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Sample records for memory test evaluation

  1. Wada test for evaluation of language and memory function in medically intractable epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Kook; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Byung In; Huh, Kyun

    1992-01-01

    The Wada test was performed for lateralization of language and memory function, using intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal. But the internal carotid artery (ICA) Wada test has some limitations for testing memory function. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test has been designed to modify the ICA Wada test for testing memory function selectively. In our study, 10 patients out of 12 patients with intractable seizure underwent only the ICA Wada test and the other 2 patients underwent both the ICA and the selective PCA Wada test. In all 12 patients undergoing the ICA Wada test, we successfully localized speech and language dominance. Four of 12 patients who underwent the ICA Wada test for evaluation of memory function displayed superior memory functions in one hemisphere, but the other hemisphere also significantly contributed to memory. The selective PCA Wada test, performed in 2 patients, showed successful results of memory function test in both patients. Four of 12 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and there was no major post-operative language or memory deficits. We concluded that the ICA and PCA Wada tests are useful for preoperative evaluation of medically intractable epilepsy, and the PCA Wada test is valuable in memory evaluation in some patients who have high risk of postoperative global amnesia after temporal lobectomy following equivocal results of memory function by the ICA Wada test

  2. Wada test for evaluation of language and memory function in medically intractable epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yong Kook; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Byung In; Huh, Kyun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    The Wada test was performed for lateralization of language and memory function, using intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal. But the internal carotid artery (ICA) Wada test has some limitations for testing memory function. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test has been designed to modify the ICA Wada test for testing memory function selectively. In our study, 10 patients out of 12 patients with intractable seizure underwent only the ICA Wada test and the other 2 patients underwent both the ICA and the selective PCA Wada test. In all 12 patients undergoing the ICA Wada test, we successfully localized speech and language dominance. Four of 12 patients who underwent the ICA Wada test for evaluation of memory function displayed superior memory functions in one hemisphere, but the other hemisphere also significantly contributed to memory. The selective PCA Wada test, performed in 2 patients, showed successful results of memory function test in both patients. Four of 12 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and there was no major post-operative language or memory deficits. We concluded that the ICA and PCA Wada tests are useful for preoperative evaluation of medically intractable epilepsy, and the PCA Wada test is valuable in memory evaluation in some patients who have high risk of postoperative global amnesia after temporal lobectomy following equivocal results of memory function by the ICA Wada test.

  3. Normative data of Fuld Object Memory Evaluation test for brazilian elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Avila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study aims to present normative data for Fuld Object Memory Evaluation test stratified by sex, gender, age, and education for the Brazilian elderly population. Method We evaluated 2.132 healthy elderly both genders, with a mean age of 70.30 years (± 7.28 from two community-based samples in Brazil drawn from different economic areas who were screened with cognitive and functional tests and the memory test. Statistical analyses were performed by independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. Results Statistical analyses showed that memory scores tend to improve significantly with increasing years of education and decrease significantly as age increased. Conclusion We conclude that gender, education and age had effect on the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation performance in this Brazilian community-based sample.

  4. Brief Memory and Executive Test: evaluation of a new screening test for cognitive impairment due to small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L; Hannesdottir, Kristin; Lawrence, Robert; Morris, Robin G; Markus, Hugh S

    2012-03-01

    cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Despite this, there is a paucity of rapid simple screening tools to identify cognitive impairment in SVD and differentiate it from other common dementia types. to validate a new screening test for cognitive impairment in SVD, the Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET) battery, and examine its ability to detect SVD and differentiate it from Alzheimer's disease (AD). 45 patients with SVD, 27 patients with AD and 80 normal controls. the BMET includes brief tests of executive functioning and processing speed, with comparative tests of memory and orientation. Group discrimination was calculated using discriminant function analysis. the BMET took an average of 10 min to administer. It showed high sensitivity (91%) and specificity (85%) in differentiating SVD patients with cognitive impairment from AD patients. As a comparison the mini-mental state examination had lower sensitivity (63%) and specificity (62%). the BMET is a simple and quick to administer clinical tool for the detection of VCI in SVD and its differentiation from AD impairment. Further multicentre studies are required to evaluate and compare it with other existing screening tests.

  5. Evaluating the contributions of task expectancy in the testing and guessing benefits on recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mark J; Yates, Tyler J; Balota, David A

    2018-05-03

    Recently, we have shown that two types of initial testing (recall of a list or guessing of critical items repeated over 12 study/test cycles) improved final recognition of related and unrelated word lists relative to restudy. These benefits were eliminated, however, when test instructions were manipulated within subjects and presented after study of each list, procedures designed to minimise expectancy of a specific type of upcoming test [Huff, Balota, & Hutchison, 2016. The costs and benefits of testing and guessing on recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42, 1559-1572. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000269 ], suggesting that testing and guessing effects may be influenced by encoding strategies specific for the type of upcoming task. We follow-up these experiments by examining test-expectancy processes in guessing and testing. Testing and guessing benefits over restudy were not found when test instructions were presented either after (Experiment 1) or before (Experiment 2) a single study/task cycle was completed, nor were benefits found when instructions were presented before study/task cycles and the task was repeated three times (Experiment 3). Testing and guessing benefits emerged only when instructions were presented before a study/task cycle and the task was repeated six times (Experiments 4A and 4B). These experiments demonstrate that initial testing and guessing can produce memory benefits in recognition, but only following substantial task repetitions which likely promote task-expectancy processes.

  6. Validity and reliability of a non-sense syllable test for evaluating phonological working memory in Persian speaking children

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    Abdollah Moossavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Children with auditory processing disorders and impaired phonological working memory have difficulty in storing an accurate phonological representation of speech.Therefore, it is highly important to assess phonological working memory in this population. One of the methods in assessing phonological working memory is to use a non-sense syllable test. The aim of this study is to create a valid and reiable non-sense syllable test in order to evaluate phonological working memory in Persian speaking children with auditory processing disorders.Methods: In this cross sectional comparative study, 40 non-sense syllable words were developed according to the criteria of non-syllable word construction and under supervision of a linguistic specialist. The non-sense syllable test was assessed in 53 boys and 47 girls from 7 to 10 years of age. The content validity of the non-sense syllable words was assessed by experts. To evaluate the validity of the test, correlation between the results of the test and forward digit recall and backward digit recall tests were measured. The non-sense syllable test was performed twice to evaluate its relaibility.Results: The validity of the non-sense syllable test was 95.5 (SD=2. The correlation coefficient between non-sense syllable repetition, forward digit recall, and backward digit recal l tests were 0.76 and 0.75 respectively (p<0.001. The correlation coefficient between different performances of non-sense syllable tests was 0.8 (p<0.001.Conclusion: These findings show that the non-sense syllable repetition test can be used to evaluate phonological working memory in Persian speaking children from 7-10 years of age.

  7. Retrospective Evaluations of Sequences: Testing the Predictions of a Memory-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrovandi, Silvio; Poirier, Marie; Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation (RE) of event sequences is known to be biased in various ways. The present paper presents a series of studies that examined the suggestion that the moments that are the most accessible in memory at the point of RE contribute to these biases. As predicted by this memory-based analysis, Experiment 1 showed that pleasantness ratings of word lists were biased by the presentation position of a negative item and by how easy the negative information was to retrieve. Experiment 2 ruled out the hypothesis that these findings were due to the dual nature of the task called upon. Experiment 3 further manipulated the memorability of the negative items--and corresponding changes in RE were as predicted. Finally, Experiment 4 extended the findings to more complex stimuli involving event narratives. Overall, the results suggest that assessments were adjusted based on the retrieval of the most readily available information.

  8. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    KAUST Repository

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2015-05-26

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions.

  9. Noncredible cognitive performance at clinical evaluation of adult ADHD: An embedded validity indicator in a visuospatial working memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Lara

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of performance validity is an essential part of the neuropsychological evaluation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most available tools, however, are inaccurate regarding the identification of noncredible performance. This study describes the development of a visuospatial working memory test, including a validity indicator for noncredible cognitive performance of adults with ADHD. Visuospatial working memory of adults with ADHD (n = 48) was first compared to the test performance of healthy individuals (n = 48). Furthermore, a simulation design was performed including 252 individuals who were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 48) or to 1 of 3 simulation groups who were requested to feign ADHD (n = 204). Additional samples of 27 adults with ADHD and 69 instructed simulators were included to cross-validate findings from the first samples. Adults with ADHD showed impaired visuospatial working memory performance of medium size as compared to healthy individuals. Simulation groups committed significantly more errors and had shorter response times as compared to patients with ADHD. Moreover, binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to derive a validity index that optimally differentiates between true and feigned ADHD. ROC analysis demonstrated high classification rates of the validity index, as shown in excellent specificity (95.8%) and adequate sensitivity (60.3%). The visuospatial working memory test as presented in this study therefore appears sensitive in indicating cognitive impairment of adults with ADHD. Furthermore, the embedded validity index revealed promising results concerning the detection of noncredible cognitive performance of adults with ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Evaluating the accuracy of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) logical memory embedded validity index for detecting invalid test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Jason R; Bain, Kathleen M; Bailey, K Chase; Kirton, Joshua W; Marceaux, Janice C; Critchfield, Edan A; McCoy, Karin J M; O'Rourke, Justin J F

    2018-01-08

    Embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) allow for continuous assessment of invalid performance throughout neuropsychological test batteries. This study evaluated the utility of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) Logical Memory (LM) Recognition score as an embedded PVT using the Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Effort System. This mixed clinical sample was comprised of 97 total participants, 71 of whom were classified as valid and 26 as invalid based on three well-validated, freestanding criterion PVTs. Overall, the LM embedded PVT demonstrated poor concordance with the criterion PVTs and unacceptable psychometric properties using ACS validity base rates (42% sensitivity/79% specificity). Moreover, 15-39% of participants obtained an invalid ACS base rate despite having a normatively-intact age-corrected LM Recognition total score. Receiving operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a Recognition total score cutoff of < 61% correct improved specificity (92%) while sensitivity remained weak (31%). Thus, results indicated the LM Recognition embedded PVT is not appropriate for use from an evidence-based perspective, and that clinicians may be faced with reconciling how a normatively intact cognitive performance on the Recognition subtest could simultaneously reflect invalid performance validity.

  11. [A new assessment for episodic memory. Episodic memory test and caregiver's episodic memory test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea Ortega, T; González Álvarez de Sotomayor, M M; Pérez González, O; Fernández Fernández, O

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test is to evaluate episodic memory according to its definition in a way that is feasible for families and achieves high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. We administered a test consisting of 10 questions about episodic events to 332 subjects, of whom 65 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 115 had amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 152 showed no cognitive impairment according to Reisberg's global deterioration scale (GDS). We calculated the test's sensitivity and specificity to distinguish AD from episodic aMCI and from normal ageing. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of aMCI was 0.94 and the best cut-off value was 20; for that value, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 82%. For a diagnosis of AD, the area under the ROC curve was 0.99 and the best cut-off point was 17, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 91%. A subsequent study using similar methodology yielded similar results when the test was administered directly by the caregiver. The episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test are useful as brief screening tools for identifying patients with early-stage AD. It is suitable for use by primary care medical staff and in the home, since it can be administered by a caregiver. The test's limitations are that it must be administered by a reliable caregiver and the fact that it measures episodic memory only. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-Testing Computer Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio, N.; Rennels, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Memory system for computer repeatedly tests itself during brief, regular interruptions of normal processing of data. Detects and corrects transient faults as single-event upsets (changes in bits due to ionizing radiation) within milliseconds after occuring. Self-testing concept surpasses conventional by actively flushing latent defects out of memory and attempting to correct before accumulating beyond capacity for self-correction or detection. Cost of improvement modest increase in complexity of circuitry and operating time.

  13. Objective instrumental memory and performance tests for evaluation of patients with brain damage: a search for a behavioral diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, B Z; Bental, E; Carmon, A

    1976-03-01

    Cognition and performance of patients with localized and diffuse brain damage was evaluated through the application of objective perceptual testing. A series of visual perceptual and verbal tests, memory tests, as well as reaction time tasks were administered to the patients by logic programming equipment. In order to avoid a bias due to communicative disorders, all responses were motor, and achievement was scored in terms of correct identification and latencies of response. Previously established norms based on a large sample of non-brain-damaged hospitalized patients served to standardize the performance of the brain-damaged patient since preliminary results showed that age and educational level constitute an important variable affecting performance of the control group. The achievement of brain-damaged patients, corrected for these factors, was impaired significantly in all tests with respect to both recognition and speed of performance. Lateralized effects of brain damage were not significantly demonstrated. However, when the performance was analyzed with respect to the locus of visual input, it was found that patients with right hemispheric lesions showed impairment mainly on perception of figurative material, and that this deficit was more apparent in the left visual field. Conversely, patients with left hemispheric lesions tended to show impairment on perception of visually presented verbal material when the input was delivered to the right visual field.

  14. Evaluation of the validity of the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests of vigilance, auditory memory, and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Piper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experimental Building Language (PEBL test battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ is a popular application for neurobehavioral investigations. This study evaluated the correspondence between the PEBL and the non-PEBL versions of four executive function tests. Methods. In one cohort, young-adults (N = 44 completed both the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the PEBL CPT (PCPT with the order counter-balanced. In a second cohort, participants (N = 47 completed a non-computerized (Wechsler and a computerized (PEBL Digit Span (WDS or PDS both Forward and Backward. Participants also completed the Psychological Assessment Resources or the PEBL versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (PARIGT or PEBLIGT. Results. The between-test correlations were moderately high (reaction time r = 0.78, omission errors r = 0.65, commission errors r = 0.66 on the CPT. DS Forward was significantly greater than DS Backward on the WDS (p < .0005 and the PDS (p < .0005. The total WDS score was moderately correlated with the PDS (r = 0.56. The PARIGT and the PEBLIGTs showed a very similar pattern for response times across blocks, development of preference for Advantageous over Disadvantageous Decks, and Deck selections. However, the amount of money earned (score–loan was significantly higher in the PEBLIGT during the last Block. Conclusions. These findings are broadly supportive of the criterion validity of the PEBL measures of sustained attention, short-term memory, and decision making. Select differences between workalike versions of the same test highlight how detailed aspects of implementation may have more important consequences for computerized testing than has been previously acknowledged.

  15. Tests - memory - knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    TYSHCHENKO VADIM

    2011-01-01

    Testing, speaking out the language of chess-players, a blitz-tournament, when on deliberation of every motion even not minutes, but seconds, are taken. Grand masters of superclass respect and such tournaments practice often, including. world level. To perfection remembering all сходжені and foreseeing all possible labyrinths in the chess reign of magician, his kings and princes enter into the incomparable battle of intellects, built on speed an d infallibility of meeting ideas.

  16. Telephone information-memory-concentration test used in evaluating cognitive function of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Ling; Yang Xiaoye; Li Ling; Deng Zhuoxia

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the telephone information-memory-concentration test (TIMCT) in evaluating the cognitive function of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy. Methods: The cognitive function were evaluated by TIMCT and mini mental state examination (MMSE) in 2 weeks for 30 normal persons and 90 NPC patients. And the 90 NPC patients were divided into the 3 months, 2 years and 5 years after radiotherapy groups. All patients were carried out firstly face to face interview and telephone interview 1 time after 2 weeks. Results: The correlation coefficient of all groups between TIMCT(telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) were bigger (R=0.850) when MMSE wasn't control variable. And the correlation coefficients between TIMCT (telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) were lower (R=0.366) when MMSE was control variable. As for examining time was classification factor, TIMCT (telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) were analyzed by partial correlation analysis. Only normal group was correlated with group of 3 months after radiotherapy and group of 2 years after radiotherapy wasn't correlated with group of 5 years after radiotherapy (R=0.447,0.970,0.200 and 0.062). In addition, the difference plot of TIMCT(telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) indicated that telephone was consistent with face to face interview (MMSE≥28). Both telephone and face to face interview reflected the cognitive function downtrend of research objects. Conclusions: TIMCT (telephone), TIMCT(face to face) and MMSE (face to face) can reflect cognitive function downterend of patients with NPC after radiotherapy. But TIMCT(telephone) used in clinical screening cognitive function impairment of patients with NPC after radiotherapy should be improved further. (authors)

  17. Factor analysis of the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Warrington Recognition Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, J M; Sherer, M; Adams, R L

    1992-01-01

    Subjects were 156 individuals referred, for psychological and neuropsychological evaluation. The Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) including the 12h delayed condition of Russell's revision and Warrington's Recognition Memory Test (RMT) were administered as part of each evaluation. Using scores from the RMT subtests: (1) Memory for Words and (2) Memory for Faces, and scores from the WMS subtests: (3) Logical Memory, (4) Digit Span, (5) Visual Reproduction, and (6) Associate Learning flow associate pairs only), a principal components factor analysis was carried out with an orthogonal varimax rotation yielding four factors: (1) verbal learning and memory, (2) Figurai memory, (3) Recognition memory, and (4) Attention-Concentration. Results are discussed with respect to the independent, but complementary information provided by the WMS and RMT for measurement of memory functions.

  18. Working memory: a proposal for child evaluating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Monteiro Pires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The working memory is a system with limited capacity which allows the temporary storage and manipulation of information to cognitive complex abilities like language, learning and reasoning. This study has as the objective present the construction, the adaptation and the evaluation of four psycholinguistics working memory tests in Brazilian Portuguese that were based in the English battery of tests Memory Test Battery For Children. The tests adapted were applied in a pilot investigation in a group of 15 children with learning school difficulties and compared to a group of 15 children with normal development. The adaptation of the tests was developed in the E-Prime v2.0 Professional® software. The four psycholinguistic tests access the simultaneous storage and processing capacities of information in general domain, as also specific for language information. The results suggest that the four tests are sensible instruments to detect possible difficulties in the working memory processing in children, because they could identify the different performances between the two groups in a statistical analysis. The tests developed perfectly attended their aims for evaluation and can contribute in a near future for other studies with a greater number of subjects, providing a more concrete and evidences of working memory development in children.

  19. Evaluation of memory in abacus learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Mythili; Sengottaiyan, Anu; Madhu, Sangeetha; Ranganathan, Vasanthi

    2006-01-01

    Abacus is a method used by Chinese, Japanese and Koreans to improve mathematical skills. This system has now invaded our country. The improvement in mathematical skills is said to be due to a coordinated functioning of both right and left hemisphere. As learning and memory in any field is achieved by coordinating and analyzing the different sensory inputs, whether an abacus trainee would also improve the short-term memory as a whole was evaluated in our study. 50 children of average IQ between 5 and 12 years from 2 regular schools and 50 from an abacus institute were evaluated for short-term memory before and after a period of one and two years. The memory tests were taken from Wechsler memory scale, Mini mental state examination, Mann - Buitar visual memory screen for objects. The results showed that the abacus learners at the end of one and two years had a better visual and auditory memory when compared to non-abacus learners.

  20. Testing of modern semiconductor memory structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaydadjiev, G.N.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the problem of faults in modern semiconductor memory structures and their tests. According to the 2005 ITRS, the systems on chip (SoCs) are moving from logic and memory balanced chips to more memory dominated devices in order to cope with the increasing application

  1. [Standardization of the Test Your Memory and evaluation of their concordance with the outcome of the psychometric examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Arias, J; Turrión-Rojo, M A

    2016-05-01

    To explore the relationship between scores on the Test Your Memory (TYM) battery and findings from a more exhaustive neurocognitive assessment. The TYM and fourteen psychometric tests were administered to 84 subjects aged 50 or older who attended an outpatient neurology clinic due to cognitive symptoms. Each patient's cognitive state was determined independently from his/her score on the TYM (CDR 0, n=25; CDR 0.5, n=45; CDR 1, n=14). We analysed concurrent validity of TYM scores and results from the psychometric tests, as well as the degree of concordance between the two types of measurement, by contrasting normalised data from each instrument. Although the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.67 (confidence interval 95%, 0.53-0.77), analysis of the Bland-Altman plot and the curve on the survival-agreement plot (Luiz et al. method) demonstrates that the individual distances between the two methods exhibit excessive dispersion from a clinical viewpoint. TYM-based predictions of the mean z-score on psychometric tests differed substantially from real results in 30% of the subjects. Concordance of 95% can only be achieved by accepting absolute inter-instrument differences of up to 0.87 as identical values. Furthermore, the TYM underestimates cognitive performance for low values and overestimates it for high values. The TYM is a cognitive screening test which should not be used to predict results on psychometric tests or to detect cognitive changes in clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Tests of Processing Speed, Spatial Ability, and Working Memory for use in Military Occupational Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    memory as language aptitude", ELT Journal Advanced Access, 15-36. Wickens, C.D. (1984). Processing resources in attention. In R. Parasuraman & D.R...perceptual speed abilities in the context of assessment methods, cognitive abilities, and individual differences during skill acquisition, Journal of...Bunting, M. (2006). Proactive interference and item similarity in working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition

  3. Built-In Test Engine For Memory Test

    OpenAIRE

    McEvoy, Paul; Farrell, Ronan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we will present an on-chip method for testing high performance memory devices, that occupies minimal area and retains full flexibility. This is achieved through microcode test instructions and the associated on-chip state machine. In addition, the proposed methodology will enable at-speed testing of memory devices. The relevancy of this work is placed in context with an introduction to memory testing and the techniques and algorithms generally used today.

  4. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Shahidipour; Ahmad Geshani; Zahra Jafari; Shohreh Jalaie; Elham Khosravifard

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Memory is one of the aspects of cognitive function which is widely affected among aged people. Since aging has different effects on different memorial systems and little studies have investigated auditory-verbal memory function in older adults using dichotic listening techniques, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory-verbal memory function among old people using Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. Methods: The Persian version of dic...

  5. Non Volatile Flash Memory Radiation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.; Allen, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Commercial flash memory industry has experienced a fast growth in the recent years, because of their wide spread usage in cell phones, mp3 players and digital cameras. On the other hand, there has been increased interest in the use of high density commercial nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever increasing data requirements and strict power requirements. Because of flash memories complex structure; they cannot be treated as just simple memories in regards to testing and analysis. It becomes quite challenging to determine how they will respond in radiation environments.

  6. Using organisational memory in evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madri S. Jansen van Rensburg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the case of a regional intermediary organisation to investigate organisational memory (OM and its contribution to knowledge management and activities in evaluations. Understanding of, and accessing OM is critical for participatory evaluations. The aim of the article is to reflect on the OM of a non-governmental organisation (NGO and what implicationsthe structural changes in OM over the organisation’s life cycle have for evaluators. It further aims to advocate an awareness of OM and explains how evaluators can access and utilise it more effectively. Evaluators need to have an understanding of OM, and to take more responsibility for disseminating results to enhance it. This case study reflects on a retrospective case example of a regional NGO. The report reflects the development and structure of the life cycle of the organisation. The data collection included in-depth interviews with staff members and other key stakeholders, engagement with beneficiary organisations and donors, and analyses of documents, electronic files and audio-visual material. Since OM survives after the demise of an organisation, and is accessible through directories, it is important for the evaluator to include historical information. Specific implications for evaluators include the ability to access OM through directories and networks of the organisation. As evaluators hold OM of all the organisations they have engaged with, they also have a responsibility to share knowledge. The key findings of this study illustrate the importance of accessing the memory and historical information of the organisation. Understanding OM enhances the in-depth comprehension of the activity, project or programme under investigation, and the collective knowledge generated as a result of it.

  7. Which memory processes are affected in patients with obstructive sleep apnea? An evaluation of 3 types of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naëgelé, Bernadette; Launois, Sandrine H; Mazza, Stéphanie; Feuerstein, Claude; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Lévy, Patrick

    2006-04-01

    To investigate which memory processes are affected by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Three separate memory systems were investigated in patients with OSA and normal subjects. Verbal episodic memory was tested after forced encoding, in order to control the level of attention during item presentation; procedural memory was tested using a simplified version of a standard test with an interfering task; lastly, working memory was examined with validated paradigms based on a theoretical model. Sleep laboratory and outpatient sleep clinic in a French tertiary-care university hospital. Ninety-five patients with OSA and 95 control subjects matched for age and level of education. Group 1 (54 patients, 54 controls) underwent an extensive battery of tasks evaluating verbal episodic, procedural, and working memory. Group 2 (16 patients, 16 controls) underwent procedural memory tests only, and group 3 (25 patients, 25 controls) working memory tests only. N/A. Compared with matched controls, patients with OSA exhibited a retrieval deficit of episodic memory but intact maintenance, recognition, and forgetfulness; decreased overall performance in procedural memory, although pattern learning did occur; and impairment of specific working memory capabilities despite normal short-term memory. No consistent correlation was found between OSA severity and memory deficit. The long duration of the test session did not negatively impact the patients' performance. Memory impairment in OSA is mild and does not affect all memory processes but, rather, specific aspects, underscoring the need for extensive and specific memory testing in clinical and research settings.

  8. Test data generation for LRU cache-memory testing

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeni, Kornikhin

    2009-01-01

    System functional testing of microprocessors deals with many assembly programs of given behavior. The paper proposes new constraint-based algorithm of initial cache-memory contents generation for given behavior of assembly program (with cache misses and hits). Although algorithm works for any types of cache-memory, the paper describes algorithm in detail for basis types of cache-memory only: fully associative cache and direct mapped cache.

  9. The Unintentional Memory Load in Tests for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret Hubbard

    The validity of certain standardized tests may be affected by the short-term memory load therein and its relation to a child's short-term memory capacity. Factors of testing which increase a test's memory load and consequently interfere with comprehension are discussed. It is hypothesized that a test which strains the short-term memory capacity of…

  10. Can Testing Immunize Memories against Interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Rosalind; Shanks, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Testing typically enhances subsequent recall of tested material. In contrast, it has been proposed that consolidated memories can be destabilized when reactivated and then need to be reconsolidated in order to persist. Learning new material immediately after reactivation may disrupt reconsolidation. We investigated whether the well-known benefits…

  11. Test Expectancy and Memory for Important Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research suggests that learners study and remember information differently depending upon the type of test they expect to later receive. The current experiments investigate how testing expectations impact the study of and memory for valuable information. Participants studied lists of words ranging in value from 1 to 10 points with the goal…

  12. Strobe-margin test for plated memory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspach, T. E.; Clarke, J. W.; Constable, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Technique measures performance of plated-wire memories. Strobe-margin test (SMT) utilizes worst-case testing and automatically gives exact strobe margin. Test is automatic; thus, memory system-level test is superior to tests at component level that use artificial test conditions. Test is significant tool in design and test of plated-wire memory systems. It can rapidly quantify memory-system margin on each production unit and impact of any design changes.

  13. Performance on the Green Word Memory Test following Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom-era military service: Test failure is related to evaluation context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cortney L; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; McDonald, Scott D; Campbell, Thomas C; Tupler, Larry A

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates prior reports of high neuropsychological symptom validity test (SVT) failure rates in post-deployed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) active and veteran military personnel, using a large, multi-site sample (N = 214) drawn from three levels of the Department of Defense/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma System of Care. The sample failure rate and its relationship to research versus dual research/clinical context of evaluation were examined, in addition to secondary variables explored in prior studies. Results yielded an overall failure rate of 25%, lower than prior reports describing OEF/OIF active-duty and veteran military personnel. Findings also supported the hypothesis that SVT failure rates would differ by context (dual > research). Participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) failed more frequently than those without TBI in the dual context but not in the research context. Secondary analyses revealed that failure rates increased in the presence of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and male sex but were unrelated to active versus veteran military status, service connection (SC) or percentage of SC, age, education, or ethnicity. Further research is required to elucidate the underpinnings of these findings in light of the limited literature and variability between OEF/OIF-related SVT studies, as well as the substantial diagnostic and treatment implications for VA.

  14. A Pilot Study of a Test for Visual Recognition Memory in Adults with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Geunyeong; Ala, Tom; Kyrouac, Gregory A.; Verhulst, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective assessment of memory functioning is an important part of evaluation for Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT). The revised Picture Recognition Memory Test (r-PRMT) is a test for visual recognition memory to assess memory functioning of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), specifically targeting moderate to severe ID. A pilot study was…

  15. In search of memory tests equivalent for experiments on animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Kołat, Estera; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja

    2014-12-19

    Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test - Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test - Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary.

  16. Detection of memory impairment among community-dwelling elderly by using the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Toyota, Yasutaka; Matsumoto, Teruhisa; Sonobe, Naomi; Adachi, Hiroyoshi; Mori, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Fukuhara, Ryuji; Ikeda, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) to evaluate everyday memory impairment among community-dwelling elderly who had normal cognitive function and performed daily activities normally but displayed memory impairments, and to diagnose the condition as either mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Among the 1,290 community-dwelling elderly persons who participated in the study, 72 subjects scored higher than 24 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): these subjects performed daily activities normally, but their family members reported that they showed memory impairments. Fifty-two subjects completed RBMT, Clinical Dementia Rating, and brain computed tomography, and a final diagnosis was established. The mean standard profile score was 15.1±5.0 and mean screening score was 6.4±3.0. RBMT score was correlated with the MMSE score. Nine of the subjects were diagnosed with dementia and 26 of them were found to be normal. RBMT achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity with regard to the differentiation of subjects with Alzheimer's disease. However, some subjects were diagnosed with dementia even though their RBMT score was higher than the cut-off score. RBMT was useful in detecting memory impairments of Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects in community-based surveys. However, some subjects were diagnosed with dementia because of the existence of other cognitive impairments among community-dwelling elderly. (author)

  17. Self-Testing Static Random-Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio; Rennels, David

    1991-01-01

    Proposed static random-access memory for computer features improved error-detecting and -correcting capabilities. New self-testing scheme provides for detection and correction of errors at any time during normal operation - even while data being written into memory. Faults in equipment causing errors in output data detected by repeatedly testing every memory cell to determine whether it can still store both "one" and "zero", without destroying data stored in memory.

  18. Testing for structural change in the presence of long memory

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Walter; Sibbertsen, Philipp

    2000-01-01

    We derive the limiting null distributions of the standard and OLS-based CUSUM-tests for structural change of the coefficients of a linear regression model in the context of long memory disturbances. We show that both tests behave fundamentally different in a long memory environment, as compared to short memory, and that long memory is easily mistaken for structural change when standard critical values are employed.

  19. The effects of free recall testing on subsequent source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Marsh, Richard L; Meeks, Joseph T; Clark-Foos, Arlo; Hicks, Jason L

    2010-05-01

    The testing effect is the finding that prior retrieval of information from memory will result in better subsequent memory for that material. One explanation for these effects is that initial free recall testing increases the recollective details for tested information, which then becomes more available during a subsequent test phase. In three experiments we explored this hypothesis using a source-monitoring test phase after the initial free recall tests. We discovered that memory is differentially enhanced for certain recollective details depending on the nature of the free recall task. Thus further research needs to be conducted to specify how different kinds of memorial details are enhanced by free recall testing.

  20. Evaluation of a structured group format memory rehabilitation program for adults following brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thickpenny-Davis, Kirsten L; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of an 8-session structured group format memory rehabilitation program on impaired memory functioning. Adults with traumatic brain injury (N = 10) or cerebral vascular accidents (N = 2). A waitlist control study with pregroup, postgroup, and 1-month follow-up assessments. WECHSLER MEMORY SCALE-REVISED: Neuropsychological assessments of memory (California Verbal Learning Test, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised logical memory, visual-paired associates, and Rey Complex Figure) and both self-report and significant other report of behaviors indicative of memory difficulties and the use of memory strategies. Participation in the memory group increased participants' knowledge of memory and memory strategies as well as use of memory aids and strategies; reduced behaviors indicative of memory impairment; and had a positive effect on neuropsychological assessments of memory (eg, delayed recall for words and figures). All significant improvements exceeded change experienced by waiting-list controls and were maintained at 1-month follow-up assessment. While extension of the findings is needed, the memory group has a positive impact on both neuropsychological measures of memory and everyday memory functioning.

  1. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F C; Spaan, Pauline E J; Majoie, Charles B L M; Nederveen, Aart J; Walstra, Gerard J M; de Jonghe, Jos F M; van Gool, Willem A; Olabarriaga, Silvia D; Korkhov, Vladimir V; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in a memory clinic sample and its effect on the associations between hippocampal volume and memory performance. Eleven of 170 consecutive patients (6.5%; 13% of patients younger than 65 years) referred to memory clinics showed noncredible performance on symptom validity tests (SVTs, viz. Word Memory Test and Test of Memory Malingering). They were compared to a demographically matched group (n = 57) selected from the remaining patients. Hippocampal volume, measured by an automated volumetric method (Freesurfer), was correlated with scores on six verbal memory tests. The median correlation was r = .49 in the matched group. However, the relation was absent (median r = -.11) in patients who failed SVTs. Memory clinic samples may include patients who show noncredible performance, which invalidates their MCI diagnosis. This underscores the importance of applying SVTs in evaluating patients with cognitive complaints that may signify a predementia stage, especially when these patients are relatively young.

  2. Testing the effectiveness of group-based memory rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie A; Radford, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    Memory complaints are common after stroke, yet there have been very few studies of the outcome of memory rehabilitation in these patients. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new manualised, group-based memory training programme. Forty outpatients with a single-stroke history and ongoing memory complaints were enrolled. The six-week course involved education and strategy training and was evaluated using a wait-list crossover design, with three assessments conducted 12 weeks apart. Outcome measures included: tests of anterograde memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: RAVLT; Complex Figure Test) and prospective memory (Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test); the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire and self-report of number of strategies used. Significant training-related gains were found on RAVLT learning and delayed recall and on CAPM informant report. Lower baseline scores predicted greater gains for several outcome measures. Patients with higher IQ or level of education showed more gains in number of strategies used. Shorter time since onset was related to gains in prospective memory, but no other stroke-related variables influenced outcome. Our study provides evidence that a relatively brief, group-based training intervention can improve memory functioning in chronic stroke patients and clarified some of the baseline factors that influence outcome.

  3. Detecting memory performance validity with DETECTS: A computerized performance validity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Rui; Albuquerque, Pedro B

    2017-09-18

    Evaluating performance validity is essential in neuropsychological and forensic assessments. Nonetheless, most psychological assessment tests are unable to detect performance validity and other methods must be used for this purpose. A new Performance Validity Test (DETECTS - Memory Performance Validity Test) was developed with several characteristics that enhance test utility. Moreover, precise response time measurement was added to DETECTS. Two groups of participants (normative and simulator group) completed DETECTS and three memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale III. Simulators achieved considerably lower scores (hits) and higher response times in DETECTS compared with the normative group. All participants in the normative group were classified correctly and no simulator was classified as having legitimate memory deficits. Thus, DETECTS seems to be a valuable computerized Performance Validity Test with reduced application time and effective cut-off scores as well as high sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power values. Lastly, response time may be a very useful measure for detecting memory malingering.

  4. Relationships between the National Adult Reading Test and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andreas; Wahlin, Tarja-Brita Robins; Pachana, Nancy A; Byrne, Gerard J

    2011-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between performance on the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and retrospective, concurrent, and prospective memory functioning, as well as between the NART and change in memory functioning over time. NART administered in 2005 was used as a predictor for memory functioning in 2001, 2005, and 2008, and change in memory functioning from 2001 to 2008. Outcome measures were Logical Memory II, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Spatial Span from the Wechsler Memory Scale. Participants were 319 healthy women aged 40-79 years at baseline (2001). Significant correlations were found between the number of errors on the NART and memory measures in 2001, 2005, and 2008; Logical Memory II (r = -.41, -.38, -.39, respectively), Letter-Number Sequencing (r = -.38, -.35, -.36, respectively) and Spatial Span (r = -.23, -.22, -.19, respectively; all p values memory, after controlling for age, level of education and socioeconomic status. NART also significantly added to predictions of change in Logical Memory II and Letter-Number Sequencing over a 7-year period. The results indicate that the NART is correlated with episodic and working memory, and that the NART added to predictions of change in verbal episodic and working memory. Although the relationships are only moderate at best, the NART may be used in conjunction with demographic information and clinical reasoning to estimate premorbid memory functioning.

  5. Testing for long memory in potentially nonstationary perturbed fractional processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Frank; Frederiksen, Per S.

    In this paper, we propose new tests for long memory in stationary and nonstationary time series possibly perturbed by short-run noise which may be serially correlated. The tests are all based on semiparametric estimators and exploit the self-similarity property of long memory processes. We o......¤er simulation results that show good size properties of the tests, with power against spurious long memory. An empirical study of daily log-squared returns series of exchange rates and DJIA30 stocks shows that indeed there is long memory in exchange rate volatility and stock return volatility....

  6. Evaluation of soft errors rate in a commercial memory EEPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Luiz H.; Silva, A.A.; Santos, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    Soft errors are transient circuit errors caused by external radiation. When an ion intercepts a p-n region in an electronic component, the ionization produces excess charges along the track. These charges when collected can flip internal values, especially in memory cells. The problem affects not only space application but also terrestrial ones. Neutrons induced by cosmic rays and alpha particles, emitted from traces of radioactive contaminants contained in packaging and chip materials, are the predominant sources of radiation. The soft error susceptibility is different for different memory technology hence the experimental study are very important for Soft Error Rate (SER) evaluation. In this work, the methodology for accelerated tests is presented with the results for SER in a commercial electrically erasable and programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). (author)

  7. Cognitive impairment in depressive disorders. Neuropsychological evaluation of memory and behavioural disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, G; Penasse, C; Waltregny, A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the contribution that clinical neuropsychology and neuropsychological assessment can conter to neuropsychiatry, particularly in the evaluation of cognitive disturbances and pharmacological treatment of depression. Six patients (4 females, 2 males; age: 16-54 years old) suffering from depressive disorders underwent a clinical neuropsychological examination. Depending on the memory scores obtained on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, the patients were classified as having mild or no memory impairment (memory impairment (20-40% decrease) or severe memory alteration (> 60% deterioration). Evaluation of memory scores of two other memory tests (Wechsler memory scale and Rey visual design learning test) were also considered. Patients who were classified as having severe memory impairment were consistently reported as seriously impaired on all memory tests. The severity of cognitive dysfunction is in accordance with the serious ness of the neuropsychiatric disturbances of the patients as revealed by personality testing (MMPI, IDS and Eysenck questionnaires) or by personal details as assessed during the interview. This paper discusses the importance of the utility of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation of depressed patients and seriously considers the possibility of the use of this approach for pharmacological treatment evaluation.

  8. Efecto del tipo de prueba de evaluación en la memoria y valoración de marcas publicitarias (Effect of the type of memory test on the evaluation of brands)

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Martín-Luengo; Karlos Luna; Malen Migueles

    2012-01-01

    Memory tests are frequently used to measure the effectiveness of an advertisement. However, as different tests provide different kinds of information it is important to know which type of test is the most appropriate. The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different memory tests on the number of brands recalled and the level of interest generated by them. A group of participants wrote down all the brands of any kind of product that they remembered having seen adve...

  9. Relations between subjective evaluations of memory and objective memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.W; Berg, I.J; Deelman, B.G

    2001-01-01

    Several explanations for the weak relations between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance were investigated in two groups of normal older adults. Group 1 sampled a general population (mean age 61.6 yr., range 46-891, while Group 2 sampled subjects who were on a waiting Est for

  10. Knowledge Testing and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša E. Jelenc

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Jelenc presents the pro­ ject entitled Knowledge Testing and Evaluation (hereafter: NTE. She believes in the importance of the project: many adults want to formally prove and evaluate their knowledge acquired outside formal educational institutions. Jelenc suggests that NTE should be carried out in multiple phases. Initially, standards for measuring knowledge and skills, and evaluation methods should be developed. The actual knowledge would be evaluated in the form of exhaustive interviews conducted by specially trained counsellors. Jelenc specifically defines the process of realisation and particular phases of NTE.

  11. Testing a novel account of the dissociation between self-reported memory problems and memory performance in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Lise; Verma, Shailendra; Collins, Barbara; Chinneck, Anne; Bedard, Marc; Song, Xinni

    2018-01-01

    A puzzling observation pertaining to the impact of breast cancer on memory is the frequently reported dissociation between breast cancer survivors' self-reported memory problems and memory performance. We evaluated the hypothesis that the dissociation is related to the fact that the objective memory measures previously used assessed retrospective memory (RM) and did not tap prospective memory (PM), a domain about which survivors are complaining. In a case-healthy-control (N = 80) cross-sectional study, the Memory for Intention Screening Test was used to assess PM and the Wechsler Logical Memory Test was used to evaluate RM. Self-reported problems were assessed with the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. Measures of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: Fatigue) were also administered. Both groups reported more PM than RM problems (P memory problems than controls (all P memory problems. Although unrelated to performance, memory complaints should not be dismissed, as they are closely associated with depression and fatigue and reveal an important facet of the cancer experience. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Ada Test and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Lady Lovelace , the daughter of the poet, Lord Byron. Ada was Charles Babbage’s programmer, Babbage being the inventor of the first mechanical...34 O-07 0 ARFOCERIGTAEOAUIAL LABS RIGHTPATTERSON AFB OH F/G 9/2 ADA TEST AND EVALUATION.(U) MAY BO A J SCARPELLI UNCLASSIFIED AFWAL-TR-BO-1024 NL E...llEllllEIlE III HA i28 5__ BIH~~ ~ 2 __I.,11 LZ AFAL-TR-80-1024 Ada TEST AND EVALUATION Alfred J. Scarpelli System Technology Branch Systen Avionics

  13. Testing for Short Memory in a VARMA Process

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Timothy; Öller, Lars-Erik

    1997-01-01

    We generalize the short term memory test of an ARMA model, presented in Öller (1985), to the multivariate VARMA cases. In a study on Swedish exports and OECD demand we demonstrate how the multivariate setting extends the short memory.

  14. Field testing for cosmic ray soft errors in semiconductor memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, T.J.; Ross, J.M.; Taber, A.H.; Ziegler, J.F.; Muhlfeld, H.P.; Montrose, C.J.; Curtis, H.W.; Walsh, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a review of experiments performed by IBM to investigate the causes of soft errors in semiconductor memory chips under field test conditions. The effects of alpha-particles and cosmic rays are separated by comparing multiple measurements of the soft-error rate (SER) of samples of memory chips deep underground and at various altitudes above the earth. The results of case studies on four different memory chips show that cosmic rays are an important source of the ionizing radiation that causes soft errors. The results of field testing are used to confirm the accuracy of the modeling and the accelerated testing of chips

  15. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in auditory memory was seen in aged group and the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test, like many other auditory verbal memory tests, showed the aging effects on auditory verbal memory performance.

  16. Testing the exclusivity effect in location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel P A; Dunn, Andrew K; Baguley, Thom

    2013-01-01

    There is growing literature exploring the possibility of parallel retrieval of location memories, although this literature focuses primarily on the speed of retrieval with little attention to the accuracy of location memory recall. Baguley, Lansdale, Lines, and Parkin (2006) found that when a person has two or more memories for an object's location, their recall accuracy suggests that only one representation can be retrieved at a time (exclusivity). This finding is counterintuitive given evidence of non-exclusive recall in the wider memory literature. The current experiment explored the exclusivity effect further and aimed to promote an alternative outcome (i.e., independence or superadditivity) by encouraging the participants to combine multiple representations of space at encoding or retrieval. This was encouraged by using anchor (points of reference) labels that could be combined to form a single strongly associated combination. It was hypothesised that the ability to combine the anchor labels would allow the two representations to be retrieved concurrently, generating higher levels of recall accuracy. The results demonstrate further support for the exclusivity hypothesis, showing no significant improvement in recall accuracy when there are multiple representations of a target object's location as compared to a single representation.

  17. Musical Ability and the Drake Music Memory Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lawrence R.; Eisenman, Russell

    1972-01-01

    Results show that the Drake Music Memory Test should be able to discriminate between the poorest and strongest prospects for success in profiting from musical instruction, although it may not be particularly useful in individual counseling. (Authors)

  18. Ecological assessment of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease using the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolló-Gasol, S; Piñol-Ripoll, G; Cejudo-Bolivar, J C; Llorente-Vizcaino, A; Peraita-Adrados, H

    2014-01-01

    The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) is a short, ecologically-valid memory test battery that can provide data about a subject's memory function in daily life. We used RBMT to examine daily memory function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer disease (AD), and in healthy controls. We also evaluated differences between the memory profiles of subjects whose MCI remained stable after 1 year and those with conversion to AD. Sample of 91 subjects older than 60 years: 30 controls, 27 MCI subjects and 34 AD patients. Subjects were assessed using MMSE and RBMT. The 40 men and 51 women in the sample had a mean age of 74.29±6.71 and 5.87±2.93 years of education. For the total profile and screening RBMT scores (Pde Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Memory Test Performance on Analogous Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Tests in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, Deanna; Miller, Justin B; Leger, Gabriel C; Banks, Sarah Jane

    2016-01-01

    Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.

  20. Memory Test Performance on Analogous Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Tests in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Baldock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Discussion: Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.

  1. An evaluation of the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The effect of statins on memory and psychomotor function has been controversial and needs further evaluation. Aims : To evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients treated with enalapril or amlodipine. Settings and Design : Prospective, comparative, non-randomized, before-after, open-label clinical study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Western India. Materials and Methods : Memory was evaluated with PGI (Post Graduate Institute, Chandigarh Memory Scale, while psychomotor functions were evaluated with Digit Letter Substitution test, Six Letter Cancellation test, and Finger Tapping test at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of starting atorvastatin in 74 hypertensive patients who were prescribed either enalapril or amlodipine with or without atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Scores obtained in patients receiving enalapril or amlodipine were compared with those receiving these drugs along with atorvastatin. Memory and psychomotor functions of 12 healthy volunteers were also evaluated and compared with those of the patients at respective time periods. Statistical Analysis : Student′s t test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, and Mann Whitney U test were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment scores of memory and psychomotor functions in various groups. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Results : A statistically significant improvement in scores of memory and psychomotor functions was observed in both healthy volunteers (P=0.009 and P=0.016 and hypertensive patients (P=0.008 and P=0.031 throughout the study period. Memory and psychomotor function in hypertensive patients remained significantly inferior to those of healthy volunteers (P=0.01 and P=0.018. There was no significant difference in the scores of memory and psychomotor functions between patients receiving atorvastatin and those not receiving this drug. Conclusion : Atorvastatin, at 10 mg/day dose, does not

  2. From SOPs to Reports to Evaluations: Learning and Memory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an era of global trade and regulatory cooperation, consistent and scientifically based interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies is essential. Because there is flexibility in the selection of test method(s), consistency can be especially challenging for learning and memory tests required by EPA and OECD DNT guidelines (chemicals and pesticides) and recommended for ICH prenatal/postnatal guidelines (pharmaceuticals). A well­ reasoned uniform approach is particularly important for variable endpoints and if non-standard tests are used. An understanding of the purpose behind the tests and expected outcomes is critical, and attention to elements of experimental design, conduct, and reporting can improve study design by the investigator as well as accuracy and consistency of interpretation by evaluators. This understanding also directs which information must be clearly described in study reports. While missing information may be available in standardized operating procedures (SOPs), if not clearly reflected in report submissions there may be questions and misunderstandings by evaluators which could impact risk assessments. A practical example will be presented to provide insights into important variables and reporting approaches. Cognitive functions most often tested in guidelines studies include associative, positional, sequential, and spatial learning and memory in weanling and adult animals. These complex behaviors tap different bra

  3. Evaluation of Multilayered Waveguide Holographic Memory Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kei; Fujiwara, Tsuyoshi; Esaki, Akira

    2004-07-01

    A multilayered waveguide holographic memory media consists of a stack of single-mode slab waveguides. An UV embossing process has been developed for fabricating this structure. This process is suitable for mass production at low cost, but it is has a disadvantage of poor precision in the control of layer thickness and data position. The distribution of the core inclination and the error in data position alignment were checked, and the results showed that this process is sufficiently accurate for fabricating the above media. Also, the durability of the media fabricated by the UV embossing process was tested. The media was preserved under high-temperature and high-humidity conditions (80°C and 85%RH respectively). The results showed that this media has sufficient durability for practical use.

  4. Testing emotional memories: does negative emotional significance influence the benefit received from testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerdinger, Kathrin J; Kuhbandner, Christof; Berchtold, Franziska

    2017-07-31

    A large body of research shows that emotionally significant stimuli are better stored in memory. One question that has received much less attention is how emotional memories are influenced by factors that influence memories after the initial encoding of stimuli. Intriguingly, several recent studies suggest that post-encoding factors do not differ in their effects on emotional and neutral memories. However, to date, only detrimental factors have been addressed. In the present study, we examined whether emotionally negative memories are differentially influenced by a well-known beneficial factor: the testing of memories. We employed a standard cued recall testing-effect paradigm where participants studied cue-target pairs for negative and neutral target pictures. In a subsequent post-encoding phase, one third of the cue-target pairs were tested and one third restudied; the remaining third served as control pairs. After one week, memory for all cue-target pairs was tested. While replicating both the testing effect and the emotional enhancement effect, no differences between negative and neutral memories in the benefits received from testing and restudying were observed. Thus, it seems to be true that post-encoding factors do not influence emotional memories in any other way than neutral memories, even when they are beneficial.

