WorldWideScience

Sample records for memory test evaluation

  1. [Evaluation of memory in acquired brain injury: a comparison between the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Rivermead Behaviour Memory Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea-Hidalgo, A; Luna-Lario, P; Tirapu-Ustárroz, J

    Learning processes and memory are frequently compromised in acquired brain injury (ABI), while at the same time such involvement is often heterogeneous and a source of deficits in other cognitive capacities and significant functional limitations. A good neuropsychological evaluation of memory is designed to study not only the type, intensity and nature of the problems, but also the way they manifest in daily life. This study examines the correlation between a traditional memory test, the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III), and a memory test that is considered to be functional, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT), in a sample of 60 patients with ABI. All the correlations that were observed were moderate. Greater correlations were found among the verbal memory subtests than among the visual memory tests. An important number of subjects with below-normal scalar scores on the WMS-III correctly performed (either fully or partially) the corresponding test in the RBMT. The joint use of the WMS-III and RBMT in evaluation can provide a more comprehensive analysis of the memory deficits and their rehabilitation. The lower scores obtained in the WMS-III compared to those of the RBMT indicate greater sensitivity of the former. Nevertheless, further testing needs to be carried out in the future to compare the performance in the tests after the patients and those around them have subjectively assessed their functional limitations. This would make it possible to determine which of the two tests offers the best balance between sensitivity and specificity, as well as a higher predictive value.

  2. Wada test for evaluation of language and memory function in medically intractable epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Kook; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Byung In; Huh, Kyun

    1992-01-01

    The Wada test was performed for lateralization of language and memory function, using intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal. But the internal carotid artery (ICA) Wada test has some limitations for testing memory function. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test has been designed to modify the ICA Wada test for testing memory function selectively. In our study, 10 patients out of 12 patients with intractable seizure underwent only the ICA Wada test and the other 2 patients underwent both the ICA and the selective PCA Wada test. In all 12 patients undergoing the ICA Wada test, we successfully localized speech and language dominance. Four of 12 patients who underwent the ICA Wada test for evaluation of memory function displayed superior memory functions in one hemisphere, but the other hemisphere also significantly contributed to memory. The selective PCA Wada test, performed in 2 patients, showed successful results of memory function test in both patients. Four of 12 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and there was no major post-operative language or memory deficits. We concluded that the ICA and PCA Wada tests are useful for preoperative evaluation of medically intractable epilepsy, and the PCA Wada test is valuable in memory evaluation in some patients who have high risk of postoperative global amnesia after temporal lobectomy following equivocal results of memory function by the ICA Wada test

  3. Wada test for evaluation of language and memory function in medically intractable epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yong Kook; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Byung In; Huh, Kyun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    The Wada test was performed for lateralization of language and memory function, using intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal. But the internal carotid artery (ICA) Wada test has some limitations for testing memory function. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test has been designed to modify the ICA Wada test for testing memory function selectively. In our study, 10 patients out of 12 patients with intractable seizure underwent only the ICA Wada test and the other 2 patients underwent both the ICA and the selective PCA Wada test. In all 12 patients undergoing the ICA Wada test, we successfully localized speech and language dominance. Four of 12 patients who underwent the ICA Wada test for evaluation of memory function displayed superior memory functions in one hemisphere, but the other hemisphere also significantly contributed to memory. The selective PCA Wada test, performed in 2 patients, showed successful results of memory function test in both patients. Four of 12 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and there was no major post-operative language or memory deficits. We concluded that the ICA and PCA Wada tests are useful for preoperative evaluation of medically intractable epilepsy, and the PCA Wada test is valuable in memory evaluation in some patients who have high risk of postoperative global amnesia after temporal lobectomy following equivocal results of memory function by the ICA Wada test.

  4. Why Is Test-Restudy Practice Beneficial for Memory? An Evaluation of the Mediator Shift Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyc, Mary A.; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Although the memorial benefits of testing are well established empirically, the mechanisms underlying this benefit are not well understood. The authors evaluated the mediator shift hypothesis, which states that test-restudy practice is beneficial for memory because retrieval failures during practice allow individuals to evaluate the effectiveness…

  5. Comparison of the Morel Emotional Numbing Test for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder to the Word Memory Test in neuropsychological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Kenneth R

    2008-03-01

    The most commonly feigned cognitive and psychiatric disorders for survivors of traumatic injury are memory dysfunction and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The position of the National Academy of Neuropsychology is that symptom validity tests (SVTs) should be part of any comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. In this article the Morel Emotional Numbing Test for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (MENT), a SVT for PTSD, was compared to a SVT for memory, the Word Memory Test (WMT). Available archival data on 216 consecutive referrals for neuropsychological evaluations at the Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System were reviewed. Of the total records reviewed 37 patients had been administered both the MENT and the WMT. The clinically recommended cutoff on the WMT was used as the main criterion to classify patients into two groups: simulating impairment or credible. The results indicated that the simulating impairment group had significantly more errors on the MENT than the credible group did (p <.0001). The criterion-related characteristics of the MENT in assessing response bias in relation to the WMT were confirmed Clinical and research implications of the utilization of the MENT are discussed in this study.

  6. Memory evaluation in mild cognitive impairment using recall and recognition tests

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, IJ; Golob, EJ; Parker, ES; Starr, A

    2006-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a selective episodic memory deficit that often indicates early Alzheimer's disease. Episodic memory function in MCI is typically defined by deficits in free recall, but can also be tested using recognition procedures. To assess both recall and recognition in MCI, MCI (n = 21) and older comparison (n = 30) groups completed the USC-Repeatable Episodic Memory Test. Subjects memorized two verbally presented 15-item lists. One list was used for three fre...

  7. [Memory Checking Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph T.

    Two basic tests for checking memory skills are included in these appendices. The first, the General Information Test, uses the same 150 items for each of its two versions. One version is a completion-type test which measures recall by requiring the examinee to supply a specific response. The other version supplements each of the 150 items with…

  8. Evaluating the contributions of task expectancy in the testing and guessing benefits on recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mark J; Yates, Tyler J; Balota, David A

    2018-05-03

    Recently, we have shown that two types of initial testing (recall of a list or guessing of critical items repeated over 12 study/test cycles) improved final recognition of related and unrelated word lists relative to restudy. These benefits were eliminated, however, when test instructions were manipulated within subjects and presented after study of each list, procedures designed to minimise expectancy of a specific type of upcoming test [Huff, Balota, & Hutchison, 2016. The costs and benefits of testing and guessing on recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42, 1559-1572. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000269 ], suggesting that testing and guessing effects may be influenced by encoding strategies specific for the type of upcoming task. We follow-up these experiments by examining test-expectancy processes in guessing and testing. Testing and guessing benefits over restudy were not found when test instructions were presented either after (Experiment 1) or before (Experiment 2) a single study/task cycle was completed, nor were benefits found when instructions were presented before study/task cycles and the task was repeated three times (Experiment 3). Testing and guessing benefits emerged only when instructions were presented before a study/task cycle and the task was repeated six times (Experiments 4A and 4B). These experiments demonstrate that initial testing and guessing can produce memory benefits in recognition, but only following substantial task repetitions which likely promote task-expectancy processes.

  9. Memory evaluation in mild cognitive impairment using recall and recognition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J; Golob, Edward J; Parker, Elizabeth S; Starr, Arnold

    2006-11-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a selective episodic memory deficit that often indicates early Alzheimer's disease. Episodic memory function in MCI is typically defined by deficits in free recall, but can also be tested using recognition procedures. To assess both recall and recognition in MCI, MCI (n = 21) and older comparison (n = 30) groups completed the USC-Repeatable Episodic Memory Test. Subjects memorized two verbally presented 15-item lists. One list was used for three free recall trials, immediately followed by yes/no recognition. The second list was used for three-alternative forced-choice recognition. Relative to the comparison group, MCI had significantly fewer hits and more false alarms in yes/no recognition, and were less accurate in forced-choice recognition. Signal detection analysis showed that group differences were not due to response bias. Discriminant function analysis showed that yes/no recognition was a better predictor of group membership than free recall or forced-choice measures. MCI subjects recalled fewer items than comparison subjects, with no group differences in repetitions, intrusions, serial position effects, or measures of recall strategy (subjective organization, recall consistency). Performance deficits on free recall and recognition in MCI suggest a combination of both tests may be useful for defining episodic memory impairment associated with MCI and early Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Retrospective Evaluations of Sequences: Testing the Predictions of a Memory-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrovandi, Silvio; Poirier, Marie; Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation (RE) of event sequences is known to be biased in various ways. The present paper presents a series of studies that examined the suggestion that the moments that are the most accessible in memory at the point of RE contribute to these biases. As predicted by this memory-based analysis, Experiment 1 showed that pleasantness ratings of word lists were biased by the presentation position of a negative item and by how easy the negative information was to retrieve. Experiment 2 ruled out the hypothesis that these findings were due to the dual nature of the task called upon. Experiment 3 further manipulated the memorability of the negative items--and corresponding changes in RE were as predicted. Finally, Experiment 4 extended the findings to more complex stimuli involving event narratives. Overall, the results suggest that assessments were adjusted based on the retrieval of the most readily available information.

  11. Noncredible cognitive performance at clinical evaluation of adult ADHD: An embedded validity indicator in a visuospatial working memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Lara

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of performance validity is an essential part of the neuropsychological evaluation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most available tools, however, are inaccurate regarding the identification of noncredible performance. This study describes the development of a visuospatial working memory test, including a validity indicator for noncredible cognitive performance of adults with ADHD. Visuospatial working memory of adults with ADHD (n = 48) was first compared to the test performance of healthy individuals (n = 48). Furthermore, a simulation design was performed including 252 individuals who were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 48) or to 1 of 3 simulation groups who were requested to feign ADHD (n = 204). Additional samples of 27 adults with ADHD and 69 instructed simulators were included to cross-validate findings from the first samples. Adults with ADHD showed impaired visuospatial working memory performance of medium size as compared to healthy individuals. Simulation groups committed significantly more errors and had shorter response times as compared to patients with ADHD. Moreover, binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to derive a validity index that optimally differentiates between true and feigned ADHD. ROC analysis demonstrated high classification rates of the validity index, as shown in excellent specificity (95.8%) and adequate sensitivity (60.3%). The visuospatial working memory test as presented in this study therefore appears sensitive in indicating cognitive impairment of adults with ADHD. Furthermore, the embedded validity index revealed promising results concerning the detection of noncredible cognitive performance of adults with ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    KAUST Repository

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2015-05-26

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions.

  13. Trial 1 versus Trial 2 of the Test of Memory Malingering: Evaluating accuracy without a "gold standard".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, Douglas; Wygant, Dustin B; Gervais, Roger O; Hart, Kathleen J

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a frequently administered measure for evaluating effort during neurocognitive testing. In the last few years, several authors have suggested that the initial recognition trial of the TOMM (Trial 1) might be a more useful index for detecting feigned or exaggerated impairment than Trial 2, which is the source for inference recommended by the original instruction manual (Tombaugh, 1996). We used latent class modeling (LCM) implemented in a Bayesian framework to evaluate archival Trial 1 and Trial 2 data collected from 1,198 adults who had undergone outpatient forensic evaluations. All subjects were tested with 2 other performance validity tests (the Word Memory Test and the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias), and for 70% of the subjects, data from the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition Forced Choice trial were also available. Our results suggest that not even a perfect score on Trial 1 or Trial 2 justifies saying that an evaluee is definitely responding genuinely, although such scores imply a lower-than-base-rate probability of feigning. If one uses a Trial 2 cut-off higher than the manual's recommendation, Trial 2 does better than Trial 1 at identifying individuals who are almost certainly feigning while maintaining a negligible false positive rate. Using scores from both trials, one can identify a group of definitely feigning and very likely feigning subjects who comprise about 2 thirds of all feigners; only 1% of the members of this group would not be feigning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Evaluating the accuracy of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) logical memory embedded validity index for detecting invalid test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Jason R; Bain, Kathleen M; Bailey, K Chase; Kirton, Joshua W; Marceaux, Janice C; Critchfield, Edan A; McCoy, Karin J M; O'Rourke, Justin J F

    2018-01-08

    Embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) allow for continuous assessment of invalid performance throughout neuropsychological test batteries. This study evaluated the utility of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) Logical Memory (LM) Recognition score as an embedded PVT using the Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Effort System. This mixed clinical sample was comprised of 97 total participants, 71 of whom were classified as valid and 26 as invalid based on three well-validated, freestanding criterion PVTs. Overall, the LM embedded PVT demonstrated poor concordance with the criterion PVTs and unacceptable psychometric properties using ACS validity base rates (42% sensitivity/79% specificity). Moreover, 15-39% of participants obtained an invalid ACS base rate despite having a normatively-intact age-corrected LM Recognition total score. Receiving operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a Recognition total score cutoff of < 61% correct improved specificity (92%) while sensitivity remained weak (31%). Thus, results indicated the LM Recognition embedded PVT is not appropriate for use from an evidence-based perspective, and that clinicians may be faced with reconciling how a normatively intact cognitive performance on the Recognition subtest could simultaneously reflect invalid performance validity.

  15. [A new assessment for episodic memory. Episodic memory test and caregiver's episodic memory test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea Ortega, T; González Álvarez de Sotomayor, M M; Pérez González, O; Fernández Fernández, O

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test is to evaluate episodic memory according to its definition in a way that is feasible for families and achieves high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. We administered a test consisting of 10 questions about episodic events to 332 subjects, of whom 65 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 115 had amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 152 showed no cognitive impairment according to Reisberg's global deterioration scale (GDS). We calculated the test's sensitivity and specificity to distinguish AD from episodic aMCI and from normal ageing. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of aMCI was 0.94 and the best cut-off value was 20; for that value, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 82%. For a diagnosis of AD, the area under the ROC curve was 0.99 and the best cut-off point was 17, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 91%. A subsequent study using similar methodology yielded similar results when the test was administered directly by the caregiver. The episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test are useful as brief screening tools for identifying patients with early-stage AD. It is suitable for use by primary care medical staff and in the home, since it can be administered by a caregiver. The test's limitations are that it must be administered by a reliable caregiver and the fact that it measures episodic memory only. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the validity of the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests of vigilance, auditory memory, and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Brian; Mueller, Shane T; Talebzadeh, Sara; Ki, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Psychology Experimental Building Language (PEBL) test battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net/) is a popular application for neurobehavioral investigations. This study evaluated the correspondence between the PEBL and the non-PEBL versions of four executive function tests. Methods. In one cohort, young-adults (N = 44) completed both the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT) and the PEBL CPT (PCPT) with the order counter-balanced. In a second cohort, participants (N = 47) completed a non-computerized (Wechsler) and a computerized (PEBL) Digit Span (WDS or PDS) both Forward and Backward. Participants also completed the Psychological Assessment Resources or the PEBL versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (PARIGT or PEBLIGT). Results. The between-test correlations were moderately high (reaction time r = 0.78, omission errors r = 0.65, commission errors r = 0.66) on the CPT. DS Forward was significantly greater than DS Backward on the WDS (p attention, short-term memory, and decision making. Select differences between workalike versions of the same test highlight how detailed aspects of implementation may have more important consequences for computerized testing than has been previously acknowledged.

  17. Self-Testing Computer Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio, N.; Rennels, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Memory system for computer repeatedly tests itself during brief, regular interruptions of normal processing of data. Detects and corrects transient faults as single-event upsets (changes in bits due to ionizing radiation) within milliseconds after occuring. Self-testing concept surpasses conventional by actively flushing latent defects out of memory and attempting to correct before accumulating beyond capacity for self-correction or detection. Cost of improvement modest increase in complexity of circuitry and operating time.

  18. Objective instrumental memory and performance tests for evaluation of patients with brain damage: a search for a behavioral diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, B Z; Bental, E; Carmon, A

    1976-03-01

    Cognition and performance of patients with localized and diffuse brain damage was evaluated through the application of objective perceptual testing. A series of visual perceptual and verbal tests, memory tests, as well as reaction time tasks were administered to the patients by logic programming equipment. In order to avoid a bias due to communicative disorders, all responses were motor, and achievement was scored in terms of correct identification and latencies of response. Previously established norms based on a large sample of non-brain-damaged hospitalized patients served to standardize the performance of the brain-damaged patient since preliminary results showed that age and educational level constitute an important variable affecting performance of the control group. The achievement of brain-damaged patients, corrected for these factors, was impaired significantly in all tests with respect to both recognition and speed of performance. Lateralized effects of brain damage were not significantly demonstrated. However, when the performance was analyzed with respect to the locus of visual input, it was found that patients with right hemispheric lesions showed impairment mainly on perception of figurative material, and that this deficit was more apparent in the left visual field. Conversely, patients with left hemispheric lesions tended to show impairment on perception of visually presented verbal material when the input was delivered to the right visual field.

  19. Evaluation of the validity of the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests of vigilance, auditory memory, and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Piper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experimental Building Language (PEBL test battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ is a popular application for neurobehavioral investigations. This study evaluated the correspondence between the PEBL and the non-PEBL versions of four executive function tests. Methods. In one cohort, young-adults (N = 44 completed both the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the PEBL CPT (PCPT with the order counter-balanced. In a second cohort, participants (N = 47 completed a non-computerized (Wechsler and a computerized (PEBL Digit Span (WDS or PDS both Forward and Backward. Participants also completed the Psychological Assessment Resources or the PEBL versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (PARIGT or PEBLIGT. Results. The between-test correlations were moderately high (reaction time r = 0.78, omission errors r = 0.65, commission errors r = 0.66 on the CPT. DS Forward was significantly greater than DS Backward on the WDS (p < .0005 and the PDS (p < .0005. The total WDS score was moderately correlated with the PDS (r = 0.56. The PARIGT and the PEBLIGTs showed a very similar pattern for response times across blocks, development of preference for Advantageous over Disadvantageous Decks, and Deck selections. However, the amount of money earned (score–loan was significantly higher in the PEBLIGT during the last Block. Conclusions. These findings are broadly supportive of the criterion validity of the PEBL measures of sustained attention, short-term memory, and decision making. Select differences between workalike versions of the same test highlight how detailed aspects of implementation may have more important consequences for computerized testing than has been previously acknowledged.

  20. [Effect of concreteness of target words on verbal working memory: an evaluation using Japanese version of reading span test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, H; Osaka, N

    2000-04-01

    Effects of concreteness and representation mode (kanji/hiragana) of target words on working memory during reading was tested using Japanese version of reading span test (RST), developed by Osaka and Osaka (1994). Concreteness and familiarity of target words and difficulty of sentences were carefully controlled. The words with high concreteness resulted in significantly higher RST scores, which suggests the high efficiency of working memory in processing these words. The results suggest that high concrete noun-words associated with visual clues consume less working memory capacity during reading. The effect of representation mode is different between subjects with high-RST and low-RST scores. Characteristic of the high concrete words that may be responsible for the effectiveness of processing are discussed.

  1. Developmental change of visuo-spatial working memory in children: quantitative evaluation through an Advanced Trail Making Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Naomi; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Tomoka; Ohta, Hidenobu; Kajimoto, Osami; Kaga, Makiko

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the developmental change in Visuo-Spatial Working Memory (VSWM) in typically developed children using a specially designed Advanced Trail Making Test for children (ATMT-C). We developed a new method for evaluating VSWM efficiency in children using a modified version ATMT to suit their shorter sustained attention. The ATMT-C consists of two parts; a number-based ATMT and a hiragana (Japanese phonogram)-based ATMT, both employing symbols familiar to young children. A total of 94 healthy participants (6-28 years of age) were enrolled in this study. A non-linear developmental change of VSWM efficiency was observed in the results from the ATMT-C. In the number-based ATMT, children under 8 years of age showed a relatively rapid increase in VSWM efficiency while older children (9-12 years) had a more gradual increase in VSWM efficiency. Results from the hiragana-based ATMT-C showed a slightly delayed increase pattern in VSWM efficiency compared to the pattern from the number-based ATMT. There were no significant differences in VSWM efficiency for gender, handedness and test order. VSWM in children gradually matures in a non steady-state manner and there is an important stage for VSWM maturation before reaching 12 years of age. VSWM efficiency may also vary depending on developmental condition of its cognitive subsystems. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating spatial memory function in mice: a within-subjects comparison between the water maze test and its adaptation to dry land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano Lopez, L; Hauser, J; Feldon, J; Gargiulo, P A; Yee, B K

    2010-05-01

    The Morris water maze (WM) is a common spatial memory test in rats. It has been adapted for evaluating genetic manipulations in mice. One major acknowledged problem of this cross-species translation is floating. We investigated here in mice the feasibility and practicality of an alternative paradigm-the cheeseboard (CB), which is a dry version of the WM, in a within-subject design allowing direct comparison with the conventional WM. Under identical task demands (reference or working memory), mice learned in the CB as efficiently as in the WM. Furthermore, individual differences in learning rate correlated between the two reference memory tests conducted separately in the two mazes. However, no such correlation was found with respect to reference memory retention or working memory performance. This study demonstrated that the CB is an effective alternative to the WM as spatial cognition test. Additional tests in the CB confirmed that the mice relied on extra maze cues in their spatial search. We would recommend the CB as a valuable addition to, rather than a replacement of the WM in phenotyping transgenic mice, because the two apparatus might diverge in the ability to detect individual differences in various domains of mnemonic functions.

  3. Telephone information-memory-concentration test used in evaluating cognitive function of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Ling; Yang Xiaoye; Li Ling; Deng Zhuoxia

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the telephone information-memory-concentration test (TIMCT) in evaluating the cognitive function of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy. Methods: The cognitive function were evaluated by TIMCT and mini mental state examination (MMSE) in 2 weeks for 30 normal persons and 90 NPC patients. And the 90 NPC patients were divided into the 3 months, 2 years and 5 years after radiotherapy groups. All patients were carried out firstly face to face interview and telephone interview 1 time after 2 weeks. Results: The correlation coefficient of all groups between TIMCT(telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) were bigger (R=0.850) when MMSE wasn't control variable. And the correlation coefficients between TIMCT (telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) were lower (R=0.366) when MMSE was control variable. As for examining time was classification factor, TIMCT (telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) were analyzed by partial correlation analysis. Only normal group was correlated with group of 3 months after radiotherapy and group of 2 years after radiotherapy wasn't correlated with group of 5 years after radiotherapy (R=0.447,0.970,0.200 and 0.062). In addition, the difference plot of TIMCT(telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) indicated that telephone was consistent with face to face interview (MMSE≥28). Both telephone and face to face interview reflected the cognitive function downtrend of research objects. Conclusions: TIMCT (telephone), TIMCT(face to face) and MMSE (face to face) can reflect cognitive function downterend of patients with NPC after radiotherapy. But TIMCT(telephone) used in clinical screening cognitive function impairment of patients with NPC after radiotherapy should be improved further. (authors)

  4. Working memory: a proposal for child evaluating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Monteiro Pires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The working memory is a system with limited capacity which allows the temporary storage and manipulation of information to cognitive complex abilities like language, learning and reasoning. This study has as the objective present the construction, the adaptation and the evaluation of four psycholinguistics working memory tests in Brazilian Portuguese that were based in the English battery of tests Memory Test Battery For Children. The tests adapted were applied in a pilot investigation in a group of 15 children with learning school difficulties and compared to a group of 15 children with normal development. The adaptation of the tests was developed in the E-Prime v2.0 Professional® software. The four psycholinguistic tests access the simultaneous storage and processing capacities of information in general domain, as also specific for language information. The results suggest that the four tests are sensible instruments to detect possible difficulties in the working memory processing in children, because they could identify the different performances between the two groups in a statistical analysis. The tests developed perfectly attended their aims for evaluation and can contribute in a near future for other studies with a greater number of subjects, providing a more concrete and evidences of working memory development in children.

  5. Memory Tests with Ambient Odours "Make Scents"

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Marie

    2015-01-01

    An ambient odour of anise was used in a context-dependent memory study with three different memory tasks targeting both declarative and non-declarative memory functions. Declarative memory was assessed by means of two episodic memory tests; recall of a prose text and a complex figure. Priming was used to assess the non-declarative memory with word fragment completion. Memory was tested immediately and after 48 hours. The results showed a significant main effect of context (odour or not) for a...

  6. Testing of modern semiconductor memory structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaydadjiev, G.N.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the problem of faults in modern semiconductor memory structures and their tests. According to the 2005 ITRS, the systems on chip (SoCs) are moving from logic and memory balanced chips to more memory dominated devices in order to cope with the increasing application

  7. [Standardization of the Test Your Memory and evaluation of their concordance with the outcome of the psychometric examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Arias, J; Turrión-Rojo, M A

    2016-05-01

    To explore the relationship between scores on the Test Your Memory (TYM) battery and findings from a more exhaustive neurocognitive assessment. The TYM and fourteen psychometric tests were administered to 84 subjects aged 50 or older who attended an outpatient neurology clinic due to cognitive symptoms. Each patient's cognitive state was determined independently from his/her score on the TYM (CDR 0, n=25; CDR 0.5, n=45; CDR 1, n=14). We analysed concurrent validity of TYM scores and results from the psychometric tests, as well as the degree of concordance between the two types of measurement, by contrasting normalised data from each instrument. Although the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.67 (confidence interval 95%, 0.53-0.77), analysis of the Bland-Altman plot and the curve on the survival-agreement plot (Luiz et al. method) demonstrates that the individual distances between the two methods exhibit excessive dispersion from a clinical viewpoint. TYM-based predictions of the mean z-score on psychometric tests differed substantially from real results in 30% of the subjects. Concordance of 95% can only be achieved by accepting absolute inter-instrument differences of up to 0.87 as identical values. Furthermore, the TYM underestimates cognitive performance for low values and overestimates it for high values. The TYM is a cognitive screening test which should not be used to predict results on psychometric tests or to detect cognitive changes in clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Unique and shared validity of the "Wechsler logical memory test", the "California verbal learning test", and the "verbal learning and memory test" in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstaedter, Christoph; Wietzke, Jennifer; Lutz, Martin T

    2009-12-01

    This study was set-up to evaluate the construct validity of three verbal memory tests in epilepsy patients. Sixty-one consecutively evaluated patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) or extra-temporal epilepsy (E-TLE) underwent testing with the verbal learning and memory test (VLMT, the German equivalent of the Rey auditory verbal learning test, RAVLT); the California verbal learning test (CVLT); the logical memory and digit span subtests of the Wechsler memory scale, revised (WMS-R); and testing of intelligence, attention, speech and executive functions. Factor analysis of the memory tests resulted in test-specific rather than test over-spanning factors. Parameters of the CVLT and WMS-R, and to a much lesser degree of the VLMT, were highly correlated with attention, language function and vocabulary. Delayed recall measures of logical memory and the VLMT differentiated TLE from E-TLE. Learning and memory scores off all three tests differentiated mesial temporal sclerosis from other pathologies. A lateralization of the epilepsy was possible only for a subsample of 15 patients with mesial TLE. Although the three tests provide overlapping indicators for a temporal lobe epilepsy or a mesial pathology, they can hardly be taken in exchange. The tests have different demands on semantic processing and memory organization, and they appear differentially sensitive to performance in non-memory domains. The tests capability to lateralize appears to be poor. The findings encourage the further discussion of the dependency of memory outcomes on test selection.

  9. Prioritizing Test Cases for Memory Leaks in Android Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Qian; Di Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Mobile applications usually can only access limited amount of memory. Improper use of the memory can cause memory leaks, which may lead to performance slowdowns or even cause applications to be unexpectedly killed. Although a large body of research has been devoted into the memory leak diagnosing techniques after leaks have been discovered, it is still challenging to find out the memory leak phenomena at first. Testing is the most widely used technique for failure discovery. However, traditional testing techniques are not directed for the discovery of memory leaks. They may spend lots of time on testing unlikely leaking executions and therefore can be inefficient. To address the problem, we propose a novel approach to prioritize test cases according to their likelihood to cause memory leaks in a given test suite. It firstly builds a prediction model to determine whether each test can potentially lead to memory leaks based on machine learning on selected code features. Then, for each input test case, we partly run it to get its code features and predict its likelihood to cause leaks. The most suspicious test cases will be suggested to run at first in order to reveal memory leak faults as soon as possible. Experimental evaluation on several Android applications shows that our approach is effective.

  10. Built-In Test Engine For Memory Test

    OpenAIRE

    McEvoy, Paul; Farrell, Ronan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we will present an on-chip method for testing high performance memory devices, that occupies minimal area and retains full flexibility. This is achieved through microcode test instructions and the associated on-chip state machine. In addition, the proposed methodology will enable at-speed testing of memory devices. The relevancy of this work is placed in context with an introduction to memory testing and the techniques and algorithms generally used today.

  11. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Shahidipour; Ahmad Geshani; Zahra Jafari; Shohreh Jalaie; Elham Khosravifard

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Memory is one of the aspects of cognitive function which is widely affected among aged people. Since aging has different effects on different memorial systems and little studies have investigated auditory-verbal memory function in older adults using dichotic listening techniques, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory-verbal memory function among old people using Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. Methods: The Persian version of dic...

  12. Reduced Capacity in a Dichotic Memory Test for Adult Patients with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dige, Niels; Maahr, Eija; Backenroth-Ohsako, Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether a dichotic memory test would reveal deficits in short-term working-memory recall and long-term memory recall in a group of adult patients with ADHD. Methods: A dichotic memory test with ipsilateral backward speech distraction in an adult ADHD group (n = 69) and a control group (n = 66) is used to compare performance…

  13. Testing Memories of Personally Experienced Events: The Testing Effect Seems Not to Persist in Autobiographical Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerdinger, Kathrin J.; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that retrieving contents from memory in a test improves long-term retention for those contents, even when compared to restudying (i.e., the “testing effect”). The beneficial effect of retrieval practice has been demonstrated for many different types of memory representations; however, one particularly important memory system has not been addressed in previous testing effect research: autobiographical memory. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of retrieving memories for personally experienced events on long-term memory for those events. In an initial elicitation session, participants described memories for personally experienced events in response to a variety of cue words. In a retrieval practice/restudy session the following day, they repeatedly practiced retrieval for half of their memories by recalling and writing down the previously described events; the other half of memories was restudied by rereading and copying the event descriptions. Long-term retention of all previously collected memories was assessed at two different retention intervals (2 weeks and 13 weeks). In the retrieval practice session, a hypermnesic effect emerged, with memory performance increasing across the practice cycles. Long-term memory performance significantly dropped from the 2-weeks to the 13-weeks retention interval, but no significant difference in memory performance was observed between previously repeatedly retrieved and previously repeatedly restudied memories. Thus, in autobiographical memory, retrieval practice seems to be no more beneficial for long-term retention than repeated re-exposure. PMID:29881365

  14. Non Volatile Flash Memory Radiation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.; Allen, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Commercial flash memory industry has experienced a fast growth in the recent years, because of their wide spread usage in cell phones, mp3 players and digital cameras. On the other hand, there has been increased interest in the use of high density commercial nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever increasing data requirements and strict power requirements. Because of flash memories complex structure; they cannot be treated as just simple memories in regards to testing and analysis. It becomes quite challenging to determine how they will respond in radiation environments.

  15. Using organisational memory in evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madri S. Jansen van Rensburg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the case of a regional intermediary organisation to investigate organisational memory (OM and its contribution to knowledge management and activities in evaluations. Understanding of, and accessing OM is critical for participatory evaluations. The aim of the article is to reflect on the OM of a non-governmental organisation (NGO and what implicationsthe structural changes in OM over the organisation’s life cycle have for evaluators. It further aims to advocate an awareness of OM and explains how evaluators can access and utilise it more effectively. Evaluators need to have an understanding of OM, and to take more responsibility for disseminating results to enhance it. This case study reflects on a retrospective case example of a regional NGO. The report reflects the development and structure of the life cycle of the organisation. The data collection included in-depth interviews with staff members and other key stakeholders, engagement with beneficiary organisations and donors, and analyses of documents, electronic files and audio-visual material. Since OM survives after the demise of an organisation, and is accessible through directories, it is important for the evaluator to include historical information. Specific implications for evaluators include the ability to access OM through directories and networks of the organisation. As evaluators hold OM of all the organisations they have engaged with, they also have a responsibility to share knowledge. The key findings of this study illustrate the importance of accessing the memory and historical information of the organisation. Understanding OM enhances the in-depth comprehension of the activity, project or programme under investigation, and the collective knowledge generated as a result of it.

  16. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    KAUST Repository

    Arminjon, Mathieu; Preissmann, Delphine; Chmetz, Florian; Duraku, Andrea; Ansermet, Franç ois; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a

  17. Test data generation for LRU cache-memory testing

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeni, Kornikhin

    2009-01-01

    System functional testing of microprocessors deals with many assembly programs of given behavior. The paper proposes new constraint-based algorithm of initial cache-memory contents generation for given behavior of assembly program (with cache misses and hits). Although algorithm works for any types of cache-memory, the paper describes algorithm in detail for basis types of cache-memory only: fully associative cache and direct mapped cache.

  18. Test-Retest Reliability of Computerized, Everyday Memory Measures and Traditional Memory Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngjohn, James R.; And Others

    Test-retest reliabilities and practice effect magnitudes were considered for nine computer-simulated tasks of everyday cognition and five traditional neuropsychological tests. The nine simulated everyday memory tests were from the Memory Assessment Clinic battery as follows: (1) simple reaction time while driving; (2) divided attention (driving…

  19. The Unintentional Memory Load in Tests for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret Hubbard

    The validity of certain standardized tests may be affected by the short-term memory load therein and its relation to a child's short-term memory capacity. Factors of testing which increase a test's memory load and consequently interfere with comprehension are discussed. It is hypothesized that a test which strains the short-term memory capacity of…

  20. Can Testing Immunize Memories against Interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Rosalind; Shanks, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Testing typically enhances subsequent recall of tested material. In contrast, it has been proposed that consolidated memories can be destabilized when reactivated and then need to be reconsolidated in order to persist. Learning new material immediately after reactivation may disrupt reconsolidation. We investigated whether the well-known benefits…

  1. Test Expectancy and Memory for Important Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research suggests that learners study and remember information differently depending upon the type of test they expect to later receive. The current experiments investigate how testing expectations impact the study of and memory for valuable information. Participants studied lists of words ranging in value from 1 to 10 points with the goal…

  2. Noncredible cognitive performance at clinical evaluation of adult ADHD : An embedded validity indicator in a visuospatial working memory test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Lara

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of performance validity is an essential part of the neuropsychological evaluation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most available tools, however, are inaccurate regarding the identification of noncredible performance. This study describes the development

  3. Evaluative Conditioning Can Be Modulated by Memory of the CS-US Pairings at the Time of Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Anne; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) is the valence change of a (typically neutral) stimulus (CS) that is due to the previous pairing with another (typically valent) stimulus (US). It has been repeatedly shown that EC effects are stronger or existent only if participants know which US was paired with which CS. Knowledge of the CS-US pairings is usually…

  4. Evaluation of Tests of Processing Speed, Spatial Ability, and Working Memory for use in Military Occupational Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Reviewed by Tanja Blackstone , Ph.D. Approved and released by D. M. Cashbaugh Director Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...these tests more favorably if the current stellar military recruiting environment deteriorates. The military has sustained a long running positive...recruiting environment due mainly to (1) the nation’s economic downturn resulting in a high unemployment rate and limited good job opportunities, (2) a

  5. A Pilot Study of a Test for Visual Recognition Memory in Adults with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Geunyeong; Ala, Tom; Kyrouac, Gregory A.; Verhulst, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective assessment of memory functioning is an important part of evaluation for Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT). The revised Picture Recognition Memory Test (r-PRMT) is a test for visual recognition memory to assess memory functioning of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), specifically targeting moderate to severe ID. A pilot study was…

  6. In search of memory tests equivalent for experiments on animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Kołat, Estera; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja

    2014-12-19

    Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test - Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test - Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary.

  7. [Psychometric validation of the telephone memory test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, T; Fernández, A; Martínez-Castillo, E; Maestú, F; Martínez-Arias, R; López-Ibor, J J

    1999-01-01

    Several pathologies (i.e. Alzheimer's disease) that courses with memory alterations, appears in a context of impaired cognitive status and mobility. In recent years, several investigations were carried out in order to design short batteries that detect those subjects under risk of dementia. Some of this batteries were also design to be administrated over the telephone, trying to overcome the accessibility limitations of this patients. In this paper we present a battery (called Autotest de Memoria) essentially composed by episodic and semantic memory tests, administered both over the telephone and face to face. This battery was employed in the cognitive assessment of healthy controls and subjects diagnosed as probable Alzheimer's disease patients. Results show the capability of this battery in order to discriminate patients and healthy controls, a great sensibility and specificity, and a nearly absolute parallelism of telephone and face to face administrations. These data led us to claim the usefulness and practicality of our so called Memoria>.

  8. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes does not modify the short- and long-term memory formation in rats evaluated in the novel object recognition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Salazar, G; Luna-Munguía, H; Stevens, K E; Besio, W G

    2013-04-01

    Noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) via tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCREs) has been under development as an alternative/complementary therapy for seizure control. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation has shown efficacy in attenuating penicillin-, pilocarpine-, and pentylenetetrazole-induced acute seizures in rat models. This study evaluated the effects of TFS via TCREs on the memory formation of healthy rats as a safety test of TFS. Short- and long-term memory formation was tested after the application of TFS using the novel object recognition (NOR) test. The following independent groups were used: naïve, control (without TFS), and TFS (treated). The naïve, control, and stimulated groups spent more time investigating the new object than the familiar one during the test phase. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation via TCREs given once does not modify the short- and long-term memory formation in rats in the NOR test. Results provide an important step towards a better understanding for the safe usage of TFS via TCREs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of memory impairment among community-dwelling elderly by using the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Toyota, Yasutaka; Matsumoto, Teruhisa; Sonobe, Naomi; Adachi, Hiroyoshi; Mori, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Fukuhara, Ryuji; Ikeda, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) to evaluate everyday memory impairment among community-dwelling elderly who had normal cognitive function and performed daily activities normally but displayed memory impairments, and to diagnose the condition as either mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Among the 1,290 community-dwelling elderly persons who participated in the study, 72 subjects scored higher than 24 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): these subjects performed daily activities normally, but their family members reported that they showed memory impairments. Fifty-two subjects completed RBMT, Clinical Dementia Rating, and brain computed tomography, and a final diagnosis was established. The mean standard profile score was 15.1±5.0 and mean screening score was 6.4±3.0. RBMT score was correlated with the MMSE score. Nine of the subjects were diagnosed with dementia and 26 of them were found to be normal. RBMT achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity with regard to the differentiation of subjects with Alzheimer's disease. However, some subjects were diagnosed with dementia even though their RBMT score was higher than the cut-off score. RBMT was useful in detecting memory impairments of Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects in community-based surveys. However, some subjects were diagnosed with dementia because of the existence of other cognitive impairments among community-dwelling elderly. (author)

  10. The effects of free recall testing on subsequent source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Marsh, Richard L; Meeks, Joseph T; Clark-Foos, Arlo; Hicks, Jason L

    2010-05-01

    The testing effect is the finding that prior retrieval of information from memory will result in better subsequent memory for that material. One explanation for these effects is that initial free recall testing increases the recollective details for tested information, which then becomes more available during a subsequent test phase. In three experiments we explored this hypothesis using a source-monitoring test phase after the initial free recall tests. We discovered that memory is differentially enhanced for certain recollective details depending on the nature of the free recall task. Thus further research needs to be conducted to specify how different kinds of memorial details are enhanced by free recall testing.

  11. Self-Testing Static Random-Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio; Rennels, David

    1991-01-01

    Proposed static random-access memory for computer features improved error-detecting and -correcting capabilities. New self-testing scheme provides for detection and correction of errors at any time during normal operation - even while data being written into memory. Faults in equipment causing errors in output data detected by repeatedly testing every memory cell to determine whether it can still store both "one" and "zero", without destroying data stored in memory.

  12. Testing for structural change in the presence of long memory

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Walter; Sibbertsen, Philipp

    2000-01-01

    We derive the limiting null distributions of the standard and OLS-based CUSUM-tests for structural change of the coefficients of a linear regression model in the context of long memory disturbances. We show that both tests behave fundamentally different in a long memory environment, as compared to short memory, and that long memory is easily mistaken for structural change when standard critical values are employed.

  13. Evaluating the relation between memory and intelligence in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerig, Dianne C; David, Andrew S; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2002-12-01

    Although both intelligence tests and memory tests are commonly used in neuropsychological examinations, the relationship between memory and intelligence has not been fully explored, particularly for children having learning disabilities. Memory, or the ability to retain information, was evaluated using the Test of Memory and Learning, a recently released test that gives a comprehensive measure of global memory functioning. This, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, used to assess intelligence, were given to 80 students with learning disabilities. The correlation between a global measure of memory and a global measure f intelligence was significant (r = .59), indicating that memory should be viewed as an important component when evaluating children with learning disabilities.

  14. Testing the effectiveness of group-based memory rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie A; Radford, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    Memory complaints are common after stroke, yet there have been very few studies of the outcome of memory rehabilitation in these patients. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new manualised, group-based memory training programme. Forty outpatients with a single-stroke history and ongoing memory complaints were enrolled. The six-week course involved education and strategy training and was evaluated using a wait-list crossover design, with three assessments conducted 12 weeks apart. Outcome measures included: tests of anterograde memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: RAVLT; Complex Figure Test) and prospective memory (Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test); the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire and self-report of number of strategies used. Significant training-related gains were found on RAVLT learning and delayed recall and on CAPM informant report. Lower baseline scores predicted greater gains for several outcome measures. Patients with higher IQ or level of education showed more gains in number of strategies used. Shorter time since onset was related to gains in prospective memory, but no other stroke-related variables influenced outcome. Our study provides evidence that a relatively brief, group-based training intervention can improve memory functioning in chronic stroke patients and clarified some of the baseline factors that influence outcome.

  15. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F C; Spaan, Pauline E J; Majoie, Charles B L M; Nederveen, Aart J; Walstra, Gerard J M; de Jonghe, Jos F M; van Gool, Willem A; Olabarriaga, Silvia D; Korkhov, Vladimir V; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in a memory clinic sample and its effect on the associations between hippocampal volume and memory performance. Eleven of 170 consecutive patients (6.5%; 13% of patients younger than 65 years) referred to memory clinics showed noncredible performance on symptom validity tests (SVTs, viz. Word Memory Test and Test of Memory Malingering). They were compared to a demographically matched group (n = 57) selected from the remaining patients. Hippocampal volume, measured by an automated volumetric method (Freesurfer), was correlated with scores on six verbal memory tests. The median correlation was r = .49 in the matched group. However, the relation was absent (median r = -.11) in patients who failed SVTs. Memory clinic samples may include patients who show noncredible performance, which invalidates their MCI diagnosis. This underscores the importance of applying SVTs in evaluating patients with cognitive complaints that may signify a predementia stage, especially when these patients are relatively young.

  16. Proficiency tests, Evaluating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofino, W.P.; Molenaar, J.; Torfs, P.J.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Marine monitoring programs provide data that are essential for marine management. The reliability of such data is underpinned by proficiency tests. In the context of Quasimeme, a proficiency testing program for the marine environment, a statistical model has been developed in 2000 to evaluate data

  17. Relationships between the National Adult Reading Test and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andreas; Wahlin, Tarja-Brita Robins; Pachana, Nancy A; Byrne, Gerard J

    2011-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between performance on the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and retrospective, concurrent, and prospective memory functioning, as well as between the NART and change in memory functioning over time. NART administered in 2005 was used as a predictor for memory functioning in 2001, 2005, and 2008, and change in memory functioning from 2001 to 2008. Outcome measures were Logical Memory II, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Spatial Span from the Wechsler Memory Scale. Participants were 319 healthy women aged 40-79 years at baseline (2001). Significant correlations were found between the number of errors on the NART and memory measures in 2001, 2005, and 2008; Logical Memory II (r = -.41, -.38, -.39, respectively), Letter-Number Sequencing (r = -.38, -.35, -.36, respectively) and Spatial Span (r = -.23, -.22, -.19, respectively; all p values memory, after controlling for age, level of education and socioeconomic status. NART also significantly added to predictions of change in Logical Memory II and Letter-Number Sequencing over a 7-year period. The results indicate that the NART is correlated with episodic and working memory, and that the NART added to predictions of change in verbal episodic and working memory. Although the relationships are only moderate at best, the NART may be used in conjunction with demographic information and clinical reasoning to estimate premorbid memory functioning.

  18. Evaluation of soft errors rate in a commercial memory EEPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Luiz H.; Silva, A.A.; Santos, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    Soft errors are transient circuit errors caused by external radiation. When an ion intercepts a p-n region in an electronic component, the ionization produces excess charges along the track. These charges when collected can flip internal values, especially in memory cells. The problem affects not only space application but also terrestrial ones. Neutrons induced by cosmic rays and alpha particles, emitted from traces of radioactive contaminants contained in packaging and chip materials, are the predominant sources of radiation. The soft error susceptibility is different for different memory technology hence the experimental study are very important for Soft Error Rate (SER) evaluation. In this work, the methodology for accelerated tests is presented with the results for SER in a commercial electrically erasable and programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). (author)

  19. A preclinical murine model for the early detection of radiation-induced brain injury using magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tests for learning and memory: with applications for the evaluation of possible stem cell imaging agents and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngen, Ethel J; Wang, Lee; Gandhi, Nishant; Kato, Yoshinori; Armour, Michael; Zhu, Wenlian; Wong, John; Gabrielson, Kathleen L; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell therapies are being developed for radiotherapy-induced brain injuries (RIBI). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers advantages for imaging transplanted stem cells. However, most MRI cell-tracking techniques employ superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs), which are difficult to distinguish from hemorrhage. In current preclinical RIBI models, hemorrhage occurs concurrently with other injury markers. This makes the evaluation of the recruitment of transplanted SPIO-labeled stem cells to injury sites difficult. Here, we developed a RIBI model, with early injury markers reflective of hippocampal dysfunction, which can be detected noninvasively with MRI and behavioral tests. Lesions were generated by sub-hemispheric irradiation of mouse hippocampi with single X-ray beams of 80 Gy. Lesion formation was monitored with anatomical and contrast-enhanced MRI and changes in memory and learning were assessed with fear-conditioning tests. Early injury markers were detected 2 weeks after irradiation. These included an increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, demonstrated by a 92 ± 20 % contrast enhancement of the irradiated versus the non-irradiated brain hemispheres, within 15 min of the administration of an MRI contrast agent. A change in short-term memory was also detected, as demonstrated by a 40.88 ± 5.03 % decrease in the freezing time measured during the short-term memory context test at this time point, compared to that before irradiation. SPIO-labeled stem cells transplanted contralateral to the lesion migrated toward the lesion at this time point. No hemorrhage was detected up to 10 weeks after irradiation. This model can be used to evaluate SPIO-based stem cell-tracking agents, short-term.

  20. The effect of evaluation on co-occurrence memory judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Amzaleg-David, Efrat

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effect of an attitude towards an object on the memory judgement of whether this object co-occurred with positive versus negative stimuli. We induced positive or negative attitudes towards novel male stimuli, and paired each man with an equal number of positive and negative animals. In a memory test, participants reported more co-occurrences of same-valence man/animal pairs than opposite-valence pairs. This valence-compatibility effect occurred even when attitudes were induced after the pairing (Experiment 1), when participants knew that each man occurred with an equal number of positive and negative animals (Experiment 2), and in reports of clear memory of pairs that did not co-occur (Experiment 3). The present findings suggest that evaluation causes illusory correlation even when the co-occurring stimuli are not traits or behaviours attributed to the attitude object. The results question the validity of co-occurrence memory judgements as measures of co-occurrence awareness in evaluative conditioning (EC) research.

  1. Radiation evaluation of commercial ferroelectric nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto, J.M.; DeLancey, W.M.; Oldham, T.R.; McGarrity, J.M.; Tipton, C.W.; Brassington, M.; Fisch, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on ferroelectric (FE) on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) 4-kbit nonvolatile memories, 8-bit octal latches (with and without FE), and process control test chips that were used to establish a baseline characterization of the radiation response of CMOS/FE integrated devices and to determine whether the additional FE processing caused significant degradation to the baseline CMOS process. Functional failure of all 4-kbit memories and octal latches occurred at total doses of between 2 and 4 krad(Si), most likely due to field- oxide effects in the underlying CMOS. No significant difference was observed between the radiation responses of devices with and without the FE film in this commercial process

  2. Testing a novel account of the dissociation between self-reported memory problems and memory performance in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Lise; Verma, Shailendra; Collins, Barbara; Chinneck, Anne; Bedard, Marc; Song, Xinni

    2018-01-01

    A puzzling observation pertaining to the impact of breast cancer on memory is the frequently reported dissociation between breast cancer survivors' self-reported memory problems and memory performance. We evaluated the hypothesis that the dissociation is related to the fact that the objective memory measures previously used assessed retrospective memory (RM) and did not tap prospective memory (PM), a domain about which survivors are complaining. In a case-healthy-control (N = 80) cross-sectional study, the Memory for Intention Screening Test was used to assess PM and the Wechsler Logical Memory Test was used to evaluate RM. Self-reported problems were assessed with the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. Measures of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: Fatigue) were also administered. Both groups reported more PM than RM problems (P memory problems than controls (all P memory problems. Although unrelated to performance, memory complaints should not be dismissed, as they are closely associated with depression and fatigue and reveal an important facet of the cancer experience. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Testing for Short Memory in a VARMA Process

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Timothy; Öller, Lars-Erik

    1997-01-01

    We generalize the short term memory test of an ARMA model, presented in Öller (1985), to the multivariate VARMA cases. In a study on Swedish exports and OECD demand we demonstrate how the multivariate setting extends the short memory.

  4. Testing for long memory in potentially nonstationary perturbed fractional processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Frank; Frederiksen, Per S.

    ¤er simulation results that show good size properties of the tests, with power against spurious long memory. An empirical study of daily log-squared returns series of exchange rates and DJIA30 stocks shows that indeed there is long memory in exchange rate volatility and stock return volatility....

