanted biomedical device chip as power source for various applications.

  10. Multi-modal, ultrasensitive detection of trace explosives using MEMS devices with quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Omid; Kim, Seonghwan

    2016-05-01

    Multi-modal chemical sensors based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have been developed with an electrical readout. Opto-calorimetric infrared (IR) spectroscopy, capable of obtaining molecular signatures of extremely small quantities of adsorbed explosive molecules, has been realized with a microthermometer/microheater device using a widely tunable quantum cascade laser. A microthermometer/microheater device responds to the heat generated by nonradiative decay process when the adsorbed explosive molecules are resonantly excited with IR light. Monitoring the variation in microthermometer signal as a function of illuminating IR wavelength corresponds to the conventional IR absorption spectrum of the adsorbed molecules. Moreover, the mass of the adsorbed molecules is determined by measuring the resonance frequency shift of the cantilever shape microthermometer for the quantitative opto-calorimetric IR spectroscopy. In addition, micro-differential thermal analysis, which can be used to differentiate exothermic or endothermic reaction of heated molecules, has been performed with the same device to provide additional orthogonal signal for trace explosive detection and sensor surface regeneration. In summary, we have designed, fabricated and tested microcantilever shape devices integrated with a microthermometer/microheater which can provide electrical responses used to acquire both opto-calorimetric IR spectra and microcalorimetric thermal responses. We have demonstrated the successful detection, differentiation, and quantification of trace amounts of explosive molecules and their mixtures (cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)) using three orthogonal sensing signals which improve chemical selectivity.

  11. SIMPLIFIED SCALING TRANSFORMATION FOR THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MEMS DEVICES WITH THIN FILM STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LI Zhihong

    2008-01-01

    Thin film is a widely used structure in the present microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and plays a vital role in many functional devices. However, the great size difference between the film's thickness and its planar dimensions makes it difficult to study the thin film performance numerically. In this work, a scaling transformation was presented to make the different dimensional sizes equivalent, and thereby, to improve the grid quality considerably. Two numerical experiments were studied to validate the present scaling transformation method. The numerical results indicated that the largest grid size difference can be decreased to one to two orders of magnitude by using the present scaling transformation, and the memory required by the numerical simulation, i.e., the total grid number, could be reduced by about two to three orders of magnitude, while the numerical accuracies with and without this scaling transformation were nearly the same.

  12. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES MEMS magnetic field sensor based on silicon bridge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangtao, Du; Xiangdong, Chen; Qibin, Lin; Hui, Li; Huihui, Guo

    2010-10-01

    A MEMS piezoresistive magnetic field sensor based on a silicon bridge structure has been simulated and tested. The sensor consists of a silicon sensitivity diaphragm embedded with a piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge, and a ferromagnetic magnet adhered to the sensitivity diaphragm. When the sensor is subjected to an external magnetic field, the magnetic force bends the silicon sensitivity diaphragm, producing stress and resistors change of the Wheatstone bridge and the output voltage of the sensor. Good agreement is observed between the theory and measurement behavior of the magnetic field sensor. Experimental results demonstrate that the maximum sensitivity and minimum resolution are 48 m V/T and 160 μT, respectively, making this device suitable for strong magnetic field measurement. Research results indicate that the sensor repeatability and dynamic response time are about 0.66% and 150 ms, respectively.

  13. Multi-Criteria Layout Synthesis of MEMS Devices Using Memetic Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Fan, Zhun

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-objective optimization approach for layout synthesis of MEMS components. A case study of layout synthesis of a comb-driven micro-resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results accommodating two design objectives, i.e. simultaneous...... sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), has been applied to find multiple trade-off solutions followed by a gradient-based local search, i.e. sequential quadratic programming (SQP), to improve the convergence of the obtained Pareto-optimal front. In order to reduce the number of function evaluations...... in the local search procedure, the obtained non-dominated solutions are clustered in the objective space and consequently, a postoptimality study is manually performed to find out some common design principles among those solutions. Finally, two reasonable design choices have been offered based...

  14. Chemical Detection Based on Adsorption-Induced and Photo-Induced Stresses in MEMS Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, P.G.

    1999-04-05

    Recently there has been an increasing demand to perform real-time in-situ chemical detection of hazardous materials, contraband chemicals, and explosive chemicals. Currently, real-time chemical detection requires rather large analytical instrumentation that are expensive and complicated to use. The advent of inexpensive mass produced MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) devices opened-up new possibilities for chemical detection. For example, microcantilevers were found to respond to chemical stimuli by undergoing changes in their bending and resonance frequency even when a small number of molecules adsorb on their surface. In our present studies, we extended this concept by studying changes in both the adsorption-induced stress and photo-induced stress as target chemicals adsorb on the surface of microcantilevers. For example, microcantilevers that have adsorbed molecules will undergo photo-induced bending that depends on the number of absorbed molecules on the surface. However, microcantilevers that have undergone photo-induced bending will adsorb molecules on their surfaces in a distinctly different way. Depending on the photon wavelength and microcantilever material, the microcantilever can be made to bend by expanding or contracting the irradiated surface. This is important in cases where the photo-induced stresses can be used to counter any adsorption-induced stresses and increase the dynamic range. Coating the surface of the microstructure with a different material can provide chemical specificity for the target chemicals. However, by selecting appropriate photon wavelengths we can change the chemical selectivity due to the introduction of new surface states in the MEMS device. We will present and discuss our results on the use of adsorption-induced and photo-induced bending of microcantilevers for chemical detection.

  15. Organic plasma process for simple and substrate-independent surface modification of polymeric BioMEMS devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Atsunori; Muguruma, Hitoshi; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Karube, Isao

    2004-07-15

    A polymeric bio micro electromechanical systems (BioMEMS) device was fabricated using organic plasma polymerization, by which the surface of a polymeric substrate could easily be modified through vapor-phase deposition of organic thin films. This technique, capable of polymeric deposition of any kind of monomer, can serve the purpose of anti-fouling coating, wettability control, or layer-to-layer interface creation, on the surface of any given chemically-inert polymeric substrate without involving cumbersome surface organic reactions. A prototype device was fabricated to have an array of electrochemical glucose biosensors with the three electrode configuration, each of which has a microfluidic channel (500 microm x 800 microm) for capillary-action-driven sample delivery and the concerned enzymatic reaction. Stressing the advantages of the plasma polymerization process using a polymeric substrate together with some additional features accomplished in our device fabrication, new possibilities in the field of polymeric BioMEMS are discussed.

  16. Application of RF-MEMS-Based Split Ring Resonators (SRRs to the Implementation of Reconfigurable Stopband Filters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Martín

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper, several strategies for the implementation of reconfigurable split ring resonators (SRRs based on RF-MEMS switches are presented. Essentially three types of RF-MEMS combined with split rings are considered: (i bridge-type RF-MEMS on top of complementary split ring resonators CSRRs; (ii cantilever-type RF-MEMS on top of SRRs; and (iii cantilever-type RF-MEMS integrated with SRRs (or RF-MEMS SRRs. Advantages and limitations of these different configurations from the point of view of their potential applications for reconfigurable stopband filter design are discussed, and several prototype devices are presented.

  17. Jump and pull-in dynamics of an electrically actuated bistable MEMS device

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes a theoretical bistable MEMS device, which exhibits a considerable versatility of behavior. After exploring the coexistence of attractors, we focus on each rest position, and investigate the final outcome, when the electrodynamic voltage is suddenly applied. Our aim is to describe the parameter range where each attractor may practically be observed under realistic conditions, when an electric load is suddenly applied. Since disturbances are inevitably encountered in experiments and practice, a dynamical integrity analysis is performed in order to take them into account. We build the integrity charts, which examine the practical vulnerability of each attractor. A small integrity enhances the sensitivity of the system to disturbances, leading in practice either to jump or to dynamic pull-in. Accordingly, the parameter range where the device, subjected to a suddenly applied load, can operate in safe conditions with a certain attractor is smaller, and sometimes considerably smaller, than in the theoretical predictions. While we refer to a particular case-study, the approach is very general.

  18. The Practical Design of In-vehicle Telematics Device with GPS and MEMS Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Dramićanin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of vehicle tracking devices relies not only on Global Positioning System (GPS but also uses low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS accelerometers. This combination supports new services such as driving style characterization and Automatic Crash Notification (ACN. Our focus will be on practical considerations of such a telematics unit. The paper will consider the boundaries of allowed errors and minimal requirements for sensors and mounting requirements. Sensor range for crash detection and impact angle estimation was tested on field trials with two units containing accelerometers range of 18g and 2g. The kinematic orientation of vehicle is evaluated in a series of field trials with a resulting standard deviation of estimation of 1.67°. The second run of experiments considers the dynamic range and sampling rate of sensors during collision. A sensor range of 8g (typical for present-day telematics devices can be used to detect crash without accurate knowledge of impact angle.

  19. Human organ-on-a-chip BioMEMS devices for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James F.; Key, Jaehong; Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Cooper, Christy L.; Kole, Ayeeshik; Reece, Lisa M.; Lelièvre, Sophie A.

    2013-03-01

    MEMS human "organs-on-a-chip" can be used to create model human organ systems for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. They represent a promising new strategy for rapid testing of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches without the need for involving risks to human subjects. We are developing multicomponent, superparamagnetic and fluorescent nanoparticles as X-ray and MRI contrast agents for noninvasive multimodal imaging and for antibody- or peptide-targeted drug delivery to tumor and precancerous cells inside these artificial organ MEMS devices. Magnetic fields can be used to move the nanoparticles "upstream" to find their target cells in an organs-on-achip model of human ductal breast cancer. Theoretically, unbound nanoparticles can then be removed by reversing the magnetic field to give a greatly enhanced image of tumor cells within these artificial organ structures. Using branched PDMS microchannels and 3D tissue engineering of normal and malignant human breast cancer cells inside those MEMS channels, we can mimic the early stages of human ductal breast cancer with the goal to improve the sensitivity and resolution of mammography and MRI of very small tumors and test new strategies for treatments. Nanomedical systems can easily be imaged by multicolor confocal microscopy inside the artificial organs to test targeting and therapeutic responses including the differential viability of normal and tumor cells during treatments. Currently we are using 2-dimensional MEMS structures, but these studies can be extended to more complex 3D structures using new 3D printing technologies.

  20. Some metal oxides and their applications for creation of Microsystems (MEMS) and Energy Harvesting Devices (EHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denishev, K.

    2016-10-01

    This is a review of a part of the work of the Technological Design Group at Technical University of Sofia, Faculty of Electronic Engineering and Technologies, Department of Microelectronics. It is dealing with piezoelectric polymer materials and their application in different microsystems (MEMS) and Energy Harvesting Devices (EHD), some organic materials and their applications in organic (OLED) displays, some transparent conductive materials etc. The metal oxides Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) are used as piezoelectric layers - driving part of different sensors, actuators and EHD. These materials are studied in term of their performance in dependence on the deposition conditions and parameters. They were deposited as thin films by using RF Sputtering System. As technological substrates, glass plates and Polyethylenetherephtalate (PET) foils were used. For characterization of the materials, a test structure, based on Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW), was designed and prepared. The layers were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The piezoelectric response was tested at variety of mechanical loads (tensile strain, stress) in static and dynamic (multiple bending) mode. The single-layered and double-layered structures were prepared for piezoelectric efficiency increase. A structure of piezoelectric energy transformer is proposed and investigated.

  1. Error analysis and algorithm implementation for an improved optical-electric tracking device based on MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Wu, Qian-zhong

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve the precision of optical-electric tracking device, proposing a kind of improved optical-electric tracking device based on MEMS, in allusion to the tracking error of gyroscope senor and the random drift, According to the principles of time series analysis of random sequence, establish AR model of gyro random error based on Kalman filter algorithm, then the output signals of gyro are multiple filtered with Kalman filter. And use ARM as micro controller servo motor is controlled by fuzzy PID full closed loop control algorithm, and add advanced correction and feed-forward links to improve response lag of angle input, Free-forward can make output perfectly follow input. The function of lead compensation link is to shorten the response of input signals, so as to reduce errors. Use the wireless video monitor module and remote monitoring software (Visual Basic 6.0) to monitor servo motor state in real time, the video monitor module gathers video signals, and the wireless video module will sent these signals to upper computer, so that show the motor running state in the window of Visual Basic 6.0. At the same time, take a detailed analysis to the main error source. Through the quantitative analysis of the errors from bandwidth and gyro sensor, it makes the proportion of each error in the whole error more intuitive, consequently, decrease the error of the system. Through the simulation and experiment results shows the system has good following characteristic, and it is very valuable for engineering application.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of an electrically actuated mems device: Experimental and theoretical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-11-15

    This study deals with an experimental and theoretical investigation of an electrically actuated micro-electromechanical system (MEMS). The experimental nonlinear dynamics are explored via frequency sweeps in a neighborhood of the first symmetric natural frequency, at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation. Both the non-resonant branch, the resonant one, the jump between them, and the presence of a range of inevitable escape (dynamic pull-in) are observed. To simulate the experimental behavior, a single degree-offreedom spring mass model is derived, which is based on the information coming from the experimentation. Despite the apparent simplicity, the model is able to catch all the most relevant aspects of the device response. This occurs not only at low values of electrodynamic excitation, but also at higher ones. Nevertheless, the theoretical predictions are not completely fulfilled in some aspects. In particular, the range of existence of each attractor is smaller in practice than in the simulations. This is because, under realistic conditions, disturbances are inevitably encountered (e.g. discontinuous steps when performing the sweeping, approximations in the modeling, etc.) and give uncertainties to the operating initial conditions. A reliable prediction of the actual (and not only theoretical) response is essential in applications. To take disturbances into account, we develop a dynamical integrity analysis. Integrity profiles and integrity charts are performed. They are able to detect the parameter range where each branch can be reliably observed in practice and where, instead, becomes vulnerable. Moreover, depending on the magnitude of the expected disturbances, the integrity charts can serve as a design guideline, in order to effectively operate the device in safe condition, according to the desired outcome. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  3. Biomaterials for MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, Mu

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a guide for practicing engineers, researchers, and students interested in MEMS devices that use biomaterials and biomedical applications. It is also suitable for engineers and researchers interested in MEMS and its applications but who do not have the necessary background in biomaterials.Biomaterials for MEMS highlights important features and issues of biomaterials that have been used in MEMS and biomedical areas. Hence this book is an essential guide for MEMS engineers or researchers who are trained in engineering institutes that do not provide the background or knowledge

  4. Sputtered Encapsulation as Wafer Level Packaging for Isolatable MEMS Devices: A Technique Demonstrated on a Capacitive Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrul Azlan Hamzah

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses sputtered silicon encapsulation as a wafer level packaging approach for isolatable MEMS devices. Devices such as accelerometers, RF switches, inductors, and filters that do not require interaction with the surroundings to function, could thus be fully encapsulated at the wafer level after fabrication. A MEMSTech 50g capacitive accelerometer was used to demonstrate a sputtered encapsulation technique. Encapsulation with a very uniform surface profile was achieved using spin-on glass (SOG as a sacrificial layer, SU-8 as base layer, RF sputtered silicon as main structural layer, eutectic gold-silicon as seal layer, and liquid crystal polymer (LCP as outer encapsulant layer. SEM inspection and capacitance test indicated that the movable elements were released after encapsulation. Nanoindentation test confirmed that the encapsulated device is sufficiently robust to withstand a transfer molding process. Thus, an encapsulation technique that is robust, CMOS compatible, and economical has been successfully developed for packaging isolatable MEMS devices at the wafer level.

  5. 78 FR 14013 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known... another, usually in a wheelchair. This order exempts wheelchair elevators, class II devices,...

  6. 用于微机电系统的叉形微铰链%Micro Fork Hinge for MEMS Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Flexible beams are often used for rotation in MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) devices to avoid the friction problems associated with hinge. However, the rotation angle of flexible beam is very limited and not enough for many applications. In this paper, we introduce a quasi hinge structure named as Fork Hinge, which has a larger equivalent rotation angle (e.g.10 times lager) and is more stable than the flexible hinge, while keeping its interesting properties. We develop an analytical model and simulate the Fork hinge behavior with FEM analysis. We find a good correlation with Fork Hinges fabricated using a SOI (Silicon on Insulator) wafer and DRIE (Deep Reactive Ion Etching).

  7. Automatic synthesis of MEMS devices using self-adaptive hybrid metaheuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Fan, Zhun

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-objective optimization ap- proach for layout synthesis of MEMS components. A case study of layout synthesis of a comb-driven micro-resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results accommodating two design objectives, i.e. si- multan...

  8. Challenges in the Assembly and Handling of Thin Film Capped MEMS Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, J.J.M.; Van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the assembly challenges considering the design and manufacturability of a Wafer Level Thin Film Package in MEMS applications. The assembly processes are discussed. The loads associated with these processes are illustrated and evaluated. Numerical calculations are combined with e

  9. Novel SU-8 based vacuum wafer-level packaging for MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murillo, Gonzalo; Davis, Zachary James; Keller, Stephan Urs

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a simple and low-cost SU-8 based wafer-level vacuum packaging method which is CMOS and MEMS compatible. Different approaches have been investigated by taking advantage of the properties of SU-8, such as chemical resistance, optical transparence, mechanical reliability and versa......This work presents a simple and low-cost SU-8 based wafer-level vacuum packaging method which is CMOS and MEMS compatible. Different approaches have been investigated by taking advantage of the properties of SU-8, such as chemical resistance, optical transparence, mechanical reliability......, an indirect vacuum level measurement has been carried out by comparing the different quality factors of a test cantilever resonator when this element is packed or unpacked....

  10. Analysis and wafer-level design of a high-order silicon vibration isolator for resonating MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang Won; Lee, Sangwoo; Perkins, Noel C.; Najafi, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and preliminary design, fabrication, and measurement for mechanical vibration-isolation platforms especially designed for resonating MEMS devices including gyroscopes. Important parameters for designing isolation platforms are specified and the first platform (in designs with cascaded multiple platforms) is crucial for improving vibration-isolation performance and minimizing side-effects on integrated gyroscopes. This isolation platform, made from a thick silicon wafer substrate for an environment-resistant MEMS package, incorporates the functionalities of a previous design including vacuum packaging and thermal resistance with no additional resources. This platform consists of platform mass, isolation beams, vertical feedthroughs, and bonding pads. Two isolation platform designs follow from two isolation beam designs: lateral clamped-clamped beams and vertical torsion beams. The beams function simultaneously as mechanical springs and electrical interconnects. The vibration-isolation platform can yield a multi-dimensional, high-order mechanical low pass filter. The isolation platform possesses eight interconnects within a 12.2 × 12.2 mm2 footprint. The contact resistance ranges from 4-11 Ω depending on the beam design. Vibration measurements using a laser-Doppler vibrometer demonstrate that the lateral vibration-isolation platform suppresses external vibration having frequencies exceeding 2.1 kHz.

  11. Miniaturized UHF, S-, and Ka-band RF MEMS Filters for Small Form Factor, High Performance EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase II of this SBIR, Harmonic Devices (HDI) proposes to develop miniaturized MEMS filters at UHF, S-band and Ka-band to address the requirements of NASA's...

  12. An investigation into graphene exfoliation and potential graphene application in MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fercana, George; Kletetschka, Gunther; Mikula, Vilem; Li, Mary

    2011-02-01

    The design of microelectromecanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electromechanical systems (MOEMS) are often materials-limited with respect to the efficiency and capability of the material. Graphene, a one atom thick honeycomb lattice of carbon, is a highly desired material for MEMS applications. Relevant properties of graphene include the material's optical transparency, mechanical strength, energy efficiency, and electrical and thermal conductivity due to its electron mobility. Aforementioned properties make graphene a strong candidate to supplant existing transparent electrode technology and replace the conventionally used material, indium-tin oxide. In this paper we present preliminary results on work toward integration of graphene with MEMS structures. We are studying mechanical exfoliation of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystals by repeatedly applying and separating adhesive materials from the HOPG surface. The resulting graphene sheets are then transferred to silicon oxide substrate using the previously applied adhesive material. We explored different adhesive options, particularly the use of Kapton tape, to improve the yield of graphene isolation along with chemical cross-linking agents which operate on a mechanism of photoinsertion of disassociated nitrene groups. These perfluorophenyl nitrenes participate in C=C addition reactions with graphene monolayers creating a covalent binding between the substrate and graphene. We are focusing on maximizing the size of isolated graphene sheets and comparing to conventional exfoliation. Preliminary results allow isolation of few layer graphene (FLG) sheets (n<3) of approximately 10μm x 44μm. Photolithography could possibly be utilized to tailor designs for microshutter technology to be used in future deep space telescopes.

  13. Tribo-functionalizing Si and SU8 materials by surface modification for application in MEMS/NEMS actuator-based devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R A; Satyanarayana, N; Sinha, S K [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kustandi, T S, E-mail: mpesks@nus.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2011-01-12

    Micro/nano-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS/NEMS) are miniaturized devices built at micro/nanoscales. At these scales, the surface/interfacial forces are extremely strong and they adversely affect the smooth operation and the useful operating lifetimes of such devices. When these forces manifest in severe forms, they lead to material removal and thereby reduce the wear durability of the devices. In this paper, we present a simple, yet robust, two-step surface modification method to significantly enhance the tribological performance of MEMS/NEMS materials. The two-step method involves oxygen plasma treatment of polymeric films and the application of a nanolubricant, namely perfluoropolyether. We apply the two-step method to the two most important MEMS/NEMS structural materials, namely silicon and SU8 polymer. On applying surface modification to these materials, their initial coefficient of friction reduces by {approx}4-7 times and the steady-state coefficient of friction reduces by {approx}2.5-3.5 times. Simultaneously, the wear durability of both the materials increases by >1000 times. The two-step method is time effective as each of the steps takes the time duration of approximately 1 min. It is also cost effective as the oxygen plasma treatment is a part of the MEMS/NEMS fabrication process. The two-step method can be readily and easily integrated into MEMS/NEMS fabrication processes. It is anticipated that this method will work for any kind of structural material from which MEMS/NEMS are or can be made.

  14. Beyond CMOS: heterogeneous integration of III-V devices, RF MEMS and other dissimilar materials/devices with Si CMOS to create intelligent microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazior, Thomas E

    2014-03-28

    Advances in silicon technology continue to revolutionize micro-/nano-electronics. However, Si cannot do everything, and devices/components based on other materials systems are required. What is the best way to integrate these dissimilar materials and to enhance the capabilities of Si, thereby continuing the micro-/nano-electronics revolution? In this paper, I review different approaches to heterogeneously integrate dissimilar materials with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In particular, I summarize results on the successful integration of III-V electronic devices (InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs)) with Si CMOS on a common silicon-based wafer using an integration/fabrication process similar to a SiGe BiCMOS process (BiCMOS integrates bipolar junction and CMOS transistors). Our III-V BiCMOS process has been scaled to 200 mm diameter wafers for integration with scaled CMOS and used to fabricate radio-frequency (RF) and mixed signals circuits with on-chip digital control/calibration. I also show that RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can be integrated onto this platform to create tunable or reconfigurable circuits. Thus, heterogeneous integration of III-V devices, MEMS and other dissimilar materials with Si CMOS enables a new class of high-performance integrated circuits that enhance the capabilities of existing systems, enable new circuit architectures and facilitate the continued proliferation of low-cost micro-/nano-electronics for a wide range of applications.

  15. Beyond CMOS: heterogeneous integration of III–V devices, RF MEMS and other dissimilar materials/devices with Si CMOS to create intelligent microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazior, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in silicon technology continue to revolutionize micro-/nano-electronics. However, Si cannot do everything, and devices/components based on other materials systems are required. What is the best way to integrate these dissimilar materials and to enhance the capabilities of Si, thereby continuing the micro-/nano-electronics revolution? In this paper, I review different approaches to heterogeneously integrate dissimilar materials with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In particular, I summarize results on the successful integration of III–V electronic devices (InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs)) with Si CMOS on a common silicon-based wafer using an integration/fabrication process similar to a SiGe BiCMOS process (BiCMOS integrates bipolar junction and CMOS transistors). Our III–V BiCMOS process has been scaled to 200 mm diameter wafers for integration with scaled CMOS and used to fabricate radio-frequency (RF) and mixed signals circuits with on-chip digital control/calibration. I also show that RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can be integrated onto this platform to create tunable or reconfigurable circuits. Thus, heterogeneous integration of III–V devices, MEMS and other dissimilar materials with Si CMOS enables a new class of high-performance integrated circuits that enhance the capabilities of existing systems, enable new circuit architectures and facilitate the continued proliferation of low-cost micro-/nano-electronics for a wide range of applications. PMID:24567473

  16. A MEMS Device for in-situ TEM Test of SCS Nanobeam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN QinHua; WANG YueLin; LI Tie; LI XinXin; XU FangFang

    2008-01-01

    In-situ tensile testing in TEM (transmission electron microscopy) is a useful tool for studying mechanical properties of nano-structures because it can provide quanti- tative information on sample deformation at atomic scale. To facilitate in-situ TEM tensile testa of SCS (single crystal silicon) nanobeam, a MEMS tensile-testing chip was designed and fabricated. The chip was fabricated by means of bulk micro- machining and wafer bonding techniques. An SCS nanobeam, a comb drive ac- tuator, a force sensor beam and an electron beam window were integrated into the chip. With the on-chip comb-drive-actuator stretching the nanobeam and in-situ TEM observation, tensile test on a 90 nm-thick nanobeam was performed and the strain-stress relationship was obtained. The Young's modulus was fitted to be 161 GPa and did not show the size effect.

  17. A MEMS Device for in-situ TEM Test of SCS Nanobeam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In-situ tensile testing in TEM (transmission electron microscopy) is a useful tool for studying mechanical properties of nano-structures because it can provide quanti-tative information on sample deformation at atomic scale. To facilitate in-situ TEM tensile tests of SCS (single crystal silicon) nanobeam, a MEMS tensile-testing chip was designed and fabricated. The chip was fabricated by means of bulk micro-machining and wafer bonding techniques. An SCS nanobeam, a comb drive ac-tuator, a force sensor beam and an electron beam window were integrated into the chip. With the on-chip comb-drive-actuator stretching the nanobeam and in-situ TEM observation, tensile test on a 90 nm-thick nanobeam was performed and the strain-stress relationship was obtained. The Young’s modulus was fitted to be 161 GPa and did not show the size effect.

  18. MEMS器件及其设备%MEMS Device and its Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁寿松

    2008-01-01

    MEMS (Microelectro mechanical system)器件是一种微型机电一体化的SOC.2008年MEMS器件市场为72.97亿美元,2011年将达到108亿美元,2006~2011年年复合平均增长率为13%.2011年MEMS系统级市场将达720亿美元.MEMS器件中发展最快的器件是传感器MEMS、光MEMS和RFMEMS.MEMS器件的应用已从汽车电子转向消费类电子领域.MEMS器件用于Wii无线游戏机与iphone是2007年MEMS器件应用的最大亮点.MEMS器件的制造类同IC制造,光刻、刻蚀、CVD和CMP设备都可兼用.

  19. Quantum dots light emitting devices on MEMS: microcontact printing, near-field imaging, and early cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Ashwini; Hoshino, Kazunori; Zhang, John X. J.

    2011-08-01

    Controlled patterning of light emitting devices on semiconductors and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) enables a vast variety of applications such as structured illumination, large-area flexible displays, integrated optoelectronic systems and micro-total analysis systems for real-time biomedical screening. We have demonstrated a series of techniques of creating quantum dot-based (QD) patterned inorganic light emitting devices at room temperature on silicon (Si) substrate. The innovative technology was translated to create localized QD-based light sources for two applications: (1) Three-dimensional scanning probe tip structures for near field imaging. Combined topographic and optical images were acquired using this new class of "self-illuminating" probe in commercial NSOM. The emission wavelength can be tuned through quantum-size effect of QDs. (2) Multispectral excitation sources integrated with microfluidic channels for tumor cell analyses. We were able to detect the variation of sub-cellular features, such as the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, to quantify the absorption at different wavelength upon the near-field illumination of individual tumor cells towards the determination of cancer developmental stage.

  20. memCUDA: Map Device Memory to Host Memory on GPGPU Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hai; Li, Bo; Zhang, Qin; Ao, Wenbing

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) programming environment from NVIDIA is a milestone towards making programming many-core GPUs more flexible to programmers. However, there are still many challenges for programmers when using CUDA. One is how to deal with GPU device memory, and data transfer between host memory and GPU device memory explicitly. In this study, source-to-source compiling and runtime library technologies are used to implement an experimental p...

  1. Electromagnetic actuation in MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Chemnitz, Steffen

    . Electromagnetic actuation is a very promising approach to operate such MEMS and Power MEMS devices, due to the long range, reproducible and strong forces generated by this method, among other advantages. However, the use of electromagnetic actuation in such devices requires the use of thick magnetic films, which...

  2. MEMS器件及其设备%MEMS Devices and Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁寿松

    2009-01-01

    MEMS(Microelectro mechanical system)器件是一种微型机电一体化的SOC.2008年MEMS器件市场为72.97亿美元,2011年将达到108亿美元,2006-2011年年复合平均增长率为13%.2011年MEMS系统级市场将达720亿美元.MEMS器件中发展最快的器件是传感器MEMS、光MEMS和REMEMS.MEMS器件的应用已从汽车电子转向消费类电子领域.MEMS器件用于Wil无线游戏机与iphone是2007年MEMS器件应用的最大亮点.MEMS器件的制造类同IC制造,光刻、刻蚀、CVD和CMP设备都可兼用.

  3. High aspect-ratio MEMS devices for the next generation of THz/MHz passive components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of efficient passive devices directly on chip represents one of the most intriguing challenges in IC fabrication processes. The performance of such devices are intrinsically determined by physical parameters that cannot be easily scaled, making the on-chip integration of such compone

  4. MEMS device for bending test: measurements of fatigue and creep of electroplated nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue;

    2003-01-01

    In situ bending test devices with integrated electrostatic actuator were fabricated in electroplated nanocrystalline nickel. The device features approximately pure in-plane bending of the test beam. The excitation of the test beam has fixed displacement amplitude as the actuation electrodes are o...

  5. High aspect-ratio MEMS devices for the next generation of THz/MHz passive components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of efficient passive devices directly on chip represents one of the most intriguing challenges in IC fabrication processes. The performance of such devices are intrinsically determined by physical parameters that cannot be easily scaled, making the on-chip integration of such

  6. Integrated design of MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Brissaud, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Emerging technologies of Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) are applications such as airbag accelerometers. Micro-products present many physical differences from macro-products. Moreover, there is a high level of integration in multiple fields of physics with strongly coupled effects. Manufac...... industrial immersion to propose a socio-technological description of the design process and MEMS design tools........ Manufacturing is mainly coming from the silicon industry. Our interest is to highlight the differences between designing MEMS and designing classical ICs or mechanical devices, to propose new methods and aided-tools supporting the design process. Our methodology is based on an ethnographic approach through...

  7. Radiation-transport method to simulate noncontinuum gas flows for MEMS devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2004-01-01

    A Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) typically consists of micron-scale parts that move through a gas at atmospheric or reduced pressure. In this situation, the gas-molecule mean free path is comparable to the geometric features of the microsystem, so the gas flow is noncontinuum. When mean-free-path effects cannot be neglected, the Boltzmann equation must be used to describe the gas flow. Solution of the Boltzmann equation is difficult even for the simplest case because of its sevenfold dimensionality (one temporal dimension, three spatial dimensions, and three velocity dimensions) and because of the integral nature of the collision term. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the method of choice to simulate high-speed noncontinuum flows. However, since DSMC uses computational molecules to represent the gas, the inherent statistical noise must be minimized by sampling large numbers of molecules. Since typical microsystem velocities are low (< 1 m/s) compared to molecular velocities ({approx}400 m/s), the number of molecular samples required to achieve 1% precision can exceed 1010 per cell. The Discrete Velocity Gas (DVG) method, an approach motivated by radiation transport, provides another way to simulate noncontinuum gas flows. Unlike DSMC, the DVG method restricts molecular velocities to have only certain discrete values. The transport of the number density of a velocity state is governed by a discrete Boltzmann equation that has one temporal dimension and three spatial dimensions and a polynomial collision term. Specification and implementation of DVG models are discussed, and DVG models are applied to Couette flow and to Fourier flow. While the DVG results for these benchmark problems are qualitatively correct, the errors in the shear stress and the heat flux can be order-unity even for DVG models with 88 velocity states. It is concluded that the DVG method, as described herein, is not sufficiently accurate to simulate the low-speed gas flows

  8. Fabrication and assembly of MEMS accelerometer-based heart monitoring device with simplified, one step placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjulkins, Fjodors; Nguyen, Anh-Tuan Thai; Andreassen, Erik; Aasmundtveit, Knut; Hoivik, Nils; Hoff, Lars; Halvorsen, Per Steinar; Grymyr, Ole-Johannes; Imenes, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    An accelerometer-based heart monitoring system has been developed for real-time evaluation of heart wall movement. In this paper, assembly and fabrication of an improved device is presented along with system characterization and test data from an animal experiment. The new device is smaller and has simplified the implantation procedure compared to earlier prototypes. Leakage current recordings were well below those set by the corresponding standards.

  9. An Implantable MEMS Drug Delivery Device for Rapid Delivery in Ambulatory Emergency Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    even engaged 2 telemetrically, as opposed to passive devices that depend on the degradation chemistry of the specific device materials in the...cardioverter-defibrillator," American Journal of Cardiology , vol. 85, pp. 981-985, 2000. A. C. R. Grayson, I. S. Choi, B. M. Tyler, P. P. Wang...cardioverter defibrillator patients," Journal of Interventional Cardiology , vol. 11, pp. 205-211, 1998. M. Staples, K. Daniel, M. J. Cima, and R

  10. MEMS For Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    at 5, 10, and 20 MHz. These devices were then delivered to Raytheon TI Systems for vacuum packaging , using a technology they developed under the DARPA...MTO MEMS Pro- gram. After vacuum packaging into DIP packages, dies were sent back to the University of Michigan for final evaluations, then sent out...environment, this grant also investigated vacuum - packaging methods. To be consistent with the bonding approach used for MEMS/transistor merging, and to

  11. MEMS: Enabled Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Angelica; Sheybani, Roya; Meng, Ellis

    2015-05-01

    Drug delivery systems play a crucial role in the treatment and management of medical conditions. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies have allowed the development of advanced miniaturized devices for medical and biological applications. This Review presents the use of MEMS technologies to produce drug delivery devices detailing the delivery mechanisms, device formats employed, and various biomedical applications. The integration of dosing control systems, examples of commercially available microtechnology-enabled drug delivery devices, remaining challenges, and future outlook are also discussed.

  12. MEMS reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Hartzell, Allyson L; Shea, Herbert R

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on the reliability and manufacturability of MEMS at a fundamental level. It demonstrates how to design MEMs for reliability and provides detailed information on the different types of failure modes and how to avoid them.

  13. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  14. Fabrication of a LCP-based conductivity cell and resistive temperature device via PCB MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Heather A.; Ivanov, Stanislav Z.; Fries, David P.

    2007-04-01

    Printed circuit board microelectromechanical systems are a set of fabrication techniques that use traditional inexpensive printed circuit board processes to construct microsensors. These techniques keep gaining popularity and are utilized herein. The design, fabrication and construction of a miniature, low-cost conductivity cell and resistive temperature device transducers are presented. The transducers utilize a liquid crystal polymer (LCP), a thin-film material, which exhibits moisture resistant properties that makes it suitable for aquatic applications. Novel processing techniques that are reported here include the use of a direct-write photolithography tool eliminating the use of photomasks and chemical catalytic metallization of LCP material. The rapid fabrication of these devices and the repeatability of the fabrication are demonstrated by comparing the calibration of multiple devices. The sensors' sensitivities are found to be 1082.40 ± 144.18 mS cm-1 per siemens and 5.910 ± 0.765 °C per ohm for the conductivity and temperature transducers, respectively.

  15. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2004-03-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  16. MEMS biomedical implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Yuchong

    2012-01-01

    The field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) has advanced tremendously for the last 20 years. Most commercially noticeably, the field has successfully advanced from pressure sensors to micro physical sensors, such as accelerometers and gyros, for handheld electronics application. In parallel, MEMS has also advanced into micro total analysis system(TAS) and/or lab-on-a-chip applications. This article would discuss a relatively new but promising future direction towards MEMS biomedical implants. Specifically, Parylene C has been explored to be used as a good MEMS implant material and will be discussed in detail. Demonstrated implant devices, such as retinal and spinal cord implants, are presented in this article.

  17. Performance of PZT based MEMS devices with integrated ZnO electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Margeaux

    This thesis describes routes to enable increased understanding and performance of lead zirconate titanate-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Emphasis was placed on monolithic integration with interposer electronics, and in understanding the role of mechanical boundary conditions on the ferroelectric/ferroelastic response. Co-processing of ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) with Pb(Zr0.52 Ti0.48)0.98Nb0.02O3 (PZT)-based piezoelectrics was investigated to assess whether interposer electronics on PZT can serve as a control scheme for large area arrays of sensors or actuators. ZnO TFT processing produced no measured changes in remanent polarization, dielectric constant, loss tangent, or aging rates. The TFT performance also did not degrade when fabricated on top of the PZT, the mobility (> 24 cm/Vs) remaining comparable to TFTs deposited on glass. To show ZnO array integration, a 5x5 array of PZT capacitors on glass was fabricated as a prototype for an adjustable X-ray mirror, where the ZnO TFT were used for row-column addressing of the actuators. 1.5 mum thick sputter deposited PZT on glass patterned with large area (cm2) electrodes had a dielectric constant of >1200, tandelta ˜ 2% and an average remanent polarization >23 muC/cm 2. Photoreactive benzocyclobutene (BCB) electrically isolated the ZnO TFTs from the top electrodes of the piezoelectric. Flex cables were bonded to the wafer using anisotropic conductive film (ACF) to connect the gates (row control) and the drains (column control) in the TFT array to a control box. It was found that when actuating the PZT cells through the TFT array, the glass mirror experienced approximately 1.5 mum of deflection for a 10 V application. Studies on ferroelectric/ferroelastic domain reorientation were also performed on 1.9 mum thick tetragonal {001} oriented PbZr0.3Ti 0.7O3 films doped with 1% Mn. Different mechanical boundary constraints were investigated and domain reorientation was quantified through the intensity

  18. Optimized release matrices for use in a BioMEMS device to study metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ashley; Williams, James; Padgen, Michael; Keely, Patricia; Condeelis, John; Castracane, James

    2013-03-01

    Multiple changes within the tumor microenvironment have been correlated with an increase in metastasis, yet the mechanisms are not fully understood. Tumor cells can be stimulated by the release of chemoattractant factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) from nearby stromal cells, resulting in increased intravasation and metastasis. Additionally, altered extracellular matrix density can result in changes in gene expression patterns governing increased cellular proliferation and motility. The Nano Intravital Device (NANIVID) has been used to produce gradients of select soluble factors in the tumor microenvironment and to study the role of these changes on cell migration. In previous studies, the NANIVID utilized a synthetic hydrogel to produce an EGF gradient to attract metastatic breast cancer cells. In this work, a matrigel insert will be introduced into the outlet to provide a substrate for cells to migrate on when entering the device. The concentration of the chemoattractant and matrigel comprising the insert will be optimized to produce a suitable gradient for inducing chemotaxis in metastatic breast cancer cells in vitro. Additionally, silk and alginate matrices will be explored as improved soluble factor release mediums. Delivery of larger molecules such as collagen cross-linkers requires an alternative hydrogel material. Future NANIVID experiments will utilize these materials to gauge the cellular motility response when a stiffer matrix is encountered.

  19. Novel Fabrication and Simple Hybridization of Exotic Material MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, P.G.; Rajic, S.

    1999-11-13

    Work in materials other than silicon for MEMS applications has typically been restricted to metals and metal oxides instead of more ''exotic'' semiconductors. However, group III-V and II-VI semiconductors form a very important and versatile collection of material and electronic parameters available to the MEMS and MOEMS designer. With these materials, not only are the traditional mechanical material variables (thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young's modulus, etc.) available, but also chemical constituents can be varied in ternary and quaternary materials. This flexibility can be extremely important for both friction and chemical compatibility issues for MEMS. In addition, the ability to continually vary the bandgap energy can be particularly useful for many electronics and infrared detection applications. However, there are two major obstacles associated with alternate semiconductor material MEMS. The first issue is the actual fabrication of non-silicon devices and the second impediment is communicating with these novel devices. We will describe an essentially material independent fabrication method that is amenable to most group III-V and II-VI semiconductors. This technique uses a combination of non-traditional direct write precision fabrication processes such as diamond turning, ion milling, laser ablation, etc. This type of deterministic fabrication approach lends itself to an almost trivial assembly process. We will also describe in detail the mechanical, electrical, and optical self-aligning hybridization technique used for these alternate-material MEMS.