  5. Amsterdam Short-Term Memory test: a new procedure for the detection of feigned memory deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, S.; Schmand, B.; de Sterke, S.; Lindeboom, J.

    1997-01-01

    The validity of two malingering tests, the newly developed Amsterdam Short-Term Memory (ASTM) test and the Distraction test (Baker, Hanley, Jackson, Kimmance, & Slade, 1993) was examined in a group of patients with closed-head injury (CHI), a normal control group, and a control group with

  6. Evaluation of color preference in zebrafish for learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdesh, Avdesh; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T; Mondal, Alinda; Chen, Mengqi; Askraba, Sreten; Morgan, Newman; Lardelli, Michael; Groth, David M; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. A zebrafish model of tauopathies has recently been developed and characterized in terms of presence of the pathological hallmarks (i.e., neurofibrillary tangles and cell death). However, it is also necessary to validate these models for function by assessing learning and memory. The majority of tools to assess memory and learning in animal models involve visual stimuli, including color preference. The color preference of zebrafish has received little attention. To validate zebrafish as a model for color-associated-learning and memory, it is necessary to evaluate its natural preferences or any pre-existing biases towards specific colors. In the present study, we have used four different colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) to test natural color preferences of the zebrafish using two procedures: Place preference and T-maze. Results from both experiments indicate a strong aversion toward blue color relative to all other colors (red, yellow, and green) when tested in combinations. No preferences or biases were found among reds, yellows, and greens in the place preference procedure. However, red and green were equally preferred and both were preferred over yellow by zebrafish in the T-maze procedure. The results from the present study show a strong aversion towards blue color compared to red, green, and yellow, with yellow being less preferred relative to red and green. The findings from this study may underpin any further designing of color-based learning and memory paradigms or experiments involving aversion, anxiety, or fear in the zebrafish.

  7. Memory detection 2.0: the first web-based memory detection test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Bennett; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs) can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime) information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24), and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262) tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin) and 2 low salient (favourite colour, favourite animal) autobiographical details. RTs allowed to detect concealed autobiographical information, and this, as predicted, more successfully so than error rates, and for high salient than for low salient items. While much remains to be learned, memory detection 2.0 seems to offer an interesting new platform to efficiently and validly conduct RT-based memory detection research.

  8. Memory detection 2.0: the first web-based memory detection test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Kleinberg

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24, and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262 tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin and 2 low salient (favourite colour, favourite animal autobiographical details. RTs allowed to detect concealed autobiographical information, and this, as predicted, more successfully so than error rates, and for high salient than for low salient items. While much remains to be learned, memory detection 2.0 seems to offer an interesting new platform to efficiently and validly conduct RT-based memory detection research.

  9. The effects of emotion regulation on explicit memory depend on strategy and testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Marisa; Ponzio, Allison

    2013-12-01

    Although previous work has shown that emotion regulation strategies can influence memory, the mechanisms through which different strategies produce different memory outcomes are not well understood. We examined how two cognitive reappraisal strategies with similar elaboration demands but diverging effects on visual attention and emotional arousal influenced explicit memory for emotional stimuli and for the strategies used to evaluate the stimuli. At encoding, participants used reappraisal to increase and decrease the personal relevance of neutral and emotional pictures. In two experiments, recall accuracy was highest for emotional pictures featured on increase trials, intermediate for emotional pictures featured on look (respond naturally) trials, and lowest for emotional pictures featured on decrease trials. This recall pattern emerged after a short delay (15 min) and persisted over a longer delay (48 hr). Memory accuracy for the strategies used to evaluate the pictures showed a different pattern: Strategy memory was better for emotional pictures featured on decrease and increase trials than for pictures featured on look trials. Our findings show that the effects of emotion regulation on memory depend both on the particular strategy engaged and the particular aspect of memory being tested.

  10. Measuring episodic memory across the lifespan: NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Sureyya S; Bauer, Patricia J; Weintraub, Sandra; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Gershon, Richard; Temkin, Nancy R; Heaton, Robert K

    2014-07-01

    Episodic memory is one of the most important cognitive domains that involves acquiring, storing and recalling new information. In this article, we describe a new measure developed for the NIH Toolbox, called the Picture Sequence Memory Test (PSMT) that is the first to examine episodic memory across the age range from 3 to 85. We describe the development of the measure and present validation data for ages 20 to 85. The PSMT involves presentation of sequences of pictured objects and activities in a fixed order on a computer screen and simultaneously verbally described, that the participant must remember and then reproduce over three learning trials. The results indicate good test-retest reliability and construct validity. Performance is strongly related to well-established "gold standard" measures of episodic memory and, as expected, much less well correlated with those of a measure of vocabulary. It shows clear decline with aging in parallel with a gold standard summary measure and relates to several other demographic factors and to self-reported general health status. The PSMT appears to be a reliable and valid test of episodic memory for adults, a finding similar to those found for the same measure with children.

  11. Efecto del tipo de prueba de evaluación en la memoria y valoración de marcas publicitarias (Effect of the type of memory test on the evaluation of brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martín-Luengo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory tests are frequently used to measure the effectiveness of an advertisement. However, as different tests provide different kinds of information it is important to know which type of test is the most appropriate. The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different memory tests on the number of brands recalled and the level of interest generated by them. A group of participants wrote down all the brands of any kind of product that they remembered having seen advertised (free recall test and rated their interest in each brand. Subsequently, the participants were given a list of 27 categories and wrote down the brands they associated with the categories (cued recall test and also rated their level of interest. The results showed that although the participants generated more brand names with the cued recall test, the brand names mentioned in the free recall test generated greater interest. These results highlight the importance of choosing the correct memory test to measure the effect of publicity.

  12. Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank (North Carolina State University); Fiala, David (North Carolina State University); Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2012-05-01

    Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

  13. Pigeons exhibit higher accuracy for chosen memory tests than for forced memory tests in duration matching-to-sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Allison; Santi, Angelo

    2011-03-01

    Following training to match 2- and 8-sec durations of feederlight to red and green comparisons with a 0-sec baseline delay, pigeons were allowed to choose to take a memory test or to escape the memory test. The effects of sample omission, increases in retention interval, and variation in trial spacing on selection of the escape option and accuracy were studied. During initial testing, escaping the test did not increase as the task became more difficult, and there was no difference in accuracy between chosen and forced memory tests. However, with extended training, accuracy for chosen tests was significantly greater than for forced tests. In addition, two pigeons exhibited higher accuracy on chosen tests than on forced tests at the short retention interval and greater escape rates at the long retention interval. These results have not been obtained in previous studies with pigeons when the choice to take the test or to escape the test is given before test stimuli are presented. It appears that task-specific methodological factors may determine whether a particular species will exhibit the two behavioral effects that were initially proposed as potentially indicative of metacognition.

  14. Test-retest reliability and validity of the Sniffin' TOM odor memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Zehner, Cora; Larsson, Maria; Zucco, Gesualdo M; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Few attempts have been made to develop an olfactory test that captures episodic retention of olfactory information. Assessment of episodic odor memory is of particular interest in aging and in the cognitively impaired as both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss have been targeted as reliable hallmarks of cognitive decline and impending dementia. Here, 96 healthy participants (18-92 years) and an additional 19 older people with mild cognitive impairment were tested (73-82 years). Participants were presented with 8 common odors with intentional encoding instructions that were followed by a yes-no recognition test. After recognition completion, participants were asked to identify all odors by means of free or cued identification. A retest of the odor memory test (Sniffin' TOM = test of odor memory) took place 17 days later. The results revealed satisfactory test-retest reliability (0.70) of odor recognition memory. Both recognition and identification performance were negatively affected by age and more pronounced among the cognitively impaired. In conclusion, the present work presents a reliable, valid, and simple test of episodic odor recognition memory that may be used in clinical groups where both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss are prevalent preclinically such as Alzheimer's disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Object Context-place-location Paradigm for Testing Spatial Memory in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesburguères, Edith; Tsokas, Panayiotis; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Fenton, André Antonio

    2017-04-20

    This protocol was originally designed to examine long-term spatial memory in PKMζ knockout ( i.e ., PKMζ-null) mice (Tsokas et al ., 2016). Our main goal was to test whether the ability of these animals to maintain previously acquired spatial information was sensitive to the type and complexity of the spatial information that needs to be remembered. Accordingly, we modified and combined into a single protocol, three novelty-preference tests, specifically the object-in-context, object-in-place and object-in-location tests, adapted from previous studies in rodents (Mumby et al ., 2002; Langston and Wood, 2010; Barker and Warburton, 2011). During the training (learning) phase of the procedure, mice are repeatedly exposed to three different environments in which they learn the spatial arrangement of an environment-specific set of non-identical objects. After this learning phase is completed, each mouse receives three different memory tests configured as environment mismatches, in which the previously learned objects-in-space configurations have been modified from the original training situation. The mismatch tests differ in their cognitive demands due to the type of spatial association that is manipulated, specifically evaluating memory for object-context and object-place associations. During each memory test, the time differential spent exploring the novel (misplaced) and familiar objects is computed as an index of novelty discrimination. This index is the behavioral measure of memory recall of the previously acquired spatial associations.

  16. Measuring Episodic Memory Across the Lifespan: NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Sureyya S.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Gershon, Richard; Temkin, Nancy R.; Heaton, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory is one of the most important cognitive domains that involves acquiring, storing and recalling new information. In this article, we describe a new measure developed for the NIH Toolbox, called the Picture Sequence Memory Test (PSMT) that is the first to examine episodic memory across the age range from 3 to 85. We describe the development of the measure and present validation data for ages 20 to 85. The PSMT involves presentation of sequences of pictured objects and activities in a fixed order on a computer screen and simultaneously verbally described, that the participant must remember and then reproduce over three learning trials. The results indicate good test–retest reliability and construct validity. Performance is strongly related to well-established “gold standard” measures of episodic memory and, as expected, much less well correlated with those of a measure of vocabulary. It shows clear decline with aging in parallel with a gold standard summary measure and relates to several other demographic factors and to self-reported general health status. The PSMT appears to be a reliable and valid test of episodic memory for adults, a finding similar to those found for the same measure with children. PMID:24960230

  17. Fracture evaluation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this report period, efforts have concentrated on defining the requirements for shallow-flaw beam testing. Analyses have been made to envelope the significant parameters for both deep- and shallow-flaw beams for three-point loading; that is, load to initiation of a frangible flaw, load to plastic collapse, LLD, and CMOD. An assessment was made of facilities capable of performing the tests identified by the parametric analyses discussed above. Two testing machines were identified for performing the scoped test series, the first a 550-kip Instron machine assigned to the Pressure Vessel Technology Section located in Building 9204-1 at the Y-12 Plant and the second a 220-kip MTS machine assigned to a mechanical testing group located at the K-25 Site. An existing bend test fixture previously used in the HSST clad plate test series is being modified for use in testing beams under other sponsorship but will be available for shared usage with the HSST shallow-flaw beam testing activities. To prevent the shared usage from having an adverse impact on the logistics of the HSST Program, the decision was made to procure a bend test fixture tailored specifically to serve the shallow flaw beam test series. A specification was prepared and procurement initiated. A survey is in progress for determining sources and costs of displacement-measuring instrumentation from both foreign and domestic sources. It appears that existing direct current displacement transducers available to the HSST Program may be adequate for the LLD measurements. These devices will be employed in the shakedown tests that are planned. A safety and environmental survey assessment for the beam testing conforming to the revised DOE rules has been prepared and approved

  18. The Role of Long-Term Memory in a Test of Visual Working Memory: Proactive Facilitation but No Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Awh, Edward; Sutterer, David W.

    2017-01-01

    We report 4 experiments examining whether associations in visual working memory are subject to proactive interference from long-term memory (LTM). Following a long-term learning phase in which participants learned the colors of 120 unique objects, a working memory (WM) test was administered in which participants recalled the precise colors of 3…

  19. Memory complaints and test performance in healthy elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Paulo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the use of a structured self-report questionnaire with direct questioning about memory problems, 71 healthy and independent aged individuals (63 women from the community without risk factors for cognitive deficits were objectively asked about subjective memory complaints (SMC, given the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q and then submitted to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT. SMC positively correlated with higher scores on MAC-Q, although a significant percentage of the sample had SMC and lower scores on MAC-Q and also no SMC and higher scores on MAC-Q. Performance on RAVLT was significantly worse (p<0.05 for the group presenting SMC but not for the group with higher scores on the MAC-Q. We conclude that direct questioning maybe more clinically significant than a self report questionnaire, at least for elderly persons from the community without risk factors for cognitive decline or depression.

  20. Children's memories of removal: a test of attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Baugerud, Gunn Astrid; Ovenstad, Kristianne Stigsdatter; Goodman, Gail S

    2013-02-01

    We report a study of parents' attachment orientations and children's autobiographical memory for an experience that according to Bowlby's (1982) attachment theory should be particularly threatening-children's forced separation from their parents. It was hypothesized that individual differences in parents' attachment orientations would be associated with children's distress and memory for this highly traumatic event. Children (n = 28) were observed during forced removal from home or school by Child Protective Services due to allegations of child maltreatment. Children's memory for the removal was tested 1 week later, and biological parents (n = 28) completed an adult attachment measure. Parental attachment anxiety significantly predicted children's distress during less stressful phases of the removal, R(2) = .25, and parents' attachment-related avoidance predicted fewer correct memory reports from the children (i.e., fewer hits to open-ended questions, R(2) = .16, and fewer hits to direct questions, R(2) = .27). The findings indicate that attachment theory provides important guidance for understanding children's autobiographical memory for traumatic events. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. Evaluating software testing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, R. W., Jr.; Basili, V. R.; Page, J.; Mcgarry, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The strategies of code reading, functional testing, and structural testing are compared in three aspects of software testing: fault detection effectiveness, fault detection cost, and classes of faults detected. The major results are the following: (1) Code readers detected more faults than did those using the other techniques, while functional tester detected more faults than did structural testers; (2) Code readers had a higher fault detection rate than did those using the other methods, while there was no difference between functional testers and structural testers; (3) Subjects testing the abstract data type detected the most faults and had the highest fault detection rate, while individuals testing the database maintainer found the fewest faults and spent the most effort testing; (4) Subjects of intermediate and junior expertise were not different in number or percentage of faults found, fault detection rate, or fault detection effort; (5) subjects of advanced expertise found a greater number of faults than did the others, found a greater percentage of faults than did just those of junior expertise, and were not different from the others in either fault detection rate or effort; and (6) Code readers and functional testers both detected more omission faults and more control faults than did structural testers, while code readers detected more interface faults than did those using the other methods.

  2. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison E Nickel

    Full Text Available While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test; for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test. Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness.

  3. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Allison E; Henke, Katharina; Hannula, Deborah E

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test); for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test). Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness.

  4. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Allison E.; Henke, Katharina; Hannula, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test); for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test). Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness. PMID:26512726

  5. Education did not interact with major depression on performance of memory tests in acute southern Brazilian in patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Analuiza Camozzato; de Almeida, Marcelo Pio; Delgado, Vera; Chaves, Marcia Lorena Fagundes

    2007-01-01

    The relationship of cognitive function to depression in older adults has become a topic of extensive clinical interest and research. Objective To analyze association between cognitive/memory performance,Major Depression, and education in 206 inpatients from the Psychiatry and Internal Medicine Departments. Methods Patients were evaluated by the Mini Mental State Examination, a battery of memory tests, and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Depression patients comprised 45 severe and 42 mild/moderate, according to the Montgomery-Asberg scale. The effect of psychoactive drugs was recorded (30% drug-free). Education was measured in years. Cognitive/memory tests assessed five domains: general mental functioning, attention, sustained attention/working memory, learning memory (verbal), and remote memory. An index for memory impairment was created (positivity: 50% of tests below cutoff). Results The chief effect on worse performance was Major Depression for the domains (age and education adjusted) of attention, learning, remote memory, and general functioning. For the domain “sustained attention and working memory”, only severely depressed patients differed from the medical controls (p=.008). Education showed an independent effect on test performances. No interaction between depression and educational status was observed.We also observed an independent effect of psychoactive drugs on some cognitive/memory domains. Logistic Regression showed Major Depression as the main risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusions These data demonstrated association of Major Depression with impaired cognitive performance independent of educational attainment or psychiatric medications. PMID:29213364

  6. Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current nondestructive testing for retired crankshafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chen; Hua, Lin; Wang, Xiaokai; Wang, Zhou; Qin, Xunpeng; Fang, Zhou [Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To verify the validity of the Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current (CMMEC) testing for crankshafts, we use this technique to test a 12-cylinder V-design diesel crankshaft. First, the stress distribution in the crankshaft was obtained under 12 working conditions using a Finite element (FE) model that complied with the commercial FE code ABAQUS. Second, Magnetic memory testing (MMT) and Eddy current testing (ECT) were adopted to detect the regions of stress concentration in the crankshaft and the specific location of cracks based on simulation results. Lastly, magnetic particle testing was conducted to detect and display the corresponding crack to verify the CMMEC testing results. The MMT and ECT results can provide basis and guidance for the remanufacture and life evaluation of retired crankshafts.

  7. Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current nondestructive testing for retired crankshafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Chen; Hua, Lin; Wang, Xiaokai; Wang, Zhou; Qin, Xunpeng; Fang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    To verify the validity of the Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current (CMMEC) testing for crankshafts, we use this technique to test a 12-cylinder V-design diesel crankshaft. First, the stress distribution in the crankshaft was obtained under 12 working conditions using a Finite element (FE) model that complied with the commercial FE code ABAQUS. Second, Magnetic memory testing (MMT) and Eddy current testing (ECT) were adopted to detect the regions of stress concentration in the crankshaft and the specific location of cracks based on simulation results. Lastly, magnetic particle testing was conducted to detect and display the corresponding crack to verify the CMMEC testing results. The MMT and ECT results can provide basis and guidance for the remanufacture and life evaluation of retired crankshafts.

  8. Memory for emotional events: The role of time of testing and type of test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Goergen Brust

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of emotion on memory performance is widely debated in the scientific literature. In the present paper, the relation between emotion and memory was addressed in three experiments using the Slideshow Procedure. In the first experiment, 128 participants’ memory was tested for one of two versions of the Procedure (arousal or neutral through free recall. In the second experiment, 75 participants were asked to recall the information of the arousal version immediately after or one week after watching it. In the third experiment, 75 participants watched the arousal version and answered either a free recall or a recognition test one week after. The results suggested that memory for arousal events is better when tested immediately after the stimuli using free recall.

  9. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non...... and converged satisfactorily with established non-affective verbal tests. Immediate recall (IMR) for positive words exceeded IMR for negative words in the healthy sample. Relatedly, individuals with SAD showed a significantly larger decrease in positive recall from summer to winter than healthy controls...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory....

  10. Frontal theta activity during working memory in test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Gao, Xin; Zhou, Renlai

    2015-03-04

    Previous studies have shown that working memory (WM) processes are related to frontal-midline theta (FM-theta) activity (4-8 Hz) and test anxiety impairs WM performance. However, the effect of test anxiety on FM-theta activity during WM has not been investigated as yet. To examine this question, 37 undergraduates were asked to complete a modified reading span task involving neutral working memory capacity (WMC) and emotional WMC while their electroencephalography was measured. The results showed that relative to neutral WMC performance (the ability to remember the letter lists in the context of valence-neutral sentences), emotional WMC performance (the ability to remember the letter lists in the context of test-related sentences) was poorer for highly test anxious participants compared with lowly test anxious participants. Relative to FM-theta activity during remembering the letter lists in the valence-neutral context, FM-theta activity was weaker during remembering the letter lists in the test-related context for highly test anxious participants compared with lowly test anxious participants. These findings indicate that FM-theta is an index not only for successful WM manipulation but also for efficient prefrontal cortex functioning during WM.

  11. LEARNING AND MEMORY TESTS IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for functional tests to assess the impact of chemicals on cognitive function in offspring following maternal exposure. A test of associative learning and memory is to be conducted around th...

  12. Evaluation of Ferroelectric Materials for Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    1014 1-Mev neutrons/cm 2 without performance degradation [Ref. 4: p. 14001 . Basically, the radiation hardness of a ferroelectric memory device is...shows this relationship for PZT thin- films [Ref. 29: p. 790, Fig. 6]. 250 ,5200 , toA (Tc-T)m ..? - Tc- 663K ISO m 1.73 ± 0.21 I- I-s 10I - 0 -50 , o)0 I...decreases as the material is brought toward the transition temperature from below and the ratio of the c axes (shorter axes) to the a axes (longer axes

  13. A performance evaluation of in-memory databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Talha Kabakus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of NoSQL databases has increased due to the need of (1 processing vast amount of data faster than the relational database management systems by taking the advantage of highly scalable architecture, (2 flexible (schema-free data structure, and, (3 low latency and high performance. Despite that memory usage is not major criteria to evaluate performance of algorithms, since these databases serve the data from memory, their memory usages are also experimented alongside the time taken to complete each operation in the paper to reveal which one uses the memory most efficiently. Currently there exists over 225 NoSQL databases that provide different features and characteristics. So it is necessary to reveal which one provides better performance for different data operations. In this paper, we experiment the widely used in-memory databases to measure their performance in terms of (1 the time taken to complete operations, and (2 how efficiently they use memory during operations. As per the results reported in this paper, there is no database that provides the best performance for all data operations. It is also proved that even though a RDMS stores its data in memory, its overall performance is worse than NoSQL databases.

  14. Memory assessment and depression: testing for factor structure and measurement invariance of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition across a clinical and matched control sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Between-group comparisons are permissible and meaningfully interpretable only if diagnostic instruments are proved to measure the same latent dimensions across different groups. Addressing this issue, the present study was carried out to provide a rigorous test of measurement invariance. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine which model solution could best explain memory performance as measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in a clinical depression sample and in healthy controls. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate the evidence for measurement invariance. A three-factor model solution including the dimensions of auditory memory, visual memory, and visual working memory was identified to best fit the data in both samples, and measurement invariance was partially satisfied. The results supported clinical utility of the WMS-IV--that is, auditory and visual memory performances of patients with depressive disorders are interpretable on the basis of the WMS-IV standardization data. However, possible differences in visual working memory functions between healthy and depressed individuals could restrict comparisons of the WMS-IV working memory index.

  15. Evaluating the relationship between breakfast pattern and short-term memory in junior high school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A; Sohrabi, Z; Eftekhari, M H

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between breakfast pattern and short-term memory in guidance-school students. Memory improves for subjects who have eaten breakfast. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms. What children eat for breakfast before going to school is very important. A total of 150 junior high school girls were taken from a subject pool in four schools in Shiraz (capital of the Fars Province in Iran). They filled out the socio-economic questionnaires as well as food frequency questionnaires for breakfast and provided two-three day breakfast records in two different seasons and their short-term memories were evaluated by Weksler test socio-economic conditions and dietary intakes were analyzed. The results of the study showed that there was no correlation between parents job, students mean age and their school grades with their memory scores. Dietary analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between local soup consumption in breakfast and memory scores. Food record analysis showed no correlation between fat, cholesterol, protein, vitamin B6, B12, calorie and iodine intake in breakfast and memory scores, but there was a positive correlation between carbohydrate, iron and vitamin B3 intake in breakfast and memory scores, similarly there was a positive correlation between B12 intake in the breakfast and students' average school grades during the year.

  16. The Metamemory Approach to Confidence: A Test Using Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William F.; Sampaio, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The metamemory approach to memory confidence was extended and elaborated to deal with semantic memory tasks. The metamemory approach assumes that memory confidence is based on the products and processes of a completed memory task, as well as metamemory beliefs that individuals have about how their memory products and processes relate to memory…

  17. The Cambridge Car Memory Test: a task matched in format to the Cambridge Face Memory Test, with norms, reliability, sex differences, dissociations from face memory, and expertise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Tavashmi, Raka; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Edwards, Mark; Duchaine, Bradley

    2012-06-01

    Many research questions require a within-class object recognition task matched for general cognitive requirements with a face recognition task. If the object task also has high internal reliability, it can improve accuracy and power in group analyses (e.g., mean inversion effects for faces vs. objects), individual-difference studies (e.g., correlations between certain perceptual abilities and face/object recognition), and case studies in neuropsychology (e.g., whether a prosopagnosic shows a face-specific or object-general deficit). Here, we present such a task. Our Cambridge Car Memory Test (CCMT) was matched in format to the established Cambridge Face Memory Test, requiring recognition of exemplars across view and lighting change. We tested 153 young adults (93 female). Results showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .84) and a range of scores suitable both for normal-range individual-difference studies and, potentially, for diagnosis of impairment. The mean for males was much higher than the mean for females. We demonstrate independence between face memory and car memory (dissociation based on sex, plus a modest correlation between the two), including where participants have high relative expertise with cars. We also show that expertise with real car makes and models of the era used in the test significantly predicts CCMT performance. Surprisingly, however, regression analyses imply that there is an effect of sex per se on the CCMT that is not attributable to a stereotypical male advantage in car expertise.

  18. Test Reviews: Reynolds, C., & Voress, J. K. (2007). "Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition." Austin, TX: PRO-ED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Decker, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition (TOMAL-2), published by PRO-ED, which constitutes a recent revision of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL; Reynolds & Bigler, 1994). Advertised as the "single most comprehensive memory battery available for the entire age range of 5 years through 59 years of age", the TOMAL-2…

  19. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  20. Evaluation of architectural paradigms for addressing theprocessor-memory gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliker, Leonid; Gorden, Grime; Husbands, Parry; Chame, Jacqualine

    2003-07-04

    Many high performance applications run well below the peak arithmetic performance of the underlying machine, with inefficiencies often attributed to poor memory system behavior. In the context of scientific computing we examine three emerging processors designed to address the well-known gap between processor and memory performance through the exploitation of data parallelism. The VIRAM architecture uses novel PIM technology to combine embedded DRAM with a vector co-processor for exploiting its large bandwidth potential. The DIVA architecture incorporates a collection of PIM chips as smart-memory coprocessors to a conventional microprocessor, and relies on superword-level parallelism to make effective use of the available memory bandwidth. The Imagine architecture provides a stream-aware memory hierarchy to support the tremendous processing potential of SIMD controlled VLIW clusters. First we develop a scalable synthetic probe that allows us to parametize key performance attributes of VIRAM, DIVA and Imagine while capturing the performance crossover points of these architectures. Next we present results for scientific kernels with different sets of computational characteristics and memory access patterns. Our experiments allow us to evaluate the strategies employed to exploit data parallelism, isolate the set of application characteristics best suited to each architecture and show a promising direction towards interfacing leading-edge processor technology with high-end scientific computations.

  1. A modified parallel paradigm for clinical evaluation of auditory echoic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, Shotaro; Yumoto, Masato; Itoh, Kenji; Yamakawa, Keiko; Mizuochi, Tomomi; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-05-12

    We established a new parallel paradigm for mismatch negativity by presenting repetitive trains of three consonant-vowel syllables and those of three sinusoidal tones alternately. Magnetoencephalography was performed to test the new method, and mismatch negativities in six study participants with normal hearing were compared with the results of the conventional oddball paradigm. Peak amplitude and latencies of mismatch negativity showed no significant difference between the methods. The maximum amplitude in short memory probe interval of 1.0 s was significantly larger than in long memory probe interval of 3.0 s, demonstrating decay in auditory echoic memory caused by a prolonged memory probe interval. The new method facilitated simultaneous evaluation of mismatch negativity with various stimuli in a shorter period.

  2. Memory, Cognition and the Endogenous Evoked Potentials of the Brain: the Estimation of the Disturbance of Cognitive Functions and Capacity of Working Memory Without the Psychological Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnezditskiy, V V; Korepina, O S; Chatskaya, A V; Klochkova, O I

    2017-01-01

    Cognition, cognitive and memory impairments is widely discussed in the literature, especially in the psycho physiological and the neurologic. In essence, this literature is dedicated to the psycho physiological tests, different scales. However, instrument neurophysiologic methods not so widely are used for these purposes. This review is dedicated to the instrument methods of neurophysiology, in particular to the endogenous evoked potentials method Р 300 (by characteristic latency 300 ms), in the estimation of cognitive functions and memory, to their special features dependent on age and to special features to their changes with the pathology. Method cognitive EP - Р 300 is the response of the brain, recorded under the conditions of the identification of the significant distinguishing stimulus, it facilitates the inspection of cognitive functions and memory in the healthy persons and patients with different manifestation of cognitive impairments. In the review it is shown on the basis of literature and our own data, that working (operative) memory and the capacity of the working memory it can be evaluated with the aid of the indices Р 300 within the normal subject and with the pathology. Testing with the estimation of working memory according to latent period of the peak Р 300 can be carried out and when conducting psychological testing is not possible for any reasons. Together with these cognitive EP are used for evidence pharmacotherapy of many neurotropic drugs.

  3. A dual memory theory of the testing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Timothy C; Pan, Steven C

    2017-06-05

    A new theoretical framework for the testing effect-the finding that retrieval practice is usually more effective for learning than are other strategies-is proposed, the empirically supported tenet of which is that separate memories form as a consequence of study and test events. A simplest case quantitative model is derived from that framework for the case of cued recall. With no free parameters, that model predicts both proportion correct in the test condition and the magnitude of the testing effect across 10 experiments conducted in our laboratory, experiments that varied with respect to material type, retention interval, and performance in the restudy condition. The model also provides the first quantitative accounts of (a) the testing effect as a function of performance in the restudy condition, (b) the upper bound magnitude of the testing effect, (c) the effect of correct answer feedback, (d) the testing effect as a function of retention interval for the cases of feedback and no feedback, and (e) the effect of prior learning method on subsequent learning through testing. Candidate accounts of several other core phenomena in the literature, including test-potentiated learning, recognition versus cued recall training effects, cued versus free recall final test effects, and other select transfer effects, are also proposed. Future prospects and relations to other theories are discussed.

  4. Testing of the structural evaluation test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Bobbe, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    In the evaluation of the safety of radioactive material transportation it is important to consider the response of Type B packages to environments more severe than that prescribed by the hypothetical accident sequence in Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (NRC 1995). The impact event in this sequence is a 9-meter drop onto an essentially unyielding target, resulting in an impact velocity of 13.4 m/s. The behavior of 9 packages when subjected to impacts more severe than this is not well known. It is the purpose of this program to evaluate the structural response of a test package to these environments. Several types of structural response are considered. Of primary importance is the behavior of the package containment boundary, including the bolted closure and 0-rings. Other areas of concern are loss of shielding capability due to lead slump and the deceleration loading of package contents, that may cause damage to them. This type of information is essential for conducting accurate risk assessments on the transportation of radioactive materials. Currently very conservative estimates of the loss of package protection are used in these assessments. This paper will summarize the results of a regulatory impact test and three extra-regulatory impact tests on a sample package

  5. Assessment of nondeclarative learning in severe Alzheimer dementia: the Implicit Memory Test (IMT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Remmerswaal, M.; Wilson, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD) have impaired explicit memory, more automatic, implicit aspects of learning and memory may be relatively preserved. However, neuropsychological tests for the assessment of implicit memory are lacking. This study examines a newly developed test, the

  6. Assessment of Nondeclarative Learning in Severe Alzheimer Dementia The Implicit Memory Test (IMT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Remmerswaal, M.; Wilson, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD) have impaired explicit memory, more automatic, implicit aspects of learning and memory may be relatively preserved. However, neuropsychological tests for the assessment of implicit memory are lacking. This study examines a newly developed test, the

  7. Not All Order Memory Is Equal: Test Demands Reveal Dissociations in Memory for Sequence Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Tanya R.; MacLeod, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Remembering the order of a sequence of events is a fundamental feature of episodic memory. Indeed, a number of formal models represent temporal context as part of the memory system, and memory for order has been researched extensively. Yet, the nature of the code(s) underlying sequence memory is still relatively unknown. Across 4 experiments that…

  8. Influence of age and education on the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) among healthy elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steibel, Nicole Maineri; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Finger, Geisa; Gomes, Irênio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Memory is a cognitive domain extensively evaluated in the neuropsychiatric setting. Assessment tools with appropriate norms for age and educational level are necessary for the proper interpretation of results. Objective: To present normative data for older adults stratified by age and education for the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT). The effect of age and education on the total and sub-test scores was also analyzed. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a sample of 233 healthy elderly from a third-age group in Porto Alegre with an average age of 70 (SD 7.9) years and 10.7 (SD 4.8) years of education was carried out. The RBMT is considered an ecologically valid memory test, since it includes tasks similar to everyday situations. The sample was stratified into the following age groups: 60-69 years, 70-79 years and > 80 years. The sample was also divided into individuals with < 8 years and ≥ 8 years of education. Pearson's Chi-squared test and Spearman correlations were used. Results: The elderly participants with low educational level had worse performance on all sub-tests, except the Pictures, Messages, Belongings and Orientation. Older elderly performed worse for total RBMT score and on the Face Recognition, Immediate and Delayed Route, Messages and Belongings subtests (p ≤ 0.005). Conclusion: Education and age significantly influenced RBMT scores. Therefore, norms for this test should be stratified according to these factors. PMID:29213427

  9. Fault Localization Method by Partitioning Memory Using Memory Map and the Stack for Automotive ECU Software Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanhyo Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of the automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU and its software in cars is increasing. Therefore, as the functional complexity of such software increases, so does the likelihood of software-related faults. Therefore, it is important to ensure the reliability of ECU software in order to ensure automobile safety. For this reason, systematic testing methods are required that can guarantee software quality. However, it is difficult to locate a fault during testing with the current ECU development system because a tester performs the black-box testing using a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL simulator. Consequently, developers consume a large amount of money and time for debugging because they perform debugging without any information about the location of the fault. In this paper, we propose a method for localizing the fault utilizing memory information during black-box testing. This is likely to be of use to developers who debug automotive software. In order to observe whether symbols stored in the memory have been updated, the memory is partitioned by a memory map and the stack, thus the fault candidate region is reduced. A memory map method has the advantage of being able to finely partition the memory, and the stack method can partition the memory without a memory map. We validated these methods by applying these to HiL testing of the ECU for a body control system. The preliminary results indicate that a memory map and the stack reduce the possible fault locations to 22% and 19% of the updated memory, respectively.

  10. The novel object recognition memory: neurobiology, test procedure, and its modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, M; Biala, G

    2012-05-01

    Animal models of memory have been considered as the subject of many scientific publications at least since the beginning of the twentieth century. In humans, memory is often accessed through spoken or written language, while in animals, cognitive functions must be accessed through different kind of behaviors in many specific, experimental models of memory and learning. Among them, the novel object recognition test can be evaluated by the differences in the exploration time of novel and familiar objects. Its application is not limited to a field of research and enables that various issues can be studied, such as the memory and learning, the preference for novelty, the influence of different brain regions in the process of recognition, and even the study of different drugs and their effects. This paper describes the novel object recognition paradigms in animals, as a valuable measure of cognition. The purpose of this work was to review the neurobiology and methodological modifications of the test commonly used in behavioral pharmacology.

  11. Application of new WAIS-III/WMS-III discrepancy scores for evaluating memory functioning: relationship between intellectual and memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between memory and intellectual ability has received some support as a means for evaluating memory impairment. Recently, comprehensive base rate tables for General Ability Index (GAI) minus memory discrepancy scores (i.e., GAI-memory) were developed using the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (Lange, Chelune, & Tulsky, in press). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to identify memory impairment in 34 patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (DAT) versus a sample of 34 demographically matched healthy participants. On average, patients with DAT obtained significantly lower scores on all WAIS-III and WMS-III indexes and had larger GAI-memory discrepancy scores. Clinical outcome analyses revealed that GAI-memory scores were useful at identifying memory impairment in patients with DAT versus matched healthy participants. However, GAI-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from the memory indexes alone. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  12. Suppressing Unwanted Autobiographical Memories Reduces Their Automatic Influences: Evidence From Electrophysiology and an Implicit Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Bergström, Zara M; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress unwanted autobiographical memories in a memory-detection context involving a mock crime. Participants encoded sensorimotor-rich memories by enacting a lab-based crime (stealing a ring) and received instructions to suppress memory of the crime in order to evade guilt detection in a brain-wave-based concealed-information test. Aftereffects of suppression on automatic memory processes were measured in an autobiographical Implicit Association Test. Results showed that suppression attenuated brain-wave activity (the P300) associated with crime-relevant memory retrieval, which rendered waveforms from innocent and guilty participants indistinguishable. However, the two groups could nevertheless be discriminated via the late-posterior-negative slow wave, which may reflect the need to monitor response conflict arising between voluntary suppression and automatic recognition processes. Finally, extending recent findings that suppression can impair implicit memory processes, we provide novel evidence that suppression reduces automatic cognitive biases often associated with actual autobiographical memories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Quality of education and memory test performance in older men: the New York University Paragraph Recall Test normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin; Caban-Holt, Allison; Dennis, Brandon C; Kryscio, Richard; Schmitt, Frederick

    2013-09-01

    Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders.One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one's literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill. Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores. Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented. The current study provides evidence and support for normativedata stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education.

  14. Clinical utility of auditory memory testing in a heart failure population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Dustin B; Jung, Miyeon; Pressler, Susan J; Sullivan, Barbara-Jean; Koelling, Todd; Giordani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The self-care regimen necessary in heart failure (HF) is notably complex. A complication to integrating new knowledge and behaviors is that impaired cognition has been frequently reported in patients with HF, which significantly impacts patients' health, admission and mortality rates, and instrumental activities of daily living. The identification of reliable cognitive screening tools to assess potential difficulties in performing self-care for cardiac populations is essential. As such, the current purposes were to evaluate the validity and stability of the International Shopping List (ISL) auditory learning subtest from the computerized CogState battery as a screening tool in HF populations, determine the ISL's ability to predict functional declines, and evaluate the task's sensitivity in myocardial infarction. Forty patients with chronic HF were enrolled in a longitudinal study evaluating the impact of a cognitive training intervention. Baseline neuropsychological and behavioral measurements before treatment were used in the current study, including measures of auditory memory, orientation, verbal fluency, processing speed, and activities of daily living, and a subset of patients (n = 17) received repeat testing at 8 weeks on some tasks. Analyses also were performed with patients organized based on myocardial infarction status. The current study indicated that the ISL performed comparably with an established measure of auditory memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised; r = 0.70, P auditory memory subtest, the ISL, seems to be a beneficial tool in evaluating cognitive change in HF patients. Particularly given its cross-cultural sensitivity and ease of administration and scoring, this task may provide assistance to quickly and reliably monitor memory functioning in these vulnerable patients and gauge their potential for self-care behaviors.

  15. Maintenance proficiency evaluation test bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Loran

    2003-01-01

    The Maintenance Proficiency Evaluation Test Bank (MPETB) is an Electric Power Research Institute- (EPRJ-) operated, utility-sponsored means of developing, maintaining, and disseminating secure, high-quality written and performance maintenance proficiency tests. EPRTs charter is to ensure that all tests and test items that go into the Test Bank have been validated, screened for reliability, and evaluated to high standards of psychometric excellence. Proficiency tests of maintenance personnel.(mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control [I and C] technicians) are most often used to determine if an experienced employee is capable of performing maintenance tasks without further training. Such tests provide objective evidence for decisions to exempt an employee from what, for the employee, is unnecessary training. This leads to considerable savings in training costs and increased productivity because supervisors can assign personnel to tasks at which their competence is proven. The ultimate objective of proficiency evaluation is to ensure that qualified maintenance personnel are available to meet the maintenance requirements of the plant Numerous task-specific MPE tests (both written and performance) have been developed and validated using the EPRI MPE methodology by the utilities participating in the MPETB project A task-specific MPE consists of a multiple-choice written examination and a multi-step performance evaluation that can be used to assess an individual's present knowledge and skill level for a given maintenance task. The MPETB contains MPEs and test items for the mechanical, electrical, and I and C classifications that are readily available to participating utilities. Presently, utilities are placing emphasis on developing MPEs to evaluate outage-related maintenance tasks that demonstrate the competency and qualifications of plant and contractor personnel before the start of outage work. Utilities are also using the MPE methodology and process to

  16. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  17. Object Location Memory: A Direct Test of the Verbal Memory Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; L'Hirondelle, N.

    2005-01-01

    Although the male advantage in traditional spatial abilities is well established, the female advantage in object location memory remains tentative. Object location memory is the only spatial ability that yields a female advantage, leading some to speculate that other factors, such as verbal memory, may solely account for the sex difference. The…

  18. Evaluering er andet end test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Poul

    2010-01-01

    samtale og iagttagelse i undervisningen vurderes meget højt og betydeligt højere end de nationale test. De former for evaluering, der tillægges størst betydning, indebærer dialog. Resultaterne viser derudover tydelige forskelle afhængig af skolekulturen på den enkelte skole....

  19. Specificity in autobiographical memory narratives correlates with performance on the Autobiographical Memory Test and prospectively predicts depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Mineka, Susan; McAdams, Dan P.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive marker in depression that is typically measured with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). The AMT is widely used, but the overreliance on a single methodology for assessing AMS is a limitation in the field. The current study investigated memory narratives as an alternative measure of AMS in an undergraduate student sample selected for being high or low on a measure of depressive symptoms (N = 55). We employed a multi-method design to compare narrative- and AMT-based measures of AMS. Participants generated personally significant self-defining memory narratives, and also completed two versions of the AMT (with and without instructions to retrieve specific memories). Greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives correlated with greater AMS in performance on both versions of the AMT in the full sample, and the patterns of relationships between the different AMS measures were generally similar in low and high dysphoric participants. Furthermore, AMS in self-defining memory narratives was prospectively associated with depressive symptom levels. Specifically, greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives predicted fewer depressive symptoms at a 10-week follow-up over and above baseline symptom levels. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:23240988

  20. Specificity in autobiographical memory narratives correlates with performance on the autobiographical memory test and prospectively predicts depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Mineka, Susan; McAdams, Dan P

    2013-01-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive marker in depression that is typically measured with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). The AMT is widely used, but the over-reliance on a single methodology for assessing AMS is a limitation in the field. The current study investigated memory narratives as an alternative measure of AMS in an undergraduate student sample selected for being high or low on a measure of depressive symptoms (N=55). We employed a multi-method design to compare narrative- and AMT-based measures of AMS. Participants generated personally significant self-defining memory narratives, and also completed two versions of the AMT (with and without instructions to retrieve specific memories). Greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives correlated with greater AMS in performance on both versions of the AMT in the full sample, and the patterns of relationships between the different AMS measures were generally similar in low and high dysphoric participants. Furthermore, AMS in self-defining memory narratives was prospectively associated with depressive symptom levels. Specifically, greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives predicted fewer depressive symptoms at a 10-week follow-up over and above baseline symptom levels. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  1. False memories and the DRM paradigm: effects of imagery, list, and test type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Merrin Creath; Bays, Rebecca Brooke; Zabrucky, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    Several researchers have reported that instructing participants to imagine items using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm lowers false memory rates (Foley, Wozniak, & Gillum, 2006). However, other researchers have found that imagery does not always lower false memory rates (Robin, 2010), and investigators have examined the effects of imagery manipulation on semantic but not phonological lists. In the present study, we presented 102 participants with semantic and phonological DRM lists, followed by a free recall test and final recognition test. Some participants received instructions to imagine list items during the study phase to facilitate memory, and others were simply told to remember list items. Imagery instructions enhanced correct memories and further suggested a trend for decreased false memories. A test type by list type interaction also emerged, with phonological lists eliciting higher false memories at recall, and semantic lists eliciting higher false memories at recognition. Directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  3. Memory-impairing effects of local anesthetics in an elevated plus-maze test in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Blatt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-training intracerebroventricular administration of procaine (20 µg/µl and dimethocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, local anesthetics of the ester class, prolonged the latency (s in the retention test of male and female 3-month-old Swiss albino mice (25-35 g body weight; N = 140 in the elevated plus-maze (mean ± SEM for 10 male mice: control = 41.2 ± 8.1; procaine = 78.5 ± 10.3; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 58.7 ± 12.3; 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 109.6 ± 5.73; for 10 female mice: control = 34.8 ± 5.8; procaine = 55.3 ± 13.4; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 59.9 ± 12.3 and 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 61.3 ± 11.1. However, lidocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, an amide class type of local anesthetic, failed to influence this parameter. Local anesthetics at the dose range used did not affect the motor coordination of mice exposed to the rota-rod test. These results suggest that procaine and dimethocaine impair some memory process(es in the plus-maze test. These findings are interpreted in terms of non-anesthetic mechanisms of action of these drugs on memory impairment and also confirm the validity of the elevated plus-maze for the evaluation of drugs affecting learning and memory in mice

  4. Programs for Testing Processor-in-Memory Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    The Multithreaded Microbenchmarks for Processor-In-Memory (PIM) Compilers, Simulators, and Hardware are computer programs arranged in a series for use in testing the performances of PIM computing systems, including compilers, simulators, and hardware. The programs at the beginning of the series test basic functionality; the programs at subsequent positions in the series test increasingly complex functionality. The programs are intended to be used while designing a PIM system, and can be used to verify that compilers, simulators, and hardware work correctly. The programs can also be used to enable designers of these system components to examine tradeoffs in implementation. Finally, these programs can be run on non-PIM hardware (either single-threaded or multithreaded) using the POSIX pthreads standard to verify that the benchmarks themselves operate correctly. [POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface for UNIX) is a set of standards that define how programs and operating systems interact with each other. pthreads is a library of pre-emptive thread routines that comply with one of the POSIX standards.

  5. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  6. [Evaluation of Significant Autobiographical Memories Scale: Design and structural validation at an exploratory level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolich, María; Azzollini, Susana

    2016-11-01

    Personal memories are multimodal cognitive representations. Nowadays, psychometric instruments which aim to assess signifcant memories phenomenological features are scarce. Consequently, the Evaluation of Signifcant Autobiographical Memories Scale was constructed and structural validated at an exploratory level. A total of 404 individuals from Buenos Aires city (Argentina) participated in the research. Initially, an expert judgment and a pilot study administration were carried out. Next, a homogeneity and a principal components analysis were implemented. To assess the scale reliability, Cronbach's alphas coefficients were analyzed. The fnal version has 30 Likert response items gathered in 8 dimensions. Satisfactory psychometric proprieties were obtained - internal consistency of .892 and a total explained variance of 65.78%. The scale provides two main scores regarding the total quantity and intensity of the phenomenological components as well as a partial score per each dimension. It is stated that the test will prove to be useful in the research feld as well as in the clinical area.

  7. Evaluation of the attentional capacities and working memory of early and late blind persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Caroline; Marin-Lamellet, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Although attentional processes and working memory seem to be significantly involved in the daily activities (particularly during navigating) of persons who are blind and who use these abilities to compensate for their lack of vision, few studies have investigated these mechanisms in this population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the selective, sustained and divided attention, attentional inhibition and switching and working memory of blind persons. Early blind, late blind and sighted participants completed neuropsychological tests that were designed or adapted to be achievable in the absence of vision. The results revealed that the early blind participants outperformed the sighted ones in selective, sustained and divided attention and working memory tests, and the late blind participants outperformed the sighted participants in selective, sustained and divided attention. However, no differences were found between the blind groups and the sighted group in the attentional inhibition and switching tests. Furthermore, no differences were found between the early and late blind participants in this set of tests. These results suggest that early and late blind persons can compensate for the lack of vision by an enhancement of the attentional and working memory capacities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  9. Operational Test and Evaluation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    effectiveness. Simpler models are better than complicated models. The urge to overpopulate a model with an abundance of parameters should be...data in MCOTEA test and evaluation, MCOTEA is the M&S User. Subject Matter Expert (SME) An individual who, by virtue of education , training, or...Expert : An individual who, by virtue of education , training, or experience, has expertise in a particular technical or operational discipline, system

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Memory Binding Test: Test-Retest Reliability and Convergent Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramunt, Nina; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Buschke, Herman; Lipton, Richard B; Masramon, Xavier; Gispert, Juan D; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Fauria, Karine; Molinuevo, José L

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory testing is fundamental for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is widely used for this purpose, it may not be sensitive enough for early detection of subtle decline in preclinical AD. The Memory Binding Test (MBT) intends to overcome this limitation. To analyze the test-retest reliability of the MBT and its convergent validity with the FCRST. 36 cognitively healthy participants of the ALFA Study, aged 45 to 65, were included for the test-retest study and 69 for the convergent analysis. They were visited twice in a period of 6 ± 2 weeks. Test-retest reliability was determined by the calculation of the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Score differences were studied by computing the mean percentage of score variation between visits and visualized by Bland-Altman plots. Convergent validity was determined by Pearson's correlations. ICC values in the test-retest reliability analysis of the MBT direct scores ranged from 0.64 to 0.76. Subjects showed consistent practice effects, with mean amounts of score increasing between 10% and 26%. Pearson correlation between MBT and FCSRT direct scores showed r values between 0.40 and 0.53. The FCSRT displayed ceiling effects not observed in the MBT. The MBT shows adequate test-retest reliability and overall moderate convergent validity with the FCSRT. Unlike the FCSRT, the MBT does not have ceiling effects and it may therefore be especially useful in longitudinal studies, facilitating the measurement of subtle memory performance decline and the detection of very early AD.