  5. Computerized scoring algorithms for the Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Martens, Kris; Salmon, Karen; Raes, Filip

    2018-02-01

    Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories is a hallmark of depressive cognition. Autobiographical memory (AM) specificity is typically measured by the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), in which respondents are asked to describe personal memories in response to emotional cue words. Due to this free descriptive responding format, the AMT relies on experts' hand scoring for subsequent statistical analyses. This manual coding potentially impedes research activities in big data analytics such as large epidemiological studies. Here, we propose computerized algorithms to automatically score AM specificity for the Dutch (adult participants) and English (youth participants) versions of the AMT by using natural language processing and machine learning techniques. The algorithms showed reliable performances in discriminating specific and nonspecific (e.g., overgeneralized) autobiographical memories in independent testing data sets (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > .90). Furthermore, outcome values of the algorithms (i.e., decision values of support vector machines) showed a gradient across similar (e.g., specific and extended memories) and different (e.g., specific memory and semantic associates) categories of AMT responses, suggesting that, for both adults and youth, the algorithms well capture the extent to which a memory has features of specific memories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Field testing for cosmic ray soft errors in semiconductor memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, T.J.; Ross, J.M.; Taber, A.H.; Ziegler, J.F.; Muhlfeld, H.P.; Montrose, C.J.; Curtis, H.W.; Walsh, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a review of experiments performed by IBM to investigate the causes of soft errors in semiconductor memory chips under field test conditions. The effects of alpha-particles and cosmic rays are separated by comparing multiple measurements of the soft-error rate (SER) of samples of memory chips deep underground and at various altitudes above the earth. The results of case studies on four different memory chips show that cosmic rays are an important source of the ionizing radiation that causes soft errors. The results of field testing are used to confirm the accuracy of the modeling and the accelerated testing of chips

  7. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in auditory memory was seen in aged group and the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test, like many other auditory verbal memory tests, showed the aging effects on auditory verbal memory performance.

  8. Testing the exclusivity effect in location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel P A; Dunn, Andrew K; Baguley, Thom

    2013-01-01

    There is growing literature exploring the possibility of parallel retrieval of location memories, although this literature focuses primarily on the speed of retrieval with little attention to the accuracy of location memory recall. Baguley, Lansdale, Lines, and Parkin (2006) found that when a person has two or more memories for an object's location, their recall accuracy suggests that only one representation can be retrieved at a time (exclusivity). This finding is counterintuitive given evidence of non-exclusive recall in the wider memory literature. The current experiment explored the exclusivity effect further and aimed to promote an alternative outcome (i.e., independence or superadditivity) by encouraging the participants to combine multiple representations of space at encoding or retrieval. This was encouraged by using anchor (points of reference) labels that could be combined to form a single strongly associated combination. It was hypothesised that the ability to combine the anchor labels would allow the two representations to be retrieved concurrently, generating higher levels of recall accuracy. The results demonstrate further support for the exclusivity hypothesis, showing no significant improvement in recall accuracy when there are multiple representations of a target object's location as compared to a single representation.

  9. Ecological assessment of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease using the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolló-Gasol, S; Piñol-Ripoll, G; Cejudo-Bolivar, J C; Llorente-Vizcaino, A; Peraita-Adrados, H

    2014-01-01

    The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) is a short, ecologically-valid memory test battery that can provide data about a subject's memory function in daily life. We used RBMT to examine daily memory function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer disease (AD), and in healthy controls. We also evaluated differences between the memory profiles of subjects whose MCI remained stable after 1 year and those with conversion to AD. Sample of 91 subjects older than 60 years: 30 controls, 27 MCI subjects and 34 AD patients. Subjects were assessed using MMSE and RBMT. The 40 men and 51 women in the sample had a mean age of 74.29±6.71 and 5.87±2.93 years of education. For the total profile and screening RBMT scores (Pde Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Musical Ability and the Drake Music Memory Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lawrence R.; Eisenman, Russell

    1972-01-01

    Results show that the Drake Music Memory Test should be able to discriminate between the poorest and strongest prospects for success in profiting from musical instruction, although it may not be particularly useful in individual counseling. (Authors)

  11. An evaluation of the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The effect of statins on memory and psychomotor function has been controversial and needs further evaluation. Aims : To evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients treated with enalapril or amlodipine. Settings and Design : Prospective, comparative, non-randomized, before-after, open-label clinical study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Western India. Materials and Methods : Memory was evaluated with PGI (Post Graduate Institute, Chandigarh Memory Scale, while psychomotor functions were evaluated with Digit Letter Substitution test, Six Letter Cancellation test, and Finger Tapping test at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of starting atorvastatin in 74 hypertensive patients who were prescribed either enalapril or amlodipine with or without atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Scores obtained in patients receiving enalapril or amlodipine were compared with those receiving these drugs along with atorvastatin. Memory and psychomotor functions of 12 healthy volunteers were also evaluated and compared with those of the patients at respective time periods. Statistical Analysis : Student′s t test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, and Mann Whitney U test were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment scores of memory and psychomotor functions in various groups. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Results : A statistically significant improvement in scores of memory and psychomotor functions was observed in both healthy volunteers (P=0.009 and P=0.016 and hypertensive patients (P=0.008 and P=0.031 throughout the study period. Memory and psychomotor function in hypertensive patients remained significantly inferior to those of healthy volunteers (P=0.01 and P=0.018. There was no significant difference in the scores of memory and psychomotor functions between patients receiving atorvastatin and those not receiving this drug. Conclusion : Atorvastatin, at 10 mg/day dose, does not

  12. Memory Test Performance on Analogous Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Tests in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Baldock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Discussion: Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.

  13. Memory Test Performance on Analogous Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Tests in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, Deanna; Miller, Justin B; Leger, Gabriel C; Banks, Sarah Jane

    2016-01-01

    Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.

  14. From SOPs to Reports to Evaluations: Learning and Memory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an era of global trade and regulatory cooperation, consistent and scientifically based interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies is essential. Because there is flexibility in the selection of test method(s), consistency can be especially challenging for learning and memory tests required by EPA and OECD DNT guidelines (chemicals and pesticides) and recommended for ICH prenatal/postnatal guidelines (pharmaceuticals). A well­ reasoned uniform approach is particularly important for variable endpoints and if non-standard tests are used. An understanding of the purpose behind the tests and expected outcomes is critical, and attention to elements of experimental design, conduct, and reporting can improve study design by the investigator as well as accuracy and consistency of interpretation by evaluators. This understanding also directs which information must be clearly described in study reports. While missing information may be available in standardized operating procedures (SOPs), if not clearly reflected in report submissions there may be questions and misunderstandings by evaluators which could impact risk assessments. A practical example will be presented to provide insights into important variables and reporting approaches. Cognitive functions most often tested in guidelines studies include associative, positional, sequential, and spatial learning and memory in weanling and adult animals. These complex behaviors tap different bra

  15. Amsterdam Short-Term Memory test: a new procedure for the detection of feigned memory deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, S.; Schmand, B.; de Sterke, S.; Lindeboom, J.

    1997-01-01

    The validity of two malingering tests, the newly developed Amsterdam Short-Term Memory (ASTM) test and the Distraction test (Baker, Hanley, Jackson, Kimmance, & Slade, 1993) was examined in a group of patients with closed-head injury (CHI), a normal control group, and a control group with

  16. Memory testing in dementia: how much is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrer, D S; Howieson, D B; Mueller, E A; Camicioli, R M; Sexton, G; Kaye, J A

    2001-01-01

    Analyses of eight widely used memory measures (Word List Acquisition and Recall used in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychology battery, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised [WMS-R] Logical Memory I and II, WMS-R Visual Reproduction I and II, the memory scores from the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination [NCSE], memory scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]), and the MMSE total score showed each to have moderate predictive power in differentiating between patients with mild dementia and healthy normal controls. When these instruments were combined in a logistic regression analysis, three of them had substantial predictive power. Together, the Word List Acquisition, WMS-R Logical Memory II, and WMS-R Visual Reproduction II were 97.26% accurate (100% sensitive and 94.59% specific) in distinguishing these two groups. The Word List Acquisition is a brief test that alone had high accuracy (92%). These memory tests are highly useful in the diagnosis of mild dementia.

  17. [Effects of false memories on the Concealed Information Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2012-10-01

    The effects of false memories on polygraph examinations with the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which allows participants to evoke false memories. Physiological responses to questions consisting of learned, lure, and unlearned items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that responses to lure questions showed critical responses to questions about learned items. These responses included repression of respiration, an increase in electrodermal activity, and a drop in heart rate. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated in the peripheral nervous system by true and false memories.

  18. A test of the survival processing advantage in implicit and explicit memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Dawn M; Thomas, Brandon J; Zimmerman, Corinne

    2013-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the survival processing effect (Nairne, Thompson, & Pandeirada, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 263-273, 2007) in cued implicit and explicit memory tests. The survival effect has been well established in explicit free recall and recognition tests, but has not been evident in implicit memory tests or in cued explicit tests. In Experiment 1 of the present study, we tested implicit and explicit memory for words studied in survival, moving, or pleasantness contexts in stem completion tests. In Experiment 2, we further tested these effects in implicit and explicit category production tests. Across the two experiments, with four separate memory tasks that included a total of 525 subjects, no survival processing advantage was found, replicating the results from implicit tests reported by Tse and Altarriba (Memory & Cognition, 38, 1110-1121, 2010). Thus, although the survival effect appears to be quite robust in free recall and recognition tests, it has not been replicated in cued implicit and explicit memory tests. The similar results found for the implicit and explicit tests in the present study do not support encoding elaboration explanations of the survival processing effect.

  19. Evaluation of color preference in zebrafish for learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdesh, Avdesh; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T; Mondal, Alinda; Chen, Mengqi; Askraba, Sreten; Morgan, Newman; Lardelli, Michael; Groth, David M; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. A zebrafish model of tauopathies has recently been developed and characterized in terms of presence of the pathological hallmarks (i.e., neurofibrillary tangles and cell death). However, it is also necessary to validate these models for function by assessing learning and memory. The majority of tools to assess memory and learning in animal models involve visual stimuli, including color preference. The color preference of zebrafish has received little attention. To validate zebrafish as a model for color-associated-learning and memory, it is necessary to evaluate its natural preferences or any pre-existing biases towards specific colors. In the present study, we have used four different colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) to test natural color preferences of the zebrafish using two procedures: Place preference and T-maze. Results from both experiments indicate a strong aversion toward blue color relative to all other colors (red, yellow, and green) when tested in combinations. No preferences or biases were found among reds, yellows, and greens in the place preference procedure. However, red and green were equally preferred and both were preferred over yellow by zebrafish in the T-maze procedure. The results from the present study show a strong aversion towards blue color compared to red, green, and yellow, with yellow being less preferred relative to red and green. The findings from this study may underpin any further designing of color-based learning and memory paradigms or experiments involving aversion, anxiety, or fear in the zebrafish.

  20. Assessment of Prospective Memory – a Validity Study of Memory for Intentions Screening Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezdicek, O.; Raskin, S.A.; Altgassen, A.M.; Ruzicka, E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal of the present study was to validate the Czech version of the Memory for Intentions (Screening) Test (MIST, 2010). We included standardized testing material, translation of administration and scoring, and assessment of normative data for the MIST in the Czech population. Introduction:

  1. Memory detection 2.0: the first web-based memory detection test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Bennett; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs) can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime) information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24), and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262) tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin) and 2 low salient (favourite colour, favourite animal) autobiographical details. RTs allowed to detect concealed autobiographical information, and this, as predicted, more successfully so than error rates, and for high salient than for low salient items. While much remains to be learned, memory detection 2.0 seems to offer an interesting new platform to efficiently and validly conduct RT-based memory detection research.

  2. Memory detection 2.0: the first web-based memory detection test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Kleinberg

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24, and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262 tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin and 2 low salient (favourite colour, favourite animal autobiographical details. RTs allowed to detect concealed autobiographical information, and this, as predicted, more successfully so than error rates, and for high salient than for low salient items. While much remains to be learned, memory detection 2.0 seems to offer an interesting new platform to efficiently and validly conduct RT-based memory detection research.

  3. Fracture evaluation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this report period, efforts have concentrated on defining the requirements for shallow-flaw beam testing. Analyses have been made to envelope the significant parameters for both deep- and shallow-flaw beams for three-point loading; that is, load to initiation of a frangible flaw, load to plastic collapse, LLD, and CMOD. An assessment was made of facilities capable of performing the tests identified by the parametric analyses discussed above. Two testing machines were identified for performing the scoped test series, the first a 550-kip Instron machine assigned to the Pressure Vessel Technology Section located in Building 9204-1 at the Y-12 Plant and the second a 220-kip MTS machine assigned to a mechanical testing group located at the K-25 Site. An existing bend test fixture previously used in the HSST clad plate test series is being modified for use in testing beams under other sponsorship but will be available for shared usage with the HSST shallow-flaw beam testing activities. To prevent the shared usage from having an adverse impact on the logistics of the HSST Program, the decision was made to procure a bend test fixture tailored specifically to serve the shallow flaw beam test series. A specification was prepared and procurement initiated. A survey is in progress for determining sources and costs of displacement-measuring instrumentation from both foreign and domestic sources. It appears that existing direct current displacement transducers available to the HSST Program may be adequate for the LLD measurements. These devices will be employed in the shakedown tests that are planned. A safety and environmental survey assessment for the beam testing conforming to the revised DOE rules has been prepared and approved

  4. Efecto del tipo de prueba de evaluación en la memoria y valoración de marcas publicitarias (Effect of the type of memory test on the evaluation of brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martín-Luengo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory tests are frequently used to measure the effectiveness of an advertisement. However, as different tests provide different kinds of information it is important to know which type of test is the most appropriate. The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different memory tests on the number of brands recalled and the level of interest generated by them. A group of participants wrote down all the brands of any kind of product that they remembered having seen advertised (free recall test and rated their interest in each brand. Subsequently, the participants were given a list of 27 categories and wrote down the brands they associated with the categories (cued recall test and also rated their level of interest. The results showed that although the participants generated more brand names with the cued recall test, the brand names mentioned in the free recall test generated greater interest. These results highlight the importance of choosing the correct memory test to measure the effect of publicity.

  5. The effects of emotion regulation on explicit memory depend on strategy and testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Marisa; Ponzio, Allison

    2013-12-01

    Although previous work has shown that emotion regulation strategies can influence memory, the mechanisms through which different strategies produce different memory outcomes are not well understood. We examined how two cognitive reappraisal strategies with similar elaboration demands but diverging effects on visual attention and emotional arousal influenced explicit memory for emotional stimuli and for the strategies used to evaluate the stimuli. At encoding, participants used reappraisal to increase and decrease the personal relevance of neutral and emotional pictures. In two experiments, recall accuracy was highest for emotional pictures featured on increase trials, intermediate for emotional pictures featured on look (respond naturally) trials, and lowest for emotional pictures featured on decrease trials. This recall pattern emerged after a short delay (15 min) and persisted over a longer delay (48 hr). Memory accuracy for the strategies used to evaluate the pictures showed a different pattern: Strategy memory was better for emotional pictures featured on decrease and increase trials than for pictures featured on look trials. Our findings show that the effects of emotion regulation on memory depend both on the particular strategy engaged and the particular aspect of memory being tested.

  6. Pigeons exhibit higher accuracy for chosen memory tests than for forced memory tests in duration matching-to-sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Allison; Santi, Angelo

    2011-03-01

    Following training to match 2- and 8-sec durations of feederlight to red and green comparisons with a 0-sec baseline delay, pigeons were allowed to choose to take a memory test or to escape the memory test. The effects of sample omission, increases in retention interval, and variation in trial spacing on selection of the escape option and accuracy were studied. During initial testing, escaping the test did not increase as the task became more difficult, and there was no difference in accuracy between chosen and forced memory tests. However, with extended training, accuracy for chosen tests was significantly greater than for forced tests. In addition, two pigeons exhibited higher accuracy on chosen tests than on forced tests at the short retention interval and greater escape rates at the long retention interval. These results have not been obtained in previous studies with pigeons when the choice to take the test or to escape the test is given before test stimuli are presented. It appears that task-specific methodological factors may determine whether a particular species will exhibit the two behavioral effects that were initially proposed as potentially indicative of metacognition.

  7. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory.......We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non...

  8. Test-retest reliability and validity of the Sniffin' TOM odor memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Zehner, Cora; Larsson, Maria; Zucco, Gesualdo M; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Few attempts have been made to develop an olfactory test that captures episodic retention of olfactory information. Assessment of episodic odor memory is of particular interest in aging and in the cognitively impaired as both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss have been targeted as reliable hallmarks of cognitive decline and impending dementia. Here, 96 healthy participants (18-92 years) and an additional 19 older people with mild cognitive impairment were tested (73-82 years). Participants were presented with 8 common odors with intentional encoding instructions that were followed by a yes-no recognition test. After recognition completion, participants were asked to identify all odors by means of free or cued identification. A retest of the odor memory test (Sniffin' TOM = test of odor memory) took place 17 days later. The results revealed satisfactory test-retest reliability (0.70) of odor recognition memory. Both recognition and identification performance were negatively affected by age and more pronounced among the cognitively impaired. In conclusion, the present work presents a reliable, valid, and simple test of episodic odor recognition memory that may be used in clinical groups where both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss are prevalent preclinically such as Alzheimer's disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Memory and metamemory performance in Alzheimer's disease and healthy elderly: the Contextual Memory Test (CMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, N; Josman, N

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of the Contextual Memory Test (CMT) to differentiate between elderly people suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) in comparison to healthy elderly people. Specifically, the objectives were to compare for differences between and within the groups on components of memory, including immediate and delayed recall as well as recognition. In addition, parameters of metamemory skills, such as general awareness, self-prediction of memory capacity, self-estimation, strategy use and use of contextual information, as well as the correlation between self-awareness and actual performance in both groups, were investigated. The sample consisted of 60 elderly participants, including 30 people diagnosed with AD who were assigned to the research group and 30 people matched for age, gender and educational level who were assigned to the control group. The results provide support for the hypothesis positing differences in memory performance between healthy elderly participants and those suffering from AD, particularly in immediate and delayed recall as well as in recognition. Moreover, findings indicate an improvement in memory performance under the cued condition (contextual), whereas improvement in the AD group proved to be significant only for immediate recall. The findings point to a distinct overestimation of memory ability predicted by both the AD and control groups. Following the memory task, however, the participants accurately estimated the number of items they remembered. In addition, significant correlations between the use of contextual and association strategies and the number of items remembered by both groups were obtained, in immediate as well as in delayed recall. Therefore, these findings support the CMT as a valuable memory and metamemory assessment tool for use with the AD population.

  10. The Object Context-place-location Paradigm for Testing Spatial Memory in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesburguères, Edith; Tsokas, Panayiotis; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Fenton, André Antonio

    2017-04-20

    This protocol was originally designed to examine long-term spatial memory in PKMζ knockout ( i.e ., PKMζ-null) mice (Tsokas et al ., 2016). Our main goal was to test whether the ability of these animals to maintain previously acquired spatial information was sensitive to the type and complexity of the spatial information that needs to be remembered. Accordingly, we modified and combined into a single protocol, three novelty-preference tests, specifically the object-in-context, object-in-place and object-in-location tests, adapted from previous studies in rodents (Mumby et al ., 2002; Langston and Wood, 2010; Barker and Warburton, 2011). During the training (learning) phase of the procedure, mice are repeatedly exposed to three different environments in which they learn the spatial arrangement of an environment-specific set of non-identical objects. After this learning phase is completed, each mouse receives three different memory tests configured as environment mismatches, in which the previously learned objects-in-space configurations have been modified from the original training situation. The mismatch tests differ in their cognitive demands due to the type of spatial association that is manipulated, specifically evaluating memory for object-context and object-place associations. During each memory test, the time differential spent exploring the novel (misplaced) and familiar objects is computed as an index of novelty discrimination. This index is the behavioral measure of memory recall of the previously acquired spatial associations.

  11. Shattered illusions: the effect of explicit memory mediation on an indirect memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, P A; Mayes, A R; Meudell, P R

    1999-05-01

    Four experiments were conducted to explore the possible involvement of explicit memory in an indirect memory test in which white noise accompanying old sentences was judged to be quieter than white noise accompanying new sentences (Jacoby, Allan, Collins & Larwill, 1988). Experiment 1 established that this effect lasted up to 1 week. Experiment 2 found that a group of amnesic patients showed a noise effect that was marginally above chance and not significantly less that that of their matched controls after a delay of one day. Effect of time pressure at test (Experiment 3) and divided attention at study (Experiment 4) suggested that the memory processes mediating the noise effect were not automatic, although the possibility that the processes involve enhanced fluency is also discussed.

  12. The Role of Long-Term Memory in a Test of Visual Working Memory: Proactive Facilitation but No Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Awh, Edward; Sutterer, David W.

    2017-01-01

    We report 4 experiments examining whether associations in visual working memory are subject to proactive interference from long-term memory (LTM). Following a long-term learning phase in which participants learned the colors of 120 unique objects, a working memory (WM) test was administered in which participants recalled the precise colors of 3…

  13. Episodic, generalized, and semantic memory tests: switching and strength effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Michael S; Murray, Krista L

    2011-09-01

    We continue the process of investigating the probabilistic paired associate paradigm in an effort to understand the memory access control processes involved and to determine whether the memory structure produced is in transition between episodic and semantic memory. In this paradigm two targets are probabilistically paired with a cue across a large number of short lists. Participants can recall the target paired with the cue in the most recent list (list specific test), produce the first of the two targets that have been paired with that cue to come to mind (generalised test), and produce a free association response (semantic test). Switching between a generalised test and a list specific test did not produce a switching cost indicating a general similarity in the control processes involved. In addition, there was evidence for a dissociation between two different strength manipulations (amount of study time and number of cue-target pairings) such that number of pairings influenced the list specific, generalised and the semantic test but amount of study time only influenced the list specific and generalised test. © 2011 Canadian Psychological Association

  14. Children's memories of removal: a test of attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Baugerud, Gunn Astrid; Ovenstad, Kristianne Stigsdatter; Goodman, Gail S

    2013-02-01

    We report a study of parents' attachment orientations and children's autobiographical memory for an experience that according to Bowlby's (1982) attachment theory should be particularly threatening-children's forced separation from their parents. It was hypothesized that individual differences in parents' attachment orientations would be associated with children's distress and memory for this highly traumatic event. Children (n = 28) were observed during forced removal from home or school by Child Protective Services due to allegations of child maltreatment. Children's memory for the removal was tested 1 week later, and biological parents (n = 28) completed an adult attachment measure. Parental attachment anxiety significantly predicted children's distress during less stressful phases of the removal, R(2) = .25, and parents' attachment-related avoidance predicted fewer correct memory reports from the children (i.e., fewer hits to open-ended questions, R(2) = .16, and fewer hits to direct questions, R(2) = .27). The findings indicate that attachment theory provides important guidance for understanding children's autobiographical memory for traumatic events. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. Computerized visuo-spatial memory test as a supplementary screening test for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2010-06-01

    To prepare for a super-aging society, effective dementia screening tests are required. The most salient deficit appearing from the early stages of dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a deterioration in memory. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale-revised (HDS-R) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) are widely used in Japan to screen for dementia. Both place an emphasis on memory function, but neither examines visuo-spatial memory (VSM) function, even though VSM deficits are a sensitive marker for the detection of conversion to dementia. Furthermore, brief tests of VSM that are appropriate for screening have not been standardized. Thus, in the present study, we devised a brief, computer-aided short-term VSM test. Sixty-six aged people were evaluated. Using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), it was found that 29 could be considered normal controls (NC; CDR 0), 10 had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; CDR 0.5), 15 had mild dementia (CDR 1), and 12 had moderate to severe dementia (CDR 2-3). The VSM test estimated how many locations each subject could memorize. Several numbered circles were shown on a monitor and subjects were required to memorize the location of these circles sequentially. After the numbers on the circles on the screen had disappeared, the subjects were required to indicate the circles in ascending order. A touch panel screen was used for this test to make it easier. The HDS-R was applied to subjects with MCI and dementia. The mean (+/-SD) VSM score in subjects with MCI (5.70 +/- 0.96) was significantly lower than that in NC subjects (6.69 +/- 0.82), but significantly higher than that in subjects classified as CDR 1 (4.67 +/- 0.87). There was no significant difference in VSM scores between subjects classified as CDR 1 and CDR 2-3 (3.80 +/- 0.80). There was a moderate significant correlation between VSM and HDS-R scores. In the present study, the VSM test detected differences in VSM function among NC subjects and subjects with MCI and mild dementia. The

  16. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison E Nickel

    Full Text Available While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test; for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test. Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness.

  17. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Allison E.; Henke, Katharina; Hannula, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test); for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test). Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness. PMID:26512726

  18. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Allison E; Henke, Katharina; Hannula, Deborah E

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test); for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test). Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness.

  19. WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY TEST REVEALS SUBJECTS DIFFICULTIES MANAGING LIMITED CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Ershova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Free recall consists of two separate stages: the emptying of working memory and reactivation [5]. The Tarnow Unchunkable Test (TUT, [7] uses double integer items to separate out only the first stage by making it difficult to reactivate items due to the lack of intra-item relationships.193 Russian college students were tested via the internet version of the TUT. The average number of items remembered in the 3 item test was 2.54 items. In the 4 item test, the average number of items decreased to 2.38. This, and a number of other qualitative distribution differences between the 3 and 4 item tests, indicate that the average capacity limit of working memory has been reached at 3 items. This provides the first direct measurement of the unchunkable capacity limit of number items.Difficulties in managing working memory occurred as most subjects remembered less as the number of items increased beyond capacity and failed to remember a single item in at least one out of three 4 item trials. The Pearson correlation between the total recall of 3 and 4 items was a small 38%.

  20. Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current nondestructive testing for retired crankshafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chen; Hua, Lin; Wang, Xiaokai; Wang, Zhou; Qin, Xunpeng; Fang, Zhou [Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To verify the validity of the Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current (CMMEC) testing for crankshafts, we use this technique to test a 12-cylinder V-design diesel crankshaft. First, the stress distribution in the crankshaft was obtained under 12 working conditions using a Finite element (FE) model that complied with the commercial FE code ABAQUS. Second, Magnetic memory testing (MMT) and Eddy current testing (ECT) were adopted to detect the regions of stress concentration in the crankshaft and the specific location of cracks based on simulation results. Lastly, magnetic particle testing was conducted to detect and display the corresponding crack to verify the CMMEC testing results. The MMT and ECT results can provide basis and guidance for the remanufacture and life evaluation of retired crankshafts.

  1. Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current nondestructive testing for retired crankshafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Chen; Hua, Lin; Wang, Xiaokai; Wang, Zhou; Qin, Xunpeng; Fang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    To verify the validity of the Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current (CMMEC) testing for crankshafts, we use this technique to test a 12-cylinder V-design diesel crankshaft. First, the stress distribution in the crankshaft was obtained under 12 working conditions using a Finite element (FE) model that complied with the commercial FE code ABAQUS. Second, Magnetic memory testing (MMT) and Eddy current testing (ECT) were adopted to detect the regions of stress concentration in the crankshaft and the specific location of cracks based on simulation results. Lastly, magnetic particle testing was conducted to detect and display the corresponding crack to verify the CMMEC testing results. The MMT and ECT results can provide basis and guidance for the remanufacture and life evaluation of retired crankshafts.

  2. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  3. Memory for emotional events: The role of time of testing and type of test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Goergen Brust

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of emotion on memory performance is widely debated in the scientific literature. In the present paper, the relation between emotion and memory was addressed in three experiments using the Slideshow Procedure. In the first experiment, 128 participants’ memory was tested for one of two versions of the Procedure (arousal or neutral through free recall. In the second experiment, 75 participants were asked to recall the information of the arousal version immediately after or one week after watching it. In the third experiment, 75 participants watched the arousal version and answered either a free recall or a recognition test one week after. The results suggested that memory for arousal events is better when tested immediately after the stimuli using free recall.

  4. Dichotic assessment of verbal memory function: development and validation of the Persian version of Dichotic Verbal Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamollaei, Maryam; Jafari, Zahra; Tahaei, Aliakbar; Toufan, Reyhane; Keyhani, Mohammadreza; Rahimzade, Shadi; Esmaeili, Mahdieh

    2013-09-01

    The Dichotic Verbal Memory Test (DVMT) is useful in detecting verbal memory deficits and differences in memory function between the brain hemispheres. The purpose of this study was to prepare the Persian version of DVMT, to obtain its results in 18- to 25-yr-old Iranian individuals, and to examine the ear, gender, and serial position effect. The Persian version of DVMT consisted of 18 10-word lists. After preparing the 18 lists, content validity was assessed by a panel of eight experts and the equivalency of the lists was evaluated. Then the words were recorded on CD in a dichotic mode such that 10 words were presented to one ear, with the same words reversed simultaneously presented to the other ear. Thereafter, it was performed on a sample of young, normal, Iranian individuals. Thirty normal individuals (no history of neurological, ontological, or psychological diseases) with ages ranging from 18 to 25 yr were examined for evaluating the equivalency of the lists, and 110 subjects within the same age range participated in the final stage of the study to obtain the normative data on the developed test. There was no significant difference between the mean scores of the 18 developed lists (p > 0.05). The mean content validity index (CVI) score was .96. A significant difference was found between the mean score of the two ears (p < 0.05) and between female and male participants (p < 0.05). The Persian version of DVMT has good content validity and can be used for verbal memory assessment in Iranian young adults. American Academy of Audiology.

  5. LEARNING AND MEMORY TESTS IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for functional tests to assess the impact of chemicals on cognitive function in offspring following maternal exposure. A test of associative learning and memory is to be conducted around th...

  6. Coverage of the Test of Memory Malingering, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and Word Memory Test on the Internet: is test security threatened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lyndsey; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    In forensic neuropsychological settings, maintaining test security has become critically important, especially in regard to symptom validity tests (SVTs). Coaching, which can entail providing patients or litigants with information about the cognitive sequelae of head injury, or teaching them test-taking strategies to avoid detection of symptom dissimulation has been examined experimentally in many research studies. Emerging evidence supports that coaching strategies affect psychological and neuropsychological test performance to differing degrees depending on the coaching paradigm and the tests administered. The present study sought to examine Internet coverage of SVTs because it is potentially another source of coaching, or information that is readily available. Google searches were performed on the Test of Memory Malingering, the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and the Word Memory Test. Results indicated that there is a variable amount of information available about each test that could threaten test security and validity should inappropriately interested parties find it. Steps that could be taken to improve this situation and limitations to this exploration are discussed.

  7. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  8. Working memory, attentional regulation and the Star Counting Test.

    OpenAIRE

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Jong, de, P.F.; Koopmans, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Star Counting Test (SCT) has been developed to measure the regulatory function of attention. In a previous study it was shown that the SCT is suited for assessment of this attentional aspect with children. The present study concerns a more difficult version aimed at young adults. In the literature, the regulatory function of attention is increasingly stressed and it has been linked to working memory functioning. In order to further determine the validity of the SCT, performance was checke...

  9. A performance evaluation of in-memory databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Talha Kabakus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of NoSQL databases has increased due to the need of (1 processing vast amount of data faster than the relational database management systems by taking the advantage of highly scalable architecture, (2 flexible (schema-free data structure, and, (3 low latency and high performance. Despite that memory usage is not major criteria to evaluate performance of algorithms, since these databases serve the data from memory, their memory usages are also experimented alongside the time taken to complete each operation in the paper to reveal which one uses the memory most efficiently. Currently there exists over 225 NoSQL databases that provide different features and characteristics. So it is necessary to reveal which one provides better performance for different data operations. In this paper, we experiment the widely used in-memory databases to measure their performance in terms of (1 the time taken to complete operations, and (2 how efficiently they use memory during operations. As per the results reported in this paper, there is no database that provides the best performance for all data operations. It is also proved that even though a RDMS stores its data in memory, its overall performance is worse than NoSQL databases.

  10. Memory assessment and depression: testing for factor structure and measurement invariance of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition across a clinical and matched control sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Between-group comparisons are permissible and meaningfully interpretable only if diagnostic instruments are proved to measure the same latent dimensions across different groups. Addressing this issue, the present study was carried out to provide a rigorous test of measurement invariance. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine which model solution could best explain memory performance as measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in a clinical depression sample and in healthy controls. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate the evidence for measurement invariance. A three-factor model solution including the dimensions of auditory memory, visual memory, and visual working memory was identified to best fit the data in both samples, and measurement invariance was partially satisfied. The results supported clinical utility of the WMS-IV--that is, auditory and visual memory performances of patients with depressive disorders are interpretable on the basis of the WMS-IV standardization data. However, possible differences in visual working memory functions between healthy and depressed individuals could restrict comparisons of the WMS-IV working memory index.

  11. Test Reviews: Reynolds, C., & Voress, J. K. (2007). "Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition." Austin, TX: PRO-ED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Decker, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition (TOMAL-2), published by PRO-ED, which constitutes a recent revision of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL; Reynolds & Bigler, 1994). Advertised as the "single most comprehensive memory battery available for the entire age range of 5 years through 59 years of age", the TOMAL-2…

  12. Testing of the structural evaluation test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Bobbe, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    In the evaluation of the safety of radioactive material transportation it is important to consider the response of Type B packages to environments more severe than that prescribed by the hypothetical accident sequence in Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (NRC 1995). The impact event in this sequence is a 9-meter drop onto an essentially unyielding target, resulting in an impact velocity of 13.4 m/s. The behavior of 9 packages when subjected to impacts more severe than this is not well known. It is the purpose of this program to evaluate the structural response of a test package to these environments. Several types of structural response are considered. Of primary importance is the behavior of the package containment boundary, including the bolted closure and 0-rings. Other areas of concern are loss of shielding capability due to lead slump and the deceleration loading of package contents, that may cause damage to them. This type of information is essential for conducting accurate risk assessments on the transportation of radioactive materials. Currently very conservative estimates of the loss of package protection are used in these assessments. This paper will summarize the results of a regulatory impact test and three extra-regulatory impact tests on a sample package

  13. The Metamemory Approach to Confidence: A Test Using Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William F.; Sampaio, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The metamemory approach to memory confidence was extended and elaborated to deal with semantic memory tasks. The metamemory approach assumes that memory confidence is based on the products and processes of a completed memory task, as well as metamemory beliefs that individuals have about how their memory products and processes relate to memory…

  14. The Cambridge Car Memory Test: a task matched in format to the Cambridge Face Memory Test, with norms, reliability, sex differences, dissociations from face memory, and expertise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Tavashmi, Raka; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Edwards, Mark; Duchaine, Bradley

    2012-06-01

    Many research questions require a within-class object recognition task matched for general cognitive requirements with a face recognition task. If the object task also has high internal reliability, it can improve accuracy and power in group analyses (e.g., mean inversion effects for faces vs. objects), individual-difference studies (e.g., correlations between certain perceptual abilities and face/object recognition), and case studies in neuropsychology (e.g., whether a prosopagnosic shows a face-specific or object-general deficit). Here, we present such a task. Our Cambridge Car Memory Test (CCMT) was matched in format to the established Cambridge Face Memory Test, requiring recognition of exemplars across view and lighting change. We tested 153 young adults (93 female). Results showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .84) and a range of scores suitable both for normal-range individual-difference studies and, potentially, for diagnosis of impairment. The mean for males was much higher than the mean for females. We demonstrate independence between face memory and car memory (dissociation based on sex, plus a modest correlation between the two), including where participants have high relative expertise with cars. We also show that expertise with real car makes and models of the era used in the test significantly predicts CCMT performance. Surprisingly, however, regression analyses imply that there is an effect of sex per se on the CCMT that is not attributable to a stereotypical male advantage in car expertise.

  15. Temporal lobe volume predicts Wada memory test performance in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kan; Gong, Yunhua; Modur, Pradeep N; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Agostini, Mark; Gupta, Puneet; McColl, Roderick; Hays, Ryan; Van Ness, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The Wada test is widely used in the presurgical evaluation of potential temporal lobectomy patients to predict postoperative memory function. Expected asymmetry (EA), defined as Wada memory lateralized to the nonsurgical hemisphere, or a higher score after injection of the surgical hemisphere would be considered favorable in terms of postoperative memory outcome. However, in some cases, nonlateralized memory (NM) results, with no appreciable asymmetry, may occur because of impaired scores after both injections, often leading to denial of surgery. The reason for such nonlateralized Wada memory in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains unclear. Given that quantitative morphometric magnetic resonance imaging studies in TLE patients have shown bilateral regional atrophy in temporal and extratemporal structures, we hypothesized that the volume loss in contralateral temporal structures could contribute to nonlateralized Wada memory performance. To investigate this, we examined the relationship between the volume changes of temporal structures and Wada memory scores in patients with intractable TLE with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) using an age- and gender-matched control group. Memory was considered nonlateralized if the absolute difference in the total correct recall scores between ipsilateral and contralateral injections was memory was lateralized in 15 and nonlateralized in 6 patients, with all the nonlateralized scores being observed in left TLE. The recall scores after ipsilateral injection were significantly lower in patients with an NM profile than an EA profile (23 ± 14% vs. 59 ± 18% correct recall, p ≤ 0.001). However, the recall scores after contralateral injection were low but similar between the two groups (25 ± 17% vs. 25 ± 15% correct recall, p=0.97). Compared to controls, all the patients showed greater volume loss in the temporal regions. However, patients with a NM profile showed significantly more volume loss than those

  16. Measurement of overgeneral autobiographical memory: Psychometric properties of the autobiographical memory test in young and older populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Laura; Romero, Dulce; Ricarte, Jorge J; Serrano, Juan P; Nieto, Marta; Latorre, Jose M

    2018-01-01

    The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is the most widely used measure of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The AMT appears to have good psychometric properties, but more research is needed on the influence and applicability of individual cue words in different languages and populations. To date, no studies have evaluated its usefulness as a measure of OMG in Spanish or older populations. This work aims to analyze the applicability of the AMT in young and older Spanish samples. We administered a Spanish version of the AMT to samples of young (N = 520) and older adults (N = 155). We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), item response theory-based analysis (IRT) and differential item functioning (DIF). Results confirm the one-factor structure for the AMT. IRT analysis suggests that both groups find the AMT easy given that they generally perform well, and that it is more precise in individuals who score low on memory specificity. DIF analysis finds three items differ in their functioning depending on age group. This differential functioning of these items affects the overall AMT scores and, thus, they should be excluded from the AMT in studies comparing young and older samples. We discuss the possible implications of the samples and cue words used.

  17. A modified parallel paradigm for clinical evaluation of auditory echoic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, Shotaro; Yumoto, Masato; Itoh, Kenji; Yamakawa, Keiko; Mizuochi, Tomomi; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-05-12

    We established a new parallel paradigm for mismatch negativity by presenting repetitive trains of three consonant-vowel syllables and those of three sinusoidal tones alternately. Magnetoencephalography was performed to test the new method, and mismatch negativities in six study participants with normal hearing were compared with the results of the conventional oddball paradigm. Peak amplitude and latencies of mismatch negativity showed no significant difference between the methods. The maximum amplitude in short memory probe interval of 1.0 s was significantly larger than in long memory probe interval of 3.0 s, demonstrating decay in auditory echoic memory caused by a prolonged memory probe interval. The new method facilitated simultaneous evaluation of mismatch negativity with various stimuli in a shorter period.

  18. Memory and Evaluation Effects in Competitive Advertising Environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Kevin Lane

    1991-01-01

    A laboratory experiment replicates and extends prior research on how competitive advertising and retrieval cues affect consumer memory and evaluations of brands. The number and valence of competing ads, presence of ad retrieval cues, and valence of target ads were manipulated. A high level of competitive advertising varying in valence produced interference effects for recall and evaluations. Ad retrieval cues offset these effects and enhanced recall and evaluations even when there were no com...

  19. Memory, Cognition and the Endogenous Evoked Potentials of the Brain: the Estimation of the Disturbance of Cognitive Functions and Capacity of Working Memory Without the Psychological Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnezditskiy, V V; Korepina, O S; Chatskaya, A V; Klochkova, O I

    2017-01-01

    Cognition, cognitive and memory impairments is widely discussed in the literature, especially in the psycho physiological and the neurologic. In essence, this literature is dedicated to the psycho physiological tests, different scales. However, instrument neurophysiologic methods not so widely are used for these purposes. This review is dedicated to the instrument methods of neurophysiology, in particular to the endogenous evoked potentials method Р 300 (by characteristic latency 300 ms), in the estimation of cognitive functions and memory, to their special features dependent on age and to special features to their changes with the pathology. Method cognitive EP - Р 300 is the response of the brain, recorded under the conditions of the identification of the significant distinguishing stimulus, it facilitates the inspection of cognitive functions and memory in the healthy persons and patients with different manifestation of cognitive impairments. In the review it is shown on the basis of literature and our own data, that working (operative) memory and the capacity of the working memory it can be evaluated with the aid of the indices Р 300 within the normal subject and with the pathology. Testing with the estimation of working memory according to latent period of the peak Р 300 can be carried out and when conducting psychological testing is not possible for any reasons. Together with these cognitive EP are used for evidence pharmacotherapy of many neurotropic drugs.

  20. Controlled encoding strategies in memory tests in lithium patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenoorth, E; Karlick-Bolten, E

    1986-03-01

    The "levels of processing" theory (Craik and Lockhart) and "dual coding" theory (Paivio) provide new aspects for clinical memory research work. Therefore, an incidental learning paradigm on the basis of these two theoretical approaches was chosen to test aspects of memory performances with lithium therapy. Results of two experiments, with controlled non-semantic processing (rating experiment "comparison of size") and additive semantic processing (rating "living--non-living") indicate a slight reduction in recall (Fig. 1) and recognition performance (Fig. 2) in lithium patients. Effects on encoding strategies are of equal quality in patients and healthy subjects (Tab. 1, 2) but performance differs between both groups: poorer systematic benefit from within code repetitions ("word-word" items, "picture-picture" items) and dual coding (repeated variable item presentation "picture-word") is obtained. The less efficient encoding strategies in the speeded task are discussed with respect to cognitive rigidity and slowing of performance by emotional states. This investigation of so-called "memory deficits" with lithium is an attempt to explore impairments at an early stage of processing; the characterization of the perceptual cognitive analysis seems useful for further clinical research work on this topic.

  1. A dual memory theory of the testing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Timothy C; Pan, Steven C

    2017-06-05

    A new theoretical framework for the testing effect-the finding that retrieval practice is usually more effective for learning than are other strategies-is proposed, the empirically supported tenet of which is that separate memories form as a consequence of study and test events. A simplest case quantitative model is derived from that framework for the case of cued recall. With no free parameters, that model predicts both proportion correct in the test condition and the magnitude of the testing effect across 10 experiments conducted in our laboratory, experiments that varied with respect to material type, retention interval, and performance in the restudy condition. The model also provides the first quantitative accounts of (a) the testing effect as a function of performance in the restudy condition, (b) the upper bound magnitude of the testing effect, (c) the effect of correct answer feedback, (d) the testing effect as a function of retention interval for the cases of feedback and no feedback, and (e) the effect of prior learning method on subsequent learning through testing. Candidate accounts of several other core phenomena in the literature, including test-potentiated learning, recognition versus cued recall training effects, cued versus free recall final test effects, and other select transfer effects, are also proposed. Future prospects and relations to other theories are discussed.

  2. Assessment of Nondeclarative Learning in Severe Alzheimer Dementia The Implicit Memory Test (IMT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Remmerswaal, M.; Wilson, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD) have impaired explicit memory, more automatic, implicit aspects of learning and memory may be relatively preserved. However, neuropsychological tests for the assessment of implicit memory are lacking. This study examines a newly developed test, the

  3. Assessment of nondeclarative learning in severe Alzheimer dementia: the Implicit Memory Test (IMT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Remmerswaal, M.; Wilson, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD) have impaired explicit memory, more automatic, implicit aspects of learning and memory may be relatively preserved. However, neuropsychological tests for the assessment of implicit memory are lacking. This study examines a newly developed test, the

  4. New Methodologies To Evaluate the Memory Strategies of Deaf Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Diane

    Prior studies have often confounded linguistic and perceptual performance when evaluating deaf subjects' skills, a confusion that may be responsible for results indicating lesser recall ability among the deaf. In this series of studies this linguistic/perceptual confound was investigated in both the iconic and short term memory of deaf…

  5. Assessment of Alcohol-related Memory Deficits: A Comparison between the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test and the California Verbal Learning Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, A.J.; Roelofs, R.L.; Egger, J.I.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Neuropsychological assessment of memory disorders is an important prerequisite in the treatment of patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Although many memory tests are available in clinical practice, a question remains regarding which test is most appropriate for this

  6. Not All Order Memory Is Equal: Test Demands Reveal Dissociations in Memory for Sequence Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Tanya R.; MacLeod, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Remembering the order of a sequence of events is a fundamental feature of episodic memory. Indeed, a number of formal models represent temporal context as part of the memory system, and memory for order has been researched extensively. Yet, the nature of the code(s) underlying sequence memory is still relatively unknown. Across 4 experiments that…

  7. Maintenance proficiency evaluation test bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Loran

    2003-01-01

    The Maintenance Proficiency Evaluation Test Bank (MPETB) is an Electric Power Research Institute- (EPRJ-) operated, utility-sponsored means of developing, maintaining, and disseminating secure, high-quality written and performance maintenance proficiency tests. EPRTs charter is to ensure that all tests and test items that go into the Test Bank have been validated, screened for reliability, and evaluated to high standards of psychometric excellence. Proficiency tests of maintenance personnel.(mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control [I and C] technicians) are most often used to determine if an experienced employee is capable of performing maintenance tasks without further training. Such tests provide objective evidence for decisions to exempt an employee from what, for the employee, is unnecessary training. This leads to considerable savings in training costs and increased productivity because supervisors can assign personnel to tasks at which their competence is proven. The ultimate objective of proficiency evaluation is to ensure that qualified maintenance personnel are available to meet the maintenance requirements of the plant Numerous task-specific MPE tests (both written and performance) have been developed and validated using the EPRI MPE methodology by the utilities participating in the MPETB project A task-specific MPE consists of a multiple-choice written examination and a multi-step performance evaluation that can be used to assess an individual's present knowledge and skill level for a given maintenance task. The MPETB contains MPEs and test items for the mechanical, electrical, and I and C classifications that are readily available to participating utilities. Presently, utilities are placing emphasis on developing MPEs to evaluate outage-related maintenance tasks that demonstrate the competency and qualifications of plant and contractor personnel before the start of outage work. Utilities are also using the MPE methodology and process to

  8. Memory Binding Test Predicts Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, Wenzhu B; Lipton, Richard B; Katz, Mindy J; Ramratan, Wendy S; Loewenstein, David A; Zimmerman, Molly E; Buschke, Herman

    2016-07-14

    The Memory Binding Test (MBT), previously known as Memory Capacity Test, has demonstrated discriminative validity for distinguishing persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and dementia from cognitively normal elderly. We aimed to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI. In a longitudinal, community-based study of adults aged 70+, we administered the MBT to 246 cognitively normal elderly adults at baseline and followed them annually. Based on previous work, a subtle reduction in memory binding at baseline was defined by a Total Items in the Paired (TIP) condition score of ≤22 on the MBT. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI accounting for the effects of covariates. The hazard ratio of incident aMCI was also assessed for different prediction time windows ranging from 4 to 7 years of follow-up, separately. Among 246 controls who were cognitively normal at baseline, 48 developed incident aMCI during follow-up. A baseline MBT reduction was associated with an increased risk for developing incident aMCI (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.30-4.56, p = 0.005). When varying the prediction window from 4-7 years, the MBT reduction remained significant for predicting incident aMCI (HR range: 2.33-3.12, p: 0.0007-0.04). Persons with poor performance on the MBT are at significantly greater risk for developing incident aMCI. High hazard ratios up to seven years of follow-up suggest that the MBT is sensitive to early disease.

  9. Fault Localization Method by Partitioning Memory Using Memory Map and the Stack for Automotive ECU Software Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanhyo Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of the automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU and its software in cars is increasing. Therefore, as the functional complexity of such software increases, so does the likelihood of software-related faults. Therefore, it is important to ensure the reliability of ECU software in order to ensure automobile safety. For this reason, systematic testing methods are required that can guarantee software quality. However, it is difficult to locate a fault during testing with the current ECU development system because a tester performs the black-box testing using a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL simulator. Consequently, developers consume a large amount of money and time for debugging because they perform debugging without any information about the location of the fault. In this paper, we propose a method for localizing the fault utilizing memory information during black-box testing. This is likely to be of use to developers who debug automotive software. In order to observe whether symbols stored in the memory have been updated, the memory is partitioned by a memory map and the stack, thus the fault candidate region is reduced. A memory map method has the advantage of being able to finely partition the memory, and the stack method can partition the memory without a memory map. We validated these methods by applying these to HiL testing of the ECU for a body control system. The preliminary results indicate that a memory map and the stack reduce the possible fault locations to 22% and 19% of the updated memory, respectively.

  10. Memory functions in chronic pain: examining contributions of attention and age to test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Derksen, Laura C; van Wijck, Albert J M; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Kessels, Roy P C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain, mediate the decline in memory. Finally, previous studies have focused on middle-aged adults, and a possible detrimental effect of aging on memory performance in chronic pain patients has been commonly disregarded. This study, therefore, aimed at describing the pattern of semantic, working, and visual and verbal episodic memory performance in participants with chronic pain, while testing for possible contributions of attention and age to task performance. Thirty-four participants with chronic pain and 32 pain-free participants completed tests of episodic, semantic, and working memory to assess memory performance and a test of attention. Participants with chronic pain performed worse on tests of working memory and verbal episodic memory. A decline in attention explained some, but not all, group differences in memory performance. Finally, no additional effect of age on the diminished task performance in participants with chronic pain was observed. Taken together, the results indicate that chronic pain significantly affects memory performance. Part of this effect may be caused by underlying attentional dysfunction, although this could not fully explain the observed memory decline. An increase in age in combination with the presence of chronic pain did not additionally affect memory performance.

  11. Quality of education and memory test performance in older men: the New York University Paragraph Recall Test normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin; Caban-Holt, Allison; Dennis, Brandon C; Kryscio, Richard; Schmitt, Frederick

    2013-09-01

    Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders.One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one's literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill. Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores. Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented. The current study provides evidence and support for normativedata stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education.