  20. Piezoelectric MEMS resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces piezoelectric microelectromechanical (pMEMS) resonators to a broad audience by reviewing design techniques including use of finite element modeling, testing and qualification of resonators, and fabrication and large scale manufacturing techniques to help inspire future research and entrepreneurial activities in pMEMS. The authors discuss the most exciting developments in the area of materials and devices for the making of piezoelectric MEMS resonators, and offer direct examples of the technical challenges that need to be overcome in order to commercialize these types of devices. Some of the topics covered include: Widely-used piezoelectric materials, as well as materials in which there is emerging interest Principle of operation and design approaches for the making of flexural, contour-mode, thickness-mode, and shear-mode piezoelectric resonators, and examples of practical implementation of these devices Large scale manufacturing approaches, with a focus on the practical aspects associate...

  1. MEMS technologies for rf communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Kim, B. K.

    2001-04-01

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) represents an exciting new technology derived from the same fabricating processes used to make integrated circuits. The trends of growing importance of the wireless communications market is toward the system with minimal size, cost and power consumption. For the purpose of MEMS R&D used for wireless communications, a history and present situation of MEMS device development are reviewed in this paper, and an overview of MEMS research topics on RF communication applications and the state of the art technologies are also presented here.

  2. A nonlinear MEMS electrostatic kinetic energy harvester for human-powered biomedical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Cottone, F.; Boisseau, S.; Marty, F.; Galayko, D.; Basset, P.

    2015-12-01

    This article proposes a silicon-based electrostatic kinetic energy harvester with an ultra-wide operating frequency bandwidth from 1 Hz to 160 Hz. This large bandwidth is obtained, thanks to a miniature tungsten ball impacting with a movable proof mass of silicon. The motion of the silicon proof mass is confined by nonlinear elastic stoppers on the fixed part standing against two protrusions of the proof mass. The electrostatic transducer is made of interdigited-combs with a gap-closing variable capacitance that includes vertical electrets obtained by corona discharge. Below 10 Hz, the e-KEH offers 30.6 nJ per mechanical oscillation at 2 grms, which makes it suitable for powering biomedical devices from human motion. Above 10 Hz and up to 162 Hz, the harvested power is more than 0.5 μW with a maximum of 4.5 μW at 160 Hz. The highest power of 6.6 μW is obtained without the ball at 432 Hz, in accordance with a power density of 142 μW/cm3. We also demonstrate the charging of a 47-μF capacitor to 3.5 V used to power a battery-less wireless temperature sensor node.

  3. A nonlinear MEMS electrostatic kinetic energy harvester for human-powered biomedical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Cottone, F.; Marty, F.; Basset, P., E-mail: p.basset@esiee.fr [Université Paris-Est/ESYCOM/ESIEE Paris, Noisy-le-Grand 93162 (France); Boisseau, S. [CEA, Leti, Minatec Campus, Grenoble 38054 (France); Galayko, D. [UPMC-Sorbonne Université/LIP 6, CNRS, Paris 75005 (France)

    2015-12-21

    This article proposes a silicon-based electrostatic kinetic energy harvester with an ultra-wide operating frequency bandwidth from 1 Hz to 160 Hz. This large bandwidth is obtained, thanks to a miniature tungsten ball impacting with a movable proof mass of silicon. The motion of the silicon proof mass is confined by nonlinear elastic stoppers on the fixed part standing against two protrusions of the proof mass. The electrostatic transducer is made of interdigited-combs with a gap-closing variable capacitance that includes vertical electrets obtained by corona discharge. Below 10 Hz, the e-KEH offers 30.6 nJ per mechanical oscillation at 2 g{sub rms}, which makes it suitable for powering biomedical devices from human motion. Above 10 Hz and up to 162 Hz, the harvested power is more than 0.5 μW with a maximum of 4.5 μW at 160 Hz. The highest power of 6.6 μW is obtained without the ball at 432 Hz, in accordance with a power density of 142 μW/cm{sup 3}. We also demonstrate the charging of a 47-μF capacitor to 3.5 V used to power a battery-less wireless temperature sensor node.

  4. 78 FR 14015 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Powered Patient Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... chairs (which are different from wheelchairs) continue to require submission of 510(k)s. FDA is... known as stairway chair lifts. These devices are used to assist in the transfer of a person with a... stairway chair lifts, class II devices, from premarket notification and establishes conditions for...

  5. Mixed-domain simulation and hybrid wafer-level packaging of RF-MEMS devices for wireless applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacci, Jacopo

    2007-01-01

    In questa tesi verranno trattati sia il problema della creazione di un ambiente di simulazione a domini fisici misti per dispositivi RF-MEMS, che la definizione di un processo di fabbricazione ad-hoc per il packaging e l’integrazione degli stessi. Riguardo al primo argomento, sarà mostrato nel dettaglio lo sviluppo di una libreria di modelli MEMS all’interno dell’ambiente di simulazione per circuiti integrati Cadence c . L’approccio scelto per la definizione del comportamento elettromeccanico...

  6. Buffering Implications for the Design Space of Streaming MEMS Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Mohammed G.; Abelmann, Leon; Preas, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Emerging nanotechnology-based systems encounter new non-functional requirements. This work addresses MEMS storage, an emerging technology that promises ultrahigh density and energy-efficient storage devices. We study the buffering requirement of MEMS storage in streaming applications. We show that capacity and lifetime of a MEMS device dictate the buffer size most of the time. Our study shows that trading off 10% of the optimal energy saving of a MEMS device reduces its buffer capacity by up ...

  7. Thermal MEMS gyroscope design and characteristics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei, Nilgoon

    2013-01-01

    Thermal MEMS gyroscope characteristics have been studied to optimize gyroscope performance. Different parameters such as gas properties, heaters power and switching frequency have been optimized to increase the device sensitivity. A new Thermal MEMS gyroscope model referred to as “Forced Convection MEMS Gyroscope” has been introduced. In this design the output signal has been increased by adding external force to the system. Parameter optimization to increase the device efficiency has also...

  8. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  9. MEMS fluidic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Johnston, Gabriel A.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat

    2007-07-24

    The present invention comprises a novel, lightweight, massively parallel device comprising microelectromechanical (MEMS) fluidic actuators, to reconfigure the profile, of a surface. Each microfluidic actuator comprises an independent bladder that can act as both a sensor and an actuator. A MEMS sensor, and a MEMS valve within each microfluidic actuator, operate cooperatively to monitor the fluid within each bladder, and regulate the flow of the fluid entering and exiting each bladder. When adjacently spaced in a array, microfluidic actuators can create arbitrary surface profiles in response to a change in the operating environment of the surface. In an embodiment of the invention, the profile of an airfoil is controlled by independent extension and contraction of a plurality of actuators, that operate to displace a compliant cover.

  10. 基于Weibull分布的MEMS器件冲击可靠性建模%MODELING FOR THE SHOCK RELIABILITY OF MEMS DEVICES BASED ON WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永泉; 陈花玲; 赵建平; 朱子才

    2013-01-01

    提出一种针对MEMS(micro-electro-mechanical systems)器件机械失效进行可靠性建模与预测的概率方法.首先从材料力学性能的尺寸效应出发,介绍脆性材料断裂强度的不确定性及其Weibull概率分布;然后,针对典型的MEMS表面微加工工艺,推导得出基于牺牲层技术的淀积薄膜结构残余热应力表达式;在此基础上,以一种悬臂式MEMS多晶硅器件在冲击载荷下的断裂失效为研究实例,建立体现其尺度、工艺及载荷特性的可靠性分析模型,并利用相关文献对多晶硅力学性能的测试数据,对该器件的冲击可靠度进行定量计算.结果表明典型多晶硅MEMS结构具有高达103g ~104g数量级的抗冲击能力(g为重力加速度).同时可看出,MEMS可靠性受多种关联因素的综合影响,准确的可靠性建模及设计在很大程度上依赖于大量的微尺度下材料性能或行为的基础性实验数据.%A probabilistic approach to model and predict the reliability of MEMS ( micro-electro-mechanical systems) devices is proposed. Starting from the size effect of microstructures, the Weibull probability distribution for describing the uncertainty of brittle materials' fracture strength is presented at first. Then, aiming at a typical MEMS surface micro-machining process, which is characterized as the chemical vapor deposition and sacrificial layer technology, the thermal residual stress of thin films is derived. Based on this, the reliability assessment on the fracture failure of a polysilicon cantilevered device under shock load is performed as a case study. A reliability model of the device is established, which incorporates the scale, process and load characteristics to some extent. Using the testing data for the mechanical properties of polysilicon material provided by the relevant literatures, the quantitative shock reliability of the device is calculated. The analysis show that typical polysilicon MEMS structures can

  11. Percutaneous Steerable Robotic Tool Delivery Platform and Metal MEMS Device for Tissue Manipulation and Approximation: Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Gosline, Andrew H.; Butler, Evan; Lang, Nora; Codd, Patrick J.; Yamauchi, Haruo; Feins, Eric N.; Folk, Chris R.; Cohen, Adam L.; Chen, Richard; Zurakowski, David; del Nido, Pedro J.; Dupont, Pierre E

    2013-01-01

    Background Beating-heart image-guided intracardiac interventions have been evolving rapidly. To extend the domain of catheter-based and transcardiac interventions into reconstructive surgery, a new robotic tool delivery platform (TDP) and tissue approximation device have been developed. Initial results employing these tools to perform patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure are described. Methods and Results A robotic TDP comprised of superelastic metal tubes provides the capability of delivering and manipulating tools and devices inside the beating heart. A new device technology is also presented that utilizes a metal-based MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) manufacturing process to produce fully-assembled and fully-functional millimeter-scale tools. As a demonstration of both technologies, a PFO creation and closure was performed in a swine model. In the first group of animals (N=10), a preliminary study was performed. The procedural technique was validated with a transcardiac handheld delivery platform and epicardial echocardiography, video-assisted cardioscopy and fluoroscopy. In the second group (N=9), the procedure was performed percutaneously using the robotic TDP under epicardial echocardiography and fluoroscopy imaging. All PFO’s were completely closed in the first group. In the second group, the PFO was not successfully created in 1 animal, and the defects were completely closed in 6 of the 8 remaining animals. Conclusions In contrast to existing robotic catheter technologies, the robotic TDP utilizes a combination of stiffness and active steerability along its length to provide the positioning accuracy and force application capability necessary for tissue manipulation. In combination with a MEMS tool technology, it can enable reconstructive procedures inside the beating heart. PMID:23899870

  12. Study on W2W Vacuum Package for MEMS Device%MEMS器件的W2 W真空封装研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳

    2015-01-01

    A simple wafer-level vacuum packaging method based on W2W process was developed for MEMS device.The sold-er frames with Cu and Sn metallization layers were deposited on both MEMS device wafer and cap wafer with electroplating process. MEMS device wafer and cap wafer were kept for 10 min in vacuum of 0.01 Pa and at the temperature of 160℃to create vacuum. Then the wafers were bonded together through the inter diffusion process of elemental Cu and Sn by keeping for 30 min at 270℃and 4 MPa.The intermetallic Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 was confirmed by measuring the weight ratio of elemental Cu and Sn in bonding region.The strength of bonding area of single chip was characterized by shear testing,calculating shear strength for bonding area was 32.20 MPa.%开发了一种适于MEMS器件的基于W2W(圆片对圆片)工艺的简易的圆片级真空封装方法。通过电镀工艺在MEMS器件圆片和封盖圆片上各沉积含5μm Cu和1.5μm Sn金属层的键合环。器件圆片和封盖圆片在160℃及0.01 Pa的真空环境中保持10 min以形成真空,之后在270℃及4 MPa保持30 min通过Cu和Sn的互溶扩散工艺完成键合。测量键合区内Cu元素和Sn元素的重量比,证实形成了Cu3 Sn和Cu6 Sn5金属间化合物。通过剪切力测试对单个芯片的键合面强度进行标定,计算剪切强度达32.20 MPa。

  13. Topology optimized RF MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, M. A.; Zareie, H.; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Topology optimization is a rigorous and powerful method that should become a standard MEMS design tool - it can produce unique and non-intuitive designs that meet complex objectives and can dramatically improve the performance and reliability of MEMS devices. We present successful uses of topology...... optimization for an RF MEM capacitive switch. Extensive experimental data confirms that the switches perform as designed by the optimizations, and that our simulation models are accurate. A subset of measurements are presented here. Broader results have been submitted in full journal format....

  14. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  15. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  16. Medical devices; exemption from premarket notification; class II devices; wheelchair elevator. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing an order granting a petition requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical platform lifts. These devices are used to provide a means for a person with a mobility impairment caused by injury or other disease to move from one level to another, usually in a wheelchair. This order exempts wheelchair elevators, class II devices, from premarket notification and establishes conditions for exemption for this device that will provide a reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device without submission of a premarket notification (510(k)). This exemption from 510(k), subject to these conditions, is immediately in effect for wheelchair elevators. All other devices classified under FDA's wheelchair elevator regulations, including attendant-operated stair climbing devices for wheelchairs and portable platform lifts, continue to require submission of 510(k)s. FDA is publishing this order in accordance with the section of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permitting the exemption of a device from the requirement to submit a 510(k).

  17. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, WILLIAM D.; EATON, WILLIAM P.; MALSHE, AJAY P.; MILLER, WILLIAM M.; O' NEAL, CHAD; SINGH, SUSHILA B.

    1999-09-24

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is much different from conventional integrated circuit (IC) packaging. Many MEMS devices must interface to the environment in order to perform their intended function, and the package must be able to facilitate access with the environment while protecting the device. The package must also not interfere with or impede the operation of the MEMS device. The die attachment material should be low stress, and low outgassing, while also minimizing stress relaxation overtime which can lead to scale factor shifts in sensor devices. The fabrication processes used in creating the devices must be compatible with each other, and not result in damage to the devices. Many devices are application specific requiring custom packages that are not commercially available. Devices may also need media compatible packages that can protect the devices from harsh environments in which the MEMS device may operate. Techniques are being developed to handle, process, and package the devices such that high yields of functional packaged parts will result. Currently, many of the processing steps are potentially harmful to MEMS devices and negatively affect yield. It is the objective of this paper to review and discuss packaging challenges that exist for MEMS systems and to expose these issues to new audiences from the integrated circuit packaging community.

  18. Wafer-level vacuum/hermetic packaging technologies for MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Mitchell, Jay; Welch, Warren; Lee, Sangwoo; Najafi, Khalil

    2010-02-01

    An overview of wafer-level packaging technologies developed at the University of Michigan is presented. Two sets of packaging technologies are discussed: (i) a low temperature wafer-level packaging processes for vacuum/hermeticity sealing, and (ii) an environmentally resistant packaging (ERP) technology for thermal and mechanical control as well as vacuum packaging. The low temperature wafer-level encapsulation processes are implemented using solder bond rings which are first patterned on a cap wafer and then mated with a device wafer in order to encircle and encapsulate the device at temperatures ranging from 200 to 390 °C. Vacuum levels below 10 mTorr were achieved with yields in an optimized process of better than 90%. Pressures were monitored for more than 4 years yielding important information on reliability and process control. The ERP adopts an environment isolation platform in the packaging substrate. The isolation platform is designed to provide low power oven-control, vibration isolation and shock protection. It involves batch flip-chip assembly of a MEMS device onto the isolation platform wafer. The MEMS device and isolation structure are encapsulated at the wafer-level by another substrate with vertical feedthroughs for vacuum/hermetic sealing and electrical signal connections. This technology was developed for high performance gyroscopes, but can be applied to any type of MEMS device.

  19. Design of Surface Micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-12-31

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMs, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focused on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  20. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  1. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-08-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  2. TOPAZ II Anti-Criticality Device Rapid Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Donald R.; Otting, William D.

    1994-07-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) has been working on a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Project (NEPSTP) using an existing Russian Topaz II reactor system to power the NEPSTP satellite. Safety investigations have shown that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the United States with some modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A ``fuel-out'' water subcriticality concept was selected by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as the baseline concept. A fuel-out anti-criticality device (ACD) conceptual design was developed by Rockwell. The concept functions to hold the fuel from the four centermost thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) outside the reactor during launch and reliably inserts the fuel into the reactor once the operational orbit is achieved. A four-tenths scale ACD rapid prototype model, fabricated from the CATIA solids design model, clearly shows in three dimensions the relative size and spatial relationship of the ACD components.

  3. MEMS/MOEMS application to optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2001-09-01

    The paper describes brief summary of current MEMS technology and its application to optics. The optical application is one of the most important applications of MEMS because of two reasons; one is that the micromachine technology can provide high performances and new functionalities for optical systems and the other is that those optical microsystems can satisfy market demands for optical communication networks, displays, data storage and sensors. Opportunities for MEMS-based devices in optical communication networks are discussed. Some specific examples of MEMS optical switches are described.

  4. Surface chemistry and tribology of MEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic length scale and high surface-to-volume ratio, characteristic of microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS), dictate that surface properties are of paramount importance. This review deals with the effects of surface chemical treatments on tribological properties (adhesion, friction, and wear) of MEMS devices. After a brief review of materials and processes that are utilized in MEMS technology, the relevant tribological and chemical issues are discussed. Various MEMS microinstruments are discussed, which are commonly employed to perform adhesion, friction, and wear measurements. The effects of different surface treatments on the reported tribological properties are discussed.

  5. Evolutionary Computation Applied to the Tuning of MEMS Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Fink, Wolfgang; Ferguson, Michael I.; Peay, Chris; Oks, Boris; Terrile, Richard; Yee, Karl

    2005-01-01

    We propose a tuning method for MEMS gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation to efficiently increase the sensitivity of MEMS gyroscopes through tuning and, furthermore, to find the optimally tuned configuration for this state of increased sensitivity. The tuning method was tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-resonator MEMS gyroscope using the measurement of the frequency response of the MEMS device in open-loop operation.

  6. 76 FR 13433 - In the Matter of Certain Mems Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... encompass the entire system, would the claim cover a method in which the wafer is inserted into, and the... connection with this investigation are or will be available for inspection during official business hours (8... Devices, Inc. (``Analog Devices'') of Norwood, Massachusetts. 75 FR 449-50 (Jan. 5, 2010). The...

  7. Remotely accessible laboratory for MEMS testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Mulsow, Matthew; Melinger, Aaron; Lacouture, Shelby; Dallas, Tim E.

    2010-02-01

    We report on the construction of a remotely accessible and interactive laboratory for testing microdevices (aka: MicroElectroMechancial Systems - MEMS). Enabling expanded utilization of microdevices for research, commercial, and educational purposes is very important for driving the creation of future MEMS devices and applications. Unfortunately, the relatively high costs associated with MEMS devices and testing infrastructure makes widespread access to the world of MEMS difficult. The creation of a virtual lab to control and actuate MEMS devices over the internet helps spread knowledge to a larger audience. A host laboratory has been established that contains a digital microscope, microdevices, controllers, and computers that can be logged into through the internet. The overall layout of the tele-operated MEMS laboratory system can be divided into two major parts: the server side and the client side. The server-side is present at Texas Tech University, and hosts a server machine that runs the Linux operating system and is used for interfacing the MEMS lab with the outside world via internet. The controls from the clients are transferred to the lab side through the server interface. The server interacts with the electronics required to drive the MEMS devices using a range of National Instruments hardware and LabView Virtual Instruments. An optical microscope (100 ×) with a CCD video camera is used to capture images of the operating MEMS. The server broadcasts the live video stream over the internet to the clients through the website. When the button is pressed on the website, the MEMS device responds and the video stream shows the movement in close to real time.

  8. High-frequency Lamb wave device composed of MEMS structure using LiNbO3 thin film and air gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Michio; Ogami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kansho; Tochishita, Hikari; Negoro, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-01

    High-frequency devices operating at 3 GHz or higher are required, for instance, for future 4th generation mobile phone systems in Japan. Using a substrate with a high acoustic velocity is one method to realize a high-frequency acoustic or elastic device. A Lamb wave has a high velocity when the substrate thickness is thin. To realize a high-frequency device operating at 3 GHz or higher using a Lamb wave, a very thin (less than 0.5 μm thick) single-crystal plate must be used. It is difficult to fabricate such a very thin single crystal plate. The authors have attempted to use a c-axis orientated epitaxial LiNbO(3) thin film deposited by a chemical vapor deposition system (CVD) instead of using a thin LiNbO(3) single crystal plate. Lamb wave resonators composed of a interdigital transducer (IDT)/the LiNbO(3) film/air gap/base substrate structure like micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) transducers were fabricated. These resonators have shown a high frequency of 4.5 and 6.3 GHz, which correspond to very high acoustic velocities of 14,000 and 12,500 m/s, respectively, have excellent characteristics such as a ratio of resonant and antiresonant impedance of 52 and 38 dB and a wide band of 7.2% and 3.7%, respectively, and do not have spurious responses caused by the 0th modes of shear horizontal (SH(0)) and symmetric (S(0)) modes.

  9. Code mechanical solidification and verification in MEMS security devices%微机械电子系统安全器件中的密码机械固化与校验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫平; 陈文元; 赵小林; 李胜勇; 姜勇

    2006-01-01

    The virtual machine of code mechanism (VMCM) as a new concept for code mechanical solidification and verification is proposed and can be applied in MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) security device for high consequence systems. Based on a study of the running condition of physical code mechanism, VMCM' s configuration, ternary encoding method, running action and logic are derived. The cases of multi-level code mechanism are designed and verified with the VMCM method, showing that the presented method is effective.

  10. Conceptual design of the Topaz II anticriticality device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, D.; Bultman, D.; Potter, R.C.; Sanchez, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Skobelev, V.E. [CDBMB, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-01

    The Topaz II Flight Safety team requires that the hardware for the Rusian-built reactor be modified to ensure that the reactor remains subcritical in the event of an inadvertent accident in which the reactor is submersed in wet sand or water. In April 1993, the American Flight safety team chose the fuel-out anticriticality device as the baseline for the hardware design. We describe the initial stages of the hardware design; show how the mechanism works; and describe its function, the functional and operational requirements, and the difficult design problems encountered. Also described, are the initial interactions between the Russian and American design teams. Because the effort is to add an American modification to a Russian flight reactor, this project has required unusual technical cooperation and consultation with the Russian design team.

  11. Development of electric power generation system for bio-MEMS device by using a new bio-compatible piezoelectric material MgSiO[sub]3[/sub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Hideyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji; Morita, Yusuke

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the energy harvester for Bio-MEMS device using a new bio-compatible piezoelectric thin film was developed. At first, we generated MgSiO3 (MSO) thin film on Ti and Cu buffer layers and Si (100) substrate by using RF-magnetron sputtering procedure. We measured the crystallography orientation by employing the X-ray diffractometer and the piezoelectric properties with the ferroelectric measurement system. We confirmed that MgSiO3(111) crystal had been generated on Cu/Ti/Si (100) substrate. Its displacement-voltage curve indicated the typical butterfly type hysteresis loop, which meant MgSiO3(111) thin film had piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric strain constant d33 was calculated by adopting the displacement-voltage curve, such as 181.5 pm/V. Further, the polarization properties of the MSO thin films were measured. The spontaneous polarization and remnant polarization are 0.89 μC/cm2 and 1.06 μC/cm2. Then, we adopted interdigitated-shape electrodes on MSO film in order to generate the d33 mode of the piezoelectric transducer. Accordingly, the generated voltage was estimated as 3.19 V by employing finite element method, ANSYS. We fabricated a monomorph type MSO piezoelectric cantilever for harvesting the vibration energy by employing the semiconductor process technologies. At last we will show results of performance assessment of our MSO piezoelectric harvester.

  12. Practical guide to RF-MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Iannacci, Jacopo

    2013-01-01

    Closes the gap between hardcore-theoretical and purely experimental RF-MEMS books. The book covers, from a practical viewpoint, the most critical steps that have to be taken in order to develop novel RF-MEMS device concepts. Prototypical RF-MEMS devices, both including lumped components and complex networks, are presented at the beginning of the book as reference examples, and these are then discussed from different perspectives with regard to design, simulation, packaging, testing, and post-fabrication modeling. Theoretical concepts are introduced when necessary to complement the practical

  13. Resonant MEMS fundamentals, implementation, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Oliver; Heinrich, Stephen; Josse, Fabien; Fedder, Gary K; Hierold, Christofer; Korvink, Jan G; Tabata, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Part of the AMN book series, this book covers the principles, modeling and implementation as well as applications of resonant MEMS from a unified viewpoint. It starts out with the fundamental equations and phenomena that govern the behavior of resonant MEMS and then gives a detailed overview of their implementation in capacitive, piezoelectric, thermal and organic devices, complemented by chapters addressing the packaging of the devices and their stability. The last part of the book is devoted to the cutting-edge applications of resonant MEMS such as inertial, chemical and biosensors, fluid p

  14. MEMS reliability: coming of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.

  15. A Musical instrument in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; de Boer, Hans L.; de Boer, H.; Beekman, J.G.; Been, A.J.; Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan; Folkertsma, G.A.; Fortgens, L.; de Graaf, D.; Vocke, S.; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    In this work we describe a MEMS instrument that resonates at audible frequencies, and with which music can be made. The sounds are generated by mechanical resonators and capacitive displacement sensors. Damping by air scales unfavourably for generating audible frequencies with small devices.

  16. A novel piezoresistive polymer nanocomposite MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seena, V.; Hari, K.; Prajakta, S.; Pratap, Rudra; Ramgopal Rao, V.

    2017-01-01

    A novel polymer MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) accelerometer with photo-patternable polymer nanocomposite as a piezoresistor is presented in this work. Polymer MEMS Accelerometer with beam thicknesses of 3.3 µm and embedded nanocomposite piezoresistive layer having a gauge factor of 90 were fabricated. The photosensitive nanocomposite samples were prepared and characterized for analyzing the mechanical and electrical properties and thereby ensuring proper process parameters for incorporating the piezoresistive layer into the polymer MEMS accelerometer. The microfabrication process flow and unit processes followed are extremely low cost with process temperatures below 100 °C. This also opens up a new possibility for easy integration of such polymer MEMS with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) devices and circuits. The fabricated devices were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and the devices exhibited a resonant frequency of 10.8 kHz and a response sensitivity of 280 nm g-1 at resonance. The main focus of this paper is on the SU-8/CB nanocomposite piezoresistive MEMS accelerometer technology development which covers the material and the fabrication aspects of these devices. CoventorWare FEA analysis performed using the extracted material properties from the experimental characterization which are in close agreement to performance parameters of the fabricated devices is also discussed. The simulated piezoresistive polymer MEMS devices showed an acceleration sensitivity of 126 nm g-1 and 82 ppm of ΔR/R per 1 g of acceleration.

  17. RF-MEMS Switched Varactors for Medium Power Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, F; Crunteanu, A; Conseil, F; Blondy, P

    2008-01-01

    In RF (Radio Frequency) domain, one of the limitations of using MEMS (Micro Electromechanical Systems) switching devices for medium power applications is RF power. Failure phenomena appear even for 500 mW. A design of MEMS switched capacitors with an enhanced topology is presented in this paper to prevent it. This kind of device and its promising performances will serve to fabricate a MEMS based phase shifter able to work under several watts.

  18. NPSAT1 MEMS 3-AXIS Rate Sensor Suite Performance, Characterization, and Flight Unit Acceptance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    compensation MEMS rate data sent to C&DH 14 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 15 II. MICROMACHINED VIBRATORY GYROSCOPES MEMS -based gyroscopes are...circuit errors for MEMS gyroscopes using state observers,” in Sensing Technology, 2008. ICST 2008 3rd International Conference on, 2008, pp. 25–30...Shkel, MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes : Structural Approaches to Improve Robustness ( MEMS Reference Shelf), 2nd ed.,New York, NY:Springer, 2008. [21

  19. A microfabricated microfluidic bioMEMS device to model human brain aneurisms: the aneurysm-on-a-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Lisa M.; Khor, Jian Wei; Thakur, Raviraj; Amin, Ahmed; Wereley, Steven T.; Leary, James F.

    2015-03-01

    Aneurysms are pockets of blood that collect outside blood vessel walls forming dilatations and leaving arterial walls very prone to rupture. There is little information concerning the causes of intracranial aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. Current treatments include: (1) clipping, and (2) coil embolization, including stent-assisted coiling. Further, the evolution of any aneurysm is assumed to be caused by the remodeling of the affected blood vessel's material constituents (tunica intima, tunica media, or tunica adventitia). Velocity, pressure, and wall shear stresses aid in the disease development of aneurysmal growth, while the shear force mechanisms effecting wound closure are elusive. To study aneurysm pathogenesis, a lab-on-a-chip device is the key to discovering the underlying mechanisms of these lesions. A two-dimensional microfluidic model, the Aneurysm-on-a-Chip™ (AOC), was the logical answer to study particle flow within an aneurysm "sac". The AOC apparatus can track particles/cells when it is coupled to particle image velocimetry software (PIV) package. The AOC fluid flow was visualized using standard microscopy techniques with commercial microparticles and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Images were taken during fluid flow experiments and PIV was utilized to monitor the flow of particles within the "sac" region, as well as particles entering and exiting the device. Quiver plots were generated from fluid flow experiments using standard 7 μm latex particles and fixed HASMC in PBS. PIV analysis shows that the particles flowed nicely from input to output. Wall shear stress provided evidence that there was some back flow at the edges of the "sac" - an indicator of aneurysm development in human patients.

  20. Assessment of technical documentation of Annex II medical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roszek B; Drongelen AW van; Geertsma RE; Tienhoven EAE van; BMT

    2005-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the availability and quality of the technical documentation (file) of medical devices. Manufacturers of medical devices are obliged to prepare and maintain documentation complying with the provisions in the Medical Device Directive (MDD). Manufacturers are legall

  1. Adhesion aspects in MEMS/NEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seong H; Mittal, Kash L

    2012-01-01

    Phenomena associated with the adhesion interaction of surfaces have been a critical aspect of micro- and nanosystem development and performance since the first MicroElectroMechanicalSystems(MEMS) were fabricated. These phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and are present in all systems, however MEMS devices are particularly sensitive to their effects owing to their small size and limited actuation force that can be generated. Extension of MEMS technology concepts to the nanoscale and development of NanoElectroMechanicalSystems(NEMS) will result in systems even more strongly influenced by surface

  2. Real-time inclinometer using accelerometer MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Hanto, D; Hermanto, B; Puranto, P; Handoko, L T

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary design of inclinometer for real-time monitoring system of soil displacement is proposed. The system is developed using accelerometer sensor with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device. The main apparatus consists of a single MEMS sensor attached to a solid pipe and stucked pependicularly far away below the soil surface. The system utilizes small fractions of electrical signals from MEMS sensor induced by the pipe inclination due to soil displacements below the surface. It is argued that the system is accurate enough to detect soil displacements responsible for landslides, and then realizes a simple and low cost landslide early warning system.

  3. MEMS digital parametric loudspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-03-23

    This paper reports on the design and fabrication of MEMS actuator arrays suitable for Digital Sound reconstruction and Parametric Directional Loudspeakers. Two distinct versions of the device were fabricated: one using the electrostatic principle actuation and the other one, the piezoelectric principle. Both versions used similar membrane dimensions, with a diameter of 500 μm. These devices are the smallest Micro-Machined Ultrasound Transducer (MUT) arrays that can be operated for both modes: Digital Sound Reconstruction and Parametric Loudspeaker. The chips consist of an array with 256 transducers, in a footprint of 12 mm by 12 mm. The total single chip size is: 2.3 cm by 2.3 cm, including the contact pads. © 2016 IEEE.

  4. Digital holography for MEMS and microsystem metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Asundi, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Approaching the topic of digital holography from the practical perspective of industrial inspection, Digital Holography for MEMS and Microsystem Metrology describes the process of digital holography and its growing applications for MEMS characterization, residual stress measurement, design and evaluation, and device testing and inspection. Asundi also provides a thorough theoretical grounding that enables the reader to understand basic concepts and thus identify areas where this technique can be adopted. This combination of both practical and theoretical approach will ensure the

  5. Optical MEMS and Its Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Renshi

    The sequence of optical MEMS development is described, wherein research reached its climax in 2000, during the tumultuous crescendo of the telecommunication industry boom in USA and slowed down thereafter. However, recently in Japan, there are indications that efforts to fabricate stable high-performed devices are on-going, although not on a large-scale. The problems to be solved to facilitate the research of optical MEMS are also mentioned.

  6. Surface chemical modification for exceptional wear life of MEMS materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arvind Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS are built at micro/nano-scales. At these scales, the interfacial forces are extremely strong. These forces adversely affect the smooth operation and cause wear resulting in the drastic reduction in wear life (useful operating lifetime of actuator-based devices. In this paper, we present a surface chemical modification method that reduces friction and significantly extends the wear life of the two most popular MEMS structural materials namely, silicon and SU-8 polymer. The method includes surface chemical treatment using ethanolamine-sodium phosphate buffer, followed by coating of perfluoropolyether (PFPE nanolubricant on (i silicon coated with SU-8 thin films (500 nm and (ii MEMS process treated SU-8 thick films (50 μm. After the surface chemical modification, it was observed that the steady-state coefficient of friction of the materials reduced by 4 to 5 times and simultaneously their wear durability increased by more than three orders of magnitude (> 1000 times. The significant reduction in the friction coefficients is due to the lubrication effect of PFPE nanolubricant, while the exceptional increase in their wear life is attributed to the bonding between the -OH functional group of ethanolamine treated SU-8 thin/thick films and the -OH functional group of PFPE. The surface chemical modification method acts as a common route to enhance the performance of both silicon and SU-8 polymer. It is time-effective (process time ≤ 11 min, cost-effective and can be readily integrated into MEMS fabrication/assembly processes. It can also work for any kind of structural material from which the miniaturized devices are/can be made.

  7. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1996-11-18

    The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical

  8. Advantages of PZT thick film for MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Moller, R.; Hansen, K.;

    2010-01-01

    For all MEMS devices a high coupling between the mechanical and electrical domain is desired. Figures of merit describing the coupling are important for comparing different piezoelectric materials. The existing figures of merit are discussed and a new figure of merit is introduced for a fair...... comparison of piezoelectric thin and thick films based MEMS devices, as cantilevers, beams, bridges and membranes. Simple analytical modeling is used to define the new figure of merit. The relevant figure of merits is compared for the piezoelectric material of interest for MEMS applications: ZnO, AIN, PZT...... thin film and PZT thick film. It is shown that MEMS sensors with the PZT thick film TF2100 from InSensor A/S have potential for significant higher voltage sensitivities compared to PZT thin film base MEMS sensors when the total thickness of the MEMS cantilever, beam, bridge or membrane is high...

  9. Characterizing coupled MEMS resonators with an electrical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guowei; Choubey, Bhaskar

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development in micro/nano fabrication has enabled the shrinking of MEMS devices and the ability to fabricate them in large arrays. However, process variations and device mismatch have also raised testability issues in the MEMS industry. MEMS resonators have been coupled to simplify the characterization of the fabrication process and device performance using their collective behaviour. Perturbation analysis using eigenvalues can therefore be applied to extract the system matrix of coupled resonators. We propose a new way of perturbation analysis by coupling an electrical resonator to an array of MEMS resonators. The electrical resonator is simple in structure and easy to readout. It can also precisely control the amount of perturbation based on two available techniques. Coupling between MEMS resonators and electrical resonator opens a new window for process characterization, device testing, material characterization, as well as large sensors array actuation.

  10. Reconfigurable MEMS OADM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Q. Liu; J. Li; Q. X. Zhang; W. D. Zhong; C. Lu

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a serial reconfigurable OADM consisting of optical circulator and 2 × 2 MEMS optical switch and tunable FBG. Based on MEMS technology, the OADM is demonstrated to increase the flexibility, decrease the cost andimprove the reliability.

  11. Characterization of dielectric charging in RF MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Huizing, H.G.A.; Steeneken, P.G.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    Capacitive RF MEMS switches show great promise for use in wireless communication devices such as mobile phones, but the successful application of these switches is hindered by the reliability of the devices: charge injection in the dielectric layer (SiN) can cause irreversible stiction of the moving

  12. Optically transduced MEMS gyro device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Bogart, Gregory R; Langlois, Eric; Okandan, Murat

    2014-05-20

    A bulk micromachined vibratory gyro in which a proof mass has a bulk substrate thickness for a large mass and high inertial sensitivity. In embodiments, optical displacement transduction is with multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings for high sensitivity and low cross-talk with non-optical drive elements. In embodiments, the vibratory gyro includes a plurality of multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings and a plurality of drive electrodes to measure motion of the proof mass induced by drive forces and/or moments and induced by the Coriolis Effect when the gyro experiences a rotation. In embodiments, phase is varied across the plurality gratings and a multi-layer grating having the best performance is selected from the plurality.

  13. 三种环境力下MEMS保险机构的设计与分析%Design and Analysis of MEMS Safety and Arming Device under Triple Environment Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史春景; 邓炬锋; 郝永平; 刘双杰

    2016-01-01

    Based on the working principle of fuze safety and arming device in the emission process, a kind of MEMS-based safety and arming device applied in cluster bombs was designed. The dynamic mod-el of the device was established under recoil force, centrifugal force and throwing force, and the main fac-tors concerning the operation of this device were analyzed. The dynamic analysis was accomplished by the software of ADAMS, and the motion curves were obtained. The calculation results show that the MEMS safety and arming device can work under the setback environment, centrifugal environment and shed en-vironment of fuze normally. At the same time, it is safe and reliable in the service process.%基于发射过程引信保险机构的工作原理,设计了一种应用于子母弹下的MEMS保险机构。在后坐力、离心力和抛撒力作用下,建立了相应的动力学模型,研究了影响保险机构工作的因素。应用ADAMS软件,对MEMS保险机构进行动力学仿真分析,得到相应的运动曲线。计算结果表明,该MEMS保险机构在后坐环境、离心环境和抛撒环境下能够可靠执行动作,并且在勤务处理时是安全可靠的。

  14. Influence of Grain Structure and Doping on the Deformation and Fracture of Polycrystalline Silicon for MEMS/NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Champaign Influence of Grain Structure and Doping on the Deformation and Fracture of Polycrystalline Silicon for MEMS/ NEMS AFOSR Grant # FA9550-09-1...Structure and Doping on the Deformation and Fracture of Polycrystalline Silicon for MEMS/ NEMS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Behavior of PZT Films for MEMS  PZT thin films are used in MEMS devices, such as micro- sensors , actuators, and RF-MEMS  Always fabricated in

  15. Biomimetic Cilia Based on MEMS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-guo Zhou; Zhi-wen Liu

    2008-01-01

    A review on the research of Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology based biomimetic cilia is presented. Biomimetic cilia, enabled by the advancement of MEMS technology, have been under dynamic development for the past decade. After a brief description of the background of cilia and MEMS technology, different biomimetic cilia applications are reviewed. Biomimetic cilia micro-actuators, including micromachined polyimide bimorph biomimetic cilia micro-actuator, electro-statically actuated polymer biomimetic cilia micro-actuator, and magnetically actuated nanorod array biomimetic cilia micro-actuator, are presented. Subsequently micromachined underwater flow biomimetic cilia micro-sensor is studied, followed by acoustic flow micro-sensor. The fabrication of these MEMS-based biomimetic cilia devices, characterization of their physical properties, and the results of their application experiments are discussed.

  16. Structured synthesis of MEMS using evolutionary approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the hierarchy that is involved in a typical MEMS design and how evolutionary approaches can be used to automate the hierarchical synthesis process for MEMS. The paper first introduces the flow of a structured MEMS design process and emphasizes that system-level lumped......-parameter model synthesis is the first step of the MEMS synthesis process. At the system level, an approach combining bond graphs and genetic programming can lead to satisfactory design candidates as system-level models that meet the predefined behavioral specifications for designers to trade off....... Then at the physical layout synthesis level, the selection of geometric parameters for component devices and other design variables is formulated as a constrained optimization problem and addressed using a constrained genetic algorithm approach. A multiple-resonator microsystem design is used to illustrate...

  17. Optically transduced MEMS magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Langlois, Eric

    2014-03-18

    MEMS magnetometers with optically transduced resonator displacement are described herein. Improved sensitivity, crosstalk reduction, and extended dynamic range may be achieved with devices including a deflectable resonator suspended from the support, a first grating extending from the support and disposed over the resonator, a pair of drive electrodes to drive an alternating current through the resonator, and a second grating in the resonator overlapping the first grating to form a multi-layer grating having apertures that vary dimensionally in response to deflection occurring as the resonator mechanically resonates in a plane parallel to the first grating in the presence of a magnetic field as a function of the Lorentz force resulting from the alternating current. A plurality of such multi-layer gratings may be disposed across a length of the resonator to provide greater dynamic range and/or accommodate fabrication tolerances.