  11. Picture span test: measuring visual working memory capacity involved in remembering and comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Azumi; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2009-05-01

    The working memory system is assumed to operate with domain-specific (verbal and visuospatial) resources that support cognitive activities. However, in research on visuospatial working memory, an appropriate visual working memory task has not been established. For the present study, a novel task was developed: the picture span test (PST). This test requires memorizing parts of scene images while comprehending various scene situations simultaneously. Results of correlation analyses and a factor analysis among college students (n = 52) validated that PST can predict visuospatial cognitive skills whereas a simple visual storage task and a verbal working memory task cannot. Furthermore, an error analysis indicated that inhibition is important for visuospatial working memory. Additionally, PST is considered to reflect individual differences in the visual working memory capacity. These findings suggest that the PST is appropriate for measuring visual working memory capacity and can elucidate its relationship to higher cognition.

  12. Initial Results from On-Orbit Testing of the Fram Memory Test Experiment on the Fastsat Micro-Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeond, Todd C.; Sims, W. Herb; Varnavas,Kosta A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    The Memory Test Experiment is a space test of a ferroelectric memory device on a low Earth orbit satellite that launched in November 2010. The memory device being tested is a commercial Ramtron Inc. 512K memory device. The circuit was designed into the satellite avionics and is not used to control the satellite. The test consists of writing and reading data with the ferroelectric based memory device. Any errors are detected and are stored on board the satellite. The data is sent to the ground through telemetry once a day. Analysis of the data can determine the kind of error that was found and will lead to a better understanding of the effects of space radiation on memory systems. The test is one of the first flight demonstrations of ferroelectric memory in a near polar orbit which allows testing in a varied radiation environment. The initial data from the test is presented. This paper details the goals and purpose of this experiment as well as the development process. The process for analyzing the data to gain the maximum understanding of the performance of the ferroelectric memory device is detailed.

  13. Examining the relationship between WAIS-III premorbid intellectual functioning and WMS-III memory ability to evaluate memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend previous research by Lange and Chelune (2006) by evaluating the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to detect memory impairment using estimated premorbid GAI scores (i.e., GAI-E) rather than obtained GAI scores. Participants were 34 patients with Alzheimer's-type dementia and a sub-sample of 34 demographically matched participants from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample. GAI-memory discrepancy scores were more effective at differentiating Alzheimer's patients versus healthy controls when using estimated premorbid GAI scores than obtained GAI scores. However, GAI(E)-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from interpretation of the memory index scores alone. This was most likely due to the prevalence of obvious memory impairment in this patient population. Future research directions are discussed.

  14. The influence of symbolic literacy on memory: testing Plato's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskritt, M; Lee, K; Donald, M

    2001-03-01

    The present study examined the influence of the production of external symbols on memory strategies. Plato hypothesized that dependency on writing as an external memory store would be deterimental to memory. Three experiments were conducted to explore this hypothesis. Participants played Concentration, a memory game where players must find matching pairs of cards placed face down in an array. Participants were allowed to make notes to aid their performance under some experimental conditions, while under other conditions they could not. In Experiments 1 and 2, the unexpected removal of participants' notes revealed that the performance benefit was due to notes acting as a form of external memory storage, rather than as an aid to encoding information in memory. Experiment 3 qualified these findings by demonstrating that the identity of each card was retained in memory, while the location of each card tended to be stored in the participants' external notations. These data suggest a modified interpretation of Plato's hypothesis in that symbolic literacy may change how we remember information. Rather than storing all information in memory, we only have to retain the information necessary to use the much larger storage capacity of the external system. Thus, the introduction of external symbols allows for a change in how memory is adaptively distributed.

  15. Development of Next Generation Memory Test Experiment for Deployment on a Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd; Ho, Fat D.

    2012-01-01

    The original Memory Test Experiment successfully flew on the FASTSAT satellite launched in November 2010. It contained a single Ramtron 512K ferroelectric memory. The memory device went through many thousands of read/write cycles and recorded any errors that were encountered. The original mission length was schedule to last 6 months but was extended to 18 months. New opportunities exist to launch a similar satellite and considerations for a new memory test experiment should be examined. The original experiment had to be designed and integrated in less than two months, so the experiment was a simple design using readily available parts. The follow-on experiment needs to be more sophisticated and encompass more technologies. This paper lays out the considerations for the design and development of this follow-on flight memory experiment. It also details the results from the original Memory Test Experiment that flew on board FASTSAT. Some of the design considerations for the new experiment include the number and type of memory devices to be used, the kinds of tests that will be performed, other data needed to analyze the results, and best use of limited resources on a small satellite. The memory technologies that are considered are FRAM, FLASH, SONOS, Resistive Memory, Phase Change Memory, Nano-wire Memory, Magneto-resistive Memory, Standard DRAM, and Standard SRAM. The kinds of tests that could be performed are read/write operations, non-volatile memory retention, write cycle endurance, power measurements, and testing Error Detection and Correction schemes. Other data that may help analyze the results are GPS location of recorded errors, time stamp of all data recorded, radiation measurements, temperature, and other activities being perform by the satellite. The resources of power, volume, mass, temperature, processing power, and telemetry bandwidth are extremely limited on a small satellite. Design considerations must be made to allow the experiment to not interfere

  16. Space radiation evaluation of 16Mbit DRAMs for mass memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvel, P.; Lamothe, P.; Barillot, C.; Ecoffet, R.; Duzellier, S.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of Mass Memory Applications for space missions, 16 Mbit DRAM from IBM and TEXAS INSTRUMENTS have been evaluated to space radiation, by the CECIL heavy ions testing coordination group. This paper presents heavy ions, protons and total dose data results for 16 Mbit DRAMs from IBM and TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, including a 'built-in ECC' DRAM. Single Event Phenomena rate are calculated for low earth orbits

  17. Distributed practice can boost evaluative conditioning by increasing memory for the stimulus pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jasmin; Gast, Anne

    2017-09-01

    When presenting a neutral stimulus (CS) in close temporal and spatial proximity to a positive or negative stimulus (US) the former is often observed to adopt the valence of the latter, a phenomenon named evaluative conditioning (EC). It is already well established that under most conditions, contingency awareness is important for an EC effect to occur. In addition to that, some findings suggest that awareness of the stimulus pairs is not only relevant during the learning phase, but that it is also relevant whether memory for the pairings is still available during the measurement phase. As previous research has shown that memory is better after temporally distributed than after contiguous (massed) repetitions, it seems plausible that also EC effects are moderated by distributed practice manipulations. This was tested in the current studies. In two experiments with successful distributed practice manipulations on memory, we show that also the magnitude of the EC effect was larger for pairs learned under spaced compared to massed conditions. Both effects, on memory and on EC, are found after a within-participant and after a between-participant manipulation. However, we did not find significant differences in the EC effect for different conditions of spaced practice. These findings are in line with the assumption that EC is based on similar processes as memory for the pairings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of age-at-testing on verbal memory among children following severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Tamar; Ahonniska-Assa, Jaana; Levav, Miriam; Eliyahu, Roni; Peleg-Pilowsky, Tamar; Brezner, Amichai; Vakil, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Memory deficits are a common sequelae following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI), which often have serious implications on age-related academic skills. The current study examined verbal memory performance using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in a pediatric TBI sample. Verbal memory abilities as well as the effect of age at-testing on performance were examined. A sample of 67 children following severe TBI (age average = 12.3 ± 2.74) and 67 matched controls were evaluated using the RAVLT. Age effect at assessment was examined using two age groups: above and below 12 years of age during evaluation. Differences between groups were examined via the 9 RAVLT learning trials and the 7 composite scores conducted out of them. Children following TBI recalled significantly less words than controls on all RAVLT trials and had significantly lower scores on all composite scores. However, all of these scores fell within the low average range. Further analysis revealed significantly lower than average performance among the older children (above 12 years), while scores of the younger children following TBI fell within average limits. To conclude, verbal memory deficits among children following severe TBI demonstrate an age-at-testing effect with more prominent problems occurring above 12 years at the time of evaluation. Yet, age-appropriate performance among children below 12 years of age may not accurately describe memory abilities at younger ages following TBI. It is therefore recommended that clinicians address child's age at testing and avoid using a single test as an indicator of verbal memory functioning post TBI.

  19. Evaluating the RELM Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Sachs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider implications of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM test results with regard to earthquake forecasting. Prospective forecasts were solicited for M≥4.95 earthquakes in California during the period 2006–2010. During this period 31 earthquakes occurred in the test region with M≥4.95. We consider five forecasts that were submitted for the test. We compare the forecasts utilizing forecast verification methodology developed in the atmospheric sciences, specifically for tornadoes. We utilize a “skill score” based on the forecast scores λfi of occurrence of the test earthquakes. A perfect forecast would have λfi=1, and a random (no skill forecast would have λfi=2.86×10-3. The best forecasts (largest value of λfi for the 31 earthquakes had values of λfi=1.24×10-1 to λfi=5.49×10-3. The best mean forecast for all earthquakes was λ̅f=2.84×10-2. The best forecasts are about an order of magnitude better than random forecasts. We discuss the earthquakes, the forecasts, and alternative methods of evaluation of the performance of RELM forecasts. We also discuss the relative merits of alarm-based versus probability-based forecasts.

  20. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined.

  1. Detecting Memory Impairment in Deaf People: A New Test of Verbal Learning and Memory in British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Roy, Penny; Woll, Bencie; Atkinson, Joanna

    2016-06-26

    Most existing tests of memory and verbal learning in adults were created for spoken languages, and are unsuitable for assessing deaf people who rely on signed languages. In response to this need for sign language measures, the British Sign Language Verbal Learning and Memory Test (BSL-VLMT) was developed. It follows the format of the English language Hopkins Verbal Learning Test Revised, using standardized video-presentation with novel stimuli and instructions wholly in British Sign Language, and no English language requirement. Data were collected from 223 cognitively healthy deaf signers aged 50-89 and 12 deaf patients diagnosed with dementia. Normative data percentiles were derived for clinical use, and receiver-operating characteristic curves computed to explore the clinical potential and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The test showed good discrimination between the normative and clinical samples, providing preliminary evidence of clinical utility for identifying learning and memory impairment in older deaf signers with neurodegeneration. This innovative video testing approach transforms the ability to accurately detect memory impairments in deaf people and avoids the problems of using interpreters, with international potential for adapting similar tests into other signed languages. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Compact 4096-channel memory for microprocessor-aided spectra evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeberg, H.; Goerner, W.

    1985-01-01

    The microprocessor-based 4096-channel-memory (single stand by crate) allows the parallel coupling of two Ge(Li)-gamma spectrometers via DMA (4 μs dead time) and a programmed input (ca. 150 μs dead time), the accumulation of 32 K counts per channel and the free definition of ROI's. The software organizes the versatile use of low-price periphery (oscilloscope, line printer, key board) and carries out the quantitative evaluation of the spectra. The device has been applied in low- and high-level spectrometry and as a general purpose microprocessor. (author)

  3. When we test, do we stress? Impact of the testing environment on cortisol secretion and memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Pruessner, Jens; Lupien, Sonia J

    2013-08-01

    The majority of studies find that older adults have worse memory performance than young adults. However, contextual features in the testing environment may be perceived as stressful by older adults, increasing their stress hormone levels. Given the evidence that older adults are highly sensitive to the effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on memory performance, it is postulated that a stressful testing environment in older adults can lead to an acute stress response and to memory impairments. The current study compared salivary cortisol levels and memory performance in young and older adults tested in environments manipulated to be stressful (unfavourable condition) or not stressful (favourable condition) for each age group. 28 young adults and 32 older adults were tested in two testing conditions: (1) a condition favouring young adults (constructed to be less stressful for young adults), and (2) a condition favouring older adults (constructed to be less stressful for older adults). The main outcome measure was salivary cortisol levels. Additionally, immediate and delayed memory performances were assessed during each condition. In older adults only, we found significantly high cortisol levels and low memory performance in the condition favouring young adults. In contrast, cortisol levels were lower and memory performance was better when older adults were tested in conditions favouring them. There was no effect of testing condition in young adults. The results demonstrate that older adults' memory performance is highly sensitive to the testing environment. These findings have important implications for both research and clinical settings in which older adults are tested for memory performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Small Influence of Performing from Memory on Audience Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Kopiez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of an actual music stand on the evaluation of a videotaped audio-visual solo instrumental performance. Previous research has provided evidence that the presence of a score or music stand (obstructing the audience's view of the performer might negatively influence the evaluation of the performance. However, due to methodological ambiguities, results in previous studies cannot be regarded as definitive. Thus, we conducted a replication study of Williamon (1999 with better control over confounding variables (e.g., varying levels of technical proficiency in different conditions. A violoncello player performed two pieces for solo instrument: once with a music stand on stage (pretending to play from score and once without. The level of technical proficiency was kept constant in both performance presentations by the use of a pre-recorded, well-rehearsed performance from memory. Audio tracks were synchronized with the performance movements in a playback paradigm. Based on the performance evaluations from a web-based experiment (N = 471 participants, we found a significant but small effect size for the main effect of performance presentation (with vs. without music stand (d = 0.23. We conclude that the audience's appreciation of a particular performance from memory might be based on factors other than the objective performance quality.

  5. Evaluation Effects of Verapamil as a Calcium Channel Blocker on Acquisition, Consolidation and Retrieval of Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Masoudian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many factors are involved in learning and memory processes including brain nuclei, neurotransmitter systems, and the activity of ion channels. Studies showed inconsistent effects of calcium channel blockers on learning process, especially memory consolidation; however, little is known about their effect on memory acquisition and retrieval. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effects of verapamil calcium channel antagonist as a representative of the phenylalkylamine group on different stages of memory and learning processes including acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in mice. In this experimental study, 150 male albino mice with a mean weight of 30 g were used. The mice were trained in a passive avoidance-learning task (1 mA shock for 2 seconds for evaluation of memory acquisition and consolidation and 3 seconds for evaluation of memory retrieval. The effect of verapamil (1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg on memory consolidation and the most effective dose of consolidation phase on memory acquisition and retrieval was assessed. For the evaluation of memory consolidation, the animals received the drug intraperitoneally immediately after training, while for evaluation of memory acquisition and retrieval, the drug was injected one hour before training. Memory retrieval test was performed 48 hours after training (the length of time it took the animal to enter the dark part of the device. The results showed that verapamil injection exerted no effect on memory acquisition and consolidation; nevertheless, it was capable to disrupt memory retrieval in 10 and 20 mg doses. These results indicate that as a phenylalkylamine calcium channel antagonist, high doses of verapamil can impair memory. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso

  6. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the Danish version of ACE as a screening test for early dementia in an outpatient memory clinic. Further, we wanted to investigate the ability of the ACE to discriminate patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from patients with depression. METHOD: 78 patients with mild AD...... (MMSE >or=20), 30 non-demented patients diagnosed with depression (originally referred for evaluation of cognitive symptoms), and 63 healthy volunteers, all between 60 and 85 years of age, were included. All patients were given the ACE as a supplement to the standard diagnostic work-up. RESULTS: The cut...... and depressed patients. CONCLUSION: The optimal cut-off points for ACE found in this Danish study were close to what is reported in most other European studies. The great overlap in ACE scores for demented and depressed patients emphasize that test scores must be interpreted with great caution when used...

  7. NI Based System for Seu Testing of Memory Chips for Avionics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boruzdina Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of implementation of National Instrument based system for Single Event Upset testing of memory chips into neutron generator experimental facility, which used for SEU tests for avionics purposes. Basic SEU testing algorithm with error correction and constant errors detection is presented. The issues of radiation shielding of NI based system are discussed and solved. The examples of experimental results show the applicability of the presented system for SEU memory testing under neutrons influence.

  8. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  9. Testing declarative memory in laboratory rats and mice using the nonconditioned social discrimination procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Mario; Hädicke, Jana; Noack, Julia

    2011-07-14

    Testing declarative memory in laboratory rodents can provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying this type of learning and memory processing, and these insights are likely to be applicable to humans. Here we provide a detailed description of the social discrimination procedure used to investigate recognition memory in rats and mice, as established during the last 20 years in our laboratory. The test is based on the use of olfactory signals for social communication in rodents; this involves a direct encounter between conspecifics, during which the investigatory behavior of the experimental subject serves as an index for learning and memory performance. The procedure is inexpensive, fast and very reliable, but it requires well-trained human observers. We include recent modifications to the procedure that allow memory extinction to be investigated by retroactive and proactive interference, and that enable the dissociated analysis of the central nervous processing of the volatile fraction of an individual's olfactory signature. Depending on the memory retention interval under study (short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, long-term memory or long-lasting memory), the protocol takes ~10 min or up to several days to complete.

  10. Memory outcome following left anterior temporal lobectomy in patients with a failed Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Alexander, Aley; Sarma, P Sankara; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the memory outcome following left anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) between patients with a failed Wada test and patients who passed the Wada test. From 1996 to 2002, we performed the Wada test on all patients with unilateral left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) and concordant electroclinical data before ATL. We used a 12-item recognition paradigm for memory testing and awarded a score of +1 for each correct response and -0.5 for each incorrect response. No patient was denied surgery on the basis of Wada scores. We assessed cognitive and memory functions using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Memory Scale preoperatively and at one year after ATL. We compared the number of patients who showed decline in memory scores, as per the published reliable change indices, between the patients with a failed Wada test and the patients who passed the Wada test. Out of the 116 eligible patients with left MTLE-HS, 88 underwent bilateral Wada test, while 28 underwent ipsilateral Wada test. None of them developed postoperative amnesia. Approximately, one-third of patients with a failed Wada memory test when the failure was defined as a contralateral score of 8, and as an asymmetry score of failed Wada memory test and the group who passed the Wada memory test. The results remained the same when analyses were repeated at various other cutoff points. The patients with left MTLE-HS with concordant electroclinical, MRI, and neuropsychological data should not be denied ATL solely on the basis of Wada memory test results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of repeat testing, malingering, and traumatic brain injury on visuospatial memory span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial span tests such as the Corsi Block Test (CBT and the spatial span test of the Wechsler Memory Scale are widely used to assess deficits in spatial working memory. We conducted three experiments to evaluate the test-retest reliability and clinical sensitivity of a new computerized spatial span test (C-SST that incorporates psychophysical methods to improve the precision of spatial span measurement. In Experiment 1, we analyzed C-SST test-retest reliability in 49 participants who underwent three test sessions at weekly intervals. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were higher for a psychophysically derived mean span (MnS metric (0.83 than for the maximal span and total correct metrics used in traditional spatial-span tests. Response times (ReTs also showed high ICCs (0.93 that correlated negatively with MnS scores and correlated positively with response-time latencies from other tests of processing speed. Learning effects were insignificant. Experiment 2 examined the performance of Experiment 1 participants when instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 57% showed abnormal MnS z-scores. A MnS z-score cutoff of 3.0 correctly classified 36% of simulated malingerers and 91% of the subgroup of 11 control participants with abnormal spans. Malingerers also made more substitution errors than control participants with abnormal spans (sensitivity = 43%, specificity = 91%. In addition, malingerers showed no evidence of ReT slowing, in contrast to significant abnormalities seen on other malingered tests of processing speed. As a result, differences between ReT z-scores and z-scores on other processing speed tests showed very high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing malingering and control participants with either normal or abnormal spans. Experiment 3 examined C-SST performance in a group of patients with predominantly mild traumatic brain injury (TBI: neither MnS nor ReT z-scores showed significant group

  12. A Working Memory Test Battery: Java-Based Collection of Seven Working Memory Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Stone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is a key construct within cognitive science. It is an important theory in its own right, but the influence of working memory is enriched due to the widespread evidence that measures of its capacity are linked to a variety of functions in wider cognition. To facilitate the active research environment into this topic, we describe seven computer-based tasks that provide estimates of short-term and working memory incorporating both visuospatial and verbal material. The memory span tasks provided are; digit span, matrix span, arrow span, reading span, operation span, rotation span, and symmetry span. These tasks are built to be simple to use, flexible to adapt to the specific needs of the research design, and are open source. All files can be downloaded from the project website http://www.cognitivetools.uk and the source code is available via Github.

  13. A Computerized Evaluation of Sensory Memory and Short-term Memory Impairment After Rapid Ascent to 4280 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing Hai; Ge, Di; Zhao, Wei; Ma, Xue; Hu, Ke Yan; Lu, Yao; Liu, Zheng Xiang; Ran, Ji Hua; Li, Xiao Ling; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Jian Feng

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute high-altitude exposure on sensory and short-term memory using interactive software, we transported 30 volunteers in a sport utility vehicle to a 4280 m plateau within 3 h. We measured their memory performance on the plain (initial arrival) and 3 h after arrival on the plateau using six measures. Memory performance was significantly poorer on the plateau by four of the six measures. Furthermore, memory performance was significantly poorer in the acute mountain sickness (AMS) group than in the non-AMS group by five of the six measures. These findings indicate that rapid ascent to 4280 m and remaining at this altitude for 3 h resulted in decreased sensory and short-term memory, particularly among participants who developed AMS. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Field Test of Guidelines for the Development of Memory Aids in Technical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, J. Peter; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine if Navy authors of instructional material could create effective memory aids for use in rote learning of material. A guidebook published by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group was used in creating the memory aids. Navy school personnel used the guidebook to develop two training booklets incorporating…

  15. Increased Task Demand during Spatial Memory Testing Recruits the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joshua K.; Fournier, Neil M.; Lehmann, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether increasing retrieval difficulty in a spatial memory task would promote the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) similar to what is typically observed during remote memory retrieval. Rats were trained on the hidden platform version of the Morris Water Task and tested three or 30 d later. Retrieval difficulty was…

  16. Intrusions and provoked and spontaneous confabulations on memory tests in Korsakoff's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, Y.C.M.; Oosterman, J.M.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Intrusions on verbal memory tests have been used as an index for clinical confabulation. Severe memory impairments in combination with executive dysfunction have been suggested to be the underlying mechanism of confabulation, but to date, this relation is unclear. The aim of this study

  17. Who, When, and Where? Age-Related Differences on a New Memory Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Catherine A.; Holden, Heather M.; Van Etten, Emily J.; Wagner, Gabrielle M.; Hileman, Jacob D.; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Our study examined age-related differences on a new memory test assessing memory for "who," "when," and "where," and associations among these elements. Participants were required to remember a sequence of pictures of different faces paired with different places. Older adults remembered significantly fewer correct…

  18. Differential Impact of Brain Damage and Depression on Memory Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Carlton S.; Russell, Elbert W.

    1986-01-01

    Compared the effects of depression and brain damage on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Digit Span subscale and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory subtest. Performance on both tests was substantially affected by brain damage, but not by depression. Implications regarding neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation are…

  19. Visual Working Memory and Number Sense: Testing the Double Deficit Hypothesis in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Sylke W. M.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence exists that there are two main underlying cognitive factors in mathematical difficulties: working memory and number sense. It is suggested that real math difficulties appear when both working memory and number sense are weak, here referred to as the double deficit (DD) hypothesis. Aims: The aim of this study was to test the DD…

  20. A new lumbar posterior fixation system, the memory metal spinal system: an in-vitro mechanical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Dennis; Firkins, Paul John; Wapstra, Frits H; Veldhuizen, Albert G

    2013-09-18

    Spinal systems that are currently available for correction of spinal deformities or degeneration such as lumbar spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease use components manufactured from stainless steel or titanium and typically comprise two spinal rods with associated connection devices (for example: DePuy Spines Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System). The Memory Metal Spinal System of this study consists of a single square spinal rod made of a nickel titanium alloy (Nitinol) used in conjunction with connecting transverse bridges and pedicle screws made of Ti-alloy. Nitinol is best known for its shape memory effect, but is also characterized by its higher flexibility when compared to either stainless steel or titanium. A higher fusion rate with less degeneration of adjacent segments may result because of the elastic properties of the memory metal. In addition, the use of a single, unilateral rod may be of great value for a TLIF procedure. Our objective is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the new Memory Metal Spinal System compared to the Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System. An in-vitro mechanical evaluation of the lumbar Memory Metal Spinal System was conducted. The test protocol followed ASTM Standard F1717-96, "Standard Test Methods for Static and Fatigue for Spinal Implant Constructs in a Corpectomy Model." 1. Static axial testing in a load to failure mode in compression bending, 2. Static testing in a load to failure mode in torsion, 3. Cyclical testing to estimate the maximum run out load value at 5.0 x 10^6 cycles. In the biomechanical testing for static axial compression bending there was no statistical difference between the 2% yield strength and the stiffness of the two types of spinal constructs. In axial compression bending fatigue testing, the Memory Metal Spinal System construct showed a 50% increase in fatigue life compared to the Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System. In static torsional testing the Memory Metal Spinal System constructs showed an

  1. Evaluation methodology for comparing memory and communication of analytic processes in visual analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, Eric D [ORNL; Goodall, John R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Provenance tools can help capture and represent the history of analytic processes. In addition to supporting analytic performance, provenance tools can be used to support memory of the process and communication of the steps to others. Objective evaluation methods are needed to evaluate how well provenance tools support analyst s memory and communication of analytic processes. In this paper, we present several methods for the evaluation of process memory, and we discuss the advantages and limitations of each. We discuss methods for determining a baseline process for comparison, and we describe various methods that can be used to elicit process recall, step ordering, and time estimations. Additionally, we discuss methods for conducting quantitative and qualitative analyses of process memory. By organizing possible memory evaluation methods and providing a meta-analysis of the potential benefits and drawbacks of different approaches, this paper can inform study design and encourage objective evaluation of process memory and communication.

  2. 75 FR 55846 - Draft Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky Memorial Airport, Stratford, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Draft Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky Memorial... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) has been prepared for Sikorsky Memorial Airport in Stratford, Connecticut... INFORMATION: The FAA is making available a Draft Re- Evaluation document, which evaluates the impacts of...

  3. Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Negative Response Bias: The Temporal Memory Sequence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedish, Omer; Kivilis, Naama; Hoofien, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Temporal Memory Sequence Test (TMST) is a new measure of negative response bias (NRB) that was developed to enrich the forced-choice paradigm. The TMST does not resemble the common structure of forced-choice tests and is presented as a temporal recall memory test. The validation sample consisted of 81 participants: 21 healthy control participants, 20 coached simulators, and 40 patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The TMST had high reliability and significantly high positive correlations with the Test of Memory Malingering and Word Memory Test effort scales. Moreover, the TMST effort scales exhibited high negative correlations with the Glasgow Coma Scale, thus validating the previously reported association between probable malingering and mild traumatic brain injury. A suggested cutoff score yielded acceptable classification rates in the ABI group as well as in the simulator and control groups. The TMST appears to be a promising measure of NRB detection, with respectable rates of reliability and construct and criterion validity.

  4. Memory in myasthenia gravis: neuropsychological tests of central cholinergic function before and after effective immunologic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, A; Palace, J; Warburton, D; Oxbury, S; Newsom-Davis, J

    1996-04-01

    There are reports of central cholinergic deficits in myasthenia gravis (MG) describing impaired performance on a variety of tests of memory with varying benefits from plasmapheresis. We tested 11 patients with symptomatic MG at the start of a trial of immunosuppressive treatment (prednisolone plus azathioprine or placebo) and again when in remission. The tests included the Logical Memory and Design Reproduction parts of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Peterson-Peterson task, and an auditory vigilance task. Muscle strength improved significantly over the period of treatment, but overall performance on tests of memory or attention did not. These results fail to substantiate reports of functionally significant and reversible central deficits in myasthenia gravis.

  5. The (Spatial) Memory Game: Testing the Relationship Between Spatial Language, Object Knowledge, and Spatial Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudde, Harmen B; Griffiths, Debra; Coventry, Kenny R

    2018-02-19

    The memory game paradigm is a behavioral procedure to explore the relationship between language, spatial memory, and object knowledge. Using two different versions of the paradigm, spatial language use and memory for object location are tested under different, experimentally manipulated conditions. This allows us to tease apart proposed models explaining the influence of object knowledge on spatial language (e.g., spatial demonstratives), and spatial memory, as well as understanding the parameters that affect demonstrative choice and spatial memory more broadly. Key to the development of the method was the need to collect data on language use (e.g., spatial demonstratives: "this/that") and spatial memory data under strictly controlled conditions, while retaining a degree of ecological validity. The language version (section 3.1) of the memory game tests how conditions affect language use. Participants refer verbally to objects placed at different locations (e.g., using spatial demonstratives: "this/that red circle"). Different parameters can be experimentally manipulated: the distance from the participant, the position of a conspecific, and for example whether the participant owns, knows, or sees the object while referring to it. The same parameters can be manipulated in the memory version of the memory game (section 3.2). This version tests the effects of the different conditions on object-location memory. Following object placement, participants get 10 seconds to memorize the object's location. After the object and location cues are removed, participants verbally direct the experimenter to move a stick to indicate where the object was. The difference between the memorized and the actual location shows the direction and strength of the memory error, allowing comparisons between the influences of the respective parameters.

  6. The Evaluator Effect in Usability Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.

    1998-01-01

    Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four...... videotaped usability test sessions. Only 20% of the 93 unique problems were detected by all four evaluators and 46% were detected by only a single evaluator. Severe problems were detected more often by all four evaluators (41%) and less often by only one evaluator (22%) but a substantial evaluator effect...

  7. The Wada Test: contributions to standardization of the stimulus for language and memory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäder Maria Joana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wada Test (WT is part of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. The WT is not standardized and the protocols differ in important ways, including stimulus type of material presented for memory testing, timing of presentations and methods of assessment. The aim of this study was to contribute to establish parameters for a WT to Brazilian population investigating the performance of 100 normal subjects, without medication. Two parallel models were used based on Montreal Procedure adapted from Gail Risse's (MEG-MN,EUA protocol. The proportions of correct responses of normal subjects submitted to two parallel WT models were investigated and the two models were compared. The results showed that the two models are similar but significant differences among the stimulus type were observed. The results suggest that the stimulus type may influence the results of the WT and should be considered when constructing models and comparing different protocols.

  8. Application of item response theory to tests of substance-related associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Yusuke; Grenard, Jerry L; Ames, Susan L; Stacy, Alan W

    2014-09-01

    A substance-related word-association test (WAT) is one of the commonly used indirect tests of substance-related implicit associative memory and has been shown to predict substance use. This study applied an item response theory (IRT) modeling approach to evaluate psychometric properties of the alcohol- and marijuana-related WATs and their items among 775 ethnically diverse at-risk adolescents. After examining the IRT assumptions, item fit, and differential item functioning (DIF) across gender and age groups, the original 18 WAT items were reduced to 14 and 15 items in the alcohol- and marijuana-related WAT, respectively. Thereafter, unidimensional one- and two-parameter logistic models (1PL and 2PL models) were fitted to the revised WAT items. The results demonstrated that both alcohol- and marijuana-related WATs have good psychometric properties. These results were discussed in light of the framework of a unified concept of construct validity (Messick, 1975, 1989, 1995).

  9. Bridging naturalistic and laboratory assessment of memory: the Baycrest mask fit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, Michael J; Abdi, Hervé; Levine, Brian

    2017-09-01

    Autobiographical memory tests provide a naturalistic counterpoint to the artificiality of laboratory research methods, yet autobiographical events are uncontrolled and, in most cases, unverifiable. In this study, we capitalised on a scripted, complex naturalistic event - the mask fit test (MFT), a standardised procedure required of hospital employees - to bridge the gap between naturalistic and laboratory memory assessment. We created a test of recognition memory for the MFT and administered it to 135 hospital employees who had undertaken the MFT at various points over the past five years. Multivariate analysis revealed two dimensions defined by accuracy and response bias. Accuracy scores showed the expected relationship to encoding-test delay, supporting the validity of this measure. Relative to younger adults, older adults' memory for this naturalistic event was better than would be predicted from the cognitive ageing literature, a result consistent with the notion that older adults' memory performance is enhanced when stimuli are naturalistic and personally relevant. These results demonstrate that testing recognition memory for a scripted event is a viable method of studying autobiographical memory.

  10. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach

  11. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  12. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental…

  13. On the Relationship between Memory and Perception: Sequential Dependencies in Recognition Memory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Annis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Many models of recognition are derived from models originally applied to perception tasks, which assume that decisions from trial to trial are independent. While the independence assumption is violated for many perception tasks, we present the results of several experiments intended to relate memory and perception by exploring sequential…

  14. Memory detection 2.0: The first web-based memory detection test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinberg, B.; Verschuere, B.

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs) can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime) information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24), and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we

  15. Event-related potential correlates of serial-position effects during an elaborative memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, Jacqueline A; Barry, Robert J; Johnstone, Stuart S

    2002-10-01

    Twenty undergraduate students participated in an elaborative learning test to evaluate the relationship between electrical brain activity and subsequently recalled and not-recalled words. Data collected from the midline (Fz, Cz, Pz) and lateral scalp sites (F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4) were analysed. The difference between event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by subsequently recalled and not-recalled words, the ERP memory effect, was evaluated for each portion (primacy, plateau and recency) of the serial-position curve (SPC). We compared peak amplitudes for the P1, N1, P2, N400, P3 and frontal positive slow wave (FPSW) components. The electrophysiological data support the hypothesis that different mechanisms underlie primacy and recency effects during free recall paradigms. There was no support for the hypothesis that an association arises between memory and the FPSW when subjects utilise elaborative learning strategies. The P2 component predicted subsequent recall at the primacy portion of the SPC, and P1 predicted recall at the primacy and plateau portions of the curve. The findings suggest that the early positive components of the ERP (i.e. P1 and P2) are useful indices of the differential stimulus processing during elaborative learning which predicts later recall. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Using Yes-No Recognition Tests to Assess Student Memory for Course Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dale L.; Barker, Lewis

    2008-01-01

    We report 3 experiments using yes-no recognition tests of student memory for course content. Each test consisted of items encountered in the course and an equal number of foils. Experiment 1 involved an initial test of the methodology and addressed test reliability. Experiments 2 and 3 examined performance before and after completion of courses in…

  17. Validation of a Spanish version of the Test Your Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Arias, J; Turrión-Rojo, M Á

    2016-01-01

    To validate a Spanish version of the TYM, a self-administered cognitive screening test designed for the detection of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive defect. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a neurology outpatient clinic. The TYM was administered to individuals of 50 years o more who came to the clinic for whatever the symptom. Their cognitive state was evaluated regardless of the outcome of TYM. They were categorized into 3 groups: 1) Cognitively normal (739), 2) with mild cognitive impairment (183), 3) with dementia (127). An analysis of items was made and the psychometric properties of the TYM were defined. There was a cross-validation, and the predictive validity of the TYM score, adjusted to the demographic variables, was determined by evaluating their performance in ROC curves. The internal consistency, interobserver reliability, short term and long-term test-retest reliability were adequate. The TYM correlated with the MMSE (r=0.779, Pde Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Utility of critical items within the Recognition Memory Test and Word Choice Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Tyson, Bradley T; Abeare, Christopher A; Zuccato, Brandon G; Rai, Jaspreet K; Seke, Kristian R; Sagar, Sanya; Roth, Robert M

    2017-03-17

    This study was designed to examine the clinical utility of critical items within the Recognition Memory Test (RMT) and the Word Choice Test (WCT). Archival data were collected from a mixed clinical sample of 202 patients clinically referred for neuropsychological testing (54.5% male; mean age = 45.3 years; mean level of education = 13.9 years). The credibility of a given response set was psychometrically defined using three separate composite measures, each of which was based on multiple independent performance validity indicators. Critical items improved the classification accuracy of both tests. They increased sensitivity by correctly identifying an additional 2-17% of the invalid response sets that passed the traditional cutoffs based on total score. They also increased specificity by providing additional evidence of noncredible performance in response sets that failed the total score cutoff. The combination of failing the traditional cutoff, but passing critical items was associated with increased risk of misclassifying the response set as invalid. Critical item analysis enhances the diagnostic power of both the RMT and WCT. Given that critical items require no additional test material or administration time, but help reduce both false positive and false negative errors, they represent a versatile, valuable, and time- and cost-effective supplement to performance validity assessment.

  19. Method matters: systematic effects of testing procedure on visual working memory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Watson, Leah M; Koutstaal, Wilma; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2010-11-01

    Visual working memory (WM) is traditionally considered a robust form of visual representation that survives changes in object motion, observer's position, and other visual transients. This article presents data that are inconsistent with the traditional view. We show that memory sensitivity is dramatically influenced by small variations in the testing procedure, supporting the idea that representations in visual WM are susceptible to interference from testing. In the study, participants were shown an array of colors to remember. After a short retention interval, memory for one of the items was tested with either a same-different task or a 2-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) task. Memory sensitivity was much lower in the 2AFC task than in the same-different task. This difference was found regardless of encoding similarity or of whether visual WM required a fine or coarse memory resolution. The 2AFC disadvantage was reduced when participants were informed shortly before testing which item would be probed. The 2AFC disadvantage diminished in perceptual tasks and was not found in tasks probing visual long-term memory. These results support memory models that acknowledge the labile nature of visual WM and have implications for the format of visual WM and its assessment. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Spatial recognition test: A novel cognition task for assessing topographical memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havolli, Enes; Hill, Mark Dw; Godley, Annie; Goetghebeur, Pascal Jd

    2017-06-01

    Dysfunction in topographical memory is a core feature of several neurological disorders. There is a large unmet medical need to address learning and memory deficits as a whole in central nervous system disease. There are considerable efforts to identify pro-cognitive compounds but current methods are either lengthy or labour intensive. Our test used a two chamber apparatus and is based on the preference of rodents to explore novel environments. It was used firstly to assess topographical memory in mice at different retention intervals (RI) and secondly to investigate the effect of three drugs reported to be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease, namely: donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Animals show good memory performance at all RIs tested under four hours. At the four-hour RI, animals show a significantly poorer memory performance which can be rescued using donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Using this test we established and validated a spatial recognition paradigm to address topographical memory in mice by showing a decremental time-induced forgetting response and reversing this decrease in performance using pharmacological tools. The spatial recognition test differs from more commonly used visuospatial laboratory tests in both throughput capability and potentially neuroanatomical substrate. This test has the potential to be used to assess cognitive performance in transgenic animals, disease models and to screen putative cognitive enhancers or depressors.

  1. A prospective evaluation of hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory deficits following cranial irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Martin; Grimm, Jimm; McIntyre, Riley; Anderson-Keightly, Heather; Kleinberg, Lawrence R; Hales, Russell K; Moore, Joseph; Vannorsdall, Tracy; Redmond, Kristin J

    2017-11-01

    To prospectively evaluate hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory decline following cranial irradiation. Effects of hippocampal radiation over a wide range of doses were investigated by combining data from three prospective studies. In one, adults with small cell lung cancer received hippocampal-avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation. In the other two, adults with glioblastoma multiforme received neural progenitor cell sparing radiation or no sparing with extra dose delivered to subventricular zone. Memory was measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Delayed Recall (HVLT-R DR) at 6 months after radiation. Dose-volume histograms were generated and dose-response data were fitted to a nonlinear model. Of 60 patients enrolled, 30 were analyzable based on HVLT-R DR testing completion status, baseline HVLT-R DR and intracranial metastasis/recurrence or prior hippocampal resection status. We observed a dose-response of radiation to the hippocampus with regard to decline in HVLT-R DR. D50% of the bilateral hippocampi of 22.1 Gy is associated with 20% risk of decline. This prospective study demonstrates an association between hippocampal dose volume effects and memory decline measured by HVLT-R DR over a wide dose range. These data support a potential benefit of hippocampal sparing and encourage continued trial enrollment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the olfactory memory after spinal anesthesia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, A; Erdem, K; Akkaya, A; Tekelioglu, U Y; Bilgi, M; Isik, C; Sit, M; Gok, U; Kocoglu, H

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of spinal anesthesia (SA) on olfactory memory using Brief-Smell Identification TestTM (B-SIT). This, prospective, clinical study was performed on 40 ASA physical status I-III patients, between 18-65 years of age undergoing a planned elective minor surgery under SA. All participants were preoperatively informed about B-SIT and the mode of application of the test according to the information in the book. B-SIT was applied to each patient preoperatively and the scores were recorded. B-SIT was reapplied to all patients on the 1st and 2nd postoperative days and the scores were recorded. Moreover, development of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and/or neurological symptoms (such as hearing loss, diplopia) were checked. Postoperative headache was observed in 7 of the participants and 3 of them was diagnosed to have PDPH. No statistically significant difference was observed in the olfactory memory evaluation of the patients suffering from headache and the 3 patients diagnosed with PDPH. No statistically significant difference was observed in the correct odor answer ratio between the preoperative and postoperative 1st and 2nd days (p > 0.05). We confirm that SA does not affect olfactory memory. Further studies are necessary to confirm the results of our pilot study in a larger sample.

  3. Expectancy bias mediates the link between social anxiety and memory bias for social evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Justin D; Ruiz, Sarah K; Lee, Clinton C; Anbari, Zainab; Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety (SA) involves a multitude of cognitive symptoms related to fear of evaluation, including expectancy and memory biases. We examined whether memory biases are influenced by expectancy biases for social feedback in SA. We hypothesised that, faced with a socially evaluative event, people with higher SA would show a negative expectancy bias for future feedback. Furthermore, we predicted that memory bias for feedback in SA would be mediated by expectancy bias. Ninety-four undergraduate students (55 women, mean age = 19.76 years) underwent a two-visit task that measured expectations about (Visit 1) and memory of (Visit 2) feedback from unknown peers. Results showed that higher levels of SA were associated with negative expectancy bias. An indirect relationship was found between SA and memory bias that was mediated by expectancy bias. The results suggest that expectancy biases are in the causal path from SA to negative memory biases for social evaluation.

  4. Validation of the virtual-reality prospective memory test (Hong Kong Chinese version) for individuals with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, David W K; Ganesan, Balasankar; Yip, Calvin C K; Lee, Christina O P; Tsang, Sarah Y L; Yu, Pan W P; Young, Janice G E; Shum, David H K

    2016-11-13

    This study was performed to examine the psychometric properties of a Virtual-Reality Prospective Memory Test (Hong Kong Chinese version; VRPMT-CV). The VRPMT was administered to 44 individuals with first-episode schizophrenia. The test was administered again 2 weeks later to establish test-retest reliability. The concurrent validity of the VRPMT was evaluated by examining the correlations between the VRPMT score and the score on the Chinese version of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT-CV). The performance of individuals with schizophrenia on the VRPMT was also compared with that of 42 healthy control subjects to examine the test's sensitivity and specificity. The intraclass correlation for test-retest reliability of the total VRPMT-CV score was 0.78 (p = .005). A significant correlation was found between the total VRPMT-CV score and the total CAMPROMPT-CV score (r = 0.90; p schizophrenia. The VRPMT-CV is an assessment of prospective memory that has good construct validity, test-retest reliability, sensitivity and specificity in the context of first-episode schizophrenia.

  5. Practice Effects on Story Memory and List Learning Tests in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E Gavett

    Full Text Available Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis. Up to five years of recall scores from participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 96 or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 72 or Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 121 at their most recent visit were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression to examine the interaction between the type of test and the number of times exposed to the test. Other variables, including age at baseline, sex, education, race, time (years since baseline, and clinical diagnosis were also entered as fixed effects predictor variables. The results indicated that both tests produced significant practice effects in controls and MCI participants; in contrast, participants with AD declined or remained stable. However, for the delayed-but not the immediate-recall condition, Logical Memory generated more pronounced practice effects than NAB List Learning (b = 0.16, p < .01 for controls. These differential practice effects were moderated by clinical diagnosis, such that controls and MCI participants-but not participants with AD-improved more on Logical Memory delayed recall than on delayed NAB List Learning delayed recall over five annual assessments. Because the Logical Memory test is ubiquitous in cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease research, its tendency to produce marked practice effects-especially on the delayed recall condition-suggests a threat to its validity as a measure of new

  6. The role of long-term memory in a test of visual working memory: Proactive facilitation but no proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Awh, Edward; Sutterer, David W

    2017-01-01

    We report 4 experiments examining whether associations in visual working memory are subject to proactive interference from long-term memory (LTM). Following a long-term learning phase in which participants learned the colors of 120 unique objects, a working memory (WM) test was administered in which participants recalled the precise colors of 3 concrete objects in an array. Each array in the WM test consisted of 1 old (previously learned) object with a new color (old-mismatch), 1 old object with its old color (old-match), and 1 new object. Experiments 1 to 3 showed that WM performance was better in the old-match condition than in the new condition, reflecting a beneficial contribution from LTM. In the old-mismatch condition, participants sometimes reported colors associated with the relevant shape in LTM, but the probability of successful recall was equivalent to that in the new condition. Thus, information from LTM only intruded in the absence of reportable information in WM. Experiment 4 tested for, and failed to find, proactive interference from the preceding trial in the WM test: Performance in the old-mismatch condition, presenting an object from the preceding trial with a new color, was equal to performance with new objects. Experiment 5 showed that long-term memory for object-color associations is subject to proactive interference. We conclude that the exchange of information between LTM and WM appears to be controlled by a gating mechanism that protects the contents of WM from proactive interference but admits LTM information when it is useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Learning and memory in the forced swimming test: effects of antidepressants having varying degrees of anticholinergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginar, Nurhan; Yamantürk-Çelik, Pınar; Nurten, Asiye; Güney, Dilvin Berrak

    2016-07-01

    The antidepressant-induced reduction in immobility time in the forced swimming test may depend on memory impairment due to the drug's anticholinergic efficacy. Therefore, the present study evaluated learning and memory of the immobility response in rats after the pretest and test administrations of antidepressants having potent, comparatively lower, and no anticholinergic activities. Immobility was measured in the test session performed 24 h after the pretest session. Scopolamine and MK-801, which are agents that have memory impairing effects, were used as reference drugs for a better evaluation of the memory processes in the test. The pretest administrations of imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (7.5 and 15 mg/kg), trazodone (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), and moclobemide (10 and 20 mg/kg) were ineffective, whereas the pretest administrations of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time suggesting impaired "learning to be immobile" in the animals. The test administrations of imipramine (30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (15 mg/kg), moclobemide (10 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time, which suggested that the drugs exerted antidepressant activity or the animals did not recall that attempting to escape was futile. The test administrations of trazodone (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) produced no effect on immobility time. Even though the false-negative and positive responses made it somewhat difficult to interpret the findings, this study demonstrated that when given before the pretest antidepressants with or without anticholinergic activity seemed to be devoid of impairing the learning process in the test.

  8. The 5-HT(4) receptor levels in hippocampus correlates inversely with memory test performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Mette Ewers; Fisher, Patrick; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2013-01-01

    in hippocampus. However, any associations between memory functions and the expression of the 5-HT(4) R in the human hippocampus have not been investigated. Using positron emission tomography with the tracer [(11) C]SB207145 and Reys Auditory Verbal Learning Test we aimed to examine the individual variation......The cerebral serotonin (5-HT) system is involved in cognitive functions such as memory and learning and animal studies have repeatedly shown that stimulation of the 5-HT type 4 receptor (5-HT(4) R) facilitates memory and learning and further that the 5-HT(4) R modulates cellular memory processes...... of the 5-HT4R binding in hippocampus in relation to memory acquisition and consolidation in healthy young volunteers. We found significant, negative associations between the immediate recall scores and left and right hippocampal BP(ND) , (p = 0.009 and p = 0.010 respectively) and between the right...

  9. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  10. Grading Gradients: Evaluating Evidence for Time-dependent Memory Reorganization in Experimental Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G. Akers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans, hippocampal damage typically produces temporally graded retrograde amnesia, with relative sparing of remote memories compared to recent memories. This observation led to the idea that as memories age, they are reorganized in a time-dependent manner. Here, we evaluate evidence for time-dependent memory reorganization in animal models. We conclude that, although hippocampal lesions may not always produce temporal gradients under all conditions, studies using alternate experimental approaches consistently support the idea that memories reorganize over time—becoming less dependent on the hippocampus and more dependent on a cortical network. We further speculate on the processes that drive memory reorganization such as sleep, memory reactivation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis.