  12. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  13. Suppressing Unwanted Autobiographical Memories Reduces Their Automatic Influences: Evidence From Electrophysiology and an Implicit Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Bergström, Zara M; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress unwanted autobiographical memories in a memory-detection context involving a mock crime. Participants encoded sensorimotor-rich memories by enacting a lab-based crime (stealing a ring) and received instructions to suppress memory of the crime in order to evade guilt detection in a brain-wave-based concealed-information test. Aftereffects of suppression on automatic memory processes were measured in an autobiographical Implicit Association Test. Results showed that suppression attenuated brain-wave activity (the P300) associated with crime-relevant memory retrieval, which rendered waveforms from innocent and guilty participants indistinguishable. However, the two groups could nevertheless be discriminated via the late-posterior-negative slow wave, which may reflect the need to monitor response conflict arising between voluntary suppression and automatic recognition processes. Finally, extending recent findings that suppression can impair implicit memory processes, we provide novel evidence that suppression reduces automatic cognitive biases often associated with actual autobiographical memories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Clinical utility of auditory memory testing in a heart failure population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Dustin B; Jung, Miyeon; Pressler, Susan J; Sullivan, Barbara-Jean; Koelling, Todd; Giordani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The self-care regimen necessary in heart failure (HF) is notably complex. A complication to integrating new knowledge and behaviors is that impaired cognition has been frequently reported in patients with HF, which significantly impacts patients' health, admission and mortality rates, and instrumental activities of daily living. The identification of reliable cognitive screening tools to assess potential difficulties in performing self-care for cardiac populations is essential. As such, the current purposes were to evaluate the validity and stability of the International Shopping List (ISL) auditory learning subtest from the computerized CogState battery as a screening tool in HF populations, determine the ISL's ability to predict functional declines, and evaluate the task's sensitivity in myocardial infarction. Forty patients with chronic HF were enrolled in a longitudinal study evaluating the impact of a cognitive training intervention. Baseline neuropsychological and behavioral measurements before treatment were used in the current study, including measures of auditory memory, orientation, verbal fluency, processing speed, and activities of daily living, and a subset of patients (n = 17) received repeat testing at 8 weeks on some tasks. Analyses also were performed with patients organized based on myocardial infarction status. The current study indicated that the ISL performed comparably with an established measure of auditory memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised; r = 0.70, P auditory memory subtest, the ISL, seems to be a beneficial tool in evaluating cognitive change in HF patients. Particularly given its cross-cultural sensitivity and ease of administration and scoring, this task may provide assistance to quickly and reliably monitor memory functioning in these vulnerable patients and gauge their potential for self-care behaviors.

  15. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  16. Tests of a Structural Theory of the Memory Trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory V.

    1978-01-01

    Jones (1976) has shown that the memory trace resulting from the viewing of a picture corresponds to a "fragment" of that picture. This research shows that the fragmentation hypothesis also correctly represents the recall of memories derived from sentences, i.e., the functional unit of memory, the mnemonic trace, is a fragment of the original item.…

  17. Schizophrenia patients demonstrate a dissociation on declarative and non-declarative memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, W; Light, G A; Davis, H; Braff, D L

    2000-12-15

    Declarative memory refers to the recall and recognition of factual information. In contrast, non-declarative memory entails a facilitation of memory based on prior exposure and is typically assessed with priming and perceptual-motor sequencing tasks. In this study, schizophrenia patients were compared to normal comparison subjects on two computerized memory tasks: the Word-stem Priming Test (n=30) and the Pattern Sequence Learning Test (n=20). Word-stem Priming includes recall, recognition (declarative) and priming (non-declarative) components of memory. The schizophrenia patients demonstrated an impaired performance on recall of words with relative improvement during the recognition portion of the test. Furthermore, they performed normally on the priming portion of the test. Thus, on tests of declarative memory, the patients had retrieval deficits with intact performance on the non-declarative memory component. The Pattern Sequence Learning Test utilizes a serial reaction time paradigm to assess non-declarative memory. The schizophrenia patients' serial reaction time was significantly slower than that of comparison subjects. However, the patients' rate of acquisition was not different from the normal comparison group. The data suggest that patients with schizophrenia process more slowly than normal, but have an intact non-declarative memory. The schizophrenia patients' dissociation on declarative vs. non-declarative memory tests is discussed in terms of possible underlying structural impairment.

  18. Specificity in autobiographical memory narratives correlates with performance on the Autobiographical Memory Test and prospectively predicts depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Mineka, Susan; McAdams, Dan P.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive marker in depression that is typically measured with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). The AMT is widely used, but the overreliance on a single methodology for assessing AMS is a limitation in the field. The current study investigated memory narratives as an alternative measure of AMS in an undergraduate student sample selected for being high or low on a measure of depressive symptoms (N = 55). We employed a multi-method design to compare narrative- and AMT-based measures of AMS. Participants generated personally significant self-defining memory narratives, and also completed two versions of the AMT (with and without instructions to retrieve specific memories). Greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives correlated with greater AMS in performance on both versions of the AMT in the full sample, and the patterns of relationships between the different AMS measures were generally similar in low and high dysphoric participants. Furthermore, AMS in self-defining memory narratives was prospectively associated with depressive symptom levels. Specifically, greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives predicted fewer depressive symptoms at a 10-week follow-up over and above baseline symptom levels. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:23240988

  19. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  20. Memory-impairing effects of local anesthetics in an elevated plus-maze test in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Blatt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-training intracerebroventricular administration of procaine (20 µg/µl and dimethocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, local anesthetics of the ester class, prolonged the latency (s in the retention test of male and female 3-month-old Swiss albino mice (25-35 g body weight; N = 140 in the elevated plus-maze (mean ± SEM for 10 male mice: control = 41.2 ± 8.1; procaine = 78.5 ± 10.3; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 58.7 ± 12.3; 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 109.6 ± 5.73; for 10 female mice: control = 34.8 ± 5.8; procaine = 55.3 ± 13.4; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 59.9 ± 12.3 and 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 61.3 ± 11.1. However, lidocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, an amide class type of local anesthetic, failed to influence this parameter. Local anesthetics at the dose range used did not affect the motor coordination of mice exposed to the rota-rod test. These results suggest that procaine and dimethocaine impair some memory process(es in the plus-maze test. These findings are interpreted in terms of non-anesthetic mechanisms of action of these drugs on memory impairment and also confirm the validity of the elevated plus-maze for the evaluation of drugs affecting learning and memory in mice

  1. Test-retest reliability and practice effects of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ada H Y; Humphreys, Michael; Byrne, Gerard J; Pachana, Nancy A

    2012-09-01

    Although serial administration of cognitive tests is increasingly common, there is a paucity of research on test-retest reliabilities and practice effects, both of which are important for evaluating changes in functioning. Reliability is generally conceptualized as involving short-lasting changes in performance. However, when repeated testing occurs over a period of years, there will be some longer lasting effects. The implications of these longer lasting effects and practice effects on reliability were examined in the context of repeated administrations of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in 339 community-dwelling women aged 40-79 years over 2 to 7 years. The results showed that Logical Memory and Verbal Paired Associates subtests were consistently the most reliable subtests across the age cohorts. The magnitude of practice effects varied as a function of subtests and age. The largest practice effects were found in the youngest age cohort, especially on the Faces, Logical Memory, and Verbal Paired Associates subtests. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Evaluation of the attentional capacities and working memory of early and late blind persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Caroline; Marin-Lamellet, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Although attentional processes and working memory seem to be significantly involved in the daily activities (particularly during navigating) of persons who are blind and who use these abilities to compensate for their lack of vision, few studies have investigated these mechanisms in this population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the selective, sustained and divided attention, attentional inhibition and switching and working memory of blind persons. Early blind, late blind and sighted participants completed neuropsychological tests that were designed or adapted to be achievable in the absence of vision. The results revealed that the early blind participants outperformed the sighted ones in selective, sustained and divided attention and working memory tests, and the late blind participants outperformed the sighted participants in selective, sustained and divided attention. However, no differences were found between the blind groups and the sighted group in the attentional inhibition and switching tests. Furthermore, no differences were found between the early and late blind participants in this set of tests. These results suggest that early and late blind persons can compensate for the lack of vision by an enhancement of the attentional and working memory capacities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Evaluation of Significant Autobiographical Memories Scale: Design and structural validation at an exploratory level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolich, María; Azzollini, Susana

    2016-11-01

    Personal memories are multimodal cognitive representations. Nowadays, psychometric instruments which aim to assess signifcant memories phenomenological features are scarce. Consequently, the Evaluation of Signifcant Autobiographical Memories Scale was constructed and structural validated at an exploratory level. A total of 404 individuals from Buenos Aires city (Argentina) participated in the research. Initially, an expert judgment and a pilot study administration were carried out. Next, a homogeneity and a principal components analysis were implemented. To assess the scale reliability, Cronbach's alphas coefficients were analyzed. The fnal version has 30 Likert response items gathered in 8 dimensions. Satisfactory psychometric proprieties were obtained - internal consistency of .892 and a total explained variance of 65.78%. The scale provides two main scores regarding the total quantity and intensity of the phenomenological components as well as a partial score per each dimension. It is stated that the test will prove to be useful in the research feld as well as in the clinical area.

  4. Word Memory Test Performance Across Cognitive Domains, Psychiatric Presentations, and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jared A; Miskey, Holly M; Brearly, Timothy W; Martindale, Sarah L; Shura, Robert D

    2017-05-01

    The current study addressed two aims: (i) determine how Word Memory Test (WMT) performance relates to test performance across numerous cognitive domains and (ii) evaluate how current psychiatric disorders or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history affects performance on the WMT after excluding participants with poor symptom validity. Participants were 235 Iraq and Afghanistan-era veterans (Mage = 35.5) who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were divided into two groups based on WMT performance (Pass = 193, Fail = 42). Tests were grouped into cognitive domains and an average z-score was calculated for each domain. Significant differences were found between those who passed and those who failed the WMT on the memory, attention, executive function, and motor output domain z-scores. WMT failure was associated with a larger performance decrement in the memory domain than the sensation or visuospatial-construction domains. Participants with a current psychiatric diagnosis or mTBI history were significantly more likely to fail the WMT, even after removing participants with poor symptom validity. Results suggest that the WMT is most appropriate for assessing validity in the domains of attention, executive function, motor output and memory, with little relationship to performance in domains of sensation or visuospatial-construction. Comprehensive cognitive batteries would benefit from inclusion of additional performance validity tests in these domains. Additionally, symptom validity did not explain higher rates of WMT failure in individuals with a current psychiatric diagnosis or mTBI history. Further research is needed to better understand how these conditions may affect WMT performance. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Evaluating the RELM Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Sachs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider implications of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM test results with regard to earthquake forecasting. Prospective forecasts were solicited for M≥4.95 earthquakes in California during the period 2006–2010. During this period 31 earthquakes occurred in the test region with M≥4.95. We consider five forecasts that were submitted for the test. We compare the forecasts utilizing forecast verification methodology developed in the atmospheric sciences, specifically for tornadoes. We utilize a “skill score” based on the forecast scores λfi of occurrence of the test earthquakes. A perfect forecast would have λfi=1, and a random (no skill forecast would have λfi=2.86×10-3. The best forecasts (largest value of λfi for the 31 earthquakes had values of λfi=1.24×10-1 to λfi=5.49×10-3. The best mean forecast for all earthquakes was λ̅f=2.84×10-2. The best forecasts are about an order of magnitude better than random forecasts. We discuss the earthquakes, the forecasts, and alternative methods of evaluation of the performance of RELM forecasts. We also discuss the relative merits of alarm-based versus probability-based forecasts.

  6. Programs for Testing Processor-in-Memory Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    The Multithreaded Microbenchmarks for Processor-In-Memory (PIM) Compilers, Simulators, and Hardware are computer programs arranged in a series for use in testing the performances of PIM computing systems, including compilers, simulators, and hardware. The programs at the beginning of the series test basic functionality; the programs at subsequent positions in the series test increasingly complex functionality. The programs are intended to be used while designing a PIM system, and can be used to verify that compilers, simulators, and hardware work correctly. The programs can also be used to enable designers of these system components to examine tradeoffs in implementation. Finally, these programs can be run on non-PIM hardware (either single-threaded or multithreaded) using the POSIX pthreads standard to verify that the benchmarks themselves operate correctly. [POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface for UNIX) is a set of standards that define how programs and operating systems interact with each other. pthreads is a library of pre-emptive thread routines that comply with one of the POSIX standards.

  7. Initial Results from On-Orbit Testing of the Fram Memory Test Experiment on the Fastsat Micro-Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeond, Todd C.; Sims, W. Herb; Varnavas,Kosta A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    The Memory Test Experiment is a space test of a ferroelectric memory device on a low Earth orbit satellite that launched in November 2010. The memory device being tested is a commercial Ramtron Inc. 512K memory device. The circuit was designed into the satellite avionics and is not used to control the satellite. The test consists of writing and reading data with the ferroelectric based memory device. Any errors are detected and are stored on board the satellite. The data is sent to the ground through telemetry once a day. Analysis of the data can determine the kind of error that was found and will lead to a better understanding of the effects of space radiation on memory systems. The test is one of the first flight demonstrations of ferroelectric memory in a near polar orbit which allows testing in a varied radiation environment. The initial data from the test is presented. This paper details the goals and purpose of this experiment as well as the development process. The process for analyzing the data to gain the maximum understanding of the performance of the ferroelectric memory device is detailed.

  8. Development of Next Generation Memory Test Experiment for Deployment on a Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd; Ho, Fat D.

    2012-01-01

    The original Memory Test Experiment successfully flew on the FASTSAT satellite launched in November 2010. It contained a single Ramtron 512K ferroelectric memory. The memory device went through many thousands of read/write cycles and recorded any errors that were encountered. The original mission length was schedule to last 6 months but was extended to 18 months. New opportunities exist to launch a similar satellite and considerations for a new memory test experiment should be examined. The original experiment had to be designed and integrated in less than two months, so the experiment was a simple design using readily available parts. The follow-on experiment needs to be more sophisticated and encompass more technologies. This paper lays out the considerations for the design and development of this follow-on flight memory experiment. It also details the results from the original Memory Test Experiment that flew on board FASTSAT. Some of the design considerations for the new experiment include the number and type of memory devices to be used, the kinds of tests that will be performed, other data needed to analyze the results, and best use of limited resources on a small satellite. The memory technologies that are considered are FRAM, FLASH, SONOS, Resistive Memory, Phase Change Memory, Nano-wire Memory, Magneto-resistive Memory, Standard DRAM, and Standard SRAM. The kinds of tests that could be performed are read/write operations, non-volatile memory retention, write cycle endurance, power measurements, and testing Error Detection and Correction schemes. Other data that may help analyze the results are GPS location of recorded errors, time stamp of all data recorded, radiation measurements, temperature, and other activities being perform by the satellite. The resources of power, volume, mass, temperature, processing power, and telemetry bandwidth are extremely limited on a small satellite. Design considerations must be made to allow the experiment to not interfere

  9. Space radiation evaluation of 16Mbit DRAMs for mass memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvel, P.; Lamothe, P.; Barillot, C.; Ecoffet, R.; Duzellier, S.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of Mass Memory Applications for space missions, 16 Mbit DRAM from IBM and TEXAS INSTRUMENTS have been evaluated to space radiation, by the CECIL heavy ions testing coordination group. This paper presents heavy ions, protons and total dose data results for 16 Mbit DRAMs from IBM and TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, including a 'built-in ECC' DRAM. Single Event Phenomena rate are calculated for low earth orbits

  10. Evaluation of Short Term Memory Span Function In Children

    OpenAIRE

    Barış ERGÜL; Arzu ALTIN YAVUZ; Ebru GÜNDOĞAN AŞIK

    2016-01-01

    Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors ...

  11. Processes of conscious and unconscious memory: evidence from current research on dissociation of memories within a test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chao-Ming; Huang, Chin-Lan

    2011-01-01

    The processes of conscious memory (CM) and unconscious memory (UM) are explored, based on the results of the current and previous studies in which the 2 forms of memory within a test were separated by either the process dissociation or metacognition-based dissociation procedure. The results assessing influences of shallow and deep processing, association, and self-generation on CM in explicit and implicit tests are taken as evidence that CM in a test is driven not only conceptually but also by the driving nature of the test, and CM benefits from an encoding condition to the extent that information processing for CM recapitulates that engaged in the encoding condition.Those influences on UM in explicit and implicit tests are taken to support the view that UM in a test is driven by the nature of the test itself, and UM benefits from an encoding condition to the extent that the cognitive environments at test and at study match to activate the same type of information (e.g., visual, lexical, or semantic) about memory items or the same content of a preexisting association or categorical structure.

  12. Relationship Between the Wada Test and Preoperative/Postoperative Memory in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu POLAT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between Wada memory test and neuropsychometric tests which were applied preoperatively to mesialtemporal lobe epilepsy patients associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS who had undergone selective amygdalohippocampectomyand find out the effects of early onset epileptic seizures on atypical memory dominance.Methods: Drug-resistant 27 patients (16 left, 11 right MTLE-HS had video EEG, cranial MRI and Wada test preoperatively. Weschler visualsubtest and verbal memory processing tests were applied to all patients before surgery and the first year after the operation.Results: The number of left hemisphere memory dominant patients was 6 (22.2% and the number of atypical memory dominant patientswas 21 (77.8% according to the Wada test. There was a significant difference between the two groups when compared for epileptic seizureonset age; (p=0.042, and also a significant diffference when compared for HS (right/left side (p=0.002. When we analyzed the correlationbetween preoperative and postoperative verbal and nonverbal tests and left memory Wada dominance; in verbal memory processing tests‘delayed recall’ scores between groups were significant (p=0.042, on the other hand in patients with atypical memory dominance ‘total learning’ scores between groups were significant (p<0.001.Conclusion: As a result, we found that the earlier the onset of seizures, the more atypical the memory dominance (right or bilateral. The Wada test was effective for assessing verbal memory; on the other hand, it was inadequate for assessing visual memory dominance. If the scores of ‘delayed recall’ in verbal memory were high in the patients with typical verbal dominance and ‘total learning’ scores in the patients with atypical verbal dominance, the scores also tended to rise after the operation.

  13. The effect of age-at-testing on verbal memory among children following severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Tamar; Ahonniska-Assa, Jaana; Levav, Miriam; Eliyahu, Roni; Peleg-Pilowsky, Tamar; Brezner, Amichai; Vakil, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Memory deficits are a common sequelae following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI), which often have serious implications on age-related academic skills. The current study examined verbal memory performance using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in a pediatric TBI sample. Verbal memory abilities as well as the effect of age at-testing on performance were examined. A sample of 67 children following severe TBI (age average = 12.3 ± 2.74) and 67 matched controls were evaluated using the RAVLT. Age effect at assessment was examined using two age groups: above and below 12 years of age during evaluation. Differences between groups were examined via the 9 RAVLT learning trials and the 7 composite scores conducted out of them. Children following TBI recalled significantly less words than controls on all RAVLT trials and had significantly lower scores on all composite scores. However, all of these scores fell within the low average range. Further analysis revealed significantly lower than average performance among the older children (above 12 years), while scores of the younger children following TBI fell within average limits. To conclude, verbal memory deficits among children following severe TBI demonstrate an age-at-testing effect with more prominent problems occurring above 12 years at the time of evaluation. Yet, age-appropriate performance among children below 12 years of age may not accurately describe memory abilities at younger ages following TBI. It is therefore recommended that clinicians address child's age at testing and avoid using a single test as an indicator of verbal memory functioning post TBI.

  14. When unfamiliarity matters: Changing environmental context between study and test affects recognition memory for unfamiliar stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, R.; Ward, G.; Geurts, H.M.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Performance in recognition memory has been shown to be relatively insensitive to the effect of environmental context changes between study and test. Recent evidence (P. Dalton, 1993) showed that environmental context changes between study and test affected recognition memory discrimination for

  15. Boraflex test results and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, K.; Kline, D.E.; Haley, T.C.

    1993-02-01

    New data developed, collected, and evaluated to further assess the in-pool performance of the neutron absorber material, Boraflex. The data are from new EPRI test programs, utility surveillance programs, and blackness testing at a number of plants. This new data provides a basis for quantifying the gap phenomenon in full length panels of Boraflex in spent fuel racks; the maximum anticipated gap size, frequency of gap occurrence, and axial distribution of gaps. Methods have been developed to assess the reactivity effects of gaps and Boraflex shrinkage. The analyses presented demonstrates that the reactivity effect of gaps is very small, not much larger than the statistical variations inherent in the calculational method. The data and analyses presented serve to close the issue of gap formation and shrinkage in panels of Boraflex and the effect of such gaps and shrinkage on the reactivity of the fuel/rack configuration. Ongoing EPRI programs to assess the long term performance of Boraflex in spent fuel storage racks are described

  16. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined.

  17. When we test, do we stress? Impact of the testing environment on cortisol secretion and memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Pruessner, Jens; Lupien, Sonia J

    2013-08-01

    The majority of studies find that older adults have worse memory performance than young adults. However, contextual features in the testing environment may be perceived as stressful by older adults, increasing their stress hormone levels. Given the evidence that older adults are highly sensitive to the effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on memory performance, it is postulated that a stressful testing environment in older adults can lead to an acute stress response and to memory impairments. The current study compared salivary cortisol levels and memory performance in young and older adults tested in environments manipulated to be stressful (unfavourable condition) or not stressful (favourable condition) for each age group. 28 young adults and 32 older adults were tested in two testing conditions: (1) a condition favouring young adults (constructed to be less stressful for young adults), and (2) a condition favouring older adults (constructed to be less stressful for older adults). The main outcome measure was salivary cortisol levels. Additionally, immediate and delayed memory performances were assessed during each condition. In older adults only, we found significantly high cortisol levels and low memory performance in the condition favouring young adults. In contrast, cortisol levels were lower and memory performance was better when older adults were tested in conditions favouring them. There was no effect of testing condition in young adults. The results demonstrate that older adults' memory performance is highly sensitive to the testing environment. These findings have important implications for both research and clinical settings in which older adults are tested for memory performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation Effects of Verapamil as a Calcium Channel Blocker on Acquisition, Consolidation and Retrieval of Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Masoudian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many factors are involved in learning and memory processes including brain nuclei, neurotransmitter systems, and the activity of ion channels. Studies showed inconsistent effects of calcium channel blockers on learning process, especially memory consolidation; however, little is known about their effect on memory acquisition and retrieval. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effects of verapamil calcium channel antagonist as a representative of the phenylalkylamine group on different stages of memory and learning processes including acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in mice. In this experimental study, 150 male albino mice with a mean weight of 30 g were used. The mice were trained in a passive avoidance-learning task (1 mA shock for 2 seconds for evaluation of memory acquisition and consolidation and 3 seconds for evaluation of memory retrieval. The effect of verapamil (1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg on memory consolidation and the most effective dose of consolidation phase on memory acquisition and retrieval was assessed. For the evaluation of memory consolidation, the animals received the drug intraperitoneally immediately after training, while for evaluation of memory acquisition and retrieval, the drug was injected one hour before training. Memory retrieval test was performed 48 hours after training (the length of time it took the animal to enter the dark part of the device. The results showed that verapamil injection exerted no effect on memory acquisition and consolidation; nevertheless, it was capable to disrupt memory retrieval in 10 and 20 mg doses. These results indicate that as a phenylalkylamine calcium channel antagonist, high doses of verapamil can impair memory. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso

  19. Small Influence of Performing from Memory on Audience Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Kopiez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of an actual music stand on the evaluation of a videotaped audio-visual solo instrumental performance. Previous research has provided evidence that the presence of a score or music stand (obstructing the audience's view of the performer might negatively influence the evaluation of the performance. However, due to methodological ambiguities, results in previous studies cannot be regarded as definitive. Thus, we conducted a replication study of Williamon (1999 with better control over confounding variables (e.g., varying levels of technical proficiency in different conditions. A violoncello player performed two pieces for solo instrument: once with a music stand on stage (pretending to play from score and once without. The level of technical proficiency was kept constant in both performance presentations by the use of a pre-recorded, well-rehearsed performance from memory. Audio tracks were synchronized with the performance movements in a playback paradigm. Based on the performance evaluations from a web-based experiment (N = 471 participants, we found a significant but small effect size for the main effect of performance presentation (with vs. without music stand (d = 0.23. We conclude that the audience's appreciation of a particular performance from memory might be based on factors other than the objective performance quality.

  20. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  1. NI Based System for Seu Testing of Memory Chips for Avionics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boruzdina Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of implementation of National Instrument based system for Single Event Upset testing of memory chips into neutron generator experimental facility, which used for SEU tests for avionics purposes. Basic SEU testing algorithm with error correction and constant errors detection is presented. The issues of radiation shielding of NI based system are discussed and solved. The examples of experimental results show the applicability of the presented system for SEU memory testing under neutrons influence.

  2. Influence of memory, attention, IQ and age on auditory temporal processing tests: preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Roque, Daniela Tsubota; Ventura, Dora Selma Fix; Schochat, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the existence of correlations between the performance of children in auditory temporal tests (Frequency Pattern and Gaps in Noise - GIN) and IQ, attention, memory and age measurements. METHOD: Fifteen typically developing individuals between the ages of 7 to 12 years and normal hearing participated in the study. Auditory temporal processing tests (GIN and Frequency Pattern), as well as a Memory test (Digit Span), Attention tests (auditory and visual modality) and ...

  3. The effects of repeat testing, malingering, and traumatic brain injury on visuospatial memory span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial span tests such as the Corsi Block Test (CBT and the spatial span test of the Wechsler Memory Scale are widely used to assess deficits in spatial working memory. We conducted three experiments to evaluate the test-retest reliability and clinical sensitivity of a new computerized spatial span test (C-SST that incorporates psychophysical methods to improve the precision of spatial span measurement. In Experiment 1, we analyzed C-SST test-retest reliability in 49 participants who underwent three test sessions at weekly intervals. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were higher for a psychophysically derived mean span (MnS metric (0.83 than for the maximal span and total correct metrics used in traditional spatial-span tests. Response times (ReTs also showed high ICCs (0.93 that correlated negatively with MnS scores and correlated positively with response-time latencies from other tests of processing speed. Learning effects were insignificant. Experiment 2 examined the performance of Experiment 1 participants when instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 57% showed abnormal MnS z-scores. A MnS z-score cutoff of 3.0 correctly classified 36% of simulated malingerers and 91% of the subgroup of 11 control participants with abnormal spans. Malingerers also made more substitution errors than control participants with abnormal spans (sensitivity = 43%, specificity = 91%. In addition, malingerers showed no evidence of ReT slowing, in contrast to significant abnormalities seen on other malingered tests of processing speed. As a result, differences between ReT z-scores and z-scores on other processing speed tests showed very high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing malingering and control participants with either normal or abnormal spans. Experiment 3 examined C-SST performance in a group of patients with predominantly mild traumatic brain injury (TBI: neither MnS nor ReT z-scores showed significant group

  4. Memory outcome following left anterior temporal lobectomy in patients with a failed Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Alexander, Aley; Sarma, P Sankara; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the memory outcome following left anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) between patients with a failed Wada test and patients who passed the Wada test. From 1996 to 2002, we performed the Wada test on all patients with unilateral left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) and concordant electroclinical data before ATL. We used a 12-item recognition paradigm for memory testing and awarded a score of +1 for each correct response and -0.5 for each incorrect response. No patient was denied surgery on the basis of Wada scores. We assessed cognitive and memory functions using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Memory Scale preoperatively and at one year after ATL. We compared the number of patients who showed decline in memory scores, as per the published reliable change indices, between the patients with a failed Wada test and the patients who passed the Wada test. Out of the 116 eligible patients with left MTLE-HS, 88 underwent bilateral Wada test, while 28 underwent ipsilateral Wada test. None of them developed postoperative amnesia. Approximately, one-third of patients with a failed Wada memory test when the failure was defined as a contralateral score of 8, and as an asymmetry score of failed Wada memory test and the group who passed the Wada memory test. The results remained the same when analyses were repeated at various other cutoff points. The patients with left MTLE-HS with concordant electroclinical, MRI, and neuropsychological data should not be denied ATL solely on the basis of Wada memory test results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Usefulness of the 10 pictures reminding test for memory assessment for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and anxiety/depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, D; Thomas-Anterion, C; Borg, C; Foyatier Michel, N; Dirson, S; Laurent, B

    2008-10-01

    Episodic memory is often considered to be essential in the neuropsychological examination of elderly people consulting in the memory clinics. Therefore, the performance of three different episodic memory tests were compared in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and anxiety/depression. Seventy-six patients with AD, 46 with MCI, and 36 with anxiety/depression performed three memory tests: (1) three-words immediate and delayed recall of the MMSE test; (2) 10-pictures reminding test; (3) 16-items free and cued reminding test. Patients with AD and MCI differed from the depressed/anxious participants on all subcomponents of the memory tests. Only the three-words immediate and delayed recall in the MMSE test as well as the immediate recall (encoding) of the free and cued reminding test (16-items) did not differ between AD and MCI. Significant correlations were also evidenced between the free and cued recall of the 10 pictures and the score of the 16-items for all patients. Scores of total and free recalls distinguished the three group of patients; also, a trend was observed for the free recall between the patients with AD and MCI. The three-words immediate and delayed recall of the MMSE test is linked with hippocampic dysfunction. Also, the present study suggests that the 10-pictures reminding test, is a simple and reliable test for investigating memory, in addition to other evaluation tests. Finally, further studies would be necessary to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the tests.

  6. Testing declarative memory in laboratory rats and mice using the nonconditioned social discrimination procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Mario; Hädicke, Jana; Noack, Julia

    2011-07-14

    Testing declarative memory in laboratory rodents can provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying this type of learning and memory processing, and these insights are likely to be applicable to humans. Here we provide a detailed description of the social discrimination procedure used to investigate recognition memory in rats and mice, as established during the last 20 years in our laboratory. The test is based on the use of olfactory signals for social communication in rodents; this involves a direct encounter between conspecifics, during which the investigatory behavior of the experimental subject serves as an index for learning and memory performance. The procedure is inexpensive, fast and very reliable, but it requires well-trained human observers. We include recent modifications to the procedure that allow memory extinction to be investigated by retroactive and proactive interference, and that enable the dissociated analysis of the central nervous processing of the volatile fraction of an individual's olfactory signature. Depending on the memory retention interval under study (short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, long-term memory or long-lasting memory), the protocol takes ~10 min or up to several days to complete.

  7. The Memory Failures of Everyday (MFE) test: normative data in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo Carrasco, Pedro; Montenegro Peña, Mercedes; Sueiro, Manuel J

    2012-11-01

    One approach to the study of everyday memory failures is to use multiple-item questionnaires. The Memory Failures of Everyday (MFE) test is one of the most frequently used in Spain. Our objective is to provide normative data from the MFE in a sample of healthy, Spanish, adult participants for use in clinical practice. The sample consists of 647 employees at a large company ranging in age from 19-64 years-old. Everyday memory failures were evaluated by means of the MFE with the following response format: 0-2 (0 = never or rarely; 1 = occasionally, sometimes; 2 = frequently, often). Mean MFE = 15.25 (SD = 7.50), range 0-40. Correlation with age: .133 (p = .001); and with years of education: - .059 (n.s.). A constant increase in MFE was not observed across age groups (F = 4, 59; p = .003, eta2 = .02), but differences were revealed between the 19-29 and 40-49 age groups; no differences were observed between the remaining age groups. Only slight differences between men and women occurred, the women's mean being slightly higher than the men's, but the confidence intervals overlapped (F = 5, 71; p = .017, eta2 = .01). These results indicate that age, years of education, and sex had no significant effects. In light of the above, the sample was viewed as a whole when computing the percentiles reported here.

  8. A Computerized Evaluation of Sensory Memory and Short-term Memory Impairment After Rapid Ascent to 4280 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing Hai; Ge, Di; Zhao, Wei; Ma, Xue; Hu, Ke Yan; Lu, Yao; Liu, Zheng Xiang; Ran, Ji Hua; Li, Xiao Ling; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Jian Feng

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute high-altitude exposure on sensory and short-term memory using interactive software, we transported 30 volunteers in a sport utility vehicle to a 4280 m plateau within 3 h. We measured their memory performance on the plain (initial arrival) and 3 h after arrival on the plateau using six measures. Memory performance was significantly poorer on the plateau by four of the six measures. Furthermore, memory performance was significantly poorer in the acute mountain sickness (AMS) group than in the non-AMS group by five of the six measures. These findings indicate that rapid ascent to 4280 m and remaining at this altitude for 3 h resulted in decreased sensory and short-term memory, particularly among participants who developed AMS. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. A Working Memory Test Battery: Java-Based Collection of Seven Working Memory Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Stone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is a key construct within cognitive science. It is an important theory in its own right, but the influence of working memory is enriched due to the widespread evidence that measures of its capacity are linked to a variety of functions in wider cognition. To facilitate the active research environment into this topic, we describe seven computer-based tasks that provide estimates of short-term and working memory incorporating both visuospatial and verbal material. The memory span tasks provided are; digit span, matrix span, arrow span, reading span, operation span, rotation span, and symmetry span. These tasks are built to be simple to use, flexible to adapt to the specific needs of the research design, and are open source. All files can be downloaded from the project website http://www.cognitivetools.uk and the source code is available via Github.

  10. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  11. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach

  12. A simple spatial working memory and attention test on paired symbols shows developmental deficits in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Jinhua; Ma, Lina; Jesse, Forrest Fabian; Teng, Xiaochun; Zhou, Ying; Bao, Hechen; Chen, Shiqing; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chu, Xixia; Ding, Wenhua; Du, Yasong; Cheng, Zaohuo; Wu, Bin; Chen, Shanguang; He, Guang; He, Lin; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    People with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia often display deficits in spatial working memory and attention. Evaluating working memory and attention in schizophrenia patients is usually based on traditional tasks and the interviewer's judgment. We developed a simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols (SWAPS). It takes only several minutes to complete, comprising 101 trials for each subject. In this study, we tested 72 schizophrenia patients and 188 healthy volunteers in China. In a healthy control group with ages ranging from 12 to 60, the efficiency score (accuracy divided by reaction time) reached a peak in the 20-27 age range and then declined with increasing age. Importantly, schizophrenia patients failed to display this developmental trend in the same age range and adults had significant deficits compared to the control group. Our data suggests that this simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols can be a useful tool for studies of spatial working memory and attention in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. A Simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols Shows Developmental Deficits in Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available People with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia often display deficits in spatial working memory and attention. Evaluating working memory and attention in schizophrenia patients is usually based on traditional tasks and the interviewer’s judgment. We developed a simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols (SWAPS. It takes only several minutes to complete, comprising 101 trials for each subject. In this study, we tested 72 schizophrenia patients and 188 healthy volunteers in China. In a healthy control group with ages ranging from 12 to 60, the efficiency score (accuracy divided by reaction time reached a peak in the 20–27 age range and then declined with increasing age. Importantly, schizophrenia patients failed to display this developmental trend in the same age range and adults had significant deficits compared to the control group. Our data suggests that this simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols can be a useful tool for studies of spatial working memory and attention in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Retest effects in working memory capacity tests: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfen, Jana; Jansen, Katrin; Holling, Heinz

    2018-06-15

    The repeated administration of working memory capacity tests is common in clinical and research settings. For cognitive ability tests and different neuropsychological tests, meta-analyses have shown that they are prone to retest effects, which have to be accounted for when interpreting retest scores. Using a multilevel approach, this meta-analysis aims at showing the reproducibility of retest effects in working memory capacity tests for up to seven test administrations, and examines the impact of the length of the test-retest interval, test modality, equivalence of test forms and participant age on the size of retest effects. Furthermore, it is assessed whether the size of retest effects depends on the test paradigm. An extensive literature search revealed 234 effect sizes from 95 samples and 68 studies, in which healthy participants between 12 and 70 years repeatedly performed a working memory capacity test. Results yield a weighted average of g = 0.28 for retest effects from the first to the second test administration, and a significant increase in effect sizes was observed up to the fourth test administration. The length of the test-retest interval and publication year were found to moderate the size of retest effects. Retest effects differed between the paradigms of working memory capacity tests. These findings call for the development and use of appropriate experimental or statistical methods to address retest effects in working memory capacity tests.

  15. Diuretic use is associated with better learning and memory in older adults in the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Sevil; Lin, Fu-Mei; Fried, Linda P; Kawas, Claudia H; Sink, Kaycee M; DeKosky, Steven T; Carlson, Michelle C

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the association between diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I), angiotensin II receptor blockers (AT2RB), and cognitive function. This post hoc analysis of the randomized controlled Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study trial focuses on 3069 nondemented community-dwelling participants aged >75 years. At baseline visit, detailed information about medication use was collected and five cognitive domains were assessed. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess cross-sectional associations between medication use and cognitive function. In all, 36% of participants reported history of hypertension and 53% reported antihypertensive medication use, with 17% reporting diuretic, 11% ACE-I, and 2% AT2RB use. Potassium-sparing diuretic use (N = 192) was associated with better verbal learning and memory measured by California Verbal Learning Test as compared with no antihypertensive medication users (β = 0.068, P = .01; β = 0.094, P better cognitive function. Results warrant further investigation into possible protective effects of potassium-sparing diuretics and the role of potassium in mitigating cognitive decline. Copyright © 2012 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Visual Working Memory and Number Sense: Testing the Double Deficit Hypothesis in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Sylke W. M.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence exists that there are two main underlying cognitive factors in mathematical difficulties: working memory and number sense. It is suggested that real math difficulties appear when both working memory and number sense are weak, here referred to as the double deficit (DD) hypothesis. Aims: The aim of this study was to test the DD…

  17. Increased Task Demand during Spatial Memory Testing Recruits the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joshua K.; Fournier, Neil M.; Lehmann, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether increasing retrieval difficulty in a spatial memory task would promote the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) similar to what is typically observed during remote memory retrieval. Rats were trained on the hidden platform version of the Morris Water Task and tested three or 30 d later. Retrieval difficulty was…

  18. Intrusions and provoked and spontaneous confabulations on memory tests in Korsakoff's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, Y.C.M.; Oosterman, J.M.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Intrusions on verbal memory tests have been used as an index for clinical confabulation. Severe memory impairments in combination with executive dysfunction have been suggested to be the underlying mechanism of confabulation, but to date, this relation is unclear. The aim of this study

  19. The Evaluator Effect in Usability Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.

    1998-01-01

    Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four vide...

  20. Collaboration can improve individual recognition memory: evidence from immediate and delayed tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Suparna; Pereira-Pasarin, Luciane P

    2007-02-01

    In two experiments, we tested the effects of collaboration on individual recognition memory. In Experiment 1, participants studied pictures and words either for meaning or for surface properties and made recognition memory judgments individually either following group discussion among 3 members (collaborative condition) or in the absence of discussion (noncollaborative condition). Levels of processing and picture superiority effects were replicated, and collaboration significantly increased individual recognition memory. Experiment 2 replicated this positive effect and showed that even though memory sensitivity declined at longer delays (48 h and 1 week), collaboration continued to exert a positive influence. These findings show that (1) consensus is not necessary for producing benefits of collaboration on individual recognition, (2) collaborative facilitation on individual memory is robust, and (3) collaboration enhances individual memory further if conditions predispose individual accuracy in the absence of collaboration.

  1. Evaluation methodology for comparing memory and communication of analytic processes in visual analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, Eric D [ORNL; Goodall, John R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Provenance tools can help capture and represent the history of analytic processes. In addition to supporting analytic performance, provenance tools can be used to support memory of the process and communication of the steps to others. Objective evaluation methods are needed to evaluate how well provenance tools support analyst s memory and communication of analytic processes. In this paper, we present several methods for the evaluation of process memory, and we discuss the advantages and limitations of each. We discuss methods for determining a baseline process for comparison, and we describe various methods that can be used to elicit process recall, step ordering, and time estimations. Additionally, we discuss methods for conducting quantitative and qualitative analyses of process memory. By organizing possible memory evaluation methods and providing a meta-analysis of the potential benefits and drawbacks of different approaches, this paper can inform study design and encourage objective evaluation of process memory and communication.

  2. Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Negative Response Bias: The Temporal Memory Sequence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedish, Omer; Kivilis, Naama; Hoofien, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Temporal Memory Sequence Test (TMST) is a new measure of negative response bias (NRB) that was developed to enrich the forced-choice paradigm. The TMST does not resemble the common structure of forced-choice tests and is presented as a temporal recall memory test. The validation sample consisted of 81 participants: 21 healthy control participants, 20 coached simulators, and 40 patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The TMST had high reliability and significantly high positive correlations with the Test of Memory Malingering and Word Memory Test effort scales. Moreover, the TMST effort scales exhibited high negative correlations with the Glasgow Coma Scale, thus validating the previously reported association between probable malingering and mild traumatic brain injury. A suggested cutoff score yielded acceptable classification rates in the ABI group as well as in the simulator and control groups. The TMST appears to be a promising measure of NRB detection, with respectable rates of reliability and construct and criterion validity.

  3. The (Spatial) Memory Game: Testing the Relationship Between Spatial Language, Object Knowledge, and Spatial Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudde, Harmen B; Griffiths, Debra; Coventry, Kenny R

    2018-02-19

    The memory game paradigm is a behavioral procedure to explore the relationship between language, spatial memory, and object knowledge. Using two different versions of the paradigm, spatial language use and memory for object location are tested under different, experimentally manipulated conditions. This allows us to tease apart proposed models explaining the influence of object knowledge on spatial language (e.g., spatial demonstratives), and spatial memory, as well as understanding the parameters that affect demonstrative choice and spatial memory more broadly. Key to the development of the method was the need to collect data on language use (e.g., spatial demonstratives: "this/that") and spatial memory data under strictly controlled conditions, while retaining a degree of ecological validity. The language version (section 3.1) of the memory game tests how conditions affect language use. Participants refer verbally to objects placed at different locations (e.g., using spatial demonstratives: "this/that red circle"). Different parameters can be experimentally manipulated: the distance from the participant, the position of a conspecific, and for example whether the participant owns, knows, or sees the object while referring to it. The same parameters can be manipulated in the memory version of the memory game (section 3.2). This version tests the effects of the different conditions on object-location memory. Following object placement, participants get 10 seconds to memorize the object's location. After the object and location cues are removed, participants verbally direct the experimenter to move a stick to indicate where the object was. The difference between the memorized and the actual location shows the direction and strength of the memory error, allowing comparisons between the influences of the respective parameters.

  4. The Wada Test: contributions to standardization of the stimulus for language and memory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäder Maria Joana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wada Test (WT is part of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. The WT is not standardized and the protocols differ in important ways, including stimulus type of material presented for memory testing, timing of presentations and methods of assessment. The aim of this study was to contribute to establish parameters for a WT to Brazilian population investigating the performance of 100 normal subjects, without medication. Two parallel models were used based on Montreal Procedure adapted from Gail Risse's (MEG-MN,EUA protocol. The proportions of correct responses of normal subjects submitted to two parallel WT models were investigated and the two models were compared. The results showed that the two models are similar but significant differences among the stimulus type were observed. The results suggest that the stimulus type may influence the results of the WT and should be considered when constructing models and comparing different protocols.

  5. Application of Item Response Theory to Tests of Substance-related Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Yusuke; Grenard, Jerry L.; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    A substance-related word association test (WAT) is one of the commonly used indirect tests of substance-related implicit associative memory and has been shown to predict substance use. This study applied an item response theory (IRT) modeling approach to evaluate psychometric properties of the alcohol- and marijuana-related WATs and their items among 775 ethnically diverse at-risk adolescents. After examining the IRT assumptions, item fit, and differential item functioning (DIF) across gender and age groups, the original 18 WAT items were reduced to 14- and 15-items in the alcohol- and marijuana-related WAT, respectively. Thereafter, unidimensional one- and two-parameter logistic models (1PL and 2PL models) were fitted to the revised WAT items. The results demonstrated that both alcohol- and marijuana-related WATs have good psychometric properties. These results were discussed in light of the framework of a unified concept of construct validity (Messick, 1975, 1989, 1995). PMID:25134051

  6. Testing the limits: cautions and concerns regarding the new Wechsler IQ and Memory scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Bauer, Russell M

    2010-02-23

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) are 2 of the most common psychological tests used in clinical care and research in neurology. Newly revised versions of both instruments (WAIS-IV and WMS-IV) have recently been published and are increasingly being adopted by the neuropsychology community. There have been significant changes in the structure and content of both scales, leading to the potential for inaccurate patient classification if algorithms developed using their predecessors are employed. There are presently insufficient clinical data in neurologic populations to insure their appropriate application to neuropsychological evaluations. We provide a perspective on these important new neuropsychological instruments, comment on the pressures to adopt these tests in the absence of an appropriate evidence base supporting their incremental validity, and describe the potential negative impact on both patient care and continuing research applications.

  7. Construct validity of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in older adults with memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Francesca; Ghiretti, Roberta; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Pomati, Simone; Cucumo, Valentina; Marcone, Alessandra; Vanacore, Nicola; Mariani, Claudio; Cappa, Stefano Francesco

    2017-06-01

    The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is the memory test recommended by the International Working Group on Alzheimer's disease (AD) for the detection of amnestic syndrome of the medial temporal type in prodromal AD. Assessing the construct validity and internal consistency of the Italian version of the FCSRT is thus crucial. The FCSRT was administered to 338 community-dwelling participants with memory complaints (57% females, age 74.5 ± 7.7 years), including 34 with AD, 203 with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and 101 with Subjective Memory Impairment. Internal Consistency was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. To assess convergent validity, five FCSRT scores (Immediate Free Recall, Immediate Total Recall, Delayed Free Recall, Delayed Total Recall, and Index of Sensitivity of Cueing) were correlated with three well-validated memory tests: Story Recall, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test, and Rey Complex Figure (RCF) recall (partial correlation analysis). To assess divergent validity, a principal component analysis (an exploratory factor analysis) was performed including, in addition to the above-mentioned memory tasks, the following tests: Word Fluencies, RCF copy, Clock Drawing Test, Trail Making Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices, and Stroop Colour-Word Test. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for immediate recalls (IFR and ITR) and delayed recalls (DFR and DTR) were, respectively, .84 and .81. All FCSRT scores were highly correlated with those of the three well-validated memory tests. The factor analysis showed that the FCSRT does not load on the factors saturated by non-memory tests. These findings indicate that the FCSRT has a good internal consistency and has an excellent construct validity as an episodic memory measure. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Bridging naturalistic and laboratory assessment of memory: the Baycrest mask fit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, Michael J; Abdi, Hervé; Levine, Brian

    2017-09-01

    Autobiographical memory tests provide a naturalistic counterpoint to the artificiality of laboratory research methods, yet autobiographical events are uncontrolled and, in most cases, unverifiable. In this study, we capitalised on a scripted, complex naturalistic event - the mask fit test (MFT), a standardised procedure required of hospital employees - to bridge the gap between naturalistic and laboratory memory assessment. We created a test of recognition memory for the MFT and administered it to 135 hospital employees who had undertaken the MFT at various points over the past five years. Multivariate analysis revealed two dimensions defined by accuracy and response bias. Accuracy scores showed the expected relationship to encoding-test delay, supporting the validity of this measure. Relative to younger adults, older adults' memory for this naturalistic event was better than would be predicted from the cognitive ageing literature, a result consistent with the notion that older adults' memory performance is enhanced when stimuli are naturalistic and personally relevant. These results demonstrate that testing recognition memory for a scripted event is a viable method of studying autobiographical memory.

  9. The role of psychophysiology in clinical assessment: ERPs in the evaluation of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John J B

    2002-05-01

    Psychophysiological measures hold great potential for informing clinical assessments. The challenge, before such measures can be widely used, is to develop test procedures and analysis strategies that allow for statistically reliable and valid decisions to be made for any particular examinee, despite large individual differences in psychophysiological responding. Focusing on the evaluation of memory in clinical, criminal, and experimental contexts, this paper reviews the rationale for and development of ERP-based memory assessment procedures, with a focus on methods that allow for statistically supported decisions to be made in the case of a single examinee. The application of one such procedure to the study of amnesia in Dissociative Identity Disorder is highlighted. To facilitate the development of other psychophysiological assessment tools, psychophysiological researchers are encouraged to report the sensitivity and specificity of their measures where possible.

  10. Semantic Memory Redux: An Experimental Test of Hierarchical Category Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Hampton, James A.; Milovanovic, Goran S.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the classic issue in semantic memory of whether people organize categorical information in hierarchies and use inference to retrieve information from them, as proposed by Collins and Quillian (1969). Past evidence has focused on RT to confirm sentences such as "All birds are animals" or "Canaries breathe." However,…

  11. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental…

  12. On the Relationship between Memory and Perception: Sequential Dependencies in Recognition Memory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Annis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Many models of recognition are derived from models originally applied to perception tasks, which assume that decisions from trial to trial are independent. While the independence assumption is violated for many perception tasks, we present the results of several experiments intended to relate memory and perception by exploring sequential…

  13. Memory detection 2.0: The first web-based memory detection test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinberg, B.; Verschuere, B.