  18. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent samples...

  19. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 {mu}m).

  20. Si-gold-glass hybrid wafer bond for 3D-MEMS and wafer level packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jayaprakash; Pratap, Rudra

    2017-01-01

    We report a relatively low temperature (MEMS device integration and wafer level packaging. We demonstrate the process by realizing a simple MEMS cantilever beam and a complex MEMS gyroscope structure. These structures are characterized for ohmic contact and electromechanical response to verify the electrical interconnect and the mechanical strength of the structure at the bond interface.

  1. II-IV-V2 Chalcopyrites for High Speed Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-31

    fabrication to of suitable device structures; and (5) investigate novel high-speed device concepts which could utilize the unique properties of these chalco ...semi- conductor material. CdSnP2 and ZnSnP2 are crystals which grow with the chalco - pyrite lattice structure shown in Figure 1. This structure re...parameters, chalco - pyrites differing from CdSnP2 in only one constituent were reviewed for the alloy system. ZnSnP2, CdSiP2 , and CdGeP2 are all

  2. Buffering Implications for the Design Space of Streaming MEMS Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, Mohammed G.; Abelmann, Leon; Preas, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Emerging nanotechnology-based systems encounter new non-functional requirements. This work addresses MEMS storage, an emerging technology that promises ultrahigh density and energy-efficient storage devices. We study the buffering requirement of MEMS storage in streaming applications. We show that c

  3. X-Ray-Diffraction Tests Of Irradiated Electronic Devices: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David C.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Barnes, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes research on use of x-ray diffraction to measure stresses in metal conductors of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits exposed to ionizing radiation. Expanding upon report summarized in "X-Ray-Diffraction Tests Of Irradiated Electronic Devices: I" (NPO-18803), presenting data further suggesting relationship between electrical performances of circuits and stresses and strains in metal conductors.

  4. Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriner, H.; Davies, B.; Sniegowski, J.; Rodgers, M.S.; Allen, J.; Shepard, C.

    1998-05-01

    Research and development in the design and manufacture of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is growing at an enormous rate. Advances in MEMS design tools and fabrication processes at Sandia National Laboratories` Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) have broadened the scope of MEMS applications that can be designed and manufactured for both military and commercial use. As improvements in micromachining fabrication technologies continue to be made, MEMS designs can become more complex, thus opening the door to an even broader set of MEMS applications. In an effort to further research and development in MEMS design, fabrication, and application, Sandia National Laboratories has launched the Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program or SAMPLES program. The SAMPLES program offers potential partners interested in MEMS the opportunity to prototype an idea and produce hardware that can be used to sell a concept. The SAMPLES program provides education and training on Sandia`s design tools, analysis tools and fabrication process. New designers can participate in the SAMPLES program and design MEMS devices using Sandia`s design and analysis tools. As part of the SAMPLES program, participants` designs are fabricated using Sandia`s 4 level polycrystalline silicon surface micromachine technology fabrication process known as SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar, Multi-level MEMS Technology). Furthermore, SAMPLES participants can also opt to obtain state of the art, post-fabrication services provided at Sandia such as release, packaging, reliability characterization, and failure analysis. This paper discusses the components of the SAMPLES program.

  5. Behavioral modeling of rf VCO circuit with MEMS LC resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amal; Elsimary, Hamed; Ismail, Mohammed

    2001-04-01

    In this work, a behavioral Modeling of RF VCO circuit which has a tank designed by Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology is presented emphasizing robust design that can obtain the parametric variable of the suspended spiral inductor and the MEMS tunable capacitor to high performance and reliable design of the VCO circuit. The MEMS spiral inductor has a low phase noise effect on the VCO output, and the MEMS tunable capacitance has very high quality factor with enabling 20% change of oscillation frequency. The designed monolithic RF VCO circuit and the high-Q MEMS inductor and tunable capacitor are modeled using specter-s simulator in the CADENCE design framework and (Verilog-A) behavioral simulator. Complete monolithic fabrication of RF VCO with high-Q MEMS devices using standard CMOS process (MOSIS, AMI 1.2 micrometer).

  6. SOI silicon on glass for optical MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    A newly developed fabrication method for fabrication of single crystalline Si (SCS) components on glass, utilizing Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafer is presented. The devices are packaged at wafer level in a glass-silicon-glass (GSG) stack by anodic bonding...... and a final sealing at the interconnects can be performed using a suitable polymer. Packaged MEMS on glass are advantageous within Optical MEMS and for sensitive capacitive devices. We report on experiences with bonding SOI to Pyrex. Uniform DRIE shallow and deep etching was achieved by a combination...

  7. Mask synthesis and verification based on geometric model for surface micro-machined MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-hua; LIU Yu-sheng; GAO Shu-ming

    2005-01-01

    Traditional MEMS (microelectromechanical system) design methodology is not a structured method and has become an obstacle for MEMS creative design. In this paper, a novel method of mask synthesis and verification for surface micro-machined MEMS is proposed, which is based on the geometric model of a MEMS device. The emphasis is focused on synthesizing the masks at the basis of the layer model generated from the geometric model of the MEMS device. The method is comprised of several steps: the correction of the layer model, the generation of initial masks and final masks including multi-layer etch masks, and mask simulation. Finally some test results are given.

  8. MEMS 航空微时代%MEMS Era of Aviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖

    2013-01-01

    MEMS(Micro Electron Mechanic Systems)技术是从专用集成电路(ASIC)技术发展过来的,已经在电子产品、汽车工业、机械、化工及医药等各领域得到广泛的应用。近年来, MEMS器件在航空领域的应用越来越受到各国重视。本文首先介绍了MEMS加速度计、 MEMS陀螺仪、MEMS-IMU惯性导航组合系统等目前在航空领域有一定应用前景的MEMS传感器,对这些传感器在国外的应用研究进行了汇总,最后,介绍国内已有初步进展的MEMS传感器设计应用,并指出我国的航空微时代的研究方向。%Micro electron mechanic system ( MEMS ) technology develops on ASIC , and has widely used in electronics, automotive, machinery, chemical and pharmaceutical fields , and so on.In recent years, more countries pay attention to MEMS devices in the aviation field .This paper introduces the promising MEMS devices firstly , such as MEMS accelerometer , MEMS gyroscope , MEMS-IMU, then in-vestigates and summarizes the foreign studies of these sensors .Finally, it introduces the initial progress of MEMS sensor in China , and points out the direction of MEMS aviation .

  9. System-Level Modelling and Simulation of MEMS-Based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Madsen, Jan; Shafique, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    The growing complexity of MEMS devices and their increased used in embedded systems (e.g., wireless integrated sensor networks) demands a disciplined aproach for MEMS design as well as the development of techniques for system-level modeling of these devices so that a seamless integration with the......The growing complexity of MEMS devices and their increased used in embedded systems (e.g., wireless integrated sensor networks) demands a disciplined aproach for MEMS design as well as the development of techniques for system-level modeling of these devices so that a seamless integration...... with the existing embedded system design methodologies is possible. In this paper, we present a MEMS design methodology that uses VHDL-AMS based system-level model of a MEMS device as a starting point and combines the top-down and bottom-up design approaches for design, verification, and optimization...

  10. Structural tests using a MEMS acoustic emission sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Irving J.; Greve, David W.; Ozevin, Didem; Hay, D. Robert; Hay, Thomas R.; Pessiki, Stephen P.; Tyson, Nathan L.

    2006-03-01

    In a collaborative project at Lehigh and Carnegie Mellon, a MEMS acoustic emission sensor was designed and fabricated as a suite of six resonant-type capacitive transducers in the frequency range between 100 and 500 kHz. Characterization studies showed good comparisons between predicted and experimental electro-mechanical behavior. Acoustic emission events, simulated experimentally in steel ball impact and in pencil lead break tests, were detected and source localization was demonstrated. In this paper we describe the application of the MEMS device in structural testing, both in laboratory and in field applications. We discuss our findings regarding housing and mounting (acoustic coupling) of the MEMS device with its supporting electronics, and we then report the results of structural testing. In all tests, the MEMS transducers were used in parallel with commercial acoustic emission sensors, which thereby serve as a benchmark and permit a direct observation of MEMS device functionality. All tests involved steel structures, with particular interest in propagation of existing cracks or flaws. A series of four laboratory tests were performed on beam specimens fabricated from two segments (Grade 50 steel) with a full penetration weld (E70T-4 electrode material) at midspan. That weld region was notched, an initial fatigue crack was induced, and the specimens were then instrumented with one commercial transducer and with one MEMS device; data was recorded from five individual transducers on the MEMS device. Under a four-point bending test, the beam displayed both inelastic behavior and crack propagation, including load drops associated with crack instability. The MEMS transducers detected all instability events as well as many or most of the acoustic emissions occurring during plasticity and stable crack growth. The MEMS transducers were less sensitive than the commercial transducer, and did not detect as many events, but the normalized cumulative burst count obtained

  11. The study of the Overspeed Protection Device of the Turntable Based on MEMS Gyroscope%基于MEMS陀螺的转台超速保护装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 刘均松

    2012-01-01

    The turntable as the commonly used test equipment will bring serious consequences once it can not be controlled or the overspeed is occurred. The overspeed protection device of the turntable is put forward based on MEMS gyroscope. The serious harm of overspeed is given, the principle and components of the device are described in detail,and Matlab simulation shows the feasibility of the device. The application of the device reaches the expected results in practice.%转台作为一种常用的测试设备,一旦发生失控超速的“飞车”现象,将会带来比较严重的后果.介绍了一种基于MEMS陀螺的转台超速保护装置,指出了转台超速所带来的危害,描述了该保护装置的具体组成及原理,并通过Matlab仿真验证了该装置的可行性.在实践中应用该装置,取得了良好的效果.

  12. Novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, X.; Jansen, H.; Fiorini, P.; De Raedt, W.; Tilmans, H.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching devices implementing an electrically floating metal layer covering the dielectric to ensure intimate contact with the bridge in the down state. This results in an optimal switch down capacitance and allows optimisation of the down/up capacitan

  13. From MEMS to NEMS: Scaling Cantilever Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the effects of scaling on the characterisation and readout of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) to nano-electro mechanical systems (NEMS). In particular it focuses on cantilever, which is a basic device building block and an important transducer in many sensing application

  14. MEMS sensor technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zhuangde

    2012-01-01

    Since 1992 the author has led research group in Xi'an Jiaotong University to investigate and develop microelectro mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, including pressure sensor, acceleration sensor, gas sensor, viscosity & density sensor, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip and integrated sensor etc. This paper introduces the technologies and research results related to MEMS sensors we achieved in the last 20 years.

  15. MEMS in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Francis E.

    2001-03-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) can be termed as a crossroad technology. Cross road in the sense that it is an amalgamation of various disciplines to produce a solution. Cross road also, in the sense that it is disruptive to the way that solutions used to be provided. At the crossroad, a decision needs to be made either to do things the old way or to embrace the new technology. In this paper, a review is made to the research and development of MEMS technology with potentially widespread applications in Singapore. In most cases, these are preparations to a possible acceleration of MEMS related industry in this part of the world. However, the author also noted that the transfer of MEMS technology from the laboratory to the industry is not a trivial matter. A major decision has to be made due to the high capital outlay and the high operational costs involved. Further, many production related issues such as yield and packaging have to be considered. A large number of MEMS commercial outfits such as Bosch are serving internal customers. As a small country with limited resources, Singapore places great emphasis on building up MEMS research and development activities to support future high value-added design and fabrication. In this paper, some of the MEMS activities in the national universities and institutes in Singapore are introduced, and some recent progress and development of MEMS technology in Singapore are presented.

  16. RF MEMS theory, design, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rebeiz, Gabriel M

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasmall Radio Frequency and Micro-wave Microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMs), such as switches, varactors, and phase shifters, exhibit nearly zero power consumption or loss. For this reason, they are being developed intensively by corporations worldwide for use in telecommunications equipment. This book acquaints readers with the basics of RF MEMs and describes how to design practical circuits and devices with them. The author, an acknowledged expert in the field, presents a range of real-world applications and shares many valuable tricks of the trade.

  17. IC-Compatible Technologies for Optical MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krygowski, T.W.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1999-04-30

    Optical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Optical MEMS) Technology holds the promise of one-day producing highly integrated optical systems on a common, monolithic substrate. The choice of fabrication technology used to manufacture Optical MEMS will play a pivotal role in the size, functionality and ultimately the cost of optical Microsystems. By leveraging the technology base developed for silicon integrated circuits, large batches of routers, emitters, detectors and amplifiers will soon be fabricated for literally pennies per part. In this article we review the current status of technologies used for Optical MEMS, as well as fabrication technologies of the future, emphasizing manufacturable surface micromachining approaches to producing reliable, low-cost devices for optical communications applications.

  18. Vortex Anemometer Using MEMS Cantilever Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Zylka, P; Zylka, Pawel; Modrzynski, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents construction and performance of a novel hybrid microelectromechanical system (MEMS) vortex flowmeter. A miniature cantilever MEMS displacement sensor was used to detect frequency of vortices development. 3-mm-long silicon cantilever, protruding directly out of a trailing edge of a trapezoidal glass-epoxy composite bluff body was put into oscillatory motion by vortices shed alternately from side surfaces of the obstacle. Verified linearmeasurement range of the device extended from 5 to 22 m/s; however, it could be broadened in absence of external 50-Hz mains electrical interfering signal which required bandpass frequency-domain digital sensor signal processing. The MEMS vortex sensor proved its effectiveness in detection of semilaminar airflow velocity distribution in a 40-mm-diameter tubular pipe.

  19. SNAP-THROUGH AND PULL-IN BEHAVIORS OF MEMS DEVICES WITH THE INITIAL CONFIGURATIONS%具有初始构型的MEMS驱动器的跳跃和吸合现象研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡育佳; 朱媛媛; 程昌钧

    2013-01-01

    在曲梁变形后以弧长为参数的自然坐标系中,利用曲梁大变形分析理论,建立了具有任意初始构型的微电驱动器大变形电动力学分析的数学模型,并采用微分求积法(DQM)进行空间离散,得到了一组具有强非线性的微分-代数系统方程,运用Petzold-Gear BDF方法进行时间域内的求解.研究了MEMS驱动器在电场力作用下的瞬态动力学特性,包括跳跃(snap-through)和吸合(pull-in)现象,并与已有实验结果进行了比较.%A microstructure-dependent large deformation electrodynamic model of MEMS decives with the initial configurations was established in an arc coordinate system based on the large deformation theory of the curved beam. The differential quadrature method (DQM) was applied to discretize the nonlinear mathematical model in the special domain. Afterwards,a set of the first order nonlinear differential and algebra system equations was derived. The Petzold-Gear BDF method was used to solve the first order nonlinear differential and algebra system equations in the temporal domain. The transient micro-electromechanical behaviors,including snap-through and pull-in,of the MEMS devices under the electric force were studied in detail. The obtained results were compared with the existing experiments, showing good agreement between them.

  20. Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevices: reliability, testing, and characterization aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Tolga; Ngo, Ha-Duong; Wittler, Olaf; Bouhlal, Bouchaib; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2011-02-01

    The last decade witnessed an explosive growth in research and development efforts devoted to MEMS devices and packaging. The successfully developed MEMS devices are, for example inkjet, pressure sensors, silicon microphones, accelerometers, gyroscopes, MOEMS, micro fuel cells and emerging MEMS. For the next decade, MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice based products will penetrate into IT, telecommunications, automotive, defense, life sciences, medical and implantable applications. Forecasts say the MEMS market to be $14 billion by 2012. The packaging cost of MEMS/MOEMS products in general is about 70 percent. Unlike today's electronics IC packaging, their packaging are custom-built and difficult due to the moving structural elements. In order for the moving elements of a MEMS device to move effectively in a well-controlled atmosphere, hermetic sealing of the MEMS device in a cap is necessary. For some MEMS devices, such as resonators and gyroscopes, vacuum packaging is required. Usually, the cap is processed at the wafer level, and thus MEMS packaging is truly a wafer level packaging. In terms of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice packaging, there are still many critical issues need to be addressed due to the increasing integration density supported by 3D heterogeneous integration of multi-physic components/layers consisting of photonics, electronics, rf, plasmonics, and wireless. The infrastructure of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevices and their packaging is not well established yet. Generic packaging platform technologies are not available. Some of critical issues have been studied intensively in the last years. In this paper we will discuss about processes, reliability, testing and characterization of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice packaging.

  1. MEMS Actuators for Improved Performance and Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearsley, James M.

    Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices take advantage of force-scaling at length scales smaller than a millimeter to sense and interact with directly with phenomena and targets at the microscale. MEMS sensors found in everyday devices like cell-phones and cars include accelerometers, gyros, pressure sensors, and magnetic sensors. MEMS actuators generally serve more application specific roles including micro- and nano-tweezers used for single cell manipulation, optical switching and alignment components, and micro combustion engines for high energy density power generation. MEMS rotary motors are actuators that translate an electric drive signal into rotational motion and can serve as rate calibration inputs for gyros, stages for optical components, mixing devices for micro-fluidics, etc. Existing rotary micromotors suffer from friction and wear issues that affect lifetime and performance. Attempts to alleviate friction effects include surface treatment, magnetic and electrostatic levitation, pressurized gas bearings, and micro-ball bearings. The present work demonstrates a droplet based liquid bearing supporting a rotary micromotor that improves the operating characteristics of MEMS rotary motors. The liquid bearing provides wear-free, low-friction, passive alignment between the rotor and stator. Droplets are positioned relative to the rotor and stator through patterned superhydrophobic and hydrophilic surface coatings. The liquid bearing consists of a central droplet that acts as the motor shaft, providing axial alignment between rotor and stator, and satellite droplets, analogous to ball-bearings, that provide tip and tilt stable operation. The liquid bearing friction performance is characterized through measurement of the rotational drag coefficient and minimum starting torque due to stiction and geometric effects. Bearing operational performance is further characterized by modeling and measuring stiffness, environmental survivability, and high

  2. Dynamics and Nonlinearities of the Electro-Mechanical Coupling in Inertial MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado da Rocha, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of the nonlinear dynamics of electrostatically actuated MEMS devices is essential for proper device operation and for the actual exploitation of the dynamic aspects of MEMS. Accurate static and dynamic models and nonlinear analysis provide the tools to achieve a better understanding of the

  3. MEMS/MOEMS foundry services at INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Sonia; Ilias, Samir; Williamson, Fraser; Généreux, Francis; Le Noc, Loïc; Poirier, Michel; Proulx, Christian; Tremblay, Bruno; Provençal, Francis; Desroches, Yan; Caron, Jean-Sol; Larouche, Carl; Beaupré, Patrick; Fortin, Benoit; Topart, Patrice; Picard, Francis; Alain, Christine; Pope, Timothy; Jerominek, Hubert

    2010-06-01

    In the MEMS manufacturing world, the "fabless" model is getting increasing importance in recent years as a way for MEMS manufactures and startups to minimize equipment costs and initial capital investment. In order for this model to be successful, the fabless company needs to work closely with a MEMS foundry service provider. Due to the lack of standardization in MEMS processes, as opposed to CMOS microfabrication, the experience in MEMS development processes and the flexibility of the MEMS foundry are of vital importance. A multidisciplinary team together with a complete microfabrication toolset allows INO to offer unique MEMS foundry services to fabless companies looking for low to mid-volume production. Companies that benefit from their own microfabrication facilities can also be interested in INO's assistance in conducting their research and development work during periods where production runs keep their whole staff busy. Services include design, prototyping, fabrication, packaging, and testing of various MEMS and MOEMS devices on wafers fully compatible with CMOS integration. Wafer diameters ranging typically from 1 inch to 6 inches can be accepted while 8-inch wafers can be processed in some instances. Standard microfabrication techniques such as metal, dielectric, and semiconductor film deposition and etching as well as photolithographic pattern transfer are available. A stepper permits reduction of the critical dimension to around 0.4 μm. Metals deposited by vacuum deposition methods include Au, Ag, Al, Al alloys, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mo, MoCr, Ni, Pt, and V with thickness varying from 5 nm to 2 μm. Electroplating of several materials including Ni, Au and In is also available. In addition, INO has developed and built a gold black deposition facility to answer customer's needs for broadband microbolometric detectors. The gold black deposited presents specular reflectance of less than 10% in the wavelength range from 0.2 μm to 100 μm with thickness ranging from

  4. 76 FR 13432 - In the Matter of Certain Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors II; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors II; Notice of... United States after importation of certain display devices, including digital televisions and monitors by... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain display devices, including...

  5. 3D heterostructures and systems for novel MEMS/NEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yakovlevich Prinz, Vladimir Alexandrovich Seleznev, Alexander Victorovich Prinz and Alexander Vladimirovich Kopylov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we consider the application of solid micro- and nanostructures of various shapes as building blocks for micro-electro-mechanical or nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS. We provide examples of practical applications of structures created by MEMS/NEMS fabrication. Novel devices are briefly described, such as a high-power electrostatic nanoactuator, a fast-response tubular anemometer for measuring gas and liquid flows, a nanoprinter, a nanosyringe and optical MEMS/NEMS. The prospects are described for achieving NEMS with tunable quantum properties.

  6. Mathematical analysis of partial differential equations modeling electrostatic MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Pierpaolo; Guo, Yujin

    2010-01-01

    Micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), which combine electronics with miniature-size mechanical devices, are essential components of modern technology. It is the mathematical model describing "electrostatically actuated" MEMS that is addressed in this monograph. Even the simplified models that the authors deal with still lead to very interesting second- and fourth-order nonlinear elliptic equations (in the stationary case) and to nonlinear parabolic equations (in the dynamic case). While nonlinear eigenvalue problems-where the stationary MEMS models fit-are a well-developed

  7. MEMS characterization using Laser Doppler Vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Eric M.; Speller, Kevin E.; Yu, Duli

    2003-01-01

    The use of Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) technology has been at the forefront of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) research since the early 1990"s. By its nature as a sensitive laser optical technique, it is well suited for non-contact dynamic response measurements of microscopic structures. The art of the technology has culminated into the latest micro-scanning vibrometer for automated scan measurement and display of deflection shapes with sub-nanometer resolution. To exemplify the use of this technology, Polytec PI presents characterization measurements in collaboration with Applied MEMS on two of their devices used in commercial applications. LDV characterization measurements are used for validating the design of the Applied MEMS two-axis micro mirror. Scan measurements reveal distinct, isolated rotation modes about x- and y- axes that can be used to promote the mirror motion in either direction. Settling time performance is evaluated from impulse response and optimized using Input Shaping techniques. Scan measurements of a low-noise accelerometer device from Applied MEMS reveals spurious high frequency modes of support spring causing unwanted response effects. Further use of a new time domain animation feature shows ringing response of the accelerometer to step motions.

  8. Design and Simulation of MEMS Enabled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Mark

    2001-03-01

    Over the past two decades considerable progress in microsystems (MEMS) fabrication technologies has been made resulting in a variety of commercially successful devices. Most of these devices have required application specific fabrication steps, which must be developed, and the lack of proper design tools often resulted in repeated prototyping that was expensive and time consuming. Further development of MEMS enabled commercial products and reduction of the time to market requires implementation of a concurrent design methodology through better design tools and standardization of the fabrication processes. The cross-disciplinary nature of MEMS-Enabled Systems necessitates designers with different backgrounds to work together in understanding the effects of one sub-system on another and this requires a top-down approach to integrated system design. Design tools that can facilitate this communication and reduce the need for excessive prototype fabrication and test iterations and significantly reduce cost and time-to-market are vitally important. The main focus of this article is to describe the top-down design methodology and and ongoing research on tools that facilitate concurrent design of MEMS enabled systems.

  9. NSLS-II storage ring insertion device and front-end commissioning and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G., E-mail: gwang@bnl.gov; Shaftan, T.; Amundsen, C.; Bassi, G.; Bengtsson, J.; Blednykh, A.; Blum, E.; Cheng, W.; Choi, J.; Chubar, O.; Corwin, T.; Davidsaver, M.; Doom, L.; Guo, W.; Harder, D.; Hidaka, Y.; Hu, Y.; Ilinski, P.; Kitegi, C.; Kramer, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others

    2016-07-27

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state of the art 3 GeV third generation light source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. During spring/ summer of 2014, the storage ring was commissioned up to 50 mA without insertion devices. In the fall of 2014, we began commissioning of the project beamlines, which included seven insertion devices on six ID ports. Beamlines IXS, HXN, CSX-1, CSX-2, CHX, SRX, and XPD-1 consist of elliptically polarized undulator (EPU), damping wigglers (DW) and in-vacuum undulators (IVU) covering from VUV to hard x-ray range. In this paper, experience with commissioning and operation is discussed. We focus on reaching storage ring performance with IDs, including injection, design emittance, compensation of orbit distortions caused by ID residual field, source point stability, beam alignment and tools for control, monitoring and protection of the ring chambers from ID radiation.

  10. Micromachined permanent magnets and their MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyoung Jin

    2002-01-01

    In this research, new micromachined permanent magnets have been proposed, developed and characterized for MEMS applications. In realizing micromachined permanent magnets, a new electroplating technique using external magnetic field and a bumper filling technique using a photolithographically defined mold with resin bonded magnetic particles have been developed. The newly developed micromachining techniques allow thick film-type permanent magnet components to be integrated to magnetic MEMS devices with dimensional control and alignment. Permanent magnet arrays with the dimensions ranging from 30 mum to 200 mum have been developed with an energy density up to 2.7 kJ/m3 in precisely defined forms in the micro scale. For the applications of the permanent magnets developed in this work, three novel magnetic MEMS devices such as a bi-directional magnetic actuator, a magnetically driven optical scanner, and a magnetic cell separator have been successfully realized. After design and modeling, each device has been fabricated and fully characterized. The bi-directional actuator with the electroplated permanent magnet array has achieved bi-directional motion clearly and shown good agreement with the analytical and simulated models. The optical scanner has shown linear bi-directional response under static actuation and stable bi-directional scanning performance under dynamic actuation. As a potential BioMEMS application of the developed permanent magnet, the prototype magnetic cell separator using the electroplated permanent magnet strip array has been proposed and demonstrated for magnetic bead patterning. In conclusion, new thick film-type, electroplated CoNiMnP and epoxy resin bonded Sr-ferrite permanent magnets have been developed and characterized, and then, three new magnetic MEMS devices using the permanent magnets such as a bi-directional magnetic actuator, an optical scanner and a magnetic cell separator have been realized in this research. The new micromachined

  11. MEMS ion source for mass spectrometer integrated on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, P.; Grzebyk, T.; Górecka-Drzazga, A.; Dziuban, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes silicon-glass MEMS electron impact ion source developed for miniature mass spectrometer (MS) integrated on a chip. The device consists of the field emission electron source with an electrophoretically deposited carbon nanotube cathode and ion beam formation electrodes. Ion source structure has been fabricated using MEMS technology. A complete manufacturing process of the test structures has been successfully elaborated and implemented.

  12. Synchrotron Radiation Lithography and MEMS Technique at NSRL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two beamlines and stations for soft X-ray lithography and hard X-ray lithography at NSRL are presented. Synchrotron radiation lithography (SRL) and mask techniques are developed, and the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques are also investigated at NSRL. In this paper, some results based on SRL and MEMS techniques are reported, and sub-micron and high aspect ratio microstructures are given. Some micro-devices, such as microreactors are fabricated at NSRL.

  13. Cooling Strings of Superconducting Devices below 2 K the Helium II Bayonet Heat Exchanger

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Van Weelderen, R

    1998-01-01

    High-energy particle accelerators and colliders contain long strings of superconducting devices - acceleration RF cavities and magnets - operating at high field, which may require cooling in helium II below 2 K. In order to maintain adequate operating conditions, the applied or generated heat loads must be extracted and transported with minimum temperature difference. Conventional cooling schemes based on conductive or convective heat transport in pressurized helium II very soon reach their intrinsic limits of thermal impedance over extended lengths. We present the concept of helium II bayonet heat exchanger, which has been developed at CERN for the magnet cooling scheme of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and describe its specific advantages as a slim, quasi-isothermal heat sink. Experimental results obtained on several test set-ups, and a prototype magnet string have permitted to validate its performance and sizing rules, for transporting linear heat loads in the W.m-1 range over distances of several tens o...

  14. Digital reflection holography based systems development for MEMS testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Raj; Liansheng, Sui; Asundi, Anand

    2010-05-01

    MEMS are tiny mechanical devices that are built onto semiconductor chips and are measured in micrometers and nanometers. Testing of MEMS device is an important part in carrying out their functional assessment and reliability analysis. Development of systems based on digital holography (DH) for MEMS inspection and characterization is presented in this paper. Two DH reflection systems, table-top and handheld types, are developed depending on the MEMS measurement requirements and their capabilities are presented. The methodologies for the systems are developed for 3D profile inspection and static & dynamic measurements, which is further integrated with in-house developed software that provides the measurement results in near real time. The applications of the developed systems are demonstrated for different MEMS devices for 3D profile inspection, static deformation/deflection measurements and vibration analysis. The developed systems are well suitable for the testing of MEMS and Microsystems samples, with full-field, static & dynamic inspection as well as to monitor micro-fabrication process.

  15. NSF/AFOSR/ASME Workshop on Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is already about a billion dollars a year industry and is growing rapidly. So far major emphasis has been placed on the fabrication processes for various devices. There are serious issues related to tribology, mechanics, surfacechemistry and materials science in the operationand manufacturingof many MEMS devices and these issues are preventing an even faster commercialization. Very little is understood about tribology and mechanical properties on micro- to nanoscales of the materials used in the construction of MEMS devices. The MEMS community needs to be exposed to the state-of-the-artoftribology and vice versa. Fundamental understanding of friction/stiction, wear and the role of surface contamination and environmental debris in micro devices is required. There are significantadhesion, friction and wear issues in manufacturing and actual use, facing the MEMS industry. Very little is understood about the tribology of bulk silicon and polysilicon films used in the constr...

  16. Monotonic and fatigue testing of spring-bridged freestanding microbeams application for MEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ming-Tzer; Shiu, K.-S.; Tong, Chi-Jia

    2007-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/EDA-Publishing); International audience; Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies are developing rapidly with increasing study of the design, fabrication and commercialization of microscale systems and devices. Accurate knowledge on the mechanical behaviors of thin film materials used for MEMS is important for successful design and development of MEMS. Here a novel electroplating spring-bridge micro-tensile s...

  17. Non-Destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer-Level Packaged Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Acceleration Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Joint Fuze Technology Program (JFTP) provided the funding behind the production of the 60G MEMS impact switches. The JFTP MEMS impact switches are...Conference 2013, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2013. 8. Zhang W. Energy dissipations in MEMS resonators: fluid damping of flexural resonators...Research Laboratory CAD computer-aided design DUT device under test HEMDP harmonic excitation modal damping predictor JFTP Joint Fuze Technology

  18. Aerospace applications of mass market MEMS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karin; Kroetz, Gerhard; Schalk, Josef; Mueller, Gerhard

    2002-07-01

    Aerospace applications of MEMS products, originally developed for automotive mass markets, are discussed. Various sensor examples with a high dual use potential are presented: inertial sensing, flow and gas sensing, robust micro sensors including SiC- and GaN-based devices, as well as first approaches towards flexible and distributed microsystems. In Europe the automotive industry is one of the main MEMS market drivers, simply because of the sheer size of this market and Europe's strong position in this industrial field. Main MEMS activities are development and integration of vehicle dynamics sensing systems, passenger safety and navigation systems, air and fuel intake systems, as well as sensor systems for exhaust gas after treatment and climate control. Benefits on the customer side are increased safety, passenger comfort and reduced fuel consumption. Benefits on the manufacturer's side are increased sub-system integration, modularity and reduced production cost. In the future the aerospace industry is likely to benefit from the introduction of micro-systems for the same reasons as the automotive industry. Interests of the aerospace industry are increasing safety and reliability of airplane operation, health and state monitoring of fuselage and airplane subsystems as well as improving service and maintenance procedures. In comparison to automotive applications, the numbers of devices needed is likely to be much smaller, however, new challenges arise in so far as distributed sensing and actuating microsystems will be needed. The idea is to identify and to exploit synergies between automotive mass market MEMS applications and lower-volume aerospace ones. The effort necessary to meet aerospace requirements and the extent of necessary trade-offs in customizing automotive MEMS is addressed considering the above-mentioned examples.

  19. MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

    2000-01-19

    The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

  20. MEMS Gyroscopes Based on Acoustic Sagnac Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design, fabrication and preliminary test results of a novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS device—the acoustic gyroscope. The unique operating mechanism is based on the “acoustic version” of the Sagnac effect in fiber-optic gyros. The device measures the phase difference between two sound waves traveling in opposite directions, and correlates the signal to the angular velocity of the hosting frame. As sound travels significantly slower than light and develops a larger phase change within the same path length, the acoustic gyro can potentially outperform fiber-optic gyros in sensitivity and form factor. It also promises superior stability compared to vibratory MEMS gyros as the design contains no moving parts and is largely insensitive to mechanical stress or temperature. We have carried out systematic simulations and experiments, and developed a series of processes and design rules to implement the device.

  1. Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing of MEMS Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Collette

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing (QALT is a solution for assessing thereliability of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS. A procedure for QALT is shownin this paper and an attempt to assess the reliability level for a batch of MEMSaccelerometers is reported. The testing plan is application-driven and contains combinedtests: thermal (high temperature and mechanical stress. Two variants of mechanical stressare used: vibration (at a fixed frequency and tilting. Original equipment for testing at tiltingand high temperature is used. Tilting is appropriate as application-driven stress, because thetilt movement is a natural environment for devices used for automotive and aerospaceapplications. Also, tilting is used by MEMS accelerometers for anti-theft systems. The testresults demonstrated the excellent reliability of the studied devices, the failure rate in the“worst case” being smaller than 10-7h-1.

  2. Progress of MEMS Scanning Micromirrors for Optical Bio-Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lih Y. Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS have an unmatched ability to incorporate numerous functionalities into ultra-compact devices, and due to their versatility and miniaturization, MEMS have become an important cornerstone in biomedical and endoscopic imaging research. To incorporate MEMS into such applications, it is critical to understand underlying architectures involving choices in actuation mechanism, including the more common electrothermal, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric approaches, reviewed in this paper. Each has benefits and tradeoffs and is better suited for particular applications or imaging schemes due to achievable scan ranges, power requirements, speed, and size. Many of these characteristics are fabrication-process dependent, and this paper discusses various fabrication flows developed to integrate additional optical functionality beyond simple lateral scanning, enabling dynamic control of the focus or mirror surface. Out of this provided MEMS flexibility arises some challenges when obtaining high resolution images: due to scanning non-linearities, calibration of MEMS scanners may become critical, and inherent image artifacts or distortions during scanning can degrade image quality. Several reviewed methods and algorithms have been proposed to address these complications from MEMS scanning. Given their impact and promise, great effort and progress have been made toward integrating MEMS and biomedical imaging.

  3. Carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) based microsupercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Richa

    2015-05-18

    The rapid development in miniaturized electronic devices has led to an ever increasing demand for high-performance rechargeable micropower scources. Microsupercapacitors in particular have gained much attention in recent years owing to their ability to provide high pulse power while maintaining long cycle lives. Carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) is a powerful approach to fabricate high aspect ratio carbon microelectrode arrays, which has been proved to hold great promise as a platform for energy storage. C-MEMS is a versatile technique to create carbon structures by pyrolyzing a patterned photoresist. Furthermore, different active materials can be loaded onto these microelectrode platforms for further enhancement of the electrochemical performance of the C-MEMS platform. In this article, different techniques and methods in order to enhance C-MEMS based various electrochemical capacitor systems have been discussed, including electrochemical activation of C-MEMS structures for miniaturized supercapacitor applications, integration of carbon nanostructures like carbon nanotubes onto C-MEMS structures and also integration of pseudocapacitive materials such as polypyrrole onto C-MEMS structures. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  4. RF MEMS Based Reconfigurable Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation will first of all address the advantages of RF MEMS circuit in antenna applications and also the need for electronically reconfigurable antennas. Next, discuss some of the recent examples of RF MEMS based reconfigurable microstrip antennas. Finally, conclude the talk with a summary of MEMS antenna performance.

  5. Calibration of High Frequency MEMS Microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Humphreys, William M.; Bartram, Scott M.; Zuckewar, Allan J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and controlling aircraft noise is one of the major research topics of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program. One of the measurement technologies used to acquire noise data is the microphone directional array (DA). Traditional direction array hardware, consisting of commercially available condenser microphones and preamplifiers can be too expensive and their installation in hard-walled wind tunnel test sections too complicated. An emerging micro-machining technology coupled with the latest cutting edge technologies for smaller and faster systems have opened the way for development of MEMS microphones. The MEMS microphone devices are available in the market but suffer from certain important shortcomings. Based on early experiments with array prototypes, it has been found that both the bandwidth and the sound pressure level dynamic range of the microphones should be increased significantly to improve the performance and flexibility of the overall array. Thus, in collaboration with an outside MEMS design vendor, NASA Langley modified commercially available MEMS microphone as shown in Figure 1 to meet the new requirements. Coupled with the design of the enhanced MEMS microphones was the development of a new calibration method for simultaneously obtaining the sensitivity and phase response of the devices over their entire broadband frequency range. Over the years, several methods have been used for microphone calibration. Some of the common methods of microphone calibration are Coupler (Reciprocity, Substitution, and Simultaneous), Pistonphone, Electrostatic actuator, and Free-field calibration (Reciprocity, Substitution, and Simultaneous). Traditionally, electrostatic actuators (EA) have been used to characterize air-condenser microphones for wideband frequency ranges; however, MEMS microphones are not adaptable to the EA method due to their construction and very small diaphragm size. Hence a substitution-based, free-field method was developed to

  6. 三明治电容式MEMS加速度计的器件级真空封装%Device-Level Vacuum Packaging for a Sandwich Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡梅妮; 车录锋; 林友玲; 周晓峰; 黎晓林; 吴健

    2012-01-01

    为了降低微电子机械系统(MEMS)加速度器件的热机械噪声,提高信噪比,使之能应用于石油勘探和地震监测中,对一种三明治式电容加速度传感器的器件级真空封装工艺进行了研究.这种器件级真空封装方法采用可编程高真空封装设备和MEMS工业中常用的材料、工艺,可适用于不同尺寸或布局的MEMS芯片.利用该封装方法,对一种采用自停止腐蚀工艺在中间质量块键合层上制作出2个对称“V”型槽的三明治式电容加速度计进行了真空封装,并对封装后的器件进行性能测试.结果表明,该加速度计在有吸气剂的情况下,品质因子(Q)可达到76,理论热机械噪声为0.026μg/√Hz,腔体内部压强小于13 Pa,He气细漏检测漏率低于3×10 -10 Pa.m3/s,氟油粗漏无气泡,满足地震监测要求.%A device-level vacuum packaging process was studied to reduce mechanical-thermal noise and improve signal to noise ratio ( S/N) of micro-electro-mechanical systems ( MEMS ) accelerometers, which were needed in oil exploration and earthquake detection. The procedure took advantage of processing steps and materials used throughout the MEMS industry while providing maximum flexibility for changes in die size and layout. Prototypes of an accelerometer with two grooves, which formed passages used to remove air from cavity within the accelerometer, were packaged using the presented package techniques. The combination of getter with the packaging process results in a stable quality factor of 76, with the pressure of less than 13 Pa in the cavity. The theoretical value of thermal-mechanical noise is 0.026 μg/ √H2, helium leakage is lower than 3 × 10-10 Pa · m3/s and gross leakage has no bubble. And it can meet the earthquake monitoring requirements.

  7. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremely high surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

  8. MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

    2000-01-01

    The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

  9. Silicon ohmic lateral-contact MEMS switch for RF applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhin, A.; Miakonkikh, A.; Tatarintsev, A.; Lebedev, K.; Kalnov, V.; Rudenko, K.; Lukichev, V.

    2016-12-01

    Application variety and huge potential market of RF MEMS switches guarantee relentless research interest to the field. There are lots of different types of MEMS switches. Direct contact MEMS switches are simplifier for integration than capacitive MEMS switches. Lateral technology considerably simplifies the formation process. The objective of this research is to estimate characteristics of the simple direct-contact lateral MEMS switch and to understand the improvement directions. The MEMS switches were fabricated on the SOI wafers by e-beam lithography, dry etching and wet HF-etching. E-beam lithography and dry etching were used to form the cantilever and electrodes on the buried oxide layer. The structure with two control electrodes was used. IV characteristics were measured by Keithley 4200-SCS. The distance between cantilever and control electrodes was 100 nm. From the obtained IV characteristics it is clear that the devices switches at about 60 V. High control voltage could be explained by the large distance between cantilever and control electrode, and high rigidity of the cantilever. Following simulation in COMSOL Multiphysics showed that the control voltage could be decreased to 20-30 V by adding of spring element to the cantilever and device geometry modification.