  11. Studies on laws of stress-magnetization based on magnetic memory testing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shangkun; Ren, Xianzhi

    2018-03-01

    Metal magnetic memory (MMM) testing technique is a novel testing method which can early test stress concentration status of ferromagnetic components. Under the different maximum tensile stress, the relationship between the leakage magnetic field of at certain point of cold rolled steel specimen and the tensile stress was measured during the process of loading and unloading by repeated. It shows that when the maximum tensile stress is less than 610 MPa, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the stress is linear; When the maximum tensile stress increase from 610 MPa to 653 MPa of yield point, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the tensile becomes bending line. The location of the extreme point of the bending line will move rapidly from the position of smaller stress to the larger stress position, and the variation of magnetic induction intensity increases rapidly. When the maximum tensile stress is greater than the 653 MPa of yield point, the variation of the magnetic induction intensity remains large, and the position of the extreme point moves very little. In theoretical aspects, tensile stress is to be divided into ordered stress and disordered stress. In the stage of elastic stress, a microscopic model of the order stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data. In the plastic deformation stage, a microscopic model of disordered stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data, too. The research results can provide reference for the accurate quantitative detection and evaluation of metal magnetic memory testing technology.

  12. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  13. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  14. Do Different Tests of Episodic Memory Produce Consistent Results in Human Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    A number of different philosophical, theoretical, and empirical perspectives on episodic memory have led to the development of very different tests with which to assess it. Although these tests putatively assess the same psychological capacity, they have rarely been directly compared. Here, a sample of undergraduates was tested on three different…

  15. Ecological Relevance of Memory Tests and the Prediction of Relapse in Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; And Others

    Recent research suggests that alcoholic inpatients' performance on neuropsychological tests is predictive of their drinking status following discharge from alcohol rehabilitation programs, although no single test itself has been predictive of relapse. This study seeks to develop a ecologically relevant memory test that would predict relapse and…

  16. Design and testing of shape memory alloy actuation mechanism for flapping wing micro unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzaman, N. F.; Abdullah, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator offers great solution for aerospace applications with low weight being its most attractive feature. A SMA actuation mechanism for the flapping micro unmanned aerial vehicle (MAV) is proposed in this study, where SMA material is the primary system that provides the flapping motion to the wings. Based on several established design criteria, a design prototype has been fabricated to validate the design. As a proof of concept, an experiment is performed using an electrical circuit to power the SMA actuator to evaluate the flapping angle. During testing, several problems have been observed and their solutions for future development are proposed. Based on the experiment, the average recorded flapping wing angle is 14.33° for upward deflection and 12.12° for downward deflection. This meets the required design criteria and objective set forth for this design. The results prove the feasibility of employing SMA actuators in flapping wing MAV.

  17. Failure modes induced by natural radiation environments on DRAM memories: study, test methodology and mitigation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougerol, A.

    2011-05-01

    DRAMs are frequently used in space and aeronautic systems. Their sensitivity to cosmic radiations have to be known in order to satisfy reliability requirements for critical applications. These evaluations are traditionally done with particle accelerators. However, devices become more complex with technology integration. Therefore new effects appear, inducing longer and more expensive tests. There is a complementary solution: the pulsed laser, which triggers similar effects as particles. Thanks to these two test tools, main DRAM radiation failure modes were studied: SEUs (Single Event Upset) in memory blocks, and SEFIs (Single Event Functional Interrupt) in peripheral circuits. This work demonstrates the influence of test patterns on SEU and SEFI sensitivities depending on technology used. In addition, this study identifies the origin of the most frequent type of SEFIs. Moreover, laser techniques were developed to quantify sensitive surfaces of the different effects. This work led to a new test methodology for industry, in order to optimize test cost and efficiency using both pulsed laser beams and particle accelerators. Finally, a new fault tolerant technique is proposed: based on DRAM cell radiation immunity when discharged, this technique allows to correct all bits of a logic word. (author)

  18. Can Implicit Associations Distinguish True and False Eyewitness Memory? Development and Preliminary Testing of the IATe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Rebecca K; Ceci, Stephen J; Burd, Kayla A

    2016-11-01

    Eyewitness identification has been shown to be fallible and prone to false memory. In this study we develop and test a new method to probe the mechanisms involved in the formation of false memories in this area, and determine whether a particular memory is likely to be true or false. We created a seven-step procedure based on the Implicit Association Test to gauge implicit biases in eyewitness identification (the IATe). We show that identification errors may result from unconscious bias caused by implicit associations evoked by a given face. We also show that implicit associations between negative attributions such as guilt and eyewitnesses' final pick from a line-up can help to distinguish between true and false memory (especially where the witness has been subject to the suggestive nature of a prior blank line-up). Specifically, the more a witness implicitly associates an individual face with a particular crime, the more likely it is that a memory they have for that person committing the crime is false. These findings are consistent with existing findings in the memory and neuroscience literature showing that false memories can be caused by implicit associations that are outside conscious awareness. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The late negative episodic memory effect: the effect of recapitulating study details at test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M; Bersick, Michael

    2005-05-01

    An hypothesis concerning mnemonic function suggests that perceptual details of previously experienced episodes are retrieved from the cortices that initially processed that information during the encoding phase. Cycowicz et al. [Cycowicz, Y.M., Friedman, D. and Snodgrass, J.G., Remembering the color of objects: an ERP investigation of source memory, Cereb Cortex, 11 (2001) 322-334.] have interpreted the presence of a late negative episodic memory (EM) effect, maximal over parieto-occipital scalp, as a brain signature of the search for and/or retrieval/evaluation of the specific perceptual source-specifying attributes (i.e., color) of pictures in the visual cortical regions that were recruited during the encoding of that information. The present study assessed the validity of this hypothesis. Twelve participants studied pictures outlined in red or green and were subsequently tested with inclusion (i.e., item; old or new regardless of color) and exclusion (i.e., source; same color, different color/new judgments) tasks. In both, old pictures were presented either in the same color as at study or in the alternate color. A late negative, parieto-occipital EM effect was of much larger amplitude in the source compared to the item task. It was of similar magnitude to correctly recognized pictures whose colors were identical at study and test relative to those whose colors changed, and was not modulated by the success or failure of the source retrieval. These data run counter to the initial hypothesis that the late negative EM effect reflects the search for and/or retrieval of specific perceptual attributes such as color. Rather, the late negative EM effect may reflect the search for and/or retrieval/evaluation of more general source-specifying information in the cortical regions that initially processed the stimuli.

  20. An evaluation of a working memory training scheme in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Patricia McAvinue

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is a cognitive process that is particularly vulnerable to decline with age. The current study sought to evaluate the efficacy of a working memory training scheme in improving memory in a group of older adults. A 5-week online training scheme was designed to provide training in the main components of Baddeley’s (2000 working memory model, namely auditory and visuospatial short-term and working memory. A group of older adults aged between 64 and 79 were randomly assigned to a trainee (n = 19 or control (n = 17 group, with trainees engaging in the adaptive training scheme and controls engaging in a non-adaptive version of the programme. Before and after training and at 3- and 6-month follow-up sessions, trainees and controls were asked to complete measures of short-term and working memory, long-term episodic memory, subjective ratings of memory and attention and achievement of goals set at the beginning of training. The results provided evidence of an expansion of auditory short-term memory span, which was maintained 6 months later, and transfer to long-term episodic memory but no evidence of improvement in working memory capacity per se. A serendipitous and intriguing finding of a relationship between time spent training, psychological stress and training gains provided further insight into individual differences in training gains in older adults.

  1. Evaluating the evidence for nonconscious processes in producing false memories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Zeelenberg, R.

    2004-01-01

    In response to the failure of Zeelenberg, Plomp, and Raaijmakers (see record 2003-07789-006) (2003) to replicate the results of Seamon, Luo, and Gallo (1998) regarding their purported finding of a reliable false memory effect in the absence of memory for the list items, Gallo and Seamon (2004)

  2. The design and testing of a memory metal actuated boom release mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powley, D. G.; Brook, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    A boom latch and release mechanism was designed, manufactured and tested, based on a specification for the ISEE-B satellite mechanism. From experimental results obtained, it is possible to calculate the energy available and the operating torques which can be achieved from a torsional shape memory element in terms of the reversible strain induced by prior working. Some guidelines to be followed when designing mechanisms actuated by shape memory elements are included.

  3. Diabetes and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Carlson, Michelle C; Crum, Rosa M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Sharrett, A Richey; Yasar, Sevil; Nahin, Richard L; DeKosky, Steven T; Snitz, Beth; Lopez, Oscar; Williamson, Jeff D; Furberg, Curt D; Rapp, Stephen R; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-12-12

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with diabetes exhibit accelerated cognitive decline. However, methodological limitations have limited the quality of this evidence. Heterogeneity in study design, cognitive test administration, and methods of analysis of cognitive data have made it difficult to synthesize and translate findings to practice. We analyzed longitudinal data from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study to test our hypothesis that older adults with diabetes have greater test-specific and domain-specific cognitive declines compared to older adults without diabetes. Tests of memory, visuo-spatial construction, language, psychomotor speed, and executive function were administered. Test scores were standardized to z-scores and averaged to yield domain scores. Linear random effects models were used to compare baseline differences and changes over time in test and domain scores among individuals with and without diabetes. Among the 3,069 adults, aged 72-96 years, 9.3% reported diabetes. Over a median follow-up of 6.1 years, participants with diabetes exhibited greater baseline differences in a test of executive function (trail making test, Part B) and greater declines in a test of language (phonemic verbal fluency). For the composite cognitive domain scores, participants with diabetes exhibited lower baseline executive function and global cognition domain scores, but no significant differences in the rate of decline. Identifying cognitive domains most affected by diabetes can lead to targeted risk modification, possibly in the form of lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical activity, which we know to be beneficial for improving vascular risk factors, such as diabetes, and therefore may reduce the risk of executive dysfunction and possible dementia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  5. Test and Evaluation Management Guide, Fifth Edition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claxton, John D; Cavoli, Christina; Johnson, Collie

    2005-01-01

    This January 2005 update to the Defense Acquisition University's "Test and Evaluation Management Guide" includes updates from the Military Services, Defense Agencies, and other organizations, as well...

  6. Large scale testing of nitinol shape memory alloy devices for retrofitting of bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rita; Emmanuel Maragakis, M; Saiid Saiidi, M; Padgett, Jamie E; DesRoches, Reginald

    2008-01-01

    A large scale testing program was conducted to determine the effects of shape memory alloy (SMA) restrainer cables on the seismic performance of in-span hinges of a representative multiple-frame concrete box girder bridge subjected to earthquake excitations. Another objective of the study was to compare the performance of SMA restrainers to that of traditional steel restrainers as restraining devices for reducing hinge displacement and the likelihood of collapse during earthquakes. The results of the tests show that SMA restrainers performed very well as restraining devices. The forces in the SMA and steel restrainers were comparable. However, the SMA restrainer cables had minimal residual strain after repeated loading and exhibited the ability to undergo many cycles with little strength and stiffness degradation. In addition, the hysteretic damping that was observed in the larger ground accelerations demonstrated the ability of the materials to dissipate energy. An analytical study was conducted to assess the anticipated seismic response of the test setup and evaluate the accuracy of the analytical model. The results of the analytical simulation illustrate that the analytical model was able to match the responses from the experimental tests, including peak stresses, strains, forces, and hinge openings

  7. Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.M. Angelucci

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied some of the characteristics of the improving effect of the non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine, using an animal model of learning and memory. Groups of 12 adult male Wistar rats receiving caffeine (0.3-30 mg/kg, ip, in 0.1 ml/100 g body weight administered 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before the test session were tested in the spatial version of the Morris water maze task. Post-training administration of caffeine improved memory retention at the doses of 0.3-10 mg/kg (the rats swam up to 600 cm less to find the platform in the test session, P<=0.05 but not at the dose of 30 mg/kg. Pre-test caffeine administration also caused a small increase in memory retrieval (the escape path of the rats was up to 500 cm shorter, P<=0.05. In contrast, pre-training caffeine administration did not alter the performance of the animals either in the training or in the test session. These data provide evidence that caffeine improves memory retention but not memory acquisition, explaining some discrepancies among reports in the literature.

  8. Testing for long memory in volatility in the Indian Forex market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Anoop S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to verify the presence of long memory in volatility in the Indian foreign exchange market using daily bilateral returns of the Indian Rupee against the US dollar from 17/02/1994 to 08/11/2013. In the first part of the analysis the presence of long-term dependence is confirmed in the return series as well as in two measures of unconditional volatility (absolute returns and squared returns by employing three measures of long memory. Next, the presence of long memory in conditional volatility is tested using ARMA-FIGARCH and ARMA-FIAPARCH models under various distributional assumptions. The results confirm the presence of long memory in conditional variance for two models. In the last part, the presence of long memory in conditional mean and conditional variance is verified using ARFIMA-FIGARCH and ARFIMA-FIAPARCH models. It is also found that long-memory models fare well compared to short-memory models in sample forecast performance.

  9. A fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical conditioning and testing system for behavioral learning and memory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Hanna, Eriny; Gatto, Cheryl L; Page, Terry L; Bhuva, Bharat; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-03-01

    Aversive olfactory classical conditioning has been the standard method to assess Drosophila learning and memory behavior for decades, yet training and testing are conducted manually under exceedingly labor-intensive conditions. To overcome this severe limitation, a fully automated, inexpensive system has been developed, which allows accurate and efficient Pavlovian associative learning/memory analyses for high-throughput pharmacological and genetic studies. The automated system employs a linear actuator coupled to an odorant T-maze with airflow-mediated transfer of animals between training and testing stages. Odorant, airflow and electrical shock delivery are automatically administered and monitored during training trials. Control software allows operator-input variables to define parameters of Drosophila learning, short-term memory and long-term memory assays. The approach allows accurate learning/memory determinations with operational fail-safes. Automated learning indices (immediately post-training) and memory indices (after 24h) are comparable to traditional manual experiments, while minimizing experimenter involvement. The automated system provides vast improvements over labor-intensive manual approaches with no experimenter involvement required during either training or testing phases. It provides quality control tracking of airflow rates, odorant delivery and electrical shock treatments, and an expanded platform for high-throughput studies of combinational drug tests and genetic screens. The design uses inexpensive hardware and software for a total cost of ∼$500US, making it affordable to a wide range of investigators. This study demonstrates the design, construction and testing of a fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical association apparatus to provide low-labor, high-fidelity, quality-monitored, high-throughput and inexpensive learning and memory behavioral assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced Interference from Memory Testing: A Postretrieval Monitoring Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benton H.; Gallo, David A.; McCain, Jason L.

    2017-01-01

    Initial learning can interfere with subsequent learning (proactive interference [PI]), but recent work indicates initial testing can reduce PI. Here, we tested 2 alternative hypotheses of this effect: Does testing reduce PI by constraining retrieval to the target list, or by facilitating a postretrieval monitoring process? Participants first…

  11. Auxetic shape memory alloy cellular structures for deployable satellite antennas: design, manufacture and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Maio D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the production development and experimental tests related to an hybrid honeycomb-truss made of shape memory alloy (Ni48Ti46Cu6, and used as a demonstrator for a deployable antenna in deep-space missions. Specific emphasis is placed on the modal analysis techniques used to test the lightweight SMA structure.

  12. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  13. Retrograde amnesia in rats with lesions to the hippocampus on a test of spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Caruana, Douglas A; Binns, Malcolm A

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined remote spatial memory in a test that spans several months to determine whether remote memories are spared relative to more recent ones, as predicted by models of memory consolidation. At 3, 6 or 12 months of age, groups of rats received forced-choice training as to the location of food reward in a cross maze. At 12.5 months, rats received bilateral neurotoxic lesions to the hippocampus or a control surgical procedure and 2 weeks later their memory for the spatial location was tested. Their performance was compared to that of rats with hippocampal or control lesions with no prior training on several measures of savings. The hippocampal group with no pre-training, as expected, was severely impaired in learning the location of the food reward. Compared to this group, rats with hippocampal lesions that were pre-trained consistently performed better at the shortest training-surgery interval but not at the longer ones. That is, rats with hippocampal lesions exhibited retrograde amnesia at all training-surgery intervals and a forgetting curve that paralleled that of the control groups. The results were interpreted within a framework that distinguishes between relational and associative context, and as providing evidence that the hippocampus is necessary for the retention and retrieval of memories that are bound to relational context, regardless of the age of the memory.

  14. Design, fabrication, testing and delivery of a feasibility model laminated ferrite memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of using multiword addressing with laminated ferrite arrays was made. Both a reduction in the number of components, and a reduction in power consumption was obtained for memory capacities between one million bits and one million words. An investigation into the effect of variations in the processing steps resulted in a number of process modifications that improved the quality of the arrays. A feasibility model laminated ferrite memory system was constructed by modifying a commercial plated wire memory system to operate with laminated ferrite arrays. To provide flexibility for the testing of the laminated ferrite memory, an exerciser has been constructed to automatically control the loading and recirculation of arbitrary size checkerboard patterns of one's and zero's and to display the patterns of stored information on a CRT screen.

  15. Modulating influences of memory strength and sensitivity of the retrieval test on the detectability of the sleep consolidation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Sarah F; Cordi, Maren J; Rasch, Björn

    2017-11-01

    Emotionality can increase recall probability of memories as emotional information is highly relevant for future adaptive behavior. It has been proposed that memory processes acting during sleep selectively promote the consolidation of emotional memories, so that neutral memories no longer profit from sleep consolidation after learning. This appears as a selective effect of sleep for emotional memories. However, other factors contribute to the appearance of a consolidation benefit and influence this interpretation. Here we show that the strength of the memory trace before sleep and the sensitivity of the retrieval test after sleep are critical factors contributing to the detection of the benefit of sleep on memory for emotional and neutral stimuli. 228 subjects learned emotional and neutral pictures and completed a free recall after a 12-h retention interval of either sleep or wakefulness. We manipulated memory strength by including an immediate retrieval test before the retention interval in half of the participants. In addition, we varied the sensitivity of the retrieval test by including an interference learning task before retrieval testing in half of the participants. We show that a "selective" benefit of sleep for emotional memories only occurs in the condition with high memory strength. Furthermore, this "selective" benefit disappeared when we controlled for the memory strength before the retention interval and used a highly sensitive retrieval test. Our results indicate that although sleep benefits are more robust for emotional memories, neutral memories similarly profit from sleep after learning when more sensitive indicators are used. We conclude that whether sleep benefits on memory appear depends on several factors, including emotion, memory strength and sensitivity of the retrieval test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of memory, attention, IQ and age on auditory temporal processing tests: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Roque, Daniela Tsubota; Ventura, Dora Selma Fix; Schochat, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the existence of correlations between the performance of children in auditory temporal tests (Frequency Pattern and Gaps in Noise--GIN) and IQ, attention, memory and age measurements. Fifteen typically developing individuals between the ages of 7 to 12 years and normal hearing participated in the study. Auditory temporal processing tests (GIN and Frequency Pattern), as well as a Memory test (Digit Span), Attention tests (auditory and visual modality) and intelligence tests (RAVEN test of Progressive Matrices) were applied. Significant and positive correlation between the Frequency Pattern test and age variable were found, which was considered good (pAuditory temporal skills seem to be influenced by different factors: while the performance in temporal ordering skill seems to be influenced by maturational processes, the performance in temporal resolution was not influenced by any of the aspects investigated.

  17. Role of diagnostic tests in esophageal evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, B.D.; Pope, C.E. II

    1980-01-01

    In the evaluation of esophageal disease, the appropriate question must be asked before the correct tests can be selected. Reflux can be demonstrated by radiologic methods, pH testing or radioisotopic techniques. Esophageal mucosal damage is best evaluated by x-ray, endoscopy, or biopsy. Chest pain is demonstrated by acid infusion or by manometry. Two algorithms are presented for the evaluation of chest pain and reflux symptoms

  18. A Robust Method of Measuring Other-Race and Other-Ethnicity Effects: The Cambridge Face Memory Test Format

    OpenAIRE

    McKone, Elinor; Stokes, Sacha; Liu, Jia; Cohan, Sarah; Fiorentini, Chiara; Pidcock, Madeleine; Yovel, Galit; Broughton, Mary; Pelleg, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony). Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA) and a new Cambridge Face Memo...

  19. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance-contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition.

  20. Fabrication Process and Reliability Evaluation of Shape Memory Alloy Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Choi, Il Kook; Park, Young Chul; Lee, Kyu Chang; Lee, Joon Hyun

    2001-01-01

    Shape memory alloy has been used to improve the tensile strength of composite by the occurrence of compressive residual stress in matrix using its shape memory effect. In order to fabricate shape memory alloy composite, TiNi alloy and A16061 were used as reinforcing material and mix, respectively. In this study, TiNi/A16061 shape memory alloy composite was made by using hot press method. However, the specimen fabricated by this method had the bonding problem at the boundary between TiNi fiber and Al matrix when the load was applied to it. A cold rolling was imposed to the specimen to improve the bonding effect. It was found that tensile strength of specimen subjected to cold rolling was more increased than that of specimen which did not underwent cold rolling. In addition, acoustic emission technique was used to quantify the microscopic damage behavior of cold rolled TiNi/A16061 shape memory alloy composite at high temperature

  1. Does test-induced priming play a role in the creation of false memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Elizabeth J; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the role of test-induced priming in creating false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, in which subjects study lists of related words (bed, rest, awake) and then falsely recall or recognise a related word (sleep) on a later test. However, in experiments using three different procedures, we found that the number of related words tested prior to the critical word had surprisingly little impact on false recall and recognition. We manipulated the location of the critical item in tests of yes/no recognition, word-stem cued recall, and part-set cued recall. We consistently obtained high probabilities of false recall and recognition, but the probability was unaffected by the number of related items presented prior to the test of the critical item. Surprisingly, test-induced priming of the critical item does not seem to play a large role in this memory illusion.

  2. Risk effectiveness evaluation of surveillance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Martorell, S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    To address the concerns about nuclear power plant surveillance tests, i.e., their adverse safety impact due to negative effects and too burdensome requirements, it is necessary to evaluate the safety significance or risk effectiveness of such tests explicitly considering both negative and positive effects. This paper defines the negative effects of surveillance testing from a risk perspective, and then presents a methodology to quantify the negative risk impact, i.e., the risk penalty or risk increase caused by the test. The method focuses on two important kinds of negative effects, namely, test-caused transients and test-caused equipment degradations. The concepts and quantitative methods for the risk evaluation can be used in the decision-making process to establish the safety significance of the tests and to screen the plant-specific surveillance test requirements. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Benchmarking and Evaluating Unified Memory for OpenMP GPU Offloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Alok [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Li, Lingda [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kong, Martin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chapman, Barbara [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, the latest OpenMP standard offers automatic device offloading capabilities which facilitate GPU programming. Despite this, there remain many challenges. One of these is the unified memory feature introduced in recent GPUs. GPUs in current and future HPC systems have enhanced support for unified memory space. In such systems, CPU and GPU can access each other's memory transparently, that is, the data movement is managed automatically by the underlying system software and hardware. Memory over subscription is also possible in these systems. However, there is a significant lack of knowledge about how this mechanism will perform, and how programmers should use it. We have modified several benchmarks codes, in the Rodinia benchmark suite, to study the behavior of OpenMP accelerator extensions and have used them to explore the impact of unified memory in an OpenMP context. We moreover modified the open source LLVM compiler to allow OpenMP programs to exploit unified memory. The results of our evaluation reveal that, while the performance of unified memory is comparable with that of normal GPU offloading for benchmarks with little data reuse, it suffers from significant overhead when GPU memory is over subcribed for benchmarks with large amount of data reuse. Based on these results, we provide several guidelines for programmers to achieve better performance with unified memory.

  4. Randomized controlled trial evaluating the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term memory, and prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-11-01

    The broader purpose of this study was to examine the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term retrospective memory and prospective memory. Among a sample of 88 young adult participants, 22 were randomized into one of four different groups: exercise before learning, control group, exercise during learning, and exercise after learning. The retrospective assessments (learning, short-term and long-term memory) were assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Long-term memory including a 20-min and 24-hr follow-up assessment. Prospective memory was assessed using a time-based procedure by having participants contact (via phone) the researchers at a follow-up time period. The exercise stimulus included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. High-intensity exercise prior to memory encoding (vs. exercise during memory encoding or consolidation) was effective in enhancing long-term memory (for both 20-min and 24-h follow-up assessments). We did not observe a differential temporal effect of high-intensity exercise on short-term memory (immediate post-memory encoding), learning or prospective memory. The timing of high-intensity exercise may play an important role in facilitating long-term memory. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Falsas memórias no Teste Pictórico de Memória False memories in Pictorial Memory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As falsas memórias (FM podem ser definidas como recordações que as pessoas têm de fatos ou eventos que nunca ocorreram, ilusões ou distorções de fatos ocorridos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o aparecimento de FM no Teste Pictórico de Memória. Para isso manipulou-se o tempo de exposição da lâmina (1, 3 ou 5 minutos, a fim de avaliar sua influência no aparecimento de FM. O estudo contou com 273 participantes. Os resultados mostraram uma diminuição significativa da porcentagem de respostas falsas considerando os tempos de exposição do mais rápido para o mais lento.False memories (FM are defined as memories that people have of facts or events that have never happened, illusions or distortions of facts which have occurred. The purpose of this work was to verify the occurrence of FM in the Pictorial Memory Test. The exposure time of the card (1, 3 or 5 minutes was manipulated in order to understand its influence on the onset of FM. The sample was composed of 273 participants. The results showed a significant decrease in the percentage of false answers given the exposure time from the fastest to the slowest.

  6. Test Methods for Telemetry Systems and Subsystems. Volume 5: Test Methods for Digital Recorder/Reproducer Systems and Recorder Memory Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    REPRODUCER SYSTEMS AND RECORDER MEMORY MODULES ABERDEEN TEST CENTER DUGWAY PROVING GROUND REAGAN TEST SITE WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE YUMA...ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...AND SUBSYSTEMS VOLUME V TEST METHODS FOR DIGITAL RECORDER/REPRODUCER SYSTEMS AND RECORDER MEMORY MODULES September 2016

  7. Monitored Geologic Repository Test Evaluation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.B. Skorska

    2002-01-02

    The Monitored Geologic Repository test & evaluation program will specify tests, demonstrations, examinations, and analyses, and describe procedures to conduct and document testing necessary to verify meeting Monitored Geologic Repository requirements for a safe and effective geologic repository for radioactive waste. This test program will provide assurance that the repository is performing as designed, and that the barriers perform as expected; it will also develop supporting documentation to support the licensing process and to demonstrate compliance with codes, standards, and regulations. This comprehensive program addresses all aspects of verification from the development of test requirements to the performance of tests and reporting of the test results. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test & Evaluation Plan'' provides a detailed description of the test program approach necessary to achieve the above test program objectives. This test plan incorporates a set of test phases focused on ensuring repository safety and operational readiness and implements a project-wide integrated product management team approach to facilitate test program planning, analysis, and implementation. The following sections provide a description of the individual test phases, the methodology for test program planning and analyses, and the management approach for implementing these activities.

  8. Results from On-Orbit Testing of the Fram Memory Test Experiment on the Fastsat Micro-Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Sims, W. Herb; Varnavas, Kosta A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is planning on going beyond Low Earth orbit with manned exploration missions. The radiation environment for most Low Earth orbit missions is harsher than at the Earth's surface but much less harsh than deep space. Development of new electronics is needed to meet the requirements of high performance, radiation tolerance, and reliability. The need for both Volatile and Non-volatile memory has been identified. Emerging Non-volatile memory technologies (FRAM, C-RAM,M-RAM, R-RAM, Radiation Tolerant FLASH, SONOS, etc.) need to be investigated for use in Space missions. An opportunity arose to fly a small memory experiment on a high inclination satellite (FASTSAT). An off-the-shelf 512K Ramtron FRAM was chosen to be tested in the experiment.

  9. Application of complex programmable logic devices in memory radiation effects test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonghong; He Chaohui; Yang Hailiang; He Baoping

    2005-01-01

    The application of the complex programmable logic device (CPLD) in electronics is emphatically discussed. The method of using software MAX + plus II and CPLD are introduced. A new test system for memory radiation effects is established by using CPLD devices-EPM7128C84-15. The old test system's function are realized and, moreover, a number of small scale integrated circuits are reduced and the test system's reliability is improved. (authors)

  10. Use of memory tests in the differential diagnosis of early stages of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Málková, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical part deals with issues of dementia, memory, primacy effect, recency effect, and the Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. The empirical part consists of quantitative research. The research sample consists of patients with dementia who were tested for their performance in the Auditory-Verbal Learning Test in which I focused on the primacy and recency effects. The aim was to determine the differences between the primacy and recency effects among different groups of patients, as well as...

  11. Evaluation of a Memory Book intervention with orphaned children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braband, Barbara J; Faris, Tamara; Wilson-Anderson, Kaye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this collaborative research study was to evaluate the use of the Memory Book intervention for orphaned children's grief and loss recovery. A qualitative phenomenological approach was implemented to evaluate the Memory Book intervention with orphaned children at two children's homes in South Africa. Study findings support the ability of children to work through loss and grief when they are assisted in preserving and telling their story. The Memory Book intervention assists children to chronicle their lives and demonstrates the potential to guide future interventions by care providers and nurses in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biocompatibility evaluation of nickel-titanium shape memory metal alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Ryhänen, J. (Jorma)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The shape memory effect, superelasticity, and good damping properties, uncommon in other implant alloys, make the nickel-titanium shape memory metal alloy (Nitinol or NiTi) a fascinating material for surgical applications. It provides a possibility to make self-locking, self-expanding and self-compressing implants. The purpose of this work was to determine if NiTi is a safe material for surgical implant applications. The primary cytotoxicity and the corrosion rate of NiTi were...

  13. A sentence completion procedure as an alternative to the Autobiographical Memory Test for assessing overgeneral memory in non-clinical populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk; Williams, J Mark G; Eelen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for depression (Williams et al., 2007) or depressive reactivity to stressful life-events (e.g., Gibbs & Rude, 2004). Traditionally, a cue word procedure known as the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) is used to assess OGM. Although frequently and validly used in clinical populations, there is evidence suggesting that the AMT is insufficiently sensitive to measure OGM in non-clinical groups. Study 1 evaluated the usefulness of a sentence completion method to assess OGM in non-clinical groups, as an alternative to the AMT. Participants were 197 students who completed the AMT, the Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT), a depression measure, and visual analogue scales assessing ruminative thinking. Results showed that the mean proportion of overgeneral responses was markedly higher for the SCEPT than for the standard AMT. Also, overgeneral responding on the SCEPT was positively associated to depression scores and depressive rumination scores, whereas overgeneral responding on the AMT was not. Results suggest that the SCEPT, relative to the AMT, is a more sensitive instrument to measure OGM, at least in non-clinical populations. Study 2 further showed that this enhanced sensitivity is most likely due to the omission of the instruction to be specific rather than to the SCEPT's sentence completion format (as opposed to free recall to cue words).

  14. Smell test predicts performance on delayed recall memory test in elderly with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Monica Z; Streiner, David L; Rewilak, Dmytro; Castel, Saulo; Van Reekum, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Elderly with depression are at increased risk for cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Smell tests are correlated with performance on cognitive tests in the elderly and therefore might serve as a screening test for cognitive impairment in depressed elderly. To assess the validity of the CC-SIT (Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test) as a screening test for cognitive impairment in elderly with depression. Forty-one patients, aged 60 and over, were assessed with the CC-SIT and CVLT (California Verbal Learning Test) after 3 months treatment of a Major Depressive Episode (DSM-IV) at the Day Hospital for Depression, Baycrest. Patients already diagnosed with dementia, or other psychiatric and neurological disorders, were excluded. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis was applied to assess the CC-SIT's accuracy in identifying individuals with impairment (2 SD below the mean for age and education or less) on CVLT delayed recall trials. Forty-one patients (33 women and eight men) were assessed. Mean age was 76.8 (SD: 6.5), mean HRSD scores before treatment was 22.0 (SD: 5.1). Nine patients had impairment on CVLT delayed recall measures. The area under the ROC curve was 0.776 (95% CI = 0.617-0.936). Our results support the use of the CC-SIT as a screening tool for cognitive impairment among elderly with depression as an indicator for the need of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Replication with larger samples is necessary. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Characteristics of Metal Magnetic Memory Testing of 35CrMo Steel during Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue fracture of a drillstring could cause drilling disturbances and some negative impacts (e.g., economic loss will be brought when restoring the drillstring to functionality. In order to evaluate the effects of the fatigue damage of the drillstring during drilling, a new apparatus, which could monitor the load level in real-time, was built to perform the four-point bending fatigue test on 35CrMo steel, a typical material of drillstrings. Such an apparatus is based on metal magnetic memory (MMM technology and can acquire the tangential and normal components of MMM signals. Based on the analysis of the change of surface morphology and MMM signals, it was concluded that the variation of MMM signals could be divided into four stages, which are used to accurately describe the fatigue damage process of the drillstring. Additionally, the MMM signal characteristics are introduced to especially evaluate the fatigue damage of the drillstring, including crack initiation. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM results demonstrated that morphologies of fatigue fracture were related to the variation of MMM signals. Linear fitting results indicated that fatigue crack length had a good linear relationship with the characteristics, so it is feasible to monitor fatigue damage and predict the residual life of a drillstring by using MMM technology.

  16. Working memory, attentional regulation and the Star Counting Test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Jong, de P.F.; Koopmans, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Star Counting Test (SCT) has been developed to measure the regulatory function of attention. In a previous study it was shown that the SCT is suited for assessment of this attentional aspect with children. The present study concerns a more difficult version aimed at young adults. In the

  17. Experimental sleep deprivation as a tool to test memory deficits in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALERIA eCOLAVITO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Paradigms of sleep deprivation (SD and memory testing in rodents (laboratory rats and mice are here reviewed. The vast majority of these studies have been aimed at understanding the contribution of sleep to cognition, and in particular to memory. Relatively little attention, instead, has been devoted to SD as a challenge to induce a transient memory impairment, and therefore as a tool to test cognitive enhancers in drug discovery. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the studies that have accurately described methodological aspects of the SD protocol and behavioral paradigm in order to critically assess them and propose SD protocols that could be employed as cognitive challenge. Total SD, partial or state-selective SD (rapid eye movement SD procedures are first reviewed, followed by procedures to investigate SD-induced impairment of learning and memory consolidation. Thus, a platform of knowledge is here provided for laboratory protocols that could be used to assess the efficacy of drugs designed to improve memory performance in rodents, including rodent models of neurodegenerative diseases that cause cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer’s disease in particular. Issues in the interpretation of such preclinical data and their predictive value for clinical translation are also discussed.

  18. Experimental sleep deprivation as a tool to test memory deficits in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavito, Valeria; Fabene, Paolo F.; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Pifferi, Fabien; Lamberty, Yves; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bertini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Paradigms of sleep deprivation (SD) and memory testing in rodents (laboratory rats and mice) are here reviewed. The vast majority of these studies have been aimed at understanding the contribution of sleep to cognition, and in particular to memory. Relatively little attention, instead, has been devoted to SD as a challenge to induce a transient memory impairment, and therefore as a tool to test cognitive enhancers in drug discovery. Studies that have accurately described methodological aspects of the SD protocol are first reviewed, followed by procedures to investigate SD-induced impairment of learning and memory consolidation in order to propose SD protocols that could be employed as cognitive challenge. Thus, a platform of knowledge is provided for laboratory protocols that could be used to assess the efficacy of drugs designed to improve memory performance in rodents, including rodent models of neurodegenerative diseases that cause cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer's disease in particular. Issues in the interpretation of such preclinical data and their predictive value for clinical translation are also discussed. PMID:24379759

  19. Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John

    2011-10-01

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

  20. Test-enhanced learning of natural concepts: effects on recognition memory, classification, and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L; Wahlheim, Christopher N; Coane, Jennifer H

    2010-11-01

    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test trials during training. Metacognitive measures provided results suggesting that participants were aware of the beneficial effects of testing. A new measure of metacognition at the level of categories is introduced and shown to be potentially useful for theory and applied purposes. It is argued that focusing on optimizing the learning of natural concepts encourages the convergence of theorizing about memory, concept learning, and metacognition and holds promise for the development of applications to education. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Direct, Operational Field Test Evaluation, Institutional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES HAVE BEEN DEFINED AS NON-TECHNICAL ISSUES OR CONCERNS THAT INFLUENCE THE COURSE AND OUTCOME OF AN OPERATIONAL TEST. OFTEN THEY ARE EVENTS AND/OR CIRCUMSTANCES THAT AFFECT ADMINISTRATION, DESIGN, DEPLOYMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE O...

  2. Logistics Test and Evaluation: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... A vigorous logistics test and evaluation process is essential to ferret out these potential problems, and make sure that when fielded a system is supportable, maintainable, safe, survivable, and transportable...

  3. Synaptic Tagging, Evaluation of Memories, and the Distal Reward Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, Marc; Kempter, Richard; Leibold, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity exhibits distinct phases. The synaptic tagging hypothesis suggests an early phase in which synapses are prepared, or "tagged," for protein capture, and a late phase in which those proteins are integrated into the synapses to achieve memory consolidation. The synapse specificity of the tags is consistent with…

  4. Verbal memory improved by D-amphetamine: influence of the testing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeuws, Inge; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric

    2010-07-01

    The improvement of long-term retention of verbal memory after an acute administration of D-amphetamine in recall and recognition tasks has been ascribed to an influence of the drug on memory consolidation. Because recent research has demonstrated that intermediate testing is of overriding importance for retention, we investigated whether D-amphetamine modulates the repeated testing effect in verbal long-term recognition. Forty men participated in two double blind placebo controlled studies. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the number of recognition tests and in Experiment 2, we compared repeated with nonrepeated testing of the same items. Drug effects were observed on delayed tests only, leaving immediate recognition unaffected. Number of intermediate recognition tests and repeated testing of the same items were not affected by D-amphetamine. We conclude that the D-amphetamine memory enhancement is not related to the testing effect. This result supports that D-amphetamine modulates other aspects of the consolidation process, probably related to context effects. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. TESTING THE EFFECTS OF HYPNOTICS ON MEMORY VIA THE TELEPHONE : FACT OR FICTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, JL; Louwerens, JW; Cnossen, F; de Jong, HTP

    The two benzodiazapines used in this experiment, namely midazolam and flunitrazepam, have both been shown to have effects on memory processing in laboratory studies. In spite of the potential hazards involved in real life testing, it should be possible to replicate such findings in everyday

  6. Testing complex animal cognition: Concept learning, proactive interference, and list memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A

    2018-01-01

    This article describes an approach for assessing and comparing complex cognition in rhesus monkeys and pigeons by training them in a sequence of synergistic tasks, each yielding a whole function for enhanced comparisons. These species were trained in similar same/different tasks with expanding training sets (8, 16, 32, 64, 128 … 1024 pictures) followed by novel-stimulus transfer eventually resulting in full abstract-concept learning. Concept-learning functions revealed better rhesus transfer throughout and full concept learning at the 128 set, versus pigeons at the 256 set. They were then tested in delayed same/different tasks for proactive interference by inserting occasional tests within trial-unique sessions where the test stimulus matched a previous sample stimulus (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 trials prior). Proactive-interference functions revealed time-based interference for pigeons (1, 10 s delays), but event-based interference for rhesus (no effect of 1, 10, 20 s delays). They were then tested in list-memory tasks by expanding the sample to four samples in trial-unique sessions (minimizing proactive interference). The four-item, list-memory functions revealed strong recency memory at short delays, gradually changing to strong primacy memory at long delays over 30 s for rhesus, and 10 s for pigeons. Other species comparisons and future directions are discussed. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. TESTING THE EFFECTS OF THE IMIDAZOPYRIDINE ZOLPIDEM ON MEMORY : AN ECOLOGICALLY VALID APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, JL; Louwerens, JW; Cnossen, F; de Jong, HTP

    1992-01-01

    The present study explores whether memory impairments are found on the morning following intake of the hypnotic zolpidem which is a member of a new pharmaceutical class, the imidazopyridines. The procedure used is novel: it involves testing subjects in their own homes via the telephone. A previous

  8. How Memory Is Tested Influences What Is Measured: Reply to Wyble and Chen (2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Khena M.; Jiang, Yuhong V.; Tan, Deborah H.

    2017-01-01

    In this response to Wyble and Chen's (2017) commentary on attribute amnesia, we hope to achieve several goals. First, we clarify how our view diverges from that described by Wyble and Chen. We argue that because the surprise memory test is disruptive, it is an insensitive tool for measuring the persistence of recently attended target attributes in…

  9. State Anxiety and Working Memory in Children: A Test of Processing Efficiency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Julie A.; Brogan, Joanna; Stevenson, Jim

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of individual differences in state anxiety on tasks tapping the central executive, phonological, and visuo-spatial components of working memory (WM). It was designed to test Eysenck and Calvo's processing efficiency theory (PET) which suggests that the phonological and executive components of WM may be important…

  10. Dynamic Testing, Working Memory, and Reading Comprehension Growth in Children with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed (a) whether performance changes in working memory (WM) as a function of dynamic testing were related to growth in reading comprehension and (b) whether WM performance among subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD; children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal…

  11. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York…

  12. Working Memory Systems in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratch, Alexander; Kann, Spencer; Cain, Joshua A; Wu, Jie-En; Rivera-Reyes, Nilda; Dalecki, Stefan; Arman, Diana; Dunn, Austin; Cooper, Shiloh; Corbin, Hannah E; Doyle, Amanda R; Pizzo, Matthew J; Smith, Alexandra E; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-02-08

    A fundamental feature of memory in humans is the ability to simultaneously work with multiple types of information using independent memory systems. Working memory is conceptualized as two independent memory systems under executive control [1, 2]. Although there is a long history of using the term "working memory" to describe short-term memory in animals, it is not known whether multiple, independent memory systems exist in nonhumans. Here, we used two established short-term memory approaches to test the hypothesis that spatial and olfactory memory operate as independent working memory resources in the rat. In the olfactory memory task, rats chose a novel odor from a gradually incrementing set of old odors [3]. In the spatial memory task, rats searched for a depleting food source at multiple locations [4]. We presented rats with information to hold in memory in one domain (e.g., olfactory) while adding a memory load in the other domain (e.g., spatial). Control conditions equated the retention interval delay without adding a second memory load. In a further experiment, we used proactive interference [5-7] in the spatial domain to compromise spatial memory and evaluated the impact of adding an olfactory memory load. Olfactory and spatial memory are resistant to interference from the addition of a memory load in the other domain. Our data suggest that olfactory and spatial memory draw on independent working memory systems in the rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and experimental evaluation of a novel annuloplasty ring with a shape memory alloy core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Molly Ferris

    A novel annuloplasty ring with a shape memory alloy core has been developed to facilitate minimally invasive mitral valve repair. In its activated (austenitic) phase, this prototype ring provides comparable mechanical properties as commercial semi-rigid rings. In its pre-activated (martensitic) phase, this ring is flexible enough to be introduced through an 8 mm trocar and easily manipulated with robotic instruments within the confines of a left atrial model. The core is constructed of 0.508 mm diameter NiTi, which is maintained below its M s temperature (24°C) during deployment and suturing. After suturing, the stiffener is heated to its Af temperature (37°C, normal human body temperature) enabling the NiTi to retain its optimal geometry and stiffness characteristics indefinitely. The NiTi core is shape set in a furnace to the appropriate size and optimal geometry during fabrication. The ring is cooled in a saline bath prior to surgery, making it compliant and easy to manipulate. Evaluation of the ring included mechanical testing, robotic evaluation, static pressure testing, dynamic flow testing and fatigue testing. Experimental results suggest that the NiTi core ring could be a viable alternative to flexible bands in robot-assisted mitral valve repair.

  14. The Operational Testing Effectiveness Evaluation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    objective evaluation method. 3 CHAPTER TWO HISTORICAL OT&E: A RESTLESS SEARCH We regard the creation of the testing and eva ]uation group as of the utmost...supervise it? Tracing the organiza- tional development of operational testing leads through a bewildering maze of command and staff structures. This chapter

  15. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment

  16. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

  17. Establishing normative data for multi-trial memory tests: the multivariate regression-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Elst, Wim; Molenberghs, Geert; van Tetering, Marleen; Jolles, Jelle

    Multi-trial memory tests are widely used in research and clinical practice because they allow for assessing different aspects of memory and learning in a single comprehensive test procedure. However, the use of multi-trial memory tests also raises some key data analysis issues. Indeed, the different trial scores are typically all correlated, and this correlation has to be properly accounted for in the statistical analyses. In the present paper, the focus is on the setting where normative data have to be established for multi-trial memory tests. At present, normative data for such tests are typically based on a series of univariate analyses, i.e. a statistical model is fitted for each of the test scores separately. This approach is suboptimal because (1) the correlated nature of the data is not accounted for, (2) multiple testing issues may arise, and (3) the analysis is not parsimonious. Here, a normative approach that is not hampered by these issues is proposed (the so-called multivariate regression-based approach). The methodology is exemplified in a sample of N = 221 Dutch-speaking children (aged between 5.82 and 15.49 years) who were administered Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test. An online Appendix that details how the analyses can be conducted in practice (using the R software) is also provided. The multivariate normative regression-based approach has some substantial methodological advantages over univariate regression-based methods. In addition, the method allows for testing substantive hypotheses that cannot be addressed in a univariate framework (e.g. trial by covariate interactions can be modeled).

  18. The Impact of Testing on the Formation of Children's and Adults' False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackmann, Nathalie; Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Howe, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Witnesses are frequently questioned immediately following a crime. The effects of such testing on false recall are inconclusive: Testing may inoculate against subsequent misinformation or enhance false memory formation. We examined whether different types of processing can account for these discrepancies. Drawing from Fuzzy-trace and Associative-activation theories, immediate questions that trigger the processing of the global understanding of the event can heighten false memory rates. However, questions that trigger the processing of specific details can inoculate memories against subsequent misinformation. These effects were hypothesized to be more pronounced in children than in adults. Seven/eight-, 11/12-, 14/15-year-olds, and adults (N = 220) saw a mock-theft film and were tested immediately with meaning or item-specific questions. Test results on the succeeding day replicated classic misinformation and testing effects, although our processing hypothesis was not supported. Only adults who received meaning questions benefited from immediate testing and, across all ages, testing led to retrieval-enhanced suggestibility. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The role of sedation tests in identifying sedative drug effects in healthy volunteers and their power to dissociate sedative-related impairments from memory dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezenberg, E; Sabbe, B G C; Hulstijn, W; Ruigt, G S F; Verkes, R J

    2007-08-01

    The study investigated whether four specified drugs would show similar patterns on tests considered to measure sedation. In addition, their drug-effect patterns on sedation and memory performance were compared to determine whether the sedative effects could be differentiated from the memory effects. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies, each with 16 healthy volunteers, were performed, one testing lorazepam (2.5 mg) and mirtazapine (15 mg) and the other olanzapine (10 mg) and haloperidol (2.5 mg). Subjective sedation was assessed by means of visual analogue scales (VAS) and objective sedation using a simple-reaction-time (SRT) task and a choice-reaction-time (CRT) task, code substitution (symbol digit substitution test (SDST)) and the peak velocity of saccadic eye movements (SEM). A verbal memory test (VMT) was administered to evaluate memory capacity. Apart from haloperidol, all drugs proved to impair performance on all five sedation indices. Contrary to the VAS, the objective measures yielded different response profiles. Two types of drug-effect patterns emerged: one for greater impairments in response speed (SRT, SEM) and one for greater impairments in information processing (CRT, SDST). Lorazepam and olanzapine impeded memory performance, whereas mirtazapine did not. With the use of standardized scores it proved possible to differentiate between the size of the effects of the drugs on the sedation and memory tests. To accurately assess the level and nature of sedation and to differentiate sedation from memory impairments different types of sedation measures are required. Besides studying the subjective effects, it is recommended to also test psychomotor responses and information processing speed.

  20. How does additional diagnostic testing influence the initial diagnosis in patients with cognitive complaints in a memory clinic setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, A.P.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Schalk, B.W.M; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Melis, R.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: patients suspected of dementia frequently undergo additional diagnostic testing (e.g. brain imaging or neuropsychological assessment) after standard clinical assessment at a memory clinic. This study investigates the use of additional testing in an academic outpatient memory clinic and

  1. How does additional diagnostic testing influence the initial diagnosis in patients with cognitive complaints in a memory clinic setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, A.P.; Claassen, J.A.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Schalk, B.W.M; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Melis, R.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: patients suspected of dementia frequently undergo additional diagnostic testing (e.g. brain imaging or neuropsychological assessment) after standard clinical assessment at a memory clinic. This study investigates the use of additional testing in an academic outpatient memory clinic and

  2. Education delays accelerated decline on a memory test in persons who develop dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C B; Derby, C; LeValley, A; Katz, M J; Verghese, J; Lipton, R B

    2007-10-23

    To test the cognitive reserve hypothesis by examining the effect of education on memory decline during the preclinical course of dementia. Low education is a well known risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Persons destined to develop AD experience an accelerated rate of decline in cognitive ability, particularly in memory. The cognitive reserve hypothesis predicts that persons with greater education begin to experience acceleration in cognitive decline closer to the time of diagnosis than persons with lower reserve, but that their rate of decline is more rapid after the time of acceleration due to increased disease burden. We studied the influence of education on rates of memory decline as measured by the Buschke Selective Reminding Test in 117 participants with incident dementia in the Bronx Aging Study. Subjects had detailed cognitive assessments at entry and at annual follow-up visits. We estimated the time at which the rate of decline begins to accelerate (the change point), and the pre- and post-acceleration rates of decline, from the longitudinal data using a change point model. Each additional year of formal education delayed the time of accelerated decline on the Buschke Selective Reminding Test by 0.21 years. Post-acceleration, the rate of memory decline was increased by 0.10 points per year for each year of additional formal education. As predicted by the cognitive reserve hypothesis, higher education delays the onset of accelerated cognitive decline; once it begins it is more rapid in persons with more education.