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs) can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime) information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24), and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we

  14. Validation of a Spanish version of the Test Your Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Arias, J; Turrión-Rojo, M Á

    2016-01-01

    To validate a Spanish version of the TYM, a self-administered cognitive screening test designed for the detection of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive defect. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a neurology outpatient clinic. The TYM was administered to individuals of 50 years o more who came to the clinic for whatever the symptom. Their cognitive state was evaluated regardless of the outcome of TYM. They were categorized into 3 groups: 1) Cognitively normal (739), 2) with mild cognitive impairment (183), 3) with dementia (127). An analysis of items was made and the psychometric properties of the TYM were defined. There was a cross-validation, and the predictive validity of the TYM score, adjusted to the demographic variables, was determined by evaluating their performance in ROC curves. The internal consistency, interobserver reliability, short term and long-term test-retest reliability were adequate. The TYM correlated with the MMSE (r=0.779, Pde Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Method matters: systematic effects of testing procedure on visual working memory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Watson, Leah M; Koutstaal, Wilma; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2010-11-01

    Visual working memory (WM) is traditionally considered a robust form of visual representation that survives changes in object motion, observer's position, and other visual transients. This article presents data that are inconsistent with the traditional view. We show that memory sensitivity is dramatically influenced by small variations in the testing procedure, supporting the idea that representations in visual WM are susceptible to interference from testing. In the study, participants were shown an array of colors to remember. After a short retention interval, memory for one of the items was tested with either a same-different task or a 2-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) task. Memory sensitivity was much lower in the 2AFC task than in the same-different task. This difference was found regardless of encoding similarity or of whether visual WM required a fine or coarse memory resolution. The 2AFC disadvantage was reduced when participants were informed shortly before testing which item would be probed. The 2AFC disadvantage diminished in perceptual tasks and was not found in tasks probing visual long-term memory. These results support memory models that acknowledge the labile nature of visual WM and have implications for the format of visual WM and its assessment. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  16. The paced auditory serial addition test for working memory assessment: Psychometric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikravesh, Maryam; Jafari, Zahra; Mehrpour, Masoud; Kazemi, Roozbeh; Amiri Shavaki, Younes; Hossienifar, Shamim; Azizi, Mohamad Parsa

    2017-01-01

    Background: The paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) was primarily developed to assess the effects of traumatic brain injury on cognitive functioning. Working memory (WM) is one of the most important aspects of cognitive function, and WM impairment is one of the clinically remarkable signs of aphasia. To develop the Persian version of PASAT, an initial version was used in individuals with aphasia (IWA). Methods: In this study, 25 individuals with aphasia (29-60 years) and 85 controls (18-60 years) were included. PASAT was presented in the form of recorded 61 single-digit numbers (1 to 9). The participants repeatedly added the 2 recent digits. The psychometric properties of PASAT including convergent validity (using the digit memory span tasks), divergent validity (using results in the control group and IWA group), and face validity were investigated. Test-retest reliability was considered as well. Results: The relationship between the PASAT and digit memory span tests was moderate to strong in the control group (forward digit memory span test: r= 0.52, p< 0.0001; backward digit memory span test: r = 0.48, p< 0.0001). A strong relationship was found in IWA (forward digit memory span test: r= 0.72, p< 0.0001; backward digit memory span test: r= 0.53, p= 0.006). Also, strong testretest reliability (intraclass correlation= 0.95, p< 0.0001) was observed. Conclusion: According to our results, the PASAT is a valid and reliable test to assess working memory, particularly in IWA. It could be used as a feasible tool for clinical and research applications. PMID:29445690

  17. Evaluation of the olfactory memory after spinal anesthesia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, A; Erdem, K; Akkaya, A; Tekelioglu, U Y; Bilgi, M; Isik, C; Sit, M; Gok, U; Kocoglu, H

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of spinal anesthesia (SA) on olfactory memory using Brief-Smell Identification TestTM (B-SIT). This, prospective, clinical study was performed on 40 ASA physical status I-III patients, between 18-65 years of age undergoing a planned elective minor surgery under SA. All participants were preoperatively informed about B-SIT and the mode of application of the test according to the information in the book. B-SIT was applied to each patient preoperatively and the scores were recorded. B-SIT was reapplied to all patients on the 1st and 2nd postoperative days and the scores were recorded. Moreover, development of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and/or neurological symptoms (such as hearing loss, diplopia) were checked. Postoperative headache was observed in 7 of the participants and 3 of them was diagnosed to have PDPH. No statistically significant difference was observed in the olfactory memory evaluation of the patients suffering from headache and the 3 patients diagnosed with PDPH. No statistically significant difference was observed in the correct odor answer ratio between the preoperative and postoperative 1st and 2nd days (p > 0.05). We confirm that SA does not affect olfactory memory. Further studies are necessary to confirm the results of our pilot study in a larger sample.

  18. A prospective evaluation of hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory deficits following cranial irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Martin; Grimm, Jimm; McIntyre, Riley; Anderson-Keightly, Heather; Kleinberg, Lawrence R; Hales, Russell K; Moore, Joseph; Vannorsdall, Tracy; Redmond, Kristin J

    2017-11-01

    To prospectively evaluate hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory decline following cranial irradiation. Effects of hippocampal radiation over a wide range of doses were investigated by combining data from three prospective studies. In one, adults with small cell lung cancer received hippocampal-avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation. In the other two, adults with glioblastoma multiforme received neural progenitor cell sparing radiation or no sparing with extra dose delivered to subventricular zone. Memory was measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Delayed Recall (HVLT-R DR) at 6 months after radiation. Dose-volume histograms were generated and dose-response data were fitted to a nonlinear model. Of 60 patients enrolled, 30 were analyzable based on HVLT-R DR testing completion status, baseline HVLT-R DR and intracranial metastasis/recurrence or prior hippocampal resection status. We observed a dose-response of radiation to the hippocampus with regard to decline in HVLT-R DR. D50% of the bilateral hippocampi of 22.1 Gy is associated with 20% risk of decline. This prospective study demonstrates an association between hippocampal dose volume effects and memory decline measured by HVLT-R DR over a wide dose range. These data support a potential benefit of hippocampal sparing and encourage continued trial enrollment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial recognition test: A novel cognition task for assessing topographical memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havolli, Enes; Hill, Mark Dw; Godley, Annie; Goetghebeur, Pascal Jd

    2017-06-01

    Dysfunction in topographical memory is a core feature of several neurological disorders. There is a large unmet medical need to address learning and memory deficits as a whole in central nervous system disease. There are considerable efforts to identify pro-cognitive compounds but current methods are either lengthy or labour intensive. Our test used a two chamber apparatus and is based on the preference of rodents to explore novel environments. It was used firstly to assess topographical memory in mice at different retention intervals (RI) and secondly to investigate the effect of three drugs reported to be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease, namely: donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Animals show good memory performance at all RIs tested under four hours. At the four-hour RI, animals show a significantly poorer memory performance which can be rescued using donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Using this test we established and validated a spatial recognition paradigm to address topographical memory in mice by showing a decremental time-induced forgetting response and reversing this decrease in performance using pharmacological tools. The spatial recognition test differs from more commonly used visuospatial laboratory tests in both throughput capability and potentially neuroanatomical substrate. This test has the potential to be used to assess cognitive performance in transgenic animals, disease models and to screen putative cognitive enhancers or depressors.

  20. Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these

  1. Evaluation of External Memory Access Performance on a High-End FPGA Hybrid Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kalaitzis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of this research was to evaluate the main memory performance of a hybrid super computer such as the Convey HC-x, and ascertain how the controller performs in several access scenarios, vis-à-vis hand-coded memory prefetches. Such memory patterns are very useful in stencil computations. The theoretical bandwidth of the memory of the Convey is compared with the results of our measurements. The accurate study of the memory subsystem is particularly useful for users when they are developing their application-specific personality. Experiments were performed to measure the bandwidth between the coprocessor and the memory subsystem. The experiments aimed mainly at measuring the reading access speed of the memory from Application Engines (FPGAs. Different ways of accessing data were used in order to find the most efficient way to access memory. This way was proposed for future work in the Convey HC-x. When performing a series of accesses to memory, non-uniform latencies occur. The Memory Controller of the Convey HC-x in the coprocessor attempts to cover this latency. We measure memory efficiency as a ratio of the number of memory accesses and the number of execution cycles. The result of this measurement converges to one in most cases. In addition, we performed experiments with hand-coded memory accesses. The analysis of the experimental results shows how the memory subsystem and Memory Controllers work. From this work we conclude that the memory controllers do an excellent job, largely because (transparently to the user they seem to cache large amounts of data, and hence hand-coding is not needed in most situations.

  2. Learning and memory in the forced swimming test: effects of antidepressants having varying degrees of anticholinergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginar, Nurhan; Yamantürk-Çelik, Pınar; Nurten, Asiye; Güney, Dilvin Berrak

    2016-07-01

    The antidepressant-induced reduction in immobility time in the forced swimming test may depend on memory impairment due to the drug's anticholinergic efficacy. Therefore, the present study evaluated learning and memory of the immobility response in rats after the pretest and test administrations of antidepressants having potent, comparatively lower, and no anticholinergic activities. Immobility was measured in the test session performed 24 h after the pretest session. Scopolamine and MK-801, which are agents that have memory impairing effects, were used as reference drugs for a better evaluation of the memory processes in the test. The pretest administrations of imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (7.5 and 15 mg/kg), trazodone (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), and moclobemide (10 and 20 mg/kg) were ineffective, whereas the pretest administrations of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time suggesting impaired "learning to be immobile" in the animals. The test administrations of imipramine (30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (15 mg/kg), moclobemide (10 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time, which suggested that the drugs exerted antidepressant activity or the animals did not recall that attempting to escape was futile. The test administrations of trazodone (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) produced no effect on immobility time. Even though the false-negative and positive responses made it somewhat difficult to interpret the findings, this study demonstrated that when given before the pretest antidepressants with or without anticholinergic activity seemed to be devoid of impairing the learning process in the test.

  3. Adult age differences in perceptually based, but not conceptually based implicit tests of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, B J; Hultsch, D F; Masson, M E

    1995-05-01

    Implicit tests of memory assess the influence of recent experience without requiring awareness of remembering. Evidence concerning age differences on implicit tests of memory suggests small age differences in favor of younger adults. However, the majority of research examining this issue has relied upon perceptually based implicit tests. Recently, a second type of implicit test, one that relies upon conceptually based processes, has been identified. The pattern of age differences on this second type of implicit test is less clear. In the present study, we examined the pattern of age differences on one conceptually based (fact completion) and one perceptually based (stem completion) implicit test of memory, as well as two explicit tests of memory (fact and word recall). Tasks were administered to 403 adults from three age groups (19-34 years, 58-73 years, 74-89 years). Significant age differences in favor of the young were found on stem completion but not fact completion. Age differences were present for both word and fast recall. Correlational analyses examining the relationship of memory performance to other cognitive variables indicated that the implicit tests were supported by different components than the explicit tests, as well as being different from each other.

  4. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2009-01-01

    Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a cognitive screening test developed to detect dementia. It has been validated in several countries. Validation studies have predominantly included patients with various degrees of dementia and healthy controls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Danish version of ACE as a screening test for early dementia in an outpatient memory clinic. Further, we wanted to investigate the ability of the ACE to discriminate patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from patients with depression. 78 patients with mild AD (MMSE >or=20), 30 non-demented patients diagnosed with depression (originally referred for evaluation of cognitive symptoms), and 63 healthy volunteers, all between 60 and 85 years of age, were included. All patients were given the ACE as a supplement to the standard diagnostic work-up. The cut-off points for optimal trade-off between sensitivity and specificity for ACE were 85/86 (sensitivity 0.99, specificity 0.94). When these cut-off points were applied to the group of depressive patients, the specificity dropped to 0.64, indicating a great overlap in individual test scores for demented and depressed patients. The optimal cut-off points for ACE found in this Danish study were close to what is reported in most other European studies. The great overlap in ACE scores for demented and depressed patients emphasize that test scores must be interpreted with great caution when used in diagnostic work-up.

  5. Defence Test and Evaluation Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    as staff move into new roles in non-T&E organisations. The majority of T&E training is conducted ‘on the job’ and staff turnover (especially with...T&E Issues / Requirements Robotic Combat Systems Determine vulnerability of emerging combat systems to anti- armour robotic systems. Evaluate...Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) Determine capability of armoured & vehicle systems to withstand IED attacks Translate threat scenarios into framework

  6. The 5-HT(4) receptor levels in hippocampus correlates inversely with memory test performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Mette Ewers; Fisher, Patrick; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2013-01-01

    The cerebral serotonin (5-HT) system is involved in cognitive functions such as memory and learning and animal studies have repeatedly shown that stimulation of the 5-HT type 4 receptor (5-HT(4) R) facilitates memory and learning and further that the 5-HT(4) R modulates cellular memory processes...... in hippocampus. However, any associations between memory functions and the expression of the 5-HT(4) R in the human hippocampus have not been investigated. Using positron emission tomography with the tracer [(11) C]SB207145 and Reys Auditory Verbal Learning Test we aimed to examine the individual variation...... of the 5-HT4R binding in hippocampus in relation to memory acquisition and consolidation in healthy young volunteers. We found significant, negative associations between the immediate recall scores and left and right hippocampal BP(ND) , (p = 0.009 and p = 0.010 respectively) and between the right...

  7. The effect of divided attention on false memory depends on how memory is tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Barry, Christopher; Swannell, Ellen R.; Holmes, Selina J.; Bathurst, Gemma J.

    2007-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the effects of divided attention on false memory, using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants studied six DRM lists with full attention and six in one of two divided-attention conditions (random number generation or digit monitoring). Both divided-attention conditions increased false recall of related words (Experiment 1) but reduced false recognition (Experiment 2). These results were confirmed in Experiment 3,...

  8. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  9. Test and Evaluation Management Guide, Fifth Edition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claxton, John D; Cavoli, Christina; Johnson, Collie

    2005-01-01

    This January 2005 update to the Defense Acquisition University's "Test and Evaluation Management Guide" includes updates from the Military Services, Defense Agencies, and other organizations, as well...

  10. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  11. Studies on laws of stress-magnetization based on magnetic memory testing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shangkun; Ren, Xianzhi

    2018-03-01

    Metal magnetic memory (MMM) testing technique is a novel testing method which can early test stress concentration status of ferromagnetic components. Under the different maximum tensile stress, the relationship between the leakage magnetic field of at certain point of cold rolled steel specimen and the tensile stress was measured during the process of loading and unloading by repeated. It shows that when the maximum tensile stress is less than 610 MPa, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the stress is linear; When the maximum tensile stress increase from 610 MPa to 653 MPa of yield point, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the tensile becomes bending line. The location of the extreme point of the bending line will move rapidly from the position of smaller stress to the larger stress position, and the variation of magnetic induction intensity increases rapidly. When the maximum tensile stress is greater than the 653 MPa of yield point, the variation of the magnetic induction intensity remains large, and the position of the extreme point moves very little. In theoretical aspects, tensile stress is to be divided into ordered stress and disordered stress. In the stage of elastic stress, a microscopic model of the order stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data. In the plastic deformation stage, a microscopic model of disordered stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data, too. The research results can provide reference for the accurate quantitative detection and evaluation of metal magnetic memory testing technology.

  12. Grading Gradients: Evaluating Evidence for Time-dependent Memory Reorganization in Experimental Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G. Akers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans, hippocampal damage typically produces temporally graded retrograde amnesia, with relative sparing of remote memories compared to recent memories. This observation led to the idea that as memories age, they are reorganized in a time-dependent manner. Here, we evaluate evidence for time-dependent memory reorganization in animal models. We conclude that, although hippocampal lesions may not always produce temporal gradients under all conditions, studies using alternate experimental approaches consistently support the idea that memories reorganize over time—becoming less dependent on the hippocampus and more dependent on a cortical network. We further speculate on the processes that drive memory reorganization such as sleep, memory reactivation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis.

  13. Evaluation of Short Term Memory Span Function In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERGÜL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors affecting operation of short term memory are investigated with regression model. The aim of the research is to examine the factors (age, IQ and reading skills that are expected the have an effect on short-term memory in children through regression analysis. One of the assumptions of regression analysis is to examine which has constant variance and normal distribution of the error term. In this study, because the error term is not normally distributed, robust regression techniques were applied. Also, for each technique; coefficient of determination is determined. According to the findings, the increase in age, IQ and reading skills caused the increase in short term memory in children. After applying robust regression techniques, the Winsorized Least Squares (WLS technique gives the highest coefficient of determination.

  14. Do Different Tests of Episodic Memory Produce Consistent Results in Human Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    A number of different philosophical, theoretical, and empirical perspectives on episodic memory have led to the development of very different tests with which to assess it. Although these tests putatively assess the same psychological capacity, they have rarely been directly compared. Here, a sample of undergraduates was tested on three different…

  15. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  16. Design and testing of shape memory alloy actuation mechanism for flapping wing micro unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzaman, N. F.; Abdullah, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator offers great solution for aerospace applications with low weight being its most attractive feature. A SMA actuation mechanism for the flapping micro unmanned aerial vehicle (MAV) is proposed in this study, where SMA material is the primary system that provides the flapping motion to the wings. Based on several established design criteria, a design prototype has been fabricated to validate the design. As a proof of concept, an experiment is performed using an electrical circuit to power the SMA actuator to evaluate the flapping angle. During testing, several problems have been observed and their solutions for future development are proposed. Based on the experiment, the average recorded flapping wing angle is 14.33° for upward deflection and 12.12° for downward deflection. This meets the required design criteria and objective set forth for this design. The results prove the feasibility of employing SMA actuators in flapping wing MAV.

  17. Failure modes induced by natural radiation environments on DRAM memories: study, test methodology and mitigation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougerol, A.

    2011-05-01

    DRAMs are frequently used in space and aeronautic systems. Their sensitivity to cosmic radiations have to be known in order to satisfy reliability requirements for critical applications. These evaluations are traditionally done with particle accelerators. However, devices become more complex with technology integration. Therefore new effects appear, inducing longer and more expensive tests. There is a complementary solution: the pulsed laser, which triggers similar effects as particles. Thanks to these two test tools, main DRAM radiation failure modes were studied: SEUs (Single Event Upset) in memory blocks, and SEFIs (Single Event Functional Interrupt) in peripheral circuits. This work demonstrates the influence of test patterns on SEU and SEFI sensitivities depending on technology used. In addition, this study identifies the origin of the most frequent type of SEFIs. Moreover, laser techniques were developed to quantify sensitive surfaces of the different effects. This work led to a new test methodology for industry, in order to optimize test cost and efficiency using both pulsed laser beams and particle accelerators. Finally, a new fault tolerant technique is proposed: based on DRAM cell radiation immunity when discharged, this technique allows to correct all bits of a logic word. (author)

  18. Can Implicit Associations Distinguish True and False Eyewitness Memory? Development and Preliminary Testing of the IATe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Rebecca K; Ceci, Stephen J; Burd, Kayla A

    2016-11-01

    Eyewitness identification has been shown to be fallible and prone to false memory. In this study we develop and test a new method to probe the mechanisms involved in the formation of false memories in this area, and determine whether a particular memory is likely to be true or false. We created a seven-step procedure based on the Implicit Association Test to gauge implicit biases in eyewitness identification (the IATe). We show that identification errors may result from unconscious bias caused by implicit associations evoked by a given face. We also show that implicit associations between negative attributions such as guilt and eyewitnesses' final pick from a line-up can help to distinguish between true and false memory (especially where the witness has been subject to the suggestive nature of a prior blank line-up). Specifically, the more a witness implicitly associates an individual face with a particular crime, the more likely it is that a memory they have for that person committing the crime is false. These findings are consistent with existing findings in the memory and neuroscience literature showing that false memories can be caused by implicit associations that are outside conscious awareness. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Modeling learning and memory using verbal learning tests: results from ACTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Brandt, Jason; Tommet, Doug; Marsiske, Michael; Jones, Richard N

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the influence of memory training on initial recall and learning. The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study of community-dwelling adults older than age 65 (n = 1,401). We decomposed trial-level recall in the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) into initial recall and learning across trials using latent growth models. Trial-level increases in words recalled in the AVLT and HVLT at each follow-up visit followed an approximately logarithmic shape. Over the 5-year study period, memory training was associated with slower decline in Trial 1 AVLT recall (Cohen's d = 0.35, p = .03) and steep pre- and posttraining acceleration in learning (d = 1.56, p learning, d = 3.10, p memory-trained group had a higher level of recall than the control group through the end of the 5-year study period despite faster decline in learning. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms by which training benefits memory and expands current knowledge by reporting long-term changes in initial recall and learning, as measured from growth models and by characterization of the impact of memory training on these components. Results reveal that memory training delays the worsening of memory span and boosts learning.

  20. The late negative episodic memory effect: the effect of recapitulating study details at test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M; Bersick, Michael

    2005-05-01

    An hypothesis concerning mnemonic function suggests that perceptual details of previously experienced episodes are retrieved from the cortices that initially processed that information during the encoding phase. Cycowicz et al. [Cycowicz, Y.M., Friedman, D. and Snodgrass, J.G., Remembering the color of objects: an ERP investigation of source memory, Cereb Cortex, 11 (2001) 322-334.] have interpreted the presence of a late negative episodic memory (EM) effect, maximal over parieto-occipital scalp, as a brain signature of the search for and/or retrieval/evaluation of the specific perceptual source-specifying attributes (i.e., color) of pictures in the visual cortical regions that were recruited during the encoding of that information. The present study assessed the validity of this hypothesis. Twelve participants studied pictures outlined in red or green and were subsequently tested with inclusion (i.e., item; old or new regardless of color) and exclusion (i.e., source; same color, different color/new judgments) tasks. In both, old pictures were presented either in the same color as at study or in the alternate color. A late negative, parieto-occipital EM effect was of much larger amplitude in the source compared to the item task. It was of similar magnitude to correctly recognized pictures whose colors were identical at study and test relative to those whose colors changed, and was not modulated by the success or failure of the source retrieval. These data run counter to the initial hypothesis that the late negative EM effect reflects the search for and/or retrieval of specific perceptual attributes such as color. Rather, the late negative EM effect may reflect the search for and/or retrieval/evaluation of more general source-specifying information in the cortical regions that initially processed the stimuli.

  1. An evaluation of a working memory training scheme in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Patricia McAvinue

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is a cognitive process that is particularly vulnerable to decline with age. The current study sought to evaluate the efficacy of a working memory training scheme in improving memory in a group of older adults. A 5-week online training scheme was designed to provide training in the main components of Baddeley’s (2000 working memory model, namely auditory and visuospatial short-term and working memory. A group of older adults aged between 64 and 79 were randomly assigned to a trainee (n = 19 or control (n = 17 group, with trainees engaging in the adaptive training scheme and controls engaging in a non-adaptive version of the programme. Before and after training and at 3- and 6-month follow-up sessions, trainees and controls were asked to complete measures of short-term and working memory, long-term episodic memory, subjective ratings of memory and attention and achievement of goals set at the beginning of training. The results provided evidence of an expansion of auditory short-term memory span, which was maintained 6 months later, and transfer to long-term episodic memory but no evidence of improvement in working memory capacity per se. A serendipitous and intriguing finding of a relationship between time spent training, psychological stress and training gains provided further insight into individual differences in training gains in older adults.

  2. Using the false memory paradigm to test two key elements of alcohol expectancy theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Richard R; Goldman, Mark S; Noll, Jane A

    2004-05-01

    Two key aspects of alcohol expectancy theory--(a) that memories about alcohol effects are stored as relatively cohesive templates of information and (b) that these templates are automatically activated in alcohol-related contexts--were tested using the Deese-Roediger- McDermott false memory paradigm. Alcohol expectancy adjectives were studied, and false memory for expectancy target words was tested in neutral and alcohol contexts. Results indicated that in the alcohol context heavier drinkers showed more false memory for alcohol expectancy words than they did in a neutral context. Differences were not found for lighter drinkers. These results were consistent with alcohol expectancy theory, which was then compared with various forms of association theory in explaining these results and larger issues in the addiction field. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  3. Diabetes and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Carlson, Michelle C; Crum, Rosa M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Sharrett, A Richey; Yasar, Sevil; Nahin, Richard L; DeKosky, Steven T; Snitz, Beth; Lopez, Oscar; Williamson, Jeff D; Furberg, Curt D; Rapp, Stephen R; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-12-12

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with diabetes exhibit accelerated cognitive decline. However, methodological limitations have limited the quality of this evidence. Heterogeneity in study design, cognitive test administration, and methods of analysis of cognitive data have made it difficult to synthesize and translate findings to practice. We analyzed longitudinal data from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study to test our hypothesis that older adults with diabetes have greater test-specific and domain-specific cognitive declines compared to older adults without diabetes. Tests of memory, visuo-spatial construction, language, psychomotor speed, and executive function were administered. Test scores were standardized to z-scores and averaged to yield domain scores. Linear random effects models were used to compare baseline differences and changes over time in test and domain scores among individuals with and without diabetes. Among the 3,069 adults, aged 72-96 years, 9.3% reported diabetes. Over a median follow-up of 6.1 years, participants with diabetes exhibited greater baseline differences in a test of executive function (trail making test, Part B) and greater declines in a test of language (phonemic verbal fluency). For the composite cognitive domain scores, participants with diabetes exhibited lower baseline executive function and global cognition domain scores, but no significant differences in the rate of decline. Identifying cognitive domains most affected by diabetes can lead to targeted risk modification, possibly in the form of lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical activity, which we know to be beneficial for improving vascular risk factors, such as diabetes, and therefore may reduce the risk of executive dysfunction and possible dementia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Free recall test experience potentiates strategy-driven effects of value on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael S; Rissman, Jesse; Hovhannisyan, Mariam; Castel, Alan D; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2017-10-01

    People tend to show better memory for information that is deemed valuable or important. By one mechanism, individuals selectively engage deeper, semantic encoding strategies for high value items (Cohen, Rissman, Suthana, Castel, & Knowlton, 2014). By another mechanism, information paired with value or reward is automatically strengthened in memory via dopaminergic projections from midbrain to hippocampus (Shohamy & Adcock, 2010). We hypothesized that the latter mechanism would primarily enhance recollection-based memory, while the former mechanism would strengthen both recollection and familiarity. We also hypothesized that providing interspersed tests during study is a key to encouraging selective engagement of strategies. To test these hypotheses, we presented participants with sets of words, and each word was associated with a high or low point value. In some experiments, free recall tests were given after each list. In all experiments, a recognition test was administered 5 minutes after the final word list. Process dissociation was accomplished via remember/know judgments at recognition, a recall test probing both item memory and memory for a contextual detail (word plurality), and a task dissociation combining a recognition test for plurality (intended to probe recollection) with a speeded item recognition test (to probe familiarity). When recall tests were administered after study lists, high value strengthened both recollection and familiarity. When memory was not tested after each study list, but rather only at the end, value increased recollection but not familiarity. These dual process dissociations suggest that interspersed recall tests guide learners' use of metacognitive control to selectively apply effective encoding strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  6. The design and testing of a memory metal actuated boom release mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powley, D. G.; Brook, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    A boom latch and release mechanism was designed, manufactured and tested, based on a specification for the ISEE-B satellite mechanism. From experimental results obtained, it is possible to calculate the energy available and the operating torques which can be achieved from a torsional shape memory element in terms of the reversible strain induced by prior working. Some guidelines to be followed when designing mechanisms actuated by shape memory elements are included.

  7. Dual long memory of inflation and test of the relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Jinquan; ZHENG Tingguo; SUI Jianli

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the ARFIMA-FIGARCH model to investigate the China¡¯s monthly inflation rate from January 1983 to October 2005. It is found that both first moment and second moment of inflation have remarkable long memory, indicating the existence of long memory properties in both inflation level and inflation uncertainty. By the Granger-causality test on inflation rate and inflation uncertainty, it is shown that the inflation level affects the inflation uncertainty and so supports Friedman hy...

  8. Role of diagnostic tests in esophageal evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, B.D.; Pope, C.E. II

    1980-01-01

    In the evaluation of esophageal disease, the appropriate question must be asked before the correct tests can be selected. Reflux can be demonstrated by radiologic methods, pH testing or radioisotopic techniques. Esophageal mucosal damage is best evaluated by x-ray, endoscopy, or biopsy. Chest pain is demonstrated by acid infusion or by manometry. Two algorithms are presented for the evaluation of chest pain and reflux symptoms

  9. An International Evaluation of Cognitive Reserve and Memory Changes in Early Old Age in 10 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadar, Dorina; Robitaille, Annie; Clouston, Sean; Hofer, Scott M; Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive reserve was postulated to explain individual differences in susceptibility to ageing, offering apparent protection to those with higher education. We investigated the association between education and change in memory in early old age. Immediate and delayed memory scores from over 10,000 individuals aged 65 years and older, from 10 countries of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, were modeled as a function of time in the study over an 8-year period, fitting independent latent growth models. Education was used as a marker of cognitive reserve and evaluated in association with memory performance and rate of change, while accounting for income, general health, smoking, body mass index, gender, and baseline age. In most countries, more educated individuals performed better on both memory tests at baseline, compared to those less educated. However, education was not protective against faster decline, except for in Spain for both immediate and delayed recall (0.007 [SE = 0.003] and 0.006 [SE = 0.002]), and Switzerland for immediate recall (0.006 [SE = 0.003]). Interestingly, highly educated Italian respondents had slightly faster declines in immediate recall (-0.006 [SE = 0.003]). We found weak evidence of a protective effect of education on memory change in most European samples, although there was a positive association with memory performance at individuals' baseline assessment. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Influence of memory, attention, IQ and age on auditory temporal processing tests: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Roque, Daniela Tsubota; Ventura, Dora Selma Fix; Schochat, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the existence of correlations between the performance of children in auditory temporal tests (Frequency Pattern and Gaps in Noise--GIN) and IQ, attention, memory and age measurements. Fifteen typically developing individuals between the ages of 7 to 12 years and normal hearing participated in the study. Auditory temporal processing tests (GIN and Frequency Pattern), as well as a Memory test (Digit Span), Attention tests (auditory and visual modality) and intelligence tests (RAVEN test of Progressive Matrices) were applied. Significant and positive correlation between the Frequency Pattern test and age variable were found, which was considered good (p<0.01, 75.6%). There were no significant correlations between the GIN test and the variables tested. Auditory temporal skills seem to be influenced by different factors: while the performance in temporal ordering skill seems to be influenced by maturational processes, the performance in temporal resolution was not influenced by any of the aspects investigated.

  11. Large scale testing of nitinol shape memory alloy devices for retrofitting of bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rita; Emmanuel Maragakis, M; Saiid Saiidi, M; Padgett, Jamie E; DesRoches, Reginald

    2008-01-01

    A large scale testing program was conducted to determine the effects of shape memory alloy (SMA) restrainer cables on the seismic performance of in-span hinges of a representative multiple-frame concrete box girder bridge subjected to earthquake excitations. Another objective of the study was to compare the performance of SMA restrainers to that of traditional steel restrainers as restraining devices for reducing hinge displacement and the likelihood of collapse during earthquakes. The results of the tests show that SMA restrainers performed very well as restraining devices. The forces in the SMA and steel restrainers were comparable. However, the SMA restrainer cables had minimal residual strain after repeated loading and exhibited the ability to undergo many cycles with little strength and stiffness degradation. In addition, the hysteretic damping that was observed in the larger ground accelerations demonstrated the ability of the materials to dissipate energy. An analytical study was conducted to assess the anticipated seismic response of the test setup and evaluate the accuracy of the analytical model. The results of the analytical simulation illustrate that the analytical model was able to match the responses from the experimental tests, including peak stresses, strains, forces, and hinge openings

  12. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Wilmer, Jeremy; Herzmann, Grit; McGugin, Rankin; Fiset, Daniel; Van Gulick, Ana E.; Ryan, Katie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Cambridge face memory test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). First, we assessed the dimensionality of the test with a bi-factor exploratory factor analysis (EFA). This EFA analysis revealed a general factor and three specific factors clustered by targets of CFMT. However, the three specific factors appeared to be minor factors that can be ignored. Second, we fit a unidimensional item response model. This item response model showed that the CFMT items could discriminate individuals at different ability levels and covered a wide range of the ability continuum. We found the CFMT to be particularly precise for a wide range of ability levels. Third, we implemented item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) analyses for each gender group and two age groups (Age ≤ 20 versus Age > 21). This DIF analysis suggested little evidence of consequential differential functioning on the CFMT for these groups, supporting the use of the test to compare older to younger, or male to female, individuals. Fourth, we tested for a gender difference on the latent facial recognition ability with an explanatory item response model. We found a significant but small gender difference on the latent ability for face recognition, which was higher for women than men by 0.184, at age mean 23.2, controlling for linear and quadratic age effects. Finally, we discuss the practical considerations of the use of total scores versus IRT scale scores in applications of the CFMT. PMID:25642930

  13. Including test errors in evaluating surveillance test intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Martorell, S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Technical Specifications require surveillance testing to assure that the standby systems important to safety will start and perform their intended functions in the event of plant abnormality. However, as evidenced by operating experience, the surveillance tests may be adversely impact safety because of their undesirable side effects, such as initiation of plant transients during testing or wearing-out of safety systems due to testing. This paper first defines the concerns, i.e., the potential adverse effects of surveillance testing, from a risk perspective. Then, we present a methodology to evaluate the risk impact of those adverse effects, focusing on two important kinds of adverse impacts of surveillance testing: (1) risk impact of test-caused trips and (2) risk impact of test-caused equipment wear. The quantitative risk methodology is demonstrated with several surveillance tests conducted at boiling water reactors, such as the tests of the main steam isolation valves, the turbine overspeed protection system, and the emergency diesel generators. We present the results of the risk-effectiveness evaluation of surveillance test intervals, which compares the adverse risk impact with the beneficial risk impact of testing from potential failure detection, along with insights from sensitivity studies

  14. Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelucci M.E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied some of the characteristics of the improving effect of the non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine, using an animal model of learning and memory. Groups of 12 adult male Wistar rats receiving caffeine (0.3-30 mg/kg, ip, in 0.1 ml/100 g body weight administered 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before the test session were tested in the spatial version of the Morris water maze task. Post-training administration of caffeine improved memory retention at the doses of 0.3-10 mg/kg (the rats swam up to 600 cm less to find the platform in the test session, P<=0.05 but not at the dose of 30 mg/kg. Pre-test caffeine administration also caused a small increase in memory retrieval (the escape path of the rats was up to 500 cm shorter, P<=0.05. In contrast, pre-training caffeine administration did not alter the performance of the animals either in the training or in the test session. These data provide evidence that caffeine improves memory retention but not memory acquisition, explaining some discrepancies among reports in the literature.

  15. Testing for long memory in volatility in the Indian Forex market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Anoop S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to verify the presence of long memory in volatility in the Indian foreign exchange market using daily bilateral returns of the Indian Rupee against the US dollar from 17/02/1994 to 08/11/2013. In the first part of the analysis the presence of long-term dependence is confirmed in the return series as well as in two measures of unconditional volatility (absolute returns and squared returns by employing three measures of long memory. Next, the presence of long memory in conditional volatility is tested using ARMA-FIGARCH and ARMA-FIAPARCH models under various distributional assumptions. The results confirm the presence of long memory in conditional variance for two models. In the last part, the presence of long memory in conditional mean and conditional variance is verified using ARFIMA-FIGARCH and ARFIMA-FIAPARCH models. It is also found that long-memory models fare well compared to short-memory models in sample forecast performance.

  16. A fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical conditioning and testing system for behavioral learning and memory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Hanna, Eriny; Gatto, Cheryl L; Page, Terry L; Bhuva, Bharat; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-03-01

    Aversive olfactory classical conditioning has been the standard method to assess Drosophila learning and memory behavior for decades, yet training and testing are conducted manually under exceedingly labor-intensive conditions. To overcome this severe limitation, a fully automated, inexpensive system has been developed, which allows accurate and efficient Pavlovian associative learning/memory analyses for high-throughput pharmacological and genetic studies. The automated system employs a linear actuator coupled to an odorant T-maze with airflow-mediated transfer of animals between training and testing stages. Odorant, airflow and electrical shock delivery are automatically administered and monitored during training trials. Control software allows operator-input variables to define parameters of Drosophila learning, short-term memory and long-term memory assays. The approach allows accurate learning/memory determinations with operational fail-safes. Automated learning indices (immediately post-training) and memory indices (after 24h) are comparable to traditional manual experiments, while minimizing experimenter involvement. The automated system provides vast improvements over labor-intensive manual approaches with no experimenter involvement required during either training or testing phases. It provides quality control tracking of airflow rates, odorant delivery and electrical shock treatments, and an expanded platform for high-throughput studies of combinational drug tests and genetic screens. The design uses inexpensive hardware and software for a total cost of ∼$500US, making it affordable to a wide range of investigators. This study demonstrates the design, construction and testing of a fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical association apparatus to provide low-labor, high-fidelity, quality-monitored, high-throughput and inexpensive learning and memory behavioral assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk effectiveness evaluation of surveillance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Martorell, S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    To address the concerns about nuclear power plant surveillance tests, i.e., their adverse safety impact due to negative effects and too burdensome requirements, it is necessary to evaluate the safety significance or risk effectiveness of such tests explicitly considering both negative and positive effects. This paper defines the negative effects of surveillance testing from a risk perspective, and then presents a methodology to quantify the negative risk impact, i.e., the risk penalty or risk increase caused by the test. The method focuses on two important kinds of negative effects, namely, test-caused transients and test-caused equipment degradations. The concepts and quantitative methods for the risk evaluation can be used in the decision-making process to establish the safety significance of the tests and to screen the plant-specific surveillance test requirements. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Space Qualification Testing of a Shape Memory Alloy Deployable CubeSat Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    from a specific input vibration . This excitation vibration can be applied acoustically through a speaker or physically by an impact hammer. NASA...Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) L-band deployable QHA. In this research, a testing approach is developed to conduct random vibration , thermal vacuum...92 4.4 Vibration Test Results

  19. Reduced Interference from Memory Testing: A Postretrieval Monitoring Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benton H.; Gallo, David A.; McCain, Jason L.

    2017-01-01

    Initial learning can interfere with subsequent learning (proactive interference [PI]), but recent work indicates initial testing can reduce PI. Here, we tested 2 alternative hypotheses of this effect: Does testing reduce PI by constraining retrieval to the target list, or by facilitating a postretrieval monitoring process? Participants first…

  20. Modulating influences of memory strength and sensitivity of the retrieval test on the detectability of the sleep consolidation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Sarah F; Cordi, Maren J; Rasch, Björn

    2017-11-01

    Emotionality can increase recall probability of memories as emotional information is highly relevant for future adaptive behavior. It has been proposed that memory processes acting during sleep selectively promote the consolidation of emotional memories, so that neutral memories no longer profit from sleep consolidation after learning. This appears as a selective effect of sleep for emotional memories. However, other factors contribute to the appearance of a consolidation benefit and influence this interpretation. Here we show that the strength of the memory trace before sleep and the sensitivity of the retrieval test after sleep are critical factors contributing to the detection of the benefit of sleep on memory for emotional and neutral stimuli. 228 subjects learned emotional and neutral pictures and completed a free recall after a 12-h retention interval of either sleep or wakefulness. We manipulated memory strength by including an immediate retrieval test before the retention interval in half of the participants. In addition, we varied the sensitivity of the retrieval test by including an interference learning task before retrieval testing in half of the participants. We show that a "selective" benefit of sleep for emotional memories only occurs in the condition with high memory strength. Furthermore, this "selective" benefit disappeared when we controlled for the memory strength before the retention interval and used a highly sensitive retrieval test. Our results indicate that although sleep benefits are more robust for emotional memories, neutral memories similarly profit from sleep after learning when more sensitive indicators are used. We conclude that whether sleep benefits on memory appear depends on several factors, including emotion, memory strength and sensitivity of the retrieval test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Decreased prefrontal functional brain response during memory testing in women with Cushing's syndrome in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, Oskar; Stomby, Andreas; Dahlqvist, Per; Evang, Johan A; Ryberg, Mats; Olsson, Tommy; Bollerslev, Jens; Nyberg, Lars; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-08-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is an important feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Our hypothesis was that patients with CS in remission have decreased functional brain responses in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during memory testing. In this cross-sectional study we included 19 women previously treated for CS and 19 controls matched for age, gender, and education. The median remission time was 7 (IQR 6-10) years. Brain activity was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic- and working-memory tasks. The primary regions of interest were the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. A voxel-wise comparison of functional brain responses in patients and controls was performed. During episodic-memory encoding, patients displayed lower functional brain responses in the left and right prefrontal gyrus (pright inferior occipital gyrus (pbrain responses in the left posterior hippocampus in patients (p=0.05). During episodic-memory retrieval, the patients displayed lower functional brain responses in several brain areas with the most predominant difference in the right prefrontal cortex (pbrain response during a more complex working memory task compared with a simpler one. In conclusion, women with CS in long-term remission have reduced functional brain responses during episodic and working memory testing. This observation extends previous findings showing long-term adverse effects of severe hypercortisolaemia on brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Design, fabrication, testing and delivery of a feasibility model laminated ferrite memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of using multiword addressing with laminated ferrite arrays was made. Both a reduction in the number of components, and a reduction in power consumption was obtained for memory capacities between one million bits and one million words. An investigation into the effect of variations in the processing steps resulted in a number of process modifications that improved the quality of the arrays. A feasibility model laminated ferrite memory system was constructed by modifying a commercial plated wire memory system to operate with laminated ferrite arrays. To provide flexibility for the testing of the laminated ferrite memory, an exerciser has been constructed to automatically control the loading and recirculation of arbitrary size checkerboard patterns of one's and zero's and to display the patterns of stored information on a CRT screen.

  3. A dedicated system for topographical working memory: evidence from domain-specific interference tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L; Nori, R; Boccia, M; Barbetti, S; Verde, P; Guariglia, C; Ferlazzo, F

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we used single- and dual-task conditions to investigate the nature of topographical working memory to better understand what type of task can hamper performance during navigation. During dual-task conditions, we considered four different sources of interference: motor (M), spatial motor (SM), verbal (i.e. articulatory suppression AS) and spatial environmental (SE). In order to assess the nature of topographical working memory, we used the Walking Corsi Test, asking the participants to perform two tasks simultaneously (M, SM, AS and SE). Our results showed that only spatial-environmental interference hampers the execution of a topographical working memory task, suggesting a task-domain-specific effect. We also found general gender differences in the topographical working memory capabilities: men were more proficient than women, regardless of the type of interferences. However, like men, women performed worse when a spatial-environmental interference was present.

  4. Topographical memory analyzed in mice using the Hamlet test, a novel complex maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, Lucie; Gilabert, Damien; Rossel, Mireille; Trousse, Françoise; Maurice, Tangui

    2018-03-01

    The Hamlet test is an innovative device providing a complex environment for testing topographic memory in mice. Animals were trained in groups for weeks in a small village with a central agora, streets expanding from it towards five functionalized houses, where they can drink, eat, hide, run, interact with a stranger mouse. Memory was tested by depriving mice from water or food and analyzing their ability to locate the Drink/Eat house. Exploration and memory were analyzed in different strains, gender, and after different training periods and delays. After 2 weeks training, differences in exploration patterns were observed between strains, but not gender. Neuroanatomical structures activated by training, identified using FosB/ΔFosB immunolabelling, showed an involvement of the hippocampus-subiculum-parahippocampal gyrus axis and dopaminergic structures. Training increased hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation and neuronal maturation) and modified the amnesic efficacy of muscarinic or nicotinic cholinergic antagonists. Moreover, topographical disorientation in Alzheimer's disease was addressed using intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid β 25-35 peptide in trained mice. When retested after 7 days, Aβ 25-35 -treated mice showed memory impairment. The Hamlet test specifically allows analysis of topographical memory in mice, based on complex environment. It offers an innovative tool for various ethological or pharmacological research needs. For instance, it allowed to examine topographical disorientation, a warning sign in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Face recognition performance of individuals with Asperger syndrome on the Cambridge Face Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn

    2011-12-01

    Although face recognition deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome (AS), are widely acknowledged, the empirical evidence is mixed. This in part reflects the failure to use standardized and psychometrically sound tests. We contrasted standardized face recognition scores on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) for 34 individuals with AS with those for 42, IQ-matched non-ASD individuals, and age-standardized scores from a large Australian cohort. We also examined the influence of IQ, autistic traits, and negative affect on face recognition performance. Overall, participants with AS performed significantly worse on the CFMT than the non-ASD participants and when evaluated against standardized test norms. However, while 24% of participants with AS presented with severe face recognition impairment (>2 SDs below the mean), many individuals performed at or above the typical level for their age: 53% scored within +/- 1 SD of the mean and 9% demonstrated superior performance (>1 SD above the mean). Regression analysis provided no evidence that IQ, autistic traits, or negative affect significantly influenced face recognition: diagnostic group membership was the only significant predictor of face recognition performance. In sum, face recognition performance in ASD is on a continuum, but with average levels significantly below non-ASD levels of performance. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Hardware in the loop testing and evaluation of seaborne search radars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, JJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available for independent testing and evaluation of radar systems. The CSIR digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) hardware technology is used as the basis of these test systems. DRFM's are traditionally used for EW applications, but processing power of field programmable... environment simulation (RES) on digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) platforms can be utilised to test the performance of a search radar in a sea clutter Y ra n ge X r a n g e S h a p e p a r a m e t e r 0 1 2 3 4 x 1 0 4 - 3 - 2 - 1...

  7. Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John

    2011-10-01

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

  8. The Test Your Memory for Mild Cognitive Impairment (TYM-MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeremy M; Lansdall, Claire J; Wiggins, Julie; Dawson, Kate E; Hunter, Kristina; Rowe, James B; Parker, Richard A

    2017-12-01

    To validate a short cognitive test: the Test Your Memory for Mild Cognitive Impairment (TYM-MCI) in the diagnosis of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease (aMCI/AD). Two hundred and two patients with mild memory problems were recruited. All had 'passed' the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Patients completed the TYM-MCI, the Test Your Memory test (TYM), MMSE and revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), had a neurological examination, clinical diagnostics and multidisciplinary team review. As a single test, the TYM-MCI performed as well as the ACE-R in the distinction of patients with aMCI/AD from patients with subjective memory impairment with a sensitivity of 0.79 and specificity of 0.91. Used in combination with the ACE-R, it provided additional value and identified almost all cases of aMCI/AD. The TYM-MCI correctly classified most patients who had equivocal ACE-R scores. Integrated discriminant improvement analysis showed that the TYM-MCI added value to the conventional memory assessment. Patients initially diagnosed as unknown or with subjective memory impairment who were later rediagnosed with aMCI/AD scored poorly on their original TYM-MCI. The TYM-MCI is a powerful short cognitive test that examines verbal and visual recall and is a valuable addition to the assessment of patients with aMCI/AD. It is simple and cheap to administer and requires minimal staff time and training. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease: discriminative validity and correlation with semantic memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, A; Mortensen, E L; Gade, A; Waldemar, G

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval, and high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD was taken as the standard. It was also investigated whether the two episodic memory tests correlated with measures of semantic memory. The tests were administered to 35 patients with very mild AD (Mini Mental State Examination score >22) and 28 control subjects. Both tests had high sensitivity (>88%) with high specificity (>89%). One out of the five semantic memory tests was significantly correlated to performances on CCR, whereas delayed recall on the ADAS-cog memory test was significantly correlated to two semantic tests. In conclusion, the discriminative validity of the CCR test and the ADAS-cog memory test was equivalent in very mild AD. This may be because CCR did not tap more semantic processes, which are impaired in the earliest phases of AD, than a test of free recall.

  10. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof eKuhbandner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one third of the words were tested and one third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After one week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance-contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition.

  11. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance-contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition.

  12. Avaliação da cognição de mulheres no climatério com o Mini-Exame do Estado Mental e o Teste de Memória da Lista de Palavras Cognitive function in menopausal women evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination and Word-List Memory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Leite Fernandes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, há pouca investigação sobre cognição no climatério, apesar da grande freqüência de queixas neuropsíquicas nessa fase da vida feminina. Apresentamos estudo transversal, cujo objetivo foi descrever os escores de 156 mulheres climatéricas no Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM e no Teste de Memória da Lista de Palavras (TMLP. A média obtida no MEEM foi de 25,86 pontos (DP = 2,67, semelhante a outros estudos, exceto pelo melhor desempenho das analfabetas; os escores nos subitens "atenção e cálculo" e "memória imediata" apresentaram valores inferiores. No TMLP, a média também foi condizente com a literatura (18,83 palavras; DP = 3,82. As únicas associações significativas com as pontuações foram a escolaridade em ambos os testes e a hipertensão arterial no TMLP. Concluímos que o desempenho cognitivo dessas mulheres climatéricas se assemelha ao de outras amostras brasileiras, confirmando-se, inclusive, a maior variabilidade de pontuação entre indivíduos de baixa escolaridade. As queixas de dificuldades de memória na meia-idade feminina podem estar relacionadas à redução da sua atenção.There is little research in Brazil on cognition and menopause, despite the high frequency of neuropsychiatric complaints in this phase of women's life. The authors present a cross-sectional study aimed at describing the scores by 156 menopausal women on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Word-List Memory Test (WLMT. The mean score on the MMSE was 25.86 points (SD = 2.67, similar to other studies, except for better performance by illiterate women; scores on the sub-items "attention and calculation" and "immediate recall" showed lower values. In the WLMT, the mean was also consistent with the literature (M = 18.83 words; SD = 3.82. The only significant associations with score were for schooling in both tests and arterial hypertension in the WLMT. The authors conclude that cognitive performance in these menopausal

  13. Specificity and false positive rates of the Test of Memory Malingering, Rey 15-item Test, and Rey Word Recognition Test among forensic inpatients with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christopher M; Glassmire, David M; Zanolini, Shanna Jordan; Wolf, Amanda

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the specificity and false positive (FP) rates of the Rey 15-Item Test (FIT), Word Recognition Test (WRT), and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in a sample of 21 forensic inpatients with mild intellectual disability (ID). The FIT demonstrated an FP rate of 23.8% with the standard quantitative cutoff score. Certain qualitative error types on the FIT showed promise and had low FP rates. The WRT obtained an FP rate of 0.0% with previously reported cutoff scores. Finally, the TOMM demonstrated low FP rates of 4.8% and 0.0% on Trial 2 and the Retention Trial, respectively, when applying the standard cutoff score. FP rates are reported for a range of cutoff scores and compared with published research on individuals diagnosed with ID. Results indicated that although the quantitative variables on the FIT had unacceptably high FP rates, the TOMM and WRT had low FP rates, increasing the confidence clinicians can place in scores reflecting poor effort on these measures during ID evaluations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  15. Lesser Neural Pattern Similarity across Repeated Tests Is Associated with Better Long-Term Memory Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea; Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Eriksson, Johan; Andersson, Micael; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Encoding and retrieval processes enhance long-term memory performance. The efficiency of encoding processes has recently been linked to representational consistency: the reactivation of a representation that gets more specific each time an item is further studied. Here we examined the complementary hypothesis of whether the efficiency of retrieval processes also is linked to representational consistency. Alternatively, recurrent retrieval might foster representational variability--the altering or adding of underlying memory representations. Human participants studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word pairs before being scanned with fMRI the same day and 1 week later. On Day 1, participants were tested three times on each word pair, and on Day 7 each pair was tested once. A BOLD signal change in right superior parietal cortex was associated with subsequent memory on Day 1 and with successful long-term retention on Day 7. A representational similarity analysis in this parietal region revealed that beneficial recurrent retrieval was associated with representational variability, such that the pattern similarity on Day 1 was lower for retrieved words subsequently remembered compared with those subsequently forgotten. This was mirrored by a monotonically decreased BOLD signal change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on Day 1 as a function of repeated successful retrieval for words subsequently remembered, but not for words subsequently forgotten. This reduction in prefrontal response could reflect reduced demands on cognitive control. Collectively, the results offer novel insights into why memory retention benefits from repeated retrieval, and they suggest fundamental differences between repeated study and repeated testing. Repeated testing is known to produce superior long-term retention of the to-be-learned material compared with repeated encoding and other learning techniques, much because it fosters repeated memory retrieval. This study demonstrates that repeated memory

  16. Student Tests for Teacher Evaluation: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1986-01-01

    This article supports Edward Haertel's views on inappropriate use of student test scores in evaluating teachers. Tests scores may identify a few incompetent teachers, but may bring new ailments to schools. The article argues that even the system proposed by Haertal may become subject to abuse by mechanistic or autocratic administrative practices.…

  17. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment

  18. Marihuana contact test, evaluation and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    A colorimetric swab test for detecting human contact with marihuana was evaluated. The test was found to be capable of detecting only 83% of marihuana smokers immediately after smoking and was also demonstrated to be subject to a wide range of possib...