  10. Design of Fall Detection Device for Elderly People based on Wearable Microelectron Mechanical System Sensor%基于 MEMS 传感器的可穿戴式老年人跌倒监测系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云浦; 李玉榕; 陈建国

    2014-01-01

    To design a falling detection device, aiming to reduce the delay of helping the tumbling old men and to enhance their safety.This device combined MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) sensor and digital signal processing with wireless trans-mission technology so as to be used on smart phones.To distinguish falling accidents from daily behaviors, it could be judged from body′s triaxial accelerometer and angular speed and proper threshold value selected from lots of experiments.The data could be sent to their phones, through Bluetooth and given out alarm through cellular voice, and besides, their location located by GPS and their condi-tions would be texted to the hospital and their guardians.Then after falling,the old people could be helped in the shortest time.Lots of experiments showed that the accuracy rate of the judgment from the combination of triaxial accelerometer and angular speed was 100%, compared to that of traditional judgment from triaxial accelerometer which was 84.29%.The result shows that the wearable falling de-tection device based on MEMS sensor has the characteristics of convenience, accuracy and low power dissipation and has the ability of detecting falling accurately and giving out alarm.It meets the requirements of falling monitoring.%为了缩短老年人跌倒后的救助时间和提高安全保障,我们设计了一种基于加速度和角速度传感器的跌倒监测装置。该装置结合机械微电子系统( microelectro mechanical system,MEMS)传感器、数字信号处理及无线传输技术应用于智能手机上。为区分人体跌倒事件和日常行为,结合人体三轴加速度和角速度联合对跌倒事件进行判断,通过大量实验选取合适阈值。针对老年人的生活特点,数据通过蓝牙装置发送至手机上进行处理,通过手机语音报警、手机GPS定位系统和短信通知医院和用户监护人,使得老年人跌倒后能够在第一时间获

  11. A Disposable Microfluidic Device with a Screen Printed Electrode for Mimicking Phase II Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Vasiliadou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human metabolism is investigated using several in vitro methods. However, the current methodologies are often expensive, tedious and complicated. Over the last decade, the combination of electrochemistry (EC with mass spectrometry (MS has a simpler and a cheaper alternative to mimic the human metabolism. This paper describes the development of a disposable microfluidic device with a screen-printed electrode (SPE for monitoring phase II GSH reactions. The proposed chip has the potential to be used as a primary screening tool, thus complementing the current in vitro methods.

  12. Device closure of secundum atrial septal defect in a 4.5 kilogram infant: Novel use of the Amplatzer DuctOccluder II device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrossan, B A; Walsh, K P

    2016-02-01

    Modest secundum atrial septal defects (2°ASD) may cause significant pulmonary over perfusion during infancy, particularly in conjunction with left heart obstructive lesions. Amplatzer Septal Occluders are not ideal in this setting especially given recent concerns regarding device erosion. We report the first use of the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II device (ADO2) to close a 2°ASD in a 4.5 kg infant.

  13. Thermoelectric microdevice fabricated by a MEMS-like electrochemical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Lim, James R.; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are the basis of many rapidly growing technologies, because they combine miniature sensors and actuators with communications and electronics at low cost. Commercial MEMS fabrication processes are limited to silicon-based materials or two-dimensional structures. Here we show an inexpensive, electrochemical technique to build MEMS-like structures that contain several different metals and semiconductors with three-dimensional bridging structures. We demonstrate this technique by building a working microthermoelectric device. Using repeated exposure and development of multiple photoresist layers, several different metals and thermoelectric materials are fabricated in a three-dimensional structure. A device containing 126 n-type and p-type (Bi, Sb)2Te3 thermoelectric elements, 20 microm tall and 60 microm in diameter with bridging metal interconnects, was fabricated and cooling demonstrated. Such a device should be of technological importance for precise thermal control when operating as a cooler, and for portable power when operating as a micro power generator.

  14. Variable Emissivity Through MEMS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrin, Ann Garrison; Osiander, Robert; Champion, John; Swanson, Ted; Douglas, Donya; Grob, Lisa M.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses a new technology for variable emissivity (vari-e) radiator surfaces, which has significant advantages over traditional radiators and promises an alternative design technique for future spacecraft thermal control systems. All spacecraft rely on radiative surfaces to dissipate waste heat. These radiators have special coatings, typically with a low solar absorptivity and a high infrared-red emissivity, that are intended to optimize performance under the expected heat load and thermal sink environment. The dynamics of the heat loads and thermal environment make it a challenge to properly size the radiator and often require some means of regulating the heat rejection rate of the radiators in order to achieve proper thermal balance. Specialized thermal control coatings, which can passively or actively adjust their emissivity offer an attractive solution to these design challenges. Such systems would allow intelligent control of the rate of heat loss from a radiator in response to heat load and thermal environmental variations. Intelligent thermal control through variable emissivity systems is well suited for nano and pico spacecraft applications where large thermal fluctuations are expected due to the small thermal mass and limited electric resources. Presently there are three different types of vari-e technologies under development: Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) louvers, Electrochromic devices, and Electrophoretic devices. This paper will describe several prototypes of micromachined (MEMS) louvers and experimental results for the emissivity variations measured on theses prototypes. It will further discuss possible actuation mechanisms and space reliability aspects for different designs. Finally, for comparison parametric evaluations of the thermal performances of the new vari-e technology and standard thermal control systems are presented in this paper.

  15. Photonic MEMS tunable laser sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ai-qun

    2009-01-01

    This article covers laser configurations, design and experiments of photonic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) tunable laser sources. Three different types of MEMS tunable lasers such as MEMS coupled-cavity lasers, injection-locked laser systems and dual-wavelength tunable lasers are demonstrated as examples of natural synergy of MEMS with photonics. The expansion and penetration of the MEMS technology to silicon optoelectronic creates on-chip optical systems at an unprecedented scale of integration. While producing better integration with robustness and compactness, MEMS improves the functionalities and specifications of laser chips. Additionally, MEMS tunable lasers are featured with small size, high tuning speed, wide tuning range and CMOS compatible integration, which broaden their applications to many fields.

  16. Wafer-level heterogeneous 3D integration for MEMS and NEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Niklaus, Frank; Lapisa, Martin; Bleiker, Simon J.; Dubois, Valentin; Roxhed, Niclas; Fischer, Andreas C.; Forsberg, Fredrik; Stemme, Goran; Grogg, Daniel; Despont, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the state-of-the-art in wafer-level heterogeneous 3D integration technologies for micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) is reviewed. Various examples of commercial and experimental heterogeneous 3D integration processes for MEMS and NEMS devices are presented and discussed. QC 20120907

  17. Integrated design of MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Brissaud, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Emerging technologies of Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) are applications such as airbag accelerometers. Micro-products present many physical differences from macro-products. Moreover, there is a high level of integration in multiple fields of physics with strongly coupled effects...

  18. Photonic MEMS switch applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Anis

    2001-07-01

    As carriers and service providers continue their quest for profitable network solutions, they have shifted their focus from raw bandwidth to rapid provisioning, delivery and management of revenue generating services. Inherently transparent to data rate the transmission wavelength and data format, MEMS add scalability, reliability, low power and compact size providing flexible solutions to the management and/or fiber channels in long haul, metro, and access networks. MEMS based photonic switches have gone from the lab to commercial availability and are now currently in carrier trials and volume production. 2D MEMS switches offer low up-front deployment costs while remaining scalable to large arrays. They allow for transparent, native protocol transmission. 2D switches enable rapid service turn-up and management for many existing and emerging revenue rich services such as storage connectivity, optical Ethernet, wavelength leasing and optical VPN. As the network services evolve, the larger 3D MEMS switches, which provide greater scalability and flexibility, will become economically viable to serve the ever-increasing needs.

  19. U.S. Army Corrosion Office's storage and quality requirements for military MEMS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, J. L., III; Skelton, D. R.

    2007-04-01

    As the Army transforms into a more lethal, lighter and agile force, the technologies that support these systems must decrease in size while increasing in intelligence. Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are one such technology that the Army and DOD will rely on heavily to accomplish these objectives. Conditions for utilization of MEMS by the military are unique. Operational and storage environments for the military are significantly different than those found in the commercial sector. Issues unique to the military include; high G-forces during gun launch, extreme temperature and humidity ranges, extended periods of inactivity (20 years plus) and interaction with explosives and propellants. The military operational environments in which MEMS will be stored or required to function are extreme and far surpass any commercial operating conditions. Security and encryption are a must for all MEMS communication, tracking, or data reporting devices employed by the military. Current and future military applications of MEMS devices include safety and arming devices, fuzing devices, various guidance systems, sensors/detectors, inertial measurement units, tracking devices, radio frequency devices, wireless Radio Frequency Identifications (RFIDs) and network systems, GPS's, radar systems, mobile base systems and information technology. MEMS embedded into these weapons systems will provide the military with new levels of speed, awareness, lethality, and information dissemination. The system capabilities enhanced by MEMS will translate directly into tactical and strategic military advantages.

  20. Critical issues for the application of integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies to inertial measurement units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.; Ellis, J.R.; Montague, S.; Allen, J.J.

    1997-03-01

    One of the principal applications of monolithically integrated micromechanical/microelectronic systems has been accelerometers for automotive applications. As integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies such as those developed by U.C. Berkeley, Analog Devices, and Sandia National Laboratories mature, additional systems for more sensitive inertial measurements will enter the commercial marketplace. In this paper, the authors will examine key technology design rules which impact the performance and cost of inertial measurement devices manufactured in integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies. These design parameters include: (1) minimum MEMS feature size, (2) minimum CMOS feature size, (3) maximum MEMS linear dimension, (4) number of mechanical MEMS layers, (5) MEMS/CMOS spacing. In particular, the embedded approach to integration developed at Sandia will be examined in the context of these technology features. Presently, this technology offers MEMS feature sizes as small as 1 {micro}m, CMOS critical dimensions of 1.25 {micro}m, MEMS linear dimensions of 1,000 {micro}m, a single mechanical level of polysilicon, and a 100 {micro}m space between MEMS and CMOS. This is applicable to modern precision guided munitions.

  1. Critical issues for the application of integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies to inertial measurement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James H.; Montague, Stephen; Allen, James J.; Ellis, J. R.; Burgett, Scott M.

    1997-06-01

    One of the principal applications of monolithically integrated micromechanical/microelectronic systems has been accelerometers for automotive applications. As integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies such as those developed by U.C. Berkeley, Analog Devices, and Sandia National Laboratories mature, additional systems for more sensitive inertial measurements will enter the commercial marketplace. In this paper, we will examine the key technology design rules which impact the performance and cost of inertial measurement devices manufactured in integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies. These design parameters include: (1) Minimum MEMS feature size, (2) Minimum CMOS feature size, (3) Maximum MEMS linear dimension, (4) Number of mechanical MEMS layers, and (5) MEMS/CMOS spacing. In particular, the embedded approach to integration developed at Sandia will be examined in the context of these technology features. Presently, this technology offers MEMS feature sizes as small as 1 micrometers , CMOS critical dimensions of 1.25 micrometers , MEMS linear dimensions of 1000 micrometers , a single mechanical level of polysilicon, and a 100 micrometers space between MEMS and CMOS.

  2. Analysis of the interaction of deuterium plasmas with tungsten in the Fuego-Nuevo II device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Gonzalo; Castillo, Fermín; Nieto, Martín; Martínez, Marco; Rangel, José; Herrera-Velázquez, Julio

    2012-10-01

    Tungsten is one of the main candidate materials for plasma-facing components in future fusion power plants. The Fuego-Nuevo II, a plasma focus device, which can produce dense magnetized helium and deuterium plasmas, has been adapted to address plasma-facing materials questions. In this paper we present results of tungsten targets exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Fuego Nuevo II device, using different experimental conditions. The plasma generated and accelerated in the coaxial gun is expected to have, before the pinch, energies of the order of hundreds eV and velocities of the order of 40,000 m s-1. At the pinch, the ions are reported to have energies of the order of 1.5 keV at most. The samples, analysed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in cross section show a damage profile to depths of the order of 580 nm, which are larger than those expected for ions with 1.5 keV, and may be evidence of ion acceleration. An analysis with the SRIM (Stopping Range of Ions in Matter) package calculations is shown.

  3. Modeling a geographically distributed MEMS fabrication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, William L.; Huff, Michael A.

    2001-04-01

    Manufacturing is typically limited to fabrication of parts at a single location, with some sites assembling components from parts made elsewhere. The age of ubiquitous information transfer has made it conceivable to distribute manufacturing geographically, in order to provide access to unique manufacturing capabilities in a flexible manner. If the overhead of a distributed manufacturing network can be adequately reduced, it has the potential to make previously cost ineffective low volume and custom applications economically feasible. The MEMS-Exchange is an infrastructural service available to the domestic microelectromechanical systems community that provides an interface between MEMS designers and microfabrication facilities (academic, commercial, and government labs) which allows designers to develop and exercise custom process sequences in order to realize their devices.

  4. COTS MEMS Flow-Measurement Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Chip; Smith, Floyd A.; Blank, Greg; Cruzan, Charles

    2004-01-01

    As an alternative to conventional tubing instrumentation for measuring airflow, designers and technicians at Glenn Research Center have been fabricating packaging components and assembling a set of unique probes that contain commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensor chips. MEMS sensor chips offer some compelling advantages over standard macroscopic measurement devices. MEMS sensor technology has matured through mass production and use in the automotive and aircraft industries. At present, MEMS are the devices of choice for sensors in such applications as tire-pressure monitors, altimeters, pneumatic controls, cable leak detectors, and consumer appliances. Compactness, minimality of power demand, rugged construction, and moderate cost all contribute to making MEMS sensors attractive for instrumentation for future research. Conventional macroscopic flow-measurement instrumentation includes tubes buried beneath the aerodynamic surfaces of wind-tunnel models or in wind-tunnel walls. Pressure is introduced at the opening of each such tube. The pressure must then travel along the tube before reaching a transducer that generates an electronic signal. The lengths of such tubes typically range from 20 ft (approx.= 6 m) to hundreds of feet (of the order of 100 m). The propagation of pressure signals in the tubes damps the signals considerably and makes it necessary to delay measurements until after test rigs have reached steady-state operation. In contrast, a MEMS pressure sensor that generates electronic output can take readings continuously under dynamic conditions in nearly real time. In order to use stainless-steel tubing for pressure measurements, it is necessary to clean many tubes, cut them to length, carefully install them, delicately deburr them, and splice them. A cluster of a few hundred 1/16-in.- (approx.=1.6-mm-) diameter tubes (such clusters are common in research testing facilities) can be several inches (of the order of 10

  5. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS: Technology for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đakov Tatjana A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS are miniturized devices that can sense the environment, process and analyze information, and respond with a variety of mechanical and electrical actuators. MEMS consists of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, electrical and electronics devices on a common silicon substrate. Micro-electro-mechanical systems are becoming a vital technology for modern society. Some of the advantages of MEMS devices are: very small size, very low power consumption, low cost, easy to integrate into systems or modify, small thermal constant, high resistance to vibration, shock and radiation, batch fabricated in large arrays, improved thermal expansion tolerance. MEMS technology is increasingly penetrating into our lives and improving quality of life, similar to what we experienced in the microelectronics revolution. Commercial opportunities for MEMS are rapidly growing in broad application areas, including biomedical, telecommunication, security, entertainment, aerospace, and more in both the consumer and industrial sectors on a global scale. As a breakthrough technology, MEMS is building synergy between previously unrelated fields such as biology and microelectronics. Many new MEMS and nanotechnology applications will emerge, expanding beyond that which is currently identified or known. MEMS are definitely technology for 21st century.

  6. Ultra-compact MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Yasser M.; Hassan, Khaled; Anwar, Momen; Alharon, Mohamed H.; Medhat, Mostafa; Adib, George A.; Dumont, Rich; Saadany, Bassam; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-05-01

    Portable and handheld spectrometers are being developed and commercialized in the late few years leveraging the rapidly-progressing technology and triggering new markets in the field of on-site spectroscopic analysis. Although handheld devices were commercialized for the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), their size and cost stand as an obstacle against the deployment of the spectrometer as spectral sensing components needed for the smart phone industry and the IoT applications. In this work we report a chip-sized microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based FTIR spectrometer. The core optical engine of the solution is built using a passive-alignment integration technique for a selfaligned MEMS chip; self-aligned microoptics and a single detector in a tiny package sized about 1 cm3. The MEMS chip is a monolithic, high-throughput scanning Michelson interferometer fabricated using deep reactive ion etching technology of silicon-on-insulator substrate. The micro-optical part is used for conditioning the input/output light to/from the MEMS and for further light direction to the detector. Thanks to the all-reflective design of the conditioning microoptics, the performance is free of chromatic aberration. Complemented by the excellent transmission properties of the silicon in the infrared region, the integrated solution allows very wide spectral range of operation. The reported sensor's spectral resolution is about 33 cm-1 and working in the range of 1270 nm to 2700 nm; upper limited by the extended InGaAs detector. The presented solution provides a low cost, low power, tiny size, wide wavelength range NIR spectral sensor that can be manufactured with extremely high volumes. All these features promise the compatibility of this technology with the forthcoming demand of smart portable and IoT devices.

  7. Performance Analysis of Alignment Process of MEMS IMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Bistrov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of determining the initial values of the attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading is known as the alignment. Also, it is essential to align an inertial system before the start of navigation. Unless the inertial system is not aligned with the vehicle, the information provided by MEMS (microelectromechanical system sensors is not useful for navigating the vehicle. At the moment MEMS gyroscopes have poor characteristics and it’s necessary to develop specific algorithms in order to obtain the attitude information of the object. Most of the standard algorithms for the attitude estimation are not suitable when using MEMS inertial sensors. The wavelet technique, the Kalman filter, and the quaternion are not new in navigation data processing. But the joint use of those techniques for MEMS sensor data processing can give some new results. In this paper the performance of a developed algorithm for the attitude estimation using MEMS IMU (inertial measurement unit is tested. The obtained results are compared with the attitude output of another commercial GPS/IMU device by Xsens. The impact of MEMS sensor measurement noises on an alignment process is analysed. Some recommendations for the Kalman filter algorithm tuning to decrease standard deviation of the attitude estimation are given.

  8. RF MEMS: status of the industry and roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Jeremie; Wicht, Henning

    2005-01-01

    Microsystems for Radio Frequency applications, known as RF MEMS, have entered the commercialization phase in 2003. Bulk Acoustic Wave filters are already produced in series and first commercial samples of switches are available. On the other hand, reliability and packaging problems are still a major hurdle especially for switches and tunable capacitors. Will RF MEMS hold their promise to be one of the future major businesses for MEMS? The presentation will give an overview on RF MEMS applications and market players. WTC will highlight technical challenges that still have to be solved to open mass markets such as mobile telephony and WLAN. WTC will also present applications of RF MEMS and opportunities in niche markets with high added value like military and space applications. WTC will provide a regional analysis and compare R&D focus and public funding situation in North America, Europe and Asia. Finally, WTC will present an updated product roadmap market forecast for RF MEMS devices for the 2004-2008 time period.

  9. Displacement damage effects in silicon MEMS at high proton doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João; Shea, Herbert R.

    2011-02-01

    We report on a study of the sensitivity of silicon MEMS to proton radiation and mitigation strategies. MEMS can degrade due to ionizing radiation (electron-hole pair creation) and non-ionizing radiation (displacement damage), such as electrons, trapped and solar protons, or cosmic rays, typically found in a space environment. Over the past few years there has been several reports on the effects of ionizing radiation in silicon MEMS, with failure generally linked to trapped charge in dielectrics. However there is near complete lack of studies on displacement damage effects in silicon- MEMS: how does silicon change mechanically due to proton irradiation? We report on an investigation on the susceptibility of 50 μm thick SOI-based MEMS resonators to displacement damages due to proton beams, with energies from 1 to 60 MeV, and annealing of this damage. We measure ppm changes on the Young's modulus and Poisson ratio by means of accurately monitoring the resonant frequency of devices in vacuum using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer. We observed for the first time an increase (up to 0.05%) of the Young's modulus of single-crystal silicon electromagnetically-actuated micromirrors after exposure to low energy protons (1-4 MeV) at high absorbed doses ~ 100 Mrad (Si). This investigation will contribute to a better understanding of the susceptibility of silicon-based MEMS to displacement damages frequently encountered in a space radiation environment, and allow appropriated design margin and shielding to be implemented.

  10. Development of a Tower Inclination Detection Device Based on MEMS Accelerometers%基于微机电系统加速度计的杆塔倾斜检测装置的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝一川; 苏小林; 赵巧娥

    2014-01-01

    Tilt of transmission line tower is a serious failure of transmission lines in poor geological zones (the hidden cavity, landslide areas,high salt permafrost zones etc.). In order to detect and fix the tower tilt,the status of tower should be monitored in real time. According to the inclination calculating principle based on the gravity acceleration measurements, a transmission line tower tilt detection device is designed and developed. In the device,ADXL345 (a accelerometer of three-axis sensing element based on MEMS)is used for acquisition of acceleration caused by gravity. The STM32W108(a system on chip with the Zigbee protocol stack embeded)is used to process the acceleration sampled data. The inclination is sent back to the monitoring center via Zigbee network in order to monitor the tower status in real time.%输电线路杆塔倾斜是处于不良地质区(采空区、滑坡区、高盐冻土区等)的输电线路随时会出现的严重故障,为了及时发现杆塔倾斜并修复,需要对杆塔的状态进行实时监测。依据重力加速度测量值计算倾斜角原理,设计开发了一种输电线路杆塔倾斜检测装置,采用基于微机电系统的三轴加速度计ADXL345作为传感元件进行数据采集,采用含有无线射频电路及Zigbee协议栈的STM32W108片上系统作为中央处理器进行加速度采样数据处理,并经Zigbee网络传送至上位机,实现了杆塔倾斜角的实时检测。

  11. Characterization of Mechanical Properties at the Micro/Nano Scale: Stiction Failure of MEMS, High-Frequency Michelson Interferometry and Carbon NanoFibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyraddini Mousavi, Arash

    Different forces scale differently with decreasing length scales. Van der Waals and surface tension are generally ignored at the macro scale, but can become dominant at the micro and nano scales. This fact, combined with the considerable compliance and large surface areas of micro and nano devices, can leads to adhesion in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS) - a.k.a. stiction-failure. The adhesive forces between MEMS devices leading to stiction failure are characterized in this dissertation analytically and experimentally. Specifically, the adhesion energy of poly-Si μcantilevers are determined experimentally through Mode II and mixed Mode I&II crack propagation experiments. Furthermore, the description of a high-frequency Michelson Interferometer is discussed for imaging of crack propagation of the μcantilevers with their substrate at the nano-scale and harmonic imaging of MEMS/NEMS. Van der Waals forces are also responsible for the adhesion in nonwoven carbon nanofiber networks. Experimental and modeling results are presented for the mechanical and electrical properties of nonwoven (random entanglements) of carbon nanofibers under relatively low and high-loads, both in tensions and compression. It was also observed that the structural integrity of these networks is controlled by mechanical entanglement and flexural rigidity of individual fibers as well as Hertzian forces at the fiber/fiber interface.

  12. Shock reliability enhancement for MEMS vibration energy harvesters with nonlinear air damping as a soft stopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Tuan; Du, Sijun; Arroyo, Emmanuelle; Jia, Yu; Seshia, Ashwin

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a novel application of utilising nonlinear air damping as a soft mechanical stopper to increase the shock reliability for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) vibration energy harvesters. The theoretical framework for nonlinear air damping is constructed for MEMS vibration energy harvesters operating in different air pressure levels, and characterisation experiments are conducted to establish the relationship between air pressure and nonlinear air damping coefficient for rectangular cantilever MEMS micro cantilevers with different proof masses. Design guidelines on choosing the optimal air pressure level for different MEMS vibration energy harvesters based on the trade-off between harvestable energy and the device robustness are presented, and random excitation experiments are performed to verify the robustness of MEMS vibration energy harvesters with nonlinear air damping as soft stoppers to limit the maximum deflection distance and increase the shock reliability of the device.

  13. Integrated Magnetic MEMS Relays: Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Schiavone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of magnetic technologies employing microfabricated magnetic structures for the production of switching components has generated enormous interest in the scientific and industrial communities over the last decade. Magnetic actuation offers many benefits when compared to other schemes for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, including the generation of forces that have higher magnitude and longer range. Magnetic actuation can be achieved using different excitation sources, which create challenges related to the integration with other technologies, such as CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, and the requirement to reduce power consumption. Novel designs and technologies are therefore sought to enable the use of magnetic switching architectures in integrated MEMS devices, without incurring excessive energy consumption. This article reviews the status of magnetic MEMS technology and presents devices recently developed by various research groups, with key focuses on integrability and effective power management, in addition to the ability to integrate the technology with other microelectronic fabrication processes.

  14. From MEMS to nanomachine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esashi, Masayoshi; Ono, Takahito [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki Aoba-ku Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2005-07-07

    Practically applicable microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanomachines have been developed by applying dry processes. Deep reactive ion etching (RIE) of silicon and its applications to an electrostatically levitated rotational gyroscope, a fibre optic blood pressure sensor and in micro-actuated probes are described. High density electrical feedthrough in glass is made using deep RIE of glass and electroplating of metal. Multi-probe data storage system has been developed using the high density electrical feedthrough in glass. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of different materials have been developed for MEMS applications; trench-refill using SiO{sub 2} CVD, microstructures using Silicon carbide CVD for glass mold press and selective CVD of carbon nanotube for electron field emitter. Multi-column electron beam lithography system has been developed using the electron field emitter. (topical review)

  15. Memória

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Mourão Júnior; Nicole Costa Faria

    2015-01-01

    ResumoEste artigo tem como objetivo central apresentar os processos de memória de maneira didática, proporcionando aos alunos e futuros pesquisadores um primeiro contato satisfatório com o tema. Já há algum tempo, tem sido observada a ocorrência de confusões conceituais e metodológicas no campo da neurociência cognitiva, tanto em relação à memória quanto em relação às outras funções psicológicas básicas. Neste ensaio, alguns conceitos principais são esclarecidos. É apresentada uma classificaç...

  16. Ball driven type MEMS SAD for artillery fuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Oh; Jeong, Ji-hun; Eom, Junseong; Lee, Seung S.; Lee, Chun Jae; Ryu, Sung Moon; Oh, Jong Soo

    2017-01-01

    The SAD (safety and arming device) is an indispensable fuse component that ensures safe and reliable performance during the use of ammunition. Because the application of electronic devices for smart munitions is increasing, miniaturization of the SAD has become one of the key issues for next-generation artillery fuses. Based on MEMS technology, various types of miniaturized SADs have been proposed and fabricated. However, none of them have been reported to have been used in actual munitions due to their lack of high impact endurance and complicated explosive train arrangements. In this research, a new MEMS SAD using a ball driven mechanism, is successfully demonstrated based on a UV LIGA (lithography, electroplating and molding) process. Unlike other MEMS SADs, both high impact endurance and simple structure were achieved by using a ball driven mechanism. The simple structural design also simplified the fabrication process and increased the processing yield. The ball driven type MEMS SAD performed successfully under the desired safe and arming conditions of a spin test and showed fine agreement with the FEM simulation result, conducted prior to its fabrication. A field test was also performed with a grenade launcher to evaluate the SAD performance in the firing environment. All 30 of the grenade samples equipped with the proposed MEMS SAD operated successfully under the high-G setback condition.

  17. Treatment of division II malocclusion in young adult with Forsus™ fatigue-resistant device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Krishna Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional technique for correcting class II malocclusion - involving the use of class II elastics and headgear - has been problematic due to its dependence on patient compliance. Functional orthopedic treatment seeks to correct malocclusions and harmonize the shape of the dental arch and orofacial functions. Removable functional appliances are normally very large in size, have unstable fixation, cause discomfort, exert pressure on the mucosa, reduce space for the tongue, cause difficulties in deglutition and speech, and very often affect esthetic appearance. With a fixed appliance like the Forsus™ fatigue-resistant device (FRD, as the appliance is fixed, there is less dependence on patient compliance and the remaining growth after the pubertal growth spurt can be harbored effectively. The Forsus™ FRD is not as rigid as the previous fixed functional appliances and hence is comfortable for the patients. In this case report we describe a patient at the end of the growth stage who had mandibular retrognathia and was successfully treated with the Forsus™ FRD.

  18. Microfabrication of MEMS alkali metal vapor cells for chip-scale atomic devices%芯片级原子器件MEMS碱金属蒸气腔室制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤政; 马波; 阮勇; 陈硕; 张高飞

    2013-01-01

    提出了基于两步低温阳极键合工艺的碱金属蒸气腔室制作方法,用于实现原子钟、原子磁力计及原子陀螺仪等器件的芯片级集成.由微机电系统(MEMS)体硅工艺制备了腔室结构.首先采用标准工艺将刻蚀有腔室的硅圆片与Pyrex玻璃阳极键合成预成型腔室,然后引入氮缓冲气体和由惰性石蜡包覆的微量碱金属铷或铯.通过两步阳极键合来密封腔室,键合温度低于石蜡燃点198℃.第一步键合预封装腔室,键合电压小于缓冲气体的击穿电压.第二步键合在大气氛围中进行,电压增至1 200 V来增强封装质量.通过高功率激光器局部加热释放碱金属,同时在腔壁上形成均匀的石蜡镀层以延长极化原子寿命.本文实现了160℃的低温阳极键合封装,键合率达到95%以上.封装的碱金属铷释放后仍具有金属光泽,实现的最小双腔室体积为6.5 mm×4.5 mm×2 mm.铷的吸收光谱表明铷有效地封装在腔室中,证明两步低温阳极键合工艺制作碱金属蒸气腔室是可行的.%This paper reported on the microfabrication of alkali metal vapor cells based on the two-step low temperature anodic bonding for the chip-scale integration of atomic clock,atomic magnetometer,atomic gyroscope and other atomic devices.Cell structures were fabricated by Micro-electromechanical System (MEMS) bulk silicon process,and the etched silicon with cells was firstly bonded to Pyrex glass to fabricate preformed chambers by the standard anodic bonding process.Then,nitrogen buffer gas and micro-scale alkali metal (rubidium or cesium) were introduced into the preformed cells.The two-step anodic bonding process was used to seal the cells at a temperature lower than the paraffin flash point (198 ℃).In the first step,bonding voltage was lower than the breakdown voltage of nitrogen buffer gas to pre-seal the cells.In the second step,the bonding was in air atmosphere,and the bonding voltage increased up to 1

  19. CMOS-MEMS Microgravity Accelerometer with High-Precision DC Response Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II SBIR project a high-sensitivity low-noise all-silicon CMOS-MEMS accelerometer for quasi-steady measurements of accelerations at sub 1 micro-g levels...

  20. MEMS accelerometers in accurate mount positioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, László; Pál, András.; Jaskó, Attila

    2014-07-01

    In order to attain precise, accurate and stateless positioning of telescope mounts we apply microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (also known as MEMS accelerometers). In common practice, feedback from the mount position is provided by electronic, optical or magneto-mechanical systems or via real-time astrometric solution based on the acquired images. Hence, MEMS-based systems are completely independent from these mechanisms. Our goal is to investigate the advantages and challenges of applying such devices and to reach the sub-arcminute range { that is well smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. We present how this sub-arcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors. Basically, these sensors yield raw output within an accuracy of a few degrees. We show what kind of calibration procedures could exploit spherical and cylindrical constraints between accelerometer output channels in order to achieve the previously mentioned accuracy level. We also demonstrate how can our implementation be inserted in a telescope control system. Although this attainable precision is less than both the resolution of telescope mount drive mechanics and the accuracy of astrometric solutions, the independent nature of attitude determination could significantly increase the reliability of autonomous or remotely operated astronomical observations.

  1. Modelling and analysis of fringing and metal thickness effects in MEMS parallel plate capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kriyang; Singh, Jugdutt; Zayegh, Aladin

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed design and analysis of fringing and metal thickness effects in a Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) parallel plate capacitor. MEMS capacitor is one of the widely deployed components into various applications such are pressure sensor, accelerometers, Voltage Controlled Oscillator's (VCO's) and other tuning circuits. The advantages of MEMS capacitor are miniaturisation, integration with optics, low power consumption and high quality factor for RF circuits. Parallel plate capacitor models found in literature are discussed and the best suitable model for MEMS capacitors is presented. From the equations presented it is found that fringing filed and metal thickness have logarithmic effects on capacitance and depend on width of parallel plates, distance between them and thickness of metal plates. From this analysis a precise model of a MEMS parallel plate capacitor is developed which incorporates the effects of fringing fields and metal thickness. A parallel plate MEMS capacitor has been implemented using Coventor design suite. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis in Coventorware design suite has been performed to verify the accuracy of the proposed model for suitable range of dimensions for MEMS capacitor Simulations and analysis show that the error between the designed and the simulated values of MEMS capacitor is significantly reduced. Application of the modified model for computing capacitance of a combed device shows that the designed values greatly differ from simulated results noticeably from 1.0339pF to 1.3171pF in case of fringed devices.

  2. Characterization of dielectric charging in RF MEMS capacitive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Huizing, H.G.A.; Steeneken, P.G.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2006-01-01

    RF MEMS capacitive switches show great promise for use in wireless communication devices such as mobile phones, but the successful application of these switches is hindered by reliability concerns: charge injection in the dielectric layer (SiN) can cause irreversible stiction of the moving part of

  3. MEMS-based microspectrometer technologies for NIR and MIR wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, Leo P; Milne, Jason S; Dell, John M; Faraone, Lorenzo, E-mail: schuler@ee.uwa.edu.a [Microelectronics Research Group, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2009-07-07

    Commercially manufactured near-infrared (NIR) instruments became available about 50 years ago. While they have been designed for laboratory use in a controlled environment and boast high performance, they are generally bulky, fragile and maintenance intensive, and therefore expensive to purchase and maintain. Micromachining is a powerful technique to fabricate micromechanical parts such as integrated circuits. It was perfected in the 1980s and led to the invention of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMSs). The three characteristic features of MEMS fabrication technologies are miniaturization, multiplicity and microelectronics. Combined, these features allow the batch production of compact and rugged devices with integrated intelligence. In order to build more compact, more rugged and less expensive NIR instruments, MEMS technology has been successfully integrated into a range of new devices. In the first part of this paper we discuss the UWA MEMS-based Fabry-Perot spectrometer, its design and issues to be solved. MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filters primarily isolate certain wavelengths by sweeping across an incident spectrum and the resulting monochromatic signal is detected by a broadband detector. In the second part, we discuss other microspectrometers including other Fabry-Perot spectrometer designs, time multiplexing devices and mixed time/space multiplexing devices. (topical review)

  4. PECVD silicon carbide surface micromachining technology and selected MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Pakula, L.S.; Yang, H.; French, P.J.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attractive material properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon carbide (SiC) when combined with CMOS-compatible low thermal budget processing provides an ideal technology platform for developing various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and merging them with

  5. MEMS-based tunable gratings and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiting; Yuan, Weizheng; Qiao, Dayong

    2015-03-01

    The marriage of optics and MEMS has resulted in a new category of optical devices and systems that have unprecedented advantages compared with their traditional counterparts. As an important spatial light modulating technology, diffractive optical MEMS obtains a wide variety of successful commercial applications, e.g. projection displays, optical communication and spectral analysis, due to its features of highly compact, low-cost, IC-compatible, excellent performance, and providing possibilities for developing totally new, yet smart devices and systems. Three most successful MEMS diffraction gratings (GLVs, Polychromator and DMDs) are briefly introduced and their potential applications are analyzed. Then, three different MEMS tunable gratings developed by our group, named as micro programmable blazed gratings (μPBGs) and micro pitch-tunable gratings (μPTGs) working in either digital or analog mode, are demonstrated. The strategies to largely enhance the maximum blazed angle and grating period are described. Some preliminary application explorations based on the developed grating devices are also shown. For our ongoing research focus, we will further improve the device performance to meet the engineering application requirements.

  6. Methods For The Minimization Of Actuation Voltage In MEMS Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet M. Hora,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems is the Combination of mechanical functions such as sensing, moving, heating and electrical functions such as switching on the same chip using micro fabrication technology. The term MEMS refers to a collection of microsensors and actuators which can sense its environment and have the ability to react to changes in that environment with the use of a microcircuit control. These micros witches have two major design groups: capacitive (Metal-Insulator-Metal and resistive (Metal-To-Metal. In the capacitive design of a microswitch it refers the RF signal is shorted to ground by a variable capacitor. In the Resistive design switch operates by creating an open or short in the transmission line. This paper reviews the progress in MEMS applications from a device perspective. It includes the designing of cantilever switch and will tell about the important device parameters that are highlighted, as they have significant contributions to the performance of the final products in which the devices are used. The challenges and statuses of these MEMS devices are discussed

  7. PECVD silicon carbide surface micromachining technology and selected MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Pakula, L.S.; Yang, H.; French, P.J.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attractive material properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon carbide (SiC) when combined with CMOS-compatible low thermal budget processing provides an ideal technology platform for developing various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and merging them with

  8. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  9. Softening and Hardening of a Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) Oscillator in a Nonlinear Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Edmonds, Terrence

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems or MEMS are used in a variety of today's technology and can be modeled using equations for nonlinear damped harmonic oscillators. Mathematical expressions have been formulated to determine resonance frequency shifts as a result of hardening and softening effects in MEMS devices. In this work we experimentally test the previous theoretical analysis of MEMS resonance frequency shifts in the nonlinear regime. Devices were put under low pressure at room temperature and swept through a range of frequencies with varying AC and DC excitation voltages to detect shifts in the resonant frequency. The MEMS device studied in this work exhibits a dominating spring softening effect due to the device's physical make-up. The softening effect becomes very dominant as the AC excitation is increased and the frequency shift of the resonance peak becomes quite significant at these larger excitations. Hardening effects are heavily dependent on mechanical factors that make up the MEMS devices. But they are not present in these MEMS devices. I will present our results along with the theoretical analysis of the Duffing oscillator model. This work was supported by NSF grant DMR-1461019 (REU) and DMR-1205891 (YL).

  10. Treatment effects of a fixed intermaxillary device to correct class II malocclusions in growing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Dean A; Shammaa, Imad; Martin, Chris; Razmus, Thomas; Gunel, Erdogan; Ngan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment effects of Forsus™ Fatigue Resistant Device (FRD; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) in growing patients with Class II non-extraction malocclusions. A retrospective sample of 24 class II patients treated consecutively with the FRD followed by comprehensive orthodontic treatment was compared to a sample of untreated control subjects from the Bolton Brush Study who was matched in age, sex, and craniofacial morphology. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken before treatment (T1) and after removal of fixed appliances (T2). Growth changes were subtracted from the treatment changes to obtain the treatment effects of the appliance. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and a match paired t test. Significant differences were found between the treated and control groups for 12 of the 29 measured variables (Co-Gn minus Co-Apt, Wits, Is-OLp, Ii-OLp, overjet, Mi-OLp, molar relationship, overbite, Mic-ML, SNA, ANB, and Ii-ML). With 27.8 months of treatment, all patients were corrected to a class I dental arch relationship. Overjet and molar relationships were improved by an average of 4.7 and 3.1 mm, respectively. This was contributed by a 1.2 mm of restraint in forward maxillary growth, 0.7 mm of forward movement of the mandible, 1.5 mm of backward movement of the maxillary incisors, 1.3 mm forward movement of the mandibular incisors, 0.5 mm backward movement of the maxillary molars, and 1.3 mm of forward movement of the mandibular molars. The overbite was decreased by 2 mm with no significant change in the occlusal, palatal, or mandibular plane. Individual variations in response to the FRD treatment were large for most of the parameters tested. Significant differences in treatment changes between male and female subjects were found only in a few parameters measured. These results demonstrate that significant overjet and overbite corrections can be obtained with the Forsus FRD in conjunction with comprehensive orthodontic

  11. Vacuum Packaging of MEMS With Multiple Internal Seal Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, Ken; Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Bae, Youngsam; Wiberg, Dean; Peay, Chris; Challoner, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    A proposed method of design and fabrication of vacuum-packaged microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and of individual microelectromechanical devices involves the use of multiple internal seal rings (MISRs) in conjunction with vias (through holes plated with metal for electrical contacts). The proposed method is compatible with mass production in a wafer-level fabrication process, in which the dozens of MEMS or individual microelectromechanical devices on a typical wafer are simultaneously vacuum packaged by bonding a capping wafer before the devices are singulated (cut apart by use of a dicing saw). In addition to being compatible with mass production, the proposed method would eliminate the need for some complex and expensive production steps and would yield more reliable vacuum seals. Conventionally, each MEMS or individual microelectromechanical device is fabricated as one of many identical units on a device wafer. Vacuum packaging is accomplished by bonding the device wafer to a capping wafer with metal seal rings (one ring surrounding each unit) that have been formed on the capping wafer. The electrical leads of each unit are laid out on what would otherwise be a flat surface of the device wafer, against which the seal ring is to be pressed for sealing. The resulting pattern of metal lines and their insulating oxide coverings presents a very rough and uneven surface, upon which it is difficult to pattern the sealing metal. Consequently, the seal is prone to leakage unless additional costly and complex planarization steps are performed before patterning the seal ring and bonding the wafers.

  12. SU-8 Based MEMS Process with Two Metal Layers using α-Si as a Sacrificial Material

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2012-04-01

    Polymer based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micromachining is finding more interest in research and applications. This is due to its low cost and less time processing compared with silicon MEMS. SU-8 is a photo-patternable polymer that is used as a structural layer for MEMS and microfluidic devices. In addition to being processed with low cost, it is a biocompatible material with good mechanical properties. Also, amorphous silicon (α-Si) has found use as a sacrificial layer in silicon MEMS applications. α-Si can be deposited at large thicknesses for MEMS applications and also can be released in a dry method using XeF2 which can solve stiction problems related to MEMS applications. In this thesis, an SU-8 MEMS process is developed using amorphous silicon (α-Si) as a sacrificial layer. Electrostatic actuation and sensing is used in many MEMS applications. SU-8 is a dielectric material which limits its direct use in electrostatic actuation. This thesis provides a MEMS process with two conductive metal electrodes that can be used for out-of-plane electrostatic applications like MEMS switches and variable capacitors. The process provides the fabrication of dimples that can be conductive or non-conductive to facilitate more flexibility for MEMS designers. This SU-8 process can fabricate SU-8 MEMS structures of a single layer of two different thicknesses. Process parameters were tuned for two sets of thicknesses which are thin (5-10μm) and thick (130μm). Chevron bent-beam structures and different suspended beams (cantilevers and bridges) were fabricated to characterize the SU-8 process through extracting the density, Young’s Modulus and the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of SU-8. Also, the process was tested and used as an educational tool through which different MEMS structures were fabricated including MEMS switches, variable capacitors and thermal actuators.

  13. MEMS-Reconfigurable Metamaterials and Antenna Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Debogovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some of our contributions to reconfigurable metamaterials, where dynamic control is enabled by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology. First, we show reconfigurable composite right-/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TLs having state of the art phase velocity variation and loss, thereby enabling efficient reconfigurable phase shifters and leaky-wave antennas (LWA. Second, we present very low loss metasurface designs with reconfigurable reflection properties, applicable in reflectarrays and partially reflective surface (PRS antennas. All the presented devices have been fabricated and experimentally validated. They operate in X- and Ku-bands.

  14. MEMS-reconfigurable metamaterials and antenna applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debogovic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews some of our contributions to reconfigurable metamaterials, where dynamic control is enabled by micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. First, we show reconfigurable composite right/left handed transmission lines (CRLH-TLs) having state of the art phase velocity variation and loss, thereby enabling efficient reconfigurable phase shifters and leaky-wave antennas (LWA). Second, we present very low loss metasurface designs with reconfigurable reflection properties, applicable in reflectarrays and partially reflective surface (PRS) antennas. All the presented devices have been fabricated and experimentally validated. They operate in X- and Ku-bands.

  15. An investigation on piezoelectric energy harvesting for MEMS power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J.W.; Choi, S.B.; Lee, D.Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-04-15

    This paper presents the feasibility of using piezoelectric materials in a power source for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices. The finite element method (FEM) is adopted to evaluate the power generations of commercially available piezofilms that are subjected to a fluctuating pressure source (blood pressure). The accuracy of the results obtained from the FEM is verified by comparing with the corresponding results obtained from a theoretical analysis. In addition, an experiment is undertaken in order to evaluate the power generation of two different shapes of the piezofilms: square and circle. Finally, a brief discussion is made on the storage of experimentally harvested power and use of the MEMS applications. (author)

  16. Application of Magnetron Sputtering in Fabricating MEMS Microbatteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wan; YANG Zhi-min; XING Guang-jian; MAO Chang-hui; DU Jun

    2004-01-01

    With the development of MEMS and the electronic devices's miniaturization and integration, a new kind of power sources that can satisfy the need for high energy density is required. Microbatteries are being researched abroad for their advantages of extreme thinness and long-term power supply. The development of MEMS microbatteries are reviewed and suggestedmagnetron sputtering in fabricating a high-performance microbattery. The technics as annealing are analyzed. The microbattery with a LiNi1-x Cox O2 cathode exhibited stable cycle ability and a high specific discharge capacity, which was attributed to the alloying effect of the LiNiO2and LiCoO2.

  17. MEMS-based thermoelectric infrared sensors: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dehui; Wang, Yuelin; Xiong, Bin; Li, Tie

    2017-06-01

    In the past decade, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)-based thermoelectric infrared (IR) sensors have received considerable attention because of the advances in micromachining technology. This paper presents a review of MEMS-based thermoelectric IR sensors. The first part describes the physics of the device and discusses the figures of merit. The second part discusses the sensing materials, thermal isolation microstructures, absorber designs, and packaging methods for these sensors and provides examples. Moreover, the status of sensor implementation technology is examined from a historical perspective by presenting findings from the early years to the most recent findings.

  18. Technology development of RF MEMS switches on printed circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Pin

    Today, some engineers have shifted their focus on the micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) to pursue better technological advancements. Recent development in RF MEMS technologies have lead to superior switch characteristics, i.e., very low insertion loss, very low power requirements, and high isolation comparing to the conventional semiconductor devices. This success has promised the potential of MEMS to revolutionize RF and microwave system implementation for the next generation of communication applications. However, RF MEMS switches integrated monolithically with various RF functional components on the same substrate to create multifunctional and reconfigurable complete communication systems remains to be a challenge research topic due to the concerns of the high cost of packaging process and the high cost of RF matching requirements in module board implementation. Furthermore, the fabrication of most RF MEMS switches requires thickness control and surface planarization of wide metal lines prior to deposition of a metal membrane bridge, which poses a major challenge to manufacturability. To ease the fabrication of RF MEMS switches and to facilitate their integration with other RF components such as antennas, phase delay lines, tunable filters, it is imperative to develop a manufacturable RF MEMS switch technology on a common substrate housing all essential RF components. Development of a novel RF MEMS technology to build a RF MEMS switch and provide a system-level packaging on microwave laminated printed circuit boards (PCBs) are proposed in this dissertation. Two key processes, high-density inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (HDICP CVD) for low temperature dielectric deposition, and compressive molding planarization (COMP) for the temporary sacrificial polymer planarization have been developed for fabricating RF MEMS switches on PCBs. Several membrane-type capacitive switches have been fabricated showing excellent RF performance and dynamic

  19. Interfacial adhesion for microelectronics and MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Marian Siobhan

    2007-12-01

    The reliability of thin film systems is important to the continued development of microelectronic and micro-electro-mechanical systems. Most often, reliability of these systems is tied to the ability of the films to remain adhered to its substrate. By measuring the amount of energy to separate the film, interfacial fracture energy, and prediciting trends researchers can predicts film lifetimes. Recent work to measure this energy has resulted in several different testing techniques including spontaneous buckling, indentation induced delamination and four point bending. Literature has shown good agreement between delamination test methods, but only when energy dissipation into the substrate is minimized. Using a W/Si system, the effect of energy dissipation was shown to decrease from 0.6 J/m2 to 0.2 J/m2 between different methods; one where the only fracture was along the interface and the other where cracking also occurred in the film and substrate. For systems where fracture only occurs along the interface, such as Au/Si, the calculated fracture energies are identical if the energy put into the system is kept near the needed strain energy to cause delamination. Overlayers of different stresses and thickness on Au/Si showed that the adhesion energies could change by a factor of three (Chapter 3). This dependence on applied energy is also shown when comparisons of four point bending and stressed overlayer test methods were completed on Pt/Si systems. The fracture energies of Pt/Ti/SiO2 were studied using four-point bending and compressive overlayers. Varying the thickness of the Ti film from 2 to 17 nm in a Pt/Ti/SiO2 system, both test methods showed an increase of adhesion energy until the nominal Ti thickness was 12nm. Then this adhesion energy began to decrease. This decrease was due to an increase in the Pt grain size after a nominal 12nm thickness (Chapter 4 and 5). While the trends in energy release rate are similar, the magnitude of the toughness between the test methods is not the same. Both test methods were used to test both reliability of metal-dielectrcs and the adhesion between metal-polymers and metal-metal interfaces. In Au/Si interfaces, competing mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and diffusion control the evolution of interface toughness (Chapter 6). A separate study of roughness using W/Si showed quantitatively that increasing the surface area fraction of the well adhered layers increases the interfacial fracture energy (Chapter 7). For polymer-metal interfaces, the control of surface contaminants affected adhesion much more than metal-dielectric interfaces (Chapter 8).

  20. Wafer bonding process for building MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabo, Eric F.; Meiler, Josef; Matthias, Thorsten

    2014-06-01

    The technology for the measurement of colour rendering and colour quality is not new, but many parameters related to this issue are currently changing. A number of standard methods were developed and are used by different specialty areas of the lighting industry. CIE 13.3 has been the accepted standard implemented by many users and used for many years. Light-emitting Diode (LED) technology moves at a rapid pace and, as this lighting source finds wider acceptance, it appears that traditional colour-rendering measurement methods produce inconsistent results. Practical application of various types of LEDs yielded results that challenged conventional thinking regarding colour measurement of light sources. Recent studies have shown that the anatomy and physiology of the human eye is more complex than formerly accepted. Therefore, the development of updated measurement methodology also forces a fresh look at functioning and colour perception of the human eye, especially with regard to LEDs. This paper includes a short description of the history and need for the measurement of colour rendering. Some of the traditional measurement methods are presented and inadequacies are discussed. The latest discoveries regarding the functioning of the human eye and the perception of colour, especially when LEDs are used as light sources, are discussed. The unique properties of LEDs when used in practical applications such as luminaires are highlighted.

  1. Finite Element Analysis of MEMS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    A side-slide actuator and a corrugated diaphragm actuator will be analyzed and optimized this summer. Coupled electrostatic and fluid analyses will also be initiated. Both the side-slide actuator and the corrugated diaphragm actuator will be used to regulate the flow of fuel in a jet engine. Many of the side-slide actuators will be placed on top of a fuel injector that is still in the developmental stage as well. The corrugated diaphragm actuator will also be used to regulate the flow of fuel in fuel injectors. A comparative analysis of the performance matrix of both actuators will be conducted. The side-slide actuator uses the concept of mechanical advantage to regulate the flow of fuel using electrostatic forces. It is made from Nickel, Silicon Carbide, and thin layers of Oxide. The slider will have a hole in the middle that will allow fuel to pass through the hole underneath it. The goal is to regulate the flow of fuel through the inlet. This means that the actuator needs to be designed so that when a voltage is applied to the push rod, the slider will deflect in the x-direction and be able to completely block the inlet and no fuel can pass through. Different voltage levels will be tested. The parameters that are being optimized are the thickness of the diaphragm, what kind of corrugation the diaphragm should have, the length, width, and thickness of the push rod, and what design should be used to return the slider. The current possibilities for a return rod are a built in spring on the slider, a return rod that acts like a spring, or a return rod that is identical to the push rod. The final actuator design should have a push rod that has rotational motion and no translation motion, a push rod thickness that prevents warping due to the slider, and a large ratio of the displacement on the bottom of the push rod to displacement on the top of the push rod. The corrugated diaphragm actuator was optimized last winter and this summer will be spent completing the optimization of the coupled electrostatic and fluid flow parameters. It was found that Nickel is the best material to use for the diaphragm because it has a higher yield strength and allows for a larger stress, deflection and applied pressure. The parameters that were optimized were the wavelength and thickness of the diaphragm.

  2. Advances in piezoelectric PZT-based RF MEMS components and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, R. R.; Rudy, R. Q.; Pulskamp, J. S.; Polcawich, R. G.; Bedair, S. S.

    2017-08-01

    There is continuing interest in radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices due to their ability to offer exceptional RF performance, high linearity and low power consumption. To date, there is an impressive amount of RF MEMS components such as; switches, resonators, varactors, and tunable inductors that have enabled smaller, cheaper and more efficient RF systems. RF MEMS devices contain micromachined components that have the ability to move so that a change in the mechanical state of a device will result in a change to the device’s RF properties. There are many common modes of actuation, including, but not limited to: electrostatic, magnetostatic, piezoelectric, and electrothermal actuation. Although there are attractive aspects and drawbacks to each of these technologies, this paper will focus on advances in the application of piezoelectric actuation, and in particular the use of lead zirconium titanate (PZT), for RF MEMS.

  3. Quantitative Boundary Support Characterization for Cantilever MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stiharu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Microfabrication limitations are of concern especially for suspended Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS microstructures such as cantilevers. The static anddynamic qualities of such microscale devices are directly related to the invariant and variantproperties of the microsystem. Among the invariant properties, microfabrication limitationscan be quantified only after the fabrication of the device through testing. However, MEMSare batch fabricated in large numbers where individual testing is neither possible nor costeffective. Hence, a suitable test algorithm needs to be developed where the test resultsobtained for a few devices can be applied to the whole fabrication batch, and also to thefoundry process in general. In this regard, this paper proposes a method to test MEMScantilevers under variant electro-thermal influences in order to quantify the effectiveboundary support condition obtained for a foundry process. A non-contact optical sensingapproach is employed for the dynamic testing. The Rayleigh-Ritz energy method usingboundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials is employed for the modeling andtheoretical analysis.

  4. Power Conditioning for MEMS-Based Waste Vibrational Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ABBREVIATIONS AC Alternative Current AlN Aluminum Nitride DC Direct Current LIA Lock-In Amplifier MEMS Microelectromechanical Systems MOSFET...with MEMSPro software packages, the device in Figure 1 was tested and its characteristics were determined by [1]. Aluminum nitride (AlN) was chosen...die in oxygen plasma to remove the oxide layer before measurements and wire bonding. Another difference between the two devices is the thickness of

  5. 用于器件级真空封装的MEMS加速度传感器的设计与制作%Design and fabrication of MEMS acceleration sensor for device-level vacuum packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡梅妮; 林友玲; 车录锋; 苏荣涛; 周晓峰; 黎晓林

    2012-01-01

    设计了一种可用于器件级真空封装的三明治电容式MEMS加速度传感器.该传感器被设计为四层硅结构,其中上下两层为固定电极,中间两层为硅-硅直接键合的双面梁-质量块结构的可动电极.利用自停止腐蚀工艺在中间质量块键合层上腐蚀出2个深入腔内的V型抽气槽,使得MEMS器件在后续的封装中能够实现内部真空.为防止V型抽气槽在划片中被水或硅渣堵塞,采用双面划片工艺.划片后,器件的总尺寸为6.8mm ×5.6mm ×1.72 mm,其中,敏感质量块尺寸为3.2mm×3.2mm ×0.86mm,检测电容间隙2.1 μm.对器件级真空封装后的MEMS加速度传感器进行了初步测试,结果表明:制作的传感器的谐振频率为861 Hz,品质因数Q为76,灵敏度为1.53 V/gn,C-V特性正常,氦气细漏<1×10-9 atm-cm3/s,粗漏无气泡.%A sandwich type of capacitive MEMS acceleration sensor used for device-level vacuum packaging is designed. The sensor is made of four-layer silicon wafers bonded together while the top and bottom wafers are the fixed electrodes and the cantilever-mass structure is made on the middle two wafers. Two grooves are etched in the middle mass block bonding layer by self-stopped etching process and used to remove air from cavity within the acceleration sensor, creating vacuum environment in subsequent packaging. A double-sided dicing process is developed to protect V-shaped grooves from water or silicon scrap. The total size of the sensor is 6.8 mm ×5.6 mm × 1. 72 mm and the size of mass is 3.2 mm ×3. 2 mm ×0. 86 mm. The interval of detecting capacitor is 2.1 μm. The performance of the device-level vacuum packaged sensor is tested. The C-V plot is normal and the sensitivity is about 1.53 V/gn. The resonant frequency is 861 Hz and quality factor Q is 76. The fine leakage of He is lower than 1 ×10-9 atm-cm3/s and has no bubbles during gross leakage test.

  6. Monolithic CMOS-MEMS integration for high-g accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Vinayak; Li, Holden; Tan, Chuan Seng

    2014-10-01

    This paper highlights work-in-progress towards the conceptualization, simulation, fabrication and initial testing of a silicon-germanium (SiGe) integrated CMOS-MEMS high-g accelerometer for military, munition, fuze and shock measurement applications. Developed on IMEC's SiGe MEMS platform, the MEMS offers a dynamic range of 5,000 g and a bandwidth of 12 kHz. The low noise readout circuit adopts a chopper-stabilization technique implementing the CMOS through the TSMC 0.18 µm process. The device structure employs a fully differential split comb-drive set up with two sets of stators and a rotor all driven separately. Dummy structures acting as protective over-range stops were designed to protect the active components when under impacts well above the designed dynamic range.

  7. Reliability Testing Procedure for MEMS IMUs Applied to Vibrating Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Somà

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology applied to navigation systems is rapidly increasing, but currently, there is a lack of knowledge about the reliability of this typology of devices, representing a serious limitation to their use in aerospace vehicles and other fields with medium and high requirements. In this paper, a reliability testing procedure for inertial sensors and inertial measurement units (IMU based on MEMS for applications in vibrating environments is presented. The sensing performances were evaluated in terms of signal accuracy, systematic errors, and accidental errors; the actual working conditions were simulated by means of an accelerated dynamic excitation. A commercial MEMS-based IMU was analyzed to validate the proposed procedure. The main weaknesses of the system have been localized by providing important information about the relationship between the reliability levels of the system and individual components.

  8. Localized CO2 laser bonding process for MEMS packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li; A. P. MALSHE; S. CUNNINGHAM; A. MORRIS

    2006-01-01

    The packaging poses a critical challenge for commercialization of MEMS products. Major problems with the packaging process include degraded reliability caused by the excess stress due to thermal mismatch and altered performance of the MEMS device after packaging caused by thermal exposure. The localized laser bonding technique for ceramic MEMS packaging to address above-mentioned challenges was investigated. A continuous wave CO2 laser was used to locally heat sealing material for ceramic MEMS package lid to substrate bonding. To determine the laser power density and scanning speed,finite element analysis thermal models were constructed to simulate the localized laser bonding process. Further,the effect of external pressure at sealing ring on the bonding formation was studied. Pull testing results show that the scanning speed and external pressure have significant influence on the pull strength at the bonding interface. Cross-sectional microscopy of the bonding interface indicates that the packages bonded with relatively low scanning speed and external pressure conditions have higher bonding quality. This research demonstrates the potential of localized laser bonding process for ceramic MEMS packaging.

  9. Standard semiconductor packaging for high-reliability low-cost MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Kieran P.

    2005-01-01

    Microelectronic packaging technology has evolved over the years in response to the needs of IC technology. The fundamental purpose of the package is to provide protection for the silicon chip and to provide electrical connection to the circuit board. Major change has been witnessed in packaging and today wafer level packaging technology has further revolutionized the industry. MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology has created new challenges for packaging that do not exist in standard ICs. However, the fundamental objective of MEMS packaging is the same as traditional ICs, the low cost and reliable presentation of the MEMS chip to the next level interconnect. Inertial MEMS is one of the best examples of the successful commercialization of MEMS technology. The adoption of MEMS accelerometers for automotive airbag applications has created a high volume market that demands the highest reliability at low cost. The suppliers to these markets have responded by exploiting standard semiconductor packaging infrastructures. However, there are special packaging needs for MEMS that cannot be ignored. New applications for inertial MEMS devices are emerging in the consumer space that adds the imperative of small size to the need for reliability and low cost. These trends are not unique to MEMS accelerometers. For any MEMS technology to be successful the packaging must provide the basic reliability and interconnection functions, adding the least possible cost to the product. This paper will discuss the evolution of MEMS packaging in the accelerometer industry and identify the main issues that needed to be addressed to enable the successful commercialization of the technology in the automotive and consumer markets.

  10. Technical Challenges in Reliable Microelectronics Packaging of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    MEMS have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, chemical sensors, artificial nose, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits (IC) to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the reliable IC packaging technology. Active elements or microstructures in MEMS devices often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it measures to assure the packaging technology of MEMS. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided reliability of MEMS packaging technology is sufficiently addressed. This MEMS technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS technology and challenging technical issues in the packaging of hermetically sealed and non-hermetically sealed

  11. Sliding mode control of a simulated MEMS gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur, C; Sreeramreddy, T; Khasawneh, Q

    2006-01-01

    The microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are penetrating more and more into measurement and control problems because of their small size, low cost, and low power consumption. The vibrating gyroscope is one of those MEMS devices that will have a significant impact on the stability control systems in transportation industry. This paper studies the design and control of a vibrating gyroscope. The device has been constructed in a Pro-E environment and its model has been simulated in the finite-element domain in order to approximate its dynamic characteristics with a lumped model. A model reference adaptive feedback controller and the sliding mode controller have been considered to guarantee the stability of the device. It is shown that the sliding mode controller of the vibrating proof mass results in a better estimate of the unknown angular velocity than that of the model reference adaptive feedback controller.

  12. Cryogenic MEMS Pressure Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A directly immersible cryogenic MEMS pressure sensor will be developed. Each silicon die will contain a vacuum-reference and a tent-like membrane. Offsetting thermal...

  13. MEMS Aluminum Nitride Technology for Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigevani, Gabriele

    2011-12-01

    The design and fabrication of MEMS Inertial Sensors (both accelerometers and gyroscopes) made of Aluminum Nitride (AlN) is described in this dissertation. The goal of this work is to design and fabricate inertial sensors based on c-axis oriented AlN polycrystalline thin films. AlN is a post-CMOS compatible piezoelectric material widely used for acoustic resonators, such Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) and Lamb Wave Resonators (LWR). In this work we develop the design techniques necessary to obtain inertial sensors with AlN thin film technology. Being able to use AlN as structural material for both acoustic wave resonator and sensing elements is key to achieve the three level integration of RF-MEMS components, sensing elements and CMOS in the same chip. Using AlN as integration platform is particularly suitable for large consumer emerging markets where production costs are the major factor that determine a product success. In order to achieve a platform integration, the first part of this work focuses on the fabrication process: starting from the fabrication technology used for LWR devices, this work shows that by slightly modifying some of the fabrication steps it is possible to obtain MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes with the same structural layers used for LWR. In the second part of this work, an extensive analysis, performed with analytical and Finite Element Models (FEM), is developed for beam and ring based structures. These models are of great importance as they provide tools to understand the physics of lateral piezoelectric beam actuation and the major limitations of this technology. Based on the models developed for beam based resonators, we propose two designs for Double Ended Tuning Fork (DETF) based accelerometers. In the last part of the dissertation, we show the experimental results and the measurements performed on actual devices. As this work shows analytically and experimentally, there are some fundamental constraints that limit the ultimate sensitivity

  14. Modeling and non-linear responses of MEMS capacitive accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Harsha C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical investigation of an electrically actuated beam has been illustrated when the electrostatic-ally actuated micro-cantilever beam is separated from the electrode by a moderately large gap for two distinct types of geometric configurations of MEMS accelerometer. Higher order nonlinear terms have been taken into account for studying the pull in voltage analysis. A nonlinear model of gas film squeezing damping, another source of nonlinearity in MEMS devices is included in obtaining the dynamic responses. Moreover, in the present work, the possible source of nonlinearities while formulating the mathematical model of a MEMS accelerometer and their influences on the dynamic responses have been investigated. The theoretical results obtained by using MATLAB has been verified with the results obtained in FE software and has been found in good agreement. Criterion towards stable micro size accelerometer for each configuration has been investigated. This investigation clearly provides an understanding of nonlinear static and dynamics characteristics of electrostatically micro cantilever based device in MEMS.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt. 541, App. A-II Appendix A-II to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in...

  16. A MEMS turbine prototype for respiration harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreke, U.; Habibiabad, S.; Azgin, K.; Beyaz, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The design, manufacturing, and performance characterization of a MEMS-scale turbine prototype is reported. The turbine is designed for integration into a respiration harvester that can convert normal human breathing into electrical power through electromagnetic induction. The device measures 10 mm in radius, and employs 12 blades located around the turbine periphery along with ball bearings around the center. Finite element simulations showed that an average torque of 3.07 μNm is induced at 12 lpm airflow rate, which lies in normal breathing levels. The turbine and a test package were manufactured using CNC milling on PMMA. Tests were performed at respiration flow rates between 5-25 lpm. The highest rotational speed was measured to be 9.84 krpm at 25 lpm, resulting in 8.96 mbar pressure drop across the device and 370 mW actuation power.

  17. Laser-assisted advanced assembly for MEMS fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Yuriy Andreev

    Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are currently fabricated using methods originally designed for manufacturing semiconductor devices, using minimum if any assembly at all. The inherited limitations of this approach narrow the materials that can be employed and reduce the design complexity, imposing limitations on MEMS functionality. The proposed Laser-Assisted Advanced Assembly (LA3) method solves these problems by first fabricating components followed by assembly of a MEMS device. Components are micro-machined using a laser or by photolithography followed by wet/dry etching out of any material available in a thin sheet form. A wide range of materials can be utilized, including biocompatible metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, semiconductors, and materials with special properties such as memory shape alloys, thermoelectric, ferromagnetic, piezoelectric, and more. The approach proposed allows enhancing the structural and mechanical properties of the starting materials through heat treatment, tribological coatings, surface modifications, bio-functionalization, and more, a limited, even unavailable possibility with existing methods. Components are transferred to the substrate for assembly using the thermo-mechanical Selective Laser Assisted Die Transfer (tmSLADT) mechanism for microchips assembly, already demonstrated by our team. Therefore, the mechanical and electronic part of the MEMS can be fabricated using the same equipment/method. The viability of the Laser-Assisted Advanced Assembly technique for MEMS is demonstrated by fabricating magnetic switches for embedding in a conductive carbon-fiber metamaterial for use in an Electromagnetic-Responsive Mobile Cyber-Physical System (E-RMCPS), which is expected to improve the wireless communication system efficiency within a battery-powered device.

  18. Hardware platforms for MEMS gyroscope tuning based on evolutionary computation using open-loop and closed -loop frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Ferguson, Michael I.; Fink, Wolfgang; Oks, Boris; Peay, Chris; Terrile, Richard; Cheng, Yen; Kim, Dennis; MacDonald, Eric; Foor, David

    2005-01-01

    We propose a tuning method for MEMS gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation to efficiently increase the sensitivity of MEMS gyroscopes through tuning. The tuning method was tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-resonator MEMS gyroscope using the measurement of the frequency response of the MEMS device in open-loop operation. We also report on the development of a hardware platform for integrated tuning and closed loop operation of MEMS gyroscopes. The control of this device is implemented through a digital design on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The hardware platform easily transitions to an embedded solution that allows for the miniaturization of the system to a single chip.

  19. Radiofrequency identification and medical devices: the regulatory framework on electromagnetic compatibility. Part II: active implantable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Eugenio; Censi, Federica; Triventi, Michele; Bartolini, Pietro; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    The number and the types of electromagnetic emitters to which patients with active implantable medical devices (AIMD) are exposed to in their daily activities have proliferated over the last decade. Radiofrequency identification (RFID) is an example of wireless technology applied in many fields. The interaction between RFID emitters and AIMD is an important issue for patients, industry and regulators, because of the risks associated with such interactions. The different AIMDs refer to different standards that address the electromagnetic immunity issue in different ways. Indeed, different test setups, immunity levels and rationales are used to guarantee that AIMDs are immune to electromagnetic nonionizing radiation. In this article, the regulatory framework concerning electromagnetic compatibility between RFID systems and AIMDs is analyzed to understand whether and how the application of the current AIMD standards allows for the effective control of the possible risks associated with RFID technology.

  20. MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications reviews the use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in developing solutions to the unique challenges presented by the automotive and aerospace industries.Part one explores MEMS for a variety of automotive applications. The role of MEMS in passenger safety and comfort, sensors for automotive vehicle stability control applications and automotive tire pressure monitoring systems are considered, along with pressure and flow sensors for engine management, and RF MEMS for automotive radar sensors. Part two then goes on to explore MEMS for

  1. Adaptive tracking control of an MEMS gyroscope with H-infinity performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) pose unique measurement and control problems compared with conventional ones because of their small size,low cost,and low power consumption.The vibrating gyroscope is one of those MEMS devices that have significant potential in many industry applications.When the MEMS gyroscope system is considered simultaneously with the coupling terms,the exogenous disturbances and the parameter variations,the controller design of this system becomes very challenging.This paper inves...

  2. Diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2016-08-09

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS) based diffractive optics. An oscillating crystalline MEMS device generates a controllable time-window for diffraction of the incident X-ray radiation. The Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses includes isolating a particular pulse, spatially separating individual pulses, and spreading a single pulse from an X-ray pulse-train.

  3. Mode localized MEMS transducers with voltage-controlled linear coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manav, M.; Srikantha Phani, A.; Cretu, E.

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated mode localized resonant micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensing devices with orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity. Avoided crossings or eigenvalue veering is the physical mechanism exploited to achieve the enhancement in sensitivity of devices operating either in vacuum or in air. The mode localized MEMS devices are typically designed to be symmetric and use gap-varying electrostatic springs to couple motions of two or more resonators. The role of asymmetry in the design of devices and its influence on sensitivity is not fully understood. Furthermore, gap-varying electrostatic springs suffer from nonlinearities when gap variation between coupling plates becomes large due to mode localization, imposing limitations on the device performance. To address these shortcomings, this contribution has two principal objectives. The first objective is to critically assess the role of asymmetry in the device design and operation. We show, based on energy analysis, that carefully designed asymmetry in devices can lead to even higher sensitivities than reported in the literature. Our second objective is to design and implement linear, tunable, electrostatic springs, using shaped combs, which allow large vibration amplitudes of resonators thereby increasing the signal to noise ratio. We experimentally demonstrate linear electrostatic coupling in a two oscillator device. Our study suggests that a future avenue for progress in the mode localized resonant sensing technology is to combine asymmetric devices with tunable linear coupling designs.

  4. Passive wireless MEMS microphones for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen, A S; Sivaramakrishnan, S; Hur, S; Rajamani, R; Robbins, W; Nelson, B J

    2005-11-01

    This paper introduces passive wireless telemetry based operation for high frequency acoustic sensors. The focus is on the development, fabrication, and evaluation of wireless, battery-less SAW-IDT MEMS microphones for biomedical applications. Due to the absence of batteries, the developed sensors are small and as a result of the batch manufacturing strategy are inexpensive which enables their utilization as disposable sensors. A pulse modulated surface acoustic wave interdigital transducer (SAW-IDT) based sensing strategy has been formulated. The sensing strategy relies on detecting the ac component of the acoustic pressure signal only and does not require calibration. The proposed sensing strategy has been successfully implemented on an in-house fabricated SAW-IDT sensor and a variable capacitor which mimics the impedance change of a capacitive microphone. Wireless telemetry distances of up to 5 centimeters have been achieved. A silicon MEMS microphone which will be used with the SAW-IDT device is being microfabricated and tested. The complete passive wireless sensor package will include the MEMS microphone wire-bonded on the SAW substrate and interrogated through an on-board antenna. This work on acoustic sensors breaks new ground by introducing high frequency (i.e., audio frequencies) sensor measurement utilizing SAW-IDT sensors. The developed sensors can be used for wireless monitoring of body sounds in a number of different applications, including monitoring breathing sounds in apnea patients, monitoring chest sounds after cardiac surgery, and for feedback sensing in compression (HFCC) vests used for respiratory ventilation. Another promising application is monitoring chest sounds in neonatal care units where the miniature sensors will minimize discomfort for the newborns.

  5. Microfibrous metallic cloth for acoustic isolation of a MEMS gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert; Burch, Nesha; Black, Meagan; Beal, Aubrey; Flowers, George

    2011-04-01

    The response of a MEMS device that is exposed to a harsh environment may range from an increased noise floor to a completely erroneous output to temporary or even permanent device failure. One such harsh environment is high power acoustic energy possessing high frequency components. This type of environment sometimes occurs in small aerospace vehicles. In this type of operating environment, high frequency acoustic energy can be transferred to a MEMS gyroscope die through the device packaging. If the acoustic noise possesses a sufficiently strong component at the resonant frequency of the gyroscope, it will overexcite the motion of the proof mass, resulting in the deleterious effect of corrupted angular rate measurement. Therefore if the device or system packaging can be improved to sufficiently isolate the gyroscope die from environmental acoustic energy, the sensor may find new applications in this type of harsh environment. This research effort explored the use of microfibrous metallic cloth for isolating the gyroscope die from environmental acoustic excitation. Microfibrous cloth is a composite of fused, intermingled metal fibers and has a variety of typical uses involving chemical processing applications and filtering. Specifically, this research consisted of experimental evaluations of multiple layers of packed microfibrous cloth composed of sintered nickel material. The packed cloth was used to provide acoustic isolation for a test MEMS gyroscope, the Analog Devices ADXRS300. The results of this investigation revealed that the intermingling of the various fibers of the metallic cloth provided a significant contact area between the fiber strands and voids, which enhanced the acoustic damping of the material. As a result, the nickel cloth was discovered to be an effective acoustic isolation material for this particular MEMS gyroscope.

  6. MEMS for medical technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Thomas; Roxhed, Niclas; Stemme, Göran

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an in-depth description of two recent projects at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) which utilize MEMS and microsystem technology for realization of components intended for specific applications in medical technology and diagnostic instrumentation. By novel use of the DRIE fabrication technology we have developed side-opened out-of-plane silicon microneedles intended for use in transdermal drug delivery applications. The side opening reduces clogging probability during penetration into the skin and increases the up-take area of the liquid in the tissue. These microneedles offer about 200µm deep and pain-free skin penetration. We have been able to combine the microneedle chip with an electrically and heat controlled liquid actuator device where expandable microspheres are used to push doses of drug liquids into the skin. The entire unit is made of low cost materials in the form of a square one cm-sized patch. Finally, the design, fabrication and evaluation of an integrated miniaturized Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based "electronic nose" microsystem for detection of narcotics is described. The work integrates a novel environment-to-chip sample interface with the sensor element. The choice of multifunctional materials and the geometric features of a four-component microsystem allow a functional integration of a QCM crystal, electrical contacts, fluidic contacts and a sample interface in a single system with minimal assembly effort, a potential for low-cost manufacturing, and a few orders of magnitude reduced in system size (12*12*4 mm 3) and weight compared to commercially available instruments. The sensor chip was successfully used it for the detection of 200 ng of narcotics sample.

  7. Structure, properties, and MEMS and microelectronic applications of vanadium oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robert B Darling; Shiho Iwanaga

    2009-08-01

    Vanadium oxides have for many decades attracted much attention for their rich and unique physical properties which pose intriguing questions as to their fundamental origins as well as offering numerous potential applications for microelectronics, sensors, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This paper reviews the unique structure and properties of the two most common vanadium oxides which have entered into microfabricated devices, VO2 and V25, and some of the past and future device applications which can be realized using these materials. Two emerging new materials, sodium vanadium bronzes and vanadium oxide nanotubes are also discussed for their potential use in new microelectronic devices.

  8. EDITORIAL: MEMS in biology and medicine MEMS in biology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Beth L.; Herr, Amy E.

    2011-05-01

    this generation of MEMS researchers encapsulate the mission of JMM to 'cover all aspects of microelectromechanical systems, devices and structures as well as micromechanics, microengineering and microfabrication' as the physics and chemical processes under study match the scales of the MEMS technologies now possible. As evidenced by the articles assembled in this issue, the combined maturation of both our biological model systems and our tools is driving a new paradigm in the formulation of biological hypotheses. The intersection of MEMS with cell biology is evidenced in reviews of both methods for applying microscale forces in biological environments by Zheng and Zhang [9] as well as the manipulation of biology through mechanical interactions by Rajagopalan and Saif [10]. Additionally, the potential for microfluidic platforms to miniaturize and improve for a diverse set of biological measurements and assays for medical diagnostics is further reviewed by Tentori and Herr [11]. We hope that you find, as we do, this special issue to be 'essential reading for all MEMS researchers' and perhaps even of technical interest to your life sciences colleagues. References [1] Yetisen A K et al 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 054018 [2] Morimoto Y et al 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 054031 [3] Inglis D W et al 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 054024 [4] Meyer M T et al 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 054023 [5] Cheung L S-L et al 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 054033 [6] Lee S A et al 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 054006 [7] Hess A E et al 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 054009 [8] Chu J et al 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 054030 [9] Zheng X R and Zhang X 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 054003 [10] Rajagopalan J and Saif M T A 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 054002 [11] Tentori A M and Herr A E 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 054001

  9. MEMS Logic Using Mixed-Frequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2017-06-22

    We present multi-function microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) logic device that can perform the fundamental logic gate AND, OR, universal logic gates NAND, NOR, and a tristate logic gate using mixed-frequency excitation. The concept is based on exciting combination resonances due to the mixing of two or more input signals. The device vibrates at two steady states: a high state when the combination resonance is activated and a low state when no resonance is activated. These vibration states are assigned to logical value 1 or 0 to realize the logic gates. Using ac signals to drive the resonator and to execute the logic inputs unifies the input and output wave forms of the logic device, thereby opening the possibility for cascading among logic devices. We found that the energy consumption per cycle of the proposed logic resonator is higher than those of existing technologies. Hence, integration of such logic devices to build complex computational system needs to take into consideration lowering the total energy consumption. [2017-0041

  10. Stability Analysis of MEMS Gyroscope Dynamic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    M. Naser-Moghadasi; S. A. Olamaei; F. Setoudeh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the existence of a common quadratic Lyapunov function for stability analysis of MEMS Gyroscope dynamic systems has been studied then a new method based on stochastic stability of MEMS Gyroscope system has been proposed.

  11. Comparative studies of hemoperfusion devices. II. Pressure drop and flow uniformity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, D O; Infantolino, W; Kane, R

    1979-01-01

    One resin-based hemoperfusion device and three charcoal-based hemoperfusion devices were tested to determine their pressure drop and flow uniformity characteristics. Measurements were made on pressure drop versus flow rate using distilled water and on pressure drop versus time using bovine blood. Effluent concentration curves obtained after the step-change introduction of a high molecular weight dye solution to each unit were used to determine the priming volumes of the devices and were interpreted to yield information regarding the uniformities of flow in each device. The pressure drop and priming volume values for the resin-based device were significantly higher than the corresponding values for the charcoal-based units.

  12. Photonic MEMS for NIR in-situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, T C; Cole, G D; Goddard, L L; Behymer, E

    2007-07-03

    We report on a novel sensing technique combining photonics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for the detection and monitoring of gas emissions for critical environmental, medical, and industrial applications. We discuss how MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be exploited for in-situ detection and NIR spectroscopy of several gases, such as O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, CO{sub x}, CH{sub 4}, HF, HCl, etc., with estimated sensitivities between 0.1 and 20 ppm on footprints {approx}10{sup -3} mm{sup 3}. The VCSELs can be electrostatically tuned with a continuous wavelength shift up to 20 nm, allowing for unambiguous NIR signature determination. Selective concentration analysis in heterogeneous gas compositions is enabled, thus paving the way to an integrated optical platform for multiplexed gas identification by bandgap and device engineering. We will discuss here, in particular, our efforts on the development of a 760 nm AlGaAs based tunable VCSEL for O{sub 2} detection.

  13. U-SPECT-II: An Ultra-High-Resolution Device for Molecular Small-Animal Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Have, F.; Vastenhouw, B.; Ramakers, R.M.; Branderhorst, W.; Krah, J.O.; Ji, C.; Staelens, S.G.; Beekman, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new rodent SPECT system (U-SPECT-II) that enables molecular imaging of murine organs down to resolutions of less than half a millimeter and high-resolution total-body imaging. Methods: The U-SPECT-II is based on a triangular stationary detector set-up, an XYZ stage that moves the animal

  14. Integration of IC Foundries and MEMS Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Peterson, 1982) Polysilicon surface micromachining LIGA (Karlsruhe, 1986) Silicon accelerometers commercialized Micromotors MOSIS CMOS MEMS (1991) MUMPS...1992) DRIE (1995) ’80s Surface Micromachining ’90s MEMS Foundries Bulk Si Micromachining ASTM MEMS Test Structures (1998) Future MOSIS (1986) ASIMPS

  15. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  16. Measurement of the Earth tides with a MEMS gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, R. P.; Samarelli, A.; Paul, D. J.; Hough, J.; Rowan, S.; Hammond, G. D.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to measure tiny variations in the local gravitational acceleration allows, besides other applications, the detection of hidden hydrocarbon reserves, magma build-up before volcanic eruptions, and subterranean tunnels. Several technologies are available that achieve the sensitivities required for such applications (tens of microgal per hertz1/2): free-fall gravimeters, spring-based gravimeters, superconducting gravimeters, and atom interferometers. All of these devices can observe the Earth tides: the elastic deformation of the Earth’s crust as a result of tidal forces. This is a universally predictable gravitational signal that requires both high sensitivity and high stability over timescales of several days to measure. All present gravimeters, however, have limitations of high cost (more than 100,000 US dollars) and high mass (more than 8 kilograms). Here we present a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device with a sensitivity of 40 microgal per hertz1/2 only a few cubic centimetres in size. We use it to measure the Earth tides, revealing the long-term stability of our instrument compared to any other MEMS device. MEMS accelerometers—found in most smart phones—can be mass-produced remarkably cheaply, but none are stable enough to be called a gravimeter. Our device has thus made the transition from accelerometer to gravimeter. The small size and low cost of this MEMS gravimeter suggests many applications in gravity mapping. For example, it could be mounted on a drone instead of low-flying aircraft for distributed land surveying and exploration, deployed to monitor volcanoes, or built into multi-pixel density-contrast imaging arrays.

  17. Calibration of an interfacial force microscope for MEMS metrology : FY08-09 activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, Jack E.; Baker, Michael Sean; Crowson, Douglas A.; Mitchell, John Anthony; Moore, Nathan W.

    2009-10-01

    Progress in MEMS fabrication has enabled a wide variety of force and displacement sensing devices to be constructed. One device under intense development at Sandia is a passive shock switch, described elsewhere (Mitchell 2008). A goal of all MEMS devices, including the shock switch, is to achieve a high degree of reliability. This, in turn, requires systematic methods for validating device performance during each iteration of design. Once a design is finalized, suitable tools are needed to provide quality assurance for manufactured devices. To ensure device performance, measurements on these devices must be traceable to NIST standards. In addition, accurate metrology of MEMS components is needed to validate mechanical models that are used to design devices to accelerate development and meet emerging needs. Progress towards a NIST-traceable calibration method is described for a next-generation, 2D Interfacial Force Microscope (IFM) for applications in MEMS metrology and qualification. Discussed are the results of screening several suitable calibration methods and the known sources of uncertainty in each method.

  18. An Integrated MEMS Gyroscope Array with Higher Accuracy Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Honglong; Xue, Liang; Qin, Wei; Yuan, Guangmin; Yuan, Weizheng

    2008-04-28

    In this paper, an integrated MEMS gyroscope array method composed of two levels of optimal filtering was designed to improve the accuracy of gyroscopes. In the firstlevel filtering, several identical gyroscopes were combined through Kalman filtering into a single effective device, whose performance could surpass that of any individual sensor. The key of the performance improving lies in the optimal estimation of the random noise sources such as rate random walk and angular random walk for compensating the measurement values. Especially, the cross correlation between the noises from different gyroscopes of the same type was used to establish the system noise covariance matrix and the measurement noise covariance matrix for Kalman filtering to improve the performance further. Secondly, an integrated Kalman filter with six states was designed to further improve the accuracy with the aid of external sensors such as magnetometers and accelerometers in attitude determination. Experiments showed that three gyroscopes with a bias drift of 35 degree per hour could be combined into a virtual gyroscope with a drift of 1.07 degree per hour through the first-level filter, and the bias drift was reduced to 0.53 degree per hour after the second-level filtering. It proved that the proposed integrated MEMS gyroscope array is capable of improving the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscopes, which provides the possibility of using these low cost MEMS sensors in high-accuracy application areas.

  19. An Integrated MEMS Gyroscope Array with Higher Accuracy Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizheng Yuan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated MEMS gyroscope array method composed of two levels of optimal filtering was designed to improve the accuracy of gyroscopes. In the firstlevel filtering, several identical gyroscopes were combined through Kalman filtering into a single effective device, whose performance could surpass that of any individual sensor. The key of the performance improving lies in the optimal estimation of the random noise sources such as rate random walk and angular random walk for compensating the measurement values. Especially, the cross correlation between the noises from different gyroscopes of the same type was used to establish the system noise covariance matrix and the measurement noise covariance matrix for Kalman filtering to improve the performance further. Secondly, an integrated Kalman filter with six states was designed to further improve the accuracy with the aid of external sensors such as magnetometers and accelerometers in attitude determination. Experiments showed that three gyroscopes with a bias drift of 35 degree per hour could be combined into a virtual gyroscope with a drift of 1.07 degree per hour through the first-level filter, and the bias drift was reduced to 0.53 degree per hour after the second-level filtering. It proved that the proposed integrated MEMS gyroscope array is capable of improving the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscopes, which provides the possibility of using these low cost MEMS sensors in high-accuracy application areas.

  20. Modeling of biaxial gimbal-less MEMS scanning mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wantoch, Thomas; Gu-Stoppel, Shanshan; Senger, Frank; Mallas, Christian; Hofmann, Ulrich; Meurer, Thomas; Benecke, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    One- and two-dimensional MEMS scanning mirrors for resonant or quasi-stationary beam deflection are primarily known as tiny micromirror devices with aperture sizes up to a few Millimeters and usually address low power applications in high volume markets, e.g. laser beam scanning pico-projectors or gesture recognition systems. In contrast, recently reported vacuum packaged MEMS scanners feature mirror diameters up to 20 mm and integrated high-reflectivity dielectric coatings. These mirrors enable MEMS based scanning for applications that require large apertures due to optical constraints like 3D sensing or microscopy as well as for high power laser applications like laser phosphor displays, automotive lighting and displays, 3D printing and general laser material processing. This work presents modelling, control design and experimental characterization of gimbal-less MEMS mirrors with large aperture size. As an example a resonant biaxial Quadpod scanner with 7 mm mirror diameter and four integrated PZT (lead zirconate titanate) actuators is analyzed. The finite element method (FEM) model developed and computed in COMSOL Multiphysics is used for calculating the eigenmodes of the mirror as well as for extracting a high order (n tested using the original FEM model as well as the micromirror.

  1. Analysis on Supporting Stability for Track Subgrade Dynamic Response In-situ Test Device Based on NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Zheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response test to the subgrade plays a very important role in railway construction and a new in-situ test system is proposed. This paper presents the application of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II to analyze the stability of the supporting equipment for track subgrade dynamic response in-situ test device. Its stability is related with the extension length of the hydraulic cylinders and the backward condition of the supporting equipment - the hydraulic excavator. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with the objective of maximizing  the supporting force for the test device. An 85 tons excavator is picked as the case to study. The first optimal results show the excavator may not support the test system successfully. After redesigning the boom and adding its weight and length as new parameters, the second optimize results indicate the test device can work normally.

  2. Procedural Tests for Anti-G Protective Devices. Volume II. G-Sensitivity Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    applications (2,4). This high purity carbon, having extremely low chemical reactivity, is presently being used in human subjects for prosthesis , cardiac...assist devices, dental implants, and percutaneous lead devices. The fact that high purity carbon is biologically inert is well documented (2-4,8,10), and...New England College, Henniker, N.H.). No. 2 (part 1), 41-47, 1971. 3. Bokros, J. C., et al. Prosthesis made of carbon. Chemtech 7:40-49 (1977). 4

  3. Integrated MEMS-based variable optical attenuator and 10Gb/s receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, James; Cusin, Pierre; Fettig, H.; Hickey, Ryan; Wylde, James

    2005-03-01

    MEMS devices can be successfully commercialized in favour of competing technologies only if they offer an advantage to the customer in terms of lower cost or increased functionality. There are limited markets where MEMS can be manufactured cheaper than similar technologies due to large volumes: automotive, printing technology, wireless communications, etc. However, success in the marketplace can also be realized by adding significant value to a system at minimal cost or leverging MEMS technology when other solutions simply will not work. This paper describes a thermally actuated, MEMS based, variable optical attenuator that is co-packaged with existing opto-electronic devices to develop an integrated 10Gb/s SONET/SDH receiver. The configuration of the receiver opto-electronics and relatively low voltage availability (12V max) in optical systems bar the use of LCD, EO, and electro-chromic style attenuators. The device was designed and fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) starting material. The design and performance of the device (displacement, power consumption, reliability, physical geometry) was defined by the receiver parameters geometry. This paper will describe how these design parameters (hence final device geometry) were determined in light of both the MEMS device fabrication process and the receiver performance. Reference will be made to the design tools used and the design flow which was a joint effort between the MEMS vendor and the end customer. The SOI technology offered a robust, manufacturable solution that gave the required performance in a cost-effective process. However, the singulation of the devices required the development of a new singulation technique that allowed large volumes of silicon to be removed during fabrication yet still offer high singulation yields.

  4. Ultrasensitive measurement of MEMS cantilever displacement sensitivity below the shot noise limit

    CERN Document Server

    Pooser, R C

    2014-01-01

    The displacement of micro-electro-mechanical-systems(MEMs) cantilevers is used to measure a variety of phenomena in devices ranging from force microscopes for single spin detection[1] to biochemical sensors[2] to uncooled thermal imaging systems[3]. The displacement readout is often performed optically with segmented detectors or interference measurements. Until recently, various noise sources have limited the minimum detectable displacement in MEMs systems, but it is now possible to minimize all other sources[4] so that the noise level of the coherent light field, called the shot noise limit(SNL), becomes the dominant source. Light sources dis- playing quantum-enhanced statistics below this limit are available[5, 6], with applications in gravitational wave astronomy[7] and bioimaging[8], but direct displacement measurements of MEMS cantilevers below the SNL have been impossible until now. Here, we demonstrate the first direct measurement of a MEMs cantilever displacement with sub-SNL sensitivity, thus enabli...

  5. Monotonic and fatigue testing of spring-bridged freestanding microbeams application for MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ming-Tzer; Tong, Chi-Jia

    2008-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies are developing rapidly with increasing study of the design, fabrication and commercialization of microscale systems and devices. Accurate knowledge on the mechanical behaviors of thin film materials used for MEMS is important for successful design and development of MEMS. Here a novel electroplating spring-bridge micro-tensile specimen integrates pin-pin align holes, misalignment compensate spring, load sensor beam and freestanding thin film is demonstrated and fabricated. The specimen is fit into a specially designed micro-mechanical apparatus to carry out a series of monotonic tensile testing on sub-micron freestanding thin films. Certain thin films applicable as structure or motion gears in MEMS were tested including sputtered gold, copper and tantalum nitride thin films. Metal specimens were fabricated by sputtering; for tantalum nitride film samples, nitrogen gas was introduced into the chamber during sputtering tantalum films on the silicon wafer. The s...

  6. MEMS product engineering: methodology and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortloff, Dirk; Popp, Jens; Schmidt, Thilo; Hahn, Kai; Mielke, Matthias; Brück, Rainer

    2011-03-01

    The development of MEMS comprises the structural design as well as the definition of an appropriate manufacturing process. Technology constraints have a considerable impact on the device design and vice-versa. Product design and technology development are therefore concurrent tasks. Based on a comprehensive methodology the authors introduce a software environment that links commercial design tools from both area into a common design flow. In this paper emphasis is put on automatic low threshold data acquisition. The intention is to collect and categorize development data for further developments with minimum overhead and minimum disturbance of established business processes. As a first step software tools that automatically extract data from spreadsheets or file-systems and put them in context with existing information are presented. The developments are currently carried out in a European research project.

  7. Mechanics and tribology of MEMS materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Somuri V.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Boyce, Brad Lee; Buchheit, Thomas Edward

    2004-04-01

    Micromachines have the potential to significantly impact future weapon component designs as well as other defense, industrial, and consumer product applications. For both electroplated (LIGA) and surface micromachined (SMM) structural elements, the influence of processing on structure, and the resultant effects on material properties are not well understood. The behavior of dynamic interfaces in present as-fabricated microsystem materials is inadequate for most applications and the fundamental relationships between processing conditions and tribological behavior in these systems are not clearly defined. We intend to develop a basic understanding of deformation, fracture, and surface interactions responsible for friction and wear of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) materials. This will enable needed design flexibility for these devices, as well as strengthen our understanding of material behavior at the nanoscale. The goal of this project is to develop new capabilities for sub-microscale mechanical and tribological measurements, and to exercise these capabilities to investigate material behavior at this size scale.

  8. MEMS reliability in a vibration environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANNER,DANELLE M.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; GREGORY,DANNY LYNN; STAKE,JOHN R.; SMITH,NORMAN F.

    2000-02-03

    MicroElectricalMechanical Systems (MEMS) were subjected to a vibration environment that had a peak acceleration of 120g and spanned frequencies from 20 to 2000 Hz. The device chosen for this test was a surface-micromachined microengine because it possesses many elements (springs, gears, rubbing surfaces) that may be susceptible to vibration. The microengines were unpowered during the test. The authors observed 2 vibration-related failures and 3 electrical failures out of 22 microengines tested. Surprisingly, the electrical failures also arose in four microengines in the control group indicating that they were not vibration related. Failure analysis revealed that the electrical failures were due to shorting of stationary comb fingers to the ground plane.

  9. Powering a leadless pacemaker using a PiezoMEMS energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nathan; Olszewski, Oskar; O'Murchu, Cian; Mathewson, Alan

    2017-06-01

    MEMS based vibrational energy harvesting devices have been a highly researched topic over the past decade. The application targeted in this paper focuses on a leadless pacemaker that will be implanted in the right ventricle of the heart. A leadless pacemaker requires the same functionality as a normal pacemaker, but with significantly reduced volume. The reduced volume limits the space for a battery; therefore an energy harvesting device is required. This paper compares varying the dimensions of a linear MEMS based piezoelectric energy harvester that can harvest energy from the mechanical vibrations of the heart due to shock induced vibration. Typical MEMS linear energy harvesting devices operate at high frequency (heart acts as a series of impulses as opposed to traditional sinusoidal vibration force with high acceleration (1-4 g). Therefore the design of a MEMS harvester that is based on shock-induced vibration is necessary. PiezoMEMS energy harvesting devices consisting of a silicon substrate and mass with aluminium nitride piezoelectric material were developed and characterized using acceleration forces that mimic the heartbeat. Peak powers of up to 25μW were obtained at 1 g acceleration with a powder density of approximately 1.5 mW cm-3.

  10. MEMS Tunable nanostructured photodetector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee

    -cavity-enhanced photodetector using dielectric subwavelength gratings as reflectors operating at 1550 nm optical communication wavelength. The main work in this thesis divided equally into device design and process development. The properties of dielectric subwavelength grating are described. The main result of the thesis......) structure. Results from the fabricated devices are reported along with an investigation of the design parameters which influence the performance deviation from the design....

  11. Treatment of Class II Division 2 Malocclusion Using the Forsus Fatigue Resistance Device and 5-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Atik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents the treatment of a 14-year-and-8-month-old boy with Class II division 2 mandibular retrusion, severe deep bite, and concave profile. The Forsus fatigue resistance device (FRD was effective in correcting both skeletal and dental parameters. At 5-year posttreatment follow-up, the teeth were well aligned and the occlusion was stable. FRD application with appropriate treatment time can result with prominent changes in the facial profile and dentition, and the outcomes can be maintained at the long-term follow-up periods.

  12. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements

  13. Fast and Precise 3D Computation of Capacitance of Parallel Narrow Beam MEMS Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, N

    2007-01-01

    Efficient design and performance of electrically actuated MEMS devices necessitate accurate estimation of electrostatic forces on the MEMS structures. This in turn requires thorough study of the capacitance of the structures and finally the charge density distribution on the various surfaces of a device. In this work, nearly exact BEM solutions have been provided in order to estimate these properties of a parallel narrow beam structure found in MEMS devices. The effect of three-dimensionality, which is an important aspect for these structures, and associated fringe fields have been studied in detail. A reasonably large parameter space has been covered in order to follow the variation of capacitance with various geometric factors. The present results have been compared with those obtained using empirical parametrized expressions keeping in view the requirement of the speed of computation. The limitations of the empirical expressions have been pointed out and possible approaches of their improvement have been d...

  14. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2006-06-27

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator for drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows, for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  15. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Stewart M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-05-01

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  16. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2007-05-01

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  17. Shock margin testing of a one-axis MEMS accelerometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parson, Ted Blair; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Buchheit, Thomas Edward

    2008-07-01

    Shock testing was performed on a selected commercial-off-the-shelf - MicroElectroMechanical System (COTS-MEMS) accelerometer to determine the margin between the published absolute maximum rating for shock and the 'measured' level where failures are observed. The purpose of this testing is to provide baseline data for isolating failure mechanisms under shock and environmental loading in a representative device used or under consideration for use within systems and assemblies of the DOD/DOE weapons complex. The specific device chosen for this study was the AD22280 model of the ADXL78 MEMS Accelerometer manufactured by Analog Devices Inc. This study focuses only on the shock loading response of the device and provides the necessary data for adding influence of environmental exposure to the reliability of this class of devices. The published absolute maximum rating for acceleration in any axis was 4000 G for this device powered or unpowered. Results from this study showed first failures at 8000 G indicating a margin of error of two. Higher shock level testing indicated that an in-plane, but off-axis acceleration was more damaging than one in the sense direction.

  18. 75 FR 17093 - Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 882 and 890 RIN 0910-ZA37 Neurological and... and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend certain neurological device and physical medicine... written submissions in the following ways: FAX: 301-827-6870. Mail/Hand delivery/Courier [for paper,...

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of MEMS Flexure FET with Multiple Gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Spandana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design and modelling of Flexure FET and the FETs are the one of the important fundamental devices in electronic devices.. In this paper we are going analyse one of the MEMS Flexure Gate Field Effect Transistors. Here we will design gate of the FLEXURE FET with different type of materials and with different structure and we made the comparison between all the structures. We apply pull-in voltage to the Gate with respect to the change in the gate voltage the respective displacement of the gate changes which reflect the change in the drain current and sensitivity.

  20. Lessons learned from nanoscale specimens tested by MEMS-based apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhebeary, Mohamed; Saif, M. Taher A.

    2017-06-01

    The last two decades were marked by the innovative synthesis of nanomaterials and devices. The success of these devices hinges on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials and an understanding of their deformation and failure mechanisms. Many novel testing techniques have been developed to test materials at small scale. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) apparatus developed to characterize materials at nanoscale, and the key insights gained on structure-property relations of materials through these characterizations. Finally, new applications of MEMS in testing living materials, such as tissues and cells, for disease diagnosis and prognosis are discussed.

  1. Microgrippers: A case study for batch-compatible integration of MEMS with nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardan, Özlem; Alaca, B. Erdem; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz;

    2007-01-01

    A batch- compatible integration of micro- electro- mechanical systems ( MEMS) with nanoscale objects is demonstrated using the example of a gripping device with nanoscale end- effectors. The proposed nanofabrication technique is based on creating a certain number of nanowires/ ribbons on a planar...... surface, each with a known orientation, using self- assembled crack networks as a template. Since both the location and orientation of the nanowires/ ribbons are known, the gripping device can be lithographically transferred on to the substrate ensuring full integration of MEMS with nanoscale end...

  2. Vortex-MEMS filters for wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Sujoy; Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Schumann, Martin F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an on-chip device capable of wavelength-selective generation of vortex beams is demonstrated. The device is realized by integrating a spiral phase-plate onto a MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter. This vortex-MEMS filter, being capable of functioning simultaneously in wavelength...... and orbital angular momentum (OAM) domains at around 1550 nm, is considered as a compact, robust and cost-effective solution for simultaneous OAM- and WDM optical communications. Experimental spectra for azimuthal orders 1, 2 and 3 show OAM state purity >92% across 30 nm wavelength range. A demonstration...

  3. Low Actuating Voltage Spring-Free RF MEMS SPDT Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RF MEMS devices are known to be superior to their solid state counterparts in terms of power consumption and electromagnetic response. Major limitations of MEMS devices are their low switching speed, high actuation voltage, larger size, and reliability. In the present paper, a see-saw single pole double throw (SPDT RF MEMS switch based on anchor-free mechanism is proposed which eliminates the above-mentioned disadvantages. The proposed switch has a switching time of 394 nsec with actuation voltage of 5 V. Size of the SPDT switch is reduced by utilizing a single series capacitive switch compared to conventional switches with capacitive and series combinations. Reliability of the switch is improved by adding floating metal and reducing stiction between the actuating bridge and transmission line. Insertion loss and isolation are better than −0.6 dB and −20 dB, respectively, for 1 GHz to 20 GHz applications.

  4. MEMS-Based Power Generation Techniques for Implantable Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lueke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  5. Modularly Integrated MEMS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-23

    underrepresented minorities students that I’ve befriended over the years. This includes: Sheila Humphrey , Megan Thomas, Chris Hildrum, Tiffany Grant...fabrication using photoresist-ashing technique,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol.9, p.3248-3251, 1996. [4.11] B. Doris , M. Ieong, T. Kanarsky, Y

  6. A first passage based model for probabilistic fracture of polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhifeng; Le, Jia-Liang

    2017-02-01

    Experiments have shown that the failure loads of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) devices usually exhibit a considerable level of variability, which is believed to be caused by the random material strength and the geometry-induced random stress field. Understanding the strength statistics of MEMS devices is of paramount importance for the device design guarding against a tolerable failure risk. In this study, we develop a continuum-based probabilistic model for polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) MEMS structures within the framework of first passage analysis. The failure of poly-Si MEMS structures is considered to be triggered by fracture initiation from the sidewalls governed by a nonlocal failure criterion. The model takes into account an autocorrelated random field of material tensile strength. The nonlocal random stress field is obtained by stochastic finite element simulations based on the information of the uncertainties of the sidewall geometry. The model is formulated within the contexts of both stationary and non-stationary stochastic processes for MEMS structures of various geometries and under different loading configurations. It is shown that the model agrees well with the experimentally measured strength distributions of uniaxial tensile poly-Si MEMS specimens of different gauge lengths. The model is further used to predict the strength distribution of poly-Si MEMS beams under three-point bending, and the result is compared with the Monte Carlo simulation. The present model predicts strong size effects on both the strength distribution and the mean structural strength. It is shown that the mean size effect curve consists of three power-law asymptotes in the small, intermediate, and large-size regimes. By matching these three asymptotes, an approximate size effect equation is proposed. The present model is shown to be a generalization of the classical weakest-link statistical model, and it provides a physical interpretation of the material length

  7. GPS/MEMS-INS组合导航系统设计%Design of GPS/MEMS-INS integrated navigation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奏红磊; 张亚珍; 丛丽; 邢菊红

    2011-01-01

    For the problem of the MEMS inertial devices' large random noise and existing de-noising algorithms are difficult to balance the de-noising level and information processing speed, an adaptive real-time hybrid de-noising algorithm is proposed, hi order to overcome EKF algorithm's shortcomings that it may bring additional error, UKF algorithm is used in the system. Multithreading technology is used to make GPS and MEMS-INS synchronous. A GPS/MEMS-INS integrated navigation system based on the key techniques and algorithms is designed. Test results show that the integrated navigation system can achieve high accuracy navigation in real time in both dynamic and static environment.%针对微机电系统(micro electro mechanical system,MEMS)惯性器件随机噪声大,现有的去噪算法难以兼顾降噪效果和信息处理速度的问题,提出自适应实时混合去噪算法;利用无轨迹卡尔曼滤波(unscented Kalman filter,UKF)算法进行信息融合,克服了扩展卡尔曼滤波(extended Kalman filter,EKF)对非线性系统线性化会带来额外误差的缺点;利用多线程信息同步技术实现微机电惯性导航系统(MEMS inertial navigation system,MEMS-INS)和全球定位系统(global position system,GPS)的同步运行.基于以上关键技术和算法,设计了一种GPS/MEMS-INS组合导航系统,实验结果表明,该组合导航系统在静态及动态环境下均能够进行实时高精度地导航定位.

  8. Biocompatible Optically Transparent MEMS for Micromechanical Stimulation and Multimodal Imaging of Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, Raffaella; Kwok, Jeanie; Malfatti, Francesca; Sbaizero, Orfeo; Lal, Ratnesh

    2015-08-01

    Cells and tissues in our body are continuously subjected to mechanical stress. Mechanical stimuli, such as tensile and contractile forces, and shear stress, elicit cellular responses, including gene and protein alterations that determine key behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and adhesion. Several tools and techniques have been developed to study these mechanobiological phenomena, including micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS provide a platform for nano-to-microscale mechanical stimulation of biological samples and quantitative analysis of their biomechanical responses. However, current devices are limited in their capability to perform single cell micromechanical stimulations as well as correlating their structural phenotype by imaging techniques simultaneously. In this study, a biocompatible and optically transparent MEMS for single cell mechanobiological studies is reported. A silicon nitride microfabricated device is designed to perform uniaxial tensile deformation of single cells and tissue. Optical transparency and open architecture of the device allows coupling of the MEMS to structural and biophysical assays, including optical microscopy techniques and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We demonstrate the design, fabrication, testing, biocompatibility and multimodal imaging with optical and AFM techniques, providing a proof-of-concept for a multimodal MEMS. The integrated multimodal system would allow simultaneous controlled mechanical stimulation of single cells and correlate cellular response.

  9. Quantitative Biofractal Feedback Part IIDevices, Scalability & Robust Control’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    structure of a typical commercial off-the-shelf 741 Op-Amp consisting of bipolar npn/ pnp transistors . Various combinations of npn/ pnp device...correlated to fractal elements. The inherent basic elements used for the Op-Amp building blocks will be both novel organic transistors and silicon...Compared to the electrons and holes in their semiconductor counterparts, organic transistors utilize charge carriers such as electrolytes to conduct a

  10. —Part II. Development of the Electrolysis Devices and Process Technology Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikov, Yurii P.; Shurov, Nikolay I.; Batukhtin, Victor P.; Molostov, Oleg G.

    2014-06-01

    The electrolyzers used to extract calcium from copper-calcium alloys at 0.5 to 3.0 kA were designed, manufactured, and utilized to study the process parameters more precisely. The pilot electrolysis device used to produce calcium from copper-calcium alloys at 12 to 15 kA was developed. The calcium production using the bipolar electrolyzer was proved to be possible and was experimentally tested.

  11. BioMEMS for mitochondria medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaraj, Divya

    A BioMEMS device to study cell-mitochondrial physiological functionalities was developed. The pathogenesis of many diseases including obesity, diabetes and heart failure as well as aging has been linked to functional defects of mitochondria. The synthesis of Adenosine Tri Phosphate (ATP) is determined by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane and by the pH difference due to proton flux across it. Therefore, electrical characterization by E-fields with complementary chemical testing was used here. The BioMEMS device was fabricated as an SU-8 based microfluidic system with gold electrodes on SiO2/Si wafers for electromagnetic interrogation. Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) were incorporated for proton studies important in the electron transport chain, together with monitoring Na+, K+ and Ca++ ions for ion channel studies. ISFETs are chemically sensitive Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices and their threshold voltage is directly proportional to the electrolytic H+ ion variation. These ISFETs (sensitivity ˜55 mV/pH for H+) were further realized as specific ion sensitive Chemical Field Effect Transistors (CHEMFETs) by depositing a specific ion sensitive membrane on the gate. Electrodes for dielectric spectroscopy studies of mitochondria were designed as 2- and 4-probe structures for optimized operation over a wide frequency range. In addition, to limit polarization effects, a 4-electrode set-up with unique meshed pickup electrodes (7.5x7.5 mum2 loops with 4 mum wires) was fabricated. Sensitivity of impedance spectroscopy to membrane potential changes was confirmed by studying the influence of uncouplers and glucose on mitochondria. An electrical model was developed for the mitochondrial sample, and its frequency response correlated with impedance spectroscopy experiments of sarcolemmal mitochondria. Using the mesh electrode structure, we obtained a reduction of 83.28% in impedance at 200 Hz. COMSOL

  12. Parametric Yield Analysis of Mems via Statistical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vudathu, S -P; Laur, Rainer; Kubalinska, D; Bunse-Gerstner, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a developing theory on the effects of inevitable process variations during the fabrication of MEMS and other microsystems. The effects on the performance and design yield of the microsystems devices are analyzed and presented. A novel methodology in the design cycle of MEMS and other microsystems is briefly introduced. This paper describes the initial steps of this methodology that is aimed at counteracting the parametric variations in the product cycle of microsystems. It is based on a concept of worst-case analysis that has proven successful in the parent IC technology. Issues ranging from the level of abstraction of the microsystem models to the availability of such models are addressed

  13. Role of MEMS in Biomedical Application: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani SHARMA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we have focused over MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System technology in the area of biomedical, which have played in important role-as diagnostic equipment in the diagnoses of different human body parts. The miniaturization of classical “bulky” measurement techniques has led to the realization of complex analytic systems, including such sensors as a Biochem Lab-On-Chip. This rapid progress in miniature devices and instrumentation development will significantly impact the practice of medical care as well as future advances in the biomedical field. Recently, MEMS along with modern IC also effected significantly on electrochemical, optical and acoustic wave transducer technologies, which have emerged as some of the most promising biomedical sensing technologies. Here, important features of these technologies, along with new developments and some of the applications, are presented.

  14. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Actuator for Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2001-01-01

    A microstrip patch antenna with two contact actuators along the radiating edges for frequency reconfiguration was demonstrated at K-band frequencies. The layout of the antenna is shown in the following figure. This antenna has the following advantages over conventional semiconductor varactor-diode-tuned patch antennas: 1. By eliminating the semiconductor diode and its nonlinear I-V characteristics, the antenna minimizes intermodulation signal distortion. This is particularly important in digital wireless systems, which are sensitive to intersymbol interference caused by intermodulation products. 2. Because the MEMS actuator is an electrostatic device, it does not draw any current during operation and, hence, requires a negligible amount of power for actuation. This is an important advantage for hand-held, battery-operated, portable wireless systems since the battery does not need to be charged frequently. 3. The MEMS actuator does not require any special epitaxial layers as in the case of diodes and, hence, is cost effective.

  15. MEMS-based thick film PZT vibrational energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Thyssen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using a mechan......We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using...... a mechanical front side protection of an SOI wafer with screen printed PZT thick film. The fabricated harvester device produces 14.0 μW with an optimal resistive load of 100 kΩ from 1g (g=9.81 m s-2) input acceleration at its resonant frequency of 235 Hz....

  16. Changes in airway dimensions and hyoid bone position following class II correction with forsus fatigue resistant device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavbek, Nehir Canigur; Tuncer, Burcu Balos; Turkoz, Cagri; Ulusoy, Cagri; Tuncer, Cumhur

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fixed functional therapy on oropharyngeal airway dimensions and hyoid bone positions in Class II patients and make comparison with an untreated Class II group. Eighteen patients (8 girls, 10 boys; mean age 13.62 ± 1.92 years) who were treated with Forsus Fatique Resistant Device (FFRD) and 19 patients (11 girls, 8 boys; mean age 12.74 ± 0.91 years) who served as control were enrolled. Cephalograms were used to assess linear, angular, and area measurements. Intragroup comparisons were made by paired t and Wilcoxon tests and intergroup comparisons were performed by independent t test. With respect to controls, FFRD group showed increased airway dimensions at soft palate (P posture. The present results might indicate that oropharyngeal airway dimensions may be affected by postural changes of the hyoid bone in consequence of dentoalveolar changes. Clinically, these may be considered especially in Class II cases with reduced airway dimensions.

  17. Progress toward a MEMS fabricated 100 GHz oscillator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Lemp, Thomas; Weyn, Mark L.; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Rowley, James E. (SAIC, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-01

    This report summarizes an LDRD effort which looked at the feasibility of building a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabricated 100 GHz micro vacuum tube. PIC Simulations proved to be a very useful tool in investigating various device designs. Scaling parameters were identified. This in turn allowed predictions of oscillator growth based on beam parameters, cavity geometry, and cavity loading. The electron beam source was identified as a critical element of the design. FEA's (Field Emission Arrays) were purchased to be built into the micro device. Laboratory testing of the FEA's was also performed which pointed out care and handling issues along with maximum current capabilities. Progress was made toward MEMS fabrication of the device. Techniques were developed and successfully employed to build up several of the subassemblies of the device. However, the lower wall fabrication proved to be difficult and a successful build was not completed. Alternative approaches to building this structure have been identified. Although these alternatives look like good solutions for building the device, it was not possible to complete a redesign and build during the timeframe of this effort.

  18. Of light, of MEMS: Optical MEMS in telecommunications and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Chollet; H B Liu; M Ashraf; B Thubthimthong; X M Zhang; G Hegde; A Asundi; V M Murukeshan; A Q Liu

    2009-08-01

    The burst of the Internet bubble in 2000 has severely quenched the pace of development in the optical MEMS field. However, it is now clear that this field is again set to move forward as not only telecommunication but many other industries are benefiting from its application. We describe in this paper some of our latest achievements in the field, showing a new type of small scale optical switch based on integrated optics, a vibration/acceleration sensor using a veryshort external cavity laser and finally, the early development result of a nano-scale tunable photonic crystal that could be used for beam steering. The diversity of the applications we demonstrate, is a clear testimony that there is indeed ‘plenty of room at the bottom’—and particularly in the natural combination of Light and MEMS!

  19. Repair of pectus excavatum during HeartMate II left ventricular assist device placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Massey, Howard Todd

    2016-01-01

    Pectus excavatum deformity often remains clinically asymptomatic even in cases of a severely diminished thoracic volume and frequently remains uncorrected. In the patient population that requires left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement, a diminished thoracic volume can be problematic and lead to significant challenges in pump and outflow cannula positioning. Here we present a case of pectus excavatum correction during LVAD placement to show that this deformity can be successfully addressed with minimal, if any, additional operative risk at the time of LVAD implant.

  20. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRIMPING DEVICE WITH MULTIPLE CAMS USING MSC ADAMS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the present paper, the author presents the results of the dynamic analysis with MSC ADAMS of the mechanism with a crimping device with 12 tightening cams, designed and used in the technological process of assembly of the indigenous electrical detonators. In this sense, the mechanism with multiple cams is considered a mechanical system and is treated as an assembly of rigid bodies connected by mechanical connections and elastic elements. For shaping and simulation of the mechanism with multiple cams using ADAMS program, the author got through the following stages: construction of the pattern, its testing and simulation, validation, finishing, parametrization, optimization of the pattern.

  1. Comprehensive Warpage Analysis of Stacked Die MEMS Package in Accelerometer Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Packaging of MEMS ( micro-electro-mechanical system ) devices poses more challenges than conventional IC packaging, since the performance of the MEMS devices is highly dependent on packaging processes. A Land Grid Array (LGA) package is introduced for MEMS technology based linear multi-axis accelerometers. Finite element modeling is conducted to simulate the warpage behavior of the LGA packages. A method to correlate the package warpage to matrix block warpage has been developed. Warpage for both package and sensor substrate are obtained. Warpage predicted by simulation correlates very well with experimental measurements. Based on this validated method, detailed design analysis with different package geometrical variations are carried out to optimize the package design. With the optimized package structure,the packaging effect on accelerometer signal performance is well controlled.

  2. Design and analysis of a high Q MEMS passive RF filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Vishal; Pande, Rajesh

    2016-04-01

    Over the past few years, significant growth has been observed in using MEMS based passive components in the RF microelectronics domain, especially in transceiver system. This is due to some excellent properties of the MEMS devices like low loss, low cost and excellent isolation. This paper presents a design of high performance MEMS passive band pass filter, consisting of L and C with improved quality factor and insertion loss less than the reported filters. In this paper we have presented a design of 2nd order band pass filter with 2.4GHz centre frequency and 83MHz bandwidth for Bluetooth application. The simulation results showed improved Q-factor of 34 and Insertion loss of 1.7dB to 1.9dB. The simulation results needs to be validated by fabricating the device, fabrication flow of which is also presented in the paper.

  3. Hybrid Integration of Magnetoresistive Sensors with MEMS as a Strategy to Detect Ultra-Low Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Valadeiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe how magnetoresistive sensors can be integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS devices enabling the mechanical modulation of DC or low frequency external magnetic fields to high frequencies using MEMS structures incorporating magnetic flux guides. In such a hybrid architecture, lower detectivities are expected when compared with those obtained for individual sensors. This particularity results from the change of sensor’s operating point to frequencies above the 1/f noise knee.

  4. The Intrauterine Device in Women with Diabetes Mellitus Type I and II: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstuck, Norman D; Steyn, Petrus S

    2013-12-11

    Background. Women with diabetes mellitus type I and type II need effective contraception for personal and medical reasons. Long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are among the most efficient and cost-effective methods. Study Design. We searched the Popline, PubMed, and clinicaltrials.gov databases from 1961 to March 2013 for studies on the efficacy of the IUD in diabetic women and the possible changes it may produce in laboratory parameters. Studies of at least 30 subjects with DM1 or DM2 who were studied for 6 to 12 months depending on the method of analysis were eligible. Results. The search produced seven articles which gave event rate efficacy evaluable results and three which evaluated the effect of the IUD on laboratory parameters. One of the earlier efficacy studies showed an abnormally high pregnancy rate which sparked a controversy which is discussed in the Introduction section. The remaining 6 studies produced acceptable pregnancy rates. The three laboratory studies showed that the copper and levonorgestrel releasing IUD/IUS do not affect the diabetic state in any way. Conclusions. The copper bearing and levonorgestrel releasing IUDs are safe and effective in women with diabetes type I and diabetes type II although the evidence in the latter is limited.

  5. Miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention documents the efforts on the research and development of a miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system. A miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system is presented; Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) based alignment algorithm for space applications is discussed. Two navigation cameras are also included to measure the range and range rate which can be integrated into the GPS/MEMS IMU system to enhance the navigation solution.

  6. Development of thin film encapsulation process for piezoresistive MEMS gyroscope with wide gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanoor-Vitikkate, Vipin

    The gyroscope is an inertial sensor used to measure the angular rate of a rotating object. This helps to determine the pitch and yaw rate of any moving body. A number of applications have been developed for consumer and automotive markets, for e.g. vehicle stability control, navigation assist, roll over detection. These are primarily used in high-end cars, where cost is not a major factor. Other areas where a MEMS Gyro can be used are robotics, camcorder stabilization, virtual reality, and more. Primarily due to cost and the size most of these applications have not reached any significant volume. One reason for this is the relatively high cost of MEMS gyros compared to other MEMS sensors like accelerometers or pressure sensors. Generally the cost of packaging a MEMS sensor is about 85-90% of the total cost. Currently most MEMS based gyroscopes are made using bulk or surface micromachining, after which they are packaged using wafer bonding. This unfortunately leads to wastage of silicon and increase in the package size, thus reducing the yield. One way to reduce the cost of packaging is by wafer scale thin film encapsulation of MEMS gyroscopes. The goal of the present work is to fabricate a rate grade MEMS gyroscope and encapsulate it by modifying an existing thin-film encapsulation technique. Packaging is an important step towards commercialization of the device and we plan to use thin wafer scale encapsulation technique developed previously in our group to package these devices. The silicon micro machined gyroscope will be fabricated on SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) wafers using Bosch DRIE etching techniques. The encapsulation of the device is carried out using epitaxial polysilicon in order to provide a high vacuum inside the device chamber. The advantages offered by this technique are the reduction in area of the die and thus less silicon surface is wasted. In addition to this the encapsulation technique helps in creating a vacuum inside the micro device, which

  7. Cryogenic MEMS Technology for Sensing Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of cryogenic microwave components, such as focal plane polarization modulators, first requires an RF MEMS switching technology that operates...

  8. From optical MEMS to photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Jideog; Lee, Hong-Seok; Moon, Il-Kwon; Won, JongHwa; Ku, Janam; Choi, Hyung; Shin, Hyungjae

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the emergence of photonic crystals as significant optomechatronics components, following optical MEMS. It is predicted that, in the coming years, optical MEMS and photonic crystals may go through dynamic interactions leading to synergy as well as competition. First, we present the Structured Defect Photonic Crystal (SDPCTM) devised by the authors for providing the freedom of designing photonic bandgap structures, such that the application of photonic crystals be greatly extended. Then, we present the applications of optical MEMS and photonic crystals to displays and telecommunications. It is shown that many of the applications that optical MEMS can contribute to telecommunications and displays may be implemented by photonic crystals.

  9. Reliability Issues of COTS MEMS Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharrarian, R.

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, research and development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has shown a significant promise for a variety of commercial applications including automobile and medical purposes.

  10. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in a patient with left ventricular assist device (Heart Mate II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, Maddalena; Del Bravo, Paola; Rigo, Fabio; Azzini, Anna Maria; Merighi, Mara; Forni, Alberto; Concia, Ercole

    2015-09-01

    Although disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, especially HIV-infected patients in the last stage of the disease (AIDS), this condition is still rare in immunocompetent subjects. We report the case of a Caucasian man who received a left ventricular assist device two years before as a bridge to heart transplantation, that began to present signs and symptoms of mycobacterial infection. The diagnostic work-up we performed showed the presence of Mycobacterium intracellulare in lungs and both peripherical and bone marrow blood. Although evaluated, we found no abnormalities in the patient's immune system that can be related to mycobacterial infection. The beginning of a specific therapy made the patient slowly improve and further nuclear medicine assay (PET-TC) showed a good reduction in radio-labelled drug captation.

  11. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, G., E-mail: geetikajain.hep@gmail.com [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Eber, R. [Institute fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Eichorn, T. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (Germany); Fernandez, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (Spain); Lalwani, K. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Messineo, A. [Universita di Pisa & INFN sez. di Pisa (Italy); Palomo, F.R. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Peltola, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Printz, M. [Institute fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Ranjan, K. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Villa, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (Spain); Hidalgo, S. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (Spain)

    2016-07-11

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  12. MEMS Stirling Cooler Development Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Wesolek, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provides an update on the effort to build and test a prototype unit of the patented MEMS Stirling cooler concept. A micro-scale regenerator has been fabricated by Polar Thermal Technologies and is currently being integrated into a Stirling cycle simulator at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. A discussion of the analysis, design, assembly, and test plans for the prototype will be presented.

  13. MEMS Bragg grating force sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We present modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a new type of all-optical frequency modulated MEMS force sensor based on a mechanically amplified double clamped waveguide beam structure with integrated Bragg grating. The sensor is ideally suited for force measurements in harsh...... environments and for remote and distributed sensing and has a measured sensitivity of -14 nm/N, which is several times higher than what is obtained in conventional fiber Bragg grating force sensors. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  14. Is it Possible to Replace Automated Keratometry with Current Devices: Comparison with LenStar and OPD II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Ekinci Köktekir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To compare the keratometry results obtained with optical low-coherence reflectometer, corneal topography, and automated keratometry readings and to assess the interexaminer reproducibility of each device. Ma te ri al and Met hod: This comparative study examined 65 eyes of 65 healthy subjects. Detailed ophthalmic examination was performed in all cases following keratometry measurements with a KR 8100A (Topcon, Japan, an OPD Scan II (Nidek, Japan, and a LenStar LS900 (Haag-Streit, Switzerland. Patients with spheric values over ±3.0D or cylindric values over ±1.0D and with history of chronic ocular/systemic disease or contact lens usage were excluded from the study. The keratometry readings were compared by using ANOVA test (SPSS 16.0. A p-value lower than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Bland-Altmann analysis was used to demonstrate agreement between methods, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r was calculated for the correlation. To assess the interexaminer reproducibility, intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated in 30 eyes for each device. Re sults: The mean age of the 65 patients enrolled in the study was 21.9±3.25 years. The mean keratometric values obtained with the autorefractokeratometer, OPD Scan II, and LenStar LS 900 were 43.30±1.47, 43.42±1.44, and 43.29±1.42 respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed among the three groups (p=0.840. Interexaminer intraclass correlation was found as 78.9%, 99.9%, and 99.7% for ARK, OPD, and LenStar, respectively. Dis cus si on: LenStar has provided comparable and well-correlated keratometry measurements in comparison with automated keratometer and corneal topography. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 73-6

  15. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotovsky, J; Tooker, A; Horsley, D A

    2009-12-07

    This work offers the first, thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor capable of accurate in situ measruement of time-varying, contact-stress between two solid interfaces (e.g. in vivo cartilage contact-stress and body armor dynamic loading). This CS sensor is a silicon-based device with a load sensitive diaphragm. The diaphragm is doped to create piezoresistors arranged in a full Wheatstone bridge. The sensor is similar in performance to established silicon pressure sensors, but it is reliably produced to a thickness of 65 {micro}m. Unlike commercial devices or other research efforts, this CS sensor, including packaging, is extremely thin (< 150 {micro}m fully packaged) so that it can be unobtrusively placed between contacting structures. It is built from elastic, well-characterized materials, providing accurate and high-speed (50+ kHz) measurements over a potential embedded lifetime of decades. This work explored sensor designs for an interface load range of 0-2 MPa; however, the CS sensor has a flexible design architecture to measure a wide variety of interface load ranges.

  16. Testing of Critical Features of Polysilicon MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAVAN,DAVID A.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.

    1999-12-02

    The behavior of MEMS devices is limited by the strength of critical features such as thin ligaments, oxide cuts joining layers, pin joints and hinges. Devices fabricated at Sandia's Microelectronic Development Laboratory have been successfully tested to investigate these features. A series of measurements were performed on samples with gage lengths of 15 to 1000 microns, using conventional and tungsten coated samples as well as samples that include the critical features of standard components in the test section. Specimens have a freely moving pin joint on one end that anchors the sample to the silicon die to allow rotation to reduce effects of bending. Each sample is loaded in uniaxial tension by pulling laterally with a flat tipped diamond in a computer-controlled Nanoindenter. Load is calculated by resolving the measured lateral and normal forces into the applied tensile force and frictional losses. The specimen cross section and gage length dimensions were verified by measuring against a standard in the SEM. Multiple tests can be programmed at one time and performed without operator assistance allowing the collection of significant populations of data.

  17. DMD reliability: a MEMS success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) developed by Texas Instruments (TI) has made tremendous progress in both performance and reliability since it was first invented in 1987. From the first working concept of a bistable mirror, the DMD is now providing high-brightness, high-contrast, and high-reliability in over 1,500,000 projectors using Digital Light Processing technology. In early 2000, TI introduced the first DMD chip with a smaller mirror (14-micron pitch versus 17-micron pitch). This allowed a greater number of high-resolution DMD chips per wafer, thus providing an increased output capacity as well as the flexibility to use existing package designs. By using existing package designs, subsequent DMDs cost less as well as met our customers' demand for faster time to market. In recent years, the DMD achieved the status of being a commercially successful MEMS device. It reached this status by the efforts of hundreds of individuals working toward a common goal over many years. Neither textbooks nor design guidelines existed at the time. There was little infrastructure in place to support such a large endeavor. The knowledge we gained through our characterization and testing was all we had available to us through the first few years of development. Reliability was only a goal in 1992 when production development activity started; a goal that many throughout the industry and even within Texas Instruments doubted the DMD could achieve. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that we succeeded by exceeding the reliability goals.

  18. Applications and requirements for MEMS scanner mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Alexander; Hsu, Shu-Ting; Schenk, Harald; Lakner, Hubert K.

    2005-01-01

    Micro scanning mirrors are quite versatile MEMS devices for the deflection of a laser beam or a shaped beam from another light source. The most exciting application is certainly in laser-scanned displays. Laser television, home cinema and data projectors will display the most brilliant colors exceeding even plasma, OLED and CRT. Devices for front and rear projection will have advantages in size, weight and price. These advantages will be even more important in near-eye virtual displays like head-mounted displays or viewfinders in digital cameras and potentially in UMTS handsets. Optical pattern generation by scanning a modulated beam over an area can be used also in a number of other applications: laser printers, direct writing of photo resist for printed circuit boards or laser marking and with higher laser power laser ablation or material processing. Scanning a continuous laser beam over a printed pattern and analyzing the scattered reflection is the principle of barcode reading in 1D and 2D. This principle works also for identification of signatures, coins, bank notes, vehicles and other objects. With a focused white-light or RGB beam even full color imaging with high resolution is possible from an amazingly small device. The form factor is also very interesting for the application in endoscopes. Further applications are light curtains for intrusion control and the generation of arbitrary line patterns for triangulation. Scanning a measurement beam extends point measurements to 1D or 2D scans. Automotive LIDAR (laser RADAR) or scanning confocal microscopy are just two examples. Last but not least there is the field of beam steering. E.g. for all-optical fiber switches or positioning of read-/write heads in optical storage devices. The variety of possible applications also brings a variety of specifications. This publication discusses various applications and their requirements.

  19. Tribological challenges in MEMS and their mitigation via vapor phase lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Michael T.

    2011-06-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) have become commercially successful in a number of niche applications. However, commercial success has only been possible where design, operating conditions, and materials result in devices that are not very sensitive to tribological effects. The use of MEMS in defense and national security applications will typically involve more challenging environments, with higher reliability and more complex functionality than required of commercial applications. This in turn will necessitate solutions to the challenges that have plagued MEMS since their inception - namely, adhesion, friction and wear. Adhesion during fabrication and immediately post-release has largely been resolved using hydrophobic coatings, but these coatings are not mechanically durable and do not inhibit surface degradation during extended operation. Tribological challenges in MEMS and approaches to mitigate the effects of adhesion, friction and wear are discussed. A new concept for lubrication of silicon MEMS using gas phase species is introduced. This "vapor phase lubrication" process has resulted in remarkable operating life of devices that rely on mechanical contact. VPL is also an effective lubrication approach for materials other than silicon, where traditional lubrication approaches are not feasible. The current status and remaining challenges for maturation of VPL are highlighted.

  20. 5 V Compatible Two-Axis PZT Driven MEMS Scanning Mirror with Mechanical Leverage Structure for Miniature LiDAR Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liangchen; Zhang, Gaofei; You, Zheng

    2017-03-05

    The MEMS (Micro-Electronical Mechanical System) scanning mirror is an optical MEMS device that can scan laser beams across one or two dimensions. MEMS scanning mirrors can be applied in a variety of applications, such as laser display, bio-medical imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). These commercial applications have recently created a great demand for low-driving-voltage and low-power MEMS mirrors. However, no reported two-axis MEMS scanning mirror is available for usage in a universal supplying voltage such as 5 V. In this paper, we present an ultra-low voltage driven two-axis MEMS scanning mirror which is 5 V compatible. In order to realize low voltage and low power, a two-axis MEMS scanning mirror with mechanical leverage driven by PZT (Lead zirconate titanate) ceramic is designed, modeled, fabricated and characterized. To further decrease the power of the MEMS scanning mirror, a new method of impedance matching for PZT ceramic driven by a two-frequency mixed signal is established. As experimental results show, this MEMS scanning mirror reaches a two-axis scanning angle of 41.9° × 40.3° at a total driving voltage of 4.2 Vpp and total power of 16 mW. The effective diameter of reflection of the mirror is 2 mm and the operating frequencies of two-axis scanning are 947.51 Hz and 1464.66 Hz, respectively.

  1. Low-distortion, high-strength bonding of thermoplastic microfluidic devices employing case-II diffusion-mediated permeant activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallow, Thomas I; Morales, Alfredo M; Simmons, Blake A; Hunter, Marion C; Krafcik, Karen Lee; Domeier, Linda A; Sickafoose, Shane M; Patel, Kamlesh D; Gardea, Andy

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate a new method for joining thermoplastic surfaces to produce microfluidic devices. The method takes advantage of the sharply defined permeation boundary of case-II diffusion to generate dimensionally controlled, activated bonding layers at the surfaces being joined. The technique is capable of producing bonds that exhibit cohesive failure, while preserving the fidelity of fine features in the bonding interface. This approach is uniquely suited to production of layered microfluidic structures, as it allows the bond-forming interface between plastic parts to be precisely manipulated at micrometre length scales. Distortions in microfluidic device channels are limited to the size scale of the permeant-swollen layer; 6 microm deep channels are routinely produced with no detectable cross-sectional distortions. Conventional thermal diffusion bonding of identical parts yields less strongly bonded microfluidic structures with increasingly severe dimensional compressions as bonding temperatures approach the thermoplastic glass-transition temperature: a preliminary rheological analysis is consistent with the observed compressions. The bond-enhancing procedure is easily integrated in standard process flows, uses inexpensive reagents, and requires no specialized equipment.

  2. Active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device during comprehensive Class II correction in growing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Giorgio; Alvetro, Lisa; Defraia, Efisio; Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanc; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device (Forsus) during comprehensive correction of Class II malocclusion in growing patients. Fifty-four patients (mean age, 12.5 ± 1.2 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion were consecutively treated with fixed app-liances in combination with Forsus. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at the beginning of the fixed treatment (T1), Forsus insertion (T2), its removal (T3), and end of the comprehensive therapy (T4). Statistical comparisons were carried out by repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test (p overjet and overbite decreased significantly (-3.5 and -1.5 mm, respectively) and the molar relationship improved by 4.3 mm. These changes were associated with significant retroclination of the maxillary incisors (-3.1°), proclination and intrusion of the mandibular incisors (+5.0° and -1.5 mm, respectively), and mesialization of the mandibular molars (+2.0 mm). Forsus had mainly dentoalveolar effects and contributed largely to the overall therapeutic outcome.

  3. Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    The MEMS strong motion seismograph we developed used the modularization method to design its software and hardware.It can fit various needs in different application situation.The hardware of the instrument is composed of a MEMS accelerometer,a control processor system,a data-storage system,a wired real-time data transmission system by IP network,a wireless data transmission module by 3G broadband,a GPS calibration module and power supply system with a large-volumn lithium battery in it. Among it,the seismograph's sensor adopted a three-axis with 14-bit high resolution and digital output MEMS accelerometer.Its noise level just reach about 99μg/√Hz and ×2g to ×8g dynamically selectable full-scale.Its output data rates from 1.56Hz to 800Hz. Its maximum current consumption is merely 165μA,and the device is so small that it is available in a 3mm×3mm×1mm QFN package. Furthermore,there is access to both low pass filtered data as well as high pass filtered data,which minimizes the data analysis required for earthquake signal detection. So,the data post-processing can be simplified. Controlling process system adopts a 32-bit low power consumption embedded ARM9 processor-S3C2440 and is based on the Linux operation system.The processor's operating clock at 400MHz.The controlling system's main memory is a 64MB SDRAM with a 256MB flash-memory.Besides,an external high-capacity SD card data memory can be easily added.So the system can meet the requirements for data acquisition,data processing,data transmission,data storage,and so on. Both wired and wireless network can satisfy remote real-time monitoring, data transmission,system maintenance,status monitoring or updating software.Linux was embedded and multi-layer designed conception was used.The code, including sensor hardware driver,the data acquisition,earthquake setting out and so on,was written on medium layer.The hardware driver consist of IIC-Bus interface driver, IO driver and asynchronous notification driver. The

  4. Development of a MEMS acoustic emission sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Wu, Wei; Wright, Amelia P.

    2007-04-01

    An improved multi-channel MEMS chip for acoustic emission sensing has been designed and fabricated in 2006 to create a device that is smaller in size, superior in sensitivity, and more practical to manufacture than earlier designs. The device, fabricated in the MUMPS process, contains four resonant-type capacitive transducers in the frequency range between 100 kHz and 500 kHz on a chip with an area smaller than 2.5 sq. mm. The completed device, with its circuit board, electronics, housing, and connectors, possesses a square footprint measuring 25 mm x 25 mm. The small footprint is an important attribute for an acoustic emission sensor, because multiple sensors must typically be arrayed around a crack location. Superior sensitivity was achieved by a combination of four factors: the reduction of squeeze film damping, a resonant frequency approximating a rigid body mode rather than a bending mode, a ceramic package providing direct acoustic coupling to the structural medium, and high-gain amplifiers implemented on a small circuit board. Manufacture of the system is more practical because of higher yield (lower unit costs) in the MUMPS fabrication task and because of a printed circuit board matching the pin array of the MEMS chip ceramic package for easy assembly and compactness. The transducers on the MEMS chip incorporate two major mechanical improvements, one involving squeeze film damping and one involving the separation of resonance modes. For equal proportions of hole area to plate area, a triangular layout of etch holes reduces squeeze film damping as compared to the conventional square layout. The effect is modeled analytically, and is verified experimentally by characterization experiments on the new transducers. Structurally, the transducers are plates with spring supports; a rigid plate would be the most sensitive transducer, and bending decreases the sensitivity. In this chip, the structure was designed for an order-of-magnitude separation between the first

  5. A review: aluminum nitride MEMS contour-mode resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunhong, Hou; Meng, Zhang; Guowei, Han; Chaowei, Si; Yongmei, Zhao; Jin, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Over the past several decades, the technology of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) has advanced. A clear need of miniaturization and integration of electronics components has had new solutions for the next generation of wireless communications. The aluminum nitride (AlN) MEMS contour-mode resonator (CMR) has emerged and become promising and competitive due to the advantages of the small size, high quality factor and frequency, low resistance, compatibility with integrated circuit (IC) technology, and the ability of integrating multi-frequency devices on a single chip. In this article, a comprehensive review of AlN MEMS CMR technology will be presented, including its basic working principle, main structures, fabrication processes, and methods of performance optimization. Among these, the deposition and etching process of the AlN film will be specially emphasized and recent advances in various performance optimization methods of the CMR will be given through specific examples which are mainly focused on temperature compensation and reducing anchor losses. This review will conclude with an assessment of the challenges and future trends of the CMR. Project supported by National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61274001, 61234007, 61504130), the Nurturing and Development Special Projects of Beijing Science and Technology Innovation Base's Financial Support (No. Z131103002813070), and the National Defense Science and Technology Innovation Fund of CAS (No. CXJJ-14-M32).

  6. Multiphysics & Parallel Kinematics Modeling of a 3DOF MEMS Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamat N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modeling for a 3DoF electrothermal actuated micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS mirror used to achieve scanning for optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging. The device is integrated into an OCT endoscopic probe, it is desired that the optical scanner have small footprint for minimum invasiveness, large and flat optical aperture for large scanning range, low driving voltage and low power consumption for safety reason. With a footprint of 2mm×2mm, the MEMS scanner which is also called as Tip-Tilt-Piston micro-mirror, can perform two rotations around x and y-axis and a vertical translation along z-axis. This work develops a complete model and experimental characterization. The modeling is divided into two parts: multiphysics characterization of the actuators and parallel kinematics studies of the overall system. With proper experimental procedures, we are able to validate the model via Visual Servoing Platform (ViSP. The results give a detailed overview on the performance of the mirror platform while varying the applied voltage at a stable working frequency. The paper also presents a discussion on the MEMS control system based on several scanning trajectories.

  7. Biomimetic MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futterknecht, Oliver; Macqueen, Mark O.; Karman, Salmah; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2013-05-01

    The focus of this study is biomimetic concept development for a MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection. The MEMS sensor array is inspired by abstractions of the respective biological functions: polarized skylight-based navigation sensors in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and the ability of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to detect water. The focus lies on how to navigate to and how to detect water sources in desert-like or remote areas. The goal is to develop a sensor that can provide both, navigation clues and help in detecting nearby water sources. We basically use the information provided by the natural polarization pattern produced by the sunbeams scattered within the atmosphere combined with the capability of the honeybee's compound eye to extrapolate the navigation information. The detection device uses light beam reactive MEMS, which are capable to detect the skylight polarization based on the Rayleigh sky model. For water detection we present various possible approaches to realize the sensor. In the first approach, polarization is used: moisture saturated areas near ground have a small but distinctively different effect on scattering and polarizing light than less moist ones. Modified skylight polarization sensors (Karman, Diah and Gebeshuber, 2012) are used to visualize this small change in scattering. The second approach is inspired by the ability of elephants to detect infrasound produced by underground water reservoirs, and shall be used to determine the location of underground rivers and visualize their exact routes.

  8. A miniaturized linear shaker system for MEMS sensor characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encke, Jörg; Hortschitz, Wilfried; Kainz, Andreas; Steiner, Harald; Keplinger, Franz; Sauter, Thilo

    2013-05-01

    A miniaturised, piezoelectrically driven shaker system is presented which is suitable for MEMS characterisation in vacuum. It offers a broad frequency and amplitude range. The fully vacuum compatible shaker is constructed out of one single peace of aluminium with a piezo-stack-actuator working in-plane against four beam springs. It can easily be fabricated at low costs using a hand operated milling machine. The systems characteristics are easily tuned to different applications as the first resonance frequency is given by the stiffness of the beam springs and the mass of the moving shaker table. The utilised piezoelectric stack determines the maximum reachable amplitude for a given spring stiffness. Finite Element simulations have been carried out to design a at transfer characteristic of the shaker up to 10 kHz and amplitudes in the range from sub nanometres up to 1μm. The simulations were evaluated by laser vibrometer measurements of the shaker which also show a good linearity between electrical excitation signal and output deection amplitude. To account for other resonance frequencies introduced by a preexisting MEMS mounting device, the resulting vibration amplitude on the MEMS structure can be normalised by adjusting the electrical excitation amplitude with the help of a Polytec laser vibrometer.

  9. Laser-heating wire bonding on MEMS packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuetao Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Making connections is critical in fabrication of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems. It is also complicated, because the temperature during joining affects both the bond produced and the structure and mechanical properties of the moving parts of the device. Specifications for MEMS packaging require that the temperature not exceed 240 °C. However, usually, temperatures can reach up to 300 °C during conventional thermosonic wire bonding. Such a temperature will change the distribution of dopants in CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor circuits. In this paper we propose a new heating process. A semiconductor laser (wavelength 808 nm is suggested as the thermal source for wire bonding. The thermal field of this setup was analyzed, and specific mathematical models of the field were built. Experimental results show that the heating can be focused on the bonding pad, and that much lower heat conduction occurs, compared with that during the normal heating method. The bond strength increases with increasing laser power. The bond strengths obtained with laser heating are slightly lower than those obtained with the normal heating method, but can still meet the strength requirements for MEMS.

  10. Cost-Efficient Wafer-Level Capping for MEMS and Imaging Sensors by Adhesive Wafer Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Bleiker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Device encapsulation and packaging often constitutes a substantial part of the fabrication cost of micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS transducers and imaging sensor devices. In this paper, we propose a simple and cost-effective wafer-level capping method that utilizes a limited number of highly standardized process steps as well as low-cost materials. The proposed capping process is based on low-temperature adhesive wafer bonding, which ensures full complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS compatibility. All necessary fabrication steps for the wafer bonding, such as cavity formation and deposition of the adhesive, are performed on the capping substrate. The polymer adhesive is deposited by spray-coating on the capping wafer containing the cavities. Thus, no lithographic patterning of the polymer adhesive is needed, and material waste is minimized. Furthermore, this process does not require any additional fabrication steps on the device wafer, which lowers the process complexity and fabrication costs. We demonstrate the proposed capping method by packaging two different MEMS devices. The two MEMS devices include a vibration sensor and an acceleration switch, which employ two different electrical interconnection schemes. The experimental results show wafer-level capping with excellent bond quality due to the re-flow behavior of the polymer adhesive. No impediment to the functionality of the MEMS devices was observed, which indicates that the encapsulation does not introduce significant tensile nor compressive stresses. Thus, we present a highly versatile, robust, and cost-efficient capping method for components such as MEMS and imaging sensors.

  11. Investigation of Top/bottom Electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT thick film MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Møller, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work screen printed piezoelectric Ferroperm PZ26 lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick film is used for two MEMS devices. A test structure is used to investigate several aspects regarding bottom and top electrodes. 450 nm ZrO2 thin film is found to be an insufficient diffusion barrier layer...

  12. Subpixel translation of MEMS measured by discrete fourier transform analysis of CCD images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamahata, C.; Sarajlic, Edin; Stranczl, M.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Gijs, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a straightforward method for measuring in-plane linear displacements of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with subnanometer resolution. The technique is based on Fourier transform analysis of a video recorded with a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera attached to an optical microscope

  13. DRIE and Bonding Assisted Low Cost MEMS Processing of In-plane HAR Inertial Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Makinwa, K.A.A.; French, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple, flexible and low cost MEMS fabrication process, developed using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and wafer bonding technologies, for manufacturing in-plane high aspect ratio (HAR) inertial sensors. Among examples, the design and fabrication results of a two axis inertial device

  14. Center-Shift Method for the Characterization of Dielectric Charging in RF MEMS Capacitive Switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive switches show great promise for use in wireless communication devices such as mobile phones, but for the successful application of these switches their reliability needs to be demonstrated. One of the main factors that limits

  15. Comparison of C-V measurement methods for RF-MEMS capacitive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2013-01-01

    The applicability of several capacitance-voltage measurement methods is investigated for the on-wafer characterization of RF-MEMS capacitive switches. These devices combine few-picofarad capacitance with a high quality factor. The standard quasistatic and high-frequency measurements are employed, as

  16. Investigation of Top/Bottom electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT Thick Film MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2008-01-01

    Top and bottom electrodes for screen printed piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1 - x)O3 (PZT) thick film are investigated with respect to future MEMS devices. Down to 100 nm thick E-beam evaporated Al and Pt films are patterned as top electrodes on the PZT using a lift-off process...

  17. Auto-calibration of capacitive MEMS accelerometers based on pull-in voltage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, L.A.; Dias, R.A.; Cretu, E.; Mol, L.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an electro-mechanical auto-calibration technique for use in capacitive MEMS accelerometers. Auto-calibration is achieved using the combined information derived from an initial measurement of the resonance frequency and the measurement of the pull-in voltages during device

  18. Competition between the Thermal Gradient and the Bimorph Effect in Locally Heated MEMS Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Mølhave, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    modeling. As a result, bidirectional bending has been experimentally observed and interpreted as the competition between bimorph and thermal gradient effects. The competition has illustrated the importance of including the thermal gradient effect in the behavior analysis of bimorph driven MEMS/NEMS devices....

  19. Wafer-level assembly and sealing of a MEMS nanoreactor for in situ microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, L.; Santagata, F.; Panraud, G.; Morana, B.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Creemer, J.F.; Sarro, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new process for the fabrication of MEMS-based nanoreactors for in situ atomic-scale imaging of nanoparticles under relevant industrial conditions. The fabrication of the device is completed fully at wafer level in an ISO 5 clean room and it is based on silicon fusion bonding

  20. Subpixel translation of MEMS measured by discrete fourier transform analysis of CCD images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamahata, C.; Sarajlic, E.; Stranczl, M.; Krijnen, G.J.M.; Gijs, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a straightforward method for measuring in-plane linear displacements of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with subnanometer resolution. The technique is based on Fourier transform analysis of a video recorded with a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera attached to an optical microscope

  1. Auto-calibration of capacitive MEMS accelerometers based on pull-in voltage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, L.A.; Dias, R.A.; Cretu, E.; Mol, L.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an electro-mechanical auto-calibration technique for use in capacitive MEMS accelerometers. Auto-calibration is achieved using the combined information derived from an initial measurement of the resonance frequency and the measurement of the pull-in voltages during device operat

  2. DRIE and Bonding Assisted Low Cost MEMS Processing of In-plane HAR Inertial Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Makinwa, K.A.A.; French, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple, flexible and low cost MEMS fabrication process, developed using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and wafer bonding technologies, for manufacturing in-plane high aspect ratio (HAR) inertial sensors. Among examples, the design and fabrication results of a two axis inertial device

  3. Investigation of top electrode for PZT thick films based MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Paw T.;

    2010-01-01

    In this work processing of screen printed piezoelectric PZT thick films on silicon substrates is investigated for use in future MEMS devices. E-beam evaporated Al and Pt are patterned on PZT as a top electrode using a lift-off process with a line width down to 3 mu m. Three test structures are used...

  4. Wide-Band Optical Fibre System for Investigation of MEMS and NEMS Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowska Karolina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the construction of experimental setup for MEMS/NEMS deflection measurements is presented. The system is based on intensity fibre optic detector for linear displacement sensing. Furthermore the electronic devices: current source for driving the light source and photodetector with wide-band preamplifier are presented.

  5. Development of a Multi-User Polyimide-MEMS Fabrication Process and its Application to MicroHotplates

    KAUST Repository

    Lizardo, Ernesto B.

    2013-05-08

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) became possible thanks to the silicon based technology used to fabricate integrated circuits. Originally, MEMS fabrication was limited to silicon based techniques and materials, but the expansion of MEMS applications brought the need of a wider catalog of materials, including polymers, now being used to fabricate MEMS. Polyimide is a very attractive polymer for MEMS fabrication due to its high temperature stability compared to other polymers, low coefficient of thermal expansion, low film stress and low cost. The goal of this thesis is to expand the Polyimide usage as structural material for MEMS by the development of a multi-user fabrication process for the integration of this polymer along with multiple metal layers on a silicon substrate. The process also integrates amorphous silicon as sacrificial layer to create free-standing structures. Dry etching is used to release the devices and avoid stiction phenomena. The developed process is used to fabricate platforms for micro-hotplate gas sensors. The fabrication steps for the platforms are described in detail, explaining the process specifics and capabilities. An initial testing of the micro-hotplate is presented. As the process was also used as educational tool, some designs made by students and fabricated with the Polyimide-MEMS process are also presented.

  6. The Micronium-A Musical MEMS instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; de Boer, Hans L.; de Boer, Hylco; Beekman, Jethro G.; Fortgens, Laurens C.; de Graaf, Derk B.; Vocke, Sander; Abelmann, Leon

    The Micronium is a musical instrument fabricated from silicon using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. It is—to the best of our knowledge—the first musical micro-instrument fabricated using MEMS technology, where the actual sound is generated by mechanical microstructures. The

  7. A Teaching - Learning Framework for MEMS Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeparamatti, B. G.; Angadi, S. A.; Sheeparamatti, R. B.; Kadadevaramath, J. S.

    2006-04-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology has been identified as one of the most promising technologies in the 21st century. MEMS technology has opened up a wide array of unforeseen applications. Hence it is necessary to train the technocrats of tomorrow in this emerging field to meet the industrial/societal demands. The drive behind fostering of MEMS technology is the reduction in the cost, size, weight, and power consumption of the sensors, actuators, and associated electronics. MEMS is a multidisciplinary engineering and basic science area which includes electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, material science and biomedical engineering. Hence MEMS education needs a special approach to prepare the technocrats for a career in MEMS. The modern education methodology using computer based training systems (CBTS) with embedded modeling and simulation tools will help in this direction. The availability of computer based learning resources such as MATLAB, ANSYS/Multiphysics and rapid prototyping tools have contributed to proposition of an efficient teaching-learning framework for MEMS education presented in this paper. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for teaching/learning MEMS in the current technical education scenario.

  8. Ultraflat Tip-Tilt-Piston MEMS Deformable Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a Phase II SBIR project to develop high-resolution, ultraflat micromirror array devices using advanced silicon surface micromachining...

  9. 0-level Vacuum Packaging RT Process for MEMS Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Abelé, N; Hibert, C; Casset, F; Ancey, P; Ionescu, A

    2008-01-01

    A new Room Temperature (RT) 0-level vacuum package is demonstrated in this work, using amorphous silicon (aSi) as sacrificial layer and SiO2 as structural layer. The process is compatible with most of MEMS resonators and Resonant Suspended-Gate MOSFET [1] fabrication processes. This paper presents a study on the influence of releasing hole dimensions on the releasing time and hole clogging. It discusses mass production compatibility in terms of packaging stress during back-end plastic injection process. The packaging is done at room temperature making it fully compatible with IC-processed wafers and avoiding any subsequent degradation of the active devices.

  10. Capacitive MEMS accelerometers for measuring high-g accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginsky, I. L.; Kostsov, E. G.

    2017-05-01

    A possibility of creating a capacitive accelerometer for measuring high- g accelerations (up to 106 g and higher) is discussed. It is demonstrated that insertion of a thin electret film with a high surface potential into the gap between the electrodes ensures significant expansion of the frequency and amplitude ranges of acceleration measurements, whereas the size of the proposed device is smaller than that of available MEMS accelerometers for measuring high- g accelerations. A mathematical model of an electret accelerometer for high- g accelerations is developed, and the main specific features of accelerometer operation are analyzed.

  11. A versatile multi-user polyimide surface micromachinning process for MEMS applications

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports a versatile multi-user micro-fabrication process for MEMS devices, the \\'Polyimide MEMS Multi-User Process\\' (PiMMPs). The reported process uses polyimide as the structural material and three separate metallization layers that can be interconnected depending on the desired application. This process enables for the first time the development of out-of-plane compliant mechanisms that can be designed using six different physical principles for actuation and sensing on a wafer from a single fabrication run. These principles are electrostatic motion, thermal bimorph actuation, capacitive sensing, magnetic sensing, thermocouple-based sensing and radio frequency transmission and reception. © 2015 IEEE.

  12. Design and simulation of MEMS vector hydrophone with reduced cross section based meander beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Dutta, S.; Pal, Ramjay; Jain, K. K.; Gupta, Sudha; Bhan, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    MEMS based vector hydrophone is being one of the key device in the underwater communications. In this paper, we presented a bio-inspired MEMS vector hydrophone. The hydrophone structure consists of a proof mass suspended by four meander type beams with reduced cross-section. Modal patterns of the structure were studied. First three modal frequencies of the hydrophone structure were found to be 420 Hz, 420 Hz and 1646 Hz respectively. The deflection and stress of the hydrophone is found have linear behavior in the 1 µPa - 1Pa pressure range.

  13. Actuation control of a PiezoMEMS biomimetic robotic jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandre, Alvaro; Olszewski, Oskar; Jackson, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    Biomimetic micro-robots try to mimic the motion of a living system in the form of a synthetically developed microfabricated device. Dynamic motion of living systems have evolved through the years, but trying to mimic these motions is challenging. Micro-robotics are particular challenging as the fabrication of devices and controlling the motion in 3 dimensions is difficult. However, micro-scale robotics have potential to be used in a wide range of applications. MEMS based robots that can move and function in a liquid environment is of particular interest. This paper describes the development of a piezoMEMS based device that mimics the movement of a jellyfish. The paper focuses on the development of a finite element model that investigates a method of controlling the individual piezoelectric beams in order to create a jet propulsion motion, consisting of a quick excitation pulse followed by a slow recovery pulse in order to maximize thrust and velocity. By controlling the individual beams or legs of the jellyfish robot the authors can control the robot to move precisely in 3 dimensions.

  14. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, N. G.; Simeoni, G. G.; Lefmann, K.

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated beam-focusing device has been designed for the direct geometry thermal-cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the neutron facility FRM II (Garching, Germany). The prototype, based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept, benefits from the adaptive-optics technology (a...

  15. Severely impaired von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet aggregation in patients with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (HeartMate II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klovaite, Jolanta; Gustafsson, Finn; Mortensen, Svend A

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the influence of the mechanical blood pump HeartMate II (HMII) (Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, California) on blood coagulation and platelet function. BACKGROUND: HMII is an implantable left ventricular assist device used for the treatment of heart failure...

  16. Incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients on long-term support with a continuous-flow assist device (HeartMate II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads; Videbaek, Regitze; Boesgaard, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) in patients supported with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has not been investigated in detail. In 23 consecutive recipients of a HeartMate II, we analyzed the incidence of VT/VF during a total...

  17. Development of MEMS photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Eichenfield, Matthew S.; Griffin, Benjamin; Harvey, Heidi Alyssa; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Langlois, Eric; Resnick, Paul James; Shaw, Michael J.; Young, Ian; Givler, Richard C.; Reinke, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    After years in the field, many materials suffer degradation, off-gassing, and chemical changes causing build-up of measurable chemical atmospheres. Stand-alone embedded chemical sensors are typically limited in specificity, require electrical lines, and/or calibration drift makes data reliability questionable. Along with size, these "Achilles' heels" have prevented incorporation of gas sensing into sealed, hazardous locations which would highly benefit from in-situ analysis. We report on development of an all-optical, mid-IR, fiber-optic based MEMS Photoacoustic Spectroscopy solution to address these limitations. Concurrent modeling and computational simulation are used to guide hardware design and implementation.

  18. A MEMS diamond hemispherical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, J. J.; Bancu, M. G.; Cook, E. H.; Chaparala, M. V.; Teynor, W. A.; Weinberg, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we report the fabrication of hemispherical polycrystalline diamond resonators fabricated on a novel high-temperature glass substrate. The hemispherical resonator gyroscope is one of the most accurate and rugged of the mechanical gyroscopes, and can be operated in either rate or whole-angle mode due to its high degree of symmetry. A fabrication sequence for creating extremely symmetric 3D MEMS hemispheres is presented. Mode shapes and frequencies obtained with a laser vibrometer are shown, as well as curves of Q versus pressure, and the dependence of frequency on anchor size. Fundamental mode frequency matching to gyroscope operation in whole-angle mode.

  19. MEMS fundamental technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    ""The book editors have managed to assemble a group of extraordinary authors to provide their expertise to this book. While giving an excellent overview of the history and the state of the art of MEMS technology, this book also focuses on current trends and topics such as gyroscopes that currently experience significant and increasing popularity in research and in industry. It is well written and the material is presented in a well-structured way making it easily accessible to any reader with a technical background.""-Boris Stoeber, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada<

  20. Modeling Impact-induced Failure of Polysilicon MEMS: A Multi-scale Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mariani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of packaged polysilicon micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS subjected to impacts involves phenomena occurring at several length-scales. In this paper we present a multi-scale finite element approach to properly allow for: (i the propagation of stress waves inside the package; (ii the dynamics of the whole MEMS; (iii the spreading of micro-cracking in the failing part(s of the sensor. Through Monte Carlo simulations, some effects of polysilicon micro-structure on the failure mode are elucidated.

  1. Exploration of MEMS G-Switches at 100-10,000 G-Levels with Redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    designed. The devices were fabricated on low resistivity (ɘ.01 Ω-cm) silicon on insulator wafers (SOI) using standard micromachining techniques . Fixed...MEMS g-switches are connected in parallel with the measuring circuit shown. This leads to a “ piano approach” in acceleration detection with each set...on SOI wafers with handle and device resistivity of ɘ.01 Ω-cm using standard micromachining techniques as shown in Figure 12. The first step in the

  2. Effect of residual stress on modal patterns of MEMS vibratory gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Shankar; Panchal, Abha; Kumar, Manoj; Pal, Ramjay; Bhan, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    Deep boron diffusion often induces residual stress in bulk micromachined MEMS structures, which may affect the MEMS devices operation. In this study, we studied the modal patterns of MEMS vibratory gyroscope under the residual stress (100 - 1000 MPa). Modal patterns and modal frequencies of the gyro are found to be dependent on the residual stress values. Without any residual stress, the modal frequencies drive and sense modeswere found to be 20.06 kHz and 20.36 kHz respectively. In presence of 450 MPa residual stress, the modal frequencies of the drive and sense modes were changed to 42.75 kHz and 43.07 kHz respectively.

  3. Analysis and Experiment of MEMS Based Microdroplet Ejector by a Piezoelectric Stack Actuator in Microfluidic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ganesan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS are uncovered to an assortment of liquid environments in applications such as chemical and biological sensors and micro fluidic devices. Green interactions between liquids and micro scale structures can lead to volatile performance of MEMS in liquid environments. In this study, the design and fabrication of a multi-material high-performance micro pump is presented. The micro pumps are fabricated using MEMS fabrication techniques, comprised of silicon and Pyrex micromachining and bonding. Manufacturing steps such as three small bulk cylindrical piezoelectric material elements that are integrated with micro-fabricated Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI and glass micro machined substrates using eutectic bonding and anodic bonding processes were successfully realized and provide a robust and scalable production technique for the micro pump. Exceptional flow rates of 0.1 mL/min with 1 W power consumption based on piezoelectric stack actuation achieved by appropriate design optimization.

  4. Performance assessment of bio-inspired systems: flow sensing MEMS hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droogendijk, H; Casas, J; Steinmann, T; Krijnen, G J M

    2014-12-19

    Despite vigorous growth in biomimetic design, the performance of man-made devices relative to their natural templates is still seldom quantified, a procedure which would however significantly increase the rigour of the biomimetic approach. We applied the ubiquitous engineering concept of a figure of merit (FoM) to MEMS flow sensors inspired by cricket filiform hairs. A well known mechanical model of a hair is refined and tailored to this task. Five criteria of varying importance in the biological and engineering fields are computed: responsivity, power transfer, power efficiency, response time and detection threshold. We selected the metrics response time and detection threshold for building the FoM to capture the performance in a single number. Crickets outperform actual MEMS on all criteria for a large range of flow frequencies. Our approach enables us to propose several improvements for MEMS hair-sensor design.

  5. Advanced MEMS spectral sensor for the NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Jarkko E.; Kantojärvi, Uula; Mäkynen, Jussi; Tammi, Matti; Suhonen, Janne

    2015-02-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectrometers are widely used in many fields to measure material content, such as moisture, fat and protein in grains, foodstuffs and pharmaceutical powders. These fields include applications where only highly miniaturized and robust NIR sensors can be used due to small usable space, weight requirements and/or hostile working environment. Handheld devices for material inspection, online process automation and automotive industry introduce requirements for size, robustness and cost, which is currently difficult to meet. In this paper we present an advanced spectral sensor based on a tunable Microelectromechanical (MEMS) Fabry-Perot Interferometer. The sensor is fibercoupled, weighs 125 grams and fits to an envelope of 25x55x55 mm3. Three types of sensors cover the wavelength ranges from 1.35-1.7 μm, 1.55-2.0 μm and 1.7-2.2 μm, utilizing only a single pixel extended InGaAs detector, avoiding the expensive linear array detectors. We describe the design, principle of operation and calibration methods together with the control schemes. Some environmental tests are described and their results and finally application measurement results are presented along with discussion and conclusions.

  6. MEMS based impedimetric sensing of phthalates

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2013-05-01

    Phthalate esters are known ubiquitous teratogenic and carcinogenic environmental and food pollutants. Their detection and quantification is strictly laboratory based, time consuming, expensive and professionally handled procedure. Presented research work describes a real time non-invasive detection technique for phthalates detection in ethanol, water and drinks. The new type of inter-digital sensor design incorporating multiple sensing gold electrodes were fabricated on silicon substrate based on thin film micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) using semiconductor device fabrication technology. A passivation layer of Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) was used to functionalize the sensor. Various concentrations (0.1 to 20ppm) of DINP (di-isononyl phthalates) in ethanol and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in deionized MilliQ water were subjected to the testing system by dip testing method. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to obtain impedance spectra in order to determine sample conductance for evaluation of its dielectric properties. The impedance spectra so obtained showed that the sensor was able to detect the presence of phthalates in the samples distinctively. Electrochemical Spectrum Analyser was used to model the experimentally obtained impedance spectra by curve fitting technique to figure out Constant Phase Element (CPE) equivalent circuit. Locally available energy drink and juice was added with phthalates in concentrations of 2, 6 and 10ppm to observe the performance of the sensor in such products. Experimental results showed that the new sensor was able to detect different concentrations of phthalates in energy drinks. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    In a companion manuscript (Frolov et al 2014 New J. Phys. 16 art. no.) , we developed a novel optimization method for the placement, sizing, and operation of flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide series compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this sequel manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (˜2700 nodes and ˜3300 lines). The results from the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions, including nonlocality and sparsity. The Polish grid is used to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverage sequential linearization of power flow constraints, and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, we can use the algorithm to solve a Polish transmission grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (i) uniform load growth, (ii) multiple overloaded configurations, and (iii) sequential generator retirements.

  8. An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part II: The Wearable Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pieralisi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the availability of technology developed to increase the autonomy of visually impaired athletes during sports is limited. The research proposed in this paper (Part I and Part II focuses on the realization of an electromagnetic system that can guide a blind runner along a race track without the need for a sighted guide. In general, the system is composed of a transmitting unit (widely described in Part I and a receiving unit, whose components and main features are described in this paper. Special attention is paid to the definition of an electromagnetic model able to faithfully represent the physical mechanisms of interaction between the two units, as well as between the receiving magnetic sensor and the body of the user wearing the device. This theoretical approach allows for an estimation of the signals to be detected, and guides the design of a suitable signal processing board. This technology has been realized, patented, and tested with a blind volunteer with successful results and this paper presents interesting suggestions for further improvements.

  9. An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part II: The Wearable Device).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieralisi, Marco; Di Mattia, Valentina; Petrini, Valerio; De Leo, Alfredo; Manfredi, Giovanni; Russo, Paola; Scalise, Lorenzo; Cerri, Graziano

    2017-02-16

    Currently, the availability of technology developed to increase the autonomy of visually impaired athletes during sports is limited. The research proposed in this paper (Part I and Part II) focuses on the realization of an electromagnetic system that can guide a blind runner along a race track without the need for a sighted guide. In general, the system is composed of a transmitting unit (widely described in Part I) and a receiving unit, whose components and main features are described in this paper. Special attention is paid to the definition of an electromagnetic model able to faithfully represent the physical mechanisms of interaction between the two units, as well as between the receiving magnetic sensor and the body of the user wearing the device. This theoretical approach allows for an estimation of the signals to be detected, and guides the design of a suitable signal processing board. This technology has been realized, patented, and tested with a blind volunteer with successful results and this paper presents interesting suggestions for further improvements.

  10. Optical MEMS at Silex Microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimskog, Magnus; Kaelvesten, Edvard; Svedin, Niklas

    2004-01-01

    Silex Microsystems produces Silicon Optical Benches and Silicon Optical Mirrors for a variety of customers on an international market. The core of the activity is the MEMS chip itself and the related processes. By qualifying processes Silex provides the opportunity for clients to increase the degree of development in the MEMS cores of their products. The designs are customized in order to meet the specifications for a wide customer base with even wider demands. The Silicon Optical Benches can incorporate BCB layers in order to integrate RF-lines and make it possible to design for example coils of high performance. The polysilicon resistors have been qualified to be stable within 3-ppm over 6 months at elevated temperatures. The polysilicon temperature dependence makes it possible to use the resistors in order to measure temperature and excludes thermistors from the designs. Electrical feed through vias can be incorporated to enable backside connection and simplify packaging. The Silicon Optical Mirrors are produced both as large arrays of small mirrors and smaller arrays of larger mirrors depending on applications. Also for the mirrors the incorporations of electrical vias simplify design and process issues. The pads under the mirrors are connected from backside and it is possible to avoid difficult contacting down in cavities.

  11. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  12. Optical inspection of hidden MEMS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, Johann; Gronle, Marc; Osten, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical system's (MEMS) applications have greatly expanded over the recent years, and the MEMS industry has grown almost exponentially. One of the strongest drivers are the automotive and consumer markets. A 100% test is necessary especially in the production of automotive MEMS sensors since they are subject to safety relevant functions. This inspection should be carried out before dicing and packaging since more than 90% of the production costs are incurred during these steps. An electrical test is currently being carried out with each MEMS component. In the case of a malfunction, the defect can not be located on the wafer because the MEMS are no longer optically accessible due to the encapsulation. This paper presents a low coherence interferometer for the topography measurement of MEMS structures located within the wafer stack. Here, a high axial and lateral resolution is necessary to identify defects such as stuck or bent MEMS fingers. First, the boundary conditions for an optical inspection system will be discussed. The setup is then shown with some exemplary measurements.

  13. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the

  14. MEMS-based redundancy ring for low-noise millimeter-wave front-end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Patrick; Dubuc, David; Flourens, Federic; Saddaoui, Mohammad; Melle, Samuel; Tackacs, Alex; Tao, Junwu; Aubert, Herve; Boukabache, Ali; Paillot, T.; Blondy, Pierre; Vendier, Olivier; Grenier, Katia M.; Plana, Robert

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the potentialities of the MEMS technologies to develop innovative microsystem for millimetre wave communication essentially for space applications. One main issue deals with the robustness and the reliability of the equipment as it may difficult to replace or to repair them when a satellite has been launched. One solution deals with the development of redundancy rings that are making the front end more robust. Usually, the architecture of such system involves waveguide or diode technologies, which present severe limitations in term of weight, volume and insertion loss. The concept considered in this paper is to replace some key elements of such system by MEMS based devices (Micromachined transmission lines, switches) in order to optimize both the weight and the microwave performance of the module. A specific technological process has been developed consisting in the fabrication of the devices on a dielectric membrane on air suspended in order to improve the insertion loss and the isolation. To prove the concept, building blocks have been already fabricated and measured (i.e micromachined transmission and filter featuring very low insertion loss, single pole double through circuits to address the appropriate path of the redundancy ring). We have to outline that MEMS technology have allowed a simplification of the architecture and a different system partitioning which gives more degree of freedom for the system designer. Furthermore, it has been conducted an exhaustive reliability study in order to identify the failure mechanisms. Again, from the results obtained, we have proposed an original topology for the SPDT circuit that takes into account the reliability behaviour of the MEMS devices and that allow to prevent most of the failure mechanisms reported so far (mainly related to the dielectric charging effect). Finally, the active device (millimetre wave low noise amplifier) will be reported on the MEMS based chip using

  15. Design of a Novel MEMS Gyroscope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Sun; Wei Wang; Xiaoyong Lv

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a novel four degree-of-freedom (DOF) MEMS vibratory gyroscope. A MEMS gyroscope array is then presented using the novel gyroscope unit. In the design of the proposed 4-DOF MEMS vibratory gyroscope, the elements of the drive-mode are set inside the whole gyroscope architecture, and the elements of sense-mode are set around the drive-mode, which thus makes it possible to combine several gyroscope units into a gyroscope array through sense-modes of all the units. The complete ...

  16. Physical concepts of materials for novel optoelectronic device applications II: Device physics and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 28-Nov. 2, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razeghi, M. (Thomson-CSF, Orsay (France))

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on physical concepts for materials for novel optoelectronic device applications encompasses the device physics and applications including visible, IR, and far-IR sources, optoelectronic quantum devices, the physics and applications of high-Tc superconducting materials, photodetectors and modulators, and the electronic properties of heterostructures. Other issues addressed include semiconductor waveguides for optical switching, wide band-gap semiconductors, Si and Si-Ge alloys, transport phenomena in heterostructures and quantum wells, optoelectronic integrated circuits, nonlinear optical phenomena in bulk and multiple quantum wells, and optoelectronic technologies for microwave applications. Also examined are optical computing, current transport in charge-injection devices, thin films of YBaCuO for electronic applications, indirect stimulated emission at room temperature in the visible range, and a laser with active-element rectangular geometry.

  17. Physical concepts of materials for novel optoelectronic device applications II: Device physics and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 28-Nov. 2, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Manijeh

    The present conference on physical concepts for materials for novel optoelectronic device applications encompasses the device physics and applications including visible, IR, and far-IR sources, optoelectronic quantum devices, the physics and applications of high-Tc superconducting materials, photodetectors and modulators, and the electronic properties of heterostructures. Other issues addressed include semiconductor waveguides for optical switching, wide band-gap semiconductors, Si and Si-Ge alloys, transport phenomena in heterostructures and quantum wells, optoelectronic integrated circuits, nonlinear optical phenomena in bulk and multiple quantum wells, and optoelectronic technologies for microwave applications. Also examined are optical computing, current transport in charge-injection devices, thin films of YBaCuO for electronic applications, indirect stimulated emission at room temperature in the visible range, and a laser with active-element rectangular geometry.

  18. Mems Electromagnetic Micro Relays Overview and Design Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraini Dahari, Thurai Vinay and Dinesh Sood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Miniature electromagnetic relay matrices capable of switching currents up to one ampere range are  widely used in commercial applications such as instrumentation and telecommunication. Traditionally these devices have been fabricated from a number of discrete components, however in recent years the emergence of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS technology has opened up the possibility for batch fabrication of microrelays at much reduced unit cost. While several electromagnetic microrelay designs have been successfully developed and commercialized for use as individual units, development work on electromagnetic microrelay matrices where individual relays can be selectively switched on and off have been fewer and less successful. Due to inherent limitations of the micromachining processes, significant dimensional and material property variations occur among individual relays in a matrix. These variations severely limit the tolerance window and hence the reliability of operation of the device. After reviewing existing designs of electromagnetic microrelays, a set of desirable design features that would make the electromagnetic microrelay more robust are identified.  A novel design incorporating these features is proposed and preliminary results of ANSYS1 simulation studies are presented.Keywords: MEMS, microrelay and electromagnetic

  19. High volume fabrication of laser targets using MEMS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindloe, C.; Arthur, G.; Hall, F.; Tomlinson, S.; Potter, R.; Kar, S.; Green, J.; Higginbotham, A.; Booth, N.; Tolley, M. K.

    2016-04-01

    The latest techniques for the fabrication of high power laser targets, using processes developed for the manufacture of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) devices are discussed. These laser targets are designed to meet the needs of the increased shot numbers that are available in the latest design of laser facilities. Traditionally laser targets have been fabricated using conventional machining or coarse etching processes and have been produced in quantities of 10s to low 100s. Such targets can be used for high complexity experiments such as Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) studies and can have many complex components that need assembling and characterisation with high precision. Using the techniques that are common to MEMS devices and integrating these with an existing target fabrication capability we are able to manufacture and deliver targets to these systems. It also enables us to manufacture novel targets that have not been possible using other techniques. In addition, developments in the positioning systems that are required to deliver these targets to the laser focus are also required and a system to deliver the target to a focus of an F2 beam at 0.1Hz is discussed.

  20. MEMS tunable terahertz metamaterials using out-of-plane mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-03-01

    The tunable terahertz metamaterial (TTM) has attracted intense research interest, since the electromagnetic response of the metamaterial can be actively controlled through external stimulus, which is of great significance in real time applications. The active control of metamaterial characteristics is crucial in order to provide a flexible and versatile platform for mimicking fundamental physical effects. To realize the electromagnetic tunability, various approaches have been demonstrated to increase the flexibility in applications, such as changing the effective electromagnetic properties. Alternatively, MEMS-based techniques are well developed. The structural reconfiguration is a straightforward way to control the electromagnetic properties. The metamaterial properties can be directly modified by reconfiguring the unit cell which is the fundamental building block of metamaterials. Currently, our research works are focusing on MEMS-based TTM adopting stress-induced curved actuators (SICA) to adjust the resonant frequency of devices. Herein, the proposed TTM designs are double split-ring resonator (DSRR), electric split-ring resonator (eSRR), Omega-ring metamaterial (ORM), symmetric and asymmetric T-shape metamaterial (STM and ATM), respectively. We demonstrated these TTM can be active, continuous, and recoverable control the resonant frequency by using electrostatic or electrothermal actuation mechanism. Therefore, the TTM devices can be effectively used for sensors, optical switches, and filters applications.

  1. Amplitude modulated Lorentz force MEMS magnetometer with picotesla sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Ramezany, Alireza; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Pourkamali, Siavash

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates ultra-high sensitivities for a Lorentz force resonant MEMS magnetometer enabled by internal-thermal piezoresistive vibration amplification. A detailed model of the magneto-thermo-electro-mechanical internal amplification is described and is in good agreement with the experimental results. Internal amplification factors up to ~1620 times have been demonstrated by artificially boosting the effective quality factor of the resonator from 680 to 1.14  ×  106 by tuning the bias current. The increase in the resonator bias current in addition to the improvement in the quality factor of the device led to a sensitivity enhancement by ~2400 times. For a bias current of 7.245 mA, where the effective quality factor of the device and consequently the sensitivity is maximum (2.107 mV nT-1), the noise floor is measured to be as low as 2.8 pT (√Hz)-1. This is by far the most sensitive Lorentz force MEMS magnetometer demonstrated to date.

  2. Investigation of p-side contact layers for II-VI compound semiconductor optical devices fabricated on InP substrates by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Shingo; Nomura, Ichirou; Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Kishino, Katsumi

    2015-09-01

    N-doped p-type ZnTe and ZnSeTe contact layers were investigated to evaluate which is more suitable for use in II-VI compound semiconductor optical devices on InP substrates. Contact resistances (Rc) between the contact layers and several electrode materials (Pd/Pt/Au, Pd/Au, and Au) were measured by the circular transmission line model (c-TLM) method using p-n diode samples grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The lowest Rc (6.5×10-5 Ω cm2) was obtained in the case of the ZnTe contact and Pd/Pt/Au electrode combination, which proves that the combination is suitable for obtaining low Rc. Yellow light-emitting diode devices with a ZnTe and ZnSeTe p-contact layer were fabricated by MBE to investigate the effect of different contact layers. The devices were characterized under direct current injections at room temperature. Yellow emission at around 600 nm was observed for each device. Higher emission intensity and lower slope resistance were obtained for the device with the ZnTe contact layer and Pd/Pt/Au electrode compared with other devices. These device performances are ascribed to the low Rc of the ZnTe contact and Pd/Pt/Au electrode combination.

  3. MEMS acceleration sensor with remote optical readout for continuous power generator monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormen Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized accelerometers with remote optical readout are required devices for the continuous monitoring of vibrations inside power generators. In turbo and hydro generators, end-winding vibrations are present during operation causing in the long term undesirable out-of-service repairs. Continuous monitoring of these vibrations is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of devices immune to electromagnetic interferences. In this paper a MEMS based accelerometer with remote optical readout is presented. Advantages of the proposed device are the use of a differential optical signal to reject the common mode signal and noise, the reduced number of steps for the MEMS chip fabrication and for the system assembly, and the reduced package volume.

  4. MEMS Gyroscope with Interferometric Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop a MEMS gyroscope that uses an ultra high resolution sensing technique for measuring proof mass motion. The goal is to...

  5. Study of self-calibrating MEMS accelerometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Weiping; Li, Xiangyu; Liu, Xiaowei; Yin, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical System(MEMS) accelerometers are widely used in a number of inertial navigation systems and vibration detection system thanks to their small size, low cost and low power consumption...

  6. MEMS Gyroscope with Interferometric Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a novel MEMS gyroscope that uses micro-interferometric detection to measure the motion of the proof mass. Using an interferometric...

  7. Picometer-Resolution MEMS Segmented DM Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has the potential to create deformable mirrors (DM) with 10^4 actuators that have size, weight, and power...

  8. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  9. MEMS Shutter for Spectrometer Calibration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —   We shall develop a MEMS shutter that is expected to have 2-3 g mass and consumeThis research will demonstrate fabrication of a low mass (~2-3 grams), low...

  10. Reaction Wheel with Embedded MEMS IMU Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is to embed a MEMS IMU Sensor Chip into a reaction wheel to measure its spin rate as well as wheel attitude rate. We propose to use a reaction wheel...

  11. Aprendizado e memória

    OpenAIRE

    Lombroso, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A memória é dividida de duas grandes formas: explícita e implícita. O hipocampo é necessário para a formação das memórias explícitas, ao passo que várias outras regiões do cérebro, incluindo o estriado, a amígdala e o nucleus accumbens, estão envolvidos na formação das memórias implícitas. A formação de todas as memórias requer alterações morfológicas nas sinapses: novas sinapses devem ser formadas ou antigas precisam ser fortalecidas. Considera-se que essas alterações reflitam a base celular...

  12. Picometer-Resolution MEMS Segmented DM Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has the potential to create deformable mirrors (DM) with 10^4 actuators that have size, weight, and power...

  13. Si-based RF MEMS components.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, James E.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Baker, Michael Sean; Fleming, James Grant; Stewart, Harold D.; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-01-01

    Radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) are an enabling technology for next-generation communications and radar systems in both military and commercial sectors. RF MEMS-based reconfigurable circuits outperform solid-state circuits in terms of insertion loss, linearity, and static power consumption and are advantageous in applications where high signal power and nanosecond switching speeds are not required. We have demonstrated a number of RF MEMS switches on high-resistivity silicon (high-R Si) that were fabricated by leveraging the volume manufacturing processes available in the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL), a Class-1, radiation-hardened CMOS manufacturing facility. We describe novel tungsten and aluminum-based processes, and present results of switches developed in each of these processes. Series and shunt ohmic switches and shunt capacitive switches were successfully demonstrated. The implications of fabricating on high-R Si and suggested future directions for developing low-loss RF MEMS-based circuits are also discussed.

  14. MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL) in the A.J. Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland (UMD) was established in January 2000. Our lab...

  15. Wireless MEMs BioSensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crossfield is proposing to develop a low cost, single chip plant bio-monitor using an embedded MEMs based infrared (IR) spectroscopy gas sensor for carbon dioxide...

  16. Optical MEMS for chemical analysis and biomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the current state of optical MEMS in chemical and biomedical analysis and brings together current trends and highlights topics representing the most exciting progress in recent years in the field.

  17. Resonance MEMS mirrors design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourani, S.

    2010-02-01

    Resonance MEMS mirrors are widely used today for many applications such as barcode scanners and personalprojectors. bTendo manufactures Personal Projection Engines on two types of mirrors: 1. Resonance mirrors for horizontal scanning 2. Linear mirrors for vertical scanning In this lecture we will discuss the "Energy Balance" and start-up conditions for resonance mirrors. We will derive the conditions for start-up as well as the predicted curve of θ(v): (see manuscript for equation) We will show simulation results in the time domain that prove the validity of the last equation. Finite element simulation could be used to calculate the comb capacitance and to predict the performance of a new structure.

  18. Radiation dosimetry measurements with real time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II in Space Shuttle STS-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T; Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Hasebe, N; Kashiwagi, T; Takashima, T; Takahashi, K; Nakano, T; Nagaoka, S; Takahashi, S; Yamanaka, H; Yamaguchi, K; Badhwar, G D

    1997-12-01

    The real-time measurement of radiation environment was made with an improved real-time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II onboard Space Shuttle STS-79 (S/MM#4: 4th Shuttle MIR Mission, at an inclination angle of 51.6 degrees and an altitude of 250-400km) for 199 h during 17-25 September, 1996. The observation of the detector covered the linear energy transfer (LET) range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The Shuttle orbital profile in this mission was equivalent to that of the currently planned Space Station, and provided an opportunity to investigate variations in count rate and dose equivalent rate depending on altitude, longitude, and latitude in detail. Particle count rate and dose equivalent rate were mapped geographically during the mission. Based on the map of count rate, an analysis was made by dividing whole region into three regions: South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region, high latitude region and other regions. The averaged absorbed dose rate during the mission was 39.3 microGy/day for a LET range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The corresponding average dose equivalent rates during the mission are estimated to be 293 microSv/day with quality factors from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-Pub. 60 and 270 microSv/day with quality factors from ICRP-Pub. 26. The effective quality factors for ICRP-Pub. 60 and 26 are 7.45 and 6.88, respectively. From the present data for particles of LET > 3.5keV/micrometer, we conclude that the average dose equivalent rate is dominated by the contribution of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. The dose-detector depth dependence was also investigated.

  19. Assessment and Assurance of Microelectronics Packaging Technology of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the packaging technology. In the case of MEMS the microstructures (active elements) often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it 'measures to assure the MEMS technology by lowering the risk to zero. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided assurance of MEMS technology is sufficiently addressed nondestructively. This technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's safety and mission assurance goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively by teaming-up with the other NASA centers using the limited resources available. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS

  20. System Identification of MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Juntao Fei; Yuzheng Yang

    2011-01-01

    Fabrication defects and perturbations affect the behavior of a vibratory MEMS gyroscope sensor, which makes it difficult to measure the rotation angular rate. This paper presents a novel adaptive approach that can identify, in an online fashion, angular rate and other system parameters. The proposed approach develops an online identifier scheme, by rewriting the dynamic model of MEMS gyroscope sensor, that can update the estimator of angular rate adaptively and converge to its true value asy...

  1. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Christos George (The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-07-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  2. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  3. Performance of Measuring Vibration of MEMS Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jung Seob; Inoue, Eiji; Mitsuoka, Muneshi; Okayasu, Takashi; Hirai, Yasumaru

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of an MEMS sensor for measuring vibration of agricultural vehicle by obtaining serial data of vibration acceleration of agricultural vehicle using an MEMS sensor and translational accelerometer and thereby calculating RMS and PSD for comparison and analysis as a step before construction of measuring system which can identify operating conditions of agricultural packaging machinery at all times. Although there are differences between verti...

  4. Nano-tribology and materials in MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Satyanarayana, N; Lim, Seh

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together recent developments in the areas of MEMS tribology, novel lubricants and coatings for nanotechnological applications, biomimetics in tribology and fundamentals of micro/nano-tribology. Tribology plays important roles in the functioning and durability of machines at small length scales because of the problems associated with strong surface adhesion, friction, wear etc. Recently, a number of studies have been conducted to understand tribological phenomena at nano/micro scales and many new tribological solutions for MEMS have been proposed.

  5. Friction measurement in MEMS using a new test structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, B.T.; De Boer, M.P.; Redmond, J.M.; Bahr, D.F.; Michalske, T.A.

    1999-12-09

    A MEMS test structure capable of measuring friction between polysilicon surfaces under a variety of test conditions has been refined from previous designs. The device is applied here to measuring friction coefficients of polysilicon surfaces under different environmental, loading, and surface conditions. Two methods for qualitatively comparing friction coefficients ({mu}) using the device are presented. Samples that have been coated with a self-assembled monolayer of the lubricating film perfluorinated-decyltrichorosilane (PFTS) have a coefficient of friction that is approximately one-half that of samples dried using super-critical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}) drying. Qualitative results indicate that {mu} is independent of normal pressure. Wear is shown to increase {mu} for both supercritically dried samples and PFTS coated samples, though the mechanisms appear to be different. Super critically dried surfaces appear to degrade continuously with increased wear cycles, while PFTS coated samples reach a steady state friction value after about 10{sup 4} cycles.

  6. Photonic microsystems micro and nanotechnology applied to optical devices and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Solgaard, Olav

    2009-01-01

    ""Photonic Microsystems: Micro and Nanotechnology Applied to Optical Devices and Systems"", describes MEMS technology and demonstrates how MEMS allow miniaturization, parallel fabrication, and efficient packaging of optics, as well as integration of optics and electronics. It shows how the characteristics of MEMS enable practical implementations of a variety of applications, including projection displays, fiber switches, interferometers, spectrometers. The book describes the phenomenon of Photonic crystals (nanophotonics) and demonstrates how Photonic crystals enable synthesis of materials wit

  7. Overview of worldwide MEMS industry and market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zheng

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction It has been a long history for the MEMS industry to develop to today's scale. MEMS (micro electromechanical system) began in 1960s after the researchers in Westinghouse Laboratories created the "resonant gate" transistor by etching away material to release a metal beam which can freely movable. The concept of making movable structures by releasing process was slowly taken up in 1970s when commercial pressure sensors appeared, based on bulk etched silicon wafers, and first silicon accelerometer was demonstrated. In 1980s, silicon surface micromachining process was devueloped, again based on sacrificial layer technique to release and to make microstructures movable. It was from 1980s silicon and polysilicon were truly recognised as remarkable materials for micromechnical structures. The term "MEMS" was coined following the creation of micro comb actuators and electrostatic side drive micromotors. In 1990s, the booming era for MEMS development came. There were explosions of new technologies and new applications. Dedicated MEMS companies sprang up world wide and MEMS became a fast growing industry.

  8. Resonant frequency of the silicon micro-structure of MEMS vector hydrophone in fluid-structure interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The MEMS vector hydrophone developed by the North University of China has advantages of high Signal to Noise Ratio, ease of array integration, etc. However, the resonance frequency of the MEMS device in the liquid is different from that in the air due to the fluid-structure interaction (FSI. Based on the theory of Fluid-Solid Coupling, a generalized distributed mass attached on the micro-structure has been found, which results in the resonance frequency of the microstructure in the liquid being lower than that in the air. Then, an FSI simulation was conducted by ANSYS software. Finally, the hydrophone was measured by using a shaking table and a vector hydrophone calibration system respectively. Results show that, due to the FSI, the resonance frequency of the MEMS devices of the bionic vector hydrophone in the liquid declines approximately 30% compared to the case in the air.

  9. Integration of a MEMS Inertial Measuring Unit with a MEMS Magnetometer for 3D Orientation Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Malureanu, Christian; Andersen, Niels Lervad

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for combining the measurements of a MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a MEMS magnetometer. The measurements are done using a special designed and customized miniature detecting system for 3D orientation estimation, and position tracking...

  10. Development of scanning holographic display using MEMS SLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-10-01

    Holography is an ideal three-dimensional (3D) display technique, because it produces 3D images that naturally satisfy human 3D perception including physiological and psychological factors. However, its electronic implementation is quite challenging because ultra-high resolution is required for display devices to provide sufficient screen size and viewing zone. We have developed holographic display techniques to enlarge the screen size and the viewing zone by use of microelectromechanical systems spatial light modulators (MEMS-SLMs). Because MEMS-SLMs can generate hologram patterns at a high frame rate, the time-multiplexing technique is utilized to virtually increase the resolution. Three kinds of scanning systems have been combined with MEMS-SLMs; the screen scanning system, the viewing-zone scanning system, and the 360-degree scanning system. The screen scanning system reduces the hologram size to enlarge the viewing zone and the reduced hologram patterns are scanned on the screen to increase the screen size: the color display system with a screen size of 6.2 in. and a viewing zone angle of 11° was demonstrated. The viewing-zone scanning system increases the screen size and the reduced viewing zone is scanned to enlarge the viewing zone: a screen size of 2.0 in. and a viewing zone angle of 40° were achieved. The two-channel system increased the screen size to 7.4 in. The 360-degree scanning increases the screen size and the reduced viewing zone is scanned circularly: the display system having a flat screen with a diameter of 100 mm was demonstrated, which generates 3D images viewed from any direction around the flat screen.

  11. Projection displays and MEMS: timely convergence for a bright future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbeck, Larry J.

    1995-09-01

    Projection displays and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have evolved independently, occasionally crossing paths as early as the 1950s. But the commercially viable use of MEMS for projection displays has been illusive until the recent invention of Texas Instruments Digital Light Processing TM (DLP) technology. DLP technology is based on the Digital Micromirror DeviceTM (DMD) microchip, a MEMS technology that is a semiconductor digital light switch that precisely controls a light source for projection display and hardcopy applications. DLP technology provides a unique business opportunity because of the timely convergence of market needs and technology advances. The world is rapidly moving to an all- digital communications and entertainment infrastructure. In the near future, most of the technologies necessary for this infrastrucutre will be available at the right performance and price levels. This will make commercially viable an all-digital chain (capture, compression, transmission, reception decompression, hearing, and viewing). Unfortunately, the digital images received today must be translated into analog signals for viewing on today's televisions. Digital video is the final link in the all-digital infrastructure and DLP technoogy provides that link. DLP technology is an enabler for digital, high-resolution, color projection displays that have high contrast, are bright, seamless, and have the accuracy of color and grayscale that can be achieved only by digital control. This paper contains an introduction to DMD and DLP technology, including the historical context from which to view their developemnt. The architecture, projection operation, and fabrication are presented. Finally, the paper includes an update about current DMD business opportunities in projection displays and hardcopy.

  12. Laser Interferometry for Harsh Environment MEMS Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    Silicon-based MEMS technology has enabled the fabrication of a broad range of sensor and actuator systems that are having a great impact in areas that benefit from miniaturization and increased functionality. The main advantage of Si-based MEMS technologies is their possibility of integration with microelectronics thus allowing the economical production of smart microsystems. In the automotive industry for example, there is a need for inexpensive smart MEMS sensors for engine control applications. For instance, smart MEMS sensors capable of operating ``in cylinder'', where temperatures are around 400 C, could continuously monitor the combustion quality of the cylinders of automotive engines thus leading to reduced emissions and improved fuel economy. However, when the environment temperature is too high (>180 C), conventional Si-based microelectronics suffer from severe performance degradation, thus making smart Si-based MEMS impractical. Hence, further development, in terms of new MEMS materials and/or new technologies, is needed especially where high temperature capability is crucial to realizing improved electronic control. Remote sensing through optical signal detection has major advantages for safe signal transmission in harsh environments. It is highly resistant to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) and at the same time, it eliminates the necessity of on-board electronics, which has been one of the main obstacles in the development of smart MEMS sensors for high temperature applications. An economical way to deal with higher temperatures and other aggressive environmental conditions is to build MEMS sensors out of robust materials (e.g. Silicon nitride, SiC) and integrate them with optical signal detection techniques to form MOEMS. In this paper, we review recent trends for the use of laser interferometry for MEMS sensors in the context of using them for high temperature applications. Technological challenges faced in

  13. MEMS-BASED OSCILLATORS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Karim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper presents an overview of microelectromechanical (MEMS based oscillators. The accuracy and stability of the reference frequency will normally limit the performance of most wireless communication systems. MEMS technology is the technology of choice due to its compatibility to silicon, leading to integration with circuits and lowering power consumption. MEMS based oscillators also provide the potential of a fully integrated transceiver. The most commonly used topology for MEMS based oscillators are pierce oscillator circuit topology and TIA circuit topology. Both topologies result in very competitive output in terms of phase noise and power consumption.  They can be used for either higher or lower Rx. The major difference between both topologies is the number of transistors used. TIA circuit used more number of transistor compare to pierce circuit. Thus design complexity of the TIA is higher. Pierce circuit is simpler, provide straightforward biasing and easier to design. The highly integratable of MEMS-based oscillators have made them much needed in future multiband wireless system. So that future wireless systems are able to function globally without any problem. ABSTRAK: Kertas kerja ini membentangkan gambaran keseluruhan mikroelektromekanikal (MEMS berdasarkan pengayun.  Ketepatan dan kestabilan frekuensi rujukan sering membataskan perlaksanaan kebanyakan sistem komunikasi tanpa wayar. Teknologi MEMS merupakan teknologi pilihan memandangkan ia serasi dengan silikon; membolehkan integrasi dengan litar dan penggunaan tenaga yang rendah.  Pengayun berdasarkan MEMS juga  berpotensi sebagai integrasi penuh penghantar-terima. Topologi yang sering digunakan untuk pengayun berdasarkan MEMS adalah topologi litar pengayun pencantas dan topologi litar TIA.  Keputusan bagi kedua-dua topologi adalah amat kompetitif dari segi fasa bunyi dan penggunaan tenaga. Ia boleh digunakan untuk meninggikan atau merendahkan Rx. Perbezaan utama

  14. Flexible MEMS: A novel technology to fabricate flexible sensors and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hongen

    This dissertation presents the design and fabrication techniques used to fabricate flexible MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) devices. MEMS devices and CMOS(Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) circuits are traditionally fabricated on rigid substrates with inorganic semiconductor materials such as Silicon. However, it is highly desirable that functional elements like sensors, actuators or micro fluidic components to be fabricated on flexible substrates for a wide variety of applications. Due to the fact that flexible substrate is temperature sensitive, typically only low temperature materials, such as polymers, metals, and organic semiconductor materials, can be directly fabricated on flexible substrates. A novel technology based on XeF2(xenon difluoride) isotropic silicon etching and parylene conformal coating, which is able to monolithically incorporate high temperature materials and fluidic channels, was developed at Wayne State University. The technology was first implemented in the development of out-of-plane parylene microneedle arrays that can be individually addressed by integrated flexible micro-channels. These devices enable the delivery of chemicals with controlled temporal and spatial patterns and allow us to study neurotransmitter-based retinal prosthesis. The technology was further explored by adopting the conventional SOI-CMOS processes. High performance and high density CMOS circuits can be first fabricated on SOI wafers, and then be integrated into flexible substrates. Flexible p-channel MOSFETs (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors) were successfully integrated and tested. Integration of pressure sensors and flow sensors based on single crystal silicon has also been demonstrated. A novel smart yarn technology that enables the invisible integration of sensors and electronics into fabrics has been developed. The most significant advantage of this technology is its post-MEMS and post-CMOS compatibility. Various high

  15. Anti-stiction coating for microelectromechanical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew G.; Mayer, Thomas M.; Wheeler, David R.

    2006-05-16

    A method for depositing an anti-stiction coating on a MEMS device comprises reacting the vapor of an amino-functionalized silane precursor with a silicon surface of the MEMS device in a vacuum chamber. The method can further comprise cleaning the silicon surface of the MEMS device to form a clean hydroxylated silicon surface prior to reacting the precursor vapor with the silicon surface. The amino-functionalized silane precursor comprises at least one silicon atom, at least one reactive amino (or imine) pendant, and at least one hydrophobic pendant. The amino-functionalized silane precursor is highly reactive with the silicon surface, thereby eliminating the need for a post-process anneal step and enabling the reaction to occur at low pressure. Such vapor-phase deposition of the amino-functionalized silane coating provides a uniform surface morphology and strong adhesion to the silicon surface.

  16. Thermoelectrical Generator for a MEMS-Fuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Efremov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of modern fuzes includes micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS, which have such advanced devices as micro-accelerometers and micro-switches, being triggered at a specified level of setback. Independent power source (PS, as an inherent part of the MEMSfuze, charges an energy storage unit during the shot and triggers the fuze firing circuit when the shell encounters the target. Operating level of the control signal should be achieved within the time of remote arming, determined by the type of ammunition. The paper considers a possibility to develop PS as a thermoelectric generator (TEG with aerodynamic heating of hot junctions due to friction of the projectile body on the incoming airflow. The initial temperature is determined by the driving band cutting into the rifling and friction during the movement of projectile through the tube bore. The paper presents a technique for calculating the temperature field along the body of the projectile from the critical point, located at the top of the shell head. The solution of the equation of heat balance reveals the temporal development of the projectile body temperature. The proposed mathematical model of the TEG describes the process of converting heat into electrical output signal (thermo-EMF. An example of calculation for a specific artillery system – 57-mm anti-aircraft gun S-60 is given. Calculation of the TEG output signal was limited by the time, which is necessary to reach the top of the projectile trajectory. It is shown that at high altitude the temperature difference may drop to zero, thus cutting off the TEG output signal. Selection of capacitive storage parameters can be based on the reliability test conditions of the fuze firing circuit actuators, taking into account the partial storage discharge on the trajectory before the projectile encounters the target.

  17. Wafer bonding technology for new generation vacuum MEMS: challenges and promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoi, V.; Pabo, E.

    2015-05-01

    Various MEMS devices are incorporated into consumer electronic devices. A particular category of MEMS require vacuum packaging by wafer bonding with the need to encapsulate vacuum levels of 10-2 mbar or higher with long time stability. The vacuum requirement is limiting the choice of the wafer bonding process and raises significant challenges to the existing investigation methods (metrology) used for results qualification. From the broad range of wafer bonding processes only few are compatible with vacuum applications: fusion bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding and metal-based bonding. The outgassing from the enclosed surfaces after bonding will affect the vacuum level in the cavity: in some cases, a getter material is used inside the device cavity to compensate for this outgassing. Additionally the selected bonding process must be compatible with the devices on the wafers being bonded. This work reviews the principles of vacuum encapsulation using wafer bonding. Examples showing the suitability of each process for specific applications types will be presented. A significant challenge in vacuum MEMS fabrication is the lack of analytical methods needed for process characterization or reliability testing. A short overview of the most used methods and their limitations will be presented. Specific needs to be addressed will be introduced with examples.

  18. MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2008-01-01

    Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

  19. Biomimetic MEMS to assist, enhance, and expand human sensory perceptions: a survey on state-of-the-art developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarczuk, Teresa; Matin, Tina R.; Karman, Salmah B.; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Davaji, Benyamin; Macqueen, Mark O.; Mueller, Jeanette; Schmid, Ulrich; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2011-06-01

    The human senses are of extraordinary value but we cannot change them even if this proves to be a disadvantage in modern times. However, we can assist, enhance and expand these senses via MEMS. Current MEMS cover the range of the human sensory system, and additionally provide data about signals that are too weak for the human sensory system (in terms of signal strength) and signal types that are not covered by the human sensory system. Biomimetics deals with knowledge transfer from biology to technology. In our interdisciplinary approach existing MEMS sensor designs shall be modified and adapted (to keep costs at bay), via biomimetic knowledge transfer of outstanding sensory perception in 'best practice' organisms (e.g. thermoreception, UV sensing, electromagnetic sense). The MEMS shall then be linked to the human body (mainly ex corpore to avoid ethics conflicts), to assist, enhance and expand human sensory perception. This paper gives an overview of senses in humans and animals, respective MEMS sensors that are already on the market and gives a list of possible applications of such devices including sensors that vibrate when a blind person approaches a kerb stone edge and devices that allow divers better orientation under water (echolocation, ultrasound).

  20. Chromatic analysis by monitoring unmodified silver nanoparticles reduction on double layer microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for selective and sensitive determination of mercury(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meelapsom, Rattapol; Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Chairam, Sanoe; Kulsing, Chadin; Shen, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This study demonstrates chromatic analysis based on a simple red green blue (RGB) color model for sensitive and selective determination of mercury(II). The analysis was performed by monitoring the color change of a microfluidic Paper-based Analytical Device (µPAD). The device was fabricated by using alkyl ketene dimer (AKD)-inkjet printing and doped with unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which were disintegrated when being exposed to mercury(II). The color intensity was detected by using an apparatus consisting of a digital camera and a homemade light box generating constant light intensity. A progressive increase in color intensity of the tested area on the µPAD (3.0mm) was observed with increasing mercury(II) concentration. The developed system enabled quantification of mercury(II) at low concentration with the detection limit of 0.001mgL(-1) (3 SD blank/slope of the calibration curve) and small sample volume uptake (2µL). The linearity range of the calibration curve in this technique was demonstrated from 0.05 to 7mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.998) with good precision (RSD less than 4.1%). Greater selectivity towards mercury(II) compared with potential interference ions was also observed. Furthermore, the percentage recoveries of spiked water samples were in an acceptable range which was in agreement with the values obtained from the conventional method utilizing cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer (CVAAS). The proposed technique allows a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective analysis of trace mercury(II) in water samples.