  3. Memory accessibility shapes explanation: Testing key claims of the inherence heuristic account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussak, Larisa J; Cimpian, Andrei

    2018-01-01

    People understand the world by constructing explanations for what they observe. It is thus important to identify the cognitive processes underlying these judgments. According to a recent proposal, everyday explanations are often constructed heuristically: Because people need to generate explanations on a moment-by-moment basis, they cannot perform an exhaustive search through the space of possible reasons, but may instead use the information that is most easily accessible in memory (Cimpian & Salomon 2014a, b). In the present research, we tested two key claims of this proposal that have so far not been investigated. First, we tested whether-as previously hypothesized-the information about an entity that is most accessible in memory tends to consist of inherent or intrinsic facts about that entity, rather than extrinsic (contextual, historical, etc.) facts about it (Studies 1 and 2). Second, we tested the implications of this difference in the memory accessibility of inherent versus extrinsic facts for the process of generating explanations: Does the fact that inherent facts are more accessible than relevant extrinsic facts give rise to an inherence bias in the content of the explanations generated (Studies 3 and 4)? The findings supported the proposal that everyday explanations are generated in part via a heuristic process that relies on easily accessible-and often inherent-information from memory.

  4. Deployable auxetic shape memory alloy cellular antenna demonstrator: design, manufacturing and modal testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, S; Coconnier, C; DiMaio, D; Scarpa, F; Martinez, J; Toso, M

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the design, manufacturing and testing of a deployable antenna for deep-space missions based on a hybrid honeycomb truss made of shape memory alloy (SMA). The deployable characteristics are enhanced by the equivalent auxetic (negative Poisson’s ratio) behaviour of the cellular configuration. Specific emphasis is placed on the modal analysis techniques used to test the lightweight SMA structure. (paper)

  5. Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin A G; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-12-06

    A colour quality metric based on memory colours is presented. The basic idea is simple. The colour quality of a test source is evaluated as the degree of similarity between the colour appearance of a set of familiar objects and their memory colours. The closer the match, the better the colour quality. This similarity was quantified using a set of similarity distributions obtained by Smet et al. in a previous study. The metric was validated by calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between the metric predictions and the visual appreciation results obtained in a validation experiment conducted by the authors as well those obtained in two independent studies. The metric was found to correlate well with the visual appreciation of the lighting quality of the sources used in the three experiments. Its performance was also compared with that of the CIE colour rendering index and the NIST colour quality scale. For all three experiments, the metric was found to be significantly better at predicting the correct visual rank order of the light sources (p < 0.1).

  6. Analysis of the X-ray microbeam test result of the flash memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yihua; Ding Lili; Chen Wei; Guo Hongxia; Guo Xiaoqiang; Lin Dongsheng; Zhang Keying; Zhang Fengqi; Deng Yuliang; Fan Ruyu

    2013-01-01

    Background: The failure phenomenon is difficult to analyze for the flash memories when the whole chip is exposed to irradiation since both the memory array and the peripheral circuits might be degraded. Purpose: In order to detect the radiation susceptibility and corresponding phenomenon of the related circuits that included in the flash memories, the X-ray microbeam is used as the radiation source instead of 60 Co. Methods: The failure phenomenon is studied respectively when the memory array, decoder circuits, the charge pump circuits as well as the I/O circuits are exposed to radiation. The errors are mapped according to the logical address and the failure mechanism is analyzed based on the circuits. Results: Irradiated on the memory .array win lead to regularly distributed 0→1 bit flips, while only 1→0 are found when the row decoder is under exposure. Degradation of the charge pump circuits would lead to the erase/program functional failure. Conclusions: The results suggest that the X-ray microbeam radiation test is a good method for detecting the radiation susceptibility of the integrated circuits that contains lots of circuit modules. (authors)

  7. An evaluation of nonclinical dissociation utilizing a virtual environment shows enhanced working memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidel-Goley, Isaac N; Albiero, Erin E; Flannery, Kathleen A

    2012-02-01

    Dissociation is a mental process resulting in the disruption of memory, perception, and sometimes identity. At a nonclinical level, only mild dissociative experiences occur. The nature of nonclinical dissociation is disputed in the literature, with some asserting that it is a beneficial information processing style and others positing that it is a psychopathological phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to further the understanding of nonclinical dissociation with respect to memory and attention, by including a more ecologically valid virtual reality (VR) memory task along with standard neuropsychological tasks. Forty-five undergraduate students from a small liberal arts college in the northeast participated for course credit. The participants completed a battery of tasks including two standard memory tasks, a standard attention task, and an experimental VR memory task; the VR task included immersion in a virtual apartment, followed by incidental object-location recall for objects in the virtual apartment. Support for the theoretical model portraying nonclinical dissociation as a beneficial information processing style was found in this study. Dissociation scores were positively correlated with working memory scores and attentional processing scores on the standard neuropsychological tasks. In terms of the VR task, dissociation scores were positively correlated with more false positive memories that could be the result of a tendency of nonclinical highly dissociative individuals to create more elaborative schemas. This study also demonstrates that VR paradigms add to the prediction of cognitive functioning in testing protocols using standard neuropsychological tests, while simultaneously increasing ecological validity.

  8. Phonological working memory and reading in test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M G; Eysenck, M W

    1996-05-01

    Texts were presented sentence by sentence (Experiment 1) or word by word (Experiment 2) at a fixed rate to subjects high or low in test anxiety, under various conditions: no interference, concurrent articulatory suppression, and concurrent irrelevant speech (presented auditorily). High-anxiety subjects produced overt articulation more frequently than low-anxiety subjects, especially in the irrelevant speech condition. The most salient finding was an interaction between anxiety and interference on comprehension performance: under word-by-word-but not under sentence-by-sentence-presentation, anxious subjects showed poorer comprehension than non-anxious subjects in both conditions known to interfere with the articulatory loop (i.e. articulatory suppression, and irrelevant speech), but equivalent comprehension in the no interference condition. These findings suggest (a) that the articulatory loop has a special compensatory role for anxious individuals in reading comprehension, and (b) that the importance of this auxiliary mechanism is enhanced when other strategies, such as regressive fixations and control of reading speed, cannot be used.

  9. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  10. Design and performance of wideband DRFM for radar test and evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The test and evaluation of modem radars using hardware in the loop simulators requires the use of wideband high-fidelity, digital radio frequency memories (DRFM) in order to generate realistic target retums. Important aspects of wideband DRFM design...

  11. An evaluation testing technique of single event effect using Beam Blanking SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J.; Hada, T.; Pesce, A.; Akutsu, T.; Matsuda, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Igarashi, T.; Baba, S.

    1997-03-01

    Beam Blanking SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) testing technique has been applied to CMOS SRAM devices to evaluate the occurence of soft errors on memory cells. Cross-section versus beam current and LET curves derived from BBSEM and heavy ion testing technique, respectively, have been compared. A linear relation between BBSEM current and heavy ion LET has been found. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the application of focused pulsed electron beam could be a reliable, convenient and inexpensive tool to investigate the effects of heavy ions and high energy particles on memory devices for space application. (author)

  12. Long-term deficits in episodic memory after ischemic stroke: evaluation and prediction of verbal and visual memory performance based on lesion characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Eveline A.; Schiemanck, Sven K.; Brand, Nico; Post, Marcel W. M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between ischemic lesion characteristics (hemispheric side, cortical and subcortical level, volume) and memory performance, 1 year after stroke. Verbal and visual memory of 86 patients with stroke were assessed with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and the Doors

  13. Decreased prefrontal functional brain response during memory testing in women with Cushing's syndrome in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, Oskar; Stomby, Andreas; Dahlqvist, Per; Evang, Johan A; Ryberg, Mats; Olsson, Tommy; Bollerslev, Jens; Nyberg, Lars; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-08-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is an important feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Our hypothesis was that patients with CS in remission have decreased functional brain responses in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during memory testing. In this cross-sectional study we included 19 women previously treated for CS and 19 controls matched for age, gender, and education. The median remission time was 7 (IQR 6-10) years. Brain activity was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic- and working-memory tasks. The primary regions of interest were the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. A voxel-wise comparison of functional brain responses in patients and controls was performed. During episodic-memory encoding, patients displayed lower functional brain responses in the left and right prefrontal gyrus (pmemory retrieval, the patients displayed lower functional brain responses in several brain areas with the most predominant difference in the right prefrontal cortex (pmemory task, patients had lower response in the prefrontal cortices bilaterally (pmemory task compared with a simpler one. In conclusion, women with CS in long-term remission have reduced functional brain responses during episodic and working memory testing. This observation extends previous findings showing long-term adverse effects of severe hypercortisolaemia on brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Proficiency Testing for Evaluating Aerospace Materials Test Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, D.; Motto, S.; Peyton, S.; Beeson, H.

    2006-01-01

    ASTM G 86 and ASTM G 74 are commonly used to evaluate materials susceptibility to ignition in liquid and gaseous oxygen systems. However, the methods have been known for their lack of repeatability. The inherent problems identified with the test logic would either not allow precise identification or the magnitude of problems related to running the tests, such as lack of consistency of systems performance, lack of adherence to procedures, etc. Excessive variability leads to increasing instances of accepting the null hypothesis erroneously, and so to the false logical deduction that problems are nonexistent when they really do exist. This paper attempts to develop and recommend an approach that could lead to increased accuracy in problem diagnostics by using the 50% reactivity point, which has been shown to be more repeatable. The initial tests conducted indicate that PTFE and Viton A (for pneumatic impact) and Buna S (for mechanical impact) would be good choices for additional testing and consideration for inter-laboratory evaluations. The approach presented could also be used to evaluate variable effects with increased confidence and tolerance optimization.

  15. Recall or evaluation of chess positions revisited: the relationship between memory and evaluation in chess skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultetus, R S; Charness, N

    1999-01-01

    We extend work by Holding and Reynolds (1982) on recall and problem solving with quasirandom chess positions. We tested 17 chess players on both quasirandom and structured chess positions. Consistent with the earlier study, initial recall of quasirandom chess positions is unrelated to chess skill level, and quality of the move selected in subsequent problem solving is related to skill level. However, recall following problem solving is related to chess skill level. These results support the view that pattern recognition processes underlie superior performance by skilled chess players, contrary to the conclusions of Holding and Reynolds (1982). Mechanisms such as long-term working memory retrieval structures (Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995) or templates (Gobet & Simon, 1996a) could explain the effective encoding of quasirandom positions during problem solving.

  16. The advanced test reactor strategic evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    Since the Chernobly accident, the safety of test reactors and irradiation facilities has been critically evaluated from the public's point of view. A systematic evaluation of all safety, environmental, and operational issues must be made in an integrated manner to prioritize actions to maximize benefits while minimizing costs. Such a proactive program has been initiated at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This program, called the Strategic Evaluation Program (STEP), is being conducted for the ATR to provide integrated safety and operational reviews of the reactor against the standards applied to licensed commercial power reactors. This has taken into consideration the lessons learned by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) and the follow-on effort known as the Integrated Safety Assessment Program (ISAP). The SEP was initiated by the NRC to review the designs of older operating nuclear power plants to confirm and document their safety. The ATR STEP objectives are discussed

  17. Evaluating the Effect of Mozart Music and White Noise on Electroencephalography Pattern toward Visual Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Noor Syakiylla Sayed Daud

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Listening to auditory stimuli during study can give positive and negative influence on human cognitive processing. Thus, it has attracted researchers to conduct studies using various types of auditory stimuli. Some researchers believe that Mozart music and white noise are able to give positive influence on cognitive performance. However, most of the past studies gave more attention towards spatial task. Very little studies have been made on the effect of Mozart music and white noise towards memorizing task. Besides, the effect of these auditory stimuli on task difficulty has also not been studied deeply. Hence, the aims of this study were to investigate the effect of Mozart music and white noise on memory performance with different task difficulty levels; and to propose an effective background stimuli condition for memorization. Experiments have been conducted involving 60 healthy adults that required them to memorize the visual memory task with two difficulty levels; i.e. easy and difficult. Brain signal was recorded during memorization duration using 10-20 electrode placement system of electroencephalography (EEG machine. EEG is a neurological test for measuring and recording the electrical activity of the brain. The effect of sound stimuli on memory performance was evaluated based on memorization test score and brain activity. The wavelet approach was used in processing the EEG data. Based on the memorizing test score result, the subjects are able to memorize better when listening to white noise compared to Mozart music at different difficulty levels. Listening to auditory stimuli can influence the electroencephalography pattern and brain activity. The level of sensory processing and attention increases when listening to white noise which cause the increase of relative gamma (easy level: p-value = 0.005; difficult level: p-value = 0.007 and beta power (easy level: p-value = 0.001; difficult level: p-value = 0.003. Thus, in this study, it is

  18. The dark side of testing memory: repeated retrieval can enhance eyewitness suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason C K; Lapaglia, Jessica A

    2011-12-01

    Eyewitnesses typically recount their experiences many times before trial. Such repeated retrieval can enhance memory retention of the witnessed event. However, recent studies (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009) have found that initial retrieval can exacerbate eyewitness suggestibility to later misleading information--a finding termed retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES). Here we examined the influence of multiple retrieval attempts on eyewitness suggestibility to subsequent misinformation. In four experiments, we systematically varied the number of initial tests taken (between zero and six), the delay between initial testing and misinformation exposure (~30 min or 1 week), and whether initial testing was manipulated between- or within-subjects. University undergraduate students were used as participants. Overall, we found that eyewitness suggestibility increased as the number of initial tests increased, but this RES effect was qualified by the delay and by whether initial testing occurred in a within- or between-subjects manner. Specifically, the within-subjects RES effect was smaller than the between-subjects RES effect, possibly because of the influence of retrieval-induced forgetting/facilitation (Chan, 2009) when initial testing was manipulated within subjects. Moreover, consistent with the testing effect literature (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006), the benefits of repeated testing on later memory were stronger after a 1-week delay than after a 30-min delay, thus reducing the negative impact of RES in long-term situations. These findings suggest that conditions that are likely to occur in criminal investigations can either increase (repeated testing) or reduce (delay) the influence of RES, thus further demonstrating the complex relationship between eyewitness memory and repeated retrieval.

  19. The Effects of Involvement, Message Appeal, and Viewing Conditions on Memory and Evaluation of TV Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Glen; Thorson, Esther

    A study tested an information processing model that incorporates the concepts of episodic and semantic memory. The model was designed to provide for the concurrent study of three advertising and communication variables: product involvement, message appeal, and distraction in viewing conditions. Among the five hypotheses being tested were that…

  20. Test of memory malingering with children: The utility of Trial 1 and TOMMe10 as screeners of test validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughan, Ashlee R; Perna, Robert; Le, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of research suggesting that the shorter versions of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) may provide an accurate assessment of effort in children. During neuropsychological evaluations, some circumstances result in only one completed trial of the TOMM or partial completion of a trial. Research suggests that a cut-score of 40 or 41 on Trial1 is highly predictive of passing the TOMM overall. In the current study, 194 school-age children with academic and/or behavioral problems were used to compare the accuracy of TOMM1 and TOMMe10 (errors on the first 10 items of TOMM1) in predicting passing/failing of TOMM2. For the children in this sample, a score of performance on the TOMM2 (sensitivity = .80, specificity = .91) with a Negative Predictive Value = .98 at the malingering base rate of 7% (TOMM2 failure in our sample). A score of 2 errors (8 items correct) on the TOMMe10 was slightly less sensitive than that of the TOMM1 (specificity = .96, sensitivity = .53) but with a similar Negative Predictive Value (.96). Consistent with the research from adult populations, TOMM1 and TOMMe10 appear to be quite accurate in predicting performance on the standard administration of the TOMM and may be useful screeners. However, compared to that found in adult samples, slight differences in suggested cutoffs for TOMM1 and TOMMe10 may be warranted for children.

  1. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  2. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Custodio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI, and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS. Methods: The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC. Results: M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7 in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3 in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1 in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999. A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000. Conclusions: The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS.

  3. Test-retest reliability of Brazilian version of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale for assessing symptoms in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Josiane Roberta de; Luvisaro, Bianca Maria Oliveira; Rodrigues, Claudia Fernandes; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça

    2017-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese. The scale was applied in an interview format for 190 patients with various cancers type hospitalized in clinical and surgical sectors of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva and reapplied in 58 patients. Data from the test-retest were double typed into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by the weighted Kappa. The reliability of the scale was satisfactory in test-retest. The weighted Kappa values obtained for each scale item had to be adequate, the largest item was 0.96 and the lowest was 0.69. The Kappa subscale was also evaluated and values were 0.84 for high frequency physic symptoms, 0.81 for low frequency physical symptoms, 0.81 for psychological symptoms, and 0.78 for Global Distress Index. High level of reliability estimated suggests that the process of measurement of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale aspects was adequate. Avaliar a confiabilidade teste-reteste da versão traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para o português do Brasil do Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. A escala foi aplicada em forma de entrevista em 190 pacientes com diversos tipos de câncer internados nos setores clínicos e cirúrgicos do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva e reaplicada em 58 pacientes. Os dados dos testes-retestes foram inseridos num banco de dados por dupla digitação independente em Excel e analisados pelo Kappa ponderado. A confiabilidade da escala mostrou-se satisfatória nos testes-retestes. Os valores do Kappa ponderado obtidos para cada item da escala apresentaram-se adequados, sendo o maior item de 0,96 e o menor de 0,69. Também se avaliou o Kappa das subescalas, sendo de 0,84 para sintomas físicos de alta frequência, de 0,81 para sintomas físicos de baixa frequência, de 0,81 também para sintomas psicológicos, e de 0,78 para Índice Geral de Sofrimento

  4. The touchscreen operant platform for testing learning and memory in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Alexa E; Heath, Christopher J; Hvoslef-Eide, Martha; Kent, Brianne A; Kim, Chi Hun; Nilsson, Simon R O; Alsiö, Johan; Oomen, Charlotte A; Holmes, Andrew; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2013-10-01

    An increasingly popular method of assessing cognitive functions in rodents is the automated touchscreen platform, on which a number of different cognitive tests can be run in a manner very similar to touchscreen methods currently used to test human subjects. This methodology is low stress (using appetitive rather than aversive reinforcement), has high translational potential and lends itself to a high degree of standardization and throughput. Applications include the study of cognition in rodent models of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, Huntington's disease, frontotemporal dementia), as well as the characterization of the role of select brain regions, neurotransmitter systems and genes in rodents. This protocol describes how to perform four touchscreen assays of learning and memory: visual discrimination, object-location paired-associates learning, visuomotor conditional learning and autoshaping. It is accompanied by two further protocols (also published in this issue) that use the touchscreen platform to assess executive function, working memory and pattern separation.

  5. Deconstructing the symbol digit modalities test in multiple sclerosis: The role of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Viral P; Walker, Lisa A S; Feinstein, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is a sensitive measure of impaired cognition in people with MS. While the SDMT is primarily considered a test of information processing speed, other components such as visual scanning and oral-motor ability have also been linked to performance. The objective of this study was to determine the role of memory in the performance of the SDMT. Two version of a modified computerized SDMT (c-SDMT) were employed, a fixed and a variable. For each group 50 MS and 33 healthy control (HC) participants were recruited. In the fixed c-SDMT, the symbol-digit code is kept constant for the entire test whereas in the variable version, it changes eight times. Unlike the traditional SDMT which records the correct number of responses, the c-SDMT presented here measures the mean response time (in seconds) for the eight trials. MS participants were slower than HC on the fixed (p < 0.001) and variable (p = 0.005) c-SDMT. Trend analysis showed performance improvement on the fixed, but not on the variable c-SDMT in both MS and HC groups. Furthermore, immediate visual memory recall was associated with the fixed (β = -0.299, p = 0.017), but not variable (B = -0.057, p = 0.260) c-SDMT. Immediate verbal memory was not associated with either versions of the c-SDMT. Given that the fixed and variable c-SDMTs are identical in every way apart from the fixity of the code, the ability of participants to speed up responses over the course of the fixed version only points to the contribution of incidental visual memory in test performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Diminishing-cues retrieval practice: A memory-enhancing technique that works when regular testing doesn't.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Joshua L; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2017-08-28

    Retrieval practice has been shown to be a highly effective tool for enhancing memory, a fact that has led to major changes to educational practice and technology. However, when initial learning is poor, initial retrieval practice is unlikely to be successful and long-term benefits of retrieval practice are compromised or nonexistent. Here, we investigate the benefit of a scaffolded retrieval technique called diminishing-cues retrieval practice (Finley, Benjamin, Hays, Bjork, & Kornell, Journal of Memory and Language, 64, 289-298, 2011). Under learning conditions that favored a strong testing effect, diminishing cues and standard retrieval practice both enhanced memory performance relative to restudy. Critically, under learning conditions where standard retrieval practice was not helpful, diminishing cues enhanced memory performance substantially. These experiments demonstrate that diminishing-cues retrieval practice can widen the range of conditions under which testing can benefit memory, and so can serve as a model for the broader application of testing-based techniques for enhancing learning.

  7. Initial phase of adaptation of Memory Alteration Test (M@T) in a Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Pereira, Anabela; Costa, Rui; Rami, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The Memory Alteration Test is a screening test able to discriminate the amnestic mild cognitive impairment (A-MCI) and mild Alzheimer disease from subjective memory complain group (SMC-G). The aim of this study was to analyze the European Portuguese experimental version of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T-PT). Were described the successive stages of the translation and adaptation procedure used to develop the M@T-PT. The psychometric properties were explored using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation, internal consistence, convergent validity and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. Chi-squared, ANOVAs and Pearson's correlation were also analyzed. A total of 330 people with an age greater or equal to 54 years old participated. According to their cognitive state they were classified as normal controls (n=28), SMC-G (n=81) or A-MCI (n=221). The PCA for the M@T-PT indicated that the total variance explained by three components was 48.07%. A high internal consistent was obtained (α=0.93). Convergent validity was verified using M@T-PT and Mini-Mental State Examination (r=0.83, psound instrument for use in older people in Portugal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tests of the Dynamic Field Theory and The Spatial Precision Hypothesis: Capturing a Qualitative Developmental Transition in Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Anne R.; Spencer, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a dynamic field theory (DFT) of spatial working memory and an associated spatial precision hypothesis (SPH). Between 3 and 6 years of age, there is a qualitative shift in how children use reference axes to remember locations: 3-year-olds' spatial recall responses are biased toward reference axes after short memory delays, whereas…

  9. The Effect of Retention Interval Task Difficulty on Young Children's Prospective Memory: Testing the Intention Monitoring Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Moses, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of retention interval task difficulty on 4- and 5-year-olds' prospective memory (PM) to test the hypothesis that children periodically monitor their intentions during the retention interval and that disrupting this monitoring may result in poorer PM performance. In addition, relations among PM, working memory,…

  10. The six blind men and the elephant: Are episodic memory tasks tests of different things or different tests of the same thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S

    2015-09-01

    The development of episodic memory in children has been of interest to researchers for more than a century. Current behavioral tests that have been developed to assess episodic memory differ substantially in their surface features. Therefore, it is possible that these tests are assessing different memory processes. In this study, 106 children aged 3 to 6 years were tested on four putative tests of episodic memory. Covariation in performance was investigated in order to address two conflicting hypotheses: (a) that the high level of difference between the tests will result in little covariation in performance despite their being designed to assess the same ability and (b) that the conceptual similarity of these tasks will lead to high levels of covariation despite surface differences. The results indicated a gradual improvement with age on all tests. Performances on many of the tests were related, but not after controlling for age. A principal component analysis found that a single principal component was able to satisfactorily fit the observed data. This principal component produced a marginally stronger correlation with age than any test alone. As such, it might be concluded that different tests of episodic memory are too different to be used in parallel. Nevertheless, if used together, these tests may offer a robust assessment of episodic memory as a complex multifaceted process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Absolute pitch memory: its prevalence among musicians and dependence on the testing context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Wong, Alan C-N

    2014-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is widely believed to be a rare ability possessed by only a small group of gifted and special individuals (AP possessors). While AP has fascinated psychologists, neuroscientists, and musicians for more than a century, no theory can satisfactorily explain why this ability is so rare and difficult to learn. Here, we show that AP ability appears rare because of the methodological issues of the standard pitch-naming test. Specifically, the standard test unnecessarily poses a high decisional demand on AP judgments and uses a testing context that is highly inconsistent with one's musical training. These extra cognitive challenges are not central to AP memory per se and have thus led to consistent underestimation of AP ability in the population. Using the standard test, we replicated the typical findings that the accuracy for general violinists was low (12.38 %; chance level = 0 %). With identical stimuli, scoring criteria, and participants, violinists attained 25 % accuracy in a pitch verification test in which the decisional demand of AP judgment was reduced. When the testing context was increasingly similar to their musical experience, verification accuracy improved further and reached 39 %, three times higher than that for the standard test. Results were replicated with a separate group of pianists. Our findings challenge current theories about AP and suggest that the prevalence of AP among musicians has been highly underestimated in prior work. A multimodal framework is proposed to better explain AP memory.

  12. When does anxiety help or hinder cognitive test performance? The role of working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Hadwin, Julie A; Norgate, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive interference theories (e.g. attentional control theory, processing efficiency theory) suggest that high levels of trait anxiety predict adverse effects on the performance of cognitive tasks, particularly those that make high demands on cognitive resources. We tested an interaction hypothesis to determine whether a combination of high anxiety and low working memory capacity (WMC) would predict variance in demanding cognitive test scores. Ninety six adolescents (12- to 14-years-old) participated in the study, which measured self-report levels of trait anxiety, working memory, and cognitive test performance. As hypothesized, we found that the anxiety-WMC interaction explained a significant amount of variance in cognitive test performance (ΔR(2) .07, p .10). In contrast, trait anxiety was negatively related to test performance in adolescents with low WMC (β = -.35, p < .05) and positively related to test performance in those with high WMC (β = .49, p < .01). The results of this study suggest that WMC moderates the relationship between anxiety and cognitive test performance and may be a determinant factor in explaining some discrepancies found in the literature. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms involved. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Preparation and evaluation of ageing effect of Cu-Al-Be-Mn shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivasiddaramaiah, A. G.; Mallik, U. S.; Mahato, Ranjit; Shashishekar, C.

    2018-04-01

    10-14 wt. % of aluminum, 0.3-0.6 wt. % of beryllium and 0.1-0.4 wt. % of manganese and remaining copper melted in the induction furnace through ingot metallurgy. The prepared SMAs are subjected to homogenization. It was observed that the samples exhibits β-phase at high temperature and shape memory effect after going through step quenching to a low temperature. Scanning Electron Microscope, DSC, bending test were performed on the samples to determine the microstructure, transformation temperatures and shape memory effect respectively. The alloy exhibit good shape memory effect, up to around 96% strain recovery by shape memory effect. The ageing is performed on the specimen prepared according to ASTM standard for testing micro-hardness and tensile test. Precipitation hardening method was employed to age the samples and they were aged at different temperature and at different times followed by quenching. Various forms of precipitates were formed. It was found that the formation rate and transformation temperature increased with ageing time, while the amount of precipitate had an inverse impact on strain recovery by shape memory effect. The result expected is to increase in mechanical properties of the material such as hardness.

  14. Development of the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure: A Working Memory Test for Use in Rehabilitative Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Alexander, Genevieve

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure (WARRM) and to conduct the inaugural evaluation of the performance of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal to near-normal hearing, and older adults with pure-tone hearing loss on the WARRM. The WARRM is a new test designed for concurrently assessing word recognition and auditory working memory performance in adults who may have pure-tone hearing loss. The test consists of 100 monosyllabic words based on widely used speech-recognition test materials. The 100 words are presented in recall set sizes of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 items, with 5 trials in each set size. The WARRM yields a word-recognition score and a recall score. The WARRM was administered to all participants in three listener groups under two processing conditions in a mixed model (between-subjects, repeated measures) design. The between-subjects factor was group, with 48 younger listeners with normal audiometric thresholds (younger listeners with normal hearing [YNH]), 48 older listeners with normal thresholds through 3000 Hz (older listeners with normal hearing [ONH]), and 48 older listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (older listeners with hearing loss [OHL]). The within-subjects factor was WARRM processing condition (no additional task or with an alphabet judgment task). The associations between results on the WARRM test and results on a battery of other auditory and memory measures were examined. Word-recognition performance on the WARRM was not affected by processing condition or set size and was near ceiling for the YNH and ONH listeners (99 and 98%, respectively) with both groups performing significantly better than the OHL listeners (83%). The recall results were significantly better for the YNH, ONH, and OHL groups with no processing (93, 84, and 75%, respectively) than with the alphabet processing (86, 77, and 70%). In both processing conditions, recall was best for YNH, followed by

  15. Hardware in the loop testing and evaluation of seaborne search radars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, JJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available for independent testing and evaluation of radar systems. The CSIR digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) hardware technology is used as the basis of these test systems. DRFM's are traditionally used for EW applications, but processing power of field programmable...-band radar. In these figures the red areas indicate very “spiky” clutter, whereas the blue areas indicate Rayleigh (Gaussian) clutter. Table 1 shows the conditions relating to the light clutter and heavy clutter scenarios. Table 1: Measurement parameters...

  16. MK-801 and memantine act differently on short-term memory tested with different time-intervals in the Morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Weronika; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewski, Pawel; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-09-15

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a crucial role in spatial memory formation. In neuropharmacological studies their functioning strongly depends on testing conditions and the dosage of NMDAR antagonists. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate effects of NMDAR block by (+)MK-801 or memantine on short-term allothetic memory. Memory was tested in a working memory version of the Morris water maze test. In our version of the test, rats underwent one day of training with 8 trials, and then three experimental days when rats were injected intraperitoneally with low- 5 (MeL), high - 20 (MeH) mg/kg memantine, 0.1mg/kg MK-801 or 1ml/kg saline (SAL) 30min before testing, for three consecutive days. On each experimental day there was just one acquisition and one test trial, with an inter-trial interval of 5 or 15min. During training the hidden platform was relocated after each trial and during the experiment after each day. The follow-up effect was assessed on day 9. Intact rats improved their spatial memory across the one training day. With a 5min interval MeH rats had longer latency then all rats during retrieval. With a 15min interval the MeH rats presented worse working memory measured as retrieval minus acquisition trial for path than SAL and MeL and for latency than MeL rats. MK-801 rats had longer latency than SAL during retrieval. Thus, the high dose of memantine, contrary to low dose of MK-801 disrupts short-term memory independent on the time interval between acquisition and retrieval. This shows that short-term memory tested in a working memory version of water maze is sensitive to several parameters: i.e., NMDA receptor antagonist type, dosage and the time interval between learning and testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Episodic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Do Episodic Memory Deficits Identified at Classification Remain Evident When Later Examined with Different Memory Tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Zofia Klekociuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI have been criticised for using the same battery of neuropsychological tests during classification and longitudinal followup. The key concern is that there is a potential circularity when the same tests are used to identify MCI and then subsequently monitor change in function over time. The aim of the present study was to examine the evidence of this potential circularity problem. The present study assessed the memory function of 72 MCI participants and 50 healthy controls using an alternate battery of visual and verbal episodic memory tests 9 months following initial comprehensive screening assessment and MCI classification. Individuals who were classified as multiple-domain amnestic MCI (a-MCI+ at screening show a significantly reduced performance in visual and verbal memory function at followup using a completely different battery of valid and reliable tests. Consistent with their initial classification, those identified as nonamnestic MCI (na-MCI or control at screening demonstrated the highest performance across the memory tasks. The results of the present study indicate that persistent memory deficits remain evident in amnestic MCI subgroups using alternate memory tests, suggesting that the concerns regarding potential circularity of logic may be overstated in MCI research.

  18. The manufacture of system for testing static random access memory radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui; Yang Chen

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation effects will lead to single event upset, event latch up and other phenomena in SRAM devices. This paper introduces the hardware, software composition and related testing technology of SRAM radiation effect testing device. Through to the SRAM chip current detection and power protection, it has solved the SRAM chip damage question in the SRAM experiment. It has accessed to the expected experimental data by using the device in different source of radiation conducted on SRAM Experimental study of radiation effects. It provides important references in the assessment of operational life and reinforcement of the memory carried in the satellites. (authors)

  19. Memory testing with Saturne synchrotron beams. Experiments with protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisson, J.

    1989-01-01

    For simulate light ions of the cosmic rays CEA will use facilities used in fundamental physic research. SATURNE is a synchrotron especially designed to accelerate light particles, for example protons with energy up to 2.9 GeV. Two experiments are made on SATURNE to specify the beam characteristics (energy and intensity) and to adapt the beam for irradiation of electronic components. During these preliminary experimentation memories and microprocessors was tested. The results of the tests (cross-section) are given in this paper [fr

  20. Effects of stress on memory in children and adolescents: testing causal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Nikolayev, Mariya

    2014-01-01

    Although a sizeable body of research has examined children's memory for stressful prior experiences, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated stress during a to-be-remembered event to draw causal inferences about the effects of stress, especially across wide age ranges. We exposed children and adolescents to a more or a less arousing version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Modified (TSST-M), a widely used laboratory stress task. Two weeks later, we tested their memory for what happened. Interviewers behaved in a supportive or non-supportive manner. In adolescents, those who completed the high-arousal TSST-M provided fewer correct responses to recognition questions and fewer incorrect responses to misleading questions for which any answer would have been incorrect, compared to those who completed the lower-arousal TSST-M. Thus, arousal seemed to have reduced the adolescents' willingness to answer questions rather than having influenced their memory per se. In children, across TSST-M conditions, greater physiological arousal during the TSST-M predicted enhanced recall. Finally, interviewer support reduced the amount of factual information provided in free recall but increased correct responses to misleading questions. Results highlight the complex ways in which event stress and interviewer demeanour shape recounting of prior experiences across development.

  1. Cognitive distortions in recovered burn patients: the emotional Stroop task and autobiographical memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, Mimmie; Norlund, Fredrika; Kildal, Morten; Gerdin, Bengt; Ekselius, Lisa; Andersson, Gerhard

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the study was to explore cognitive distortions in recovered burn patients. Previous studies in trauma patients have shown trauma-specific attentional bias, long response latencies, and deficits in memory specificity. Eighteen former patients, burn injured 5-19 years ago and 18 matched controls performed the emotional Stroop task, including burn and general trauma-related words, and the autobiographical memory test (AMT). In addition, verbal fluency, life events, and current mood were assessed. Regarding the Stroop task, the recovered patients had longer response latencies to burn words than to neutral and trauma words, a difference not seen in the control subjects. Regarding the AMT, the memory specificity did not differ between the groups. Overall, the former patients had longer latencies than the controls and poorer verbal fluency. The present study showed that recovered burn patients display a moderate Stroop effect, i.e. an attentional bias, in spite of the fact that the injury occurred several years before the testing. This may imply that the recovered burn patients consider the burn an important issue in life. The post-burn patients also presented signs of a slight cognitive slowness as compared to the controls. This finding deserves further attention in the rehabilitation of burn patients.

  2. Radiation effect test on ADC/DAC and high density memory devices with 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Kefei; Wang Yueke; Pan Huafeng

    2006-01-01

    A test platform was constructed for 60 Co γ-ray irradiation experiment of microelectronics, with the aid of computer and a FPGA module. The tested sample devices included analog-to-digital converter AD10465, digital-to-analog converter AD9857, high density Flash memory MEF64M16 and anti-fused PROM XQR17V16, which are used in signal processing module in spaceborne systems. Evaluations were made on their ability of resisting the total dose based on the proper function criterion of the devices. The results showed that AD10465 and AD9857 ran properly after 1.59 kGy(Si) irradiation, but errors were found when MEF64M16 and XQR17V16's total ionizing dose is 0.13 kGy(Si) and 0.99 kGy(Si), respectively. (authors)

  3. Physicians' subjectivity in evaluating oxytocin challenge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, T M

    1980-07-01

    Five physicians subspecializing in maternal-fetal medicine individually evaluated 50 oxytocin challenge tests (OCTs), of which 33 were originally read as positive. There was considerable disagreement among the study physicians (SPs) such that 2 SPs would agree, on the average, only 52% of the time on any one OCT. The SPs were also asked to evaluate fetal heart rate (FHR) reactivity patterns, if present. Again, there was great disagreement. When the majority (3 of 5 or more) of SPs agreed on the OCT result and/or reactivity, there was reasonable correlation with neonatal outcome, indicating the validity of the physiologic premise of the test. In particular, the presence or absence of FHR accelerations with fetal motion, regardless of the OCT reading, correlated extremely well with eventual neonatal outcome. This indicates that the most significant variable in antepartum FHR monitoring is the FHR acceleration pattern.

  4. Validation of the WMS-III Facial Memory subtest with the Graduate Hospital Facial Memory Test in a sample of right and left anterior temporal lobectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Tulsky, David S; Glosser, Guila

    2004-06-01

    A number of studies have shown visuospatial memory deficits following anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in the right, nondominant temporal lobe (RATL). The current study examines 26 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy who underwent ATL in either the right (RATL, n = 16) or left temporal lobe (LATL, n = 10) on two tests of facial memory abilities, the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) Faces subtest and the Graduate Hospital Facial Memory Test (FMT). Repeated measures ANOVA on the FMT indicated a significant main effect of side of surgery. The RATL group performed significantly below the LATL group overall. Both groups showed a slight, but non-significant, improvement in performance from pre- to postsurgery on the FMT immediate memory, likely due to practice effects. Repeated measures ANOVA on the WMS-III Faces subtest revealed a significant interaction of group (RATL vs. LATL) by delay (immediate vs. delayed). Overall, the LATL group showed an improvement in recognition scores from immediate to delayed memory, whereas the RATL group performed similarly at both immediate and delayed testing. No effects of surgery were noted on the WMS-III. Following initial data analysis the WMS-III Faces I and II data were re-scored using the scoring suggested by Holdnack and Delis (2003), earlier in this issue. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a trend toward significance in the three-way interaction of group (RATL vs. LATL) x time of testing (pre- versus postop) x delay (immediate vs. delayed memory). On the Faces I subtest, both the RATL and LATL groups showed a decline from preoperative to postoperative testing. However, on Faces II the LATL group showed an increase in performance from preoperative to postoperative testing, while the RALT group showed a decline in performance from preoperative to postoperative testing. While the FMT appears to be superior to the WMS-III Faces subtest in identifying deficits in facial memory prior to and following RATL, the

  5. Performance Evaluation and Robustness Testing of Advanced Oscilloscope Triggering Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeb A. KHAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, performance and robustness of two advanced oscilloscope triggering schemes is evaluated. The problem of time period measurement of complex waveforms can be solved using the algorithms, which utilize the associative memory network based weighted hamming distance (Whd and autocorrelation based techniques. Robustness of both the advanced techniques, are then evaluated by simulated addition of random noise of different levels to complex test signals waveforms, and minimum value of Whd (Whd min and peak value of coefficient of correlation(COCmax are computed over 10000 cycles of the selected test waveforms. The distance between mean value of second lowest value of Whd and Whd min and distance between second highest value of coefficient of correlation (COC and COC max are used as parameters to analyze the robustness of considered techniques. From the results, it is found that both the techniques are capable of producing trigger pulses efficiently; but correlation based technique is found to be better from robustness point of view.

  6. Effects of Repeated Testing on Short- and Long-Term Memory Performance across Different Test Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Sundström, Anna; Jonsson, Bert

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether practice testing with short-answer (SA) items benefits learning over time compared to practice testing with multiple-choice (MC) items, and rereading the material. More specifically, the aim was to test the hypotheses of "retrieval effort" and "transfer appropriate processing" by comparing retention…

  7. An evidence-based approach to working-memory based training in secondary education to improve reasoning test achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, Roel J.F.

    2018-01-01

    Secondary school teachers regularly observe that adolescent students have insufficient reasoning skills to properly answer reasoning test questions. One potentially effective strategy is developing learning strategies based on working memory training. This thesis contributes to our knowledge and

  8. An evidence-based approach to working memory based training in secondary education to improve reasoning test achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, Roel

    2018-01-01

    Secondary school teachers regularly observe that adolescent students have insufficient reasoning skills to properly answer reasoning test questions. One potentially effective strategy is developing learning strategies based on working memory training. This thesis contributes to our knowledge and

  9. 76 FR 42762 - Final Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky Memorial Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Final Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky... Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) has been completed for Sikorsky Memorial Airport in... analysis contained in a Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) that the FAA issued in May 1999. No...

  10. The touchscreen operant platform for testing working memory and pattern separation in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Charlotte A; Hvoslef-Eide, Martha; Heath, Christopher J; Mar, Adam C; Horner, Alexa E; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2013-10-01

    The automated touchscreen operant chamber for rats and mice allows for the assessment of multiple cognitive domains within the same testing environment. This protocol presents the location discrimination (LD) task and the trial-unique delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task, which both assess memory for location. During these tasks, animals are trained to a predefined criterion during ∼20-40 daily sessions. In LD sessions, touching the same location on the screen is rewarded on consecutive trials, followed by a reversal of location-reward contingencies. TUNL, a working memory task, requires animals to 'nonmatch' to a sample location after a delay. In both the LD and TUNL tasks, spatial similarity can be varied, allowing assessment of pattern separation ability, a function that is thought to be performed by the dentate gyrus (DG). These tasks are therefore particularly useful in animal models of hippocampal, and specifically DG, function, but they additionally permit discernment of changes in pattern separation from those in working memory.

  11. Results from the First Two Flights of the Static Computer Memory Integrity Testing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Thomas M., III

    1999-01-01

    This paper details the scientific objectives, experiment design, data collection method, and post flight analysis following the first two flights of the Static Computer Memory Integrity Testing (SCMIT) experiment. SCMIT is designed to detect soft-event upsets in passive magnetic memory. A soft-event upset is a change in the logic state of active or passive forms of magnetic memory, commonly referred to as a "Bitflip". In its mildest form a soft-event upset can cause software exceptions, unexpected events, start spacecraft safeing (ending data collection) or corrupted fault protection and error recovery capabilities. In it's most severe form loss of mission or spacecraft can occur. Analysis after the first flight (in 1991 during STS-40) identified possible soft-event upsets to 25% of the experiment detectors. Post flight analysis after the second flight (in 1997 on STS-87) failed to find any evidence of soft-event upsets. The SCMIT experiment is currently scheduled for a third flight in December 1999 on STS-101.

  12. Activity of human hippocampal formation and amygdala neurons during memory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgren, E; Babb, T L; Crandall, P H

    1978-11-01

    Single and multiple unit recordings were made from fine wires stereotaxically implanted in the hippocampus (HC), hippocampal gyrus (HCG), and amygdala (Am) of psychomotor epileptics. During a series of memory and control tests presented on slides, 21 of 155 HCG units, 15 of 59 HC units, and 2 of 54 Am units showed what appeared to be simple phasic or tonic visual responses. Twenty-seven other units, found only in the HCG, changed firing only during slides requiring a choice ('choice units'). A given choice unit responded during choices indicated verbally or manually, and during tasks requiring recall of Recent Memory, various visual discriminations, and expressions of preference. Choice units were not affected by sensory stimulation or motor activity in contexts not requiring choice. Phasically inhibited choice units had higher firing rates and lower signal-to-noise ratios than tonically excited units. Whether an electrode recorded a choice unit was unrelated to if it recorded a response to hyperventilation, or was in an area of epileptic pathology. Recordings were also made during an interview lasting several hours and eliciting a wide range of behaviors. Five of the 131 HCG units fired in repeated extended bursts, at least 50 times background during recall of word pairs or of the patient's hospital room. The unit response did not occur during numerous control tasks possessing similar overt sensory, motor, and social concomitants, but not requiring Recent Memory.

  13. Influence of Thin-Film Adhesives in Pullout Tests Between Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Derek J.; Jana, Sadhan; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2018-01-01

    Strips of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA) and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite (PMC) were bonded together using multiple thin film adhesives and their mechanical strengths were evaluated under pullout test configuration. Tensile and lap shear tests were conducted to confirm the deformation of SMAs at room temperature and to evaluate the adhesive strength between the NiTi strips and the PMC. Optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to examine the interfacial bonding after failure. Simple equations on composite tensile elongation were used to fit the experimental data on tensile properties. ABAQUS models were generated to show the effects of enhanced bond strength and the distribution of stress in SMA and PMC. The results revealed that the addition of thin film adhesives increased the average adhesive strength between SMA and PMC while halting the room temperature shape memory effect within the pullout specimen.

  14. A fast three-dimensional gamma evaluation using a GPU utilizing texture memory for on-the-fly interpolations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoon, Lucas C G G; Podesta, Mark; van Elmpt, Wouter J C; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M J J G; Verhaegen, Frank

    2011-07-01

    A widely accepted method to quantify differences in dose distributions is the gamma (gamma) evaluation. Currently, almost all gamma implementations utilize the central processing unit (CPU). Recently, the graphics processing unit (GPU) has become a powerful platform for specific computing tasks. In this study, we describe the implementation of a 3D gamma evaluation using a GPU to improve calculation time. The gamma evaluation algorithm was implemented on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA). First, several cubic virtual phantoms were simulated. These phantoms were tested with varying dose cube sizes and set-ups, introducing artificial dose differences. Second, to show applicability in clinical practice, five patient cases have been evaluated using the 3D dose distribution from a treatment planning system as the reference and the delivered dose determined during treatment as the comparison. A calculation time comparison between the CPU and GPU was made with varying thread-block sizes including the option of using texture or global memory. A GPU over CPU speed-up of 66 +/- 12 was achieved for the virtual phantoms. For the patient cases, a speed-up of 57 +/- 15 using the GPU was obtained. A thread-block size of 16 x 16 performed best in all cases. The use of texture memory improved the total calculation time, especially when interpolation was applied. Differences between the CPU and GPU gammas were negligible. The GPU and its features, such as texture memory, decreased the calculation time for gamma evaluations considerably without loss of accuracy.