  19. Fabrication Process and Reliability Evaluation of Shape Memory Alloy Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Choi, Il Kook; Park, Young Chul; Lee, Kyu Chang; Lee, Joon Hyun

    2001-01-01

    Shape memory alloy has been used to improve the tensile strength of composite by the occurrence of compressive residual stress in matrix using its shape memory effect. In order to fabricate shape memory alloy composite, TiNi alloy and A16061 were used as reinforcing material and mix, respectively. In this study, TiNi/A16061 shape memory alloy composite was made by using hot press method. However, the specimen fabricated by this method had the bonding problem at the boundary between TiNi fiber and Al matrix when the load was applied to it. A cold rolling was imposed to the specimen to improve the bonding effect. It was found that tensile strength of specimen subjected to cold rolling was more increased than that of specimen which did not underwent cold rolling. In addition, acoustic emission technique was used to quantify the microscopic damage behavior of cold rolled TiNi/A16061 shape memory alloy composite at high temperature

  20. Benchmarking and Evaluating Unified Memory for OpenMP GPU Offloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Alok [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Li, Lingda [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kong, Martin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chapman, Barbara [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, the latest OpenMP standard offers automatic device offloading capabilities which facilitate GPU programming. Despite this, there remain many challenges. One of these is the unified memory feature introduced in recent GPUs. GPUs in current and future HPC systems have enhanced support for unified memory space. In such systems, CPU and GPU can access each other's memory transparently, that is, the data movement is managed automatically by the underlying system software and hardware. Memory over subscription is also possible in these systems. However, there is a significant lack of knowledge about how this mechanism will perform, and how programmers should use it. We have modified several benchmarks codes, in the Rodinia benchmark suite, to study the behavior of OpenMP accelerator extensions and have used them to explore the impact of unified memory in an OpenMP context. We moreover modified the open source LLVM compiler to allow OpenMP programs to exploit unified memory. The results of our evaluation reveal that, while the performance of unified memory is comparable with that of normal GPU offloading for benchmarks with little data reuse, it suffers from significant overhead when GPU memory is over subcribed for benchmarks with large amount of data reuse. Based on these results, we provide several guidelines for programmers to achieve better performance with unified memory.

  1. Results from On-Orbit Testing of the Fram Memory Test Experiment on the Fastsat Micro-Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Sims, W. Herb; Varnavas, Kosta A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is planning on going beyond Low Earth orbit with manned exploration missions. The radiation environment for most Low Earth orbit missions is harsher than at the Earth's surface but much less harsh than deep space. Development of new electronics is needed to meet the requirements of high performance, radiation tolerance, and reliability. The need for both Volatile and Non-volatile memory has been identified. Emerging Non-volatile memory technologies (FRAM, C-RAM,M-RAM, R-RAM, Radiation Tolerant FLASH, SONOS, etc.) need to be investigated for use in Space missions. An opportunity arose to fly a small memory experiment on a high inclination satellite (FASTSAT). An off-the-shelf 512K Ramtron FRAM was chosen to be tested in the experiment.

  2. Randomized controlled trial evaluating the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term memory, and prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-11-01

    The broader purpose of this study was to examine the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term retrospective memory and prospective memory. Among a sample of 88 young adult participants, 22 were randomized into one of four different groups: exercise before learning, control group, exercise during learning, and exercise after learning. The retrospective assessments (learning, short-term and long-term memory) were assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Long-term memory including a 20-min and 24-hr follow-up assessment. Prospective memory was assessed using a time-based procedure by having participants contact (via phone) the researchers at a follow-up time period. The exercise stimulus included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. High-intensity exercise prior to memory encoding (vs. exercise during memory encoding or consolidation) was effective in enhancing long-term memory (for both 20-min and 24-h follow-up assessments). We did not observe a differential temporal effect of high-intensity exercise on short-term memory (immediate post-memory encoding), learning or prospective memory. The timing of high-intensity exercise may play an important role in facilitating long-term memory. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Application of complex programmable logic devices in memory radiation effects test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonghong; He Chaohui; Yang Hailiang; He Baoping

    2005-01-01

    The application of the complex programmable logic device (CPLD) in electronics is emphatically discussed. The method of using software MAX + plus II and CPLD are introduced. A new test system for memory radiation effects is established by using CPLD devices-EPM7128C84-15. The old test system's function are realized and, moreover, a number of small scale integrated circuits are reduced and the test system's reliability is improved. (authors)

  4. Aged Tg2576 mice are impaired on social memory and open field habituation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, R M J; Koros, E; Bornemann, K D; Rawlins, J N P

    2009-02-11

    In a previous publication [Deacon RMJ, Cholerton LL, Talbot K, Nair-Roberts RG, Sanderson DJ, Romberg C, et al. Age-dependent and -independent behavioral deficits in Tg2576 mice. Behav Brain Res 2008;189:126-38] we found that very few cognitive tests were suitable for demonstrating deficits in Tg2576 mice, an amyloid over-expression model of Alzheimer's disease, even at 23 months of age. However, in a retrospective analysis of a separate project on these mice, tests of social memory and open field habituation revealed large cognitive impairments. Controls showed good open field habituation, but Tg2576 mice were hyperactive and failed to habituate. In the test of social memory for a juvenile mouse, controls showed considerably less social investigation on the second meeting, indicating memory of the juvenile, whereas Tg2576 mice did not show this decrement.As a control for olfactory sensitivity, on which social memory relies, the ability to find a food pellet hidden under wood chip bedding was assessed. Tg2576 mice found the pellet as quickly as controls. As this test requires digging ability, this was independently assessed in tests of burrowing and directly observed digging. In line with previous results and the hippocampal dysfunction characteristic of aged Tg2576 mice, they both burrowed and dug less than controls.

  5. Smell test predicts performance on delayed recall memory test in elderly with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Monica Z; Streiner, David L; Rewilak, Dmytro; Castel, Saulo; Van Reekum, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Elderly with depression are at increased risk for cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Smell tests are correlated with performance on cognitive tests in the elderly and therefore might serve as a screening test for cognitive impairment in depressed elderly. To assess the validity of the CC-SIT (Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test) as a screening test for cognitive impairment in elderly with depression. Forty-one patients, aged 60 and over, were assessed with the CC-SIT and CVLT (California Verbal Learning Test) after 3 months treatment of a Major Depressive Episode (DSM-IV) at the Day Hospital for Depression, Baycrest. Patients already diagnosed with dementia, or other psychiatric and neurological disorders, were excluded. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis was applied to assess the CC-SIT's accuracy in identifying individuals with impairment (2 SD below the mean for age and education or less) on CVLT delayed recall trials. Forty-one patients (33 women and eight men) were assessed. Mean age was 76.8 (SD: 6.5), mean HRSD scores before treatment was 22.0 (SD: 5.1). Nine patients had impairment on CVLT delayed recall measures. The area under the ROC curve was 0.776 (95% CI = 0.617-0.936). Our results support the use of the CC-SIT as a screening tool for cognitive impairment among elderly with depression as an indicator for the need of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Replication with larger samples is necessary. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A sentence completion procedure as an alternative to the Autobiographical Memory Test for assessing overgeneral memory in non-clinical populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk; Williams, J Mark G; Eelen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for depression (Williams et al., 2007) or depressive reactivity to stressful life-events (e.g., Gibbs & Rude, 2004). Traditionally, a cue word procedure known as the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) is used to assess OGM. Although frequently and validly used in clinical populations, there is evidence suggesting that the AMT is insufficiently sensitive to measure OGM in non-clinical groups. Study 1 evaluated the usefulness of a sentence completion method to assess OGM in non-clinical groups, as an alternative to the AMT. Participants were 197 students who completed the AMT, the Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT), a depression measure, and visual analogue scales assessing ruminative thinking. Results showed that the mean proportion of overgeneral responses was markedly higher for the SCEPT than for the standard AMT. Also, overgeneral responding on the SCEPT was positively associated to depression scores and depressive rumination scores, whereas overgeneral responding on the AMT was not. Results suggest that the SCEPT, relative to the AMT, is a more sensitive instrument to measure OGM, at least in non-clinical populations. Study 2 further showed that this enhanced sensitivity is most likely due to the omission of the instruction to be specific rather than to the SCEPT's sentence completion format (as opposed to free recall to cue words).

  7. The Doors and People Test: The effect of frontal lobe lesions on recall and recognition memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha S; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Memory deficits in patients with frontal lobe lesions are most apparent on free recall tasks that require the selection, initiation, and implementation of retrieval strategies. The effect of frontal lesions on recognition memory performance is less clear with some studies reporting recognition memory impairments but others not. The majority of these studies do not directly compare recall and recognition within the same group of frontal patients, assessing only recall or recognition memory performance. Other studies that do compare recall and recognition in the same frontal group do not consider recall or recognition tests that are comparable for difficulty. Recognition memory impairments may not be reported because recognition memory tasks are less demanding. This study aimed to investigate recall and recognition impairments in the same group of 47 frontal patients and 78 healthy controls. The Doors and People Test was administered as a neuropsychological test of memory as it assesses both verbal and visual recall and recognition using subtests that are matched for difficulty. Significant verbal and visual recall and recognition impairments were found in the frontal patients. These results demonstrate that when frontal patients are assessed on recall and recognition memory tests of comparable difficulty, memory impairments are found on both types of episodic memory test. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Experimental sleep deprivation as a tool to test memory deficits in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALERIA eCOLAVITO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Paradigms of sleep deprivation (SD and memory testing in rodents (laboratory rats and mice are here reviewed. The vast majority of these studies have been aimed at understanding the contribution of sleep to cognition, and in particular to memory. Relatively little attention, instead, has been devoted to SD as a challenge to induce a transient memory impairment, and therefore as a tool to test cognitive enhancers in drug discovery. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the studies that have accurately described methodological aspects of the SD protocol and behavioral paradigm in order to critically assess them and propose SD protocols that could be employed as cognitive challenge. Total SD, partial or state-selective SD (rapid eye movement SD procedures are first reviewed, followed by procedures to investigate SD-induced impairment of learning and memory consolidation. Thus, a platform of knowledge is here provided for laboratory protocols that could be used to assess the efficacy of drugs designed to improve memory performance in rodents, including rodent models of neurodegenerative diseases that cause cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer’s disease in particular. Issues in the interpretation of such preclinical data and their predictive value for clinical translation are also discussed.

  9. Working memory, attentional regulation and the Star Counting Test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Jong, de P.F.; Koopmans, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Star Counting Test (SCT) has been developed to measure the regulatory function of attention. In a previous study it was shown that the SCT is suited for assessment of this attentional aspect with children. The present study concerns a more difficult version aimed at young adults. In the

  10. Simultaneous Versus Sequential Presentation in Testing Recognition Memory for Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jason R; Roediger, Henry L; Hughes, Andrea D; Wahlheim, Christopher N; Jacoby, Larry L

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the issue of whether faces could be better recognized in a simul- taneous test format (2-alternative forced choice [2AFC]) or a sequential test format (yes-no). All experiments showed that when target faces were present in the test, the simultaneous procedure led to superior performance (area under the ROC curve), whether lures were high or low in similarity to the targets. However, when a target-absent condition was used in which no lures resembled the targets but the lures were similar to each other, the simultaneous procedure yielded higher false alarm rates (Experiments 2 and 3) and worse overall performance (Experi- ment 3). This pattern persisted even when we excluded responses that participants opted to withhold rather than volunteer. We conclude that for the basic recognition procedures used in these experiments, simultaneous presentation of alternatives (2AFC) generally leads to better discriminability than does sequential presentation (yes-no) when a target is among the alterna- tives. However, our results also show that the opposite can occur when there is no target among the alternatives. An important future step is to see whether these patterns extend to more realistic eyewitness lineup procedures. The pictures used in the experiment are available online at http://www.press.uillinois.edu/journals/ajp/media/testing_recognition/.

  11. Verbal memory improved by D-amphetamine: influence of the testing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeuws, Inge; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric

    2010-07-01

    The improvement of long-term retention of verbal memory after an acute administration of D-amphetamine in recall and recognition tasks has been ascribed to an influence of the drug on memory consolidation. Because recent research has demonstrated that intermediate testing is of overriding importance for retention, we investigated whether D-amphetamine modulates the repeated testing effect in verbal long-term recognition. Forty men participated in two double blind placebo controlled studies. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the number of recognition tests and in Experiment 2, we compared repeated with nonrepeated testing of the same items. Drug effects were observed on delayed tests only, leaving immediate recognition unaffected. Number of intermediate recognition tests and repeated testing of the same items were not affected by D-amphetamine. We conclude that the D-amphetamine memory enhancement is not related to the testing effect. This result supports that D-amphetamine modulates other aspects of the consolidation process, probably related to context effects. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Synaptic Tagging, Evaluation of Memories, and the Distal Reward Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, Marc; Kempter, Richard; Leibold, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity exhibits distinct phases. The synaptic tagging hypothesis suggests an early phase in which synapses are prepared, or "tagged," for protein capture, and a late phase in which those proteins are integrated into the synapses to achieve memory consolidation. The synapse specificity of the tags is consistent with…

  13. TESTING THE EFFECTS OF THE IMIDAZOPYRIDINE ZOLPIDEM ON MEMORY : AN ECOLOGICALLY VALID APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, JL; Louwerens, JW; Cnossen, F; de Jong, HTP

    1992-01-01

    The present study explores whether memory impairments are found on the morning following intake of the hypnotic zolpidem which is a member of a new pharmaceutical class, the imidazopyridines. The procedure used is novel: it involves testing subjects in their own homes via the telephone. A previous

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of the 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Jong, B. de; Jacobs, B.; Werf, S.P. van der; Vos, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the type of stimulus (pictures or words) and the method of reproduction (free recall or recognition after a short or a long delay) affect the sensitivity and specificity of a 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia (PTA). METHODS: Daily

  15. Developmental Differences in Recall and Recognition: The Relationship between Rehearsal and Memory as Test Expectation Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Mary J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An overt rehearsal procedure was used to study the relationship between 48 third- and 48 sixth-grade children's rehearsal strategies and their memory performance under difficult conditions of test expectation. This study addressed the question of why active rehearsal content results in superior recall performances. (MS)

  16. Testing complex animal cognition: Concept learning, proactive interference, and list memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A

    2018-01-01

    This article describes an approach for assessing and comparing complex cognition in rhesus monkeys and pigeons by training them in a sequence of synergistic tasks, each yielding a whole function for enhanced comparisons. These species were trained in similar same/different tasks with expanding training sets (8, 16, 32, 64, 128 … 1024 pictures) followed by novel-stimulus transfer eventually resulting in full abstract-concept learning. Concept-learning functions revealed better rhesus transfer throughout and full concept learning at the 128 set, versus pigeons at the 256 set. They were then tested in delayed same/different tasks for proactive interference by inserting occasional tests within trial-unique sessions where the test stimulus matched a previous sample stimulus (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 trials prior). Proactive-interference functions revealed time-based interference for pigeons (1, 10 s delays), but event-based interference for rhesus (no effect of 1, 10, 20 s delays). They were then tested in list-memory tasks by expanding the sample to four samples in trial-unique sessions (minimizing proactive interference). The four-item, list-memory functions revealed strong recency memory at short delays, gradually changing to strong primacy memory at long delays over 30 s for rhesus, and 10 s for pigeons. Other species comparisons and future directions are discussed. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. How Memory Is Tested Influences What Is Measured: Reply to Wyble and Chen (2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Khena M.; Jiang, Yuhong V.; Tan, Deborah H.

    2017-01-01

    In this response to Wyble and Chen's (2017) commentary on attribute amnesia, we hope to achieve several goals. First, we clarify how our view diverges from that described by Wyble and Chen. We argue that because the surprise memory test is disruptive, it is an insensitive tool for measuring the persistence of recently attended target attributes in…

  18. TESTING THE EFFECTS OF HYPNOTICS ON MEMORY VIA THE TELEPHONE : FACT OR FICTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, JL; Louwerens, JW; Cnossen, F; de Jong, HTP

    The two benzodiazapines used in this experiment, namely midazolam and flunitrazepam, have both been shown to have effects on memory processing in laboratory studies. In spite of the potential hazards involved in real life testing, it should be possible to replicate such findings in everyday

  19. Dynamic Testing, Working Memory, and Reading Comprehension Growth in Children with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed (a) whether performance changes in working memory (WM) as a function of dynamic testing were related to growth in reading comprehension and (b) whether WM performance among subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD; children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal…

  20. Steps Leading to an Ethnographic Analysis of Mothers Preparing Children for a Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoff, Barbara; Gardner, William P.

    In this study four research strategies used in previous studies of the socialization of cognitive skills were first contrasted and then assessed in terms of five criteria. (The data base for this study was 32 videotapes of mothers preparing their 7- or 9-year-old children to take a memory test.) The four strategies (frequency coding, fine-grained…

  1. Working Memory Systems in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratch, Alexander; Kann, Spencer; Cain, Joshua A; Wu, Jie-En; Rivera-Reyes, Nilda; Dalecki, Stefan; Arman, Diana; Dunn, Austin; Cooper, Shiloh; Corbin, Hannah E; Doyle, Amanda R; Pizzo, Matthew J; Smith, Alexandra E; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-02-08

    A fundamental feature of memory in humans is the ability to simultaneously work with multiple types of information using independent memory systems. Working memory is conceptualized as two independent memory systems under executive control [1, 2]. Although there is a long history of using the term "working memory" to describe short-term memory in animals, it is not known whether multiple, independent memory systems exist in nonhumans. Here, we used two established short-term memory approaches to test the hypothesis that spatial and olfactory memory operate as independent working memory resources in the rat. In the olfactory memory task, rats chose a novel odor from a gradually incrementing set of old odors [3]. In the spatial memory task, rats searched for a depleting food source at multiple locations [4]. We presented rats with information to hold in memory in one domain (e.g., olfactory) while adding a memory load in the other domain (e.g., spatial). Control conditions equated the retention interval delay without adding a second memory load. In a further experiment, we used proactive interference [5-7] in the spatial domain to compromise spatial memory and evaluated the impact of adding an olfactory memory load. Olfactory and spatial memory are resistant to interference from the addition of a memory load in the other domain. Our data suggest that olfactory and spatial memory draw on independent working memory systems in the rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An evaluation testing technique of single event effect using Beam Blanking SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J; Hada, T; Pesce, A; Akutsu, T; Matsuda, S [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Igarashi, T; Baba, S

    1997-03-01

    Beam Blanking SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) testing technique has been applied to CMOS SRAM devices to evaluate the occurence of soft errors on memory cells. Cross-section versus beam current and LET curves derived from BBSEM and heavy ion testing technique, respectively, have been compared. A linear relation between BBSEM current and heavy ion LET has been found. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the application of focused pulsed electron beam could be a reliable, convenient and inexpensive tool to investigate the effects of heavy ions and high energy particles on memory devices for space application. (author)

  3. The role of sedation tests in identifying sedative drug effects in healthy volunteers and their power to dissociate sedative-related impairments from memory dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezenberg, E; Sabbe, B G C; Hulstijn, W; Ruigt, G S F; Verkes, R J

    2007-08-01

    The study investigated whether four specified drugs would show similar patterns on tests considered to measure sedation. In addition, their drug-effect patterns on sedation and memory performance were compared to determine whether the sedative effects could be differentiated from the memory effects. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies, each with 16 healthy volunteers, were performed, one testing lorazepam (2.5 mg) and mirtazapine (15 mg) and the other olanzapine (10 mg) and haloperidol (2.5 mg). Subjective sedation was assessed by means of visual analogue scales (VAS) and objective sedation using a simple-reaction-time (SRT) task and a choice-reaction-time (CRT) task, code substitution (symbol digit substitution test (SDST)) and the peak velocity of saccadic eye movements (SEM). A verbal memory test (VMT) was administered to evaluate memory capacity. Apart from haloperidol, all drugs proved to impair performance on all five sedation indices. Contrary to the VAS, the objective measures yielded different response profiles. Two types of drug-effect patterns emerged: one for greater impairments in response speed (SRT, SEM) and one for greater impairments in information processing (CRT, SDST). Lorazepam and olanzapine impeded memory performance, whereas mirtazapine did not. With the use of standardized scores it proved possible to differentiate between the size of the effects of the drugs on the sedation and memory tests. To accurately assess the level and nature of sedation and to differentiate sedation from memory impairments different types of sedation measures are required. Besides studying the subjective effects, it is recommended to also test psychomotor responses and information processing speed.

  4. Exact and conceptual repetition dissociate conceptual memory tests: problems for transfer appropriate processing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, K B; Roediger, H L

    1996-03-01

    Three experiments examined whether a conceptual implicit memory test (specifically, category instance generation) would exhibit repetition effects similar to those found in free recall. The transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations among memory tests led us to predict that the tests would show parallel effects; this prediction was based upon the theory's assumption that conceptual tests will behave similarly as a function of various independent variables. In Experiment 1, conceptual repetition (i.e., following a target word [e.g., puzzles] with an associate [e.g., jigsaw]) did not enhance priming on the instance generation test relative to the condition of simply presenting the target word once, although this manipulation did affect free recall. In Experiment 2, conceptual repetition was achieved by following a picture with its corresponding word (or vice versa). In this case, there was an effect of conceptual repetition on free recall but no reliable effect on category instance generation or category cued recall. In addition, we obtained a picture superiority effect in free recall but not in category instance generation. In the third experiment, when the same study sequence was used as in Experiment 1, but with instructions that encouraged relational processing, priming on the category instance generation task was enhanced by conceptual repetition. Results demonstrate that conceptual memory tests can be dissociated and present problems for Roediger's (1990) transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations between explicit and implicit tests.

  5. The advanced test reactor strategic evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    Since the Chernobly accident, the safety of test reactors and irradiation facilities has been critically evaluated from the public's point of view. A systematic evaluation of all safety, environmental, and operational issues must be made in an integrated manner to prioritize actions to maximize benefits while minimizing costs. Such a proactive program has been initiated at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This program, called the Strategic Evaluation Program (STEP), is being conducted for the ATR to provide integrated safety and operational reviews of the reactor against the standards applied to licensed commercial power reactors. This has taken into consideration the lessons learned by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) and the follow-on effort known as the Integrated Safety Assessment Program (ISAP). The SEP was initiated by the NRC to review the designs of older operating nuclear power plants to confirm and document their safety. The ATR STEP objectives are discussed

  6. Visual working memory and number sense: Testing the double deficit hypothesis in mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Sylke W M; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-09-01

    Evidence exists that there are two main underlying cognitive factors in mathematical difficulties: working memory and number sense. It is suggested that real math difficulties appear when both working memory and number sense are weak, here referred to as the double deficit (DD) hypothesis. The aim of this study was to test the DD hypothesis within a longitudinal time span of 2 years. A total of 670 children participated. The mean age was 4.96 years at the start of the study and 7.02 years at the end of the study. At the end of the first year of kindergarten, both visual-spatial working memory and number sense were measured by two different tasks. At the end of first grade, mathematical performance was measured with two tasks, one for math facts and one for math problems. Multiple regressions revealed that both visual working memory and symbolic number sense are predictors of mathematical performance in first grade. Symbolic number sense appears to be the strongest predictor for both math areas (math facts and math problems). Non-symbolic number sense only predicts performance in math problems. Multivariate analyses of variance showed that a combination of visual working memory and number sense deficits (NSDs) leads to the lowest performance on mathematics. Our DD hypothesis was confirmed. Both visual working memory and symbolic number sense in kindergarten are related to mathematical performance 2 years later, and a combination of visual working memory and NSDs leads to low performance in mathematical performance. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Investigating the mixture and subdivision of perceptual and conceptual processing in Japanese memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabeza, R

    1995-03-01

    The dual nature of the Japanese writing system was used to investigate two assumptions of the processing view of memory transfer: (1) that both perceptual and conceptual processing can contribute to the same memory test (mixture assumption) and (2) that both can be broken into more specific processes (subdivision assumption). Supporting the mixture assumption, a word fragment completion test based on ideographic kanji characters (kanji fragment completion test) was affected by both perceptual (hiragana/kanji script shift) and conceptual (levels-of-processing) study manipulations kanji fragments, because it did not occur with the use of meaningless hiragana fragments. The mixture assumption is also supported by an effect of study script on an implicit conceptual test (sentence completion), and the subdivision assumption is supported by a crossover dissociation between hiragana and kanji fragment completion as a function of study script.

  8. Working Memory Capacity: Attention Control, Secondary Memory, or Both? A Direct Test of the Dual-Component Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the extent to which attention control abilities, secondary memory abilities, or both accounted for variation in working memory capacity (WMC) and its relation to fluid intelligence. Participants performed various attention control, secondary memory, WMC, and fluid intelligence measures. Confirmatory factor analyses…

  9. How does additional diagnostic testing influence the initial diagnosis in patients with cognitive complaints in a memory clinic setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, A.P.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Schalk, B.W.M; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Melis, R.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: patients suspected of dementia frequently undergo additional diagnostic testing (e.g. brain imaging or neuropsychological assessment) after standard clinical assessment at a memory clinic. This study investigates the use of additional testing in an academic outpatient memory clinic and

  10. How does additional diagnostic testing influence the initial diagnosis in patients with cognitive complaints in a memory clinic setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, A.P.; Claassen, J.A.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Schalk, B.W.M; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Melis, R.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: patients suspected of dementia frequently undergo additional diagnostic testing (e.g. brain imaging or neuropsychological assessment) after standard clinical assessment at a memory clinic. This study investigates the use of additional testing in an academic outpatient memory clinic and

  11. Applicability of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test - Third Edition (RBMT-3) in Korsakoff's syndrome and chronic alcoholics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, A.J.; Herten, J.C. van; Egger, J.I.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the applicability of the newly developed Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3) as an ecologically-valid memory test in patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Patients and methods: An authorized Dutch translation of the RBMT-3 was developed,

  12. Applicability of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test - Third Edition (RBMT-3) in Korsakoff's syndrome and chronic alcoholics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, A.J.; Herten, J.C. van; Egger, J.I.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the applicability of the newly developed Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test - Third Edition (RBMT-3) as an ecologically-valid memory test in patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An authorized Dutch translation of the RBMT-3 was developed,

  13. Evaluation of effects of photooxidized Vespa orientalis venom on memory and learning in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mukund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasp venom is mixture of complex proteins that have several physical and pharmacological properties. The photochemical detoxification of Vespa orientalis venom is expected to generate photooxidized venom sac extract (PVSE. Antigenically active PVSE is obtained by exposing the venom sac extract (VSE of Vespa orientalis to ultraviolet radiation in the presence of methylene blue. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of PVSE on learning and memory of rats. Detoxification of PVSE was evident since treated mice had longer survival time than the group of mice treated with VSE. Photooxidized VSE of V. orientalis revealed enhancement on learning and memory by shortening the time to reach food (TRF in T-maze. In a 28-day study with rats, we observed that PVSE significantly decreased transfer latency (TL in elevated plus maze (EPM, significantly increased step down latency (SDL, diminished step down errors (SDE and time spent in shock zone (TSS in step down avoidance test. Thus, we concluded that although there is a possibility of employing PVSE in the treatment of Alzheimer, dementia or neurodegenerative illness as a non-herbal and non-synthetic alternative for patients who do not respond to available therapy, further investigation is still required.

  14. Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin A G; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-12-06

    A colour quality metric based on memory colours is presented. The basic idea is simple. The colour quality of a test source is evaluated as the degree of similarity between the colour appearance of a set of familiar objects and their memory colours. The closer the match, the better the colour quality. This similarity was quantified using a set of similarity distributions obtained by Smet et al. in a previous study. The metric was validated by calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between the metric predictions and the visual appreciation results obtained in a validation experiment conducted by the authors as well those obtained in two independent studies. The metric was found to correlate well with the visual appreciation of the lighting quality of the sources used in the three experiments. Its performance was also compared with that of the CIE colour rendering index and the NIST colour quality scale. For all three experiments, the metric was found to be significantly better at predicting the correct visual rank order of the light sources (p < 0.1).

  15. Conceptual similarity effects on working memory in sentence contexts: testing a theory of anaphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, H Wind; Garnham, Alan; Simner, Julia

    2010-06-01

    The degree of semantic similarity between an anaphoric noun phrase (e.g., the bird) and its antecedent (e.g., a robin) is known to affect the anaphor resolution process, but the mechanisms that underlie this effect are not known. One proposal (Almor, 1999) is that semantic similarity triggers interference effects in working memory and makes two crucial assumptions: First, semantic similarity impairs working memory just as phonological similarity does (e.g., Baddeley, 1992), and, second, this impairment interferes with processes of sentence comprehension. We tested these assumptions in two experiments that compared recall accuracy between phonologically similar, semantically similar, and control words in sentence contexts. Our results do not provide support for Almor's claims: Phonological overlap decreased recall accuracy in sentence contexts, but semantic similarity did not. These results shed doubt on the idea that semantic interference in working memory is an underlying mechanism in anaphor resolution.

  16. Memory accessibility shapes explanation: Testing key claims of the inherence heuristic account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussak, Larisa J; Cimpian, Andrei

    2018-01-01

    People understand the world by constructing explanations for what they observe. It is thus important to identify the cognitive processes underlying these judgments. According to a recent proposal, everyday explanations are often constructed heuristically: Because people need to generate explanations on a moment-by-moment basis, they cannot perform an exhaustive search through the space of possible reasons, but may instead use the information that is most easily accessible in memory (Cimpian & Salomon 2014a, b). In the present research, we tested two key claims of this proposal that have so far not been investigated. First, we tested whether-as previously hypothesized-the information about an entity that is most accessible in memory tends to consist of inherent or intrinsic facts about that entity, rather than extrinsic (contextual, historical, etc.) facts about it (Studies 1 and 2). Second, we tested the implications of this difference in the memory accessibility of inherent versus extrinsic facts for the process of generating explanations: Does the fact that inherent facts are more accessible than relevant extrinsic facts give rise to an inherence bias in the content of the explanations generated (Studies 3 and 4)? The findings supported the proposal that everyday explanations are generated in part via a heuristic process that relies on easily accessible-and often inherent-information from memory.

  17. SELF-ASSESSMENT, QUESTIONNAIRES AND MEMORY TESTS IN A SIMULATED DRIVING TASK

    OpenAIRE

    Combe-Pangaud , Chantal; Jacquet-Andrieu , Armelle

    2009-01-01

    disponible sur : http://www.chalmers.se/safer/driverdistraction-en; International audience; This paper concerns the results of a memorizing test (visual recognition and hearing recall) during an experiment of simulated driving in a magneto-encephalographic environment. The memory tests (questionnaires) are adapted to the measurement of subjective self-assessment: "tiredness" and "facility" perceptions, corralled to simple (ST) and double task (ST/DT: hearing a radio broadcast). Each subject h...

  18. Deployable auxetic shape memory alloy cellular antenna demonstrator: design, manufacturing and modal testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, S; Coconnier, C; DiMaio, D; Scarpa, F; Martinez, J; Toso, M

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the design, manufacturing and testing of a deployable antenna for deep-space missions based on a hybrid honeycomb truss made of shape memory alloy (SMA). The deployable characteristics are enhanced by the equivalent auxetic (negative Poisson’s ratio) behaviour of the cellular configuration. Specific emphasis is placed on the modal analysis techniques used to test the lightweight SMA structure. (paper)

  19. Analysis of the X-ray microbeam test result of the flash memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yihua; Ding Lili; Chen Wei; Guo Hongxia; Guo Xiaoqiang; Lin Dongsheng; Zhang Keying; Zhang Fengqi; Deng Yuliang; Fan Ruyu

    2013-01-01

    Background: The failure phenomenon is difficult to analyze for the flash memories when the whole chip is exposed to irradiation since both the memory array and the peripheral circuits might be degraded. Purpose: In order to detect the radiation susceptibility and corresponding phenomenon of the related circuits that included in the flash memories, the X-ray microbeam is used as the radiation source instead of 60 Co. Methods: The failure phenomenon is studied respectively when the memory array, decoder circuits, the charge pump circuits as well as the I/O circuits are exposed to radiation. The errors are mapped according to the logical address and the failure mechanism is analyzed based on the circuits. Results: Irradiated on the memory .array win lead to regularly distributed 0→1 bit flips, while only 1→0 are found when the row decoder is under exposure. Degradation of the charge pump circuits would lead to the erase/program functional failure. Conclusions: The results suggest that the X-ray microbeam radiation test is a good method for detecting the radiation susceptibility of the integrated circuits that contains lots of circuit modules. (authors)

  20. CMOS test and evaluation a physical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Manjul

    2015-01-01

    This book extends test structure applications described in Microelectronic Test Struc­tures for CMOS Technology (Springer 2011) to digital CMOS product chips. Intended for engineering students and professionals, this book provides a single comprehensive source for evaluating CMOS technology and product test data from a basic knowledge of the physical behavior of the constituent components. Elementary circuits that exhibit key properties of complex CMOS chips are simulated and analyzed, and an integrated view of design, test and characterization is developed. Appropriately designed circuit monitors embedded in the CMOS chip serve to correlate CMOS technology models and circuit design tools to the hardware and also aid in test debug. Impact of silicon process variability, reliability, and power and performance sensitivities to a range of product application conditions are described. Circuit simulations exemplify the methodologies presented, and problems are included at the end of the chapters.

  1. Evaluation of the attentional capacities and working memory of early and late blind persons

    OpenAIRE

    PIGEON, Caroline; MARIN-LAMELLET, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although attentional processes and working memory seem to be significantly involved in the daily activities (particularly during navigating) of persons who are blind and who use these abilities to compensate for their lack of vision, few studies have investigated these mechanisms in this population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the selective, sustained and divided attention, attentional inhibition and switching and working memory of blind persons. Early blind, late blind and sighted p...

  2. EPS Mid-Career Award 2011. Are there multiple memory systems? Tests of models of implicit and explicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R; Berry, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent work aimed at developing a new framework, based on signal detection theory, for understanding the relationship between explicit (e.g., recognition) and implicit (e.g., priming) memory. Within this framework, different assumptions about sources of memorial evidence can be framed. Application to experimental results provides robust evidence for a single-system model in preference to multiple-systems models. This evidence comes from several sources including studies of the effects of amnesia and ageing on explicit and implicit memory. The framework allows a range of concepts in current memory research, such as familiarity, recollection, fluency, and source memory, to be linked to implicit memory. More generally, this work emphasizes the value of modern computational modelling techniques in the study of learning and memory.

  3. Working memory and inhibitory control across the life span: Intrusion errors in the Reading Span Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Christelle; Borella, Erika; Fagot, Delphine; Lecerf, Thierry; de Ribaupierre, Anik

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine to what extent inhibitory control and working memory capacity are related across the life span. Intrusion errors committed by children and younger and older adults were investigated in two versions of the Reading Span Test. In Experiment 1, a mixed Reading Span Test with items of various list lengths was administered. Older adults and children recalled fewer correct words and produced more intrusions than did young adults. Also, age-related differences were found in the type of intrusions committed. In Experiment 2, an adaptive Reading Span Test was administered, in which the list length of items was adapted to each individual's working memory capacity. Age groups differed neither on correct recall nor on the rate of intrusions, but they differed on the type of intrusions. Altogether, these findings indicate that the availability of attentional resources influences the efficiency of inhibition across the life span.

  4. Long-term deficits in episodic memory after ischemic stroke: evaluation and prediction of verbal and visual memory performance based on lesion characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Eveline A.; Schiemanck, Sven K.; Brand, Nico; Post, Marcel W. M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between ischemic lesion characteristics (hemispheric side, cortical and subcortical level, volume) and memory performance, 1 year after stroke. Verbal and visual memory of 86 patients with stroke were assessed with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and the Doors

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of the 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Teuntje M J C; de Jong, Ben; Jacobs, Bram; van der Werf, Sieberen P; Vos, Pieter E

    2009-04-01

    To investigate how the type of stimulus (pictures or words) and the method of reproduction (free recall or recognition after a short or a long delay) affect the sensitivity and specificity of a 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia (PTA). Daily testing was performed in 64 consecutively admitted traumatic brain injured patients, 22 orthopedically injured patients and 26 healthy controls until criteria for resolution of PTA were reached. Subjects were randomly assigned to a test with visual or verbal stimuli. Short delay reproduction was tested after an interval of 3-5 minutes, long delay reproduction was tested after 24 hours. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated over the first 4 test days. The 3-word test showed higher sensitivity than the 3-picture test, while specificity of the two tests was equally high. Free recall was a more effortful task than recognition for both patients and controls. In patients, a longer delay between registration and recall resulted in a significant decrease in the number of items reproduced. Presence of PTA is best assessed with a memory test that incorporates the free recall of words after a long delay.

  6. Evaluating the Effect of Mozart Music and White Noise on Electroencephalography Pattern toward Visual Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Noor Syakiylla Sayed Daud

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Listening to auditory stimuli during study can give positive and negative influence on human cognitive processing. Thus, it has attracted researchers to conduct studies using various types of auditory stimuli. Some researchers believe that Mozart music and white noise are able to give positive influence on cognitive performance. However, most of the past studies gave more attention towards spatial task. Very little studies have been made on the effect of Mozart music and white noise towards memorizing task. Besides, the effect of these auditory stimuli on task difficulty has also not been studied deeply. Hence, the aims of this study were to investigate the effect of Mozart music and white noise on memory performance with different task difficulty levels; and to propose an effective background stimuli condition for memorization. Experiments have been conducted involving 60 healthy adults that required them to memorize the visual memory task with two difficulty levels; i.e. easy and difficult. Brain signal was recorded during memorization duration using 10-20 electrode placement system of electroencephalography (EEG machine. EEG is a neurological test for measuring and recording the electrical activity of the brain. The effect of sound stimuli on memory performance was evaluated based on memorization test score and brain activity. The wavelet approach was used in processing the EEG data. Based on the memorizing test score result, the subjects are able to memorize better when listening to white noise compared to Mozart music at different difficulty levels. Listening to auditory stimuli can influence the electroencephalography pattern and brain activity. The level of sensory processing and attention increases when listening to white noise which cause the increase of relative gamma (easy level: p-value = 0.005; difficult level: p-value = 0.007 and beta power (easy level: p-value = 0.001; difficult level: p-value = 0.003. Thus, in this study, it is

  7. Evaluating the role of prefrontal and parietal cortices in memory-guided response with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidi, Massihullah; Tononi, Giulio; Postle, Bradley R.

    2008-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) plays an important role in working memory, including the control of memory-guided response. In this study, with 24 subjects, we used high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to evaluate the role of the dlPFC in memory-guided response to two different types of spatial working memory tasks: one requiring a recognition decision about a probe stimulus (operationalized with a yes/no button press), another requiring direct recall ...

  8. [Discriminatory validity and association of the mini-mental test (MMSE) and the memory alteration test (M@T) with a neuropsychological battery in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, L; Bosch, B; Valls-Pedret, C; Caprile, C; Sánchez-Valle Díaz, R; Molinuevo, J L

    To establish the discriminatory validity of the mini-mental test (MMSE) and the memory alteration test (M@T) for the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), and also to study the association between the results obtained in screening tests, a neuropsychological battery and a functional questionnaire in healthy persons and in patients with aMCI and AD. We evaluated 27 normal controls, 27 patients with aMCI and 35 patients with AD using the MMSE and a memory screening test, the M@T, a neuropsychological battery and a questionnaire on functional activities of daily living. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relations between the scores on the M@T and the MMSE and the neuropsychological tests. The area below the curve, the sensitivity and the specificity were calculated for the screening tests. In patients with aMCI, the scores on the M@T and the MMSE were strongly associated with the performance in the episodic memory tests in frontal tests and with the scores on the functional questionnaire, but not with tests that evaluated praxias and perceptive functions. In patients with AD, the scores on the M@T and the MMSE were associated with results in semantic memory, language, executive functions and praxias, but not with perceptive tests and functional questionnaires. In patients with aMCI and AD, the association between MMSE and M@T only correlate with some cognitive functions, without there being any association with other cognitive functions. Therefore, screening tests cannot be used as the only instrument for evaluating the cognitive status in patients with suspected dementia.

  9. Utility of finger maze test for learning and memory abilities in infants of cynomolgus monkeys exposed to thiamazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ayumi; Arima, Akihiro; Kato, Hirohito; Ebihara, Shizufumi

    2014-11-01

    A new type of learning and memory test using a finger maze was conducted in infant cynomolgus monkeys that were exposed to thiamazole (2 and 3.5 mg/kg per day to pregnant animals orally) during the fetal period (gestational days 120 to 150). We modified Tsuchida's original finger maze test method by reducing the number of trials per day and simplifying the criteria for achievement of training, and we added a long-term memory test. In the memory test, thiamazole-exposed infants required greater time to complete the finger maze test than the control infants although no effect was noted in the training or learning test. The results suggest that an impaired long-term memory could be detected by our modified finger maze test. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  10. The Effects of Involvement, Message Appeal, and Viewing Conditions on Memory and Evaluation of TV Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Glen; Thorson, Esther

    A study tested an information processing model that incorporates the concepts of episodic and semantic memory. The model was designed to provide for the concurrent study of three advertising and communication variables: product involvement, message appeal, and distraction in viewing conditions. Among the five hypotheses being tested were that…

  11. Evaluating Multicore Algorithms on the Unified Memory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Savage

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges to achieving good performance on multicore architectures is the effective utilization of the underlying memory hierarchy. While this is an issue for single-core architectures, it is a critical problem for multicore chips. In this paper, we formulate the unified multicore model (UMM to help understand the fundamental limits on cache performance on these architectures. The UMM seamlessly handles different types of multiple-core processors with varying degrees of cache sharing at different levels. We demonstrate that our model can be used to study a variety of multicore architectures on a variety of applications. In particular, we use it to analyze an option pricing problem using the trinomial model and develop an algorithm for it that has near-optimal memory traffic between cache levels. We have implemented the algorithm on a two Quad-Core Intel Xeon 5310 1.6 GHz processors (8 cores. It achieves a peak performance of 19.5 GFLOPs, which is 38% of the theoretical peak of the multicore system. We demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms compiler-optimized and auto-parallelized code by a factor of up to 7.5.

  12. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  13. Substitution of California Verbal Learning Test, second edition for Verbal Paired Associates on the Wechsler Memory Scale, fourth edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Justin B; Axelrod, Bradley N; Rapport, Lisa J; Hanks, Robin A; Bashem, Jesse R; Schutte, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Two common measures used to evaluate verbal learning and memory are the Verbal Paired Associates (VPA) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scales (WMS) and the second edition of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II). For the fourth edition of the WMS, scores from the CVLT-II can be substituted for VPA; the present study sought to examine the validity of the substitution. For each substitution, paired-samples t tests were conducted between original VPA scaled scores and scaled scores obtained from the CVLT-II substitution to evaluate comparability. Similar comparisons were made at the index score level. At the index score level, substitution resulted in significantly lower scores for the AMI (p = .03; r = .13) but not for the IMI (p = .29) or DMI (p = .09). For the subtest scores, substituted scaled scores for VPA were not significantly different from original scores for the immediate recall condition (p = .20) but were significantly lower at delayed recall (p = .01). These findings offer partial support for the substitution. For both the immediate and delayed conditions, the substitution produced generally lower subtest scores compared to original VPA subtest scores.

  14. Test-retest reliability of Brazilian version of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale for assessing symptoms in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Josiane Roberta de; Luvisaro, Bianca Maria Oliveira; Rodrigues, Claudia Fernandes; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça

    2017-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese. The scale was applied in an interview format for 190 patients with various cancers type hospitalized in clinical and surgical sectors of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva and reapplied in 58 patients. Data from the test-retest were double typed into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by the weighted Kappa. The reliability of the scale was satisfactory in test-retest. The weighted Kappa values obtained for each scale item had to be adequate, the largest item was 0.96 and the lowest was 0.69. The Kappa subscale was also evaluated and values were 0.84 for high frequency physic symptoms, 0.81 for low frequency physical symptoms, 0.81 for psychological symptoms, and 0.78 for Global Distress Index. High level of reliability estimated suggests that the process of measurement of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale aspects was adequate. Avaliar a confiabilidade teste-reteste da versão traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para o português do Brasil do Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. A escala foi aplicada em forma de entrevista em 190 pacientes com diversos tipos de câncer internados nos setores clínicos e cirúrgicos do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva e reaplicada em 58 pacientes. Os dados dos testes-retestes foram inseridos num banco de dados por dupla digitação independente em Excel e analisados pelo Kappa ponderado. A confiabilidade da escala mostrou-se satisfatória nos testes-retestes. Os valores do Kappa ponderado obtidos para cada item da escala apresentaram-se adequados, sendo o maior item de 0,96 e o menor de 0,69. Também se avaliou o Kappa das subescalas, sendo de 0,84 para sintomas físicos de alta frequência, de 0,81 para sintomas físicos de baixa frequência, de 0,81 também para sintomas psicológicos, e de 0,78 para Índice Geral de Sofrimento

  15. Physicians' subjectivity in evaluating oxytocin challenge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, T M

    1980-07-01

    Five physicians subspecializing in maternal-fetal medicine individually evaluated 50 oxytocin challenge tests (OCTs), of which 33 were originally read as positive. There was considerable disagreement among the study physicians (SPs) such that 2 SPs would agree, on the average, only 52% of the time on any one OCT. The SPs were also asked to evaluate fetal heart rate (FHR) reactivity patterns, if present. Again, there was great disagreement. When the majority (3 of 5 or more) of SPs agreed on the OCT result and/or reactivity, there was reasonable correlation with neonatal outcome, indicating the validity of the physiologic premise of the test. In particular, the presence or absence of FHR accelerations with fetal motion, regardless of the OCT reading, correlated extremely well with eventual neonatal outcome. This indicates that the most significant variable in antepartum FHR monitoring is the FHR acceleration pattern.

  16. The touchscreen operant platform for testing learning and memory in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Alexa E.; Heath, Christopher J.; Hvoslef-Eide, Martha; Kent, Brianne A.; Kim, Chi Hun; Nilsson, Simon R. O.; Alsiö, Johan; Oomen, Charlotte A.; Holmes, Andrew; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary An increasingly popular method of assessing cognitive functions in rodents is the automated touchscreen platform, on which a number of different cognitive tests can be run in a manner very similar to touchscreen methods currently used to test human subjects. This methodology is low stress (using appetitive, rather than aversive reinforcement), has high translational potential, and lends itself to a high degree of standardisation and throughput. Applications include the study of cognition in rodent models of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Huntington’s disease, frontotemporal dementia), and characterisation of the role of select brain regions, neurotransmitter systems and genes in rodents. This protocol describes how to perform four touchscreen assays of learning and memory: Visual Discrimination, Object-Location Paired-Associates Learning, Visuomotor Conditional Learning and Autoshaping. It is accompanied by two further protocols using the touchscreen platform to assess executive function, working memory and pattern separation. PMID:24051959

  17. The touchscreen operant platform for testing learning and memory in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Alexa E; Heath, Christopher J; Hvoslef-Eide, Martha; Kent, Brianne A; Kim, Chi Hun; Nilsson, Simon R O; Alsiö, Johan; Oomen, Charlotte A; Holmes, Andrew; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2013-10-01

    An increasingly popular method of assessing cognitive functions in rodents is the automated touchscreen platform, on which a number of different cognitive tests can be run in a manner very similar to touchscreen methods currently used to test human subjects. This methodology is low stress (using appetitive rather than aversive reinforcement), has high translational potential and lends itself to a high degree of standardization and throughput. Applications include the study of cognition in rodent models of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, Huntington's disease, frontotemporal dementia), as well as the characterization of the role of select brain regions, neurotransmitter systems and genes in rodents. This protocol describes how to perform four touchscreen assays of learning and memory: visual discrimination, object-location paired-associates learning, visuomotor conditional learning and autoshaping. It is accompanied by two further protocols (also published in this issue) that use the touchscreen platform to assess executive function, working memory and pattern separation.

  18. Diminishing-cues retrieval practice: A memory-enhancing technique that works when regular testing doesn't.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Joshua L; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2017-08-28

    Retrieval practice has been shown to be a highly effective tool for enhancing memory, a fact that has led to major changes to educational practice and technology. However, when initial learning is poor, initial retrieval practice is unlikely to be successful and long-term benefits of retrieval practice are compromised or nonexistent. Here, we investigate the benefit of a scaffolded retrieval technique called diminishing-cues retrieval practice (Finley, Benjamin, Hays, Bjork, & Kornell, Journal of Memory and Language, 64, 289-298, 2011). Under learning conditions that favored a strong testing effect, diminishing cues and standard retrieval practice both enhanced memory performance relative to restudy. Critically, under learning conditions where standard retrieval practice was not helpful, diminishing cues enhanced memory performance substantially. These experiments demonstrate that diminishing-cues retrieval practice can widen the range of conditions under which testing can benefit memory, and so can serve as a model for the broader application of testing-based techniques for enhancing learning.

  19. Deconstructing the symbol digit modalities test in multiple sclerosis: The role of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Viral P; Walker, Lisa A S; Feinstein, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is a sensitive measure of impaired cognition in people with MS. While the SDMT is primarily considered a test of information processing speed, other components such as visual scanning and oral-motor ability have also been linked to performance. The objective of this study was to determine the role of memory in the performance of the SDMT. Two version of a modified computerized SDMT (c-SDMT) were employed, a fixed and a variable. For each group 50 MS and 33 healthy control (HC) participants were recruited. In the fixed c-SDMT, the symbol-digit code is kept constant for the entire test whereas in the variable version, it changes eight times. Unlike the traditional SDMT which records the correct number of responses, the c-SDMT presented here measures the mean response time (in seconds) for the eight trials. MS participants were slower than HC on the fixed (p < 0.001) and variable (p = 0.005) c-SDMT. Trend analysis showed performance improvement on the fixed, but not on the variable c-SDMT in both MS and HC groups. Furthermore, immediate visual memory recall was associated with the fixed (β = -0.299, p = 0.017), but not variable (B = -0.057, p = 0.260) c-SDMT. Immediate verbal memory was not associated with either versions of the c-SDMT. Given that the fixed and variable c-SDMTs are identical in every way apart from the fixity of the code, the ability of participants to speed up responses over the course of the fixed version only points to the contribution of incidental visual memory in test performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Memory for performance feedback :a test of three self- motivation theories

    OpenAIRE

    Donlin, Joanne Mac

    1990-01-01

    The current study tests the adequacy of three self-motive theories to predict recall of performance feedback, memory sensitivity, and ratings of perceived accuracy. Self-enhancement (Jones, 1973) predicts individuals are motivated to maintain their self-esteem. Individuals will therefore recall positive relative to negative feedback and will rate positive feedback as more accurate. Self-consistency theory (Swann, 1985) predicts individuals are motivated to maintain their self-conceptions. The...

  1. Cerebral networks of sustained attention and working memory: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study based on the Continuous Performance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartés-Serrallonga, M; Adan, A; Solé-Casals, J; Caldú, X; Falcón, C; Pérez-Pàmies, M; Bargalló, N; Serra-Grabulosa, J M

    2014-04-01

    One of the most used paradigms in the study of attention is the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). The identical pairs version (CPT-IP) has been widely used to evaluate attention deficits in developmental, neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the specific locations and the relative distribution of brain activation in networks identified with functional imaging, varies significantly with differences in task design. To design a task to evaluate sustained attention using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and thus to provide data for research concerned with the role of these functions. Forty right-handed, healthy students (50% women; age range: 18-25 years) were recruited. A CPT-IP implemented as a block design was used to assess sustained attention during the fMRI session. The behavioural results from the CPT-IP task showed a good performance in all subjects, higher than 80% of hits. fMRI results showed that the used CPT-IP task activates a network of frontal, parietal and occipital areas, and that these are related to executive and attentional functions. In relation to the use of the CPT to study of attention and working memory, this task provides normative data in healthy adults, and it could be useful to evaluate disorders which have attentional and working memory deficits.

  2. Performance Evaluation and Robustness Testing of Advanced Oscilloscope Triggering Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeb A. KHAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, performance and robustness of two advanced oscilloscope triggering schemes is evaluated. The problem of time period measurement of complex waveforms can be solved using the algorithms, which utilize the associative memory network based weighted hamming distance (Whd and autocorrelation based techniques. Robustness of both the advanced techniques, are then evaluated by simulated addition of random noise of different levels to complex test signals waveforms, and minimum value of Whd (Whd min and peak value of coefficient of correlation(COCmax are computed over 10000 cycles of the selected test waveforms. The distance between mean value of second lowest value of Whd and Whd min and distance between second highest value of coefficient of correlation (COC and COC max are used as parameters to analyze the robustness of considered techniques. From the results, it is found that both the techniques are capable of producing trigger pulses efficiently; but correlation based technique is found to be better from robustness point of view.

  3. The six blind men and the elephant: Are episodic memory tasks tests of different things or different tests of the same thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S

    2015-09-01

    The development of episodic memory in children has been of interest to researchers for more than a century. Current behavioral tests that have been developed to assess episodic memory differ substantially in their surface features. Therefore, it is possible that these tests are assessing different memory processes. In this study, 106 children aged 3 to 6 years were tested on four putative tests of episodic memory. Covariation in performance was investigated in order to address two conflicting hypotheses: (a) that the high level of difference between the tests will result in little covariation in performance despite their being designed to assess the same ability and (b) that the conceptual similarity of these tasks will lead to high levels of covariation despite surface differences. The results indicated a gradual improvement with age on all tests. Performances on many of the tests were related, but not after controlling for age. A principal component analysis found that a single principal component was able to satisfactorily fit the observed data. This principal component produced a marginally stronger correlation with age than any test alone. As such, it might be concluded that different tests of episodic memory are too different to be used in parallel. Nevertheless, if used together, these tests may offer a robust assessment of episodic memory as a complex multifaceted process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Advanced Test Reactor Strategic Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of safety, environmental, and operational issues has been initiated at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This program, the Strategic Evaluation Program (STEP), provides an integrated review of safety and operational issues against the standards applied to licensed commercial facilities. In the review of safety issues, 18 deviations were identified which required prompt attention. Resolution of these items has been accelerated in the program. An integrated living schedule is being developed to address the remaining findings. A risk evaluation is being performed on the proposed corrective actions and these actions will then be formally ranked in order of priority based on considerations of safety and operational significance. Once the final ranking is completed, an integrated schedule will be developed, which will include considerations of availability of funding and operating schedule. 3 refs., 2 figs

  5. The Effect of Retention Interval Task Difficulty on Young Children's Prospective Memory: Testing the Intention Monitoring Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Moses, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of retention interval task difficulty on 4- and 5-year-olds' prospective memory (PM) to test the hypothesis that children periodically monitor their intentions during the retention interval and that disrupting this monitoring may result in poorer PM performance. In addition, relations among PM, working memory,…

  6. Initial phase of adaptation of Memory Alteration Test (M@T) in a Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Pereira, Anabela; Costa, Rui; Rami, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The Memory Alteration Test is a screening test able to discriminate the amnestic mild cognitive impairment (A-MCI) and mild Alzheimer disease from subjective memory complain group (SMC-G). The aim of this study was to analyze the European Portuguese experimental version of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T-PT). Were described the successive stages of the translation and adaptation procedure used to develop the M@T-PT. The psychometric properties were explored using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation, internal consistence, convergent validity and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. Chi-squared, ANOVAs and Pearson's correlation were also analyzed. A total of 330 people with an age greater or equal to 54 years old participated. According to their cognitive state they were classified as normal controls (n=28), SMC-G (n=81) or A-MCI (n=221). The PCA for the M@T-PT indicated that the total variance explained by three components was 48.07%. A high internal consistent was obtained (α=0.93). Convergent validity was verified using M@T-PT and Mini-Mental State Examination (r=0.83, psound instrument for use in older people in Portugal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Absolute pitch memory: its prevalence among musicians and dependence on the testing context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Wong, Alan C-N

    2014-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is widely believed to be a rare ability possessed by only a small group of gifted and special individuals (AP possessors). While AP has fascinated psychologists, neuroscientists, and musicians for more than a century, no theory can satisfactorily explain why this ability is so rare and difficult to learn. Here, we show that AP ability appears rare because of the methodological issues of the standard pitch-naming test. Specifically, the standard test unnecessarily poses a high decisional demand on AP judgments and uses a testing context that is highly inconsistent with one's musical training. These extra cognitive challenges are not central to AP memory per se and have thus led to consistent underestimation of AP ability in the population. Using the standard test, we replicated the typical findings that the accuracy for general violinists was low (12.38 %; chance level = 0 %). With identical stimuli, scoring criteria, and participants, violinists attained 25 % accuracy in a pitch verification test in which the decisional demand of AP judgment was reduced. When the testing context was increasingly similar to their musical experience, verification accuracy improved further and reached 39 %, three times higher than that for the standard test. Results were replicated with a separate group of pianists. Our findings challenge current theories about AP and suggest that the prevalence of AP among musicians has been highly underestimated in prior work. A multimodal framework is proposed to better explain AP memory.

  8. MK-801 and memantine act differently on short-term memory tested with different time-intervals in the Morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Weronika; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewski, Pawel; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-09-15

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a crucial role in spatial memory formation. In neuropharmacological studies their functioning strongly depends on testing conditions and the dosage of NMDAR antagonists. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate effects of NMDAR block by (+)MK-801 or memantine on short-term allothetic memory. Memory was tested in a working memory version of the Morris water maze test. In our version of the test, rats underwent one day of training with 8 trials, and then three experimental days when rats were injected intraperitoneally with low- 5 (MeL), high - 20 (MeH) mg/kg memantine, 0.1mg/kg MK-801 or 1ml/kg saline (SAL) 30min before testing, for three consecutive days. On each experimental day there was just one acquisition and one test trial, with an inter-trial interval of 5 or 15min. During training the hidden platform was relocated after each trial and during the experiment after each day. The follow-up effect was assessed on day 9. Intact rats improved their spatial memory across the one training day. With a 5min interval MeH rats had longer latency then all rats during retrieval. With a 15min interval the MeH rats presented worse working memory measured as retrieval minus acquisition trial for path than SAL and MeL and for latency than MeL rats. MK-801 rats had longer latency than SAL during retrieval. Thus, the high dose of memantine, contrary to low dose of MK-801 disrupts short-term memory independent on the time interval between acquisition and retrieval. This shows that short-term memory tested in a working memory version of water maze is sensitive to several parameters: i.e., NMDA receptor antagonist type, dosage and the time interval between learning and testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Evaluation methodologies for security testing biometric systems beyond technological evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Saavedra, María Belén

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this PhD Thesis is the specification of formal evaluation methodologies for testing the security level achieved by biometric systems when these are working under specific contour conditions. This analysis is conducted through the calculation of the basic technical biometric system performance and its possible variations. To that end, the next two relevant contributions have been developed. The first contribution is the definition of two independent biometric performance ...

  10. Preparation and evaluation of ageing effect of Cu-Al-Be-Mn shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivasiddaramaiah, A. G.; Mallik, U. S.; Mahato, Ranjit; Shashishekar, C.

    2018-04-01

    10-14 wt. % of aluminum, 0.3-0.6 wt. % of beryllium and 0.1-0.4 wt. % of manganese and remaining copper melted in the induction furnace through ingot metallurgy. The prepared SMAs are subjected to homogenization. It was observed that the samples exhibits β-phase at high temperature and shape memory effect after going through step quenching to a low temperature. Scanning Electron Microscope, DSC, bending test were performed on the samples to determine the microstructure, transformation temperatures and shape memory effect respectively. The alloy exhibit good shape memory effect, up to around 96% strain recovery by shape memory effect. The ageing is performed on the specimen prepared according to ASTM standard for testing micro-hardness and tensile test. Precipitation hardening method was employed to age the samples and they were aged at different temperature and at different times followed by quenching. Various forms of precipitates were formed. It was found that the formation rate and transformation temperature increased with ageing time, while the amount of precipitate had an inverse impact on strain recovery by shape memory effect. The result expected is to increase in mechanical properties of the material such as hardness.

  11. Development of the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure: A Working Memory Test for Use in Rehabilitative Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Alexander, Genevieve

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure (WARRM) and to conduct the inaugural evaluation of the performance of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal to near-normal hearing, and older adults with pure-tone hearing loss on the WARRM. The WARRM is a new test designed for concurrently assessing word recognition and auditory working memory performance in adults who may have pure-tone hearing loss. The test consists of 100 monosyllabic words based on widely used speech-recognition test materials. The 100 words are presented in recall set sizes of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 items, with 5 trials in each set size. The WARRM yields a word-recognition score and a recall score. The WARRM was administered to all participants in three listener groups under two processing conditions in a mixed model (between-subjects, repeated measures) design. The between-subjects factor was group, with 48 younger listeners with normal audiometric thresholds (younger listeners with normal hearing [YNH]), 48 older listeners with normal thresholds through 3000 Hz (older listeners with normal hearing [ONH]), and 48 older listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (older listeners with hearing loss [OHL]). The within-subjects factor was WARRM processing condition (no additional task or with an alphabet judgment task). The associations between results on the WARRM test and results on a battery of other auditory and memory measures were examined. Word-recognition performance on the WARRM was not affected by processing condition or set size and was near ceiling for the YNH and ONH listeners (99 and 98%, respectively) with both groups performing significantly better than the OHL listeners (83%). The recall results were significantly better for the YNH, ONH, and OHL groups with no processing (93, 84, and 75%, respectively) than with the alphabet processing (86, 77, and 70%). In both processing conditions, recall was best for YNH, followed by

  12. Radiation effect test on ADC/DAC and high density memory devices with 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Kefei; Wang Yueke; Pan Huafeng

    2006-01-01

    A test platform was constructed for 60 Co γ-ray irradiation experiment of microelectronics, with the aid of computer and a FPGA module. The tested sample devices included analog-to-digital converter AD10465, digital-to-analog converter AD9857, high density Flash memory MEF64M16 and anti-fused PROM XQR17V16, which are used in signal processing module in spaceborne systems. Evaluations were made on their ability of resisting the total dose based on the proper function criterion of the devices. The results showed that AD10465 and AD9857 ran properly after 1.59 kGy(Si) irradiation, but errors were found when MEF64M16 and XQR17V16's total ionizing dose is 0.13 kGy(Si) and 0.99 kGy(Si), respectively. (authors)

  13. Memory testing with Saturne synchrotron beams. Experiments with protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisson, J.

    1989-01-01

    For simulate light ions of the cosmic rays CEA will use facilities used in fundamental physic research. SATURNE is a synchrotron especially designed to accelerate light particles, for example protons with energy up to 2.9 GeV. Two experiments are made on SATURNE to specify the beam characteristics (energy and intensity) and to adapt the beam for irradiation of electronic components. During these preliminary experimentation memories and microprocessors was tested. The results of the tests (cross-section) are given in this paper [fr

  14. The manufacture of system for testing static random access memory radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui; Yang Chen

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation effects will lead to single event upset, event latch up and other phenomena in SRAM devices. This paper introduces the hardware, software composition and related testing technology of SRAM radiation effect testing device. Through to the SRAM chip current detection and power protection, it has solved the SRAM chip damage question in the SRAM experiment. It has accessed to the expected experimental data by using the device in different source of radiation conducted on SRAM Experimental study of radiation effects. It provides important references in the assessment of operational life and reinforcement of the memory carried in the satellites. (authors)

  15. AFFTC Instruction 99-1, Test and Evaluation Test Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crane, Roger

    2002-01-01

    .... Test Information Sheets (TISs) are actually appendices to test plans and contain sufficient information for use by a flight test engineer to develop flight test cards and for management to discern the overall technical approach being taken...

  16. Word Memory Test Predicts Recovery in Claimants With Work-Related Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Annette; Abada, Abigail; Haws, Calvin; Park, Joanne; Niemeläinen, Riikka; Gross, Douglas P

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the predictive validity of the Word Memory Test (WMT), a verbal memory neuropsychological test developed as a performance validity measure to assess memory, effort, and performance consistency. Cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Workers' compensation rehabilitation facility. Participants included workers' compensation claimants with work-related head injury (N=188; mean age, 44y; 161 men [85.6%]). Not applicable. Outcome measures for determining predictive validity included days to suspension of wage replacement benefits during the 1-year follow-up and work status at discharge in claimants undergoing rehabilitation. Analysis included multivariable Cox and logistic regression. Better WMT performance was significantly but weakly correlated with younger age (r=-.30), documented brain abnormality (r=.28), and loss of consciousness at the time of injury (r=.25). Claimants with documented brain abnormalities on diagnostic imaging scans performed better (∼9%) on the WMT than those without brain abnormalities. The WMT predicted days receiving benefits (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.24) and work status outcome at program discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.34). Our results provide evidence for the predictive validity of the WMT in workers' compensation claimants. Younger claimants and those with more severe brain injuries performed better on the WMT. It may be that financial incentives or other factors related to the compensation claim affected the performance. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of stress on memory in children and adolescents: testing causal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Nikolayev, Mariya

    2014-01-01

    Although a sizeable body of research has examined children's memory for stressful prior experiences, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated stress during a to-be-remembered event to draw causal inferences about the effects of stress, especially across wide age ranges. We exposed children and adolescents to a more or a less arousing version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Modified (TSST-M), a widely used laboratory stress task. Two weeks later, we tested their memory for what happened. Interviewers behaved in a supportive or non-supportive manner. In adolescents, those who completed the high-arousal TSST-M provided fewer correct responses to recognition questions and fewer incorrect responses to misleading questions for which any answer would have been incorrect, compared to those who completed the lower-arousal TSST-M. Thus, arousal seemed to have reduced the adolescents' willingness to answer questions rather than having influenced their memory per se. In children, across TSST-M conditions, greater physiological arousal during the TSST-M predicted enhanced recall. Finally, interviewer support reduced the amount of factual information provided in free recall but increased correct responses to misleading questions. Results highlight the complex ways in which event stress and interviewer demeanour shape recounting of prior experiences across development.

  18. Test, measurement and evaluation with the mine boot test and evaluation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramaloko, PM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Protective footwear that mitigates the shock transferred to the victim’s leg during an antipersonnel landmine blast need to be evaluated to verify their protection levels. The Mine Boot Test and Evaluation System which include a surrogate lower leg...

  19. Almeria spatial memory recognition test (ASMRT): Gender differences emerged in a new passive spatial task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascón, Laura; García-Moreno, Luis Miguel; Cimadevilla, Jose Manuel

    2017-06-09

    Many different human spatial memory tasks were developed in the last two decades. Virtual reality based tasks make possible developing different scenarios and situations to assess spatial orientation but sometimes these tasks are complex for specific populations like children and older-adults. A new spatial task with a very limited technological requirement was developed in this study. It demanded the use of spatial memory for an accurate solution. It also proved to be sensitive to gender differences, with men outperforming women under high specific difficulty levels. Thanks to its simplicity it could be applied as a screening test and is easy to combine with EEG and fMRI studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max

    1999-01-01

    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient testing. This study addresses this issue by evaluating medical mycology OPT and comparing its fungal specimen identification error rates to those obtained in a covert (blinded) proficiency testing (CPT) program. Identifications from 188 laboratories participating in the New York State mycology OPT from 1982 to 1994 were compared with the identifications of the same fungi recovered from patient specimens in 1989 and 1994 as part of the routine procedures of 88 of these laboratories. The consistency in the identification of OPT specimens was sufficient to make accurate predictions of OPT error rates. However, while the error rates in OPT and CPT were similar for Candida albicans, significantly higher error rates were found in CPT for Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and other common pathogenic fungi. These differences may, in part, be due to OPT’s use of ideal organism representatives cultured under optimum growth conditions. This difference, as well as the organism-dependent error rate differences, reflects the limitations of OPT as a means of assessing the quality of routine laboratory performance in medical mycology. PMID:10364601

  1. Thermionic system evaluated test (TSET) facility description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Jerry F.; Koonmen, James P.; Thome, Frank V.

    1992-01-01

    A consortium of US agencies are involved in the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) which is being supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO). The project is a ground test of an unfueled Soviet TOPAZ-II in-core thermionic space reactor powered by electrical heat. It is part of the United States' national thermionic space nuclear power program. It will be tested in Albuquerque, New Mexico at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute complex by the Phillips Laboratoty, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the University of New Mexico. One of TSET's many objectives is to demonstrate that the US can operate and test a complete space nuclear power system, in the electrical heater configuration, at a low cost. Great efforts have been made to help reduce facility costs during the first phase of this project. These costs include structural, mechanical, and electrical modifications to the existing facility as well as the installation of additional emergency systems to mitigate the effects of utility power losses and alkali metal fires.

  2. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  3. Caffeine reversal of ethanol effects on the multiple sleep latency test, memory, and psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L; Roehrs, Timothy; Turner, Lauren; Scofield, Holly M; Roth, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Caffeine has been shown to reverse some of the performance-impairing effects of ethanol. However, it is not known whether this antagonistic effect of caffeine is mediated by a reduction in sleepiness. The present study assessed physiological alertness/sleepiness, memory, and psychomotor performance following the administration of placebo, ethanol, and caffeine+ethanol combinations. A total of 13 healthy individuals (21-35 years old) underwent four conditions presented in a Latin Square Design: placebo-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 150 mg, and ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 300-mg. The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), psychomotor performance battery, memory test, and mood/sleepiness questionnaires were administered following each condition. The peak breadth ethanol concentration (BrEC) was 0.043+/-0.0197% and did not differ among the three caffeine treatments. As expected, ethanol reduced mean latency on the MSLT. The lowest caffeine dose reversed this effect and the highest dose increased mean latency (greater alertness) significantly beyond placebo levels. Ethanol also impaired psychomotor performance and memory. The 300-mg caffeine dose restored performance and memory measures to placebo levels. Although visual analog ratings of dizziness were increased by ethanol, they were not diminished by either caffeine dose. In conclusion, Low-dose caffeine prevented the sleepiness and performance impairment associated with a moderate dose of ethanol. Thus, caffeine, similar to other stimulants, can reverse the physiologically sedating effects of ethanol, although other negative effects remain.

  4. The use of standardised short-term and working memory tests in aphasia research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura; Salis, Christos; Martin, Nadine; Dralle, Jenny

    2018-04-01

    Impairments of short-term and working memory (STM, WM), both verbal and non-verbal, are ubiquitous in aphasia. Increasing interest in assessing STM and WM in aphasia research and clinical practice as well as a growing evidence base of STM/WM treatments for aphasia warrant an understanding of the range of standardised STM/WM measures that have been utilised in aphasia. To date, however, no previous systematic review has focused on aphasia. Accordingly, the goals of this systematic review were: (1) to identify standardised tests of STM and WM utilised in the aphasia literature, (2) to evaluate critically the psychometric strength of these tests, and (3) to appraise critically the quality of the investigations utilising these tests. Results revealed that a very limited number of standardised tests, in the verbal and non-verbal domains, had robust psychometric properties. Standardisation samples to elicit normative data were often small, and most measures exhibited poor validity and reliability properties. Studies using these tests inconsistently documented demographic and aphasia variables essential to interpreting STM/WM test outcomes. In light of these findings, recommendations are provided to foster, in the future, consistency across aphasia studies and confidence in STM/WM tests as assessment and treatment outcome measures.

  5. Effects of Repeated Testing on Short- and Long-Term Memory Performance across Different Test Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Sundström, Anna; Jonsson, Bert

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether practice testing with short-answer (SA) items benefits learning over time compared to practice testing with multiple-choice (MC) items, and rereading the material. More specifically, the aim was to test the hypotheses of "retrieval effort" and "transfer appropriate processing" by comparing retention…

  6. Additive and Multiplicative Effects of Working Memory and Test Anxiety on Mathematics Performance in Grade 3 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Johan; Nyroos, Mikaela; Jonsson, Bert; Eklöf, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety…

  7. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and memory) and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, R; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-05-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) are widely used in clinical practice. The ROCF assesses visual perception, constructional praxis, and visuo-spatial memory. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for both tests obtained by using linear regression techniques. The sample consisted of 179 healthy participants ranging in age from 18 to 49 years. We provide tables for converting raw scores to scaled scores in addition to tables with scores adjusted by socio-demographic factors. The results showed that education affects scores for some of the memory tests and the figure-copying task. Age was only found to have an effect on the performance of visuo-spatial memory tests, and the effect of sex was negligible. The normative data obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical neuropsychological evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between Counseling Students' Childhood Memories and Current Negative Self-Evaluations When Receiving Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Daniel; Olguin, David; Marley, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article entails a study focused on the relationship between counseling students' negative childhood memories of receiving corrective feedback and current negative self-evaluations when receiving similar feedback in counselor education programs. Participants (N = 186) completed the Corrective Feedback Instrument-Revised (CFI-R; Hulse-Killacky…

  9. Gudden's Ventral Tegmental Nucleus Is Vital for Memory: Re-Evaluating Diencephalic Inputs for Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Seralynne D.

    2009-01-01

    Mammillary body atrophy is present in a number of neurological conditions and recent clinical findings highlight the importance of these nuclei for memory. While most accounts of diencephalic amnesia emphasize the functional importance of the hippocampal projections to the mammillary bodies, the present study tested the importance of the other…

  10. Memory and other properties of multiple test procedures generated by entangled graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Willi; Bretz, Frank

    2013-05-10

    Methods for addressing multiplicity in clinical trials have attracted much attention during the past 20 years. They include the investigation of new classes of multiple test procedures, such as fixed sequence, fallback and gatekeeping procedures. More recently, sequentially rejective graphical test procedures have been introduced to construct and visualize complex multiple test strategies. These methods propagate the local significance level of a rejected null hypothesis to not-yet rejected hypotheses. In the graph defining the test procedure, hypotheses together with their local significance levels are represented by weighted vertices and the propagation rule by weighted directed edges. An algorithm provides the rules for updating the local significance levels and the transition weights after rejecting an individual hypothesis. These graphical procedures have no memory in the sense that the origin of the propagated significance level is ignored in subsequent iterations. However, in some clinical trial applications, memory is desirable to reflect the underlying dependence structure of the study objectives. In such cases, it would allow the further propagation of significance levels to be dependent on their origin and thus reflect the grouped parent-descendant structures of the hypotheses. We will give examples of such situations and show how to induce memory and other properties by convex combination of several individual graphs. The resulting entangled graphs provide an intuitive way to represent the underlying relative importance relationships between the hypotheses, are as easy to perform as the original individual graphs, remain sequentially rejective and control the familywise error rate in the strong sense. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Influence of Thin-Film Adhesives in Pullout Tests Between Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Derek J.; Jana, Sadhan; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2018-01-01

    Strips of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA) and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite (PMC) were bonded together using multiple thin film adhesives and their mechanical strengths were evaluated under pullout test configuration. Tensile and lap shear tests were conducted to confirm the deformation of SMAs at room temperature and to evaluate the adhesive strength between the NiTi strips and the PMC. Optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to examine the interfacial bonding after failure. Simple equations on composite tensile elongation were used to fit the experimental data on tensile properties. ABAQUS models were generated to show the effects of enhanced bond strength and the distribution of stress in SMA and PMC. The results revealed that the addition of thin film adhesives increased the average adhesive strength between SMA and PMC while halting the room temperature shape memory effect within the pullout specimen.

  12. A test of the functional avoidance hypothesis in the development of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallford, D J; Austin, D W; Raes, F; Takano, K

    2018-04-18

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to the failure to recall memories of specific personally experienced events, which occurs in various psychiatric disorders. One pathway through which OGM is theorized to develop is the avoidance of thinking of negative experiences, whereby cumulative avoidance may maladaptively generalize to autobiographical memory (AM) more broadly. We tested this, predicting that negative experiences would interact with avoidance to predict AM specificity. In Study 1 (N = 281), negative life events (over six months) and daily hassles (over one month) were not related to AM specificity, nor was avoidance, and no interaction was found. In Study 2 (N = 318), we revised our measurements and used an increased timeframe of 12 months for both negative life events and daily hassles. The results showed no interaction effect for negative life events, but they did show an interaction for daily hassles, whereby increased hassles and higher avoidance of thinking about them were associated with reduced AM specificity, independent of general cognitive avoidance and depressive symptoms. No evidence was found that cognitive avoidance or AM specificity moderated the effect of negative experiences on depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that life events over 6-12 months are not associated with AM specificity, but chronic daily hassles over 12 months predict reduced AM specificity when individuals avoid thinking about them. The findings provide evidence for the functional-avoidance hypothesis of OGM development and future directions for longitudinal studies.

  13. The touchscreen operant platform for testing working memory and pattern separation in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Charlotte A; Hvoslef-Eide, Martha; Heath, Christopher J; Mar, Adam C; Horner, Alexa E; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2013-10-01

    The automated touchscreen operant chamber for rats and mice allows for the assessment of multiple cognitive domains within the same testing environment. This protocol presents the location discrimination (LD) task and the trial-unique delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task, which both assess memory for location. During these tasks, animals are trained to a predefined criterion during ∼20-40 daily sessions. In LD sessions, touching the same location on the screen is rewarded on consecutive trials, followed by a reversal of location-reward contingencies. TUNL, a working memory task, requires animals to 'nonmatch' to a sample location after a delay. In both the LD and TUNL tasks, spatial similarity can be varied, allowing assessment of pattern separation ability, a function that is thought to be performed by the dentate gyrus (DG). These tasks are therefore particularly useful in animal models of hippocampal, and specifically DG, function, but they additionally permit discernment of changes in pattern separation from those in working memory.

  14. Results from the First Two Flights of the Static Computer Memory Integrity Testing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Thomas M., III

    1999-01-01

    This paper details the scientific objectives, experiment design, data collection method, and post flight analysis following the first two flights of the Static Computer Memory Integrity Testing (SCMIT) experiment. SCMIT is designed to detect soft-event upsets in passive magnetic memory. A soft-event upset is a change in the logic state of active or passive forms of magnetic memory, commonly referred to as a "Bitflip". In its mildest form a soft-event upset can cause software exceptions, unexpected events, start spacecraft safeing (ending data collection) or corrupted fault protection and error recovery capabilities. In it's most severe form loss of mission or spacecraft can occur. Analysis after the first flight (in 1991 during STS-40) identified possible soft-event upsets to 25% of the experiment detectors. Post flight analysis after the second flight (in 1997 on STS-87) failed to find any evidence of soft-event upsets. The SCMIT experiment is currently scheduled for a third flight in December 1999 on STS-101.

  15. Activity of human hippocampal formation and amygdala neurons during memory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgren, E; Babb, T L; Crandall, P H

    1978-11-01

    Single and multiple unit recordings were made from fine wires stereotaxically implanted in the hippocampus (HC), hippocampal gyrus (HCG), and amygdala (Am) of psychomotor epileptics. During a series of memory and control tests presented on slides, 21 of 155 HCG units, 15 of 59 HC units, and 2 of 54 Am units showed what appeared to be simple phasic or tonic visual responses. Twenty-seven other units, found only in the HCG, changed firing only during slides requiring a choice ('choice units'). A given choice unit responded during choices indicated verbally or manually, and during tasks requiring recall of Recent Memory, various visual discriminations, and expressions of preference. Choice units were not affected by sensory stimulation or motor activity in contexts not requiring choice. Phasically inhibited choice units had higher firing rates and lower signal-to-noise ratios than tonically excited units. Whether an electrode recorded a choice unit was unrelated to if it recorded a response to hyperventilation, or was in an area of epileptic pathology. Recordings were also made during an interview lasting several hours and eliciting a wide range of behaviors. Five of the 131 HCG units fired in repeated extended bursts, at least 50 times background during recall of word pairs or of the patient's hospital room. The unit response did not occur during numerous control tasks possessing similar overt sensory, motor, and social concomitants, but not requiring Recent Memory.

  16. Evaluation of olfactory memory after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Kemalettin; Yurttas, Veysel; Bilgi, Murat; Demırhan, Abdullah; Apuhan, Tayfun; Bugra, Onursal; Daglar, Bahadir

    2014-12-01

    This study determined whether coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery has any effect on olfactory function, employing the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT). All the participants were informed preoperatively about the B-SIT test and the mode of its application. The test was performed by each patient preoperatively (d0) as well as 1 (d1) and 3 (d3) days following the surgery. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were recorded at the same time as the smell test. This prospective study included 45 patients. The mean age was 67 ± 7.55, and the group was 29% male. The mean durations of cross clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass were 54 ± 32 min and 62.5 ± 37.0 min, respectively. Eleven different odors were tested. Significant differences were observed for several odors: leather between d0 and d3, pine between d0 and d3, onion between d0 and d1, onion between d0 and d3, and soap between d0 and d1. The postoperative CRP levels were significantly higher than the preoperative levels. The correlation analysis determined that the postoperative CRP levels were negatively correlated with the B-SIT score (r = -0.48, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that patients after CABG are prone to develop olfactory dysfunction in the early postoperative period and that olfactory dysfunction is associated with postoperative CRP levels.

  17. The effectiveness of test-enhanced learning depends on trait test anxiety and working-memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Pu, Xiaoping

    2012-09-01

    Despite being viewed as a better way to enhance learning than repeated study, it has not been clear whether repeated testing is equally effective for students with a wide range of cognitive abilities. The current study examined whether test-enhanced learning would be equally beneficial to participants with varied working-memory capacity (WMC) and trait test anxiety (TA). Chinese-English bilingual undergraduates in Hong Kong were recruited as participants. They acquired Swahili-English word pairs (half via repeated study and half via repeated testing) and performed a delayed cued-recall test for all pairs about one week after the acquisition phase. Their WMC and TA were estimated by Unsworth, Heitz, Schrock, and Engle's (2005) operation-span task and the Chinese version of Spielberger's (1980) Test Anxiety Inventory, respectively. We replicated the typical testing effect: Participants performed better for pairs in the repeated-testing condition than those in the repeated-study condition. Regression analyses showed that, (a) relative to other participants, those with lower WMC and higher TA made more intralist intrusion errors (i.e., recalling a wrong English translation to a Swahili word cue) during the acquisition phase, and (b) the testing effect was negatively correlated with TA for participants with lower WMC, but was not correlated with TA for participants with higher WMC. This demonstrates a boundary condition for the use of test-enhanced learning. Implications of these findings for theories of the testing effect (e.g., Pyc & Rawson's, 2010, mediator-effectiveness hypothesis) and their application in classroom settings are discussed.

  18. Analysis of memory deficits following chemotherapy in breast cancer survivors: evidence from the doors and people test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokasheva, Svetlana; Faran, Yifat; Cwikel, Julie; Geffen, David B

    2011-01-01

    Studies of cognitive effects of chemotherapy among breast cancer patients show that not all women who are exposed to chemotherapy develop cognitive dysfunction and that the observed declines in cognitive functioning may be quite subtle. The use of measures that are sensitive to subtle cognitive decline are recommended yet rarely used among clinical populations. The purpose of this study is to specify the types of memory changes observed among breast cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy and tamoxifen, by using an analytic test of memory, the Doors and People test, which uses age-adjusted norms. The participants were 40 women who were survivors of breast cancer, 20 of whom had completed chemotherapy treatment and 20 women who were treated only with tamoxifen. There were no significant differences between the two groups in overall scores and in all four subtests: visual memory, verbal memory, recall, and recognition measured by age-adjusted scores. Forty percent of patients in both of the groups were classified as having mild impairment in episodic memory. No between-group differences were found in the frequency of subjective, cognitive complaints. Subjective complaints were reported by 69% of patients but were unrelated to objective performance. Memory deficits were observed in breast cancer patients who receive either chemotherapy or tamoxifen alone compared to age-adjusted norms. The Doors and People Test is a sensitive measure of memory deficits that is feasible for use with clinical populations of breast cancer patients in order to monitor changes in cognitive function.

  19. Evaluation of A Low-power Random Access Memory Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Kameswar Rao, Vaddina

    2006-01-01

    In this work, an existing RAM generator is analysed and evaluated. Some of the aspects that were considered in the evaluation are the optimization of the basic SRAM cell, how the RAM generator can be ported to newer technologys, automating the simulation process and the creation of the workflow for the energy model. One of the main focus of this thesis work is to optimize the basic SRAM cell. The SRAM cell which is used in the RAM generator is not optimized for area nor power. A compact layou...

  20. Test your memory-Turkish version (TYM-TR): reliability and validity study of a cognitive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maviş, Ilknur; Özbabalik Adapinar, Belgin Demet; Yenilmez, Çinar; Aydin, Ayşe; Olgun, Engin; Bal, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The test your memory (TYM) is reported to be a sensitive cognitive function assessment scale for people with dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of an adapted Turkish version of the TYM (TYM-TR) among Turkish dementia patients. The TYM-TR was given to 59 patients with dementia aged 60+ and 336 normal controls aged 23-75+. The diagnostic utility of the TYM-TR was compared with that of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) to validate it. The internal consistency of the TYM-TR was a = 0.85. The test-retest reliability was 0.97 (P reliability and validity to distinguish dementia in the Turkish population.

  1. An Improved Fitness Evaluation Mechanism with Memory in Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game on Regular Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Juan; Liu Li-Na; Dong En-Zeng; Wang Li

    2013-01-01

    To deeply understand the emergence of cooperation in natural, social and economical systems, we present an improved fitness evaluation mechanism with memory in spatial prisoner's dilemma game on regular lattices. In our model, the individual fitness is not only determined by the payoff in the current game round, but also by the payoffs in previous round bins. A tunable parameter, termed as the memory strength (μ), which lies between 0 and 1, is introduced into the model to regulate the ratio of payoffs of current and previous game rounds in the individual fitness calculation. When μ = 0, our model is reduced to the standard prisoner's dilemma game; while μ = 1 represents the case in which the payoff is totally determined by the initial strategies and thus it is far from the realistic ones. Extensive numerical simulations indicate that the memory effect can substantially promote the evolution of cooperation. For μ < 1, the stronger the memory effect, the higher the cooperation level, but μ = 1 leads to a pathological state of cooperation, but can partially enhance the cooperation in the very large temptation parameter. The current results are of great significance for us to account for the role of memory effect during the evolution of cooperation among selfish players. (general)

  2. Evaluation of the memory function and cerebral blood flow in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Yan; Shi Hongcheng; Gu Yushen; Chen Shuguang; Hu Pengcheng; Chen Kejing; Yu Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the memory function of hyperthyroid patients at different disease durations and investigate the value of cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging in the detection of memory dysfunction in related regions. Methods: Thirty-seven hyperthyroid patients (10 males, 27 females; mean age (39.27± 10.58) years) and 28 healthy volunteers (8 males, 20 females; mean age (35.80±9.41) years) were enrolled into this prospective study. The patients were divided into two subgroups: short duration group (duration ≤ 6 months; n=15), long duration group (duration >6 months ; n=22). Wechsler memory scale was used for memory assessment,and cancellation test was used for attention assessment.Self-rating depressions scale (SDS) and self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) were used for mood disorder assessment. 99 Tc m -ECD SPECT CBF imaging was performed at rest for all patients and controls on the same day. SPM 2.0 was used to investigate the differences of rCBF between the two groups. Two independent samples t test was used for the comparisons of memory and attention scores between patients and controls, also between patients with short and long disease durations. Multiple stepwise regression was used for factor analysis of memory state. Results: Scale total score (92.27±17.50 vs 101.75±11.70; t=-2.476)and memory quotient (91.32±17.76 vs 100.29±9.43; t=-2.421) were significant different between patients and controls (both P<0.05). The scale total score and memory quotient in patients with long disease duration were significant lower than those of controls (88.77±16.69 vs 101.75±11.70, t=-3.231; 86.18±16.73 vs 100.29±9.43, t=3.770, both P<0.05). The memory quotient was significant lower in patients with long disease duration than those with short disease duration(86.10± 17.13 vs 98.87± 17.00; t=2.212, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in memory quotient and scale total score between short duration group and controls (t=-0.754, 0.910, both P>0.05). CBF was

  3. A computer vision-based automated Figure-8 maze for working memory test in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Samuel F; Song, Eun Young; Jung, Min Whan; Kim, Jeansok J

    2006-09-30

    The benchmark test for prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated working memory in rodents is a delayed alternation task utilizing variations of T-maze or Figure-8 maze, which requires the animals to make specific arm entry responses for reward. In this task, however, manual procedures involved in shaping target behavior, imposing delays between trials and delivering rewards can potentially influence the animal's performance on the maze. Here, we report an automated Figure-8 maze which does not necessitate experimenter-subject interaction during shaping, training or testing. This system incorporates a computer vision system for tracking, motorized gates to impose delays, and automated reward delivery. The maze is controlled by custom software that records the animal's location and activates the gates according to the animal's behavior and a control algorithm. The program performs calculations of task accuracy, tracks movement sequence through the maze, and provides other dependent variables (such as running speed, time spent in different maze locations, activity level during delay). Testing in rats indicates that the performance accuracy is inversely proportional to the delay interval, decreases with PFC lesions, and that animals anticipate timing during long delays. Thus, our automated Figure-8 maze is effective at assessing working memory and provides novel behavioral measures in rodents.

  4. Evaluation of the Interaction between NMDA Receptors of Nucleus Accumbens and Muscarinic Receptors in Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Taheri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Whereas studies have indicated the interaction between NMDA and cholinergic systems, this study was performed with the aim of determining the role of NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc in scopolamine-induced amnesia.Methods: In this study, at first rats were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride plus xylazine, and then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannulas were placed 2mm above nucleus accumbens shell. All animals were allowed to recover for one week, before beginning the behavioral testing. Then, animals were trained in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance task. The drugs were injected after successful training and before testing. The animals were tested 24h after training, and the step-through latency time was measured as the memory criterion in male Wistar rats. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used for analysis of the data. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Intra-nucleus accumbens (intra-NAc injection of scopolamine or NMDA caused impairment in memory in rats. Although, co-administration of an ineffective dose of NMDA with an ineffective dose of scopolamine had no significant effect on memory performance, effective doses of NMDA prevented the amnesic effect of scopolamine on inhibitory avoidance memory. On the other hand, intra-NAc injection of NMDA receptor antagonist, i.e., MK-801 caused no change in memory performance by itself, and its co-administration with an effective dose of scopolamine could not prevent the impairing effect of the latter drug. Conclusion: The finding of this study indicated that NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens are involved in the modulation of scopolamine-induced amnesia.

  5. Processing multilevel secure test and evaluation information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, George; Hildreth, Bradley; Acevedo, Teresa

    1994-07-01

    The Test and Evaluation Community Network (TECNET) is building a Multilevel Secure (MLS) system. This system features simultaneous access to classified and unclassified information and easy access through widely available communications channels. It provides the necessary separation of classification levels, assured through the use of trusted system design techniques, security assessments and evaluations. This system enables cleared T&E users to view and manipulate classified and unclassified information resources either using a single terminal interface or multiple windows in a graphical user interface. TECNET is in direct partnership with the National Security Agency (NSA) to develop and field the MLS TECNET capability in the near term. The centerpiece of this partnership is a state-of-the-art Concurrent Systems Security Engineering (CSSE) process. In developing the MLS TECNET capability, TECNET and NSA are providing members, with various expertise and diverse backgrounds, to participate in the CSSE process. The CSSE process is founded on the concepts of both Systems Engineering and Concurrent Engineering. Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach to evolve and verify an integrated and life cycle balanced set of system product and process solutions that satisfy customer needs (ASD/ENS-MIL STD 499B 1992). Concurrent Engineering is design and development using the simultaneous, applied talents of a diverse group of people with the appropriate skills. Harnessing diverse talents to support CSSE requires active participation by team members in an environment that both respects and encourages diversity.

  6. The speed of memory errors shows the influence of misleading information: Testing the diffusion model and discrete-state models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J; Dubé, Chad; Frelinger, Matthew E

    2018-05-01

    In this report, we evaluate single-item and forced-choice recognition memory for the same items and use the resulting accuracy and reaction time data to test the predictions of discrete-state and continuous models. For the single-item trials, participants saw a word and indicated whether or not it was studied on a previous list. The forced-choice trials had one studied and one non-studied word that both appeared in the earlier single-item trials and both received the same response. Thus, forced-choice trials always had one word with a previous correct response and one with a previous error. Participants were asked to select the studied word regardless of whether they previously called both words "studied" or "not studied." The diffusion model predicts that forced-choice accuracy should be lower when the word with a previous error had a fast versus a slow single-item RT, because fast errors are associated with more compelling misleading memory retrieval. The two-high-threshold (2HT) model does not share this prediction because all errors are guesses, so error RT is not related to memory strength. A low-threshold version of the discrete state approach predicts an effect similar to the diffusion model, because errors are a mixture of responses based on misleading retrieval and guesses, and the guesses should tend to be slower. Results showed that faster single-trial errors were associated with lower forced-choice accuracy, as predicted by the diffusion and low-threshold models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of photooxidized Echis carinatus venom on learning, memory and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Reddy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are a mixture of complex proteins, which have many physical and pharmacological properties. Photochemical detoxification has been suggested to generate photooxidized Echis carinatus venom product (POECVP. Antigenically-active photooxidized species of Echis carinatus venom could be obtained by exposing the venom to ultraviolet radiation (UVR in the presence of methylene blue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of POECVP on learning, memory and stress in rats. Detoxification of the photooxidized venom was evident since the POECVP-treated group had longer survival time than the group of mice treated with Echis carinatus venom product (ECVP following intraperitoneal and intracerebral injections. Photooxidized Echis carinatus venom product showed antidepressant activity by prolonging sleep onset and shortening the duration of pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis in mice. In single and chronic dose studies with rats, we observed that POECVP significantly decreased the time needed to reach food in T-maze, shortened transfer latency in elevated plus-maze, and decreased immobility time in forced swim test. We concluded that although there is a possibility of employing POECVP in the treatment of depressive and chronic degenerative illnesses as a nonherbal and nonsynthetic alternative for patients not responding to the available therapy, further investigation is still needed.

  8. Usefulness of Discriminability and Response Bias Indices for the Evaluation of Recognition Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María Julieta; Cohen, Gabriela; Campos, Jorge; Martin, Maria Eugenia; Clarens, María Florencia; Sabe, Liliana; Barcelo, Ernesto; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2017-01-01

    Most studies examining episodic memory in Alzheimer disease (AD) have focused on patients' impaired ability to remember information. This approach provides only a partial picture of memory deficits since other factors involved are not considered. To evaluate the recognition memory performance by using a yes/no procedure to examine the effect of discriminability and response bias measures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), AD dementia, and normal-aging subjects. We included 43 controls and 45 a-MCI and 51 mild AD dementia patients. Based on the proportions of correct responses (hits) and false alarms from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), discriminability (d') and response bias (C) indices from signal detection theory (SDT) were calculated. Results showed significant group differences for d' (F (2) = 83.26, p < 0.001), and C (F (2) = 6.05, p = 0.00). The best predictors of group membership were delayed recall and d' scores. The d' measure correctly classified subjects with 82.98% sensitivity and 91.11% specificity. a-MCI and AD dementia subjects exhibit less discrimination accuracy and more liberal response bias than controls. Furthermore, combined indices of delayed recall and discriminability from the RAVLT are effective in defining early AD. SDT may help enhance diagnostic specificity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing

  10. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  11. Neural correlates of retrieval-based memory enhancement: an fMRI study of the testing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Erik A; Marsh, Elizabeth J; Cabeza, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Restudying material is a common method for learning new information, but not necessarily an effective one. Research on the testing effect shows that practice involving retrieval from memory can facilitate later memory in contrast to passive restudy. Despite extensive behavioral work, the brain processes that make retrieval an effective learning strategy remain unclear. In the present experiment, we explored how initially retrieving items affected memory a day later as compared to a condition involving traditional restudy. In contrast to restudy, initial testing that contributed to future memory success was associated with engagement of several regions including the anterior hippocampus, lateral temporal cortices, and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Additionally, testing enhanced hippocampal connectivity with ventrolateral PFC and midline regions. These findings indicate that the testing effect may be contingent on processes that are typically thought to support memory success at encoding (e.g. relational binding, selection and elaboration of semantically-related information) in addition to those more often associated with retrieval (e.g. memory search). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Memory for objects and startle responsivity in the immediate aftermath of exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herten, Nadja; Pomrehn, Dennis; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-05-30

    Previously, we observed enhanced long-term memory for objects used (central objects) by committee members in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the next day. In addition, startle responsivity was increased. However, response specificity to an odour involved in the stressful episode was lacking and recognition memory for the odour was poor. In the current experiments, immediate effects of the stressor on memory and startle responsivity were investigated. We hypothesised memory for central objects of the stressful episode and startle response specificity to an odour ambient during the TSST to be enhanced shortly after it, in contrast to the control condition (friendly TSST). Further, memory for this odour was also assumed to be increased in the stress group. We tested 70 male (35) and female participants using the TSST involving objects and an ambient odour. After stress induction, a startle paradigm including olfactory and visual stimuli was conducted. Indeed, memory for central objects was significantly enhanced in immediate aftermath of the stressor. Startle responsivity increased at a trend level, particularly with regard to the odour involved in the stressful episode. Moreover, the stress group descriptively tended towards a better recognition of the odour involved. The study shows that stress enhances memory for central aspects of a stressful situation before consolidation processes come into play. In addition, results preliminarily suggest that the impact of stress on startle responsivity increases in strength but decreases in specificity during the first 24h after stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the

  14. Evaluation of field test equipment for halide and DOP testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.L.; Kovach, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The Nucon Testing Services Department, field testing at power reactor sites, has performed tests using R-11, R-12, and R-112 in conjunction with gas chromatographs and direct reading halide detectors. The field operational experience with these detector systems, thus sensitivity, precision, and manner of field calibration, are presented. Laboratory experiments regarding 3 H-tagged methyl iodide for in place leak testing of adsorber systems indicate a low hazard, high reliability process for leak testing in facilities where atmospheric cross contamination occurs. (U.S.)

  15. Advances in the behavioural testing and network imaging of rodent recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnavane, Lisa; Albasser, Mathieu M.; Aggleton, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Research into object recognition memory has been galvanised by the introduction of spontaneous preference tests for rodents. The standard task, however, contains a number of inherent shortcomings that reduce its power. Particular issues include the problem that individual trials are time consuming, so limiting the total number of trials in any condition. In addition, the spontaneous nature of the behaviour and the variability between test objects add unwanted noise. To combat these issues, the ‘bow-tie maze’ was introduced. Although still based on the spontaneous preference of novel over familiar stimuli, the ability to give multiple trials within a session without handling the rodents, as well as using the same objects as both novel and familiar samples on different trials, overcomes key limitations in the standard task. Giving multiple trials within a single session also creates new opportunities for functional imaging of object recognition memory. A series of studies are described that examine the expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. Object recognition memory is associated with increases in perirhinal cortex and area Te2 c-fos activity. When rats explore novel objects the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to the dentate gyrus and CA3, is engaged. In contrast, when familiar objects are explored the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to CA1, takes precedence. The switch to the perforant pathway (novel stimuli) from the temporoammonic pathway (familiar stimuli) may assist the enhanced associative learning promoted by novel stimuli. PMID:25106740

  16. Advances in the behavioural testing and network imaging of rodent recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnavane, Lisa; Albasser, Mathieu M; Aggleton, John P

    2015-05-15

    Research into object recognition memory has been galvanised by the introduction of spontaneous preference tests for rodents. The standard task, however, contains a number of inherent shortcomings that reduce its power. Particular issues include the problem that individual trials are time consuming, so limiting the total number of trials in any condition. In addition, the spontaneous nature of the behaviour and the variability between test objects add unwanted noise. To combat these issues, the 'bow-tie maze' was introduced. Although still based on the spontaneous preference of novel over familiar stimuli, the ability to give multiple trials within a session without handling the rodents, as well as using the same objects as both novel and familiar samples on different trials, overcomes key limitations in the standard task. Giving multiple trials within a single session also creates new opportunities for functional imaging of object recognition memory. A series of studies are described that examine the expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. Object recognition memory is associated with increases in perirhinal cortex and area Te2 c-fos activity. When rats explore novel objects the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to the dentate gyrus and CA3, is engaged. In contrast, when familiar objects are explored the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to CA1, takes precedence. The switch to the perforant pathway (novel stimuli) from the temporoammonic pathway (familiar stimuli) may assist the enhanced associative learning promoted by novel stimuli. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Management and Use of Director, Operational Test and Evaluation Funds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... and transferred a wide range of test and evaluation functions and resources, including the oversight of the test ranges and facilities, test investment, and sponsorship of many test related programs...

  18. How Japanese adults perceive memory change with age: middle-aged adults with memory performance as high as young adults evaluate their memory abilities as low as older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs.

  19. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  1. A Comparison of Laboratory and Clinical Working Memory Tests and Their Prediction of Fluid Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jill T.; Elliott, Emily M.; Hill, B. D.; Calamia, Matthew R.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2010-01-01

    The working memory (WM) construct is conceptualized similarly across domains of psychology, yet the methods used to measure WM function vary widely. The present study examined the relationship between WM measures used in the laboratory and those used in applied settings. A large sample of undergraduates completed three laboratory-based WM measures (operation span, listening span, and n-back), as well as the WM subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Performance on all of the WM subtests of the clinical batteries shared positive correlations with the lab measures; however, the Arithmetic and Spatial Span subtests shared lower correlations than the other WM tests. Factor analyses revealed that a factor comprising scores from the three lab WM measures and the clinical subtest, Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS), provided the best measurement of WM. Additionally, a latent variable approach was taken using fluid intelligence as a criterion construct to further discriminate between the WM tests. The results revealed that the lab measures, along with the LNS task, were the best predictors of fluid abilities. PMID:20161647

  2. Comparison of Test Your Memory and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Measures in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Henderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. MoCA is widely used in Parkinson’s disease (PD to assess cognition. The Test Your Memory (TYM test is a cognitive screening tool that is self-administered. Objectives. We sought to determine (a the optimal value of TYM to discriminate between PD patients with and without cognitive deficits on MoCA testing, (b equivalent MoCA and TYM scores, and (c interrater reliability in TYM testing. Methods. We assessed the discriminant ability of TYM and the equivalence between TYM and MoCA scores and measured the interrater reliability between three raters. Results. Of the 135 subjects that completed both tests, 55% had cognitive impairment according to MoCA. A MoCA score of 25 was equivalent to a TYM score of 43-44. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for TYM to differentiate between PD-normal and PD-cognitive impairment was 0.82 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.89. The optimal cutoff to distinguish PD-cognitive impairment from PD-normal was ≤45 (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 59% thereby correctly classifying 76.3% of patients with PD-cognitive impairment. Interrater agreement was high (0.97 and TYM was completed in under 7 minutes (interquartile range 5.33 to 8.52 minutes. Conclusions. The TYM test is a useful and less resource intensive screening test for cognitive deficits in PD.

  3. The case for testing memory with both stories and word lists prior to dbs surgery for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Bowers, Dawn; Price, Catherine C; Bauer, Russell M; Nisenzon, Anne; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2011-04-01

    Patients seeking deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) typically undergo neuropsychological assessment to determine candidacy for surgery, with poor memory performance interpreted as a contraindication. Patients with PD may exhibit worse memory for word lists than for stories due to the lack of inherent organization in a list of unrelated words. Unfortunately, word list and story tasks are typically developed from different normative datasets, and the existence of a memory performance discrepancy in PD has been challenged. We compared recall of stories and word lists in 35 non-demented PD candidates for DBS. We administered commonly used neuropsychological measures of word list and story memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Logical Memory), along with a second word list task that was co-normed with the story task. Age-corrected scores were higher for the story task than for both word list tasks. Compared to story recall, word list recall correlated more consistently with motor severity and composite measures of processing speed, working memory, and executive functioning. These results support the classic view of fronto-subcortical contributions to memory in PD and suggest that executive deficits may influence word list recall more than story recall. We recommend a multi-componential memory battery in the neuropsychological assessment of DBS candidates to characterize both mesial temporal and frontal-executive memory processes. One should not rely solely on a word list task because patients exhibiting poor memory for word lists may perform better with stories and therefore deserve an interdisciplinary discussion for DBS surgery.

  4. Additional patient outcomes and pathways in evaluations of testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Before medical tests are introduced into practice, they should be properly evaluated. Randomized trials and other comprehensive evaluations of tests and test strategies can best be designed based on an understanding of how tests can benefit or harm patients. Tests primarily affect patients' health

  5. Twelve-Week Exercise Influences Memory Complaint but not Memory Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuliano, Enzo; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Aquino, Giovanna; Di Costanzo, Alfonso; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types of exercise on memory performance and memory complaint after a 12-week intervention. Eighty community-dwelling volunteers, aged 66.96 ± 11.73 years, were randomly divided into four groups: resistance, cardiovascular, postural, and control groups (20 participants for each group). All participants were tested for their cognitive functions before and after their respective 12-week intervention using Rey memory words test, Prose memory test, and Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q). Statistical analysis showed that the three experimental groups significantly improved MAC-Q scores in comparison with the control group (p memory tests scores were not correlated. These results indicate that the 12-week interventions exclusively influenced memory complaint but not memory performance. Further investigations are needed to understand the relation between memory complaint and memory performance, and the factors that can influence this relationship.

  6. Integrated Test and Evaluation (ITE) Flight Test Series 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The integrated Flight Test 4 (FT4) will gather data for the UAS researchers Sense and Avoid systems (referred to as Detect and Avoid in the RTCA SC 228 ToR) algorithms and pilot displays for candidate UAS systems in a relevant environment. The technical goals of FT4 are to: 1) perform end-to-end traffic encounter test of pilot guidance generated by DAA algorithms; 2) collect data to inform the initial Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for Detect and Avoid systems. FT4 objectives and test infrastructure builds from previous UAS project simulations and flight tests. NASA Ames (ARC), NASA Armstrong (AFRC), and NASA Langley (LaRC) Research Centers will share responsibility for conducting the tests, each providing a test lab and critical functionality. UAS-NAS project support and participation on the 2014 flight test of ACAS Xu and DAA Self Separation (SS) significantly contributed to building up infrastructure and procedures for FT3 as well. The DAA Scripted flight test (FT4) will be conducted out of NASA Armstrong over an eight-week period beginning in April 2016.

  7. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  8. Test and evaluation capabilities at NAVELEXCEN Charleston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalvey, T.W.; Anderson, G.B.; Hinson, T.L. [Naval Electronic Systems Engineering Center, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Systems and Instrumentation Engineering Department is located within the Special Programs Directorate of the Naval Electronic Systems Engineering Center (NAVELEXCEN Charleston). This Center is an echelon 4 Command under the Naval Command Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, San Diego (NCCOSC). NCCOSC is an echelon 3 Command under the Space and Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) which is located in Washington DC. Radiation Detection, Indication and Computation (RDIAC) equipment life-cycle management for the entire Navy falls under the auspices of the Naval Sea Systems Command (SEA 04R). The RADIAC Program provides centralized management for the execution of research, development, test, evaluation, maintenance, procurement, allowance, and equipment support for all Navy RADIAC instrumentation and assigned special monitoring equipments. RADIAC equipment is used throughout the Navy to support various functions associated with radioactivity, potential contamination, and personnel exposure to sources of ionizing radiation. Common sources in today`s Navy include nuclear reactors, nuclear weapons, industrial radiography, and nuclear medicine. Types of radiation includes gamma, x-ray, alpha, and beta.

  9. Temporal variation in memory tests performance in cerebral vascular disease patients / Variação temporal no desempenho em testes de memória em pacientes com doença vascular cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Fernandes Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate the performance in memory tests in order to adequate the neuropsychological evaluation to the temporal order of the human organism. Twelve cerebral vascular accident patients and 12 controls, of both sexes and 45-65 years old were studied. Two memory tests with visual stimuli (pictures and two with verbal stimuli (words were applied three times a day (08:00, 10:00 and 12:00 h during the first week and twice a day (14:00 and 16:00 h in the second week, during three consecutive days in two consecutive weeks. The patients showed lower scores than control subjects in all applied tests (p<0,05. The greater test sensitivity was at 14:00 h for the free recall test and at 16:00 h for recognition tests. According to these results, it is concluded that neuropsychological evaluations should be conducted preferably in the afternoon, as well for the first evaluation as for the re-evaluations.

  10. The role of retrieval mode and retrieval orientation in retrieval practice: insights from comparing recognition memory testing formats and restudying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuanji; Rosburg, Timm; Hou, Mingzhu; Li, Bingbing; Xiao, Xin; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of retrieval practice for aiding long-term memory, referred to as the testing effect, has been widely demonstrated. However, the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In the present study, we sought to explore the role of pre-retrieval processes at initial testing on later recognition performance by using event-related potentials (ERPs). Subjects studied two lists of words (Chinese characters) and then performed a recognition task or a source memory task, or restudied the word lists. At the end of the experiment, subjects received a final recognition test based on the remember-know paradigm. Behaviorally, initial testing (active retrieval) enhanced memory retention relative to restudying (passive retrieval). The retrieval mode at initial testing was indexed by more positive-going ERPs for unstudied items in the active-retrieval tasks than in passive retrieval from 300 to 900 ms. Follow-up analyses showed that the magnitude of the early ERP retrieval mode effect (300-500 ms) was predictive of the behavioral testing effect later on. In addition, the ERPs for correctly rejected new items during initial testing differed between the two active-retrieval tasks from 500 to 900 ms, and this ERP retrieval orientation effect predicted differential behavioral testing gains between the two active-retrieval conditions. Our findings confirm that initial testing promotes later retrieval relative to restudying, and they further suggest that adopting pre-retrieval processing in the forms of retrieval mode and retrieval orientation might contribute to these memory enhancements.

  11. Strength cues and blocking at test promote reliable within-list criterion shifts in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jason L; Starns, Jeffrey J

    2014-07-01

    In seven experiments, we explored the potential for strength-based, within-list criterion shifts in recognition memory. People studied a mix of target words, some presented four times (strong) and others studied once (weak). In Experiments 1, 2, 4A, and 4B, the test was organized into alternating blocks of 10, 20, or 40 trials. Each block contained lures intermixed with strong targets only or weak targets only. In strength-cued conditions, test probes appeared in a unique font color for strong and weak blocks. In the uncued conditions of Experiments 1 and 2, similar strength blocks were tested, but strength was not cued with font color. False alarms to lures were lower in blocks containing strong target words, as compared with lures in blocks containing weak targets, but only when strength was cued with font color. Providing test feedback in Experiment 2 did not alter these results. In Experiments 3A-3C, test items were presented in a random order (i.e., not blocked by strength). Of these three experiments, only one demonstrated a significant shift even though strength cues were provided. Overall, the criterion shift was larger and more reliable as block size increased, and the shift occurred only when strength was cued with font color. These results clarify the factors that affect participants' willingness to change their response criterion within a test list.

  12. Context-dependent effects of hippocampal damage on memory in the shock-probe test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hugo; Carfagnini, Adrienne; Yamin, Stephanie; Mumby, Dave G

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the role of the hippocampus in anterograde memory, using the shock-probe test. Rats with sham or neurotoxic lesions of the hippocampus were given a shock-probe acquisition session during which each time they contacted a probe they received a shock; 24 h later, the rats were given a second shock-probe session to test their retention, but in this instance the probe was not electrified. Rats were tested in either the same context as the one used during acquisition or in a different context. The hippocampal lesions impaired avoidance of the probe and burying on the retention test, suggesting that the lesions induced anterograde amnesia. However, the impairment was context dependent. The hippocampal lesions impaired avoidance only when the rats were tested in the context in which they received the conditioning. The results of the shock-probe test suggest that the anterograde amnesia following hippocampal lesions is due mainly to an inability to associate the context with the shock more than to an inability to associate the probe with shock. Copyright (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Thermo-magneto-elastoplastic coupling model of metal magnetic memory testing method for ferromagnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengpeng; Zhang, Pengcheng; Jin, Ke; Chen, Zhenmao; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2018-04-01

    Metal magnetic memory (MMM) testing (also known as micro-magnetic testing) is a new non-destructive electromagnetic testing method that can diagnose ferromagnetic materials at an early stage by measuring the MMM signal directly on the material surface. Previous experiments have shown that many factors affect MMM signals, in particular, the temperature, the elastoplastic state, and the complex environmental magnetic field. However, the fact that there have been only a few studies of either how these factors affect the signals or the physical coupling mechanisms among them seriously limits the industrial applications of MMM testing. In this paper, a nonlinear constitutive relation for a ferromagnetic material considering the influences of temperature and elastoplastic state is established under a weak magnetic field and is used to establish a nonlinear thermo-magneto-elastoplastic coupling model of MMM testing. Comparing with experimental data verifies that the proposed theoretical model can accurately describe the thermo-magneto-elastoplastic coupling influence on MMM signals. The proposed theoretical model can predict the MMM signals in a complex environment and so is expected to provide a theoretical basis for improving the degree of quantification in MMM testing.

  14. Testing a Dynamic Field Account of Interactions between Spatial Attention and Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Spencer, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between spatial attention and spatial working memory (SWM) have shown that discrimination responses are faster for targets appearing at locations that are being maintained in SWM, and that location memory is impaired when attention is withdrawn during the delay. These observations support the proposal that sustained attention is required for successful retention in SWM: if attention is withdrawn, memory representations are likely to fail, increasing errors. In the present study, this proposal is reexamined in light of a neural process model of SWM. On the basis of the model's functioning, we propose an alternative explanation for the observed decline in SWM performance when a secondary task is performed during retention: SWM representations drift systematically toward the location of targets appearing during the delay. To test this explanation, participants completed a color-discrimination task during the delay interval of a spatial recall task. In the critical shifting attention condition, the color stimulus could appear either toward or away from the memorized location relative to a midline reference axis. We hypothesized that if shifting attention during the delay leads to the failure of SWM representations, there should be an increase in the variance of recall errors but no change in directional error, regardless of the direction of the shift. Conversely, if shifting attention induces drift of SWM representations—as predicted by the model—there should be systematic changes in the pattern of spatial recall errors depending on the direction of the shift. Results were consistent with the latter possibility—recall errors were biased toward the location of discrimination targets appearing during the delay. PMID:26810574

  15. Testing a dynamic-field account of interactions between spatial attention and spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S; Spencer, John P

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining the relationship between spatial attention and spatial working memory (SWM) have shown that discrimination responses are faster for targets appearing at locations that are being maintained in SWM, and that location memory is impaired when attention is withdrawn during the delay. These observations support the proposal that sustained attention is required for successful retention in SWM: If attention is withdrawn, memory representations are likely to fail, increasing errors. In the present study, this proposal was reexamined in light of a neural-process model of SWM. On the basis of the model's functioning, we propose an alternative explanation for the observed decline in SWM performance when a secondary task is performed during retention: SWM representations drift systematically toward the location of targets appearing during the delay. To test this explanation, participants completed a color discrimination task during the delay interval of a spatial-recall task. In the critical shifting-attention condition, the color stimulus could appear either toward or away from the midline reference axis, relative to the memorized location. We hypothesized that if shifting attention during the delay leads to the failure of SWM representations, there should be an increase in the variance of recall errors, but no change in directional errors, regardless of the direction of the shift. Conversely, if shifting attention induces drift of SWM representations-as predicted by the model-systematic changes in the patterns of spatial-recall errors should occur that would depend on the direction of the shift. The results were consistent with the latter possibility-recall errors were biased toward the locations of discrimination targets appearing during the delay.

  16. Test of a motor theory of long-term auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Katrin; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2012-05-01

    Monkeys can easily form lasting central representations of visual and tactile stimuli, yet they seem unable to do the same with sounds. Humans, by contrast, are highly proficient in auditory long-term memory (LTM). These mnemonic differences within and between species raise the question of whether the human ability is supported in some way by speech and language, e.g., through subvocal reproduction of speech sounds and by covert verbal labeling of environmental stimuli. If so, the explanation could be that storing rapidly fluctuating acoustic signals requires assistance from the motor system, which is uniquely organized to chain-link rapid sequences. To test this hypothesis, we compared the ability of normal participants to recognize lists of stimuli that can be easily reproduced, labeled, or both (pseudowords, nonverbal sounds, and words, respectively) versus their ability to recognize a list of stimuli that can be reproduced or labeled only with great difficulty (reversed words, i.e., words played backward). Recognition scores after 5-min delays filled with articulatory-suppression tasks were relatively high (75-80% correct) for all sound types except reversed words; the latter yielded scores that were not far above chance (58% correct), even though these stimuli were discriminated nearly perfectly when presented as reversed-word pairs at short intrapair intervals. The combined results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that participation of the oromotor system may be essential for laying down the memory of speech sounds and, indeed, that speech and auditory memory may be so critically dependent on each other that they had to coevolve.

  17. Effects of working memory capacity on metacognitive monitoring: A study of group differences using a listening span test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie eKomori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an executive function of working memory that serves to update novel information, focusing attention on task-relevant targets, and eliminating task-irrelevant noise. The present research used a verbal working memory task to examine how working memory capacity limits affect monitoring. Participants performed a Japanese listening span test that included maintenance of target words and listening comprehension. On each trial, participants responded to the target word and then immediately estimated confidence in recall performance for that word (metacognitive judgment. The results confirmed significant differences in monitoring accuracy between high and low capacity groups in a multi-task situation. That is, confidence judgments were superior in high versus low capacity participants in terms of absolute accuracy and discrimination. The present research further investigated how memory load and interference affect underestimation of successful recall. The results indicated that the level of memory load that reduced word recall performance and led to an underconfidence bias varied according to participants’ memory capacity. In addition, irreverent information associated with incorrect true/ false decisions (secondary task and word recall within the current trial impaired monitoring accuracy in both participant groups. These findings suggest that inference from unsuccessful decisions only influences low, but not high, capacity participants. Therefore, monitoring accuracy, which requires high working memory capacity, improves metacognitive abilities by inhibiting task-irrelevant noise and focusing attention on detecting task-relevant targets or useful retrieval cues, which could improve actual cognitive performance.

  18. Effects of Working Memory Capacity on Metacognitive Monitoring: A Study of Group Differences Using a Listening Span Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Mie

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring is an executive function of working memory that serves to update novel information, focusing attention on task-relevant targets, and eliminating task-irrelevant noise. The present research used a verbal working memory task to examine how working memory capacity limits affect monitoring. Participants performed a Japanese listening span test that included maintenance of target words and listening comprehension. On each trial, participants responded to the target word and then immediately estimated confidence in recall performance for that word (metacognitive judgment). The results confirmed significant differences in monitoring accuracy between high and low capacity groups in a multi-task situation. That is, confidence judgments were superior in high vs. low capacity participants in terms of absolute accuracy and discrimination. The present research further investigated how memory load and interference affect underestimation of successful recall. The results indicated that the level of memory load that reduced word recall performance and led to an underconfidence bias varied according to participants' memory capacity. In addition, irrelevant information associated with incorrect true/ false decisions (secondary task) and word recall within the current trial impaired monitoring accuracy in both participant groups. These findings suggest that interference from unsuccessful decisions only influences low, but not high, capacity participants. Therefore, monitoring accuracy, which requires high working memory capacity, improves metacognitive abilities by inhibiting task-irrelevant noise and focusing attention on detecting task-relevant targets or useful retrieval cues, which could improve actual cognitive performance.

  19. ERP evaluation of auditory sensory memory systems in adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Souichi; Hayashi, Akiko; Kanno, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    Auditory sensory memory stage can be functionally divided into two subsystems; transient-detector system and permanent feature-detector system (Naatanen, 1992). We assessed these systems in persons with intellectual disability by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) N1 and mismatch negativity (MMN), which reflect the two auditory subsystems, respectively. Added to these, P3a (an ERP reflecting stage after sensory memory) was evaluated. Either synthesized vowels or simple tones were delivered during a passive oddball paradigm to adults with and without intellectual disability. ERPs were recorded from midline scalp sites (Fz, Cz, and Pz). Relative to control group, participants with the disability exhibited greater N1 latency and less MMN amplitude. The results for N1 amplitude and MMN latency were basically comparable between both groups. IQ scores in participants with the disability revealed no significant relation with N1 and MMN measures, whereas the IQ scores tended to increase significantly as P3a latency reduced. These outcomes suggest that persons with intellectual disability might own discrete malfunctions for the two detector systems in auditory sensory-memory stage. Moreover, the processes following sensory memory might be partly related to a determinant of mental development.

  20. Interaction between morphine and noradrenergic system of basolateral amygdala on anxiety and memory in the elevated plus-maze test based on a test-retest paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadegan, Farhad; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2013-05-01

    The amygdala is the key brain structure for anxiety and emotional memory storage. We examined the involvement of β-adrenoreceptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and their interaction with morphine in modulating these behaviors. The elevated plus-maze has been employed for investigating anxiety and memory. Male Wistar rats were used for this test. We injected morphine (4, 5, and 6 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, while salbutamol (albuterol) (1, 2, and 4 μg/rat) and propranolol (1, 2, and 4 μg/rat) were injected into the BLA. Open- arms time percentage (%OAT), open- arms entry percentage (%OAE), and locomotor activity were determined by this behavioral test. Retention was tested 24 hours later. Intraperitoneal injection of morphine (6 mg/kg) had an anxiolytic-like effect and improvement of memory. The highest dose of salbutamol decreased the anxiety parameters in test session and improved the memory in retest session. Coadministration of salbutamol and ineffective dose of morphine presenting anxiolytic response. In this case, the memory was improved. Intra-BLA administration of propranolol (4 μg/rat) decreased %OAT in the test session, while had no effect on memory formation. Coadministration of propranolol and morphine (6 mg/kg) showed an increase in %OAT. There was not any significant change in the above- mentioned parameter in the retest session. Coadministration of morphine and propranolol with the effective dose of salbutamol showed that propranolol could reverse anxiolytic-like effect. We found that opioidergic and β-adrenergic systems have the same effects on anxiety and memory in the BLA; but these effects are independent of each other.

  1. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

  2. Silver Memories: implementation and evaluation of a unique radio program for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Catherine; Bartlett, Helen P

    2011-03-01

    A unique radio program, Silver Memories, specifically designed to address social isolation and loneliness in older people by broadcasting music (primarily), serials and other programs relevant to the period when older people grew up--the 1920-1950s--first aired in Brisbane, Australia, in April 2008. The impact of the program upon older listeners' mood, quality of life (QOL) and self-reported loneliness was independently evaluated. One hundred and thirteen community-dwelling persons and residents of residential care facilities, aged 60 years and older participated in a three month evaluation of Silver Memories. They were asked to listen to the program daily and baseline and follow-up measures of depression, QOL and loneliness were obtained. Participants were also asked for their opinions regarding the program's quality and appeal. The results showed a statistically significant improvement in measures of depression and QOL from baseline to follow-up but there was no change on the measure of loneliness. The results did not vary by living situation (community vs. residential care), whether the participant was lonely or not lonely, socially isolated or not isolated, or whether there had been any important changes in the participant's health or social circumstances throughout the evaluation. It was concluded that listening to Silver Memories appears to improve the QOL and mood of older people and is an inexpensive intervention that is flexible and readily implemented.

  3. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  4. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Braverman

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54, 57.14% central atrophy (N=88, and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69. A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740 was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115. Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787. In the centrum semiovale (CS, reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622. Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002. Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064. Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165. Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087. In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740; high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417; and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166. Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294: the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  5. Visual Working Memory and Perception Speed of 3- to 6-Year-Old Children Tested with a Matrix Film Battery Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittorf, Martin L.; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Huckauf, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this study the visual working memory (VWM) and perception speed of 60 children between the ages of three and six years were tested with an age-based, easy-to-handle Matrix Film Battery Test (reliability R?=?0.71). It was thereby affirmed that the VWM is age dependent (correlation coefficient r?=?0.66***) as expected. Furthermore, a significant…

  6. Accelerated forgetting? An evaluation on the use of long-term forgetting rates in patients with memory problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie eGeurts

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this review was to evaluate whether long-term forgetting rates (delayed tests days to weeks after initial learning are a more sensitive measure to detect memory problems in various patient groups than standard delayed recall measures. It has been suggested that accelerated forgetting might be characteristic for epilepsy patients, but little research has been performed within other populations. Here, we identified ten studies in a wide range of brain injured patient groups, whose long-term forgetting patterns were compared to that of healthy controls. Signs of accelerated forgetting were found within two studies. The results of seven studies showed normal forgetting over time for the patient groups. However, most of the studies used only a recognition procedure, after optimizing initial learning. Based on the results, we discuss recommendations for assessing long-term forgetting and the need for future research to truly evaluate the usefulness for clinical practice.

  7. Individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Veit; Söderlund, Hedvig; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Jönsson, Fredrik U

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases to address whether both study techniques commonly promote item-specific processing. Participants (N = 112) were divided into four groups (n = 28). They either exclusively studied 36 action phrases (e.g., "lift the glass") or both studied and cued-recalled them in four trials. During study trials participants encoded the action phrases either by motorically performing them, or by reading them aloud, and they took final verb-cued recall tests over 18-min and 1-week retention intervals. A testing effect was demonstrated for action phrases, however, only when they were verbally encoded, and not when they were enacted. Similarly, enactive (relative to verbal) encoding reduced the rate of forgetting, but only when the action phrases were exclusively studied, and not when they were also tested. These less-than-additive effects of enactment and testing on the rate of forgetting, as well as on long-term retention, support the notion that both study techniques effectively promote item-specific processing that can only be marginally increased further by combining them.

  8. Behavioral testing of mice exposed to intermediate frequency magnetic fields indicates mild memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Kumari

    Full Text Available Human exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MF is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems and induction heating cooking hobs. However, limited data is available on their possible health effects. The present study assessed behavioral and histopathological consequences of exposing mice to 7.5 kHz MF at 12 or 120 μT for 5 weeks. No effects were observed on body weight, spontaneous activity, motor coordination, level of anxiety or aggression. In the Morris swim task, mice in the 120 μT group showed less steep learning curve than the other groups, but did not differ from controls in their search bias in the probe test. The passive avoidance task indicated a clear impairment of memory over 48 h in the 120 μT group. No effects on astroglial activation or neurogenesis were observed in the hippocampus. The mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor did not change but expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA was significantly increased in the 120 μT group. These findings suggest that 7.5 kHz MF exposure may lead to mild learning and memory impairment, possibly through an inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus.

  9. The passive hamstring stretch test: clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J W

    1979-03-28

    The passive hamstring stretch test is described. Using a modified goniometer it is shown that independent measurements taken by trained examiners approximate very closely to each other. This establishes the test as a valid objective measurement. The possible value of this test as a research tool in low back pain problems is discussed.

  10. A dual-docking microfluidic cell migration assay (D2-Chip) for testing neutrophil chemotaxis and the memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Wu, Jiandong; Xu, Guoqing; Xie, Dongxue; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Santos, Susy; Alexander, Murray; Zhu, Ling; Zhang, Michael; Liu, Yong; Lin, Francis

    2017-04-18

    Chemotaxis is a classic mechanism for guiding cell migration and an important topic in both fundamental cell biology and health sciences. Neutrophils are a widely used model to study eukaryotic cell migration and neutrophil chemotaxis itself can lead to protective or harmful immune actions to the body. While much has been learnt from past research about how neutrophils effectively navigate through a chemoattractant gradient, many interesting questions remain unclear. For example, while it is tempting to model neutrophil chemotaxis using the well-established biased random walk theory, the experimental proof was challenged by the cell's highly persistent migrating nature. A special experimental design is required to test the key predictions from the random walk model. Another question that has interested the cell migration community for decades concerns the existence of chemotactic memory and its underlying mechanism. Although chemotactic memory has been suggested in various studies, a clear quantitative experimental demonstration will improve our understanding of the migratory memory effect. Motivated by these questions, we developed a microfluidic cell migration assay (so-called dual-docking chip or D 2 -Chip) that can test both the biased random walk model and the memory effect for neutrophil chemotaxis on a single chip enabled by multi-region gradient generation and dual-region cell alignment. Our results provide experimental support for the biased random walk model and chemotactic memory for neutrophil chemotaxis. Quantitative data analyses provide new insights into neutrophil chemotaxis and memory by making connections to entropic disorder, cell morphology and oscillating migratory response.

  11. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovich, J R

    2002-01-01

    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  12. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, B; Salazar, A; Dueñas, M; Torres, L M; Mico, J A; Failde, I

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Test Your Memory" (TYM) test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104), musculoskeletal pain (99) and fibromyalgia (51). The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs), Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale) and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, pmental components (0.55, p reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations.

  13. Niland Test Facility Startup Evaluation Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The following team reports are included: systems, operation, control, and safety; instrumentation; brine chemistry and materials evaluation; reservoir assessment; environment; and contingency analysis. (MHR)

  14. Test and evaluation of pressure vessel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Pil; Hong, Jun Hwa; Nho, Kye Hoe; Han, Dae June; Chi, Se Hwan

    1985-01-01

    We have prepared a method for analyzing the Charpy impact test data, which is deduced from ''the standard anelastic solid equation''. The theoretical expression for the absorbed energy is in a form of W=Wsub(U)+(Wsub(R)-Wsub(U))/ [1+(ωtau) 2 ] showing the Debye characteristics and where tau is given by the Arrhenius equation; tau=tau 0 exp(ΔH/ksub(B)T). Four measurable parameters, at the present stage, can characterize the dynamic hehavior of cracking (Charpy impact result). They are the upper shelf energy(Wsub(R), the lower shelf energy (Wsub(U)), the activation energy of crack (ΔH, and wtau(0) where w tau(0) are the resonance frequency of the specimen and the jumping pre-exponential factor of propagating crack respectively. However the states of R (relaxed) and U (un-relaxed) should be defined from reasonable physical conditions in the future and it is possible that Wsub(U) is small enough to be taken as zero. The effects of irradiation, alloying elements, and heat treatment on the impact results should be interpreted as changes in the above characteristic parameters. The present method has been applied for weld metal of SA 508-2 irradiated up to a fluence of 4x10 18 n/cm 2 , E>1.0Mev, resulting in about 29% decrease in Wsub(R), negligible change in Wsub(U), 5.6 times increase in ωtau 0 , and no change in ΔH. This seems to indicate that irradiation degrades an average value of YOUNG's modulus so that cracks propagate more easily and it does not effect on breaking the lattice bond. However much more systematic analyses should be necessary for correct judgment. It is concluded that the present method is quite adequate for analyzing the Charpy impact data even though plastic deformation in the specimen was not considered separately so that the method should be applied for various cases in order to evaluate the proper trend of effects of irradiation, alloying elements, and heat treatment on the Charpy impact results. (Author)

  15. Comparison of the neural correlates of retrieval success in tests of cued recall and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kayoko; Vilberg, Kaia L; Rugg, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    The neural correlates of successful retrieval on tests of word stem recall and recognition memory were compared. In the recall test, subjects viewed word stems, half of which were associated with studied items and half with unstudied items, and for each stem attempted to recall a corresponding study word. In the recognition test, old/new judgments were made on old and new words. The neural correlates of successful retrieval were identified by contrasting activity elicited by correctly endorsed test items. Old > new effects common to the two tasks were found in medial and lateral parietal and right entorhinal cortex. Common new > old effects were identified in medial and left frontal cortex, and left anterior intra-parietal sulcus. Greater old > new effects were evident for cued recall in inferior parietal regions abutting those demonstrating common effects, whereas larger new > old effects were found for recall in left frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate. New > old effects were also found for the recall task in right lateral anterior prefrontal cortex, where they were accompanied by old > new effects during recognition. It is concluded that successful recall and recognition are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of recollection-sensitive parietal regions, and that the greater activation in these regions during recall reflects the greater dependence of that task on recollection. Larger new > old effects during recall are interpreted as reflections of the greater opportunity for iterative retrieval attempts when retrieval cues are partial rather than copy cues. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of Saccade Induced Retrieval Enhancement on conceptual and perceptual tests of explicit & implicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Powell, Daniel; Dagnall, Neil

    2018-03-01

    The effects of saccadic horizontal (bilateral) eye movements upon tests of both conceptual and perceptual forms of explicit and implicit memory were investigated. Participants studied a list of words and were then assigned to one of four test conditions: conceptual explicit, conceptual implicit, perceptual explicit, or perceptual implicit. Conceptual tests comprised category labels with either explicit instructions to recall corresponding examples from the study phase (category-cued recall), or implicit instructions to generate any corresponding examples that spontaneously came to mind (category-exemplar generation). Perceptual tests comprised of word-fragments with either explicit instructions to complete these with study items (word-fragment-cued recall), or implicit instructions to complete each fragment with the first word that simply 'popped to mind' (word-fragment completion). Just prior to retrieval, participants were required to engage in 30 s of bilateral vs. no eye movements. Results revealed that saccadic horizontal eye movements enhanced performance in only the conceptual explicit condition, indicating that Saccade-Induced Retrieval Enhancement is a joint function of conceptual and explicit retrieval mechanisms. Findings are discussed from both a cognitive and neuropsychological perspective, in terms of their potential functional and neural underpinnings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Task relevance modulates successful retrieval effects during explicit and implicit memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Jeremy A; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2011-05-01

    The successful retrieval effect refers to greater activation for items identified as old compared to those identified as new. This effect is particularly apparent in the ventral posterior parietal cortex (vPPC), though its functional properties remain unclear. In two experiments, we assessed the activation for old and new items during explicit and implicit tests of memory. In Experiment 1, significant effects were observed during explicit recognition performance and during an implicit lexical decision task. In both tasks, determining mnemonic status provides relevant information to task goals. Experiment 2 included a second implicit task in which determining mnemonic status was not relevant (color discrimination task). In this case, vPPC activation did not distinguish between old and new items. These findings suggest that automatic or implicit processes can drive retrieval-related activation in the vPPC, though such processes are gated by stimulus relevancy and task goals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep does not cause false memories on a story-based test of suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Elaine; Carter, Neil; McMurtrie, Hazel; Willner, Paul; Blagrove, Mark T

    2017-07-01

    Sleep contributes to the consolidation of memories. This process may involve extracting the gist of learned material at the expense of details. It has thus been proposed that sleep might lead to false memory formation. Previous research examined the effect of sleep on false memory using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Mixed results were found, including increases and decreases in false memory after sleep relative to wake. It has been questioned whether DRM false memories occur by the same processes as real-world false memories. Here, the effect of sleep on false memory was investigated using the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale. Veridical memory deteriorated after a 12-h period of wake, but not after a 12-h period including a night's sleep. No difference in false memory was found between conditions. Although the literature supports sleep-dependent memory consolidation, the results here call into question extending this to a gist-based false memory effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An extended continuum model considering optimal velocity change with memory and numerical tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingtao, Zhai; Hongxia, Ge; Rongjun, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, an extended continuum model of traffic flow is proposed with the consideration of optimal velocity changes with memory. The new model's stability condition and KdV-Burgers equation considering the optimal velocities change with memory are deduced through linear stability theory and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Numerical simulation is carried out to study the extended continuum model, which explores how optimal velocity changes with memory affected velocity, density and energy consumption. Numerical results show that when considering the effects of optimal velocity changes with memory, the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently. Both the memory step and sensitivity parameters of optimal velocity changes with memory will enhance the stability of traffic flow efficiently. Furthermore, numerical results demonstrates that the effect of optimal velocity changes with memory can avoid the disadvantage of historical information, which increases the stability of traffic flow on road, and so it improve the traffic flow stability and minimize cars' energy consumptions.

  20. Tests of the DRYAD theory of the age-related deficit in memory for context: Not about context, and not about aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Diaz, Michael; Matzen, Laura E.; Johnson, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Older adults exhibit a disproportionate deficit in their ability to recover contextual elements or source information about prior encounters with stimuli. A recent theoretical account, DRYAD (Benjamin, 2010), attributes this selective deficit to a global decrease in memory fidelity with age, moderated by weak representation of contextual information. The predictions of DRYAD are tested here in three experiments. We show that an age-related deficit obtains for whichever aspect of the stimulus subjects’ attention is directed away from during encoding (Experiment 1), suggesting a central role for attention in producing the age-related deficit in context. We also show that an analogous deficit can be elicited within young subjects with a manipulation of study time (Experiment 2), suggesting that any means of reducing memory fidelity yields an interaction of the same form as the age-related effect. Experiment 3 evaluates the critical prediction of DRYAD that endorsement probability in an exclusion task should vary nonmonotonically with memory strength. This prediction was confirmed by assessing the shape of the forgetting function in a continuous exclusion task. The results are consistent with the DRYAD account of aging and memory judgments and do not support the widely held view that aging entails the selective disruption of processes involved in encoding, storing, or retrieving contextual information. PMID:21875219

  1. The quadratic relationship between difficulty of intelligence test items and their correlations with working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz eSmoleń

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid intelligence (Gf is a crucial cognitive ability that involves abstract reasoning in order to solve novel problems. Recent research demonstrated that Gf strongly depends on the individual effectiveness of working memory (WM. We investigated a popular claim that if the storage capacity underlay the WM-Gf correlation, then such a correlation should increase with an increasing number of items or rules (load in a Gf test. As often no such link is observed, on that basis the storage-capacity account is rejected, and alternative accounts of Gf (e.g., related to executive control or processing speed are proposed. Using both analytical inference and numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the load-dependent change in correlation is primarily a function of the amount of floor/ceiling effect for particular items. Thus, the item-wise WM correlation of a Gf test depends on its overall difficulty, and the difficulty distribution across its items. When the early test items yield huge ceiling, but the late items do not approach floor, that correlation will increase throughout the test. If the early items locate themselves between ceiling and floor, but the late items approach floor, the respective correlation will decrease. For a hallmark Gf test, the Raven test, whose items span from ceiling to floor, the quadratic relationship is expected, and it was shown empirically using a large sample and two types of WMC tasks. In consequence, no changes in correlation due to varying WM/Gf load, or lack of them, can yield an argument for or against any theory of WM/Gf. Moreover, as the mathematical properties of the correlation formula make it relatively immune to ceiling/floor effects for overall moderate correlations, only minor changes (if any in the WM-Gf correlation should be expected for many psychological tests.

  2. The quadratic relationship between difficulty of intelligence test items and their correlations with working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Tomasz; Chuderski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Fluid intelligence (Gf) is a crucial cognitive ability that involves abstract reasoning in order to solve novel problems. Recent research demonstrated that Gf strongly depends on the individual effectiveness of working memory (WM). We investigated a popular claim that if the storage capacity underlay the WM-Gf correlation, then such a correlation should increase with an increasing number of items or rules (load) in a Gf-test. As often no such link is observed, on that basis the storage-capacity account is rejected, and alternative accounts of Gf (e.g., related to executive control or processing speed) are proposed. Using both analytical inference and numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the load-dependent change in correlation is primarily a function of the amount of floor/ceiling effect for particular items. Thus, the item-wise WM correlation of a Gf-test depends on its overall difficulty, and the difficulty distribution across its items. When the early test items yield huge ceiling, but the late items do not approach floor, that correlation will increase throughout the test. If the early items locate themselves between ceiling and floor, but the late items approach floor, the respective correlation will decrease. For a hallmark Gf-test, the Raven-test, whose items span from ceiling to floor, the quadratic relationship is expected, and it was shown empirically using a large sample and two types of WMC tasks. In consequence, no changes in correlation due to varying WM/Gf load, or lack of them, can yield an argument for or against any theory of WM/Gf. Moreover, as the mathematical properties of the correlation formula make it relatively immune to ceiling/floor effects for overall moderate correlations, only minor changes (if any) in the WM-Gf correlation should be expected for many psychological tests.

  3. Declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  4. 25th Test and Evaluation National Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-05

    assembly area.] • Load Aircraft and Weapon Status Check. • Lineup for takeoff. – Execute Mission [R and A mission executed as requested by ground... sequential testing and the sharing of high-demand testing assets Negative impact on ability to successfully execute complex programs: Massive

  5. Empirical Evaluation of Directional-Dependence Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemmes, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Testing of directional dependence is a method to infer causal direction that recently has attracted some attention. Previous examples by e.g. von Eye and DeShon (2012a) and extensive simulation studies by Pornprasertmanit and Little (2012) have demonstrated that under specific assumptions, directional-dependence tests can recover the true causal…

  6. Attention, interpretation, and memory biases in subclinical depression: a proof-of-principle test of the combined cognitive biases hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Jonas; Duyck, Wouter; Koster, Ernst H W

    2014-04-01

    Emotional biases in attention, interpretation, and memory are viewed as important cognitive processes underlying symptoms of depression. To date, there is a limited understanding of the interplay among these processing biases. This study tested the dependence of memory on depression-related biases in attention and interpretation. Subclinically depressed and nondepressed participants completed a computerized version of the scrambled sentences test (measuring interpretation bias) while their eye movements were recorded (measuring attention bias). This task was followed by an incidental free recall test of previously constructed interpretations (measuring memory bias). Path analysis revealed a good fit for the model in which selective orienting of attention was associated with interpretation bias, which in turn was associated with a congruent bias in memory. Also, a good fit was observed for a path model in which biases in the maintenance of attention and interpretation were associated with memory bias. Both path models attained a superior fit compared with path models without the theorized functional relations among processing biases. These findings enhance understanding of how mechanisms of attention and interpretation regulate what is remembered. As such, they offer support for the combined cognitive biases hypothesis or the notion that emotionally biased cognitive processes are not isolated mechanisms but instead influence each other. Implications for theoretical models and emotion regulation across the spectrum of depressive symptoms are discussed.

  7. The Cambridge Face Memory Test for Children (CFMT-C): a new tool for measuring face recognition skills in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croydon, Abigail; Pimperton, Hannah; Ewing, Louise; Duchaine, Brad C; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition ability follows a lengthy developmental course, not reaching maturity until well into adulthood. Valid and reliable assessments of face recognition memory ability are necessary to examine patterns of ability and disability in face processing, yet there is a dearth of such assessments for children. We modified a well-known test of face memory in adults, the Cambridge Face Memory Test (Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006, Neuropsychologia, 44, 576-585), to make it developmentally appropriate for children. To establish its utility, we administered either the upright or inverted versions of the computerised Cambridge Face Memory Test - Children (CFMT-C) to 401 children aged between 5 and 12 years. Our results show that the CFMT-C is sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate age-related gains in the recognition of unfamiliar upright and inverted faces, does not suffer from ceiling or floor effects, generates robust inversion effects, and is capable of detecting difficulties in face memory in children diagnosed with autism. Together, these findings indicate that the CFMT-C constitutes a new valid assessment tool for children's face recognition skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Portal monitor evaluation and test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.O.; Gupta, V.P.; Stevenson, R.L.; Rich, B.L.

    1983-10-01

    The purpose was to develop techniques and procedures to allow users to measure performance and sensitivity of portal monitors. Additionally, a methodology was developed to assist users in optimizing monitor performance. The two monitors tested utilized thin-window gas-flow proportional counters sensitive to beta and gamma radiation. Various tests were performed: a) background count rate and the statistical variability, b) detector efficiency at different distances, c) moving source sensitivity for various size sources and speeds, and d) false alarm rates at different background levels. A model was developed for the moving source measurements to compare the experimental data with measured results, and to test whether it is possible to adequately model the behavior of a portal monitor's response to a moving source. The model results were compared with the actual test results. A procedure for testing portal monitors is also given. 1 reference, 9 figures, 8 tables

  9. How does additional diagnostic testing influence the initial diagnosis in patients with cognitive complaints in a memory clinic setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Anouk P; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Schalk, Bianca W M; Meulenbroek, Olga; Kessels, Roy P C; Melis, René J F

    2015-01-01

    patients suspected of dementia frequently undergo additional diagnostic testing (e.g. brain imaging or neuropsychological assessment) after standard clinical assessment at a memory clinic. This study investigates the use of additional testing in an academic outpatient memory clinic and how it influences the initial diagnosis. the initial diagnosis after standard clinical assessment (history, laboratory tests, cognitive screening and physical and neurological examination) and the final diagnosis after additional testing of 752 memory clinic patients were collected. We specifically registered if, and what type of, additional testing was requested. additional testing was performed in 518 patients (69%), 67% of whom underwent magnetic resonance imaging, 45% had neuropsychological assessment, 14% had cerebrospinal fluid analysis and 49% had (combinations of) other tests. This led to a modification of the initial diagnosis in 17% of the patients. The frequency of change was highest in patients with an initial non-Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia diagnosis (54%, compared with 11 and 14% in patients with AD and 'no dementia'; P testing 44% was diagnosed with AD, 9% with non-AD dementia and 47% with 'no dementia'. additional testing should especially be considered in non-AD patients. In the large group of patients with an initial AD or 'no dementia' diagnosis, additional tests have little diagnostic impact and may perhaps be used with more restraint. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effects of degraded sensory input on memory for speech: behavioral data and a test of biologically constrained computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquado, Tepring; Cousins, Katheryn A Q; Wingfield, Arthur; Miller, Paul

    2010-12-13

    Poor hearing acuity reduces memory for spoken words, even when the words are presented with enough clarity for correct recognition. An "effortful hypothesis" suggests that the perceptual effort needed for recognition draws from resources that would otherwise be available for encoding the word in memory. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted a behavioral task requiring immediate free recall of word-lists, some of which contained an acoustically masked word that was just above perceptual threshold. Results show that masking a word reduces the recall of that word and words prior to it, as well as weakening the linking associations between the masked and prior words. In contrast, recall probabilities of words following the masked word are not affected. To account for this effect we conducted computational simulations testing two classes of models: Associative Linking Models and Short-Term Memory Buffer Models. Only a model that integrated both contextual linking and buffer components matched all of the effects of masking observed in our behavioral data. In this Linking-Buffer Model, the masked word disrupts a short-term memory buffer, causing associative links of words in the buffer to be weakened, affecting memory for the masked word and the word prior to it, while allowing links of words following the masked word to be spared. We suggest that these data account for the so-called "effortful hypothesis", where distorted input has a detrimental impact on prior information stored in short-term memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cold test for bean seed vigor evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Marcelo Hissnauer; Cicero, Silvio Moure

    1999-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o comportamento de sementes de feijão submetidas a diferentes metodologias do teste de frio, comparativamente a outros testes de vigor tradicionalmente utilizados na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica dessas sementes. As metodologias do teste de frio utilizadas foram: caixa plástica com terra, rolo de papel com terra e rolo de papel sem terra, nas temperaturas de 10ºC e de 15ºC e períodos de exposição, de três, cinco e sete dias. Paralelamente fo...

  12. Coanda hydro intake screen testing and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project has been to evaluate the effectiveness, suitability and cost benefit of the Aquashear Coanda effect, maintenance free intake screen for use in small hydro system intakes. (author)

  13. Test report : alternative fuels propulsion durability evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    This document, prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (Honeywell), contains the final : test report (public version) for the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation : Administration (USDOT/FAA) Alternative Fuels Propulsion Engine Dur...

  14. Dietary choline supplementation in adult rats improves performance on a test of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Hayarelis; Hall, Geoffrey; Gallo, Milagros; de Brugada, Isabel

    2018-04-22

    In two experiments adult rats (aged at least 6 months at the start of the procedure) received a diet enriched with added choline for a period of 10 weeks; control subjects were maintained on a standard diet during this time. All rats then underwent the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) procedure in which they were exposed to a pair of objects and then tested, after a retention interval, to a display with one object changed. Exploration of the changed object indicates retention and use of information acquired during the exposure phase. All subjects showed retention with a 24-h interval (Experiments 1 and 2) and when retested after a further 24 h (Experiment 1). But when tested for the first time after a 48-h interval (Experiment 2), control subjects showed no evidence of retention, exploring both objects equally, whereas those given the dietary supplement continued to show a preference for the changed object. This supports the conclusion that dietary choline supplementation can enhance performance on a task regarded as a test of declarative memory, and will do so even when the supplementations is given in adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SDU6 Interior Liner Testing & Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Two liner materials (Marseal® M-3500 and REMA Chemoline® 4CN) proposed for use as a liner inside the Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) were subjected to specific ASTM tests (tensile and lap-shear) after immersion in 50% and 100% simulant solutions for 1000 hours at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Both liner materials exhibited good resistance to the simulant chemistry, at least based on the tests performed and the test duration/conditions imposed. In lap-shear tests, both materials failed in the base material rather than peeling apart, confirming good adhesion. The REMA 4CN bromobutyl elastomer showed superior bonding characteristics and absence of warping or delamination at the conditions tested. The Marseal M-3500 material (PVC/EVA blend with polyester reinforcement) exhibited deformation and debonding in some locations. The cause of the deformation and delamination observed in the Marseal M-3500 material is not fully known, but possibly attributed to thermomechanical stress at immersion temperatures, and the thermoplastic nature of the material. The immersion temperature (68 °C) is slightly greater than the maximum use temperature limit quoted for the Marseal M- 3500 liner (65 °C), though the basis for the service limit is unknown. The testing performed was limited in scope and only for these two liner materials. These tests were primarily performed to screen for severe incompatibility or short-term degradation in Saltstone bleedwater simulants at bounding solution temperatures. Additional testing is recommended to assess long-term performance and the overall service life of the liner.

  16. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max

    1999-01-01

    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient te...

  17. SDU6 Interior Liner Testing & Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-14

    Two liner materials (Marseal® M-3500 and REMA Chemoline® 4CN) proposed for use as a liner inside the Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) were subjected to specific ASTM tests (tensile and lap-shear) after immersion in 50% and 100% simulant solutions for 1000 hours at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Both liner materials exhibited good resistance to the simulant chemistry, at least based on the tests performed and the test duration/conditions imposed. In lap-shear tests, both materials failed in the base material rather than peeling apart, confirming good adhesion. The REMA 4CN bromobutyl elastomer showed superior bonding characteristics and absence of warping or delamination at the conditions tested. The Marseal M-3500 material (PVC/EVA blend with polyester reinforcement) exhibited deformation and debonding in some locations. The cause of the deformation and delamination observed in the Marseal M-3500 material is not fully known, but possibly attributed to thermomechanical stress at immersion temperatures, and the thermoplastic nature of the material. The immersion temperature (68 °C) is slightly greater than the maximum use temperature limit quoted for the Marseal M- 3500 liner (65 °C), though the basis for the service limit is unknown. The testing performed was limited in scope and only for these two liner materials. These tests were primarily performed to screen for severe incompatibility or short-term degradation in Saltstone bleedwater simulants at bounding solution temperatures. Additional testing is recommended to assess long-term performance and the overall service life of the liner.