  15. Aseismic structure evaluation tests on storage pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Seiichi; Fuke, Hikaru; Shimosaka, Shigeru; Kitamura, Katsuhide; Zako, Masaru.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the aseismic structural property of a storage pit for vitrified radioactive waste canisters, a full-scale model of the storage pit and canisters filled with dummy vitrified waste were subjected to seismic tests on the shaking table owned by the National Research Center for Disaster Prevention. Three storage pits were tested, all measuring 558.8 mm in diameterx6765 mm in height, of Sch. 40 structural steel plate but with longitudinal internal ribs of different sizes to leave different clearances between the pit and the canister. The dummy canisters, each measuring 430 mm in diameterx1345 mm in height and weighting 480 kg, were piled five high in the pit. The table was shaken in horizontal direction, applying as exciting wave (a) wave pulse, (b) sinusoidal waves in frequency sweep, (c) continuous single-frequency wave and (d) reproduced actual seismic waves. (author)

  16. An Improved Fitness Evaluation Mechanism with Memory in Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game on Regular Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Juan; Liu Li-Na; Dong En-Zeng; Wang Li

    2013-01-01

    To deeply understand the emergence of cooperation in natural, social and economical systems, we present an improved fitness evaluation mechanism with memory in spatial prisoner's dilemma game on regular lattices. In our model, the individual fitness is not only determined by the payoff in the current game round, but also by the payoffs in previous round bins. A tunable parameter, termed as the memory strength (μ), which lies between 0 and 1, is introduced into the model to regulate the ratio of payoffs of current and previous game rounds in the individual fitness calculation. When μ = 0, our model is reduced to the standard prisoner's dilemma game; while μ = 1 represents the case in which the payoff is totally determined by the initial strategies and thus it is far from the realistic ones. Extensive numerical simulations indicate that the memory effect can substantially promote the evolution of cooperation. For μ < 1, the stronger the memory effect, the higher the cooperation level, but μ = 1 leads to a pathological state of cooperation, but can partially enhance the cooperation in the very large temptation parameter. The current results are of great significance for us to account for the role of memory effect during the evolution of cooperation among selfish players. (general)

  17. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max

    1999-01-01

    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient testing. This study addresses this issue by evaluating medical mycology OPT and comparing its fungal specimen identification error rates to those obtained in a covert (blinded) proficiency testing (CPT) program. Identifications from 188 laboratories participating in the New York State mycology OPT from 1982 to 1994 were compared with the identifications of the same fungi recovered from patient specimens in 1989 and 1994 as part of the routine procedures of 88 of these laboratories. The consistency in the identification of OPT specimens was sufficient to make accurate predictions of OPT error rates. However, while the error rates in OPT and CPT were similar for Candida albicans, significantly higher error rates were found in CPT for Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and other common pathogenic fungi. These differences may, in part, be due to OPT’s use of ideal organism representatives cultured under optimum growth conditions. This difference, as well as the organism-dependent error rate differences, reflects the limitations of OPT as a means of assessing the quality of routine laboratory performance in medical mycology. PMID:10364601

  18. Stress measurement using magnetic Barkhausen noise and metal magnetic memory testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ping; Zhu, Shougao; Tian, Gui Yun; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Xin; Wilson, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a comparison of the magnetic Barkhausen noise (BN) and metal magnetic memory (MMM) testing techniques for stress measurement. BN has become an important non-destructive technique due to its exceptional material and stress characterization capabilities. MMM is a recently developed technique with special ability for stress detection and stress history. In the applied tensile experiment, BN and MMM signals were acquired via a BN measurement system and EMS-2003 MMM instrument. Relationships between magnetic signals and applied tensile stresses were derived from experiment results. The difference and correlation of the two methods are investigated. Conclusions were derived based on the experiment results

  19. Primacy and recency effects in the assessment of memory using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, D J; Hadjistavropoulos, T; Hurwitz, T

    1992-01-01

    The present study examined the manifestation of the primacy and recency effects in patients with anterior brain damage, posterior brain damage, and psychiatric inpatients with no known organic impairment. All three groups of patients demonstrated both a primacy and a recency effect on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Differences among the three groups with respect to the magnitude of primacy and recency as well as with other variables reflecting free recall were nonsignificant. These findings limit the use of primacy and recency for the differentiation of memory deficits due to organic and nonorganic causes.

  20. A computer vision-based automated Figure-8 maze for working memory test in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Samuel F; Song, Eun Young; Jung, Min Whan; Kim, Jeansok J

    2006-09-30

    The benchmark test for prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated working memory in rodents is a delayed alternation task utilizing variations of T-maze or Figure-8 maze, which requires the animals to make specific arm entry responses for reward. In this task, however, manual procedures involved in shaping target behavior, imposing delays between trials and delivering rewards can potentially influence the animal's performance on the maze. Here, we report an automated Figure-8 maze which does not necessitate experimenter-subject interaction during shaping, training or testing. This system incorporates a computer vision system for tracking, motorized gates to impose delays, and automated reward delivery. The maze is controlled by custom software that records the animal's location and activates the gates according to the animal's behavior and a control algorithm. The program performs calculations of task accuracy, tracks movement sequence through the maze, and provides other dependent variables (such as running speed, time spent in different maze locations, activity level during delay). Testing in rats indicates that the performance accuracy is inversely proportional to the delay interval, decreases with PFC lesions, and that animals anticipate timing during long delays. Thus, our automated Figure-8 maze is effective at assessing working memory and provides novel behavioral measures in rodents.

  1. The Glasgow Voice Memory Test: Assessing the ability to memorize and recognize unfamiliar voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, Virginia; Watson, Rebecca; Pernet, Cyril; Latinus, Marianne; Garrido, Lúcia; Belin, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    One thousand one hundred and twenty subjects as well as a developmental phonagnosic subject (KH) along with age-matched controls performed the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, which assesses the ability to encode and immediately recognize, through an old/new judgment, both unfamiliar voices (delivered as vowels, making language requirements minimal) and bell sounds. The inclusion of non-vocal stimuli allows the detection of significant dissociations between the two categories (vocal vs. non-vocal stimuli). The distributions of accuracy and sensitivity scores (d') reflected a wide range of individual differences in voice recognition performance in the population. As expected, KH showed a dissociation between the recognition of voices and bell sounds, her performance being significantly poorer than matched controls for voices but not for bells. By providing normative data of a large sample and by testing a developmental phonagnosic subject, we demonstrated that the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, available online and accessible from all over the world, can be a valid screening tool (~5 min) for a preliminary detection of potential cases of phonagnosia and of "super recognizers" for voices.

  2. Evaluation of the Interaction between NMDA Receptors of Nucleus Accumbens and Muscarinic Receptors in Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Taheri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Whereas studies have indicated the interaction between NMDA and cholinergic systems, this study was performed with the aim of determining the role of NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc in scopolamine-induced amnesia.Methods: In this study, at first rats were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride plus xylazine, and then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannulas were placed 2mm above nucleus accumbens shell. All animals were allowed to recover for one week, before beginning the behavioral testing. Then, animals were trained in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance task. The drugs were injected after successful training and before testing. The animals were tested 24h after training, and the step-through latency time was measured as the memory criterion in male Wistar rats. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used for analysis of the data. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Intra-nucleus accumbens (intra-NAc injection of scopolamine or NMDA caused impairment in memory in rats. Although, co-administration of an ineffective dose of NMDA with an ineffective dose of scopolamine had no significant effect on memory performance, effective doses of NMDA prevented the amnesic effect of scopolamine on inhibitory avoidance memory. On the other hand, intra-NAc injection of NMDA receptor antagonist, i.e., MK-801 caused no change in memory performance by itself, and its co-administration with an effective dose of scopolamine could not prevent the impairing effect of the latter drug. Conclusion: The finding of this study indicated that NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens are involved in the modulation of scopolamine-induced amnesia.

  3. The speed of memory errors shows the influence of misleading information: Testing the diffusion model and discrete-state models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J; Dubé, Chad; Frelinger, Matthew E

    2018-05-01

    In this report, we evaluate single-item and forced-choice recognition memory for the same items and use the resulting accuracy and reaction time data to test the predictions of discrete-state and continuous models. For the single-item trials, participants saw a word and indicated whether or not it was studied on a previous list. The forced-choice trials had one studied and one non-studied word that both appeared in the earlier single-item trials and both received the same response. Thus, forced-choice trials always had one word with a previous correct response and one with a previous error. Participants were asked to select the studied word regardless of whether they previously called both words "studied" or "not studied." The diffusion model predicts that forced-choice accuracy should be lower when the word with a previous error had a fast versus a slow single-item RT, because fast errors are associated with more compelling misleading memory retrieval. The two-high-threshold (2HT) model does not share this prediction because all errors are guesses, so error RT is not related to memory strength. A low-threshold version of the discrete state approach predicts an effect similar to the diffusion model, because errors are a mixture of responses based on misleading retrieval and guesses, and the guesses should tend to be slower. Results showed that faster single-trial errors were associated with lower forced-choice accuracy, as predicted by the diffusion and low-threshold models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of Dioscorea opposita on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in in vivo behavioral tests and in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min Hye; Yoon, Kee Dong; Chin, Young-Won; Park, Ju Hyun; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Young Choong; Kim, Jinwoong

    2009-01-12

    Plants belong to the genus Dioscorea have long been used as edible tuber crops in many tropical and subtropical areas and as a traditional herbal medicine in oriental countries including China, Japan and Korea. In this study, in vivo and in vitro tests were carried out to evaluate the cognitive enhancing effects of CHCl(3)-soluble extract from Dioscorea opposita against scopolamine-induced amnesic mice and glutamate- and H(2)O(2)-treated cortical neurons of rats. Acute treatment (200 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) and 10 days' daily administration (50 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) of CHCl(3)-soluble extract showed significant spatial learning and memory improvement on mice. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects on glutamate- and H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured cortical neurons of rats were assessed. Pretreatment with the extract was found to impart significant protection against neurotoxicity. These in vivo and in vitro results suggest that the Dioscorea opposita has neuroprotective effects on memory impairment related neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Electrical/Mechanical Monitoring of Shape Memory Alloy Reinforcing Fibers Obtained by Pullout Tests in SMA/Cement Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui-Hyun Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-healing is an essential property of smart concrete structures. In contrast to other structural metals, shape memory alloys (SMAs offer two unique effects: shape memory effects, and superelastic effects. Composites composed of SMA wires and conventional cements can overcome the mechanical weaknesses associated with tensile fractures in conventional concretes. Under specialized environments, the material interface between the cementitious component and the SMA materials plays an important role in achieving the enhanced mechanical performance and robustness of the SMA/cement interface. This material interface is traditionally evaluated in terms of mechanical aspects, i.e., strain–stress characteristics. However, the current work attempts to simultaneously characterize the mechanical load-displacement relationships synchronized with impedance spectroscopy as a function of displacement. Frequency-dependent impedance spectroscopy is tested as an in situ monitoring tool for structural variations in smart composites composed of non-conducting cementitious materials and conducting metals. The artificial geometry change in the SMA wires is associated with an improved anchoring action that is compatible with the smallest variation in resistance compared with prismatic SMA wires embedded into a cement matrix. The significant increase in resistance is interpreted to be associated with the slip of the SMA fibers following the elastic deformation and the debonding of the SMA fiber/matrix.

  6. Memory for objects and startle responsivity in the immediate aftermath of exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herten, Nadja; Pomrehn, Dennis; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-05-30

    Previously, we observed enhanced long-term memory for objects used (central objects) by committee members in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the next day. In addition, startle responsivity was increased. However, response specificity to an odour involved in the stressful episode was lacking and recognition memory for the odour was poor. In the current experiments, immediate effects of the stressor on memory and startle responsivity were investigated. We hypothesised memory for central objects of the stressful episode and startle response specificity to an odour ambient during the TSST to be enhanced shortly after it, in contrast to the control condition (friendly TSST). Further, memory for this odour was also assumed to be increased in the stress group. We tested 70 male (35) and female participants using the TSST involving objects and an ambient odour. After stress induction, a startle paradigm including olfactory and visual stimuli was conducted. Indeed, memory for central objects was significantly enhanced in immediate aftermath of the stressor. Startle responsivity increased at a trend level, particularly with regard to the odour involved in the stressful episode. Moreover, the stress group descriptively tended towards a better recognition of the odour involved. The study shows that stress enhances memory for central aspects of a stressful situation before consolidation processes come into play. In addition, results preliminarily suggest that the impact of stress on startle responsivity increases in strength but decreases in specificity during the first 24h after stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances in the behavioural testing and network imaging of rodent recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnavane, Lisa; Albasser, Mathieu M; Aggleton, John P

    2015-05-15

    Research into object recognition memory has been galvanised by the introduction of spontaneous preference tests for rodents. The standard task, however, contains a number of inherent shortcomings that reduce its power. Particular issues include the problem that individual trials are time consuming, so limiting the total number of trials in any condition. In addition, the spontaneous nature of the behaviour and the variability between test objects add unwanted noise. To combat these issues, the 'bow-tie maze' was introduced. Although still based on the spontaneous preference of novel over familiar stimuli, the ability to give multiple trials within a session without handling the rodents, as well as using the same objects as both novel and familiar samples on different trials, overcomes key limitations in the standard task. Giving multiple trials within a single session also creates new opportunities for functional imaging of object recognition memory. A series of studies are described that examine the expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. Object recognition memory is associated with increases in perirhinal cortex and area Te2 c-fos activity. When rats explore novel objects the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to the dentate gyrus and CA3, is engaged. In contrast, when familiar objects are explored the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to CA1, takes precedence. The switch to the perforant pathway (novel stimuli) from the temporoammonic pathway (familiar stimuli) may assist the enhanced associative learning promoted by novel stimuli. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Advances in the behavioural testing and network imaging of rodent recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnavane, Lisa; Albasser, Mathieu M.; Aggleton, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Research into object recognition memory has been galvanised by the introduction of spontaneous preference tests for rodents. The standard task, however, contains a number of inherent shortcomings that reduce its power. Particular issues include the problem that individual trials are time consuming, so limiting the total number of trials in any condition. In addition, the spontaneous nature of the behaviour and the variability between test objects add unwanted noise. To combat these issues, the ‘bow-tie maze’ was introduced. Although still based on the spontaneous preference of novel over familiar stimuli, the ability to give multiple trials within a session without handling the rodents, as well as using the same objects as both novel and familiar samples on different trials, overcomes key limitations in the standard task. Giving multiple trials within a single session also creates new opportunities for functional imaging of object recognition memory. A series of studies are described that examine the expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. Object recognition memory is associated with increases in perirhinal cortex and area Te2 c-fos activity. When rats explore novel objects the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to the dentate gyrus and CA3, is engaged. In contrast, when familiar objects are explored the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to CA1, takes precedence. The switch to the perforant pathway (novel stimuli) from the temporoammonic pathway (familiar stimuli) may assist the enhanced associative learning promoted by novel stimuli. PMID:25106740

  9. Usefulness of Discriminability and Response Bias Indices for the Evaluation of Recognition Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María Julieta; Cohen, Gabriela; Campos, Jorge; Martin, Maria Eugenia; Clarens, María Florencia; Sabe, Liliana; Barcelo, Ernesto; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2017-01-01

    Most studies examining episodic memory in Alzheimer disease (AD) have focused on patients' impaired ability to remember information. This approach provides only a partial picture of memory deficits since other factors involved are not considered. To evaluate the recognition memory performance by using a yes/no procedure to examine the effect of discriminability and response bias measures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), AD dementia, and normal-aging subjects. We included 43 controls and 45 a-MCI and 51 mild AD dementia patients. Based on the proportions of correct responses (hits) and false alarms from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), discriminability (d') and response bias (C) indices from signal detection theory (SDT) were calculated. Results showed significant group differences for d' (F (2) = 83.26, p < 0.001), and C (F (2) = 6.05, p = 0.00). The best predictors of group membership were delayed recall and d' scores. The d' measure correctly classified subjects with 82.98% sensitivity and 91.11% specificity. a-MCI and AD dementia subjects exhibit less discrimination accuracy and more liberal response bias than controls. Furthermore, combined indices of delayed recall and discriminability from the RAVLT are effective in defining early AD. SDT may help enhance diagnostic specificity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Neural correlates of retrieval-based memory enhancement: an fMRI study of the testing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Erik A; Marsh, Elizabeth J; Cabeza, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Restudying material is a common method for learning new information, but not necessarily an effective one. Research on the testing effect shows that practice involving retrieval from memory can facilitate later memory in contrast to passive restudy. Despite extensive behavioral work, the brain processes that make retrieval an effective learning strategy remain unclear. In the present experiment, we explored how initially retrieving items affected memory a day later as compared to a condition involving traditional restudy. In contrast to restudy, initial testing that contributed to future memory success was associated with engagement of several regions including the anterior hippocampus, lateral temporal cortices, and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Additionally, testing enhanced hippocampal connectivity with ventrolateral PFC and midline regions. These findings indicate that the testing effect may be contingent on processes that are typically thought to support memory success at encoding (e.g. relational binding, selection and elaboration of semantically-related information) in addition to those more often associated with retrieval (e.g. memory search). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The value of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (Children's Version) in an epidemiological study of older adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, J; Huppert, F A; Holland, A J; Watson, P

    1998-02-01

    The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test for Children (RBMT-C) was used to assess a population-based sample of 74 people with Down syndrome (DS) aged 30 years and over (range 30-65 years) living in the Cambridge health district. Given the high age-specific risk of Alzheimer-like neuropathology in people with DS, the aim of this study was to determine whether this test provided a suitable measure of memory function in an older population of adults with DS who were at the age of risk for Alzheimer's disease. We also investigated whether there was a significant difference in everyday memory performance between different age, gender and day-centre groups. The level of learning disability in our sample ranged from mild, through severe to profound. Individuals with severe or profound learning disability were virtually untestable on this and other cognitive tests, but for the remaining two-thirds of the group, the RBMT-C could be used to assess memory function. Significant differences in memory function were found between younger (30-44 years) and older (45+ years) participants. Performance also varied between groups (e.g. from different day centres), illustrating the importance of population-based samples when determining the value of such tests. Ongoing longitudinal studies are required to establish the extent to which the RBMT-C is useful in assessing change in retrospective and prospective memory.

  12. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  13. Comparison of Test Your Memory and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Measures in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Henderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. MoCA is widely used in Parkinson’s disease (PD to assess cognition. The Test Your Memory (TYM test is a cognitive screening tool that is self-administered. Objectives. We sought to determine (a the optimal value of TYM to discriminate between PD patients with and without cognitive deficits on MoCA testing, (b equivalent MoCA and TYM scores, and (c interrater reliability in TYM testing. Methods. We assessed the discriminant ability of TYM and the equivalence between TYM and MoCA scores and measured the interrater reliability between three raters. Results. Of the 135 subjects that completed both tests, 55% had cognitive impairment according to MoCA. A MoCA score of 25 was equivalent to a TYM score of 43-44. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for TYM to differentiate between PD-normal and PD-cognitive impairment was 0.82 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.89. The optimal cutoff to distinguish PD-cognitive impairment from PD-normal was ≤45 (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 59% thereby correctly classifying 76.3% of patients with PD-cognitive impairment. Interrater agreement was high (0.97 and TYM was completed in under 7 minutes (interquartile range 5.33 to 8.52 minutes. Conclusions. The TYM test is a useful and less resource intensive screening test for cognitive deficits in PD.

  14. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  15. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The case for testing memory with both stories and word lists prior to dbs surgery for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Bowers, Dawn; Price, Catherine C; Bauer, Russell M; Nisenzon, Anne; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2011-04-01

    Patients seeking deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) typically undergo neuropsychological assessment to determine candidacy for surgery, with poor memory performance interpreted as a contraindication. Patients with PD may exhibit worse memory for word lists than for stories due to the lack of inherent organization in a list of unrelated words. Unfortunately, word list and story tasks are typically developed from different normative datasets, and the existence of a memory performance discrepancy in PD has been challenged. We compared recall of stories and word lists in 35 non-demented PD candidates for DBS. We administered commonly used neuropsychological measures of word list and story memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Logical Memory), along with a second word list task that was co-normed with the story task. Age-corrected scores were higher for the story task than for both word list tasks. Compared to story recall, word list recall correlated more consistently with motor severity and composite measures of processing speed, working memory, and executive functioning. These results support the classic view of fronto-subcortical contributions to memory in PD and suggest that executive deficits may influence word list recall more than story recall. We recommend a multi-componential memory battery in the neuropsychological assessment of DBS candidates to characterize both mesial temporal and frontal-executive memory processes. One should not rely solely on a word list task because patients exhibiting poor memory for word lists may perform better with stories and therefore deserve an interdisciplinary discussion for DBS surgery.

  17. Evaluation of Alzheimer's Australia Vic Memory Lane Cafés.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Briony; Haralambous, Betty; Hempton, Courtney; Hunt, Susan; Calleja, Diane

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of the Memory Lane Café service in Victoria, Australia. The Alzheimer's Australia Vic Memory Lane Café model aims to provide a social and educational service to people living with dementia and their carers, family members or friends. Dementia is a serious health issue in Australia, with prevalence estimated at 6.5% of people over 65 years of age. Living with dementia has significant social and psychological ramifications, often negatively affecting quality of life. Social support groups can improve quality of life for people living with dementia. The evaluation included focus groups and surveys of people with dementia and their carers, staff consultation, service provider interviews, and researcher observation. The Melbourne Health Mental Health Human Research Ethics Committee approved the project. Participants included people with dementia (aged 60 to 93 years, previously enrolled in the Alzheimer's Australia Vic's six-week Living With Memory Loss Program), their carers, friends and/or family members, staff working in the Cafés, and service providers with links to the Cafés. This evaluation found that Memory Lane Cafés promote social inclusion, prevent isolation, and improve the social and emotional well-being of attendees. However, Cafés did not meet the needs of all potential attendees. The evaluation recommended that existing Café services be continued and possibilities for extending the Cafés be explored. Based on evaluation outcomes, the Department of Health Victoria is funding four additional pilot programs in café style support services.

  18. A cross-disciplinary response to improve test activities: The corporate memory capitalization in Ariane4 test domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Dinh Phuoc; Soler, Christian; Aussenac, N.; Macchion, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Assembly, Integration, Test, and Validation (AIT/AIV) of the Ariane4 Vehicle Equipment Bay was held at Matra Marconi Space (MMS) site of Toulouse for several years. For this activity, incident interpretation necessitates a great deal of different knowledge. When complex faults occur, particularly those appearing during overall control tests, experts of various domains (EGSE, software, on-board equipment) have to join for investigation sessions. Thus, an assistance tool for the identification of faulty equipment will improve the efficiency of diagnosis and the overall productivity of test activities. As a solution, the Aramiihs laboratory proposed considering the opportunity of a knowledge based system intended to assist the tester in diagnosis. This knowledge based system is, in fact, a short-term achievement of a long-term goal which is the capitalization of corporate memory in the Ariane4 test domain. Aramiihs is a research unit where engineers from MMS and researchers from the IRIT-CNRS cooperate on problems concerning new types of man-system interaction.

  19. Thermo-magneto-elastoplastic coupling model of metal magnetic memory testing method for ferromagnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengpeng; Zhang, Pengcheng; Jin, Ke; Chen, Zhenmao; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2018-04-01

    Metal magnetic memory (MMM) testing (also known as micro-magnetic testing) is a new non-destructive electromagnetic testing method that can diagnose ferromagnetic materials at an early stage by measuring the MMM signal directly on the material surface. Previous experiments have shown that many factors affect MMM signals, in particular, the temperature, the elastoplastic state, and the complex environmental magnetic field. However, the fact that there have been only a few studies of either how these factors affect the signals or the physical coupling mechanisms among them seriously limits the industrial applications of MMM testing. In this paper, a nonlinear constitutive relation for a ferromagnetic material considering the influences of temperature and elastoplastic state is established under a weak magnetic field and is used to establish a nonlinear thermo-magneto-elastoplastic coupling model of MMM testing. Comparing with experimental data verifies that the proposed theoretical model can accurately describe the thermo-magneto-elastoplastic coupling influence on MMM signals. The proposed theoretical model can predict the MMM signals in a complex environment and so is expected to provide a theoretical basis for improving the degree of quantification in MMM testing.

  20. Strength cues and blocking at test promote reliable within-list criterion shifts in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jason L; Starns, Jeffrey J

    2014-07-01

    In seven experiments, we explored the potential for strength-based, within-list criterion shifts in recognition memory. People studied a mix of target words, some presented four times (strong) and others studied once (weak). In Experiments 1, 2, 4A, and 4B, the test was organized into alternating blocks of 10, 20, or 40 trials. Each block contained lures intermixed with strong targets only or weak targets only. In strength-cued conditions, test probes appeared in a unique font color for strong and weak blocks. In the uncued conditions of Experiments 1 and 2, similar strength blocks were tested, but strength was not cued with font color. False alarms to lures were lower in blocks containing strong target words, as compared with lures in blocks containing weak targets, but only when strength was cued with font color. Providing test feedback in Experiment 2 did not alter these results. In Experiments 3A-3C, test items were presented in a random order (i.e., not blocked by strength). Of these three experiments, only one demonstrated a significant shift even though strength cues were provided. Overall, the criterion shift was larger and more reliable as block size increased, and the shift occurred only when strength was cued with font color. These results clarify the factors that affect participants' willingness to change their response criterion within a test list.

  1. An evaluation of the impact of memory and mood on antiepileptic drug adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, James W; Passen, Nina; Prusa, Christine; Dixon, Joanne; Cotterman-Hart, Sheri; Shneker, Bassel F

    2015-02-01

    Antiepileptic drugs are the mainstay of treatment for patients with epilepsy. Adherence to the prescribed regimen is a major factor in achieving a reduced seizure burden, which can decrease morbidity and mortality. Patients with epilepsy oftentimes complain about difficulty with memory. Because little is known about the relationship between memory and mood and adherence, the purpose of this project was to determine the impact of the confounding factors of memory and mood on antiepileptic drug adherence in patients with epilepsy. One hundred adult patients with epilepsy were recruited from the outpatient neurology clinic for this cross-sectional study. Patients who met the inclusion criteria completed measures of subjective memory (subset of 6 memory questions from the QOLIE-89) and objective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), subjective adherence (Morisky scale) and objective adherence (medication possession ratio), and mood (Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy). Refill records from each patient's community pharmacy were used to objectively assess adherence. Medication possession ratios were calculated based on the antiepileptic drug refill records over the previous 6months. Patients were considered adherent if their MPR was >80%. Women made up the majority of the sample (n=59), and, on average, patients had been living with epilepsy for nearly 20years. Approximately 40% of the sample were on antiepileptic drug monotherapy; most patients (>70%) took their antiepileptic drugs twice daily, and the mean number of total medications was 4.25±2.98. Based on the objective measure of adherence, 35% of the patients were nonadherent. Patients self-reported better adherence than what was objectively measured. Only the retention metric of the objective memory measure differentiated adherent patients from nonadherent patients. Patients in the adherent group had significantly lower depression scores (indicating better mood) compared with those

  2. The role of retrieval mode and retrieval orientation in retrieval practice: insights from comparing recognition memory testing formats and restudying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuanji; Rosburg, Timm; Hou, Mingzhu; Li, Bingbing; Xiao, Xin; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of retrieval practice for aiding long-term memory, referred to as the testing effect, has been widely demonstrated. However, the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In the present study, we sought to explore the role of pre-retrieval processes at initial testing on later recognition performance by using event-related potentials (ERPs). Subjects studied two lists of words (Chinese characters) and then performed a recognition task or a source memory task, or restudied the word lists. At the end of the experiment, subjects received a final recognition test based on the remember-know paradigm. Behaviorally, initial testing (active retrieval) enhanced memory retention relative to restudying (passive retrieval). The retrieval mode at initial testing was indexed by more positive-going ERPs for unstudied items in the active-retrieval tasks than in passive retrieval from 300 to 900 ms. Follow-up analyses showed that the magnitude of the early ERP retrieval mode effect (300-500 ms) was predictive of the behavioral testing effect later on. In addition, the ERPs for correctly rejected new items during initial testing differed between the two active-retrieval tasks from 500 to 900 ms, and this ERP retrieval orientation effect predicted differential behavioral testing gains between the two active-retrieval conditions. Our findings confirm that initial testing promotes later retrieval relative to restudying, and they further suggest that adopting pre-retrieval processing in the forms of retrieval mode and retrieval orientation might contribute to these memory enhancements.

  3. Testing a dynamic-field account of interactions between spatial attention and spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S; Spencer, John P

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining the relationship between spatial attention and spatial working memory (SWM) have shown that discrimination responses are faster for targets appearing at locations that are being maintained in SWM, and that location memory is impaired when attention is withdrawn during the delay. These observations support the proposal that sustained attention is required for successful retention in SWM: If attention is withdrawn, memory representations are likely to fail, increasing errors. In the present study, this proposal was reexamined in light of a neural-process model of SWM. On the basis of the model's functioning, we propose an alternative explanation for the observed decline in SWM performance when a secondary task is performed during retention: SWM representations drift systematically toward the location of targets appearing during the delay. To test this explanation, participants completed a color discrimination task during the delay interval of a spatial-recall task. In the critical shifting-attention condition, the color stimulus could appear either toward or away from the midline reference axis, relative to the memorized location. We hypothesized that if shifting attention during the delay leads to the failure of SWM representations, there should be an increase in the variance of recall errors, but no change in directional errors, regardless of the direction of the shift. Conversely, if shifting attention induces drift of SWM representations-as predicted by the model-systematic changes in the patterns of spatial-recall errors should occur that would depend on the direction of the shift. The results were consistent with the latter possibility-recall errors were biased toward the locations of discrimination targets appearing during the delay.

  4. Testing a Dynamic Field Account of Interactions between Spatial Attention and Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between spatial attention and spatial working memory (SWM) have shown that discrimination responses are faster for targets appearing at locations that are being maintained in SWM, and that location memory is impaired when attention is withdrawn during the delay. These observations support the proposal that sustained attention is required for successful retention in SWM: if attention is withdrawn, memory representations are likely to fail, increasing errors. In the present study, this proposal is reexamined in light of a neural process model of SWM. On the basis of the model's functioning, we propose an alternative explanation for the observed decline in SWM performance when a secondary task is performed during retention: SWM representations drift systematically toward the location of targets appearing during the delay. To test this explanation, participants completed a color-discrimination task during the delay interval of a spatial recall task. In the critical shifting attention condition, the color stimulus could appear either toward or away from the memorized location relative to a midline reference axis. We hypothesized that if shifting attention during the delay leads to the failure of SWM representations, there should be an increase in the variance of recall errors but no change in directional error, regardless of the direction of the shift. Conversely, if shifting attention induces drift of SWM representations—as predicted by the model—there should be systematic changes in the pattern of spatial recall errors depending on the direction of the shift. Results were consistent with the latter possibility—recall errors were biased toward the location of discrimination targets appearing during the delay. PMID:26810574

  5. Effects of working memory capacity on metacognitive monitoring: A study of group differences using a listening span test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie eKomori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an executive function of working memory that serves to update novel information, focusing attention on task-relevant targets, and eliminating task-irrelevant noise. The present research used a verbal working memory task to examine how working memory capacity limits affect monitoring. Participants performed a Japanese listening span test that included maintenance of target words and listening comprehension. On each trial, participants responded to the target word and then immediately estimated confidence in recall performance for that word (metacognitive judgment. The results confirmed significant differences in monitoring accuracy between high and low capacity groups in a multi-task situation. That is, confidence judgments were superior in high versus low capacity participants in terms of absolute accuracy and discrimination. The present research further investigated how memory load and interference affect underestimation of successful recall. The results indicated that the level of memory load that reduced word recall performance and led to an underconfidence bias varied according to participants’ memory capacity. In addition, irreverent information associated with incorrect true/ false decisions (secondary task and word recall within the current trial impaired monitoring accuracy in both participant groups. These findings suggest that inference from unsuccessful decisions only influences low, but not high, capacity participants. Therefore, monitoring accuracy, which requires high working memory capacity, improves metacognitive abilities by inhibiting task-irrelevant noise and focusing attention on detecting task-relevant targets or useful retrieval cues, which could improve actual cognitive performance.

  6. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  7. ERP evaluation of auditory sensory memory systems in adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Souichi; Hayashi, Akiko; Kanno, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    Auditory sensory memory stage can be functionally divided into two subsystems; transient-detector system and permanent feature-detector system (Naatanen, 1992). We assessed these systems in persons with intellectual disability by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) N1 and mismatch negativity (MMN), which reflect the two auditory subsystems, respectively. Added to these, P3a (an ERP reflecting stage after sensory memory) was evaluated. Either synthesized vowels or simple tones were delivered during a passive oddball paradigm to adults with and without intellectual disability. ERPs were recorded from midline scalp sites (Fz, Cz, and Pz). Relative to control group, participants with the disability exhibited greater N1 latency and less MMN amplitude. The results for N1 amplitude and MMN latency were basically comparable between both groups. IQ scores in participants with the disability revealed no significant relation with N1 and MMN measures, whereas the IQ scores tended to increase significantly as P3a latency reduced. These outcomes suggest that persons with intellectual disability might own discrete malfunctions for the two detector systems in auditory sensory-memory stage. Moreover, the processes following sensory memory might be partly related to a determinant of mental development.

  8. Evaluation of internal validity using modern test theory: Application to word association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Yusuke; Ames, Susan L; Stacy, Alan W

    2016-02-01

    Word association tests (WATs) have been widely used to examine associative/semantic memory structures and shown to be relevant to behavior and its underpinnings. Despite successful applications of WATs in diverse research areas, few studies have examined psychometric properties of these tests or other open-ended cognitive tests of common use. Modern test theory models, such as item response theory (IRT) models, are well suited to evaluate interpretations of this class of test. In this evaluation, unidimensional IRT models were fitted to the data on the WAT designed to capture associative memory relevant to an important applied issue: casual sex in a sample of 1,138 adult drug offenders. Using association instructions, participants were instructed to generate the first behavior or action that came to mind in response to cues (e.g., "hotel/motel") that might elicit casual sex-related responses. Results indicate a multitude of evidence for the internal validity of WAT score interpretations. All WAT items measured a single latent trait of casual sex-related associative memory, strongly related to the latent trait, and were invariant across gender, ethnicity, age groups, and sex partner profiles. The WAT was highly informative at average-to-high levels of the latent trait and also associated with risky sex behavior, demonstrating the usefulness of this class of test. The study illustrates the utility of the assessments in this at-risk population as well as the benefits of application of the modern test theory models in the evaluation of internal validity of open-ended cognitive test score interpretation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. A Comprehensive Behavioral Test Battery to Assess Learning and Memory in 129S6/Tg2576 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Andrea; Bauer, Björn; Abner, Erin L.; Ashkenazy-Frolinger, Tal; Hartz, Anika M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic Tg2576 mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) are a widely used Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model to evaluate treatment effects on amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology and cognition. Tg2576 mice on a B6;SJL background strain carry a recessive rd1 mutation that leads to early retinal degeneration and visual impairment in homozygous carriers. This can impair performance in behavioral tests that rely on visual cues, and thus, affect study results. Therefore, B6;SJL/Tg2576 mice were systematically backcrossed with 129S6/SvEvTac mice resulting in 129S6/Tg2576 mice that lack the rd1 mutation. 129S6/Tg2576 mice do not develop retinal degeneration but still show Aβ accumulation in the brain that is comparable to the original B6;SJL/Tg2576 mouse. However, comprehensive studies on cognitive decline in 129S6/Tg2576 mice are limited. In this study, we used two dementia mouse models on a 129S6 background—scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice (3–5 month-old) and transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice (11–13 month-old)–to establish a behavioral test battery for assessing learning and memory. The test battery consisted of five tests to evaluate different aspects of cognitive impairment: a Y-Maze forced alternation task, a novel object recognition test, the Morris water maze, the radial arm water maze, and a Y-maze spontaneous alternation task. We first established this behavioral test battery with the scopolamine-induced dementia model using 129S6/SvEvTac mice and then evaluated 129S6/Tg2576 mice using the same testing protocol. Both models showed distinctive patterns of cognitive impairment. Together, the non-invasive behavioral test battery presented here allows detecting cognitive impairment in scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice and in transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice. Due to the modular nature of this test battery, more behavioral tests, e.g. invasive assays to gain additional cognitive information, can easily be added. PMID:26808326

  10. A Comprehensive Behavioral Test Battery to Assess Learning and Memory in 129S6/Tg2576 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wolf

    Full Text Available Transgenic Tg2576 mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP are a widely used Alzheimer's disease (AD mouse model to evaluate treatment effects on amyloid beta (Aβ pathology and cognition. Tg2576 mice on a B6;SJL background strain carry a recessive rd1 mutation that leads to early retinal degeneration and visual impairment in homozygous carriers. This can impair performance in behavioral tests that rely on visual cues, and thus, affect study results. Therefore, B6;SJL/Tg2576 mice were systematically backcrossed with 129S6/SvEvTac mice resulting in 129S6/Tg2576 mice that lack the rd1 mutation. 129S6/Tg2576 mice do not develop retinal degeneration but still show Aβ accumulation in the brain that is comparable to the original B6;SJL/Tg2576 mouse. However, comprehensive studies on cognitive decline in 129S6/Tg2576 mice are limited. In this study, we used two dementia mouse models on a 129S6 background--scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice (3-5 month-old and transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice (11-13 month-old-to establish a behavioral test battery for assessing learning and memory. The test battery consisted of five tests to evaluate different aspects of cognitive impairment: a Y-Maze forced alternation task, a novel object recognition test, the Morris water maze, the radial arm water maze, and a Y-maze spontaneous alternation task. We first established this behavioral test battery with the scopolamine-induced dementia model using 129S6/SvEvTac mice and then evaluated 129S6/Tg2576 mice using the same testing protocol. Both models showed distinctive patterns of cognitive impairment. Together, the non-invasive behavioral test battery presented here allows detecting cognitive impairment in scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice and in transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice. Due to the modular nature of this test battery, more behavioral tests, e.g. invasive assays to gain additional cognitive information, can easily be added.

  11. Adaptive Memory: Evaluating Alternative Forms of Fitness-Relevant Processing in the Survival Processing Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandry, Joshua; Trafimow, David; Marks, Michael J.; Rice, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Memory may have evolved to preserve information processed in terms of its fitness-relevance. Based on the assumption that the human mind comprises different fitness-relevant adaptive mechanisms contributing to survival and reproductive success, we compared alternative fitness-relevant processing scenarios with survival processing. Participants rated words for relevancy to fitness-relevant and control conditions followed by a delay and surprise recall test (Experiment 1a). Participants recalled more words processed for their relevance to a survival situation. We replicated these findings in an online study (Experiment 2) and a study using revised fitness-relevant scenarios (Experiment 3). Across all experiments, we did not find a mnemonic benefit for alternative fitness-relevant processing scenarios, questioning assumptions associated with an evolutionary account of remembering. Based on these results, fitness-relevance seems to be too wide-ranging of a construct to account for the memory findings associated with survival processing. We propose that memory may be hierarchically sensitive to fitness-relevant processing instructions. We encourage future researchers to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for survival processing effects and work toward developing a taxonomy of adaptive memory. PMID:23585858

  12. Evaluation of the effect of pentoxifylline on sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Tashtoush, Noor H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Mhaidat, Nizar M

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we examined the ability of Pentoxifylline (PTX) to prevent sleep deprivation induced memory impairment probably through decreasing oxidative stress. Sleep deprivation was chronically induced 8 h/day for 6 weeks in rats using modified multiple platform model. Concurrently, PTX (100 mg/kg) was administered to animals on daily basis. After 6 weeks of treatment, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using the Radial Arm Water Maze. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected; and levels/activities of antioxidant defense biomarkers glutathione reduced (GSH), glutathione oxidized (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were assessed. The results show that chronic sleep deprivation impaired short- and long-term memories, which was prevented by chronic treatment with PTX. Additionally, PTX normalized sleep deprivation-induced reduction in the hippocampus GSH/GSSG ratio (P sleep deprivation induces memory impairment, and treatment with PTX prevented this impairment probably through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of field test equipment for halide and DOP testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.L.; Kovach, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The Nucon Testing Services Department, field testing at power reactor sites, has performed tests using R-11, R-12, and R-112 in conjunction with gas chromatographs and direct reading halide detectors. The field operational experience with these detector systems, thus sensitivity, precision, and manner of field calibration, are presented. Laboratory experiments regarding 3 H-tagged methyl iodide for in place leak testing of adsorber systems indicate a low hazard, high reliability process for leak testing in facilities where atmospheric cross contamination occurs. (U.S.)

  14. Thermomechanical behavior of thermoset shape memory polymer programmed by cold-compression: Testing and constitutive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Xu, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Programming is a key process for thermally activated stress or strain recovery of shape memory polymers (SMPs). Typically, programming requires an initial heating above the glass transition temperature ( Tg), subsequent cooling below Tg and removal of the applied load, in order to fix a temporary shape. This work adopted a new approach to program thermoset SMPs directly at temperatures well below Tg, which effectively simplified the shape fixing process. 1-D compression programming below Tg and free shape recovery of a thermoset SMP were experimentally investigated. Functional stability of the shape fixity under various environmental attacks was also experimentally evaluated. A mechanism-based thermoviscoelastic-thermoviscoplastic constitutive model incorporating structural and stress relaxation was then developed to predict the nonlinear shape memory behavior of the SMP trained below Tg. Comparison between the prediction and the experiment showed good agreement. The structure dependence of the thermomechanical behavior of the SMP was further discussed through a parametric study per the validated constitutive model. This study validates that programming by cold-compression is a viable alternative for thermally responsive thermoset SMPs.

  15. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L.; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19–90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  16. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Braverman

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54, 57.14% central atrophy (N=88, and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69. A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740 was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115. Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787. In the centrum semiovale (CS, reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622. Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002. Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064. Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165. Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087. In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740; high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417; and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166. Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294: the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  17. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  18. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Perceptual Closure Mediate Changes in Performance on a Fragmented Objects Test of Implicit Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, E.; Finestone, J.M.; Levy, N.

    2005-01-01

    Healthy premenopausal women with regular menstrual cycles were assessed on a fragmented objects test of implicit memory. Testing took place at either the low estrogen (n=17) or the high estrogen (n=16) stages of the menstrual cycle. Concentrations of ovarian hormones were confirmed by saliva assays. Both groups of women exhibited a priming effect,…

  19. Behavioral testing of mice exposed to intermediate frequency magnetic fields indicates mild memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Kumari

    Full Text Available Human exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MF is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems and induction heating cooking hobs. However, limited data is available on their possible health effects. The present study assessed behavioral and histopathological consequences of exposing mice to 7.5 kHz MF at 12 or 120 μT for 5 weeks. No effects were observed on body weight, spontaneous activity, motor coordination, level of anxiety or aggression. In the Morris swim task, mice in the 120 μT group showed less steep learning curve than the other groups, but did not differ from controls in their search bias in the probe test. The passive avoidance task indicated a clear impairment of memory over 48 h in the 120 μT group. No effects on astroglial activation or neurogenesis were observed in the hippocampus. The mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor did not change but expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA was significantly increased in the 120 μT group. These findings suggest that 7.5 kHz MF exposure may lead to mild learning and memory impairment, possibly through an inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus.

  20. Behavioral testing of mice exposed to intermediate frequency magnetic fields indicates mild memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Kajal; Koivisto, Hennariikka; Viluksela, Matti; Paldanius, Kaisa M A; Marttinen, Mikael; Hiltunen, Mikko; Naarala, Jonne; Tanila, Heikki; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    Human exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MF) is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems and induction heating cooking hobs. However, limited data is available on their possible health effects. The present study assessed behavioral and histopathological consequences of exposing mice to 7.5 kHz MF at 12 or 120 μT for 5 weeks. No effects were observed on body weight, spontaneous activity, motor coordination, level of anxiety or aggression. In the Morris swim task, mice in the 120 μT group showed less steep learning curve than the other groups, but did not differ from controls in their search bias in the probe test. The passive avoidance task indicated a clear impairment of memory over 48 h in the 120 μT group. No effects on astroglial activation or neurogenesis were observed in the hippocampus. The mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor did not change but expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA was significantly increased in the 120 μT group. These findings suggest that 7.5 kHz MF exposure may lead to mild learning and memory impairment, possibly through an inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus.

  1. Individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Veit; Söderlund, Hedvig; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Jönsson, Fredrik U

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases to address whether both study techniques commonly promote item-specific processing. Participants (N = 112) were divided into four groups (n = 28). They either exclusively studied 36 action phrases (e.g., "lift the glass") or both studied and cued-recalled them in four trials. During study trials participants encoded the action phrases either by motorically performing them, or by reading them aloud, and they took final verb-cued recall tests over 18-min and 1-week retention intervals. A testing effect was demonstrated for action phrases, however, only when they were verbally encoded, and not when they were enacted. Similarly, enactive (relative to verbal) encoding reduced the rate of forgetting, but only when the action phrases were exclusively studied, and not when they were also tested. These less-than-additive effects of enactment and testing on the rate of forgetting, as well as on long-term retention, support the notion that both study techniques effectively promote item-specific processing that can only be marginally increased further by combining them.

  2. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

  3. Visual Working Memory and Perception Speed of 3- to 6-Year-Old Children Tested with a Matrix Film Battery Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittorf, Martin L.; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Huckauf, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this study the visual working memory (VWM) and perception speed of 60 children between the ages of three and six years were tested with an age-based, easy-to-handle Matrix Film Battery Test (reliability R?=?0.71). It was thereby affirmed that the VWM is age dependent (correlation coefficient r?=?0.66***) as expected. Furthermore, a significant…

  4. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A dual-docking microfluidic cell migration assay (D2-Chip) for testing neutrophil chemotaxis and the memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Wu, Jiandong; Xu, Guoqing; Xie, Dongxue; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Santos, Susy; Alexander, Murray; Zhu, Ling; Zhang, Michael; Liu, Yong; Lin, Francis

    2017-04-18

    Chemotaxis is a classic mechanism for guiding cell migration and an important topic in both fundamental cell biology and health sciences. Neutrophils are a widely used model to study eukaryotic cell migration and neutrophil chemotaxis itself can lead to protective or harmful immune actions to the body. While much has been learnt from past research about how neutrophils effectively navigate through a chemoattractant gradient, many interesting questions remain unclear. For example, while it is tempting to model neutrophil chemotaxis using the well-established biased random walk theory, the experimental proof was challenged by the cell's highly persistent migrating nature. A special experimental design is required to test the key predictions from the random walk model. Another question that has interested the cell migration community for decades concerns the existence of chemotactic memory and its underlying mechanism. Although chemotactic memory has been suggested in various studies, a clear quantitative experimental demonstration will improve our understanding of the migratory memory effect. Motivated by these questions, we developed a microfluidic cell migration assay (so-called dual-docking chip or D 2 -Chip) that can test both the biased random walk model and the memory effect for neutrophil chemotaxis on a single chip enabled by multi-region gradient generation and dual-region cell alignment. Our results provide experimental support for the biased random walk model and chemotactic memory for neutrophil chemotaxis. Quantitative data analyses provide new insights into neutrophil chemotaxis and memory by making connections to entropic disorder, cell morphology and oscillating migratory response.

  6. Efficient Regression Testing Based on Test History: An Industrial Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ekelund, Edward Dunn; Engström, Emelie

    2015-01-01

    Due to changes in the development practices at Axis Communications, towards continuous integration, faster regression testing feedback is needed. The current automated regression test suite takes approximately seven hours to run which prevents developers from integrating code changes several times a day as preferred. Therefore we want to implement a highly selective yet accurate regression testing strategy. Traditional code coverage based techniques are not applicable due to the size and comp...

  7. Expertise in cognitive psychology: testing the hypothesis of long-term working memory in a study of soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postal, Virginie

    2004-10-01

    This experiment compared several theories of expertise and exceptional performances in cognitive psychology. One current conception assumes that experts in a specific domain have developed a long-term working memory, which accounts for the difference in memory performance between experts and novices. The principal characteristics of this memory are the speed with which processes of storage and retrieval function and the existence of retrieval structures that allow a temporary activation of the knowledge store in long-term memory. Other authors such as Vicente and Wang argue this notion does not account for memory performance that is not intrinsic to the domain of expertise. We attempt to clarify the two viewpoints and to focus on this debate by testing the hypothesis of long-term working memory using soccer as the domain of expertise and by comparing the cognitive performance of participants who have different expertise (novices, supporters, players, and coaches). 35 male participants were administered a new version of the Reading Span test to assess their long-term working memory according to two conditions. In the first condition (structured condition), the last word of each sentence was related to the soccer domain, and these words were related to each other in such a manner that they represented a part of the game. In the second condition (unstructured condition), the last word of each sentence was related to soccer but these words did not represent part of the game. Analysis showed that the sentence span increased as a function of expertise for the structured condition but not for the unstructured condition. The results were interpreted in the framework of the constraint attunement hypothesis proposed by Vicente in 1992 and the long-term working memory hypothesis proposed by Ericsson and Kintsch in 1995.

  8. Declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  9. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  10. 49 CFR 199.235 - Required evaluation and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.235 Required evaluation and testing. No operator shall...

  11. Question format shifts bias away from the emphasised response in tests of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Ravi D; O'Connor, Akira R

    2014-11-01

    The question asked to interrogate memory has potential to influence response bias at retrieval, yet has not been systematically investigated. According to framing effects in the field of eyewitness testimony, retrieval cueing effects in cognitive psychology and the acquiescence bias in questionnaire responding, the question should establish a confirmatory bias. Conversely, according to findings from the rewarded decision-making literature involving mixed incentives, the question should establish a disconfirmatory bias. Across three experiments (ns=90 [online], 29 [laboratory] and 29 [laboratory]) we demonstrate a disconfirmatory bias - "old?" decreased old responding. This bias is underpinned by a goal-driven mechanism wherein participants seek to maximise emphasised response accuracy at the expense of frequency. Moreover, we demonstrate that disconfirmatory biases can be generated without explicit reference to the goal state. We conclude that subtle aspects of the test environment influence retrieval to a greater extent than has been previously considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep does not cause false memories on a story-based test of suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Elaine; Carter, Neil; McMurtrie, Hazel; Willner, Paul; Blagrove, Mark T

    2017-07-01

    Sleep contributes to the consolidation of memories. This process may involve extracting the gist of learned material at the expense of details. It has thus been proposed that sleep might lead to false memory formation. Previous research examined the effect of sleep on false memory using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Mixed results were found, including increases and decreases in false memory after sleep relative to wake. It has been questioned whether DRM false memories occur by the same processes as real-world false memories. Here, the effect of sleep on false memory was investigated using the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale. Veridical memory deteriorated after a 12-h period of wake, but not after a 12-h period including a night's sleep. No difference in false memory was found between conditions. Although the literature supports sleep-dependent memory consolidation, the results here call into question extending this to a gist-based false memory effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An extended continuum model considering optimal velocity change with memory and numerical tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingtao, Zhai; Hongxia, Ge; Rongjun, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, an extended continuum model of traffic flow is proposed with the consideration of optimal velocity changes with memory. The new model's stability condition and KdV-Burgers equation considering the optimal velocities change with memory are deduced through linear stability theory and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Numerical simulation is carried out to study the extended continuum model, which explores how optimal velocity changes with memory affected velocity, density and energy consumption. Numerical results show that when considering the effects of optimal velocity changes with memory, the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently. Both the memory step and sensitivity parameters of optimal velocity changes with memory will enhance the stability of traffic flow efficiently. Furthermore, numerical results demonstrates that the effect of optimal velocity changes with memory can avoid the disadvantage of historical information, which increases the stability of traffic flow on road, and so it improve the traffic flow stability and minimize cars' energy consumptions.

  14. The quadratic relationship between difficulty of intelligence test items and their correlations with working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz eSmoleń

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid intelligence (Gf is a crucial cognitive ability that involves abstract reasoning in order to solve novel problems. Recent research demonstrated that Gf strongly depends on the individual effectiveness of working memory (WM. We investigated a popular claim that if the storage capacity underlay the WM-Gf correlation, then such a correlation should increase with an increasing number of items or rules (load in a Gf test. As often no such link is observed, on that basis the storage-capacity account is rejected, and alternative accounts of Gf (e.g., related to executive control or processing speed are proposed. Using both analytical inference and numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the load-dependent change in correlation is primarily a function of the amount of floor/ceiling effect for particular items. Thus, the item-wise WM correlation of a Gf test depends on its overall difficulty, and the difficulty distribution across its items. When the early test items yield huge ceiling, but the late items do not approach floor, that correlation will increase throughout the test. If the early items locate themselves between ceiling and floor, but the late items approach floor, the respective correlation will decrease. For a hallmark Gf test, the Raven test, whose items span from ceiling to floor, the quadratic relationship is expected, and it was shown empirically using a large sample and two types of WMC tasks. In consequence, no changes in correlation due to varying WM/Gf load, or lack of them, can yield an argument for or against any theory of WM/Gf. Moreover, as the mathematical properties of the correlation formula make it relatively immune to ceiling/floor effects for overall moderate correlations, only minor changes (if any in the WM-Gf correlation should be expected for many psychological tests.

  15. Experimental evaluation of shape memory alloy actuation technique in adaptive antenna design concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, W. Neill; Carpenter, Bernie F.

    1994-01-01

    Creation of an antenna system that could autonomously adapt contours of reflecting surfaces to compensate for structural loads induced by a variable environment would maximize performance of space-based communication systems. Design of such a system requires the comprehensive development and integration of advanced actuator, sensor, and control technologies. As an initial step in this process, a test has been performed to assess the use of a shape memory alloy as a potential actuation technique. For this test, an existing, offset, cassegrain antenna system was retrofit with a subreflector equipped with shape memory alloy actuators for surface contour control. The impacts that the actuators had on both the subreflector contour and the antenna system patterns were measured. The results of this study indicate the potential for using shape memory alloy actuation techniques to adaptively control antenna performance; both variations in gain and beam steering capabilities were demonstrated. Future development effort is required to evolve this potential into a useful technology for satellite applications.

  16. Evaluation of Commercially Available Cyanide Test Kits against Various Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    and Visocolor ECO test kits (Macherey-Nagel; Düren, Germany); eXact test strips ( Industrial Test Systems; Rock Hill, SC); and MQuant test strips...further evaluation in a second phase of testing. Cyantesmo paper was tested against 15 matrices, including baking soda , boric acid, brewer’s yeast...INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Commercially available test kits were evaluated in a two-phase process . In Phase I, a market survey was performed, and five

  17. How does additional diagnostic testing influence the initial diagnosis in patients with cognitive complaints in a memory clinic setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Anouk P; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Schalk, Bianca W M; Meulenbroek, Olga; Kessels, Roy P C; Melis, René J F

    2015-01-01

    patients suspected of dementia frequently undergo additional diagnostic testing (e.g. brain imaging or neuropsychological assessment) after standard clinical assessment at a memory clinic. This study investigates the use of additional testing in an academic outpatient memory clinic and how it influences the initial diagnosis. the initial diagnosis after standard clinical assessment (history, laboratory tests, cognitive screening and physical and neurological examination) and the final diagnosis after additional testing of 752 memory clinic patients were collected. We specifically registered if, and what type of, additional testing was requested. additional testing was performed in 518 patients (69%), 67% of whom underwent magnetic resonance imaging, 45% had neuropsychological assessment, 14% had cerebrospinal fluid analysis and 49% had (combinations of) other tests. This led to a modification of the initial diagnosis in 17% of the patients. The frequency of change was highest in patients with an initial non-Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia diagnosis (54%, compared with 11 and 14% in patients with AD and 'no dementia'; P testing 44% was diagnosed with AD, 9% with non-AD dementia and 47% with 'no dementia'. additional testing should especially be considered in non-AD patients. In the large group of patients with an initial AD or 'no dementia' diagnosis, additional tests have little diagnostic impact and may perhaps be used with more restraint. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effects of degraded sensory input on memory for speech: behavioral data and a test of biologically constrained computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquado, Tepring; Cousins, Katheryn A Q; Wingfield, Arthur; Miller, Paul

    2010-12-13

    Poor hearing acuity reduces memory for spoken words, even when the words are presented with enough clarity for correct recognition. An "effortful hypothesis" suggests that the perceptual effort needed for recognition draws from resources that would otherwise be available for encoding the word in memory. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted a behavioral task requiring immediate free recall of word-lists, some of which contained an acoustically masked word that was just above perceptual threshold. Results show that masking a word reduces the recall of that word and words prior to it, as well as weakening the linking associations between the masked and prior words. In contrast, recall probabilities of words following the masked word are not affected. To account for this effect we conducted computational simulations testing two classes of models: Associative Linking Models and Short-Term Memory Buffer Models. Only a model that integrated both contextual linking and buffer components matched all of the effects of masking observed in our behavioral data. In this Linking-Buffer Model, the masked word disrupts a short-term memory buffer, causing associative links of words in the buffer to be weakened, affecting memory for the masked word and the word prior to it, while allowing links of words following the masked word to be spared. We suggest that these data account for the so-called "effortful hypothesis", where distorted input has a detrimental impact on prior information stored in short-term memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Strengthened effective connectivity underlies transfer of working memory training to tests of short-term memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Sutterer, David W; Emrich, Stephen M; Postle, Bradley R

    2013-05-15

    Although long considered a natively endowed and fixed trait, working memory (WM) ability has recently been shown to improve with intensive training. What remains controversial and poorly understood, however, are the neural bases of these training effects and the extent to which WM training gains transfer to other cognitive tasks. Here we present evidence from human electrophysiology (EEG) and simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and EEG that the transfer of WM training to other cognitive tasks is supported by changes in task-related effective connectivity in frontoparietal and parieto-occipital networks that are engaged by both the trained and transfer tasks. One consequence of this effect is greater efficiency of stimulus processing, as evidenced by changes in EEG indices of individual differences in short-term memory capacity and in visual search performance. Transfer to search-related activity provides evidence that something more fundamental than task-specific strategy or stimulus-specific representations has been learned. Furthermore, these patterns of training and transfer highlight the role of common neural systems in determining individual differences in aspects of visuospatial cognition.

  20. Joint Test and Evaluation Procedures Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    discipline needed to keep individual staff members from the natural tendency to procrastinate when the test is still a "long way off." Fourth, they...concept is not fully developed, it embodies useful notions. In adaptive testing, change is planned for in advance. Specifically, the test matrix is...design matrix can be modified, as appropriate, early during the test sequence to provide more useful data for the final analysis of the system undergoing

  1. Standardization of shape memory alloy test methods toward certification of aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, D. J.; Mabe, J. H.; Benafan, O.; Coda, A.; Conduit, B.; Padan, R.; Van Doren, B.

    2015-08-01

    The response of shape memory alloy (SMA) components employed as actuators has enabled a number of adaptable aero-structural solutions. However, there are currently no industry or government-accepted standardized test methods for SMA materials when used as actuators and their transition to commercialization and production has been hindered. This brief fast track communication introduces to the community a recently initiated collaborative and pre-competitive SMA specification and standardization effort that is expected to deliver the first ever regulatory agency-accepted material specification and test standards for SMA as employed as actuators for commercial and military aviation applications. In the first phase of this effort, described herein, the team is working to review past efforts and deliver a set of agreed-upon properties to be included in future material certification specifications as well as the associated experiments needed to obtain them in a consistent manner. Essential for the success of this project is the participation and input from a number of organizations and individuals, including engineers and designers working in materials and processing development, application design, SMA component fabrication, and testing at the material, component, and system level. Going forward, strong consensus among this diverse body of participants and the SMA research community at large is needed to advance standardization concepts for universal adoption by the greater aerospace community and especially regulatory bodies. It is expected that the development and release of public standards will be done in collaboration with an established standards development organization.

  2. Fast neutron irradiation tests of flash memories used in space environment at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Paccagnella, A.; Bagatin, M.; Gerardin, S.; Cazzaniga, C.; Frost, C. D.; Picozza, P.; Gorini, G.; Mancini, R.; Sarno, M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a neutron accelerated study of soft errors in advanced electronic devices used in space missions, i.e. Flash memories performed at the ChipIr and VESUVIO beam lines at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The two neutron beam lines are set up to mimic the space environment spectra and allow neutron irradiation tests on Flash memories in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV and up to 800 MeV. The ISIS neutron energy spectrum is similar to the one occurring in the atmospheric as well as in space and planetary environments, with intensity enhancements varying in the range 108- 10 9 and 106- 10 7 respectively. Such conditions are suitable for the characterization of the atmospheric, space and planetary neutron radiation environments, and are directly applicable for accelerated tests of electronic components as demonstrated here in benchmark measurements performed on flash memories.

  3. Fast neutron irradiation tests of flash memories used in space environment at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Andreani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a neutron accelerated study of soft errors in advanced electronic devices used in space missions, i.e. Flash memories performed at the ChipIr and VESUVIO beam lines at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The two neutron beam lines are set up to mimic the space environment spectra and allow neutron irradiation tests on Flash memories in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV and up to 800 MeV. The ISIS neutron energy spectrum is similar to the one occurring in the atmospheric as well as in space and planetary environments, with intensity enhancements varying in the range 108- 10 9 and 106- 10 7 respectively. Such conditions are suitable for the characterization of the atmospheric, space and planetary neutron radiation environments, and are directly applicable for accelerated tests of electronic components as demonstrated here in benchmark measurements performed on flash memories.

  4. Mnemonic anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease is caused by a failure to transfer online evaluations of performance: Evidence from memory training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Rita; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Macedo, Luís; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    There is a debate about the ability of patients with Alzheimer's disease to build an up-to-date representation of their memory function, which has been termed mnemonic anosognosia. This form of anosognosia is typified by accurate online evaluations of performance, but dysfunctional or outmoded representations of function more generally. We tested whether people with Alzheimer's disease could adapt or change their representations of memory performance across three different six-week memory training programs using global judgements of learning. We showed that whereas online assessments of performance were accurate, patients continued to make inaccurate overestimations of their memory performance. This was despite the fact that the magnitude of predictions shifted according to the memory training. That is, on some level patients showed an ability to change and retain a representation of performance over time, but it was a dysfunctional one. For the first time in the literature we were able to use an analysis using correlations to support this claim, based on a large heterogeneous sample of 51 patients with Alzheimer's disease. The results point not to a failure to retain online metamemory information, but rather that this information is never used or incorporated into longer term representations, supporting but refining the mnemonic anosognosia hypothesis.

  5. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovich, J R

    2002-01-01

    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  6. Evaluation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor antagonists on attention and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuail, Joseph A; Burk, Joshua A

    2006-12-01

    Cholinergic receptor antagonists are commonly used to model attentional and mnemonic impairments associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. However, few studies have systematically assessed the effects of these drugs following manipulations that affect attention or working memory within the same task. In the present experiment, rats were trained to discriminate visual signals from "blank" trials when no signal was presented. This task was modified to include retention intervals on some trials to tax working memory. During standard task performance, rats received systemic injections of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine, or of the nicotinic receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. A second experiment tested the effects on this task of co-administering doses of scopolamine and mecamylamine that, when administered alone, did not significantly affect task performance. Scopolamine (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) decreased detection of 500 ms signals but did not affect accurate identification of non-signals. Scopolamine did not differentially affect performance across the retention interval. Elevated omission rates were associated with high doses of scopolamine or mecamylamine. Combination drug treatment was associated with decreased signal detection and elevated omission rates. Collectively, the data suggest that muscarinic and nicotinic receptor antagonists do not exclusively impair working memory.

  7. Evaluating Metal Probe Meters for Soil Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Inexpensive metal probe meters that are sold by garden stores can be evaluated by students for their accuracy in measuring soil pH, moisture, fertility, and salinity. The author concludes that the meters are inaccurate and cannot be calibrated in standard units. However, the student evaluations are useful in learning the methods of soil analysis…

  8. Evaluation of preference for a novel durable insulin pen with memory function among patients with diabetes and health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klausmann G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gerhard Klausmann,1 Irene Hramiak,2 Marianne Qvist,3 Kristian Handberg Mikkelsen,3 Xiaohui Guo4 1Internal Medicine Diabetology Practice, Aschaffenburg, Germany; 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Joseph's Healthcare, London, Ontario, Canada; 3Novo Nordisk A/S, Soeborg, Denmark; 4Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: Improving adherence to insulin treatment for better glycemic control remains a challenge in the management of diabetes. New technological aids are required to help support adherence. This study evaluated preference for the NovoPen® 5 (NP5, a durable insulin pen with memory function, compared with the HumaPen Luxura® (HPL among patients with diabetes and health care professionals. Methods: This crossover, multicenter usability study included insulin pen-experienced patients with diabetes and health care professionals treating patients with diabetes in Canada, China, and Germany. Participants evaluated NP5 and HPL in a randomized order by performing handling tasks in a usability test related to everyday use during a face-to-face interview. Tasks, pens, and preferences were assessed by completing a questionnaire comprised of rating and open-ended questions relating to confidence in everyday diabetes management. Results: Overall, 300 patients with diabetes and 150 health care professionals participated in the study. Significantly more participants preferred NP5 (81% to HPL (18% (P < 0.001. Also, 82% of patients with diabetes had more confidence in NP5 for managing their daily injections versus 11% with HPL (P < 0.001, and 7% had no preference. Memory function was most helpful in giving patients with diabetes confidence about when they last injected (63%, how much insulin they last injected (62% and improving diabetes management (55%. Participants gave higher ratings to NP5 than to HPL on all parameters relating to performing an injection (ease of

  9. Memory-for-Designs, Bender-Gestalt, Trail Making Test, and WISC-R Performance of Retarded and Adequate Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManis, Donald L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Twelve reading-disabled and 12 nondisabled boys, of average intellectual ability, in Grades 3 to 6 were compared on the Memory-For-Designs, Bender-Gestalt, Trail Making Test, and the 11 subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised (WISC-R). (Author)

  10. Brief Report: Memory Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Heather L.; Filliter, Jillian H.; Johnson, Shannon A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Task Support Hypothesis (TSH; Bowler et al. in Neuropsychologia 35:65-70, 1997) individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perform more similarly to their typically developing peers on learning and memory tasks when provided with external support at retrieval. We administered the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's…

  11. A robust method of measuring other-race and other-ethnicity effects: the Cambridge Face Memory Test format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Stokes, Sacha; Liu, Jia; Cohan, Sarah; Fiorentini, Chiara; Pidcock, Madeleine; Yovel, Galit; Broughton, Mary; Pelleg, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony). Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA) and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese), with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian).

  12. A robust method of measuring other-race and other-ethnicity effects: the Cambridge Face Memory Test format.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor McKone

    Full Text Available Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony. Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese, with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian.

  13. Measuring memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1988-01-01

    Three broad approaches to the measurement of memory functioning will be described. The first of these involves using memory as a general indicator of any dysfunction in the central nervous system. This approach will be illustrated using Sternberg's short-term memory scanning paradigm. Its strengths are that such tests are often very sensitive, but they are often very difficult to interpret both theoretically and in practical terms. A second approach is to use a range of tasks selected so as to tap different aspects of human memory. Such an approach is of considerably more theoretical interest, and is discussed in more detail by Eysenck (this volume). Its weaknesses are that theories of memory are still changing relatively quickly, and that mapping such results onto memory outside the laboratory is often complex. A third approach is to attempt a more direct measure of everyday memory. The use of questionnaires for this purpose will be critically discussed, and a new test of everyday memory will be described. This test, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, correlates well with observations of memory lapses in patients, and appears to offer a promising new line of development.

  14. Experience and information loss in auditory and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloede, Michele E; Paulauskas, Emily E; Gregg, Melissa K

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies show that recognition memory for sounds is inferior to memory for pictures. Four experiments were conducted to examine the nature of auditory and visual memory. Experiments 1-3 were conducted to evaluate the role of experience in auditory and visual memory. Participants received a study phase with pictures/sounds, followed by a recognition memory test. Participants then completed auditory training with each of the sounds, followed by a second memory test. Despite auditory training in Experiments 1 and 2, visual memory was superior to auditory memory. In Experiment 3, we found that it is possible to improve auditory memory, but only after 3 days of specific auditory training and 3 days of visual memory decay. We examined the time course of information loss in auditory and visual memory in Experiment 4 and found a trade-off between visual and auditory recognition memory: Visual memory appears to have a larger capacity, while auditory memory is more enduring. Our results indicate that visual and auditory memory are inherently different memory systems and that differences in visual and auditory recognition memory performance may be due to the different amounts of experience with visual and auditory information, as well as structurally different neural circuitry specialized for information retention.

  15. Evaluation of an intervention directed at the modification of memory beliefs in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.W.; Zwart, J.F; Berg, I.J; Deelman, B.G.

    In clinical practice, memory interventions often aim to improve negative beliefs and expectations about memory in the elderly. The (implicit or explicit) assumption is often that changing beliefs and expectations about memory does not only improve subjective memory judgments, but leads to improved

  16. Cold test for bean seed vigor evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Marcelo Hissnauer; Cicero, Silvio Moure

    1999-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o comportamento de sementes de feijão submetidas a diferentes metodologias do teste de frio, comparativamente a outros testes de vigor tradicionalmente utilizados na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica dessas sementes. As metodologias do teste de frio utilizadas foram: caixa plástica com terra, rolo de papel com terra e rolo de papel sem terra, nas temperaturas de 10ºC e de 15ºC e períodos de exposição, de três, cinco e sete dias. Paralelamente fo...

  17. Test report : alternative fuels propulsion durability evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    This document, prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (Honeywell), contains the final : test report (public version) for the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation : Administration (USDOT/FAA) Alternative Fuels Propulsion Engine Dur...

  18. SDU6 Interior Liner Testing & Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-14

    Two liner materials (Marseal® M-3500 and REMA Chemoline® 4CN) proposed for use as a liner inside the Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) were subjected to specific ASTM tests (tensile and lap-shear) after immersion in 50% and 100% simulant solutions for 1000 hours at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Both liner materials exhibited good resistance to the simulant chemistry, at least based on the tests performed and the test duration/conditions imposed. In lap-shear tests, both materials failed in the base material rather than peeling apart, confirming good adhesion. The REMA 4CN bromobutyl elastomer showed superior bonding characteristics and absence of warping or delamination at the conditions tested. The Marseal M-3500 material (PVC/EVA blend with polyester reinforcement) exhibited deformation and debonding in some locations. The cause of the deformation and delamination observed in the Marseal M-3500 material is not fully known, but possibly attributed to thermomechanical stress at immersion temperatures, and the thermoplastic nature of the material. The immersion temperature (68 °C) is slightly greater than the maximum use temperature limit quoted for the Marseal M- 3500 liner (65 °C), though the basis for the service limit is unknown. The testing performed was limited in scope and only for these two liner materials. These tests were primarily performed to screen for severe incompatibility or short-term degradation in Saltstone bleedwater simulants at bounding solution temperatures. Additional testing is recommended to assess long-term performance and the overall service life of the liner.

  19. Evaluating the protective effect of etazolate on memory impairment, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by post traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Al Subeh, Zeinab Y; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that develops after an individual experiences severe life-threatening traumatic stress. Etazolate is a selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor that is specific for cAMP. Etazolate showed anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and could be useful in managing PTSD co-morbidities. The current study was done to evaluate the role of etazolate in preventing PTSD induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression-like symptoms. PTSD was induced in rats using single prolonged stress model. Etazolate was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 1mg/kg/day. The radial arm water maze was used to assess learning and memory. The elevated plus maze, open field, and tail suspension tests were conducted to test anxiety- and depression-like symptoms. The PTSD was associated with short- and long-term memory impairment, which was prevented by etazolate administration. Moreover, PTSD was associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Etazolate administration prevented these symptoms. In conclusion, our data suggests that memory impairment, anxiety, and depression symptoms that are induced by PTSD can be prevented using etazolate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-throughput olfactory conditioning and memory retention test show variation in Nasonia parasitic wasps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.; Werren, J.H.; Vet, L.E.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on learning and memory formation results from extensive studies on a small number of animal species. Although features and cellular pathways of learning and memory are highly similar in this diverse group of species, there are also subtle differences. Closely related species of

  1. High throughput olfactory conditioning and memory retention test reveal variation in Nasonia parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.; Werren, J.H.; Vet, L.E.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on learning and memory formation results from extensive studies on a small number of animal species. Although features and cellular pathways of learning and memory are highly similar in this diverse group of species, there are also subtle differences. Closely related species of

  2. Visual working memory and number sense : Testing the double deficit hypothesis in mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toll, Sylke; Kroesbergen, Evelyn; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence exists that there are two main underlying cognitive factors in mathematical difficulties: working memory and number sense. It is suggested that real math difficulties appear when both working memory and number sense are weak, here referred to as the double deficit (DD)

  3. On the Flexibility of Social Source Memory: A Test of the Emotional Incongruity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Kroneisen, Meike; Giang, Trang

    2012-01-01

    A popular hypothesis in evolutionary psychology posits that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps cooperative individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Consistent with this hypothesis, a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters (better memory for the cheating context in which these faces were encountered) was…

  4. Memory Complaint Questionnaire performed poorly as screening tool : validation against psychometric tests and affective measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, Meagan; Parkinson, Lynne; Gibson, Richard; Schofield, Peter; D'Este, Catherine; Attia, John; Tavener, Meredith; Byles, Julie

    Objective: This study examined the internal and external validity of the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q), a brief measure of subjective memory complaint in people with normal cognitive function. Study Design and Setting: The Study of Health Outcomes in Aircraft Maintenance Personnel was a

  5. False Memories Lack Perceptual Detail: Evidence from Implicit Word-Stem Completion and Perceptual Identification Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, J.L.; Starns, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We used implicit measures of memory to ascertain whether false memories for critical nonpresented items in the DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) contain structural and perceptual detail. In Experiment 1, we manipulated presentation modality in a visual word-stem-completion task. Critical item priming was significant and…

  6. Assessment of memory function: the relation between daily observation and neuropsychological test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, J.W.B.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Banningh, L.J.; Verkoelen, J.; Achterberg, T. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the value of a daily observation scale in the assessment of patients' memory function by nurses on a geriatric ward. METHODS: An observational study of 50 geriatric inpatients was carried out. The relationship between the memory items of the Nurses'

  7. Assessment of memory function: the relation between daily observation and neuropsychological test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Verkoelen, J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to explore the value of a daily observation scale in the assessment of patients' memory function by nurses on a geriatric ward. Methods: An observational study of 50 geriatric inpatients was carried out. The relationship between the memory items of the Nurses'

  8. Memory Functions in Chronic Pain Examining Contributions of Attention and Age to Test Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.M.; Derksen, L.C.; Wijck, A.J.M. van; Veldhuijzen, D.S.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain,

  9. Memory functions in chronic pain: examining contributions of attention and age to test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.M.; Derksen, L.C.; Wijck, A.J.M. van; Veldhuijzen, D.S.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain,

  10. Radiation Tests of Highly scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories--Update 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

    2011-01-01

    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) 32Gb and multi-level cell (MLC) 64Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  11. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

    2010-01-01

    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) and multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  12. Method Matters: Systematic Effects of Testing Procedure on Visual Working Memory Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Watson, Leah M.; Koutstaal, Wilma; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2010-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) is traditionally considered a robust form of visual representation that survives changes in object motion, observer's position, and other visual transients. This article presents data that are inconsistent with the traditional view. We show that memory sensitivity is dramatically influenced by small variations in the…

  13. Curcuma comosa improves learning and memory function on ovariectomized rats in a long-term Morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Wyss, J Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2010-07-06

    Curcuma comosa extract and some purified compounds from this plant have been reported to have estrogenic-like effects, and estrogen improves learning in some animals and potentially in postmenopausal women; therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that Curcuma comosa and estrogen have similar beneficial effects on spatial learning and memory. Curcuma comosa hexane extract, containing 0.165 mg of (4E,6E)-1,7-diphenylhepta-4,6-dien-3-one per mg of the crude extract, was orally administered to ovariectomized Wistar rats at the doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight. 17beta-estradiol (10 microg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) was used as a positive control. Thirty days after the initiation of treatment, animals were tested in a Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. They were re-tested every 30 days and a final probe trial was run on day 119. Compared to control rats, OVX rats displayed significant memory impairment for locating the platform in the water maze from day 67 after the surgery, onward. In contrast, OVX rats treated with either Curcuma comosa or estrogen were significantly protected from this decline in cognitive function. Further, the protection of cognitive effects by Curcuma comosa was larger at higher dose. These results suggest that long-term treatment with Curcuma comosa has beneficial effects on learning and memory function in rats. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Curcuma comosa improves learning and memory function on ovariectomized rats in a long-term Morris water maze test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Wyss, J. Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study Curcuma comosa extract and some purified compounds from this plant have been reported to have estrogenic-like effects, and estrogen improves learning in some animals and potentially in postmenopausal women; therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that Curcuma comosa and estrogen have similar beneficial effects on spatial learning and memory. Materials and methods Curcuma comosa hexane extract, containing 0.165 mg of (4E,6E)-1,7-diphenylhepta-4,6-dien-3-one per mg of the crude extract, was orally administered to ovariectomized Wistar rats at the doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight. 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) was used as a positive control. Thirty days after the initiation of treatment, animals were tested in a Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. They were re-tested every 30 days and a final probe trial was run on day 119. Results Compared to control rats, OVX rats displayed significant memory impairment for locating the platform in the water maze from day 67 after the surgery, onward. In contrast, OVX rats treated with either Curcuma comosa or estrogen were significantly protected from this decline in cognitive function. Further, the protection of cognitive effects by Curcuma comosa was larger at higher dose. Conclusions These results suggest that long-term treatment with Curcuma comosa has beneficial effects on learning and memory function in rats. PMID:20420894

  15. Relating children's attentional capabilities to intelligence, memory, and academic achievement: a test of construct specificity in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Robert D; Bender, Bruce G; Gordon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between attention, intelligence, memory, achievement, and behavior in a large population (N = 939) of children without neuropsychologic problems was investigated in children with mild and moderate asthma. It was hypothesized that different levels of children's attentional capabilities would be associated with different levels of intellectual, memory, and academic abilities. Children ages 6-12 at the eight clinical centers of the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) were enrolled in this study. Standardized measures of child neuropsychological and behavioral performance were administered to all participants, with analyses examining both the developmental trajectory of child attentional capabilities and the associations between Continuous Performance Test (CPT) scores and intellectual functioning, and measures of memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning. Findings demonstrated that correct responses on the CPT increase significantly with age, while commission errors decrease significantly with age. Performance levels on the CPT were associated with differences in child intellectual function, memory, and academic achievement. Overall these findings reveal how impairments in child attention skills were associated with normal levels of performance on measures of children's intelligence, memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning, suggesting that CPT performance is a salient marker of brain function.

  16. Personality characteristics and affective status related to cognitive test performance and gender in patients with memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestberg, Susanna; Passant, Ulla; Risberg, Jarl; Elfgren, Christina

    2007-11-01

    The aims are to study personality characteristics of patients with memory complaints and to assess the presence of objective (OMI) versus subjective (SMI) memory impairment, the affective status, as well as potential gender differences. The patients were assessed by means of a neuropsychiatric examination and a neuropsychological test-battery. The Swedish version of the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used. The 57 patients (38 women, 19 men, mean age 56.9) differed from the Swedish normative group in three of the five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. This was mainly because of the scores of the female patients. Approximately half of the patients had OMI. No differences regarding personality factors or affective status were found between OMI and SMI patients. The female patients scored significantly higher than the male patients on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Neuroticism and symptoms of depression interacted with memory performance and gender. Our findings demonstrate the importance of applying an objective assessment of memory functions and a gender perspective when studying patients with memory complaints.

  17. Cognitive evaluation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease based on Turing Test and Virtual Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Montenegro, Juan Manuel; Argyriou, Vasileios

    2017-05-01

    Alzheimer's screening tests are commonly used by doctors to diagnose the patient's condition and stage as early as possible. Most of these tests are based on pen-paper interaction and do not embrace the advantages provided by new technologies. This paper proposes novel Alzheimer's screening tests based on virtual environments and game principles using new immersive technologies combined with advanced Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems. These new tests are focused on the immersion of the patient in a virtual room, in order to mislead and deceive the patient's mind. In addition, we propose two novel variations of Turing Test proposed by Alan Turing as a method to detect dementia. As a result, four tests are introduced demonstrating the wide range of screening mechanisms that could be designed using virtual environments and game concepts. The proposed tests are focused on the evaluation of memory loss related to common objects, recent conversations and events; the diagnosis of problems in expressing and understanding language; the ability to recognize abnormalities; and to differentiate between virtual worlds and reality, or humans and machines. The proposed screening tests were evaluated and tested using both patients and healthy adults in a comparative study with state-of-the-art Alzheimer's screening tests. The results show the capacity of the new tests to distinguish healthy people from Alzheimer's patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [The Visual Association Test to study episodic memory in clinical geriatric psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, Han; Prins, Marleen; Lauret, Gijs

    2018-04-01

    The Visual Association Test (VAT) is a brief learning task that consists of six line drawings of pairs of interacting objects (association cards). Subjects are asked to name or identify each object and later are presented with one object from the pair (the cue) and asked to name the other (the target). The VAT was administered in a consecutive sample of 174 psychogeriatric day care participants with mild to major neurocognitive disorder. Comparison of test performance with normative data from non-demented subjects revealed that 69% scored within the range of a major deficit (0-8 over two recall trials), 14% a minor, and 17% no deficit (9-10, and ≥10 respectively).VAT-scores correlated with another test of memory function, the Cognitive Screening Test (CST), based on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (r = 0.53). Tests of executive functioning (Expanded Mental Control Test, Category Fluency, Clock Drawing) did not add significantly to the explanation of variance in VAT-scores.Fifty-five participants (31.6%) were faced with initial problems in naming or identifying one or more objects on the cue cards or association cards. If necessary, naming was aided by the investigator. Initial difficulties in identifying cue objects were associated with lower VAT-scores, but this did not hold for difficulties in identifying target objects.A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether linear or quadratic trends best fitted VAT performance across the range of CST scores. The regression model revealed a linear but not a quadratic trend. The best fitting linear model implied that VAT scores differentiated between CST scores in the lower, as well as in the upper range, indicating the absence of floor and ceiling effects, respectively. Moreover, the VAT compares favourably to word list-learning tasks being more attractive in its presentation of interacting visual objects and cued recall based on incidental learning of the association

  19. Performance evaluation of aluminium test piece against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image processing with Catphan 700 uses the automated Quality Assurance software restricted to only Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine images. For this reason, an aluminium (Al) test piece device was fabricated for image processing in different image format for spatial resolution measurement.

  20. Testing and evaluation of eight decontamination chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report covers experimental work comparing eight different decontamination chemicals. Seven of these chemicals have some novelty, or are not currently in use at the ICPP. The eighth is a common ICPP decontamination reagent used as a baseline for effective comparison. Decontamination factors, waste generation values, and corrosion rates are tabulated for these chemicals. Recommendations are given for effective methods of non-sodium or low-sodium decontamination chemicals. The two most effective chemical for decontamination found in these test were a dilute hydrofluoric and nitric acid (HF/HNO{sub 3}) mixture and a fluoroboric acid solution. The fluoroboric acid solution (1 molar) was by far the most effective decontamination reagent, but suffered the problem of generating significant final calcine volume. The HF/HNO{sub 3} solution performed a very good decontamination of the SIMCON coupons while generating only small amounts of calcine volume. Concentration variables were also tested, and optimized for these two solutions. Several oxidation/reduction decon chemical systems were also tested. These systems were similar to the TURCO 4502 and TURCO 4521 solutions used for general decontamination at the ICPP. A low sodium alternative, nitric acid/potassium permanganate, to the ``high sodium`` TURCO 4502 was tested extensively, optimized and recommended for general ICPP use. A reductive chemical solution, oxalic acid/nitric acid was also shown to have significant advantages.

  1. Diagnosing prosopagnosia in East Asian individuals: Norms for the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Wan, Lulu; Robbins, Rachel; Crookes, Kate; Liu, Jia

    2017-07-01

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) is widely accepted as providing a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing prosopagnosia (inability to recognize people's faces). Previously, large-sample norms have been available only for Caucasian-face versions, suitable for diagnosis in Caucasian observers. These are invalid for observers of different races due to potentially severe other-race effects. Here, we provide large-sample norms (N = 306) for East Asian observers on an Asian-face version (CFMT-Chinese). We also demonstrate methodological suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for prosopagnosia diagnosis (high internal reliability, approximately normal distribution, norm-score range sufficiently far above chance). Additional findings were a female advantage on mean performance, plus a difference between participants living in the East (China) or the West (international students, second-generation children of immigrants), which we suggest might reflect personality differences associated with willingness to emigrate. Finally, we demonstrate suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for individual differences studies that use correlations within the normal range.

  2. Development and Testing of a Shape Memory Alloy-Driven Composite Morphing Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgren, P.; Bertagne, C.; Wescott, M.; Benafan, O.; Erickson, L.; Whitcomb, J.; Hartl, D.

    2018-01-01

    Future crewed deep space missions will require thermal control systems that can accommodate larger fluctuations in temperature and heat rejection loads than current designs. To maintain the crew cabin at habitable temperatures throughout the entire mission profile, radiators will be required to exhibit turndown ratios (defined as the ratio between the maximum and minimum heat rejection rates) as high as 12:1. Potential solutions to increase radiator turndown ratios include designs that vary the heat rejection rate by changing shape, hence changing the rate of radiation to space. Shape memory alloys exhibit thermally driven phase transformations and thus can be used for both the control and actuation of such a morphing radiator with a single active structural component that transduces thermal energy into motion. This work focuses on designing a high-performance composite radiator panel and investigating the behavior of various SMA actuators in this application. Three designs were fabricated and subsequently tested in a relevant thermal vacuum environment; all three exhibited repeatable morphing behavior, and it is shown through validated computational analysis that the morphing radiator concept can achieve a turndown ratio of 27:1 with a number of simple configuration changes.

  3. Motor coordination, working memory, and academic achievement in a normative adolescent sample: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement is mediated by working memory (WM) in a normative adolescent sample. Participants included 93 adolescents aged 12-16. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 provided three indicators of motor coordination (Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, and Balance), the WM Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV and the N-back paradigm provided two indicators of WM, and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II provided three indicators of academic achievement (Word Reading, Spelling, and Numerical Operations). Structural equation modeling, controlling for verbal comprehension, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and socioeconomic status, suggested that the association between motor coordination and academic achievement may be best understood in terms of a mechanism whereby motor coordination (specifically, Aiming and Catching skills) has an indirect impact on academic outcomes via WM. These findings have important implications for the assessment and treatment of motor coordination and learning difficulties as well as in increasing the understanding of the possible neural mechanisms underpinning the relationship between these areas.

  4. Compact tension testing of martensitic/pseudoplastic NiTi shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollerthan, S. [Institut fuer Werkstoffe, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: susanne.gollerthan@rub.de; Herberg, D. [Institut fuer Werkstoffe, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Baruj, A. [TEMADI, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 S.C. Bariloche (Argentina); Eggeler, G. [Institut fuer Werkstoffe, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2008-05-25

    NiTi shape memory alloys show unique properties such as pseudoelasticity and the one-way effect, both based on a martensitic phase transformation between a high temperature phase (B2) and a low temperature phase (B19'). When a martensitic, pseudoplastic alloy is subjected to a stress, favourably oriented martensite variants grow. In the present work we study how pseudoplasticity affects the mechanical behaviour of fracture mechanics compact tension (CT) specimens. For this purpose we have scaled down CT specimens of type ASTM Standard E399. We use a smaller specimen for two reasons. (1) NiTi is more expensive than, e.g. structural steel and there is a need to economise specimen material. (2) And more importantly, we need specimen thicknesses which are transparent to high-energy synchrotron radiation because we aim at characterizing microstructural and crystallographic changes in front of cracks. The present work reports mechanical results from fracture mechanics testing of a martensitic, pseudoplastic microstructure. We use approaches from linear elastic fracture mechanics to determine critical stress intensity factors and to obtain estimates on the dimensions of pseudoplastic zones in front of crack tips in martensitic NiTi.

  5. Optimization and testing of a continuous rotary motor based on shape memory wires and overrunning clutches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirè Mammano, Giovanni; Dragoni, Eugenio

    2015-04-01

    A relatively unexplored but extremely attractive field for the application of the shape memory technology is the area of rotary actuators, especially for generating continuous rotations. This paper deals with a novel design of a rotary motor based on SMA wires and overrunning clutches which features high output torque and boundless angular stroke in a compact package. The concept uses a long SMA wire wound round a low-friction cylindrical drum upon which the wire can contract and extend with minimum effort and limited space demand. Fitted to the output shaft by means of an overrunning clutch the output shaft rotates unidirectionally despite the sequence of contractions-elongation cycles of the wire. Following a design procedure developed in a former paper, a six-stage miniature prototype is built and tested showing excellent performance in terms of torque, speed and power density. Characteristic performances of the motor are as follows: size envelope = 48×22×30 mm3; maximum torque = 20 Nmm; specific torque = 6.31×10-4 Nmm/mm3; rotation per module = 15 deg; continuous speed (unloaded) = 4 rpm.

  6. Design and testing of the first 2D Prototype Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.; Deptuch, G.; Hoff, J.; Jindariani, S.; Joshi, S.; Olsen, J.; Tran, N.; Trimpl, M.

    2015-02-01

    An associative memory-based track finding approach has been proposed for a Level 1 tracking trigger to cope with increasing luminosities at the LHC. The associative memory uses a massively parallel architecture to tackle the intrinsically complex combinatorics of track finding algorithms, thus avoiding the typical power law dependence of execution time on occupancy and solving the pattern recognition in times roughly proportional to the number of hits. This is of crucial importance given the large occupancies typical of hadronic collisions. The design of an associative memory system capable of dealing with the complexity of HL-LHC collisions and with the short latency required by Level 1 triggering poses significant, as yet unsolved, technical challenges. For this reason, an aggressive R&D program has been launched at Fermilab to advance state of-the-art associative memory technology, the so called VIPRAM (Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory) project. The VIPRAM leverages emerging 3D vertical integration technology to build faster and denser Associative Memory devices. The first step is to implement in conventional VLSI the associative memory building blocks that can be used in 3D stacking, in other words, the building blocks are laid out as if it is a 3D design. In this paper, we report on the first successful implementation of a 2D VIPRAM demonstrator chip (protoVIPRAM00). The results show that these building blocks are ready for 3D stacking.

  7. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ojeda

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Test Your Memory" (TYM test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104, musculoskeletal pain (99 and fibromyalgia (51. The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs, Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, p<0.001; HAD-anxiety (-0.50, p<0.001 and HAD-depression scales (-0.52, p<0.001; MOS-sleep Index-9 (-0.49, p<0.001; and the physical (0.49, p < .001 and mental components (0.55, p < .001 of SF-12. The exploratory structure of the TYM showed an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.66. The TYM is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations.

  8. Are eyewitness accounts biased? Evaluating false memories for crimes involving in-group or out-group conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis C; Krendl, Anne C

    2018-02-01

    Eyewitness testimony has been shown to be unreliable and susceptible to false memories. Whether eyewitness memory errors are influenced by the victim's group membership (relative to both the eyewitness and perpetrator) is underexplored. The current study used complementary behavioral and neuroimaging approaches to test the hypothesis that intragroup conflict heightens participants' susceptibility to subsequent false memories. Healthy young adults witnessed and later answered questions about events in which the perpetrator and victim were either 1) identified as in-group members relative to each other and the eyewitness, 2) out-group members relative to the eyewitness, but not each other, or 3) out-group members relative to each other (Experiments 1a and 1b). When perpetrators and victims were in-group members (intragroup conflict), participants showed heightened false memory rates. Moreover, false memories increased upon crime realization. Neuroimaging data analysis revealed that salient (as compared to ambiguous) intragroup conflict elicited heightened activation in neural regions associated with resolving cognitive conflict (anterior cingulate cortex; ACC). Increased functional connectivity between the ACC and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex was associated with subsequent false memories (Experiment 2). Results suggest that the social salience of the intragroup conflict may have been associated with participants' increased susceptibility to false memories.

  9. 40 CFR 63.2354 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? 63.2354 Section 63.2354 Protection of Environment... tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? (a)(1) For each performance test... procedures specified in subpart SS of this part. (3) For each performance evaluation of a continuous emission...

  10. Heart Rate Measures of Flight Test and Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Malcolm A; Wilson, Glenn F

    2001-01-01

    .... Because flying is a complex task, several measures are required to derive the best evaluation. This article describes the use of heart rate to augment the typical performance and subjective measures used in test and evaluation...

  11. The effect of chronic corticosterone on fear learning and memory depends on dose and the testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, W N; Fenton, E Y; Guskjolen, A J; Kalynchuk, L E

    2015-03-19

    Chronic exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) is known to alter plasticity within hippocampal and amygdalar circuits that mediate fear learning and memory. The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of chronic CORT on Pavlovian fear conditioning, which is dependent on intact hippocampal and amygdalar activity. In particular, we assessed whether the effect of chronic CORT on fear learning and memory is influenced by two factors-the dose of CORT and the order in which rats are tested for freezing to context versus tone cues. Male Long-Evans rats received low-dose CORT (5mg/kg), high-dose CORT (40mg/kg), or vehicle injections once daily for 21days. On day 22, the rats were trained in a fear-conditioning paradigm. On days 23 and 24, the rats were tested for the retrieval of fear memories to context and tone cues in a counterbalanced way-half the rats received context testing on day 23 and then tone testing on day 24 and half the rats received tone testing on day 23 followed by context testing on day 24. Our results revealed dose-dependent effects of CORT on memory retrieval: Rats injected with high-dose CORT froze significantly more than control rats to both context and tone cues regardless of what testing day these cues were presented. However, rats injected with low-dose CORT froze significantly more than control rats to tone cues only. We also found an order effect in that the effects of CORT on freezing were greater on the second day of testing, regardless of whether that testing was to context or tones cues. This order effect may be due to a lack of extinction in the CORT rats. Overall, these results suggest a relationship between stress intensity and testing conditions that should be taken into account when assessing the effect of stress on fear memories. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Allocentric Spatial Memory Testing Predicts Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia: An Initial Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ruth A; Moodley, Kuven K; Lever, Colin; Minati, Ludovico; Chan, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is one of the first regions to exhibit neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and knowledge of its role in allocentric spatial memory may therefore aid early diagnosis of AD. The 4 Mountains Test (4MT) is a short and easily administered test of spatial memory based on the cognitive map theory of hippocampal function as derived from rodent single cell and behavioral studies. The 4MT has been shown in previous cross-sectional studies to be sensitive and specific for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD. This report describes the initial results of a longitudinal study testing the hypothesis that allocentric spatial memory is predictive of conversion from MCI to dementia. Fifteen patients with MCI underwent baseline testing on the 4MT in addition to CSF amyloid/tau biomarker studies, volumetric MRI and neuropsychological assessment including the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Trail Making Test "B" (TMT-B). At 24 months, 9/15 patients had converted to AD dementia. The 4MT predicted conversion to AD with 93% accuracy (Cohen's d  = 2.52). The predictive accuracies of the comparator measures were as follows: CSF tau/β-amyloid 1-42 ratio 92% ( d  = 1.81), RAVLT 64% ( d  = 0.41), TMT-B 78% ( d  = 1.56), and hippocampal volume 77% ( d  = 0.65). CSF tau levels were strongly negatively correlated with 4MT scores ( r  = -0.71). This proof-of-concept study provides initial support for the hypothesis that allocentric spatial memory testing is a predictive cognitive marker of hippocampal neurodegeneration in pre-dementia AD. The 4MT is a brief, non-invasive, straightforward spatial memory test and is therefore ideally suited for use in routine clinical diagnostic practice. This is of particular importance given the current unmet need for simple accurate diagnostic tests for early AD and the ongoing development of potential disease-modifying therapeutic agents, which may be more efficacious when given earlier in

  13. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  14. Management and Use of Director, Operational Test and Evaluation Funds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The reorganization disestablished the functions of the Director, Test, Systems Engineering, and Evaluation, within the Office of Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics...

  15. A SEMantic and EPisodic Memory Test (SEMEP Developed within the Embodied Cognition Framework: Application to Normal Aging, Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume T. Vallet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment has highlighted the importance of sensory-motor components in cognition. Perception and memory are thus very tightly bound together, and episodic and semantic memories should rely on the same grounded memory traces. Reduced perception should then directly reduce the ability to encode and retrieve an episodic memory, as in normal aging. Multimodal integration deficits, as in Alzheimer's disease, should lead to more severe episodic memory impairment. The present study introduces a new memory test developed to take into account these assumptions. The SEMEP (SEMantic-Episodic memory test proposes to assess conjointly semantic and episodic knowledge across multiple tasks: semantic matching, naming, free recall, and recognition. The performance of young adults is compared to healthy elderly adults (HE, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, and patients with semantic dementia (SD. The results show specific patterns of performance between the groups. HE commit memory errors only for presented but not to be remembered items. AD patients present the worst episodic memory performance associated with intrusion errors (recall or recognition of items never presented. They were the only group to not benefit from a visual isolation (addition of a yellow background, a method known to increase the distinctiveness of the memory traces. Finally, SD patients suffer from the most severe semantic impairment. To conclude, confusion errors are common across all the elderly groups, whereas AD was the only group to exhibit regular intrusion errors and SD patients to show severe semantic impairment.

  16. A SEMantic and EPisodic Memory Test (SEMEP) Developed within the Embodied Cognition Framework: Application to Normal Aging, Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Guillaume T; Hudon, Carol; Bier, Nathalie; Macoir, Joël; Versace, Rémy; Simard, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Embodiment has highlighted the importance of sensory-motor components in cognition. Perception and memory are thus very tightly bound together, and episodic and semantic memories should rely on the same grounded memory traces. Reduced perception should then directly reduce the ability to encode and retrieve an episodic memory, as in normal aging. Multimodal integration deficits, as in Alzheimer's disease, should lead to more severe episodic memory impairment. The present study introduces a new memory test developed to take into account these assumptions. The SEMEP (SEMantic-Episodic) memory test proposes to assess conjointly semantic and episodic knowledge across multiple tasks: semantic matching, naming, free recall, and recognition. The performance of young adults is compared to healthy elderly adults (HE), patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and patients with semantic dementia (SD). The results show specific patterns of performance between the groups. HE commit memory errors only for presented but not to be remembered items. AD patients present the worst episodic memory performance associated with intrusion errors (recall or recognition of items never presented). They were the only group to not benefit from a visual isolation (addition of a yellow background), a method known to increase the distinctiveness of the memory traces. Finally, SD patients suffer from the most severe semantic impairment. To conclude, confusion errors are common across all the elderly groups, whereas AD was the only group to exhibit regular intrusion errors and SD patients to show severe semantic impairment.