  18. Fast neutron irradiation tests of flash memories used in space environment at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Andreani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a neutron accelerated study of soft errors in advanced electronic devices used in space missions, i.e. Flash memories performed at the ChipIr and VESUVIO beam lines at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The two neutron beam lines are set up to mimic the space environment spectra and allow neutron irradiation tests on Flash memories in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV and up to 800 MeV. The ISIS neutron energy spectrum is similar to the one occurring in the atmospheric as well as in space and planetary environments, with intensity enhancements varying in the range 108- 10 9 and 106- 10 7 respectively. Such conditions are suitable for the characterization of the atmospheric, space and planetary neutron radiation environments, and are directly applicable for accelerated tests of electronic components as demonstrated here in benchmark measurements performed on flash memories.

  19. Fast neutron irradiation tests of flash memories used in space environment at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Paccagnella, A.; Bagatin, M.; Gerardin, S.; Cazzaniga, C.; Frost, C. D.; Picozza, P.; Gorini, G.; Mancini, R.; Sarno, M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a neutron accelerated study of soft errors in advanced electronic devices used in space missions, i.e. Flash memories performed at the ChipIr and VESUVIO beam lines at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The two neutron beam lines are set up to mimic the space environment spectra and allow neutron irradiation tests on Flash memories in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV and up to 800 MeV. The ISIS neutron energy spectrum is similar to the one occurring in the atmospheric as well as in space and planetary environments, with intensity enhancements varying in the range 108- 10 9 and 106- 10 7 respectively. Such conditions are suitable for the characterization of the atmospheric, space and planetary neutron radiation environments, and are directly applicable for accelerated tests of electronic components as demonstrated here in benchmark measurements performed on flash memories.

  20. Strengthened effective connectivity underlies transfer of working memory training to tests of short-term memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Sutterer, David W; Emrich, Stephen M; Postle, Bradley R

    2013-05-15

    Although long considered a natively endowed and fixed trait, working memory (WM) ability has recently been shown to improve with intensive training. What remains controversial and poorly understood, however, are the neural bases of these training effects and the extent to which WM training gains transfer to other cognitive tasks. Here we present evidence from human electrophysiology (EEG) and simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and EEG that the transfer of WM training to other cognitive tasks is supported by changes in task-related effective connectivity in frontoparietal and parieto-occipital networks that are engaged by both the trained and transfer tasks. One consequence of this effect is greater efficiency of stimulus processing, as evidenced by changes in EEG indices of individual differences in short-term memory capacity and in visual search performance. Transfer to search-related activity provides evidence that something more fundamental than task-specific strategy or stimulus-specific representations has been learned. Furthermore, these patterns of training and transfer highlight the role of common neural systems in determining individual differences in aspects of visuospatial cognition.

  1. Applicability of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3) in Korsakoff’s syndrome and chronic alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Arie J; van Herten, Judith C; Egger, Jos IM; Kessels, Roy PC

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the applicability of the newly developed Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3) as an ecologically-valid memory test in patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Patients and methods An authorized Dutch translation of the RBMT-3 was developed, equivalent to the UK version, and administered to a total of 151 participants – 49 patients with amnesia due to alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome, 49 patients with cognitive impairment and a history of chronic alcoholism, not fulfilling the Korsakoff criteria, and 53 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons were made at subtest level, and the test’s diagnostic accuracy was determined. Results Korsakoff patients performed worse than controls on all RBMT-3 subtests (all P-values Korsakoff patients and the controls after delayed testing. The RBMT-3 had good sensitivity and adequate specificity. Conclusion The RBMT-3 is a valid test battery to demonstrate everyday memory deficits in Korsakoff patients and non-Korsakoff patients with alcohol abuse disorder. Korsakoff patients showed an impaired performance on subtests relying on orientation, contextual memory and delayed testing. Our findings provide valuable information for treatment planning and adjustment in patients with alcohol-related cognitive impairments. PMID:23818787

  2. Does attitude acquisition in evaluative conditioning without explicit CS-US memory reflect implicit misattribution of affect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierop, Adrien; Hütter, Mandy; Stahl, Christoph; Corneille, Olivier

    2018-02-05

    Research that dissociates different types of processes within a given task using a processing tree approach suggests that attitudes may be acquired through evaluative conditioning in the absence of explicit encoding of CS-US pairings in memory. This research distinguishes explicit memory for the CS-US pairings from CS-liking acquired without encoding of CS-US pairs in explicit memory. It has been suggested that the latter effect may be due to an implicit misattribution process that is assumed to operate when US evocativeness is low. In the present research, the latter assumption was supported neither by two high-powered experiments nor by complementary meta-analytic evidence, whereas evocativeness exerted an influence on explicit memory. This pattern of findings is inconsistent with the view that CS-liking acquired without encoding of CS-US pairs in explicit memory reflects an implicit misattribution process at learning. Hence, the underlying learning process is awaiting further empirical scrutiny.

  3. Uncertainty Evaluation of Residential Central Air-conditioning Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoxue

    2018-04-01

    According to national standards, property tests of air-conditioning are required. However, test results could be influenced by the precision of apparatus or measure errors. Therefore, uncertainty evaluation of property tests should be conducted. In this paper, the uncertainties are calculated on the property tests of Xinfei13.6 kW residential central air-conditioning. The evaluation result shows that the property tests are credible.

  4. Cognitive evaluation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease based on Turing Test and Virtual Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Montenegro, Juan Manuel; Argyriou, Vasileios

    2017-05-01

    Alzheimer's screening tests are commonly used by doctors to diagnose the patient's condition and stage as early as possible. Most of these tests are based on pen-paper interaction and do not embrace the advantages provided by new technologies. This paper proposes novel Alzheimer's screening tests based on virtual environments and game principles using new immersive technologies combined with advanced Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems. These new tests are focused on the immersion of the patient in a virtual room, in order to mislead and deceive the patient's mind. In addition, we propose two novel variations of Turing Test proposed by Alan Turing as a method to detect dementia. As a result, four tests are introduced demonstrating the wide range of screening mechanisms that could be designed using virtual environments and game concepts. The proposed tests are focused on the evaluation of memory loss related to common objects, recent conversations and events; the diagnosis of problems in expressing and understanding language; the ability to recognize abnormalities; and to differentiate between virtual worlds and reality, or humans and machines. The proposed screening tests were evaluated and tested using both patients and healthy adults in a comparative study with state-of-the-art Alzheimer's screening tests. The results show the capacity of the new tests to distinguish healthy people from Alzheimer's patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Variação temporal no desempenho em testes de memória em pacientes com doença vascular cerebral Temporal variation in memory tests performance in cerebral vascular disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Fernandes Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Buscando adequar a avaliação neuropsicológica à organização temporal do organismo humano, avaliou-se o desempenho em testes de memória em 12 pacientes pós Doença Vascular Cerebral e 12 indivíduos controle, de ambos os sexos, com idade de 45 a 65 anos. Foram aplicados dois testes de memória com estímulos visuais (figuras e dois com estímulos verbais (palavras, em 3 dias consecutivos por semana, às 08:00, 10:00 e 12:00 h na primeira semana e às 14:00 e 16:00 h na seguinte. Os pacientes apresentaram menor número de acertos do que os indivíduos controle em todos os testes aplicados (pThis study intended to investigate the performance in memory tests in order to adequate the neuropsychological evaluation to the temporal order of the human organism. Twelve cerebral vascular accident patients and 12 controls, of both sexes and 45-65 years old were studied. Two memory tests with visual stimuli (pictures and two with verbal stimuli (words were applied three times a day (08:00, 10:00 and 12:00 h during the first week and twice a day (14:00 and 16:00 h in the second week, during three consecutive days in two consecutive weeks. The patients showed lower scores than control subjects in all applied tests (p<0,05. The greater test sensitivity was at 14:00 h for the free recall test and at 16:00 h for recognition tests. According to these results, it is concluded that neuropsychological evaluations should be conducted preferably in the afternoon, as well for the first evaluation as for the re-evaluations.

  6. Testing and evaluation of eight decontamination chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report covers experimental work comparing eight different decontamination chemicals. Seven of these chemicals have some novelty, or are not currently in use at the ICPP. The eighth is a common ICPP decontamination reagent used as a baseline for effective comparison. Decontamination factors, waste generation values, and corrosion rates are tabulated for these chemicals. Recommendations are given for effective methods of non-sodium or low-sodium decontamination chemicals. The two most effective chemical for decontamination found in these test were a dilute hydrofluoric and nitric acid (HF/HNO 3 ) mixture and a fluoroboric acid solution. The fluoroboric acid solution (1 molar) was by far the most effective decontamination reagent, but suffered the problem of generating significant final calcine volume. The HF/HNO 3 solution performed a very good decontamination of the SIMCON coupons while generating only small amounts of calcine volume. Concentration variables were also tested, and optimized for these two solutions. Several oxidation/reduction decon chemical systems were also tested. These systems were similar to the TURCO 4502 and TURCO 4521 solutions used for general decontamination at the ICPP. A low sodium alternative, nitric acid/potassium permanganate, to the ''high sodium'' TURCO 4502 was tested extensively, optimized and recommended for general ICPP use. A reductive chemical solution, oxalic acid/nitric acid was also shown to have significant advantages

  7. OCOD-CTTP Test Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Leonard

    Tests in social studies and integrated science given in Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica were analyzed by the Organization for Co-operation in Overseas Development (OCOD) Comprehensive Teacher Training Program (CTTP) for discrimination, difficulty, and reliability, as well as other characteristics. There were 767 examinees for the…

  8. [Evaluation of pendulum testing of spasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cavorzin, P; Hernot, X; Bartier, O; Carrault, G; Chagneau, F; Gallien, P; Allain, H; Rochcongar, P

    2002-11-01

    To identify valid measurements of spasticity derived from the pendulum test of the leg in a representative population of spastic patients. Pendulum testing was performed in 15 spastic and 10 matched healthy subjects. The reflex-mediated torque evoked in quadriceps femoris, as well as muscle mechanical parameters (viscosity and elasticity), were calculated using mathematical modelling. Correlation with the two main measures derived from the pendulum test reported in the literature (the Relaxation Index and the area under the curve) was calculated in order to select the most valid. Among mechanical parameters, only viscosity was found to be significantly higher in the spastic group. As expected, the computed integral of the reflex-mediated torque was found to be larger in spastics than in healthy subjects. A significant non-linear (logarithmic) correlation was found between the clinically-assessed muscle spasticity (Ashworth grading) and the computed reflex-mediated torque, emphasising the non-linear behaviour of this scale. Among measurements derived from the pendulum test which are proposed in the literature for routine estimation of spasticity, the Relaxation Index exhibited an unsuitable U-shaped pattern of variation with increasing reflex-mediated torque. On the opposite, the area under the curve revealed a linear regression, which is more convenient for routine estimation of spasticity. The pendulum test of the leg is a simple technique for the assessment of spastic hypertonia. However, the measurement generally used in the literature (the Relaxation Index) exhibits serious limitations, and would benefit to be replaced by more valid measures, such as the area under the goniometric curve, especially for the assessment of therapeutics.

  9. Memory-for-Designs, Bender-Gestalt, Trail Making Test, and WISC-R Performance of Retarded and Adequate Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManis, Donald L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Twelve reading-disabled and 12 nondisabled boys, of average intellectual ability, in Grades 3 to 6 were compared on the Memory-For-Designs, Bender-Gestalt, Trail Making Test, and the 11 subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised (WISC-R). (Author)

  10. Experience and information loss in auditory and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloede, Michele E; Paulauskas, Emily E; Gregg, Melissa K

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies show that recognition memory for sounds is inferior to memory for pictures. Four experiments were conducted to examine the nature of auditory and visual memory. Experiments 1-3 were conducted to evaluate the role of experience in auditory and visual memory. Participants received a study phase with pictures/sounds, followed by a recognition memory test. Participants then completed auditory training with each of the sounds, followed by a second memory test. Despite auditory training in Experiments 1 and 2, visual memory was superior to auditory memory. In Experiment 3, we found that it is possible to improve auditory memory, but only after 3 days of specific auditory training and 3 days of visual memory decay. We examined the time course of information loss in auditory and visual memory in Experiment 4 and found a trade-off between visual and auditory recognition memory: Visual memory appears to have a larger capacity, while auditory memory is more enduring. Our results indicate that visual and auditory memory are inherently different memory systems and that differences in visual and auditory recognition memory performance may be due to the different amounts of experience with visual and auditory information, as well as structurally different neural circuitry specialized for information retention.

  11. Developmental differences in explicit and implicit conceptual memory tests: a processing view account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzéon, Hélène; Déjos, Marie; Lestage, Philippe; Arvind Pala, Prashant; N'kaoua, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed contradictory results in childhood literature about conceptual priming. Based on the processing view, two forms of conceptual priming were investigated across two experiments in children aged from 7 to 16: associative priming (using the free-association test) and relational (categorical) priming (using the categorical exemplar generation test) as well as their explicit memory measure counterparts (the associative-cued recall and the category-cued recall). Experiment 1 compared age differences in associative and relational (categorical) priming. Experiment 2 focused on relational (categorical) priming with manipulations of blocked/unblocked words per category. The results showed that (a) associative priming was unchanged in children aged from 7 to 16, whereas relational (categorical) priming improved from 7-9 to 13-16 years old, and (b) age differences in relational (categorical) priming still occurred under unblocked conditions and blocked condition, while age differences in explicit measures were reduced under blocked conditions. These findings were discussed in line with the debate between the system and processing view and in terms of knowledge and automaticity development.

  12. Shifting attention among working memory representations: testing cue type, awareness, and strategic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Marian E; Richmond, Lauren L; Shay, Cara S; Olson, Ingrid R

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that visual working memory (VWM) performance is modulated by attentional cues presented during encoding. Interestingly, retrospective cues presented after encoding, but prior to the test phase also improve performance. This improvement in performance is termed the retro-cue benefit. We investigated whether the retro-cue benefit is sensitive to cue type, whether participants were aware of their improvement in performance due to the retro-cue, and whether the effect was under strategic control. Experiment 1 compared the potential cueing benefits of abrupt onset retro-cues relying on bottom-up attention, number retro-cues relying on top-down attention, and arrow retro-cues, relying on a mixture of both. We found a significant retro-cue effect only for arrow retro-cues. In Experiment 2, we tested participants' awareness of their use of the informative retro-cue and found that they were aware of their improved performance. In Experiment 3, we asked whether participants have strategic control over the retro-cue. The retro-cue was difficult to ignore, suggesting that strategic control is low. The retro-cue effect appears to be within conscious awareness but not under full strategic control.

  13. The impact of shape memory test on degradation profile of a bioresorbable polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musioł, Marta; Jurczyk, Sebastian; Kwiecień, Michał; Smola-Dmochowska, Anna; Domański, Marian; Janeczek, Henryk; Włodarczyk, Jakub; Klim, Magdalena; Rydz, Joanna; Kawalec, Michał; Sobota, Michał

    2018-05-01

    The semicrystalline poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) belongs to the materials with shape memory effect (SME) and as a bioresorbable and biocompatible polymer it have found many applications in medical and pharmaceutical field. Assessment of the SME impact on the polymer degradation profile plays crucial role in applications such as drug release systems or in regenerative medicine. Herein, the results of in vitro degradation studies of PLLA samples after SME full test cycle are presented. The samples were loaded and deformed in two manners: progressive and non-progressive. The performed experiments illustrate also influence of the material mechanical damages, caused e.g. during incorrect implantation of PLLA product, on hydrolytic degradation profile. Apparently, degradation profiles are significantly different for the material which was not subjected to the deformation and the deformed ones. The materials after deformation of 50% (in SME cycle) was characterized by non-reversible morphology changes. The effect was observed in deformed samples during the SME test which were carried out ten times. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 63.2354 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? 63.2354 Section 63.2354 Protection of Environment... tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? (a)(1) For each performance test... procedures specified in subpart SS of this part. (3) For each performance evaluation of a continuous emission...

  15. Working memory load impairs the evaluation of behavioral errors in the medial frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin E; Steinhauser, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Early error monitoring in the medial frontal cortex enables error detection and the evaluation of error significance, which helps prioritize adaptive control. This ability has been assumed to be independent from central capacity, a limited pool of resources assumed to be involved in cognitive control. The present study investigated whether error evaluation depends on central capacity by measuring the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) in a flanker paradigm while working memory load was varied on two levels. We used a four-choice flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify targets while ignoring flankers. Errors could be due to responding either to the flankers (flanker errors) or to none of the stimulus elements (nonflanker errors). With low load, the Ne/ERN was larger for flanker errors than for nonflanker errors-an effect that has previously been interpreted as reflecting differential significance of these error types. With high load, no such effect of error type on the Ne/ERN was observable. Our findings suggest that working memory load does not impair the generation of an Ne/ERN per se but rather impairs the evaluation of error significance. They demonstrate that error monitoring is composed of capacity-dependent and capacity-independent mechanisms. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. The evaluation and impact of diagnostic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, H.D.; McNeil, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the usefulness of the techniques that are applied to study the role of tests and point out their limitations. In many instances, complex tasks must be oversimplified in order to use currently available analytic tools. Certain tools, such as decision analysis, are useful not only because they can provide insight regarding the most favorable diagnostic/therapeutic strategies but also because they can identify areas where present knowledge is inadequate and thereby help put priorities on areas of research

  17. Evaluation of an intervention directed at the modification of memory beliefs in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.W.; Zwart, J.F; Berg, I.J; Deelman, B.G.

    In clinical practice, memory interventions often aim to improve negative beliefs and expectations about memory in the elderly. The (implicit or explicit) assumption is often that changing beliefs and expectations about memory does not only improve subjective memory judgments, but leads to improved

  18. Heart Rate Measures of Flight Test and Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Malcolm A; Wilson, Glenn F

    2001-01-01

    .... Because flying is a complex task, several measures are required to derive the best evaluation. This article describes the use of heart rate to augment the typical performance and subjective measures used in test and evaluation...

  19. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  20. Management and Use of Director, Operational Test and Evaluation Funds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The reorganization disestablished the functions of the Director, Test, Systems Engineering, and Evaluation, within the Office of Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics...

  1. On the Flexibility of Social Source Memory: A Test of the Emotional Incongruity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Kroneisen, Meike; Giang, Trang

    2012-01-01

    A popular hypothesis in evolutionary psychology posits that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps cooperative individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Consistent with this hypothesis, a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters (better memory for the cheating context in which these faces were encountered) was…

  2. Memory functions in chronic pain: examining contributions of attention and age to test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.M.; Derksen, L.C.; Wijck, A.J.M. van; Veldhuijzen, D.S.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain,

  3. False Memories Lack Perceptual Detail: Evidence from Implicit Word-Stem Completion and Perceptual Identification Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, J.L.; Starns, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We used implicit measures of memory to ascertain whether false memories for critical nonpresented items in the DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) contain structural and perceptual detail. In Experiment 1, we manipulated presentation modality in a visual word-stem-completion task. Critical item priming was significant and…

  4. Method Matters: Systematic Effects of Testing Procedure on Visual Working Memory Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Watson, Leah M.; Koutstaal, Wilma; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2010-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) is traditionally considered a robust form of visual representation that survives changes in object motion, observer's position, and other visual transients. This article presents data that are inconsistent with the traditional view. We show that memory sensitivity is dramatically influenced by small variations in the…

  5. Memory Complaint Questionnaire performed poorly as screening tool : validation against psychometric tests and affective measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, Meagan; Parkinson, Lynne; Gibson, Richard; Schofield, Peter; D'Este, Catherine; Attia, John; Tavener, Meredith; Byles, Julie

    Objective: This study examined the internal and external validity of the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q), a brief measure of subjective memory complaint in people with normal cognitive function. Study Design and Setting: The Study of Health Outcomes in Aircraft Maintenance Personnel was a

  6. Memory Functions in Chronic Pain Examining Contributions of Attention and Age to Test Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.M.; Derksen, L.C.; Wijck, A.J.M. van; Veldhuijzen, D.S.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain,

  7. Visual working memory and number sense : Testing the double deficit hypothesis in mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toll, Sylke; Kroesbergen, Evelyn; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence exists that there are two main underlying cognitive factors in mathematical difficulties: working memory and number sense. It is suggested that real math difficulties appear when both working memory and number sense are weak, here referred to as the double deficit (DD)

  8. High throughput olfactory conditioning and memory retention test reveal variation in Nasonia parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.; Werren, J.H.; Vet, L.E.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on learning and memory formation results from extensive studies on a small number of animal species. Although features and cellular pathways of learning and memory are highly similar in this diverse group of species, there are also subtle differences. Closely related species of

  9. High-throughput olfactory conditioning and memory retention test show variation in Nasonia parasitic wasps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.; Werren, J.H.; Vet, L.E.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on learning and memory formation results from extensive studies on a small number of animal species. Although features and cellular pathways of learning and memory are highly similar in this diverse group of species, there are also subtle differences. Closely related species of

  10. Evaluation of screening tests for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, R J

    1980-12-01

    The following guidelines are proposed for the asymptomatic patient representing for routine examination. Instruct the patient to eat All Bran cereal or a similar product for breakfast for three consecutive days prior to the day of appointment. At the time of appointment the stool obtained from rectal examination or from a spontaneous bowel movement is checked for occult blood using the guaiac method. If the findings are negative, no further tests are recommended. If positive, the patient is given complete dietary instructions in a non-meat, high-residue diet with avoidance of beets, horseradish, vitamins, or aspirin-containing compounds. The patient is then given six Hemoccult or Quikcult slides and is instructed to prepare two fecal slides from each stool specimen daily for three days. If these are all negative when tested, no further studies are necessary. If one or more are positive, however, sigmoidoscopic examination and colon and upper gastrointestinal radiography should be carried out in that order. Evidence that early lesions (Duke A or B) are detected and the cure rate improved with this procedure is quite convincing.

  11. Evaluation of ring tensile test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Anantharaman, S.; Balakrishnan, K.S.; Sivaramakrish, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Ring specimens of 5-mm width cut from Zircaloy-2 cladding of reactor operated fuel elements that had experienced 5000 to 15,000 MWD/T of fuel burnup were subjected to ring tensile testing. The true stress-true strain data points up to the onset of necking from the individual load-elongation curves of these specimens were used as input data in Voce's equation. The results reveal that the uniform elongation (UE) values generated using Voce's equation were within (UE-2)% of the experimental percent uniform elongation (UE%). The corresponding ultimate tensile strength values were within ±1%. The uncertainty inherently associated in the determination of gauge length introduces extraneous deformation in the rings tested. Previous results had shown that a 14% increase in cladding diameter caused the gauge length to increase by 40%. To simulate the contribution of extraneous deformation due to an increase in cladding diameter, an analysis of the variation of the tensile parameters (uniform elongation and ultimate tensile strength) due to increase in the gauge length in the range of 10 to 40% was carried out. The results are discussed

  12. Italian normative data and validation of two neuropsychological tests of face recognition: Benton Facial Recognition Test and Cambridge Face Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, Andrea; Malaspina, Manuela; Daini, Roberta

    2017-09-01

    The Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT) and Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) are two of the most common tests used to assess face discrimination and recognition abilities and to identify individuals with prosopagnosia. However, recent studies highlighted that participant-stimulus match ethnicity, as much as gender, has to be taken into account in interpreting results from these tests. Here, in order to obtain more appropriate normative data for an Italian sample, the CFMT and BFRT were administered to a large cohort of young adults. We found that scores from the BFRT are not affected by participants' gender and are only slightly affected by participant-stimulus ethnicity match, whereas both these factors seem to influence the scores of the CFMT. Moreover, the inclusion of a sample of individuals with suspected face recognition impairment allowed us to show that the use of more appropriate normative data can increase the BFRT efficacy in identifying individuals with face discrimination impairments; by contrast, the efficacy of the CFMT in classifying individuals with a face recognition deficit was confirmed. Finally, our data show that the lack of inversion effect (the difference between the total score of the upright and inverted versions of the CFMT) could be used as further index to assess congenital prosopagnosia. Overall, our results confirm the importance of having norms derived from controls with a similar experience of faces as the "potential" prosopagnosic individuals when assessing face recognition abilities.

  13. Curcuma comosa improves learning and memory function on ovariectomized rats in a long-term Morris water maze test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Wyss, J. Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study Curcuma comosa extract and some purified compounds from this plant have been reported to have estrogenic-like effects, and estrogen improves learning in some animals and potentially in postmenopausal women; therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that Curcuma comosa and estrogen have similar beneficial effects on spatial learning and memory. Materials and methods Curcuma comosa hexane extract, containing 0.165 mg of (4E,6E)-1,7-diphenylhepta-4,6-dien-3-one per mg of the crude extract, was orally administered to ovariectomized Wistar rats at the doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight. 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) was used as a positive control. Thirty days after the initiation of treatment, animals were tested in a Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. They were re-tested every 30 days and a final probe trial was run on day 119. Results Compared to control rats, OVX rats displayed significant memory impairment for locating the platform in the water maze from day 67 after the surgery, onward. In contrast, OVX rats treated with either Curcuma comosa or estrogen were significantly protected from this decline in cognitive function. Further, the protection of cognitive effects by Curcuma comosa was larger at higher dose. Conclusions These results suggest that long-term treatment with Curcuma comosa has beneficial effects on learning and memory function in rats. PMID:20420894

  14. Personality characteristics and affective status related to cognitive test performance and gender in patients with memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestberg, Susanna; Passant, Ulla; Risberg, Jarl; Elfgren, Christina

    2007-11-01

    The aims are to study personality characteristics of patients with memory complaints and to assess the presence of objective (OMI) versus subjective (SMI) memory impairment, the affective status, as well as potential gender differences. The patients were assessed by means of a neuropsychiatric examination and a neuropsychological test-battery. The Swedish version of the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used. The 57 patients (38 women, 19 men, mean age 56.9) differed from the Swedish normative group in three of the five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. This was mainly because of the scores of the female patients. Approximately half of the patients had OMI. No differences regarding personality factors or affective status were found between OMI and SMI patients. The female patients scored significantly higher than the male patients on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Neuroticism and symptoms of depression interacted with memory performance and gender. Our findings demonstrate the importance of applying an objective assessment of memory functions and a gender perspective when studying patients with memory complaints.

  15. Relating children's attentional capabilities to intelligence, memory, and academic achievement: a test of construct specificity in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Robert D; Bender, Bruce G; Gordon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between attention, intelligence, memory, achievement, and behavior in a large population (N = 939) of children without neuropsychologic problems was investigated in children with mild and moderate asthma. It was hypothesized that different levels of children's attentional capabilities would be associated with different levels of intellectual, memory, and academic abilities. Children ages 6-12 at the eight clinical centers of the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) were enrolled in this study. Standardized measures of child neuropsychological and behavioral performance were administered to all participants, with analyses examining both the developmental trajectory of child attentional capabilities and the associations between Continuous Performance Test (CPT) scores and intellectual functioning, and measures of memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning. Findings demonstrated that correct responses on the CPT increase significantly with age, while commission errors decrease significantly with age. Performance levels on the CPT were associated with differences in child intellectual function, memory, and academic achievement. Overall these findings reveal how impairments in child attention skills were associated with normal levels of performance on measures of children's intelligence, memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning, suggesting that CPT performance is a salient marker of brain function.

  16. [The Visual Association Test to study episodic memory in clinical geriatric psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, Han; Prins, Marleen; Lauret, Gijs

    2018-04-01

    The Visual Association Test (VAT) is a brief learning task that consists of six line drawings of pairs of interacting objects (association cards). Subjects are asked to name or identify each object and later are presented with one object from the pair (the cue) and asked to name the other (the target). The VAT was administered in a consecutive sample of 174 psychogeriatric day care participants with mild to major neurocognitive disorder. Comparison of test performance with normative data from non-demented subjects revealed that 69% scored within the range of a major deficit (0-8 over two recall trials), 14% a minor, and 17% no deficit (9-10, and ≥10 respectively).VAT-scores correlated with another test of memory function, the Cognitive Screening Test (CST), based on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (r = 0.53). Tests of executive functioning (Expanded Mental Control Test, Category Fluency, Clock Drawing) did not add significantly to the explanation of variance in VAT-scores.Fifty-five participants (31.6%) were faced with initial problems in naming or identifying one or more objects on the cue cards or association cards. If necessary, naming was aided by the investigator. Initial difficulties in identifying cue objects were associated with lower VAT-scores, but this did not hold for difficulties in identifying target objects.A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether linear or quadratic trends best fitted VAT performance across the range of CST scores. The regression model revealed a linear but not a quadratic trend. The best fitting linear model implied that VAT scores differentiated between CST scores in the lower, as well as in the upper range, indicating the absence of floor and ceiling effects, respectively. Moreover, the VAT compares favourably to word list-learning tasks being more attractive in its presentation of interacting visual objects and cued recall based on incidental learning of the association

  17. Scenery Picture Memory Test: A new type of quick and effective screening test to detect early stage Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Hajime; Dodge, Hiroko H

    2010-01-01

    Aim It is highly desirable to develop a neuropsychological screening test which is sensitive to the early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and is easy to administer at the primary care physician’s (PCP’s) office. Methods Participants were 128 AD patients and 54 healthy volunteers. Brief cognitive screening tests were administered to the participants including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), a Verbal Category Cued Memory test (CCMT) and the Scenery Picture Memory Test (SPMT). In the SPMT, a scenery picture of a living room containing 23 familiar objects was used. The administration of the SPMT comprised the first shallow memory session (Pict 1) and the second deep memory session (Pict 2). The area under the receiver–operator curve (AUC) was used to compare the efficacy of SPMT with other cognitive tests. Results Pict 1, which requires less than 2 min to complete, had the same AUC as Pict 2, and showed significantly larger AUC than MMSE, CDT and VFT for all (MMSE 19–23) and very mild (MMSE ≥ 24) AD patients. When we conducted the similar analysis separately for those younger than 75 years and those aged 75 years or older, we obtained the same results as above among the older age group. Pict 1 showed larger AUC than CCMT in overall sample and also in the older age group, although the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion The SPMT could be useful for detection of mild and very mild AD in settings even where time is limited. PMID:20446933

  18. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ojeda

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Test Your Memory" (TYM test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104, musculoskeletal pain (99 and fibromyalgia (51. The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs, Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, p<0.001; HAD-anxiety (-0.50, p<0.001 and HAD-depression scales (-0.52, p<0.001; MOS-sleep Index-9 (-0.49, p<0.001; and the physical (0.49, p < .001 and mental components (0.55, p < .001 of SF-12. The exploratory structure of the TYM showed an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.66. The TYM is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations.

  19. Performance of four different rat strains in the autoshaping, two-object discrimination, and swim maze tests of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J S; Jansen, J H; Linders, S; Princen, A; Broekkamp, C L

    1995-04-01

    The performance of four strains of rats commonly used in behavioural research was assessed in three different tests of learning and memory. The four strains included three outbred lines (Long-Evans, Sprague-Dawley, Wistar) and one inbred strain (S3). Learning and memory were tested using three different paradigms: autoshaping of a lever press, a two-object discrimination test, and performance in a two-island swim maze task. The pigmented strains showed better performance in the autoshaping procedure: the majority of the Long-Evans and the S3 rats acquired the response, and the majority of the Wistar and Sprague-Dawley failed to acquire the response in the set time. The albino strains were slightly better in the swim maze than the pigmented strains. There appeared to be a speed/accuracy trade-off in the strategy used to solve the task. This was also evident following treatment with the cholinergic-depleting agent hemicholinium-3. The performance of the Long-Evans rats was most affected by the treatment in terms of accuracy and the Wistar and Sprague-Dawleys in terms of speed. In the two-object discrimination test only the Long-Evans showed satisfactory performance and were able to discriminate a novel from a known object a short interval after initial exposure. These results show large task- and strain-dependent differences in performance in tests of learning and memory. Some of the performance variation may be due to emotional differences between the strains and may be alleviated by extra training. However, the response to pharmacological manipulation may require more careful evaluation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Diagnosing prosopagnosia in East Asian individuals: Norms for the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Wan, Lulu; Robbins, Rachel; Crookes, Kate; Liu, Jia

    2017-07-01

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) is widely accepted as providing a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing prosopagnosia (inability to recognize people's faces). Previously, large-sample norms have been available only for Caucasian-face versions, suitable for diagnosis in Caucasian observers. These are invalid for observers of different races due to potentially severe other-race effects. Here, we provide large-sample norms (N = 306) for East Asian observers on an Asian-face version (CFMT-Chinese). We also demonstrate methodological suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for prosopagnosia diagnosis (high internal reliability, approximately normal distribution, norm-score range sufficiently far above chance). Additional findings were a female advantage on mean performance, plus a difference between participants living in the East (China) or the West (international students, second-generation children of immigrants), which we suggest might reflect personality differences associated with willingness to emigrate. Finally, we demonstrate suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for individual differences studies that use correlations within the normal range.

  1. A brain stress test: Cerebral perfusion during memory encoding in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Long; Dolui, Sudipto; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stockbower, Grace E; Daffner, Molly; Rao, Hengyi; Yushkevich, Paul A; Detre, John A; Wolk, David A

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (ASL MRI) provides non-invasive quantification of cerebral blood flow, which can be used as a biomarker of brain function due to the tight coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain metabolism. A growing body of literature suggests that regional CBF is altered in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we examined ASL MRI CBF in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 65) and cognitively normal healthy controls (n = 62), both at rest and during performance of a memory-encoding task. As compared to rest, task-enhanced ASL MRI improved group discrimination, which supports the notion that physiologic measures during a cognitive challenge, or "stress test", may increase the ability to detect subtle functional changes in early disease stages. Further, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ASL MRI and concomitantly acquired structural MRI provide complementary information of disease status. The current findings support the potential utility of task-enhanced ASL MRI as a biomarker in early Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Development and Testing of a Shape Memory Alloy-Driven Composite Morphing Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgren, P.; Bertagne, C.; Wescott, M.; Benafan, O.; Erickson, L.; Whitcomb, J.; Hartl, D.

    2018-01-01

    Future crewed deep space missions will require thermal control systems that can accommodate larger fluctuations in temperature and heat rejection loads than current designs. To maintain the crew cabin at habitable temperatures throughout the entire mission profile, radiators will be required to exhibit turndown ratios (defined as the ratio between the maximum and minimum heat rejection rates) as high as 12:1. Potential solutions to increase radiator turndown ratios include designs that vary the heat rejection rate by changing shape, hence changing the rate of radiation to space. Shape memory alloys exhibit thermally driven phase transformations and thus can be used for both the control and actuation of such a morphing radiator with a single active structural component that transduces thermal energy into motion. This work focuses on designing a high-performance composite radiator panel and investigating the behavior of various SMA actuators in this application. Three designs were fabricated and subsequently tested in a relevant thermal vacuum environment; all three exhibited repeatable morphing behavior, and it is shown through validated computational analysis that the morphing radiator concept can achieve a turndown ratio of 27:1 with a number of simple configuration changes.

  3. Development and Testing of a Shape Memory Alloy-Driven Composite Morphing Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgren, P.; Bertagne, C.; Wescott, M.; Benafan, O.; Erickson, L.; Whitcomb, J.; Hartl, D.

    2018-03-01

    Future crewed deep space missions will require thermal control systems that can accommodate larger fluctuations in temperature and heat rejection loads than current designs. To maintain the crew cabin at habitable temperatures throughout the entire mission profile, radiators will be required to exhibit turndown ratios (defined as the ratio between the maximum and minimum heat rejection rates) as high as 12:1. Potential solutions to increase radiator turndown ratios include designs that vary the heat rejection rate by changing shape, hence changing the rate of radiation to space. Shape memory alloys exhibit thermally driven phase transformations and thus can be used for both the control and actuation of such a morphing radiator with a single active structural component that transduces thermal energy into motion. This work focuses on designing a high-performance composite radiator panel and investigating the behavior of various SMA actuators in this application. Three designs were fabricated and subsequently tested in a relevant thermal vacuum environment; all three exhibited repeatable morphing behavior, and it is shown through validated computational analysis that the morphing radiator concept can achieve a turndown ratio of 27:1 with a number of simple configuration changes.

  4. Improving everyday memory performance after acquired brain injury: An RCT on recollection and working memory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kim Merle; Mödden, Claudia; Eling, Paul; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2018-04-26

    To show the effectiveness of a combined recognition and working memory training on everyday memory performance in patients suffering from organic memory disorders. In this double-blind, randomized controlled Study 36 patients with organic memory impairments, mainly attributable to stroke, were assigned to either the experimental or the active control group. In the experimental group a working memory training was combined with a recollection training based on the repetition-lag procedure. Patients in the active control group received the memory therapy usually provided in the rehabilitation center. Both groups received nine hours of therapy. Prior (T0) and subsequent (T1) to the therapy, patients were evaluated on an everyday memory test (EMT) as well as on a neuropsychological test battery. Based on factor analysis of the neuropsychological test scores at T0 we calculated composite scores for working memory, verbal learning and word fluency. After treatment, the intervention group showed a significantly greater improvement for WM performance compared with the active control group. More importantly, performance on the EMT also improved significantly in patients receiving the recollection and working memory training compared with patients with standard memory training. Our results show that combining working memory and recollection training significantly improves performance on everyday memory tasks, demonstrating far transfer effects. The present study argues in favor of a process-based approach for treating memory impairments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Design and testing of the first 2D Prototype Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.; Deptuch, G.; Hoff, J.; Jindariani, S.; Joshi, S.; Olsen, J.; Tran, N.; Trimpl, M.

    2015-02-01

    An associative memory-based track finding approach has been proposed for a Level 1 tracking trigger to cope with increasing luminosities at the LHC. The associative memory uses a massively parallel architecture to tackle the intrinsically complex combinatorics of track finding algorithms, thus avoiding the typical power law dependence of execution time on occupancy and solving the pattern recognition in times roughly proportional to the number of hits. This is of crucial importance given the large occupancies typical of hadronic collisions. The design of an associative memory system capable of dealing with the complexity of HL-LHC collisions and with the short latency required by Level 1 triggering poses significant, as yet unsolved, technical challenges. For this reason, an aggressive R&D program has been launched at Fermilab to advance state of-the-art associative memory technology, the so called VIPRAM (Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory) project. The VIPRAM leverages emerging 3D vertical integration technology to build faster and denser Associative Memory devices. The first step is to implement in conventional VLSI the associative memory building blocks that can be used in 3D stacking, in other words, the building blocks are laid out as if it is a 3D design. In this paper, we report on the first successful implementation of a 2D VIPRAM demonstrator chip (protoVIPRAM00). The results show that these building blocks are ready for 3D stacking.

  6. Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TN-0756 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation...Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation by Clayton M Weiss Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education...ORISE), Belcamp, MD Parimal J Patel Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is

  7. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C.; Todosow, M.

    1992-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized

  8. Allocentric spatial memory testing predicts conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia: an initial proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Wood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is one of the first regions to exhibit neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and knowledge of its role in allocentric spatial memory may therefore aid early diagnosis of AD. The 4 Mountains Test (4MT is a short and easily administered test of spatial memory based on the cognitive map theory of hippocampal function as derived from rodent single cell and behavioral studies. The 4MT has been shown in previous cross-sectional studies to be sensitive and specific for mild cognitive impairment due to AD. This report describes the initial results of a longitudinal study testing the hypothesis that allocentric spatial memory is predictive of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia.Fifteen patients with mild cognitive impairment underwent baseline testing on the 4MT in addition to CSF amyloid/tau biomarker studies, volumetric MRI and neuropsychological assessment including the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and Trail Making Test B (TMT-B. At 24 months, 9/15 patients had converted to AD dementia. The 4MT predicted conversion to AD with 93% accuracy (Cohen’s d = 2.52. The predictive accuracies of the comparator measures were as follows: CSF tau/β-amyloid1-42 ratio 92% (d = 1.81, RAVLT 64% (d = 0.41, TMT-B 78% (d = 1.56, and hippocampal volume 77% (d = 0.65. CSF tau levels were strongly negative correlated with 4MT scores (r = -0.71. This proof-of-concept study provides initial support for the hypothesis that allocentric spatial memory testing is a predictive cognitive marker of hippocampal neurodegeneration in pre-dementia AD. The 4MT is a brief, noninvasive, straightforward spatial memory test and is therefore ideally suited for use in routine clinical diagnostic practice. This is of particular importance given the current unmet need for simple accurate diagnostic tests for early AD and the ongoing development of potential disease-modifying therapeutic agents which may be more efficacious when given

  9. The effect of chronic corticosterone on fear learning and memory depends on dose and the testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, W N; Fenton, E Y; Guskjolen, A J; Kalynchuk, L E

    2015-03-19

    Chronic exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) is known to alter plasticity within hippocampal and amygdalar circuits that mediate fear learning and memory. The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of chronic CORT on Pavlovian fear conditioning, which is dependent on intact hippocampal and amygdalar activity. In particular, we assessed whether the effect of chronic CORT on fear learning and memory is influenced by two factors-the dose of CORT and the order in which rats are tested for freezing to context versus tone cues. Male Long-Evans rats received low-dose CORT (5mg/kg), high-dose CORT (40mg/kg), or vehicle injections once daily for 21days. On day 22, the rats were trained in a fear-conditioning paradigm. On days 23 and 24, the rats were tested for the retrieval of fear memories to context and tone cues in a counterbalanced way-half the rats received context testing on day 23 and then tone testing on day 24 and half the rats received tone testing on day 23 followed by context testing on day 24. Our results revealed dose-dependent effects of CORT on memory retrieval: Rats injected with high-dose CORT froze significantly more than control rats to both context and tone cues regardless of what testing day these cues were presented. However, rats injected with low-dose CORT froze significantly more than control rats to tone cues only. We also found an order effect in that the effects of CORT on freezing were greater on the second day of testing, regardless of whether that testing was to context or tones cues. This order effect may be due to a lack of extinction in the CORT rats. Overall, these results suggest a relationship between stress intensity and testing conditions that should be taken into account when assessing the effect of stress on fear memories. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Allocentric Spatial Memory Testing Predicts Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia: An Initial Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ruth A; Moodley, Kuven K; Lever, Colin; Minati, Ludovico; Chan, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is one of the first regions to exhibit neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and knowledge of its role in allocentric spatial memory may therefore aid early diagnosis of AD. The 4 Mountains Test (4MT) is a short and easily administered test of spatial memory based on the cognitive map theory of hippocampal function as derived from rodent single cell and behavioral studies. The 4MT has been shown in previous cross-sectional studies to be sensitive and specific for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD. This report describes the initial results of a longitudinal study testing the hypothesis that allocentric spatial memory is predictive of conversion from MCI to dementia. Fifteen patients with MCI underwent baseline testing on the 4MT in addition to CSF amyloid/tau biomarker studies, volumetric MRI and neuropsychological assessment including the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Trail Making Test "B" (TMT-B). At 24 months, 9/15 patients had converted to AD dementia. The 4MT predicted conversion to AD with 93% accuracy (Cohen's d  = 2.52). The predictive accuracies of the comparator measures were as follows: CSF tau/β-amyloid 1-42 ratio 92% ( d  = 1.81), RAVLT 64% ( d  = 0.41), TMT-B 78% ( d  = 1.56), and hippocampal volume 77% ( d  = 0.65). CSF tau levels were strongly negatively correlated with 4MT scores ( r  = -0.71). This proof-of-concept study provides initial support for the hypothesis that allocentric spatial memory testing is a predictive cognitive marker of hippocampal neurodegeneration in pre-dementia AD. The 4MT is a brief, non-invasive, straightforward spatial memory test and is therefore ideally suited for use in routine clinical diagnostic practice. This is of particular importance given the current unmet need for simple accurate diagnostic tests for early AD and the ongoing development of potential disease-modifying therapeutic agents, which may be more efficacious when given earlier in

  11. Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Benney

    2009-11-30

    The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be

  12. Memory Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  13. A SEMantic and EPisodic Memory Test (SEMEP) Developed within the Embodied Cognition Framework: Application to Normal Aging, Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Guillaume T; Hudon, Carol; Bier, Nathalie; Macoir, Joël; Versace, Rémy; Simard, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Embodiment has highlighted the importance of sensory-motor components in cognition. Perception and memory are thus very tightly bound together, and episodic and semantic memories should rely on the same grounded memory traces. Reduced perception should then directly reduce the ability to encode and retrieve an episodic memory, as in normal aging. Multimodal integration deficits, as in Alzheimer's disease, should lead to more severe episodic memory impairment. The present study introduces a new memory test developed to take into account these assumptions. The SEMEP (SEMantic-Episodic) memory test proposes to assess conjointly semantic and episodic knowledge across multiple tasks: semantic matching, naming, free recall, and recognition. The performance of young adults is compared to healthy elderly adults (HE), patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and patients with semantic dementia (SD). The results show specific patterns of performance between the groups. HE commit memory errors only for presented but not to be remembered items. AD patients present the worst episodic memory performance associated with intrusion errors (recall or recognition of items never presented). They were the only group to not benefit from a visual isolation (addition of a yellow background), a method known to increase the distinctiveness of the memory traces. Finally, SD patients suffer from the most severe semantic impairment. To conclude, confusion errors are common across all the elderly groups, whereas AD was the only group to exhibit regular intrusion errors and SD patients to show severe semantic impairment.

  14. A SEMantic and EPisodic Memory Test (SEMEP Developed within the Embodied Cognition Framework: Application to Normal Aging, Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume T. Vallet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment has highlighted the importance of sensory-motor components in cognition. Perception and memory are thus very tightly bound together, and episodic and semantic memories should rely on the same grounded memory traces. Reduced perception should then directly reduce the ability to encode and retrieve an episodic memory, as in normal aging. Multimodal integration deficits, as in Alzheimer's disease, should lead to more severe episodic memory impairment. The present study introduces a new memory test developed to take into account these assumptions. The SEMEP (SEMantic-Episodic memory test proposes to assess conjointly semantic and episodic knowledge across multiple tasks: semantic matching, naming, free recall, and recognition. The performance of young adults is compared to healthy elderly adults (HE, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, and patients with semantic dementia (SD. The results show specific patterns of performance between the groups. HE commit memory errors only for presented but not to be remembered items. AD patients present the worst episodic memory performance associated with intrusion errors (recall or recognition of items never presented. They were the only group to not benefit from a visual isolation (addition of a yellow background, a method known to increase the distinctiveness of the memory traces. Finally, SD patients suffer from the most severe semantic impairment. To conclude, confusion errors are common across all the elderly groups, whereas AD was the only group to exhibit regular intrusion errors and SD patients to show severe semantic impairment.

  15. Cross-lingual tagger evaluation without test data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Zeljko; Plank, Barbara; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We address the challenge of cross-lingual POS tagger evaluation in absence of manually annotated test data. We put forth and evaluate two dictionary-based metrics. On the tasks of accuracy prediction and system ranking, we reveal that these metrics are reliable enough to approximate test set-base......-based evaluation, and at the same time lean enough to support assessment for truly low-resource languages....

  16. Influence of Test Procedures on the Thermomechanical Properties of a 55NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo A., II; Gaydosh, Darrell J.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Bigelow, Glen S.; Garg, Anita; Lagoudas, Dimitris; Karaman, Ibrahim; Atli, Kadri C.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few decades, binary NiTi shape memory alloys have received attention due to their unique mechanical characteristics, leading to their potential use in low-temperature, solid-state actuator applications. However, prior to using these materials for such applications, the physical response of these systems to mechanical and thermal stimuli must be thoroughly understood and modeled to aid designers in developing SMA-enabled systems. Even though shape memory alloys have been around for almost five decades, very little effort has been made to standardize testing procedures. Although some standards for measuring the transformation temperatures of SMA s are available, no real standards exist for determining the various mechanical and thermomechanical properties that govern the usefulness of these unique materials. Consequently, this study involved testing a 55NiTi alloy using a variety of different test methodologies. All samples tested were taken from the same heat and batch to remove the influence of sample pedigree on the observed results. When the material was tested under constant-stress, thermal-cycle conditions, variations in the characteristic material responses were observed, depending on test methodology. The transformation strain and irreversible strain were impacted more than the transformation temperatures, which only showed an affect with regard to applied external stress. In some cases, test methodology altered the transformation strain by 0.005-0.01mm/mm, which translates into a difference in work output capability of approximately 2 J/cu cm (290 in!lbf/cu in). These results indicate the need for the development of testing standards so that meaningful data can be generated and successfully incorporated into viable models and hardware. The use of consistent testing procedures is also important when comparing results from one research organization to another. To this end, differences in the observed responses will be presented, contrasted and

  17. Evaluation of LLTR series II test A-7 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittle, D.E.; Amos, J.C.; Yang, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    This report evaluates the test A-7 data and assesses the capability of the analytical methodology (as a result of Series I program) to predict the thermal/hydraulic phenomena associated with a large SWR event occurring after the sodium system pressure has increased to near the rupture disc burst pressure due to a smaller size leak event. Evaluation of intertest examination data to determine the extent of test article damage resulting from test A-7 is also included

  18. Test plan for FY-91 alpha CAM evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.

    1991-03-01

    This report describes the test plan for evaluating the Merlin Gerin, Inc., Edgar alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) and associated analysis system to be conducted by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy. INEL has evaluated other commercial alpha CAM systems to detect transuranic contaminants during waste handling and retrieval operations. This test plan outlines experimental methods, sampling methods, sampling and analysis techniques, and equipment needed and safety and quality requirements to test the commercial CAM. 8 refs., 3 figs

  19. Validy and Reliability of two Working Memory Tests: Aritmetic Amplitude and Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burin, Débora I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Working Memory is a memory system involved in the storage and concurrent processing of information (Baddeley, 2000. Arithmetic Span (Conway et al., 2005 and Counting Span (Conway, et al. 2005 are two traditional verbal working memory capacity tasks. The aim of this article is to present reliability and validity data of Arithmetic and Counting Span Tasks. They were administered, along with Reading Span task, to 88 university students with a mean age of 23.10 years. The reliability analysis showed an excellent internal consistency, and a one factor model with a very good fit to the data was observed using a confirmatory factor analysis. These results indicate that both tasks are reliable and valid measures to assess verbal working memory capacity.

  20. Evaluation of the finger wrinkling test: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Barneveld, S.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Tilt table testing mainly evaluates the systemic cardiovascular part of the autonomic nervous system, while it is assumed that the finger wrinkling test assesses the peripheral part of the autonomic nervous system. In this study we explored whether the finger wrinkling test could be a