  17. Influence of Test Procedures on the Thermomechanical Properties of a 55NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo A., II; Gaydosh, Darrell J.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Bigelow, Glen S.; Garg, Anita; Lagoudas, Dimitris; Karaman, Ibrahim; Atli, Kadri C.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few decades, binary NiTi shape memory alloys have received attention due to their unique mechanical characteristics, leading to their potential use in low-temperature, solid-state actuator applications. However, prior to using these materials for such applications, the physical response of these systems to mechanical and thermal stimuli must be thoroughly understood and modeled to aid designers in developing SMA-enabled systems. Even though shape memory alloys have been around for almost five decades, very little effort has been made to standardize testing procedures. Although some standards for measuring the transformation temperatures of SMA s are available, no real standards exist for determining the various mechanical and thermomechanical properties that govern the usefulness of these unique materials. Consequently, this study involved testing a 55NiTi alloy using a variety of different test methodologies. All samples tested were taken from the same heat and batch to remove the influence of sample pedigree on the observed results. When the material was tested under constant-stress, thermal-cycle conditions, variations in the characteristic material responses were observed, depending on test methodology. The transformation strain and irreversible strain were impacted more than the transformation temperatures, which only showed an affect with regard to applied external stress. In some cases, test methodology altered the transformation strain by 0.005-0.01mm/mm, which translates into a difference in work output capability of approximately 2 J/cu cm (290 in!lbf/cu in). These results indicate the need for the development of testing standards so that meaningful data can be generated and successfully incorporated into viable models and hardware. The use of consistent testing procedures is also important when comparing results from one research organization to another. To this end, differences in the observed responses will be presented, contrasted and

  18. Testing the neurobiological model of emotion-enhanced memory with emotion elicited by music

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Sherilene Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research has revealed that central and peripheral physiological mechanisms that act to assess and respond to negative and arousing emotional events also act to consolidate memory for the event. An area of research yet to be fully investigated is the effect of positive and arousing emotion on long-term memory. The paucity of research may be due to the difficulty in experimentally manipulating positive and arousing emotions in the research laboratory. A source of emotional arousal ...

  19. Evaluation and memory of social events in borderline personality disorder: Effects of valence and self-referential context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Koplin, Katrin; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2016-06-30

    People's memory of past social encounters influences current social interactions. Social rejection has been shown to increase people's memory for social events particularly when referring to others rather than themselves. Social rejection and neglect often characterize biographies of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a social memory task, we investigated whether the evaluation and memory of social events is altered in BPD and whether this depends on reference to the self or others. 30 patients with BPD and 30 healthy controls evaluated the valence of positive, neutral, and negative standardized events, which were either social or nonsocial. Subsequently, participants had to recall these events. BPD patients evaluated social events of negative and neutral valence as more negative than healthy controls. Further, only BPD patients tended to preferentially recall self-referential social events. These findings suggest altered self-referential processing of social events that affects both the evaluation and the memory for social events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F. C.; Spaan, Pauline E. J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Walstra, Gerard J. M.; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.; van Gool, Willem A.; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; Korkhov, Vladimir V.; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in

  1. An autonomous vehicle: Constrained test and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Norman C.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an autonomous vehicle which utilizes stereo camera sensors (using ambient light) to follow complex paths at speeds up to 35 mph with consideration of moving vehicles within the path. The task is intended to demonstrate the contribution to safety of a vehicle under automatic control. All of the long-term scenarios investigating future reduction in congestion involve an automatic system taking control, or partial control, of the vehicle. A vehicle which includes a collision avoidance system is a prerequisite to an automatic control system. The report outlines the results of a constrained test of a vision controlled vehicle. In order to demonstrate its ability to perform on the current street system the vehicle was constrained to recognize, approach, and stop at an ordinary roadside stop sign.

  2. The Coping with Attention and Memory Complaints Questionnaire (CAMQ): psychometric evaluation of an instrument in suspected chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy (CSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Ieke; de Boer, Angela G E M; Wekking, Elizabeth M; van Vliet, Judith; Van Hout, Moniek S E; Schmand, Ben; van der Laan, Gert; Schene, Aart H; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2012-01-01

    Long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents may induce chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy (CSE), leading to neuropsychological impairments. We developed the Coping with Attention and Memory Complaints Questionnaire (CAMQ), an instrument for the assessment of coping strategies in patients suspected of CSE with neuropsychological complaints. Items for the CAMQ were based on existing coping dimensions and constructed by experts. The psychometric properties of the CAMQ were evaluated in a sample of 307 workers suspected of CSE. Factor analysis revealed four coping subscales: active coping, avoidance, acceptance, and seeking social support, all with good internal consistency (alphas .71-.78) and good test-retest reliability (ICCs .67-.82). The subscales demonstrated moderate correlations with related external constructs such as anxiety and depression, locus of control, meta-memory, mastery and generic coping styles. In conclusion, this study: (1) shows that the newly developed CAMQ is a reliable instrument, and (2) provides evidence for its validity in assessing coping with complaints of memory and attention in CSE-suspected patients. These results may serve for further study on coping with complaints of memory and attention, psychological adjustment and well-being in CSE patients.

  3. Evaluation of Auto-Test Generation Strategies and Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlich, R.; Gerlich, R.; Boll, T.; Mayer, J.

    2007-08-01

    As the test effort takes a significant part of the software development lifecycle, efficient test strategies are a precondition for reduction of development costs and time. In this respect two main issues exist: firstly, the tuning of the test track from test case identification to evaluation, secondly, the reduction of number of test cases to be processed and evaluated. Both aspects were considered in the work presented in this paper. For reduction of the effort related to the test track two test automation tools have been applied: DCRTT for C and SmartG for Java. While DCRTT is ready for industrial use at high degree of automation of all test steps, SmartG is a prototype exploiting the identifcation of path sets by random testing. DCRTT only requires provision of the source files and then delivers test drivers, a filtered and reduced set of test cases, related test results and detailed information on data ranges and observed exceptions. The manual effort is reduced to test evaluation. DCRTT identifies a significantly reduced set of test cases left for manual evaluation. The selection criteria are based on block coverage, decision coverage and occurrence of exceptions when generating inputs from the valid and invalid data range. One or more test cases may be collected for each basket of such a criterion and element of a function's structure. It is of high importance how well such automated strategies do work. Therefore a number of investigations have been performed, evaluating the achieved coverage and number of reported exceptions. Three test modes have been considered: random and lattice-based test generation for module testing and operational testing imposing the complete main program to representative operational conditions.

  4. Event-related potentials associated with masked priming of test cues reveal multiple potential contributions to recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M; Taylor, Jason R; Karayanidis, Frini; Henson, Richard N

    2008-06-01

    The relationship between recognition memory and repetition priming remains unclear. Priming is believed to reflect increased processing fluency for previously studied items relative to new items. Manipulations that affect fluency can also affect the likelihood that participants will judge items as studied in recognition tasks. This attribution of fluency to memory has been related to the familiarity process, as distinct from the recollection process, that is assumed by dual-process models of recognition memory. To investigate the time courses and neural sources of fluency, familiarity, and recollection, we conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study of recognition memory using masked priming of test cues and a remember/know paradigm. During the recognition test, studied and unstudied words were preceded by a brief, masked word that was either the same or different. Participants decided quickly whether each item had been studied ("old" or "new"), and for items called old, indicated whether they "remembered" (R) the encoding event, or simply "knew" (K) the item had been studied. Masked priming increased the proportion of K, but not R, judgments. Priming also decreased response times for hits but not correct rejections (CRs). Four distinct ERP effects were found. A medial-frontal FN400 (300-500 msec) was associated with familiarity (R, K Hits > CRs) and a centro-parietal late positivity (500-800 msec) with recollection (R Hits > K Hits, CRs). A long-term repetition effect was found for studied items judged "new" (Misses > CRs) in the same time window as the FN400, but with a posterior distribution. Finally, a centrally distributed masked priming effect was visible between 150 and 250 msec and continued into the 300-500 msec time window, where it was topographically dissociable from the FN400. These results suggest that multiple neural signals are associated with repetition and potentially contribute to recognition memory.

  5. Test Your Memory is sensitive to cognitive change but lacks prospective validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Arias, J; Turrión-Rojo, M Á

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prospective validity of Test Your Memory (TYM) and its sensitivity to change in cognitive state. This longitudinal prospective study followed 71 patients with subjective cognitive symptoms and 48 with mild cognitive impairment for a mean time period of 35.2 ± 15 months. Subjects did not have dementia or depression at the beginning of follow-up and each participant was given the TYM at least two times. A psychometric threshold was established to determine presence of a cognitive deficit (z-score ≤ 1.5 on at least one cognitive domain) and the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale was used to ensure full functional ability. The criterion for deterioration was a change in the stage on the Global Deterioration Scale. Sixty-one patients remained cognitively stable and 58 worsened. There were no differences between them with respect to sex, educational attainment, the initial stage on the GDS, or the score on the first TYM. Subjects who worsened were older than those who did not. The TYM increased an average of 0.04 points per month in patients who remained stable or improved (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.08) and decreased an average of 0.14 points per month in those whose condition worsened (95% CI, -0.19 to -0.09). Subjects with mild cognitive impairment who worsened displayed a sharper loss of TYM points than did subjects with subjective cognitive symptoms. While the TYM lacks prospective validity, it is sensitive to changes in cognitive state. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The beneficial effects of olibanum on memory deficit induced by hypothyroidism in adult rats tested in Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hadjzadeh, Mosa Al-Reza; Derakhshan, Mohammad; Havakhah, Shahrzad; Rassouli, Fatemeh Behnam; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Saffarzadeh, Fatema

    2010-03-01

    Functional consequences of hypothyroidism include impaired learning and memory and inability to produce long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus. Olibanum has been used for variety of therapeutic purposes. In traditional medicine, oilbanum is used to enhance learning and memory. In the present study the effect of olibanum on memory deficit in hypothyroid rats was investigated. Male wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated for 180 days. Group 1 received tap drinking water while in group 2, 0.03% methimazol was added to drinking water. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 0.03% methimazole as well as 100 and 500 mg/kg olibanum respectively. The animals were tested in Morris water maze. The swimming speed was significantly lower and the distance and time latency were higher in group 2 compared with group 1. In groups 3 and 4 the swimming speed was significantly higher while, the length of the swim path and time latency were significantly lower in comparison with group 2. It is concluded that methimazole-induced hypothyroidism impairs learning and memory in adult rats which could be prevented by using olibanum.

  7. The power of timing: Adding a time-to-completion cutoff to the Word Choice Test and Recognition Memory Test improves classification accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Tyson, Bradley T; Shahein, Ayman G; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D; Abeare, Christopher A; Pelletier, Chantalle L; Zuccato, Brandon G; Kucharski, Brittany; Roth, Robert M

    2017-05-01

    The Recognition Memory Test (RMT) and Word Choice Test (WCT) are structurally similar, but psychometrically different. Previous research demonstrated that adding a time-to-completion cutoff improved the classification accuracy of the RMT. However, the contribution of WCT time-cutoffs to improve the detection of invalid responding has not been investigated. The present study was designed to evaluate the classification accuracy of time-to-completion on the WCT compared to the accuracy score and the RMT. Both tests were administered to 202 adults (M age  = 45.3 years, SD = 16.8; 54.5% female) clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment in counterbalanced order as part of a larger battery of cognitive tests. Participants obtained lower and more variable scores on the RMT (M = 44.1, SD = 7.6) than on the WCT (M = 46.9, SD = 5.7). Similarly, they took longer to complete the recognition trial on the RMT (M = 157.2 s,SD = 71.8) than the WCT (M = 137.2 s, SD = 75.7). The optimal cutoff on the RMT (≤43) produced .60 sensitivity at .87 specificity. The optimal cutoff on the WCT (≤47) produced .57 sensitivity at .87 specificity. Time-cutoffs produced comparable classification accuracies for both RMT (≥192 s; .48 sensitivity at .88 specificity) and WCT (≥171 s; .49 sensitivity at .91 specificity). They also identified an additional 6-10% of the invalid profiles missed by accuracy score cutoffs, while maintaining good specificity (.93-.95). Functional equivalence was reached at accuracy scores ≤43 (RMT) and ≤47 (WCT) or time-to-completion ≥192 s (RMT) and ≥171 s (WCT). Time-to-completion cutoffs are valuable additions to both tests. They can function as independent validity indicators or enhance the sensitivity of accuracy scores without requiring additional measures or extending standard administration time.

  8. Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and ne...

  9. Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Benney

    2009-11-30

    The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be

  10. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C.; Todosow, M.

    1992-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized

  11. Performance evaluation of the SGI Origin2000: A memory-centric characterization of LANL ASCI applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, H.; Lubeck, O.M.; Luo, Y.; Bassetti, F.

    1997-11-01

    In this paper the authors compare single processor performance of the SGI Origin and PowerChallenge and utilize a previously reported performance model for hierarchical memory systems to explain the results. Both the Origin and PowerChallenge use the same microprocessor (MIPS R10000) but have significant differences in their memory subsystems. Their memory model includes the effect of overlap between CPU and memory operations and allows them to infer the individual contributions of all three improvements in the Origin`s memory architecture and relate the effectiveness of each improvement to application characteristics.

  12. The MUSOS (MUsic SOftware System) Toolkit: A computer-based, open source application for testing memory for melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, M; Palmer, M A; Paine, G

    2018-04-01

    Despite numerous innovative studies, rates of replication in the field of music psychology are extremely low (Frieler et al., 2013). Two key methodological challenges affecting researchers wishing to administer and reproduce studies in music cognition are the difficulty of measuring musical responses, particularly when conducting free-recall studies, and access to a reliable set of novel stimuli unrestricted by copyright or licensing issues. In this article, we propose a solution for these challenges in computer-based administration. We present a computer-based application for testing memory for melodies. Created using the software Max/MSP (Cycling '74, 2014a), the MUSOS (Music Software System) Toolkit uses a simple modular framework configurable for testing common paradigms such as recall, old-new recognition, and stem completion. The program is accompanied by a stimulus set of 156 novel, copyright-free melodies, in audio and Max/MSP file formats. Two pilot tests were conducted to establish the properties of the accompanying stimulus set that are relevant to music cognition and general memory research. By using this software, a researcher without specialist musical training may administer and accurately measure responses from common paradigms used in the study of memory for music.

  13. The role of sedation tests in identifying sedative drug effects in healthy volunteers and their power to dissociate sedative-related impairments from memory dysfunctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, E.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Verkes, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated whether four specified drugs would show similar patterns on tests considered to measure sedation. In addition, their drug-effect patterns on sedation and memory performance were compared to determine whether the sedative effects could be differentiated from the memory effects.

  14. The role of sedation tests in identifying sedative drug effects in healthy volunteers and their power to dissociate sedative-related impairments from memory dysfunctions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, E.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Verkes, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated whether four specified drugs would show similar patterns on tests considered to measure sedation. In addition, their drug-effect patterns on sedation and memory performance were compared to determine whether the sedative effects could be differentiated from the memory

  15. Neurotoxic impact of mercury on the central nervous system evaluated by neuropsychological tests and on the autonomic nervous system evaluated by dynamic pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioni, Ana Luiza V; Nagy, Balázs V; Moura, Ana Laura A; Zachi, Elaine C; Barboni, Mirella T S; Ventura, Dora F

    2017-03-01

    Mercury vapor is highly toxic to the human body. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of neuropsychological dysfunction in former workers of fluorescent lamps factories that were exposed to mercury vapor (years after cessation of exposure), diagnosed with chronic mercurialism, and to investigate the effects of such exposure on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) using the non-invasive method of dynamic pupillometry. The exposed group and a control group matched by age and educational level were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory and with the computerized neuropsychological battery CANTABeclipse - subtests of working memory (Spatial Span), spatial memory (Spatial Recognition Memory), visual memory (Pattern Recognition Memory) and action planning (Stockings of Cambridge). The ANS was assessed by dynamic pupillometry, which provides information on the operation on both the sympathetic and parasympathetic functions. Depression scores were significantly higher among the former workers when compared with the control group. The exposed group also showed significantly worse performance in most of the cognitive functions assessed. In the dynamic pupillometry test, former workers showed significantly lower response than the control group in the sympathetic response parameter (time of 75% of pupillary recovery at 10cd/m 2 luminance). Our study found indications that are suggestive of cognitive deficits and losses in sympathetic autonomic activity among patients occupationally exposed to mercury vapor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Luiz Carlos de Caires; Guimarães, Ernesto da Silveira Goulart; Musso, Camila Manso; Stabler, Collin Turner; Garcia, Raúl Marcel González; Mourão-Júnior, Carlos Alberto; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2014-09-01

    The development of communication systems has brought great social and economic benefits to society. As mobile phone use has become widespread, concerns have emerged regarding the potential adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) used by these devices. To verify potential effects of mobile phone radiation on the central nervous system (CNS) in an animal model. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were exposed to RF-EMR from a Global System for Mobile (GSM) cell phone (1·8 GHz) for 3 days. At the end of the exposure, the following behavioral tests were performed: open field and object recognition. Our results showed that exposed animals did not present anxiety patterns or working memory impairment, but stress behavior actions were observed. Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR does not promote CNS impairment, but suggest that it may lead to stressful behavioral patterns.

  17. Cross-lingual tagger evaluation without test data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Zeljko; Plank, Barbara; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We address the challenge of cross-lingual POS tagger evaluation in absence of manually annotated test data. We put forth and evaluate two dictionary-based metrics. On the tasks of accuracy prediction and system ranking, we reveal that these metrics are reliable enough to approximate test set......-based evaluation, and at the same time lean enough to support assessment for truly low-resource languages....

  18. Test plan for FY-91 alpha CAM evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.

    1991-03-01

    This report describes the test plan for evaluating the Merlin Gerin, Inc., Edgar alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) and associated analysis system to be conducted by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy. INEL has evaluated other commercial alpha CAM systems to detect transuranic contaminants during waste handling and retrieval operations. This test plan outlines experimental methods, sampling methods, sampling and analysis techniques, and equipment needed and safety and quality requirements to test the commercial CAM. 8 refs., 3 figs

  19. Applicability of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3 in Korsakoff's syndrome and chronic alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wester AJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arie J Wester,1 Judith C van Herten,2 Jos IM Egger,2–4 Roy PC Kessels1,2,5 1Korsakoff Clinic, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 3Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 4Behavioral Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 5Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Purpose: To examine the applicability of the newly developed Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3 as an ecologically-valid memory test in patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Patients and methods: An authorized Dutch translation of the RBMT-3 was developed, equivalent to the UK version, and administered to a total of 151 participants – 49 patients with amnesia due to alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome, 49 patients with cognitive impairment and a history of chronic alcoholism, not fulfilling the Korsakoff criteria, and 53 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons were made at subtest level, and the test's diagnostic accuracy was determined. Results: Korsakoff patients performed worse than controls on all RBMT-3 subtests (all P-values < 0.0005. The alcoholism group performed worse than controls on most (all P-values < 0.02, but not all RBMT-3 subtests. Largest effects were found between the Korsakoff patients and the controls after delayed testing. The RBMT-3 had good sensitivity and adequate specificity. Conclusion: The RBMT-3 is a valid test battery to demonstrate everyday memory deficits in Korsakoff patients and non-Korsakoff patients with alcohol abuse disorder. Korsakoff patients showed an impaired performance on subtests relying on orientation, contextual memory and delayed testing. Our findings provide valuable information for treatment

  20. The mere exposure effect is sensitive to color information: evidence for color effects in a perceptual implicit memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut; Melzer, André; Hardt, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Priming effects in perceptual tests of implicit memory are assumed to be perceptually specific. Surprisingly, changing object colors from study to test did not diminish priming in most previous studies. However, these studies used implicit tests that are based on object identification, which mainly depends on the analysis of the object shape and therefore operates color-independently. The present study shows that color effects can be found in perceptual implicit tests when the test task requires the processing of color information. In Experiment 1, reliable color priming was found in a mere exposure design (preference test). In Experiment 2, the preference test was contrasted with a conceptually driven color-choice test. Altering the shape of object from study to test resulted in significant priming in the color-choice test but eliminated priming in the preference test. Preference judgments thus largely depend on perceptual processes. In Experiment 3, the preference and the color-choice test were studied under explicit test instructions. Differences in reaction times between the implicit and the explicit test suggest that the implicit test results were not an artifact of explicit retrieval attempts. In contrast with previous assumptions, it is therefore concluded that color is part of the representation that mediates perceptual priming.

  1. Evaluation of and Feedback for Academic Medicine Leaders: Developing and Implementing the Memorial Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, James; Bornstein, Stephen; Vardy, Cathy; Speed, David; White, Tyrone; Corbett, Paula

    2017-11-01

    Giving and receiving honest and helpful feedback for leadership development is a common challenge in all types of organizations but particularly in academic medicine. At Memorial University of Newfoundland, in 2014, a consensus emerged to develop a new method for evaluating the leadership performance of the discipline chairs, dean, and vice dean, and to provide these leaders with the evaluation results to help them improve their performance. The leaders responsible for developing and implementing this method (called the Memorial Method) decided to use a survey to obtain faculty members' perceptions about their leader's performance. Beginning in October 2014, a portion of several regular meetings of the discipline chairs with the dean and vice dean was used to develop the survey, by first discussing the broad dimensions of leadership performance, then discussing these dimensions in more detail and drafting specific questions. The resulting survey included 44 quantitative questions addressing eight leadership dimensions. In March-April 2015, the survey was administered electronically to full-time faculty members on a confidential basis. The results were compiled and reported to each discipline chair and to the dean and vice dean. In total, 144/249 faculty responded to the survey (response rate: 58%). For the various dimensions, individual chairs' mean scores ranged from 2.82 to 4.70, and overall mean scores ranged from 3.57 to 4.24. Psychometric properties of the survey suggested it was both reliable and valid. The survey will be repeated, this time with part-time as well as full-time faculty included.

  2. Circadian Modulation of Consolidated Memory Retrieval Following Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glou, Eric Le; Seugnet, Laurent; Shaw, Paul J.; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several lines of evidence indicate that sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia resistant memory following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Design: Four to 16 h after aversive olfactory training, flies were sleep deprived for 4 h. Memory was assessed 24 h after training. Training, sleep deprivation, and memory tests were performed at different times during the day to evaluate the importance of the time of day for memory formation. The role of circadian rhythms was further evaluated using circadian clock mutants. Results Memory was disrupted when flies were exposed to 4 h of sleep deprivation during the consolidation phase. Interestingly, normal memory was observed following sleep deprivation when the memory test was performed during the 2 h preceding lights-off, a period characterized by maximum wake in flies. We also show that anesthesia resistant memory was less sensitive to sleep deprivation in flies with disrupted circadian rhythms. Conclusions Our results indicate that anesthesia resistant memory, a consolidated memory less costly than long-term memory, is sensitive to sleep deprivation. In addition, we provide evidence that circadian factors influence memory vulnerability to sleep deprivation and memory retrieval. Taken together, the data show that memories weakened by sleep deprivation can be retrieved if the animals are tested at the optimal circadian time. Citation: Le Glou E; Seugnet L; Shaw PJ; Preat T; Goguel V. Circadian modulation of consolidated memory retrieval following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. SLEEP 2012;35(10):1377-1384. PMID:23024436

  3. Development, evaluation and application of performance-based brake testing technologies field test : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    This report presents the results of the field test portion of the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Performance-Based Brake Testing Technologies sponsored by the Federal Highway Administrations (FHWA) Office of Motor Carriers.

  4. A Communicative Approach to Second Language Testing and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Cunliffe, Brenda

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the communicative approach to second language teaching and discusses testing students' communicative performance. It is of primary importance that testing should reflect the approach to teaching that has been adopted; hence, this paper includes a brief description of the communicative approach to second language instruction. This approach is then related to testing procedures used to evaluate students' communicative performance.

  5. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... The assessment of H2S field test for detection of potability of drinking water was evaluated by analysing. 1050 water samples from various sources at room temperature and at 37ºC after 18, 24, and 48 h of incubation. The H2S test showed 100, 84 and 89% correlation with Eijkman test, Membrane Filter.

  6. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Allen, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The space radiation environment poses a certain risk to all electronic components on Earth-orbiting and planetary mission spacecraft. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of high-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever-increasing data volumes and strict power requirements. They are used in a wide variety of spacecraft subsystems. At one end of the spectrum, flash memories are used to store small amounts of mission-critical data such as boot code or configuration files and, at the other end, they are used to construct multi-gigabyte data recorders that record mission science data. This report examines single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) response in single-level cell (SLC) 32-Gb, multi-level cell (MLC) 64-Gb, and Triple-level (TLC) 64-Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology with feature size of 25 nm.

  7. The Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic tests should receive method- and use-effectiveness evaluations. Method-effectiveness evaluations determine sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for new tests. Use-effectiveness evaluations determine how practical or convenient a new test will be in a specific setting and may not be performed in a formal way in North American laboratories. To perform a clinical method evaluation of diagnostic tests, a good relationship between laboratory and clinical personnel is essential. Studies are usually conducted separately on populations of men and women, and should include sampling from different prevalence groups. Test performance comparisons may be made on a single specimen type or on more than one specimen from the same patient, which allows for the expansion of a reference standard and includes the ability of a particular assay, performed on a specimen type to diagnose an infected individual. The following components of the evaluation should be standardized and carefully followed: specimen identification; collection; transportation; processing; quality control; reading; proficiency testing; confirmatory testing; discordant analysis -- sensitivity, specificity and predictive value calculations; and record keeping. Methods are available to determine whether sample results are true or false positives or negatives. Use-effectiveness evaluations might determine the stability or durability of supplies and equipment; the logistics of shipping, receiving and storing supplies; the clarity and completeness of test instructions; the time and effort required to process and read results; the subjectivity factors in interpretation and reporting; and the costs. These determinations are usually more apparent for commercial assays than for homemade tests.

  8. Using attribute amnesia to test the limits of hyper-binding and associative deficits in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick-Huhn, John M; Chen, Hui; Wyble, Bradley P; Dennis, Nancy A

    2018-02-01

    Previous work has shown mixed evidence regarding age-related deficits for binding in working memory. The current study used the newly developed attribute amnesia effect (H. Chen & Wyble, 2015a) to test the associative-deficit hypothesis during working memory and to probe whether hyper-binding extends to include binding of de-selected information. In studies of attribute amnesia, participants use target attributes (e.g., identity, color) to demonstrate near ceiling levels of reporting of a second target attribute (e.g., location) across a series of trials (H. Chen & Wyble, 2015a, 2016). Yet, despite having just processed the target-defining attribute, they have difficulty reporting it on a surprise trial. This effect provides several predictions for associative binding in aging. The associative-deficit hypothesis predicts age-related decline on the surprise trial, whereas an extension of hyper-binding predicts age-related increase in performance in older adults. In Experiment 1, when working memory load was low, older adults demonstrated attribute amnesia equal to that found in younger adults. When load increased in Experiment 2, older adults again demonstrated attribute amnesia as well as an age deficit for reporting target attributes. In lieu of spontaneous binding, results suggest that expectancy plays a critical role in older adults' propensity to encode and bind target attributes in working memory. Results further suggest that expectancy alone is not enough for older adults to form bound representations when task demands are high. Taken together results revealed a boundary condition of hyper-binding and further provided conditional support for the associative-deficit hypothesis in working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Memory enhancing activity of Spondias mombin Anarcadiaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Memory enhancing activities of both extracts were evaluated in scopolamine induced amnesic mice in Morris water maze test at various doses by determining the escape latency. The histopathology of the brain was also carried out to assess any change to the hippocampus that might have effects on memory. Results:The ...

  10. The proboscis extension reflex to evaluate learning and memory in honeybees ( Apis mellifera): some caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Elisabeth H.; Shutler, Dave; Hillier, Neil Kirk

    2012-09-01

    The proboscis extension reflex (PER) is widely used in a classical conditioning (Pavlovian) context to evaluate learning and memory of a variety of insect species. The literature is particularly prodigious for honeybees ( Apis mellifera) with more than a thousand publications. Imagination appears to be the only limit to the types of challenges to which researchers subject honeybees, including all the sensory modalities and a broad diversity of environmental treatments. Accordingly, some remarkable insights have been achieved using PER. However, there are several challenges to evaluating the PER literature that warrant a careful and thorough review. We assess here variation in methods that makes interpretation of studies, even those researching the same question, tenuous. We suggest that the numerous variables that might influence experimental outcomes from PER be thoroughly detailed by researchers. Moreover, the influence of individual variables on results needs to carefully evaluated, as well as among two or more variables. Our intent is to encourage investigation of the influence of numerous variables on PER results.

  11. Cyclic GMP-mediated memory enhancement in the object recognition test by inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-2 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, Lindsay M; Zhan, Chang-Guo; O'Donnell, James M

    2016-02-01

    Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase-2 (PDE2) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Using the object recognition test (ORT), this study assessed the effects of two PDE2 inhibitors, Bay 60-7550 and ND7001, on learning and memory, and examined underlying mechanisms. To assess the role of PDE2 inhibition on phases of memory, Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) was administered: 30 min prior to training; 0, 1, or 3 h after training; or 30 min prior to recall testing. To assess cyclic nucleotide involvement in PDE2 inhibitor-enhanced memory consolidation, either the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg; intraperitoneal (IP)), soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[-1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 20 mg/kg; IP), protein kinase G inhibitor KT5823 (2.5 μg; intracerebroventricular (ICV)), or protein kinase A inhibitor H89 (1 μg; ICV) was administered 30 min prior to the PDE2 inhibitor Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) or ND7001 (3 mg/kg). Changes in the phosphorylation of 3'5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) at Ser-133 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) at Ser-239 were determined to confirm activation of cAMP and 3'5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling. Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) enhanced memory of mice in the ORT when given 30 min prior to training, immediately after training, or 30 min prior to recall. Inhibitors of the cGMP pathway blocked the memory-enhancing effects of both Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) and ND7001 (3 mg/kg) on early consolidation processes. Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) enhanced phosphorylation of CREB and VASP, both targets of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). These results confirm a potential of PDE2, or components of its signaling pathway, as a therapeutic target for drug discovery focused on restoring memory function.

  12. The Dark Side of Testing Memory: Repeated Retrieval Can Enhance Eyewitness Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason C. K.; LaPaglia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Eyewitnesses typically recount their experiences many times before trial. Such repeated retrieval can enhance memory retention of the witnessed event. However, recent studies (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009) have found that initial retrieval can exacerbate eyewitness suggestibility to later misleading information--a finding termed…

  13. Discrete-State and Continuous Models of Recognition Memory: Testing Core Properties under Minimal Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellen, David; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2014-01-01

    A classic discussion in the recognition-memory literature concerns the question of whether recognition judgments are better described by continuous or discrete processes. These two hypotheses are instantiated by the signal detection theory model (SDT) and the 2-high-threshold model, respectively. Their comparison has almost invariably relied on…

  14. EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE UPON HUMAN LEARNING, MEMORY, AND PERFORMANCE TESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, RONALD G.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED DURING 1966 TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE (A COMBINATION OF 2-IMINO-5-PHENYL-4-OXAZOLIDINONE AND MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE) ON A VARIETY OF HUMAN LEARNING, MEMORY, AND PERFORMANCE TASKS. MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE (25 OR 37.5 MG) OR A PLACEBO WAS ADMINISTERED ORALLY ON A DOUBLE-BLIND BASIS TO INTELLIGENCE-MATCHED GROUPS…

  15. Spatial working memory for locations specified by vision and audition: testing the amodality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Jack M; Klatzky, Roberta L; McHugh, Brendan; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2012-08-01

    Spatial working memory can maintain representations from vision, hearing, and touch, representations referred to here as spatial images. The present experiment addressed whether spatial images from vision and hearing that are simultaneously present within working memory retain modality-specific tags or are amodal. Observers were presented with short sequences of targets varying in angular direction, with the targets in a given sequence being all auditory, all visual, or a sequential mixture of the two. On two thirds of the trials, one of the locations was repeated, and observers had to respond as quickly as possible when detecting this repetition. Ancillary detection and localization tasks confirmed that the visual and auditory targets were perceptually comparable. Response latencies in the working memory task showed small but reliable costs in performance on trials involving a sequential mixture of auditory and visual targets, as compared with trials of pure vision or pure audition. These deficits were statistically reliable only for trials on which the modalities of the matching location switched from the penultimate to the final target in the sequence, indicating a switching cost. The switching cost for the pair in immediate succession means that the spatial images representing the target locations retain features of the visual or auditory representations from which they were derived. However, there was no reliable evidence of a performance cost for mixed modalities in the matching pair when the second of the two did not immediately follow the first, suggesting that more enduring spatial images in working memory may be amodal.

  16. Free Recall Test Experience Potentiates Strategy-Driven Effects of Value on Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael S.; Rissman, Jesse; Hovhannisyan, Mariam; Castel, Alan D.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    People tend to show better memory for information that is deemed valuable or important. By one mechanism, individuals selectively engage deeper, semantic encoding strategies for high value items (Cohen, Rissman, Suthana, Castel, & Knowlton, 2014). By another mechanism, information paired with value or reward is automatically strengthened in…

  17. Motor coordination, working memory, and academic achievement in a normative adolescent sample: testing a mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigoli, D; Piek, J.P.; Kane, R; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement is mediated by working memory (WM) in a normative adolescent sample. Participants included 93 adolescents aged 12-16. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 provided three

  18. Models Provide Specificity: Testing a Proposed Mechanism of Visual Working Memory Capacity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R.; Patterson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have established that visual working memory has a limited capacity that increases during childhood. However, debate continues over the source of capacity limits and its developmental increase. Simmering (2008) adapted a computational model of spatial cognitive development, the Dynamic Field Theory, to explain not only the source…

  19. The microelectronic and photonic test bed RISC processor and DRAM memory stack experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, K.A.; Meehan, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the on-orbit data obtained from the MPTB RISC Processor Experiment, containing three Integrated Device Technologies R3081 processors. During operations, nine SEUs were observed in the processors, and four SEUs were observed in the memory and/or support circuitry. (authors)

  20. Validation of a new scoring system for the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test in a memory disorders clinic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, L M; Bucks, R S; Cuerden, J M

    1998-04-01

    The Bristol Memory Disorders Clinic uses the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test (CFST) to appraise abstraction and the ability to shift set. The original scoring system for the CFST (Grewal & Haward, 1984), developed on the premise that sorting to form is more difficult than sorting to color, had no score for an individual able to sort to form and subsequently unable to shift to color with a cue. Clinical experience suggested that the performance of some individuals required such a score. A new scoring system was developed and validated in a memory-disorders-clinic sample. The validation showed the new score to be necessary and gave support to the original premise that people with organic brain damage show a preference for sorting to color.

  1. Harmine treatment enhances short-term memory in old rats: Dissociation of cognition and the ability to perform the procedural requirements of maze testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Dunckley, Travis; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Harmine is a naturally occurring monoamine oxidase inhibitor that has recently been shown to selectively inhibit the dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). We investigated the cognitive effects of 1mg (low) Harmine and 5mg (high) Harmine using the delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) asymmetrical 3-choice water maze task to evaluate spatial working and recent memory, and the Morris water maze task (MM) to test spatial reference memory. Animals were also tested on the visible platform task, a water-escape task with the same motor, motivational, and reinforcement components as the other tasks used to evaluate cognition, but differing in its greater simplicity and that the platform was visible above the surface of the water. A subset of the Harmine-high treated animals showed clear motor impairments on all behavioral tasks, and the visible platform task confirmed a lack of competence to perform the procedural components of water maze testing. After excluding animals from the high dose group that could not perform the procedural components of a swim task, it was revealed that both high- and low-dose treatment with Harmine enhanced performance on the latter portion of DMS testing, but had no effect on MM performance. Thus, this study demonstrates the importance of confirming motor and visual competence when studying animal cognition, and verifies the one-day visible platform task as a reliable measure of ability to perform the procedural components necessary for completion of a swim task. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Motivation Analysis Test: an historical and contemporary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C; Walsh, R Patricia; Mills, Michael

    2005-04-01

    This is an historical review and contemporary empirical evaluation of the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT), one of the first tests to take a psychometric approach to the assessment of motivation. Reviews were quite positive, but the test is now over 50 years old. Nevertheless, it employs innovations in measurement not widely used in objective measurement then or now: (1) subtests with different formats, (2) disguised items, (3) speeded administration procedures, and (4) ipsative format and scoring procedures. These issues are discussed and a contemporary sample (N = 360) obtained to evaluate the Motivation Analysis Test in light of its innovative characteristics.

  3. Development of in-pile test and evaluation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yung Hwan; Park, Jong Man; Joo, Kee Nam; Park, Duk Keun; Park, Se Jin; Oh, Jong Myung; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park Jin Suk; Lee, Jae Han [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-01

    To develop the in-pile test and evaluation technologies using KMRR, basic design of instrumented capsule and auxiliary system for material irradiation test and the related studies are performed. First, reactor and test hole characteristics are summarized, and conceptual design requirements of capsule to KMRR are reviewed. And fundamental principles and criteria for the instrumented capsule design are summarized. Basic design and analysis of instrumented capsule are performed, and design of capsule supporting system are also performed and structural integrity of the system is analyzed. Based on the prior studies, test mock-ups are designed and manufactured, and thermohydraulic and vibration tests are prepared. And, as in-pile test evaluation technologies, KMRR neutron dosimetry and mechanical tests related to material irradiation are investigated. 67 figs, 30 tabs, 41 refs. (Author).

  4. Drop performance test and evaluation for HANARO shutoff units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. H.; Cho, Y. K.; Lee, J. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Woo, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    The function of the shutoff units of the HANARO is to rapidly insert the shutoff rod into the reactor core for safe shutdown of reactor. This paper describes drop performance test and evaluation for a shutoff unit for the technical verification of lifetime extension and localization of the HANARO shutoff units. We have performed preliminary drop performance tests for a shutoff unit at 1/2-core test loop and analyzed through the comparison with the test results performed during design verification test and the results of the periodic performance test in HANARO. It shows that the results of the local fabrication, installation and alignment for the shutoff unit meet the basic performance requirements, Furthermore, the performance evaluation method of the periodic drop test of the HANARO shutoff units is a conservative method comparing with the real drop time

  5. Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich

    2007-01-01

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS

  6. Co-norming the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Is there a test-order effect on IQ and memory scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J; Tulsky, D S

    2000-11-01

    Test-order effect on the WAIS-III and WMS-III scores was evaluated using the WMS-III standardization sample. Participants completed the standardization editions of the WAIS-III and WMS-III in one session, with the tests administered in roughly counterbalanced order. Repeated measure MANOVA analyses were conducted to determine if there was an overall test-order effect for subtest, index, or IQ scores. No significant test-order effects were found for either the WAIS-III index or IQ scores or for the WMS-III index scores. At the subtest level, the majority of the WAIS-III and WMS-III subtests did not show a significant test-order effect. The exceptions were Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding on the WAIS-III and Faces II and Logical Memory II on the WMS-III. Although statistically significant test-order effects were found on these subtests, the effect sizes were small. This study indicates that the test-order effect is not a potential threat to the internal validity of the WAIS-III and WMS-III normative data. The practical implications of the current study are discussed.

  7. A Microcomputer Test Battery for Evaluating the Effects of Neuropsychiatric Treatment Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynicki, Victor E.; MacKenty, Edmund; Itil, Turan M.

    1979-01-01

    A microcomputer based battery of neuropsychiatric tests is described. This battery is capable of gathering a large amount of information in a cost-effective way. The tests included are: a Learning Paradigm, a Memory Scanning Test, a Rapid Automatized Naming Test, the Continuous Performance Test, and a Selective Attention Test. The background of each test is described. Results of the administration of this battery are written out by means of a password-controlled Output program. A case example is presented, in which the battery was used to establish the effect of a very low dosage of medication on memory functions in a learning disabled/MBD child.

  8. Attention and memory evaluation across the life span: heterogeneous effects of age and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Esther; Ostrosky-Solís, Feggy

    2006-05-01

    The developmental sequences of attention and memory were studied by utilizing normative data derived from the neuropsychological battery named NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY. A sample of 521 Spanish-speaking individuals, aged 6 to 85 years, participated in this study. In the adult sample, educational level ranged from 0 to 22 years of education. Data from subtests measuring orientation, attention and concentration, executive functions, working memory, immediate and delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory were included. The factor structure of the analyzed battery is presented. The effects of age and education on this structure were analyzed. Results suggested that although attention and memory are related, their developmental sequences are separated from one another. During childhood, the development of selective and sustained attention, attentional-working memory, and executive functions showed a fast improvement in performance. Development of verbal memory and place and person orientation showed a slower increment in scores. In the adult sample it was found that factors related to memory are sensitive to age, whereas those related to attention and executive functions are sensitive to education. The consideration of both the developmental sequence, as well as differential effects of education, can improve the sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological measures, allowing early diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction and implementation of adequate rehabilitation programs.

  9. The Effect of Chronic Oral Administration of Withania Somnifera Root on Learning and Memory in Diabetic Rats Using Passive Avoidance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roghani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus (especially type I is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Considering the potential anti-diabetic effect of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera (ashwagandha and the augmenting effect of its consumption on the memory and mental health, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic oral administration of ashwagandha root on learning and memory in diabetic rats using passive avoidance test. Materials & Methods: For this purpose, male Wistar diabetic rats were randomly divided into control, ashwagandha-treated control, diabetic, and ashwagandha-treated diabetic groups. Ashwagandha treatment continued for 1 to 2 months. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin was injected i.p. at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. Serum glucose level was determined before the study and at 4th and 8th weeks after the experiment. In addition, for evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined after 1 and 2 months using passive avoidance test. Results: It was found that one- and two-month administration of ashwagandha root at a weight ratio of 1/15 has not any significant hypoglycemic effect in treated control and diabetic groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase (p<0.05 in IL in diabetic and ashwagandha-treated diabetic groups after two months compared to control group. In this respect, there was no significant difference between diabetic and ashwagandha-treated diabetic groups. In addition, STL significantly increased in ashwagandha-treated control group after 1 (p<0.01 and 2 (p<0.05 month in comparison to control group. On the other hand, STL significantly decreased (p<0.05 in diabetic group and significantly increased (p<0.05 in ashwagandha-treated diabetic group as compared to control group after two months. Conclusion: In summary, chronic oral administration of

  10. Dredged Material Testing and Evaluation for Ocean Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation and testing of dredged material proposed for ocean dumping is conducted to help protect human health and the marine environment. National guidance is provided by the Green Book. Regional Implementation Manuals are provided.

  11. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : exogenous factors test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-17

    This report presents the exogenous factors test plan for the national evaluation of the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The Minnesota UPA projects focus on reduc...

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of two important memory enhancing medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Harsahay; Pandey, Hemant Kumar; Pandey, Pankaj; Arya, Mahesh Chand; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2012-01-01

    Free radicals or highly reactive oxygen species are capable of inducing oxidative damage to human body. Antioxidants are the compounds which terminate the attack of reactive species and reduce the risk of diseases. Both Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica are used in treatment of brain disorders in humans and have almost similar effects. The study was conducted to determine the antioxidant properties of two well-known memory enhancer medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica. The antioxidant activity of these two medicinal plants was evaluated by measuring reducing ability, free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and hydrogen peroxide methods. The antioxidants compounds like ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also evaluated in these plants. Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica exhibited significant differences (PCentella asiatica. The antioxidant components viz. ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also found in a higher concentration in Baccopa monnieri as compared to Centella asiatica. It can be concluded from the study that regular use of Baccopa monnieri as a supplement could be more helpful compared to Centella asiatica in treatment of neurological disorders caused by free radical damage.

  13. Working memory and fluid intelligence are both identical to g?! Reanalyses and critical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILLES E. GIGNAC

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, two previously published confirmatory factor analytic studies that separately reported working memory and fluid intelligence higher-order loadings so large as to suggest isomor-phism with g were evaluated critically within the context of internal consistency reliability. Specifi-cally, based on two data analytic approaches, the previously reported higher-order loadings which suggested isomorphism with g were demonstrated to have been achieved via the substantial disattenua-tion effects observed within structural equation modeling, when the latent variable corresponding composite scores are associated with low levels of reliability. The two approaches were: (1 the obverse of the disattenuation procedure for imperfect reliability, and (2 the implied correlation between a corresponding phantom composite variable and a higher-order g factor. The results derived from the two approaches were found to correspond very closely. To allow for a more informative evaluation, researchers are encouraged to report the internal consistency reliabilities associated with the composite scores which correspond to their latent variables, as well as to report both the disattenuated and attenu-ated higher-order loadings within their multi-factor models.

  14. Auditory memory function in expert chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time.

  15. Circadian modulation of consolidated memory retrieval following sleep deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Glou, Eric; Seugnet, Laurent; Shaw, Paul J; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2012-10-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia resistant memory following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Four to 16 h after aversive olfactory training, flies were sleep deprived for 4 h. Memory was assessed 24 h after training. Training, sleep deprivation, and memory tests were performed at different times during the day to evaluate the importance of the time of day for memory formation. The role of circadian rhythms was further evaluated using circadian clock mutants. Memory was disrupted when flies were exposed to 4 h of sleep deprivation during the consolidation phase. Interestingly, normal memory was observed following sleep deprivation when the memory test was performed during the 2 h preceding lights-off, a period characterized by maximum wake in flies. We also show that anesthesia resistant memory was less sensitive to sleep deprivation in flies with disrupted circadian rhythms. Our results indicate that anesthesia resistant memory, a consolidated memory less costly than long-term memory, is sensitive to sleep deprivation. In addition, we provide evidence that circadian factors influence memory vulnerability to sleep deprivation and memory retrieval. Taken together, the data show that memories weakened by sleep deprivation can be retrieved if the animals are tested at the optimal circadian time.

  16. Verbal episodic memory in young hypothyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatsal Priyadarshi Pandey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypothyroidism affects cognitive functions especially memory. However, most of the previous studies have generally evaluated older hypothyroid patients and sample size of these studies varied in terms of age range. Aims: To see whether hypothyroidism affects memory in young patients. Settings and Design: The sample consisted of 11 hypothyroid patients with an age of 18–49 and 8 healthy controls matched on age and education. Subjects and Methods: Verbal episodic memory was assessed using Hindi adaptation of Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Statistical Analysis Used: An independent t-test was used to see the difference between mean performance of the patient group and healthy control on memory measures. Results: Results indicated nonsignificant difference between verbal episodic memory of patient group and healthy controls. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that hypothyroidism may not affect younger patients in terms of episodic verbal memory the same way as it does in the older patients.

  17. Effects of phase memory in spectroscopy of test field of two level system at small frequencies of collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, A.I.; Shalagin, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    One studied theoretically spectrum of absorption (intensification) of a weak sounding field by two-level atoms moving in a strong resonance laser field and colliding with buffer gas atoms. The analysis was performed for the case of small frequencies of collisions in contrast to the Doppler width of absorption line (gas low pressure) with regard to the arbitrary variation of a radiation induced dipole moment phase at elastic collisions of gas particles. The effects of phase memory are found to result in very strong quantitative and qualitative transformation of a test field spectrum even in case of infrequent collisions when the well-known Dike mechanism of manifestation of phase memory effects (elimination of the Doppler widening due to limitation of spatial motion of particles by collisions) does not work. Strong influence of phase memory effects on spectral resonances at gas low pressure results from the fact that phase retaining collisions change dependence on velocity of the partial index of refraction n(v) (index of refraction for particles moving with v velocity) [ru

  18. Evaluation of the World Health Organisation' antibody-testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the World Health Organisation. (WHO) antibody testing strategy for the individual patient diagnosis of HIV infection (strategy Ill). Design. Evaluation of a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELlSAs) for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. The WHO strategy.

  19. Comparative study of heuristic evaluation and usability testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam Paul; Monaco, Valerie; Thambuganipalle, Himabindu; Schleyer, Titus

    2009-01-01

    Usability methods, such as heuristic evaluation, cognitive walk-throughs and user testing, are increasingly used to evaluate and improve the design of clinical software applications. There is still some uncertainty, however, as to how those methods can be used to support the development process and evaluation in the most meaningful manner. In this study, we compared the results of a heuristic evaluation with those of formal user tests in order to determine which usability problems were detected by both methods. We conducted heuristic evaluation and usability testing on four major commercial dental computer-based patient records (CPRs), which together cover 80% of the market for chairside computer systems among general dentists. Both methods yielded strong evidence that the dental CPRs have significant usability problems. An average of 50% of empirically-determined usability problems were identified by the preceding heuristic evaluation. Some statements of heuristic violations were specific enough to precisely identify the actual usability problem that study participants encountered. Other violations were less specific, but still manifested themselves in usability problems and poor task outcomes. In this study, heuristic evaluation identified a significant portion of problems found during usability testing. While we make no assumptions about the generalizability of the results to other domains and software systems, heuristic evaluation may, under certain circumstances, be a useful tool to determine design problems early in the development cycle.

  20. Spatial navigation and episodic-memory tests in screening of dementia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Kamil; Laczó, J.; Vajnerová, O.; Ort, Michael; Kalina, M.; Blahna, Karel; Vyhnálek, M.; Hort, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. S3 (2006), s. 35-38 ISSN 1211-7579 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/0693; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spatial navigation * episodic memory * Alzheimer’s disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology