WorldWideScience

Sample records for memory management

  1. Extended memory management under RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, M.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for extended memory management in ROLM 1666 computers using FORTRAN is presented. A general software system is described for which the technique can be ideally applied. The memory manager interface with the system is described. The protocols by which the manager is invoked are presented, as well as the methods used by the manager.

  2. Efficient Management for Hybrid Memory in Managed Language Runtime

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Chenxi; Cao , Ting; Zigman , John; Lv , Fang; Zhang , Yunquan; Feng , Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Part 1: Memory: Non-Volatile, Solid State Drives, Hybrid Systems; International audience; Hybrid memory, which leverages the benefits of traditional DRAM and emerging memory technologies, is a promising alternative for future main memory design. However popular management policies through memory-access recording and page migration may invoke non-trivial overhead in execution time and hardware space. Nowadays, managed language applications are increasingly dominant in every kind of platform. M...

  3. VOP memory management in MPEG-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithianathan, Karthikeyan; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2001-03-01

    MPEG-4 is a multimedia standard that requires Video Object Planes (VOPs). Generation of VOPs for any kind of video sequence is still a challenging problem that largely remains unsolved. Nevertheless, if this problem is treated by imposing certain constraints, solutions for specific application domains can be found. MPEG-4 applications in mobile devices is one such domain where the opposite goals namely low power and high throughput are required to be met. Efficient memory management plays a major role in reducing the power consumption. Specifically, efficient memory management for VOPs is difficult because the lifetimes of these objects vary and these life times may be overlapping. Varying life times of the objects requires dynamic memory management where memory fragmentation is a key problem that needs to be addressed. In general, memory management systems address this problem by following a combination of strategy, policy and mechanism. For MPEG4 based mobile devices that lack instruction processors, a hardware based memory management solution is necessary. In MPEG4 based mobile devices that have a RISC processor, using a Real time operating system (RTOS) for this memory management task is not expected to be efficient because the strategies and policies used by the ROTS is often tuned for handling memory segments of smaller sizes compared to object sizes. Hence, a memory management scheme specifically tuned for VOPs is important. In this paper, different strategies, policies and mechanisms for memory management are considered and an efficient combination is proposed for the case of VOP memory management along with a hardware architecture, which can handle the proposed combination.

  4. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor will work to find out what is causing these problems. They may be caused by ...

  5. Command and Control Software Development Memory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Austin Pope

    2017-01-01

    This internship was initially meant to cover the implementation of unit test automation for a NASA ground control project. As is often the case with large development projects, the scope and breadth of the internship changed. Instead, the internship focused on finding and correcting memory leaks and errors as reported by a COTS software product meant to track such issues. Memory leaks come in many different flavors and some of them are more benign than others. On the extreme end a program might be dynamically allocating memory and not correctly deallocating it when it is no longer in use. This is called a direct memory leak and in the worst case can use all the available memory and crash the program. If the leaks are small they may simply slow the program down which, in a safety critical system (a system for which a failure or design error can cause a risk to human life), is still unacceptable. The ground control system is managed in smaller sub-teams, referred to as CSCIs. The CSCI that this internship focused on is responsible for monitoring the health and status of the system. This team's software had several methods/modules that were leaking significant amounts of memory. Since most of the code in this system is safety-critical, correcting memory leaks is a necessity.

  6. Network resiliency through memory health monitoring and proactive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Cher, Chen-Yong; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2017-11-21

    A method for managing a network queue memory includes receiving sensor information about the network queue memory, predicting a memory failure in the network queue memory based on the sensor information, and outputting a notification through a plurality of nodes forming a network and using the network queue memory, the notification configuring communications between the nodes.

  7. Objective-C memory management essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Gibson

    2015-01-01

    If you are new to Objective-C or a veteran in iOS application development, this is the book for you. This book will ensure that you can actively learn the methods and concepts in relation to memory management in a more engaging way. Basic knowledge of iOS development is required for this book.

  8. Method and apparatus for managing access to a memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBenedictis, Erik

    2017-08-01

    A method and apparatus for managing access to a memory of a computing system. A controller transforms a plurality of operations that represent a computing job into an operational memory layout that reduces a size of a selected portion of the memory that needs to be accessed to perform the computing job. The controller stores the operational memory layout in a plurality of memory cells within the selected portion of the memory. The controller controls a sequence by which a processor in the computing system accesses the memory to perform the computing job using the operational memory layout. The operational memory layout reduces an amount of energy consumed by the processor to perform the computing job.

  9. Memory Management for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) is based on the Real-Time Specification for Java. To simplify the certification of Java programs, SCJ supports only a restricted scoped memory model. Individual threads share only immortal memory and the newly introduced mission memory. All other scoped memories...... are thread private. Furthermore, the notation of a maximum backing store requirement enables implementation of the scoped memories without fragmentation issues. In this paper we explore the implications of this new scoped memory model and possible simplifications in the implementation. It is possible...... to unify the three memory area types and provide a single class to represent all three memory areas of SCJ. The knowledge of the maximum storage requirements allows using nested backing stores in the implementation of the memory area representation. The proposed design of an SCJ compliant scope...

  10. CPU and cache efficient management of memory-resident databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirk, H.; Funke, F.; Grund, M.; Neumann, T.; Leser, U.; Manegold, S.; Kemper, A.; Kersten, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory-Resident Database Management Systems (MRDBMS) have to be optimized for two resources: CPU cycles and memory bandwidth. To optimize for bandwidth in mixed OLTP/OLAP scenarios, the hybrid or Partially Decomposed Storage Model (PDSM) has been proposed. However, in current implementations,

  11. CPU and Cache Efficient Management of Memory-Resident Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Pirk (Holger); F. Funke; M. Grund; T. Neumann (Thomas); U. Leser; S. Manegold (Stefan); A. Kemper (Alfons); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractMemory-Resident Database Management Systems (MRDBMS) have to be optimized for two resources: CPU cycles and memory bandwidth. To optimize for bandwidth in mixed OLTP/OLAP scenarios, the hybrid or Partially Decomposed Storage Model (PDSM) has been proposed. However, in current

  12. Database Management Using Optical Associative Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ralston, Lynda

    1998-01-01

    A concept was developed for an optical based associative memory system that accepts a query request from a user, searches the disk for the location of the information and ensures maximum efficiency in data recovery...

  13. Memory Compression Techniques for Network Address Management in MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanfei; Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael; Parker, Scott; Bland, Wesley; Raffenetti, Ken; Balaji, Pavan

    2017-05-29

    MPI allows applications to treat processes as a logical collection of integer ranks for each MPI communicator, while internally translating these logical ranks into actual network addresses. In current MPI implementations the management and lookup of such network addresses use memory sizes that are proportional to the number of processes in each communicator. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism, called AV-Rankmap, for managing such translation. AV-Rankmap takes advantage of logical patterns in rank-address mapping that most applications naturally tend to have, and it exploits the fact that some parts of network address structures are naturally more performance critical than others. It uses this information to compress the memory used for network address management. We demonstrate that AV-Rankmap can achieve performance similar to or better than that of other MPI implementations while using significantly less memory.

  14. Scheduling support for transactional memory contention management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado, Walther; Marler, Patrick; Felber, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    different strategies for efficient communication between the kernel and the user-level TM library. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to investigate kernel-level support for TM contention management. We have introduced kernel-level TM scheduling support into both the Linux and Solaris...

  15. Lifetime-Based Memory Management for Distributed Data Processing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Lu; Shi, Xuanhua; Zhou, Yongluan

    2016-01-01

    create a large amount of long-living data objects in the heap, which may quickly saturate the garbage collector, especially when handling a large dataset, and hence would limit the scalability of the system. To eliminate this problem, we propose a lifetime-based memory management framework, which......, by automatically analyzing the user-defined functions and data types, obtains the expected lifetime of the data objects, and then allocates and releases memory space accordingly to minimize the garbage collection overhead. In particular, we present Deca, a concrete implementation of our proposal on top of Spark...... the garbage collection time by up to 99.9%, 2) to achieve up to 22.7x speed up in terms of execution time in cases without data spilling and 41.6x speedup in cases with data spilling, and 3) to consume up to 46.6% less memory....

  16. Formal Constraints on Memory Management for Composite Overloaded Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian W.I. Rouson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The memory management rules for abstract data type calculus presented by Rouson, Morris & Xu [15] are recast as formal statements in the Object Constraint Language (OCL and applied to the design of a thermal energy equation solver. One set of constraints eliminates memory leaks observed in composite overloaded expressions with three current Fortran 95/2003 compilers. A second set of constraints ensures economical memory recycling. The constraints are preconditions, postconditions and invariants on overloaded operators and the objects they receive and return. It is demonstrated that systematic run-time assertion checking inspired by the formal constraints facilitated the pinpointing of an exceptionally hard-to-reproduce compiler bug. It is further demonstrated that the interplay between OCL's modeling capabilities and Fortran's programming capabilities led to a conceptual breakthrough that greatly improved the readability of our code by facilitating operator overloading. The advantages and disadvantages of our memory management rules are discussed in light of other published solutions [11,19]. Finally, it is demonstrated that the run-time assertion checking has a negligible impact on performance.

  17. Memory Bandage for Functional Compression Management for Venous Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In current compression practice for the treatment of chronic venous disorders, there has always been a challenge of controlled compression by a bandage to achieve a particular pressure range in the affected region of the limb. The challenges in compression in the products could be solved if there were the possibility of stress control in fabric. Herein, we are exploiting the newly discovered phenomena, i.e., stress memory, in a memory polymer (MP for the design and investigation of a smart bandage for functional compression benefits. A memory bandage is developed using a blend yarn consisting of MP filaments (segmented polyurethane and nylon filaments. Results showed the possibility to control or manage the internal stress developed in the bandage in wrapped position by simple heating, and thus allowing pressure readjustment externally. Extra pressure generated by the bandage increases with increasing the level of temperature and strain (p < 0.05. The pressure variations also depend on the number of layers and limb circumference (p < 0.05. The memory bandage could have a great potential over existing conventional compression products, as they could give more freedom to govern pressure level whenever needed during the course of compression therapy as a novel wound care management system.

  18. Thinking about threats: Memory and prospection in human threat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Adam; Henry, Julie D; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Humans have evolved mechanisms for the detection and management of possible threats in order to abate their negative consequences for fitness. Internally generated ('detached') cognition may have evolved in part because of its contributions to this broad function, but important questions remain about its role in threat management. In this article, we therefore present a taxonomy of threat-related internally generated cognition comprising episodic and semantic formats of memory and prospection. We address the proximate mechanisms of each of the capacities in this taxonomy, and discuss their respective contributions to adaptive threat management in humans. For instance, mental time travel empowers people to contemplate and learn from threats experienced long ago, as well as to plan for dangers that might arise in the distant future. However, despite their functional benefits, these thought processes are also central to contemporary anxiety disorders and may be a potent source of distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Case Study on Neural Inspired Dynamic Memory Management Strategies for High Performance Computing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vineyard, Craig Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    As high performance computing architectures pursue more computational power there is a need for increased memory capacity and bandwidth as well. A multi-level memory (MLM) architecture addresses this need by combining multiple memory types with different characteristics as varying levels of the same architecture. How to efficiently utilize this memory infrastructure is an unknown challenge, and in this research we sought to investigate whether neural inspired approaches can meaningfully help with memory management. In particular we explored neurogenesis inspired re- source allocation, and were able to show a neural inspired mixed controller policy can beneficially impact how MLM architectures utilize memory.

  20. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  1. Energy-aware memory management for embedded multimedia systems a computer-aided design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balasa, Florin

    2011-01-01

    Energy-Aware Memory Management for Embedded Multimedia Systems: A Computer-Aided Design Approach presents recent computer-aided design (CAD) ideas that address memory management tasks, particularly the optimization of energy consumption in the memory subsystem. It explains how to efficiently implement CAD solutions, including theoretical methods and novel algorithms. The book covers various energy-aware design techniques, including data-dependence analysis techniques, memory size estimation methods, extensions of mapping approaches, and memory banking approaches. It shows how these techniques

  2. Flash memory management system and method utilizing multiple block list windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James (Inventor); Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a flash memory management system and method with increased performance. The flash memory management system provides the ability to efficiently manage and allocate flash memory use in a way that improves reliability and longevity, while maintaining good performance levels. The flash memory management system includes a free block mechanism, a disk maintenance mechanism, and a bad block detection mechanism. The free block mechanism provides efficient sorting of free blocks to facilitate selecting low use blocks for writing. The disk maintenance mechanism provides for the ability to efficiently clean flash memory blocks during processor idle times. The bad block detection mechanism provides the ability to better detect when a block of flash memory is likely to go bad. The flash status mechanism stores information in fast access memory that describes the content and status of the data in the flash disk. The new bank detection mechanism provides the ability to automatically detect when new banks of flash memory are added to the system. Together, these mechanisms provide a flash memory management system that can improve the operational efficiency of systems that utilize flash memory.

  3. Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  4. Non-volatile main memory management methods based on a file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    There are upcoming non-volatile (NV) memory technologies that provide byte addressability and high performance. PCM, MRAM, and STT-RAM are such examples. Such NV memory can be used as storage because of its data persistency without power supply while it can be used as main memory because of its high performance that matches up with DRAM. There are a number of researches that investigated its uses for main memory and storage. They were, however, conducted independently. This paper presents the methods that enables the integration of the main memory and file system management for NV memory. Such integration makes NV memory simultaneously utilized as both main memory and storage. The presented methods use a file system as their basis for the NV memory management. We implemented the proposed methods in the Linux kernel, and performed the evaluation on the QEMU system emulator. The evaluation results show that 1) the proposed methods can perform comparably to the existing DRAM memory allocator and significantly better than the page swapping, 2) their performance is affected by the internal data structures of a file system, and 3) the data structures appropriate for traditional hard disk drives do not always work effectively for byte addressable NV memory. We also performed the evaluation of the effects caused by the longer access latency of NV memory by cycle-accurate full-system simulation. The results show that the effect on page allocation cost is limited if the increase of latency is moderate.

  5. Using management inquiry to co-construct other memories about the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Willert, Søren

    2017-01-01

    on the acknowledgment that people in organizations have memories of the future. And it is argued that the prospective memories managers have of how an organizational dilemma will unfold in the nearby future shape their actions and co-construction of meaning in the present. In the article, we exemplify and explore how...... researchers and managers by using “unadjusted responses” and “social poetics” as ways of gesturing and responding can engage in management inquiry and enhance the future managers remember to make room for more desirable future memories to emerge that expand managers’ possible space for action in the present....

  6. A class Hierarchical, object-oriented approach to virtual memory management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincent F.; Campbell, Roy H.; Johnston, Gary M.

    1989-01-01

    The Choices family of operating systems exploits class hierarchies and object-oriented programming to facilitate the construction of customized operating systems for shared memory and networked multiprocessors. The software is being used in the Tapestry laboratory to study the performance of algorithms, mechanisms, and policies for parallel systems. Described here are the architectural design and class hierarchy of the Choices virtual memory management system. The software and hardware mechanisms and policies of a virtual memory system implement a memory hierarchy that exploits the trade-off between response times and storage capacities. In Choices, the notion of a memory hierarchy is captured by abstract classes. Concrete subclasses of those abstractions implement a virtual address space, segmentation, paging, physical memory management, secondary storage, and remote (that is, networked) storage. Captured in the notion of a memory hierarchy are classes that represent memory objects. These classes provide a storage mechanism that contains encapsulated data and have methods to read or write the memory object. Each of these classes provides specializations to represent the memory hierarchy.

  7. Reducing Interconnect Complexity for Efficient Path Metric Memory Management in Viterbi Decoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Ming-Der; Wang, Tai-Ping; Wu, Chien-Ming

    We present a systematic and efficient way of managing the path metric memory and simplifying its connection network to the add_compare_select unit (ACSU) for Viterbi decoder (VD) design. Using the derived equations for memory partition and add-compare-select (ACS) arrangement together with the extended in-place scheduling scheme proposed in this work, we can increase the memory bandwidth for conflict-free path metric accesses with hardwired interconnection between the path metric memory and ACSU. Compared with the existing work, the developed architecture possesses the following advantages: (1) Each partitioned memory bank can be treated as a local memory of a specific processing element, inside the ACSU, with hardwired interconnection, so that the interconnect complexity is reduced significantly. (2) The partitioned memory banks can be merged into only two pseudo-banks regardless of the number of adopted ACS processing elements. This not only greatly simplifies the design of address generation unit, but also makes smaller the physical size of required memory. (3) The implementation can be accomplished in a systematic way with regular and simple controlling circuitry. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed architecture and the benefit will be more apparent for convolutional codes with large memory order.

  8. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  9. Vulnerable GPU Memory Management: Towards Recovering Raw Data from GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to previous reports, information could be leaked from GPU memory; however, the security implications of such a threat were mostly over-looked, because only limited information could be indirectly extracted through side-channel attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for recovering raw data directly from the GPU memory residues of many popular applications such as Google Chrome and Adobe PDF reader. Our algorithm enables harvesting highly sensitive information including credit card numbers and email contents from GPU memory residues. Evaluation results also indicate that nearly all GPU-accelerated applications are vulnerable to such attacks, and adversaries can launch attacks without requiring any special privileges both on traditional multi-user operating systems, and emerging cloud computing scenarios.

  10. Profile and management of patients at a memory clinic | Kalula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing longevity and a growing older population are being accompanied by a higher prevalence of dementia and concomitant demand for care. In this connection, the University of Cape Town/Groote Schuur Hospital (UCT/ GSH) Memory Clinic provides a valuable service to patients, families and health professionals.

  11. Energy-aware Thread and Data Management in Heterogeneous Multi-core, Multi-memory Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chun-Yi [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-12-16

    By 2004, microprocessor design focused on multicore scaling—increasing the number of cores per die in each generation—as the primary strategy for improving performance. These multicore processors typically equip multiple memory subsystems to improve data throughput. In addition, these systems employ heterogeneous processors such as GPUs and heterogeneous memories like non-volatile memory to improve performance, capacity, and energy efficiency. With the increasing volume of hardware resources and system complexity caused by heterogeneity, future systems will require intelligent ways to manage hardware resources. Early research to improve performance and energy efficiency on heterogeneous, multi-core, multi-memory systems focused on tuning a single primitive or at best a few primitives in the systems. The key limitation of past efforts is their lack of a holistic approach to resource management that balances the tradeoff between performance and energy consumption. In addition, the shift from simple, homogeneous systems to these heterogeneous, multicore, multi-memory systems requires in-depth understanding of efficient resource management for scalable execution, including new models that capture the interchange between performance and energy, smarter resource management strategies, and novel low-level performance/energy tuning primitives and runtime systems. Tuning an application to control available resources efficiently has become a daunting challenge; managing resources in automation is still a dark art since the tradeoffs among programming, energy, and performance remain insufficiently understood. In this dissertation, I have developed theories, models, and resource management techniques to enable energy-efficient execution of parallel applications through thread and data management in these heterogeneous multi-core, multi-memory systems. I study the effect of dynamic concurrent throttling on the performance and energy of multi-core, non-uniform memory access

  12. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  13. Time manages interference in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy V; McKeown, Denis; Bunce, David

    2017-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that age-related declines in memory may reflect a failure in pattern separation, a process that is believed to reduce the encoding overlap between similar stimulus representations during memory encoding. Indeed, behavioural pattern separation may be indexed by a visual continuous recognition task in which items are presented in sequence and observers report for each whether it is novel, previously viewed (old), or whether it shares features with a previously viewed item (similar). In comparison to young adults, older adults show a decreased pattern separation when the number of items between "old" and "similar" items is increased. Yet the mechanisms of forgetting underpinning this type of recognition task are yet to be explored in a cognitively homogenous group, with careful control over the parameters of the task, including elapsing time (a critical variable in models of forgetting). By extending the inter-item intervals, number of intervening items and overall decay interval, we observed in a young adult sample (N = 35, M age  = 19.56 years) that the critical factor governing performance was inter-item interval. We argue that tasks using behavioural continuous recognition to index pattern separation in immediate memory will benefit from generous inter-item spacing, offering protection from inter-item interference.

  14. Teuchos C++ memory management classes, idioms, and related topics, the complete reference : a comprehensive strategy for safe and efficient memory management in C++ for high performance computing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth

    2010-05-01

    The ubiquitous use of raw pointers in higher-level code is the primary cause of all memory usage problems and memory leaks in C++ programs. This paper describes what might be considered a radical approach to the problem which is to encapsulate the use of all raw pointers and all raw calls to new and delete in higher-level C++ code. Instead, a set of cooperating template classes developed in the Trilinos package Teuchos are used to encapsulate every use of raw C++ pointers in every use case where it appears in high-level code. Included in the set of memory management classes is the typical reference-counted smart pointer class similar to boost::shared ptr (and therefore C++0x std::shared ptr). However, what is missing in boost and the new standard library are non-reference counted classes for remaining use cases where raw C++ pointers would need to be used. These classes have a debug build mode where nearly all programmer errors are caught and gracefully reported at runtime. The default optimized build mode strips all runtime checks and allows the code to perform as efficiently as raw C++ pointers with reasonable usage. Also included is a novel approach for dealing with the circular references problem that imparts little extra overhead and is almost completely invisible to most of the code (unlike the boost and therefore C++0x approach). Rather than being a radical approach, encapsulating all raw C++ pointers is simply the logical progression of a trend in the C++ development and standards community that started with std::auto ptr and is continued (but not finished) with std::shared ptr in C++0x. Using the Teuchos reference-counted memory management classes allows one to remove unnecessary constraints in the use of objects by removing arbitrary lifetime ordering constraints which are a type of unnecessary coupling [23]. The code one writes with these classes will be more likely to be correct on first writing, will be less likely to contain silent (but deadly) memory

  15. Memory management and compiler support for rapid recovery from failures in computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in the use of memory management and compiler technology to support rapid recovery from failures in computer systems. The techniques described include cache coherence protocols for user transparent checkpointing in multiprocessor systems, compiler-based checkpoint placement, compiler-based code modification for multiple instruction retry, and forward recovery in distributed systems utilizing optimistic execution.

  16. The Fritz Roethlisberger Memorial Award Goes to "Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.

    2012-01-01

    The Fritz J. Roethlisberger Memorial Award for the best article in the 2011 "Journal of Management Education" goes to Rae Andre for her article, Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses ("Journal of Management Education," Volume 35, Number 5, pp. 596-619). In keeping with Roethlisberger's legacy, this year's…

  17. Modified stretched exponential model of computer system resources management limitations-The case of cache memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzałka, Dominik; Dymora, Paweł; Mazurek, Mirosław

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present some preliminary results in the field of computer systems management with relation to Tsallis thermostatistics and the ubiquitous problem of hardware limited resources. In the case of systems with non-deterministic behaviour, management of their resources is a key point that guarantees theirs acceptable performance and proper working. This is very wide problem that stands for many challenges in financial, transport, water and food, health, etc. areas. We focus on computer systems with attention paid to cache memory and propose to use an analytical model that is able to connect non-extensive entropy formalism, long-range dependencies, management of system resources and queuing theory. Obtained analytical results are related to the practical experiment showing interesting and valuable results.

  18. LDRD final report : managing shared memory data distribution in hybrid HPC applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, Alexander M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke

    2010-09-01

    MPI is the dominant programming model for distributed memory parallel computers, and is often used as the intra-node programming model on multi-core compute nodes. However, application developers are increasingly turning to hybrid models that use threading within a node and MPI between nodes. In contrast to MPI, most current threaded models do not require application developers to deal explicitly with data locality. With increasing core counts and deeper NUMA hierarchies seen in the upcoming LANL/SNL 'Cielo' capability supercomputer, data distribution poses an upper boundary on intra-node scalability within threaded applications. Data locality therefore has to be identified at runtime using static memory allocation policies such as first-touch or next-touch, or specified by the application user at launch time. We evaluate several existing techniques for managing data distribution using micro-benchmarks on an AMD 'Magny-Cours' system with 24 cores among 4 NUMA domains and argue for the adoption of a dynamic runtime system implemented at the kernel level, employing a novel page table replication scheme to gather per-NUMA domain memory access traces.

  19. A flexible analog memory address list manager/controller for PHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Walker, J.W.; Britton, C.L.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager/controller has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 112 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector sub-systems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters -- the number of data samples per Level-1 trigger valid and the swnple spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including design simulations, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using programmable logic devices

  20. Memory effect driven emissions of persistent organic pollutants from industrial thermal processes, their implications and management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Jitendra; Majumdar, Deepanjan

    2013-04-15

    Memory effect is delayed emission of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Many of the POP compounds viz. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) get trapped in the particulate phase deposited in the flue transfer lines and air pollution control systems (equivalent to storage in the memory of a system) and released subsequently. Memory effect driven emission is a combination of real time emission and emission of stored compounds and so is not a true measure of actual real time emission. Memory effect is now realized to have existed for a long time but was not identified and understood until recently. Memory effect has several serious implications e.g. it wrongly depicts emission patterns of POPs; it makes compliance to stipulated emission standards difficult; it could lead to wrong calculations of emission factors and emission inventory estimates of a plant and leads to misinterpretation of efficacy of processes and air pollution control systems. Further, new PCDD/Fs may be formed in the trapped particulate phase via de novo synthesis and the new compounds may be emitted, thereby increasing total PCDD/F emissions, apart from altering the homologue pattern of PCDD/Fs in emissions. Memory effect could be minimized by judicious operational and management (O&M) procedures like optimizing combustion, minimizing unnecessary halts in operations, periodical cleaning of flue transfer lines, application of inhibitors etc. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Intervention to Maximize Medication Management by Caregivers of Persons with Memory Loss: Intervention Overview and Two-Month Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lingler, Jennifer H.; Arida, Janet; Houze, Martin; Kaufman, Robert; Knox, Melissa; Sereika, Susan M.; Tamres, Lisa; Erlen, Judith; Amspaugh, Carolyn; Tang, Fengyan; Happ, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Overseeing medication-taking is a critical aspect of dementia caregiving. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a tailored, problem-solving intervention designed to maximize medication management practices among caregivers of persons with memory loss. Eighty-three community-dwelling dyads (patient + informal caregiver) with a baseline average of 3 medication deficiencies participated. Home- and telephone-based sessions were delivered by nurse or social worker interventioni...

  2. Development scenarios for organizational memory information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Well-managed organizational memories have been emphasized in the recent management literature as important sources for business success. Organizational memory infonnation systems (OMIS) have been conceptualized as a framework for information technologies to support these organizational memories.

  3. Specification and development of the sharing memory data management module for a nuclear processes simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesforo R, D.

    2003-01-01

    Actually it is developed in the Engineering Faculty of UNAM a simulator of nuclear processes with research and teaching purposes. It consists of diverse modules, included the one that is described in the present work that is the shared memory module. It uses the IPC mechanisms of the UNIX System V operative system, and it was codified with C language. To model the diverse components of the simulator the RELAP code is used. The function of the module is to generate locations of shared memory for to deposit in these the necessary variables for the interaction among the diverse ones processes of the simulator. In its it will be able read and to write the information that generate the running of the simulation program, besides being able to interact with the internal variables of the code in execution time. The graphic unfolding (mimic, pictorials, tendency graphics, virtual instrumentation, etc.) they also obtain information of the shared memory. In turn, actions of the user in interactive unfolding, they modify the segments of shared memory, and the information is sent to the RELAP code to modify the simulation course. The program has two beginning modes: automatic and manual. In automatic mode taking an enter file of RELAP (indta) and it joins in shared memory, the control variables that in this appear. In manual mode the user joins, he reads and he writes the wanted control variables, whenever they exist in the enter file (indta). This is a dynamic mode of interacting with the simulator in a direct way and of even altering the values as when its don't exist in the board elements associated to the variables. (Author)

  4. An Intervention to Maximize Medication Management by Caregivers of Persons with Memory Loss: Intervention Overview and Two-Month Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingler, Jennifer H.; Arida, Janet; Houze, Martin; Kaufman, Robert; Knox, Melissa; Sereika, Susan M.; Tamres, Lisa; Erlen, Judith; Amspaugh, Carolyn; Tang, Fengyan; Happ, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Overseeing medication-taking is a critical aspect of dementia caregiving. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a tailored, problem-solving intervention designed to maximize medication management practices among caregivers of persons with memory loss. Eighty-three community-dwelling dyads (patient + informal caregiver) with a baseline average of 3 medication deficiencies participated. Home- and telephone-based sessions were delivered by nurse or social worker interventionists and addressed basic aspects of managing medications, plus tailored problem solving for specific challenges. The outcome of medication management practices was assessed using the Medication Management Instrument for Deficiencies in the Elderly (MedMaIDE) and an investigator-developed Medication Deficiency Checklist (MDC). Linear mixed modeling showed both the intervention and usual care groups had decreases in medication management problems as measured by the MedMaIDE (F=6.91, p<.01) and MDC (F=9.72, p<.01) at 2 months post-intervention. The phenomenon of reduced medication deficiencies in both groups suggests that when nurses or social workers merely raise awareness of the importance of medication adherence, there may be benefit. PMID:26804450

  5. Multi tenancy for cloud-based in-memory column databases workload management and data placement

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffner, Jan

    2014-01-01

    With the proliferation of Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) offerings, it is becoming increasingly important for individual SaaS providers to operate their services at a low cost. This book investigates SaaS from the perspective of the provider and shows how operational costs can be reduced by using ""multi tenancy,"" a technique for consolidating a large number of customers onto a small number of servers. Specifically, the book addresses multi tenancy on the database level, focusing on in-memory column databases, which are the backbone of many important new enterprise applications. For efficiently

  6. Information model for management and preservation of scientific digital memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Luana Farias; Sayao, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the data-oriented science (eScience), a considerable part of the results of research activities has been created in digital formats. This means that the memory of the scientific institutions involved in this new scientific paradigm may be at risk of being lost by rapid technological obsolescence, the known fragility of digital media and also by the fragmentation of information and knowledge scattered across multiples repositories. Thus, management of research data in a digital networked and distributed environment becomes an increasing challenge for the research world and the whole area of information: information science, librarianship, knowledge management, archival science and information technology; moreover, in the dynamic environment featuring eScience, there is a need for novel concepts of documents establishing a linkage between traditional documents - printed or digital - stored in repositories, with the data sets stored in data repositories. In this new research environment, an important issue is how to preserve these new complex documents so that they maintain their structure, meaning and authenticity and also its ability to be retrieved, accessed and reused through time and space. In this sense, this paper proposes an information model focused on the curation of scientific memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN/IEN). The model considers the traditional scientific documents (theses, articles, books, etc.) in digital formats and all other relevant data and information related to them, such as: scientific data, software, simulations, photos, videos, historical facts, news, etc., compounding an enhanced publication type oriented to the nuclear area. (author)

  7. Information model for management and preservation of scientific digital memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Luana Farias, E-mail: lsales@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sayao, Luis Fernando, E-mail: isayao@cnen.gov.br [Centro de Informacoes Nucleares (CIN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the context of the data-oriented science (eScience), a considerable part of the results of research activities has been created in digital formats. This means that the memory of the scientific institutions involved in this new scientific paradigm may be at risk of being lost by rapid technological obsolescence, the known fragility of digital media and also by the fragmentation of information and knowledge scattered across multiples repositories. Thus, management of research data in a digital networked and distributed environment becomes an increasing challenge for the research world and the whole area of information: information science, librarianship, knowledge management, archival science and information technology; moreover, in the dynamic environment featuring eScience, there is a need for novel concepts of documents establishing a linkage between traditional documents - printed or digital - stored in repositories, with the data sets stored in data repositories. In this new research environment, an important issue is how to preserve these new complex documents so that they maintain their structure, meaning and authenticity and also its ability to be retrieved, accessed and reused through time and space. In this sense, this paper proposes an information model focused on the curation of scientific memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN/IEN). The model considers the traditional scientific documents (theses, articles, books, etc.) in digital formats and all other relevant data and information related to them, such as: scientific data, software, simulations, photos, videos, historical facts, news, etc., compounding an enhanced publication type oriented to the nuclear area. (author)

  8. Providing Memory Management Abstraction for Self-Reconfigurable Video Processing Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Franz Ackermann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept for an SDRAM controller targeting video processing platforms with dynamically reconfigurable processing units (RPUs. A priority-arbitration algorithm provides the required QoS and supports high bit-rate data streaming of multiple clients. Conforming to common video data structures the controller organizes the memory in partitions, frames, lines, and pixels. The raised level of abstraction drastically reduces the complexity of clients' addressing logic. Its uniform interface structure facilitates instantiations in systems with various clients. In addition to SDRAM controllers for regular applications, special demands of reconfigurable platforms have to be satisfied. The aim of this work is to minimize the number of required bus macros leading to relaxed place and route constraints and reducing the number of critical design paths. A suitable interface protocol is presented, and fundamental implementation issues are outlined.

  9. Inefficiency of Data Storing in Physical Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruddin Malik Mohamad; Sapiee Haji Jamel; Mustafa Mat Deris

    2009-01-01

    Memory forensic is important in digital investigation. The forensic is based on the data stored in physical memory that involve memory management and processing time. However, the current forensic tools do not consider the efficiency in terms of storage management and the processing time. This paper shows the high redundancy of data found in the physical memory that cause inefficiency in processing time and memory management. The experiment is done using Borland C compile...

  10. Time-Predictable Virtual Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Virtual memory is an important feature of modern computer architectures. For hard real-time systems, memory protection is a particularly interesting feature of virtual memory. However, current memory management units are not designed for time-predictability and therefore cannot be used...... in such systems. This paper investigates the requirements on virtual memory from the perspective of hard real-time systems and presents the design of a time-predictable memory management unit. Our evaluation shows that the proposed design can be implemented efficiently. The design allows address translation...... and address range checking in constant time of two clock cycles on a cache miss. This constant time is in strong contrast to the possible cost of a miss in a translation look-aside buffer in traditional virtual memory organizations. Compared to a platform without a memory management unit, these two additional...

  11. Radioactive Waste Management and Constructing Memory for Future Generations. Proceedings of the International Conference and Debate, 15-17 September 2014, Verdun, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Jantine; Botez, Radu; Formentini, Marine

    2015-01-01

    The Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations initiative was launched by the Nuclear Energy Agency in 2011 to foster international reflection and progress towards this goal and to meet increasing demands by waste management specialists and other interested parties for viable and shared strategies. The RK and M initiative is now in its second phase, which is to last until 2017. Phase I culminated on 15-17 September 2014 with the organisation of an international conference and debate on 'Constructing Memory' held in Verdun, France. The conference was attended by approximately 200 participants from 17 countries and 3 international organisations. Participants included specialists from the radioactive waste management area and beyond, academics in the fields of archaeology, communications, cultural heritage, geography and history, as well as artists, archivists and representatives from local heritage societies and from communities that could host a radioactive waste repository. (authors)

  12. Thermal management of a multiple mini-channel heat sink by the integration of a thermal responsive shape memory material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maio, E.; Mastrullo, R.; Mauro, A.W.; Toto, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel application of a thermo-responsive shape memory polymer (SMP) is proposed to smart-control the forced flow of water in a multi mini-channel heat sink. In particular, it is reported that millimeter-sized cylinders made of SMP could be used to smartly obstruct the fluid flow by adapting the flow cross section to the heat load to be removed. By integrating the sensing, the control and the actuation functions within a unique, millimeter-sized device, these micro-valves, unlike the traditional actuators normally used for flow control, could be easily embedded into small heat sinks, with significant space and energy saving, useful, in particular, in systems where several miniaturized components have to be cooled concurrently, such as the modern mainframes or the concentrated photovoltaic solar cells. Two possible configurations for the SMP were considered in this study: an “open” configuration, without any obstruction of the water flow free and an “obstructed” configuration, with the millimeter-sized cylinder partially occupying the mini-channel. A numerical, steady state analysis was carried out with water in single-phase forced convection, to determine the effect of these two states on the internal fluid flow characteristics under different conditions of heat flux and pressure drop and to evaluate the overall thermal behavior of the smart-controlled multiple mini-channel heat sink in terms of ability to control the temperature of the system and to reduce the energy consumption. -- Highlights: • A novel application of a SMP material is investigated for the thermal management of a heat sink. • Numerical simulations to find the matching of the heat sink and material system after regulation were carried out. • The investigated system is able to control the heat sink temperature. • Further analysis for system stability are required

  13. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  14. Memory Palaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  15. Nucleoelectric plants technical memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Pereira, Alvaro de

    1991-01-01

    The work explains the basic norms that establish the guidelines to the Technical Memory elaboration of this electrical energy sector - the nucleoelectric plants. It guides the technicians who execute the Technical Memory of the plants, exposing the items that may compose the work: contents: introduction, planning, proposition, equipment and materials supply, construction, commissioning, commercial actions, budget, financing and costs; generalities: drawings and photographies, monetary references, terminology, system units, management, graphic guide project, responsible staff, a summarized technical card and illustrations

  16. Museology and heritage in contemporary cities: a thesis on city management from the perspective of culture and memory preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Fernandes Gonçalves da Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Essentialy considered a space to live, the contemporary cities are complexes territories where memory and heritage have no effective representative function. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the emergence of the 'cultural health', a new concept supported by the relationship between museology, heritage and citizenship. The research was based on fieldwork experience and on memory studies of adults and elderly people that live in urban areas, where they can observe the symbolic meaning of the monuments and similars objects within the museum cities and the cultural landscapes. The way that museums and monuments are inserted in civil society and their power to produce values and cultural codes make them part of the process to promote identities and citizenship. Also, this process can improve the cultural health, the self-esteem and the quality of social interaction. These elements are essential for the building of healthy cities.

  17. Sharing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Nielsen, Emil Byskov; Nielsen, Jonathan Bernstorff

    2018-01-01

    For people suffering from aphasia, everyday verbal and bodily interpersonal communication is challenging. To increase aphasics' ability to share memories, an assistive technology (the MemoryBook) was conceptualized based on explicit, observable and tacit knowledge gathered from the practices...

  18. Cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  19. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  20. Emerging memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  1. Facilitating the use of implicit memory and learning in the physical therapy management of individuals with Alzheimer disease: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura; Ford, Matthew P; Brown, Cynthia J; Peel, Claire; Triebel, Kristen L

    2014-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) is often complicated by impairments in explicit memory and learning. Rehabilitation strategies that facilitate the use of the preserved implicit memory system may be effective in treating patients with AD. The purpose of this case series is to describe the application of these strategies, including high-repetition practice, errorless learning (EL), and spaced retrieval, to the physical therapy management of individuals with moderate AD. Three women aged 89 to 95 years with moderate AD who resided in an assisted living facility participated in physical therapy to address their mobility limitations. Twelve physical therapy sessions were scheduled over a period of 4 weeks. Interventions were individually designed to address the mobility needs of each patient, and rehabilitation strategies based on implicit learning principles were integrated into the interventions. All patients participated in at least 10 of the 12 physical therapy sessions. Improvements in performance of objective measures of balance were observed in all patients, although only 1 patient's balance score exceeded the minimal detectable change. No significant clinical change was observed in any patients on the Timed Up and Go Test or self-selected gait speed. Principles of implicit learning were integrated into the interventions for these patients with moderate AD. However, the feasibility of applying the EL paradigm was limited. Further research on the effectiveness of EL, spaced retrieval, and other rehabilitation strategies that facilitate implicit learning of mobility skills in patients with AD is needed to promote optimal physical therapy outcomes in this patient population.

  2. Memory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  3. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  4. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  5. Declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  6. Measuring memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1988-01-01

    Three broad approaches to the measurement of memory functioning will be described. The first of these involves using memory as a general indicator of any dysfunction in the central nervous system. This approach will be illustrated using Sternberg's short-term memory scanning paradigm. Its strengths are that such tests are often very sensitive, but they are often very difficult to interpret both theoretically and in practical terms. A second approach is to use a range of tasks selected so as to tap different aspects of human memory. Such an approach is of considerably more theoretical interest, and is discussed in more detail by Eysenck (this volume). Its weaknesses are that theories of memory are still changing relatively quickly, and that mapping such results onto memory outside the laboratory is often complex. A third approach is to attempt a more direct measure of everyday memory. The use of questionnaires for this purpose will be critically discussed, and a new test of everyday memory will be described. This test, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, correlates well with observations of memory lapses in patients, and appears to offer a promising new line of development.

  7. Disputed Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The world wars, genocides and extremist ideologies of the 20th century are remembered very differently across Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, resulting sometimes in fierce memory disputes. This book investigates the complexity and contention of the layers of memory of the troubled 20th...... century in the region. Written by an international group of scholars from a diversity of disciplines, the chapters approach memory disputes in methodologically innovative ways, studying representations and negotiations of disputed pasts in different media, including monuments, museum exhibitions......, individual and political discourse and electronic social media. Analyzing memory disputes in various local, national and transnational contexts, the chapters demonstrate the political power and social impact of painful and disputed memories. The book brings new insights into current memory disputes...

  8. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  9. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    over time. Memory is bonded with story telling. Both in the way the designer tells a story through his design and in the way the user recognizes the story in his perception of design. Memory design first requires recognition and then cognition. AIM The purpose of my research is to investigate the use......Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds...

  10. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  11. Random Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Martos Forniés, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Desarrollo de una nueva versión del juego Memory para dispositivos móviles Android. Desenvolupament d'una nova versió del joc Memory per a dispositius mòbils Android. Bachelor thesis for the Computer Science program on Educational video games.

  12. Shared Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question of restit...... identifies what seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right; and it shows that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory.......This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question...... of restitution universalised the memory of the Holocaust and made it present. The 2004 enlargement brought the memory of Soviet Communism into the Union and made it a central task to construct a community of memory that includes both the memory of the Holocaust and of Soviet Communism. The analysis also...

  13. Memory Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  14. Episodic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  15. Collaging Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  16. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ...

  17. Accessing memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  18. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  19. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person with memory loss needs a lot of support. It helps to show the person familiar objects, music, or and photos or play familiar music. Write down when the person should take any medicine or do other ...

  20. Multiferroic Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritendu Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroism implies simultaneous presence of more than one ferroic characteristics such as coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. This phenomenon has led to the development of various kinds of materials and conceptions of many novel applications such as development of a memory device utilizing the multifunctionality of the multiferroic materials leading to a multistate memory device with electrical writing and nondestructive magnetic reading operations. Though, interdependence of electrical- and magnetic-order parameters makes it difficult to accomplish the above and thus rendering the device to only two switchable states, recent research has shown that such problems can be circumvented by novel device designs such as formation of tunnel junction or by use of exchange bias. In this paper, we review the operational aspects of multiferroic memories as well as the materials used for these applications along with the designs that hold promise for the future memory devices.

  1. Concrete Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the presence of Atlantikwall bunkers in amateur holiday snapshots and discusses the ambiguous role of the bunker site in visual cultural memory. Departing from my family’s private photo collection from twenty years of vacationing at the Danish West coast, the different mundane...... the bunkers’ changing visuality and the cultural topography they both actively transform and are being transformed by through juxtaposing different acts and objects of memory over time and in different visual articulations....

  2. Technical memory 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The technical memory 2007 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentine Republic, compiles the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, and presented in journals, technical reports, congress or meetings of these specialities by personnel of the mentioned institution during 2007. In this edition the documents are presented on: environmental protection; transport of radioactive materials; regulations; research reactors and nuclear power plants; biological radiation effects; therapeutic uses of ionizing radiation and radioprotection of patients; internal dosimetry; physical dosimetry; knowledge management; radioactive waste management [es

  3. Working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1992-01-31

    The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be divided into the following three subcomponents: (i) the central executive, which is assumed to be an attentional-controlling system, is important in skills such as chess playing and is particularly susceptible to the effects of Alzheimer's disease; and two slave systems, namely (ii) the visuospatial sketch pad, which manipulates visual images and (iii) the phonological loop, which stores and rehearses speech-based information and is necessary for the acquisition of both native and second-language vocabulary.

  4. Vial Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Vial Memory is the final part in the Collected trilogy. Following Still Life and Future Nature, the work marks a return to the medical archive and the body on display. The project is an art and science collaboration with the Mütter Museum and the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, U.S.A. Vial Memory explicitly invokes scientific process and human consciousness. On one level functioning as a form of memento mori with their intimations of mortality, yet the vivid spectacular of the images a...

  5. Inventing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    on the Internet facilitating the process of mourning for people who have lost loved ones (children, lovers, siblings, parents etc), websites like e.g. Letters to Heaven. In this paper we analyze the Danish mourning website, mindet.dk (mindet means memory). On this website participants perform their grief...... by designing online memory spaces for their loved one(s) displaying photographs, poetry, stories and expressions of grief and longing. They take part in expressions of empathy for others by lighting candles for other people's loved ones, they share their personal experiences in different chatrooms...

  6. Memory disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial

    2013-01-01

    Memory disorders are a frequent consequence of a variety of childhood neurological conditions. We will review the characteristics of memory disorders as a function of the main four memory systems: short-term memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, and procedural memory. For each system, we will identify the most typical cerebral and/or genetic correlates, and we will discuss the impact of impairment of each memory system on everyday life functioning. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takashima, A.; Bakker, I.; Schmid, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to make use of novel experiences and knowledge to guide our future behavior, we must keep large amounts of information accessible for retrieval. The memory system that stores this information needs to be flexible in order to rapidly incorporate incoming information, but also requires that

  8. Holographic memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Berg, R.H.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    A Two-dimensional holographic memory for archival storage is described. Assuming a coherent transfer function, an A4 page can be stored at high resolution in an area of 1 mm(2). Recently developed side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyesters are found to be suitable media for holographic s...

  9. Inventing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    describes the long term process through which instutions and interaction modes are being changed in culture and society due to the media's increasing influence. Mediatization defines and frames the way we experience and how we define ourselves and the roles we play in connection to this experience. Web 2...... on the Internet facilitating the process of mourning for people who have lost loved ones (children, lovers, siblings, parents etc), websites like e.g. Letters to Heaven. In this paper we analyze the Danish mourning website, mindet.dk (mindet means memory). On this website participants perform their grief...... by designing online memory spaces for their loved one(s) displaying photographs, poetry, stories and expressions of grief and longing. They take part in expressions of empathy for others by lighting candles for other people's loved ones, they share their personal experiences in different chatrooms...

  10. Memory Driven Feature-Based Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    memory , measures of similarity, and the question of how to manage remembering and recollecting on the basis of similarity [18]. There is a large body...is also influenced by the Dynamic Memory ideas of Schank [20], by the episodic memory ideas of Kolodner [21], and by the Case-based planning approach...AD-A264 697 WL-TR-93-4021 MEMORY DRIVEN FEATURE-BASED DESIGN DTIC Y.H. PAO AY 11993 F.L. MERAT G.M. RADACK CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY ELECTRICAL

  11. Using a Large-scale Neural Model of Cortical Object Processing to Investigate the Neural Substrate for Managing Multiple Items in Short-term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Ulloa, Antonio; Horwitz, Barry

    2017-11-01

    Many cognitive and computational models have been proposed to help understand working memory. In this article, we present a simulation study of cortical processing of visual objects during several working memory tasks using an extended version of a previously constructed large-scale neural model [Tagamets, M. A., & Horwitz, B. Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed match-to-sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 310-320, 1998]. The original model consisted of arrays of Wilson-Cowan type of neuronal populations representing primary and secondary visual cortices, inferotemporal (IT) cortex, and pFC. We added a module representing entorhinal cortex, which functions as a gating module. We successfully implemented multiple working memory tasks using the same model and produced neuronal patterns in visual cortex, IT cortex, and pFC that match experimental findings. These working memory tasks can include distractor stimuli or can require that multiple items be retained in mind during a delay period (Sternberg's task). Besides electrophysiology data and behavioral data, we also generated fMRI BOLD time series from our simulation. Our results support the involvement of IT cortex in working memory maintenance and suggest the cortical architecture underlying the neural mechanisms mediating particular working memory tasks. Furthermore, we noticed that, during simulations of memorizing a list of objects, the first and last items in the sequence were recalled best, which may implicate the neural mechanism behind this important psychological effect (i.e., the primacy and recency effect).

  12. Transactional Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tim; Rajwar, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The advent of multicore processors has renewed interest in the idea of incorporating transactions into the programming model used to write parallel programs.This approach, known as transactional memory, offers an alternative, and hopefully better, way to coordinate concurrent threads. The ACI(atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties of transactions provide a foundation to ensure that concurrent reads and writes of shared data do not produce inconsistent or incorrect results. At a higher level, a computation wrapped in a transaction executes atomically - either it completes successfullyand

  13. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  14. STRUKTUR DAN PROSES MEMORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bhinnety

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes structures and processes of human memory system according to the modal model. Sensory memory is described as the first system to store information from outside world. Short‐term memory, or now called working memory, represents a system characterized by limited ability in storing as well as retrieving information. Long‐term memory on the hand stores information larger in amount and longer than short‐term memory

  15. Electroconvulsive therapy and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R G; Wiens, A N

    1975-10-01

    Recent research on the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on memory is critically reviewed. Despite some inconsistent findings, unilateral nondominant ECT appears to affect verbal memory less than bilateral ECT. Adequate research on multiple monitored ECT is lacking. With few exceptions, the research methodologies for assessing memory have been inadequate. Many studies have confounded learning with retention, and only very recently has long term memory been adequately studied. Standardized assessment procedures for short term and long term memory are needed, in addition to more sophisticated assessment of memory processes, the duration of memory loss, and qualitative aspects of memories.

  16. Community-based memorials to September 11, 2001: environmental stewardship as memory work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates how people use trees, parks, gardens, and other natural resources as raw materials in and settings for memorials to September 11, 2001. In particular, we focus on 'found space living memorials', which we define as sites that are community-managed, re-appropriated from their prior use, often carved out of the public right-of-way, and...

  17. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, I.G.; Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity

  18. Optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  19. Memory, microprocessor, and ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    System Timing. ROM/PROM/EPROM. SRAM. Embedded Memory. Flash Memories. Dynamic Random Access Memory. Low-Power Memory Circuits. Timing and Signal Integrity Analysis. Microprocessor Design Verification. Microprocessor Layout Method. Architecture. ASIC Design. Logic Synthesis for Field Programmable Gate Array (EPGA) Technology. Testability Concepts and DFT. ATPG and BIST. CAD Tools for BIST/DFT and Delay Faults.

  20. Cognitive rehabilitation of episodic memory disorders: from theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Ptak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Memory disorders are among the most frequent and most debilitating cognitive impairments following acquired brain damage. Cognitive remediation strategies attempt to restore lost memory capacity, provide compensatory techniques or teach the use of external memory aids. Memory rehabilitation has strongly been influenced by memory theory, and the interaction between both has stimulated the development of techniques such as spaced retrieval, vanishing cues or errorless learning. These techniques partly rely on implicit memory and therefore enable even patients with dense amnesia to acquire new information. However, knowledge acquired in this way is often strongly domain-specific and inflexible. In addition, individual patients with amnesia respond differently to distinct interventions. The factors underlying these differences have not yet been identified. Behavioural management of memory failures therefore often relies on a careful description of environmental factors and measurement of associated behavioural disorders such as unawareness of memory failures. The current evidence suggests that patients with less severe disorders benefit from self-management techniques and mnemonics whereas rehabilitation of severely amnesic patients should focus on behaviour management, the transmission of domain-specific knowledge through implicit memory processes and the compensation for memory deficits with memory aids.

  1. [The general practitioner faced with memory problems in the aged patient in Luxembourg: a study of the management employed, the experience of the physicians and the perception of the specific treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondoin, C; Lévy, F; Tirmarche, D

    2012-01-01

    Memory impairments are common in elderly. General practitioners are in first line to detect and manage these troubles, for which many countries published recommendations. For Alzheimer disease there are currently four treatments, none of which is healing. Some countries limited the first prescription of those medicines to specialists whereas in Luxembourg, every practitioner is allowed to prescribe them, but has to ask health insurance first. Consequently, it is important that general practitioners know what to do. The aim of our paper is to study the management done by the general practitioners in Luxembourg, the way they feel about it and the way they see the specific medicines for Alzheimer disease. Therefore, we have sent a questionnaire to every general practitioner in Luxembourg. We found that 87% of the practitioners realize at least one cognitive impairment test. More than half of them check for depression and 22.6% also add an autonomy assessment scale, even though all these tests are done by the dependence insurance. The involvement of general practitioners in the diagnosis of dementia is important as more than half of them have a statistically adequate number of demented patients. About two third of the practitioners do systematically start a specific medicine for Alzheimer disease. The management of cognitive impairment is difficult for general practitioners of Luxembourg, particularly the disclosure of diagnosis and management of behavioural and psychological symptoms.

  2. Nanoscale memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO 2 . (topical review)

  3. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  4. Verbal memory and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Pauline M

    2015-11-01

    Midlife women frequently report memory problems during the menopausal transition. Recent studies validate those complaints by showing significant correlations between memory complaints and performance on validated memory tasks. Longitudinal studies demonstrate modest declines in verbal memory during the menopausal transition and a likely rebound during the postmenopausal stage. Clinical studies that examine changes in memory following hormonal withdrawal and add-back hormone therapy (HT) demonstrate that estradiol plays a critical role in memory. Although memory changes are frequently attributed to menopausal symptoms, studies show that the memory problems occur during the transition even after controlling for menopausal symptoms. It is well established that self-reported vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are unrelated to objective memory performance. However, emerging evidence suggests that objectively measured VMS significantly correlate with memory performance, brain activity during rest, and white matter hyperintensities. This evidence raises important questions about whether VMS and VMS treatments might affect memory during the menopausal transition. Unfortunately, there are no clinical trials to inform our understanding of how HT affects both memory and objectively measured VMS in women in whom HT is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe VMS. In clinical practice, it is helpful to normalize memory complaints, to note that evidence suggests that memory problems are temporary, and to counsel women with significant VMS that memory might improve with treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across generations. An International Project of the NEA/RWMC. Foundations and guiding principles for the preservation of records, knowledge and memory across generations: A focus on the post-closure phase of geological repositories. A Collective Statement of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across generations is needed to support lengthy and complex decision-making processes across long operational and post-operational lifetimes of radioactive waste repositories. It is a recognised management task that spans unprecedented time-horizons in which technical, scientific, societal and cultural information is interwoven. Experience indicates that RK and M need to be actively managed from the start of the waste management programmes. Several radioactive waste disposal programmes are now approaching implementation. The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) has created an international project addressing the preservation of RK and M across generations. This collective statement summarises the current understanding of the relevant needs and challenges to be faced. It underscores the willingness of the RWMC member organisations to work together and support national programmes to move forward in this area. Research and development underway on the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in engineered facilities or repositories located in deep geological formations has confirmed this form of disposal as the ultimate solution for the long-term protection of human beings and the environment, eliminating the need for human intervention and maintenance. While the intention is not to abandon repositories for geological disposal of radioactive waste, either before or after closure, as with many long-term projects, it is a question of minimising the risks of losing records, knowledge and memory (RK and M). The international community of radioactive waste professionals is leading advanced work in this important area. At the end of its first phase of RK and M work, the RWMC observed that the context has changed considerably since the 1980's, when RK and M preservation was thought to serve the sole function of deterring intrusion into a repository. The goal today is to preserve information for future

  6. Salam Memorial

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    by T.W.B. KIBBLE / Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London. Recollections of Abdus Salam at Imperial College I shall give a personal account of Professor Salam's life and work from the perspective of a colleague at Imperial College, concentrating particularly but not exclusively on the period leading up to the discovery of the electro-weak theory. If necessary I could perhaps give more detail, but only once I have given more thought to what ground I shall cover. by Sheldon Lee GLASHOW / Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. Memories of Abdus Salam. My interactions with Abdus Salam, weak as they have been, extended over five decades. I regret that we never once collaborated in print or by correspondence. I visited Abdus only twice in London and twice again in Trieste, and met him at the occasional conference or summer school. Our face-to-face encounters could be counted on one's fingers and toes, but we became the best of friends. Others will discuss Abdus as an inspiring teacher, as a great scientist,...

  7. True and intentionally fabricated memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, L.V.; Morrison, C.M.; Conway, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the experiment reported here was to investigate the processes underlying the construction of truthful and deliberately fabricated memories. Properties of memories created to be intentionally false - fabricated memories - were compared to properties of memories believed to be true - true memories. Participants recalled and then wrote or spoke true memories and fabricated memories of everyday events. It was found that true memories were reliably more vivid than fabricated memories an...

  8. Management

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    La globalisation des activités avec son lot de relocalisations, d’alliances stratégiques par-delà les frontières, défie les pratiques traditionnelles du management, nécessairement construites sur les systèmes nationaux. Cas pratiques à l’appui (dont Aventis, BASF, Novartis ou Siemens), les auteurs, tous deux professeurs de management international, détaillent en les analysant les nouveaux impératifs de management et d’organisation que doivent affronter les entreprises. Ils distinguent clairem...

  9. Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ughetto , Pascal

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Quand il s'agit de rendre compte du travail et de ses conditions, le management exerce autant un fort pouvoir de séduction que de répulsion. Le travail d'aujourd'hui est directement confronté à l'empire des dispositifs de gestion. Il importe de reconstituer les mondes sociaux du management - le top management, les directions spécialisées, les cadres de terrain - si l'on veut comprendre où et comment se jouent les marges de manoeuvre accordées à l'activité de travail ou...

  10. The effectiveness of collaborative care for people with memory problems in primary care: results of the CAREDEM case management modelling and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliffe, Steve; Waugh, Amy; Poole, Marie; Bamford, Claire; Brittain, Katie; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Fox, Chris; Katona, Cornelius; Livingston, Gill; Manthorpe, Jill; Steen, Nick; Stephens, Barbara; Hogan, Vanessa; Robinson, Louise

    2014-08-01

    People with dementia and their families need support in different forms, but currently services are often fragmented with variable quality of care. Case management offers a way of co-ordinating services along the care pathway and therefore could provide individualised support; however, evidence of the effectiveness of case management for dementia is inconclusive. To adapt the intervention used in a promising case management project in the USA and test its feasibility and acceptability in English general practice. In work package 1, a design group of varied professionals, with a carer and staff from the voluntary sector, met six times over a year to identify the skills and personal characteristics required for case management; protocols from the US study were adapted for use in the UK. The feasibility of recruiting general practices and patient-carer dyads and of delivering case management were tested in a pilot study (work package 2). An embedded qualitative study explored stakeholder views on study procedures and case management. Four general practices, two in the north-east of England (Newcastle) one in London and one in Norfolk, took part in a feasibility pilot study of case management. Community-dwelling people with dementia and their carers who were not already being case managed by other services. A social worker shared by the two practices in the north-east and practice nurses in the other two practices were trained to deliver case management. We aimed to recruit 11 people with dementia from each practice who were not already being case managed. Numbers of people with dementia and their carers recruited, numbers and content of contacts, needs identified and perceptions of case management among stakeholders. Recruitment of practices and patients was slow and none of the practices achieved its recruitment target. It took more than 6 months to recruit a total of 28 people with dementia. Practice Quality and Outcome Framework registers for dementia contained

  11. Organizational memory: from expectations memory to procedural memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational memory is not just the stock of knowledge about how to do things, but also of expectations of organizational members vis-à-vis each other and the organization as a whole. The central argument of this paper is that this second type of organizational memory -organizational expectations

  12. Stochastic memory: getting memory out of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2011-03-01

    Memory circuit elements, namely memristors, memcapacitors and meminductors, can store information without the need of a power source. These systems are generally defined in terms of deterministic equations of motion for the state variables that are responsible for memory. However, in real systems noise sources can never be eliminated completely. One would then expect noise to be detrimental for memory. Here, we show that under specific conditions on the noise intensity memory can actually be enhanced. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of a memristor in which the addition of white noise into the state variable equation improves the memory and helps the operation of the system. We discuss under which conditions this effect can be realized experimentally, discuss its implications on existing memory systems discussed in the literature, and also analyze the effects of colored noise. Work supported in part by NSF.

  13. Exploring history and memory through autobiographical memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor Goodson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the role of autobiographical memory as a site of narrative construction. Far from being a place of liberal retrospective recall it is a site of active recapitulation and reconstruction. The article provides examples of how history and memory are intermingled. It also draws in the author’s autobiographical vignettes to explore the underpinning desires for historical reconstruction in autobiographical memory work

  14. Detailed Sensory Memory, Sloppy Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sligte, Ilja G.; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R. E.; Scholte, H. Steven; Lamme, Victor A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a...

  15. DYNAMIC MEMORY ALLOCATION – CLR PROFILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, information systems are an important component in the development of many activities, due to their ability of managing a large amount of data and performing complex operations in a very short time. In this regard, very important is the correct management of all available resources, especially memory management. Haven’t happened to test an application, but it runs out of memory? This paper is trying to explain some of the situations causing those problems and also is trying to find some solutions for fixing them. Concluding, the purpose of this paper is to emphasize on one hand the importance of using a memory profiler in the development of your applications and on the other hand, the advantages brought by CLR Profiler on your .NET applications.

  16. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  17. Music, memory and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  18. Generation and Context Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  19. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  20. Music, memory and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  1. Attending to auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  3. Feelings without memory in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Feinstein, Justin S; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) typically have impaired declarative memory as a result of hippocampal damage early in the disease. Far less is understood about AD's effect on emotion. We investigated whether feelings of emotion can persist in patients with AD, even after their declarative memory for what caused the feelings has faded. A sample of 17 patients with probable AD and 17 healthy comparison participants (case-matched for age, sex, and education) underwent 2 separate emotion induction procedures in which they watched film clips intended to induce feelings of sadness or happiness. We collected real-time emotion ratings at baseline and at 3 post-induction time points, and we administered a test of declarative memory shortly after each induction. As expected, the patients with AD had severely impaired declarative memory for both the sad and happy films. Despite their memory impairment, the patients continued to report elevated levels of sadness and happiness that persisted well beyond their memory for the films. This outcome was especially prominent after the sadness induction, with sustained elevations in sadness lasting for more than 30 minutes, even in patients with no conscious recollection for the films. These findings indicate that patients with AD can experience prolonged states of emotion that persist well beyond the patients' memory for the events that originally caused the emotion. The preserved emotional life evident in patients with AD has important implications for their management and care, and highlights the need for caretakers to foster positive emotional experiences.

  4. Management

    OpenAIRE

    Daft, Richard L.; Kendrick, Martyn; Vershinina, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    The market-leading textbook for principles of management courses reaches a new level with Richard L. Daft being joined by Martyn Kendrick and Natalia Vershinina (both Leicester Business School) to provide an unparalleled resource for students in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA). After listening to the requirements of lecturers, the authors have maintained the same comprehensive coverage and structure of the original work but carefully threaded in new EMEA and wider global examples an...

  5. Quantum random access memory

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially l...

  6. Pervasive Theory of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenbaev, Ulan; Paul, Wolfgang J.; Schirmer, Norbert

    For many aspects of memory theoretical treatment already exists, in particular for: simple cache construction, store buffers and store buffer forwarding, cache coherence protocols, out of order access to memory, segmentation and paging, shared memory data structures (e.g. for locks) as well as for memory models of multi-threaded programming languages. It turns out that we have to unite all of these theories into a single theory if we wish to understand why parallel C compiled by an optimizing compiler runs correctly on a contemporary multi core processor. This pervasive theory of memory is outlined here.

  7. ECT and memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R

    1977-09-01

    The author reviews several studies that clarify the nature of the memory loss associated with ECT. Bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT and more extensive retrograde amnesia than unilateral ECT. Reactivating memories just before ECT did not produce amnesia. Capacity for new learning recovered substantially by several months after ECT, but memory complaints were common in individuals who had received bilateral ECT. Other things being equal, right unilateral ECT seems preferable to bilateral ECT because the risks to memory associated with unilateral ECT are smaller.

  8. A multiplexed quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, S-Y; Radnaev, A G; Collins, O A; Matsukevich, D N; Kennedy, T A; Kuzmich, A

    2009-08-03

    A quantum repeater is a system for long-distance quantum communication that employs quantum memory elements to mitigate optical fiber transmission losses. The multiplexed quantum memory (O. A. Collins, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060502 (2007)) has been shown theoretically to reduce quantum memory time requirements. We present an initial implementation of a multiplexed quantum memory element in a cold rubidium gas. We show that it is possible to create atomic excitations in arbitrary memory element pairs and demonstrate the violation of Bell's inequality for light fields generated during the write and read processes.

  9. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja G Sligte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual short-term memory (VSTM enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the pre-change object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the pre-change object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88 percent of the iconic memory trials, on 71 percent of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53 percent of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory.

  10. Memory dynamics under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.

  11. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  12. Tracing Cultural Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    to Soweto’s Regina Mundi Church, this thesis analyses tourists’ snapshots at sites of memory and outlines their tracing activity in cultural memory. It draws on central concepts of actor - network theory and visual culture studies for a cross - disciplinary methodology to comprehend the collective...... of memory. They highlight the role of mundane uses of the past and indicate the need for cross - disciplinary research on the visual and on memory......We encounter, relate to and make use of our past and that of others in multifarious and increasingly mobile ways. Tourism is one of the main paths for encountering sites of memory. This thesis examines tourists’ creative appropriations of sites of memory – the objects and future memories inspired...

  13. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  14. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  15. Memory for speech and speech for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J L; Kutz, K J

    1975-03-01

    Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation, received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. Although both groups had nearly perfect perception of the experimenter's productions of /w/ and /r/, misarticulating subjects perceived their own tape-recorded w/r productions as /w/. In the memory task these same misarticulating subjects committed significantly more /w/-/r/ confusions in unspoken recall. The discussion considers why people subvocally rehearse; a developmental period in which children do not rehearse; ways subvocalization may aid recall, including motor and acoustic encoding; an echoic store that provides additional recall support if subjects rehearse vocally, and perception of self- and other- produced phonemes by misarticulating children-including its relevance to a motor theory of perception. Evidence is presented that speech for memory can be sufficiently impaired to cause memory disorder. Conceptions that restrict speech disorder to an impairment of communication are challenged.

  16. The contributions of handedness and working memory to episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aparna; Christman, Stephen D; Propper, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    Past studies have independently shown associations of working memory and degree of handedness with episodic memory retrieval. The current study takes a step ahead by examining whether handedness and working memory independently predict episodic memory. In agreement with past studies, there was an inconsistent-handed advantage for episodic memory; however, this advantage was absent for working memory tasks. Furthermore, regression analyses showed handedness, and complex working memory predicted episodic memory performance at different times. Results are discussed in light of theories of episodic memory and hemispheric interaction.

  17. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  18. Managing terminal restlessness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    compounded by the memory of unre- lieved suffering. ... progressive impairment of memory, judge- ment and thinking. ... of palliative sedation for refractory symp- toms in dying patients. Managing terminal restlessness. Terminal restlessness presents many challenges, not least recognition of the problem and its. c a u s e s .

  19. Memories and traces. From Jewish exilists' authoritarian personality research via Cloninger's psychobiology of personality traits to a neurobiological approach to conflict management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    Research on personality as a useful construct to understand people's behavior in conflict situations was traced over more than fifty years, and an attempt was made to add neurobiological parameters to psycho-socio-cultural approaches. As a starting point, scientists in exile have been called to mind who had been expelled from Nazi Germany for their Jewish origins. Among them were Adorno and Frenkel-Brunswik whose extensive studies on the authoritarian personality structure were quoted. In their work, personality was defined as a more or less enduring organisation of forces within the individual helping to determine responses in various situations, which is responsible for consistency in behavior. As a next step, Cloninger's psychobiology of personality traits was presented. In his personality concept, four temperamental traits (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependency and persistence) and three character dimensions are included. Temperamental traits are heritable, developmentally stable, emotionally based, uninfluenced by social learning, and linked to specific brain biological features. The temperaments have a certain neuroendocrinological feature which can be determined. Character dimensions develop in a stagelike process from infancy to adulthood and are influenced by temperament, social learning, genetic factors, and random life events. Personality is still considered a useful theoretical approach to conflict management research and practice. A neurobiological point of view seems to be a useful supplementation in addition to traditional psycho-socio-cultural approaches. Measuring biological compounds can supply the conflict manager with an additional tool of knowledge enhancing the ability to understand and anticipate conflict behavior.

  20. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  1. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lucy V; Morrison, Catriona M; Conway, Martin A

    2018-02-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation times; however, IFAMs always took longer to construct than AMs. Finally, replicating previous findings, fewer IFAMs had a field perspective than AMs, IFAMs were less vivid than AMs, and IFAMs contained more motion words (indicative of increased cognitive load). Taken together, these findings show a pattern of systematic differences that mark out IFAMs, and they also show that IFAMs can be identified indirectly by lowered performance on concurrent tasks that increase cognitive load.

  2. What memory is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley B

    2015-01-01

    I argue that our current practice of ascribing the term 'memory' to mental states and processes lacks epistemic warrant. Memory, according to the 'received view', is any state or process that results from the sequential stages of encoding, storage, and retrieval. By these criteria, memory, or its footprint, can be seen in virtually every mental state we are capable of having. This, I argue, stretches the term to the breaking point. I draw on phenomenological, historical, and conceptual considerations to make the case that an act of memory entails a direct, non-inferential feeling of reacquaintance with one's past. It does so by linking content retrieved from storage with autonoetic awareness during retrieval. On this view, memory is not the content of experience, but the manner in which that content is experienced. I discuss some theoretical and practical implications and advantages of adopting this more circumscribed view of memory. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Living Design Memory: Framework, Implementation, Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terveen, Loren G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses large-scale software development and describes the development of the Designer Assistant to improve software development effectiveness. Highlights include the knowledge management problem; related work, including artificial intelligence and expert systems, software process modeling research, and other approaches to organizational memory;…

  4. Preserve the memory of storage centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Many centuries are sufficient for the short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes to reach a radioactivity level offering no danger for the human health. This document presents the management of the storage Center memory and the different applied technologies. (A.L.B.)

  5. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Sarp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Self and mind are constituted with the cumulative effects of significant life events. This description is regarded as a given explicitly or implicitly in vari-ous theories of personality. Such an acknowledgment inevitably brings together these theories on two basic concepts. The first one is the emotions that give meaning to experiences and the second one is the memory which is related to the storage of these experiences. The part of the memory which is responsible for the storage and retrieval of life events is the autobiographical memory. Besides the development of personality, emotions and autobiographical memory are important in the development of and maintenance of psychopathology. Therefore, these two concepts have both longitudinal and cross-sectional functions in understanding human beings. In case of psychopathology, understanding emotions and autobiographical memory developmentally, aids in understanding the internal susceptibility factors. In addition, understanding how these two structures work and influence each other in an acute event would help to understand the etiological mechanisms of mental disorders. In the literature, theories that include both of these structures and that have clinical implications, are inconclusive. Theories on memory generally focus on cognitive and semantic structures while neglecting emotions, whereas theories on emotions generally neglect memory and its organization. There are only a few theories that cover both of these two concepts. In the present article, these theories that include both emotions and autobiographical memory in the same framework (i.e. Self Memory System, Associative Network Theory, Structural and Contextual theories and Affect Regulation Theory were discussed to see the full picture. Taken together, these theories seem to have the potential to suggest data-driven models in understanding and explaining symptoms such as flashbacks, dissociation, amnesia, over general memory seen in

  6. Coding for flash memories

    OpenAIRE

    Yaakobi, Eitan

    2011-01-01

    Flash memories are, by far, the most important type of non -volatile memory in use today. They are employed widely in mobile, embedded, and mass-storage applications, and the growth in this sector continues at a staggering pace. Moreover, since flash memories do not suffer from the mechanical limitations of magnetic disk drives, solid- state drives have the potential to upstage the magnetic recording industry in the foreseeable future. The research goal of this dissertation is the discovery o...

  7. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    J?ncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  8. The relationship among unawareness of memory impairment, depression, and dementia in older adults with memory impairment in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianlin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Shafie, Saleha B; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Shahwan, Shazana; Magadi, Harish; Ng, Li Ling; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has studied the relationships among unawareness of memory impairment, depression, and dementia in older adults with severe dementia, but it has not considered the associations and clinical implications at earlier stages of memory impairment. This study therefore sought to examine the relationship among unawareness of memory impairment, depression, and dementia in older adults with memory impairment in Singapore. The participants were 751 older adults with memory impairment in Singapore. They were assessed for objective and subjective memory loss, depression, and dementia severity. Participants' subjective memory loss was determined based on a self-appraisal question on memory, and their objective memory loss was calculated based on their performance on three cognitive tasks. Unawareness was assessed based on the contrast between subjective and objective memory loss. Descriptive statistics revealed a high prevalence of unawareness (80.4%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that gender and marital status were significantly associated with unawareness. Men (odds ratio (OR) = 2.5) and those who were divorced or separated (OR = 23.0) were more likely to be unaware than women and those who were married, respectively. After chronic conditions and demographic characteristics were controlled for, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that older adults with depression were less likely (OR = 0.2) to be unaware than those without depression. Unawareness was also related with dementia severity; older adults with questionable (OR = 0.3) and mild dementia (OR = 0.4) were less likely to be unaware than someone without dementia. Unawareness of memory impairment was common among older adults with memory impairment. However, unawareness may be the result of denial as a strategy for coping with memory loss of which the older adult is aware. Psychological care should be integrated into the overall treatment management of dementia to

  9. Models of Working Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Akira

    1997-01-01

    .... Understanding the mechanisms and structures underlying working memory is, hence, one of the most important scientific issues that need to be addressed to improve the efficiency and performance...

  10. Phase change memory

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Moinuddin K

    2011-01-01

    As conventional memory technologies such as DRAM and Flash run into scaling challenges, architects and system designers are forced to look at alternative technologies for building future computer systems. This synthesis lecture begins by listing the requirements for a next generation memory technology and briefly surveys the landscape of novel non-volatile memories. Among these, Phase Change Memory (PCM) is emerging as a leading contender, and the authors discuss the material, device, and circuit advances underlying this exciting technology. The lecture then describes architectural solutions t

  11. [Sleep, memory, and learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallinen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between sleep and memory and learning has proved multifilament. Besides supporting cognitive functions needed to encode, storage and retrieve materials while awake, sleep is a state during which some of the memory traces are reactivated and consolidated. Also, sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea and insufficient sleep in children and adolescents are accompanied with impairments of memory and learning as well as work and school performance. There are treatments for these disorders such as congnitive-behavioural therapy and continuous positive airway pressure, which, at least to some extent, mitigate cognitive impairments and consequently support memory and learning.

  12. Literary exercise on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tununa Mercado Baigorria

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present text unfolds images and ideas about memory. It is always composed by fragments. The article mentions forms of memory, going from the involuntary specific souvenirs to the link between memory and dreams. Additionally, memory is related to the power against oblivion and resistance. The voice of enunciation collects acts that preserved histories in the most unexpected places. Specific and collective cases of exile are mentioned and it is presented as a material of literature. It is connected with language and writing.

  13. Memories Persist in Silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Arenas Grisales

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the hypothesis that memory artifacts, created to commemorate the victims of armed conflict in Colombia, are an expression of the underground memories and a way of political action in the midst of war. We analyze three cases of creations of memory artifacts in Medellín, Colombia, as forms of suffering, perceiving and resisting the power of armed groups in Medellín. The silence, inherent in these objects, should not be treated as an absence of language, but as another form of expression of memory. Silence is a tactic used to overcome losses and reset everyday life in contexts of protracted violence.

  14. The future of memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  15. Memories united in diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    During the 1990s the memory of the Holocaust became the negative core event (Diner 2003) for the European Union (EU). The Holocaust has turned into a symbol of a diseased past for which the EU is the cure. However, since the eastward enlargement of the EU the memory of the Holocaust has been...... challenged by the memory of Soviet Communism. Thus, when the EU-members from the former Eastern Bloc entered the EU they brought with them their memory of another diseased past. A past for which the Western members of the EU seems to have little understanding....

  16. Memories in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomi Brea, A; Mizraji, E

    1999-06-01

    Context-dependent associative memories are models that allow the retrieval of different vectorial responses given a same vectorial stimulus, depending on the context presented to the memory. The contextualization is obtained by doing the Kronecker product between two vectorial entries to the associative memory: the key stimulus and the context. These memories are able to display a wide variety of behaviors that range from all the basic operations of the logical calculus (including fuzzy logics) to the selective extraction of features from complex vectorial patterns. In the present contribution, we show that a context-dependent memory matrix stores a large amount of possible virtual associative memories, that awaken in the presence of a context. We show how the vectorial context allows a memory matrix to be representable in terms of its singular-value decomposition. We describe a neural interpretation of the model in which the Kronecker product is performed on the same neurons that sustain the memory. We explored, with numerical experiments, the reliability of chains of contextualized associations. In some cases, random disconnection produces the emergence of oscillatory behaviors of the system. Our results show that associative chains retain their performances for relatively large dimensions. Finally, we analyze the properties of some modules of context-dependent autoassociative memories inserted in recursive nets: the perceptual autoorganization in the presence of ambiguous inputs (e.g. the disambiguation of the Necker's cube figure), the construction of intersection filters, and the feature extraction capabilities.

  17. Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and ne...

  18. Special Memories at INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistillo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    INIS: a worldwide hub where nuclear information is preserved, validated, and made universally available. Within this special edition of the Newsletter, celebrating the 45th birthday of INIS, you will probably read this definition, and many more, of the International Nuclear Information System. However, INIS has some special aspects, not immediately visible to those who interact with the System and the INIS Secretariat, which make it unique in the scientific environment. In this article, I will try to share my experience with INIS and the memories that have stayed with me, even after my departure. I joined INIS in 2006 as an IT Systems Engineer. I must say that I found a very complex IT infrastructure with over 20 servers and several software applications which, given the small size of the INIS Unit, clearly reflected the multitude of activities INIS was (and still is) involved in. From the start, I felt that INIS was perceived in a different way by other people involved with Information Technology. In fact, since its birth in 1970, INIS has proven to be extremely innovative and open to embracing new technologies, compared with other parts of the Agency. For example, Livelink was proposed and installed for the first time by the INIS Unit before becoming the IAEA standard tool for enterprise document management, and presently, is uniquely and sharply customized to fulfill INIS’ critical weekly task of processing thousands of bibliographic and full text records

  19. Minimizing the Disruptive Effects of Prospective Memory in Simulated Air Traffic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Remington, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating pro...

  20. Metabolic memory: Evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2018-03-01

    HbA1c at the time of diagnosis simply reflect a brief period of glycemic exposure, so that it would not be expected to be of consequence? The ratio of undiagnosed to diagnosed diabetes in National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) carried out from 1999 to 2010, and from 2011 to 2012, is roughly 1: 2, suggesting that at the time of initial diagnosis diabetes often may be present for a substantial period, implying that prediagnosis exposure to elevated glucose levels has a bearing on subsequent outcome. Bianchi and del Prato suggest an interesting interpretation of "bad glycemic legacy" based on the Veterans Administration Diabetes Trial (VADT). In that study, 1791 military veterans with a mean diabetes duration of 11.5 years and poor diabetes control, with baseline HbA1c 9.4%, and assigned to intensive or standard treatment arms showed no overall differences in macrovascular or microvascular endpoints after a median follow-up of 5.6 years. Perhaps, then, uncontrolled glycemia of long duration may not be offset by subsequent intensive control, but intensive treatment from the time of diagnosis, even with "bad glycemic legacy" (but of short duration), will be effective in decreasing risk of later complications. Does the retrospective study by Pantalone et al. hint at a different aspect of metabolic memory, namely that poor control of glycemia at baseline does not affect the development of complications later if it is effectively managed subsequently? That effects of initial hyperglycemia could be dispelled with excellent glycemic control? Such an interpretation gives cause for optimism and can be used in empowering people developing diabetes to participate in their care. Analysis of more datasets with serial measures of HbA1c may allow us to further understand these relationships, and certainly the underlying molecular mechanisms of metabolic memory deserve further investigation. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley

  1. Memories of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  2. The memory of volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai R. Wenger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the volatility literature on forecasting and the predominance of theconceptually simpler HAR model over long memory stochastic volatility models has led to the factthat the actual degree of memory estimates has rarely been considered. Estimates in the literaturerange roughly between 0.4 and 0.6 - that is from the higher stationary to the lower non-stationaryregion. This difference, however, has important practical implications - such as the existence or nonexistenceof the fourth moment of the return distribution. Inference on the memory order is complicatedby the presence of measurement error in realized volatility and the potential of spurious long memory.In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the memory in variances of international stockindices and exchange rates. On the one hand, we find that the variance of exchange rates is subject tospurious long memory and the true memory parameter is in the higher stationary range. Stock indexvariances, on the other hand, are free of low frequency contaminations and the memory is in the lowernon-stationary range. These results are obtained using state of the art local Whittle methods that allowconsistent estimation in presence of perturbations or low frequency contaminations.

  3. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  4. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  5. Memory and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Niglio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "memory" has different meanings when analyzed within specific cultural contexts. In general, the memory expresses the ability of man to keep track of events, information, sensations, ideas, experiences, and recall this consciousness as soon as certain motivations make necessary the contribution of past experience.

  6. Memory as a Life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 7. Memory as a Life - Walking down Memory Lanes. S Krishnaswamy. Book Review Volume 1 Issue 7 July 1996 pp 79-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/07/0079-0081 ...

  7. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  8. When Forgetting Preserves Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut

    2013-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in defining the circumstances leading to memory modifications. Studies have shown that reactivating a supposedly stable memory re-introduces a time-limited window of plasticity during which presentation of interfering material can cause long-term memory changes. The present study asks whether such memory changes can be prevented if people are instructed to forget the memory before the new material is encoded. Participants learned a set of objects. After 48 h, they were reminded of this learning episode, and learned another set of objects. Again 48 h later, they recalled the first (Exp. 1) or second set (Exp. 3). As shown previously, a reminder caused intrusions from the second set into recall of the first set. Here I show that the instruction to forget the first set significantly diminished intrusions from the second set, especially when the instruction was given before the new set was encoded in the second session. Experiment 2 suggests that the reduced intrusions were due to list segregation/isolation, rather than temporarily inhibited access to Set 1. Taken together, the study shows that the attempt to forget a memory can immunize it such that the presentation of interfering material has limited effects, and the memory can be recalled unchanged in the future. This is important when veridical memory is essential, such as in eyewitness testimonies. PMID:23382724

  9. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

  10. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  11. Maurice Halbwachs: Official and hidden memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero, Angel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show, in general terms, how Maurice Halbwachs has discovered presence and vitality in the collective memorieswhich have been excluded from the socially-institutionalized world. In order to decipher his opaque writing, one should try for a sociology of the depths, for a sociological look that, separating itself from the dominant positivism of the social sciences, manages to penetrate the hidden logic that permanently underlies social life. This article seeks to uncover the nature of a collective memory that respects the vicissitudes of time, as well as its difficult relations both with official memory and with the dominant historical record.

  12. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  13. Making memories matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Gold

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem.

  14. Time for memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    This article is a continuous dialogue on memory triggered by Brockmeier’s (2010) article. I drift away from the conventionalization of the archive as a spatial metaphor for memory in order to consider the greater possibility of “time” for conceptualizing memory. The concept of time is central...... to understanding the nature of human experience as a process in which a constant flux of change in organism, cultural and social practices is observed. Two categories of time have been explored, firstly the Aristotelian, physical time for an experimental paradigm, and secondly, the way in which we experience time...... in terms of autobiographical memory. The second category of time is discussed, drawing on Augustine and Bergson amongst others. Bergson’s notion of duration has been considered as a promising concept for a better understanding of autobiographical memory. Psychological phenomena such as autobiographical...

  15. Optical quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvovsky, Alexander I.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Quantum memory is essential for the development of many devices in quantum information processing, including a synchronization tool that matches various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a mechanism to convert heralded photons to on-demand photons. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory will be instrumental for implementing long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied, such as optical delay lines, cavities and electromagnetically induced transparency, as well as schemes that rely on photon echoes and the off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here, we report on state-of-the-art developments in the field of optical quantum memory, establish criteria for successful quantum memory and detail current performance levels.

  16. Nobiletin improves emotional and novelty recognition memory but not spatial referential memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyun; Shin, Jung-Won; Kim, Yoo-Rim; Swanberg, Kelley M; Kim, Yooseung; Bae, Jae Ryong; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Jinwon; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Sohn, Nak-Won; Maeng, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    How to maintain and enhance cognitive functions for both aged and young populations is a highly interesting subject. But candidate memory-enhancing reagents are tested almost exclusively on lesioned or aged animals. Also, there is insufficient information on the type of memory these reagents can improve. Working memory, located in the prefrontal cortex, manages short-term sensory information, but, by gaining significant relevance, this information is converted to long-term memory by hippocampal formation and/or amygdala, followed by tagging with space-time or emotional cues, respectively. Nobiletin is a product of citrus peel known for cognitive-enhancing effects in various pharmacological and neurodegenerative disease models, yet, it is not well studied in non-lesioned animals and the type of memory that nobiletin can improve remains unclear. In this study, 8-week-old male mice were tested using behavioral measurements for working, spatial referential, emotional and visual recognition memory after daily administration of nobiletin. While nobiletin did not induce any change of spontaneous activity in the open field test, freezing by fear conditioning and novel object recognition increased. However, the effectiveness of spatial navigation in the Y-maze and Morris water maze was not improved. These results mean that nobiletin can specifically improve memories of emotionally salient information associated with fear and novelty, but not of spatial information without emotional saliency. Accordingly, the use of nobiletin on normal subjects as a memory enhancer would be more effective on emotional types but may have limited value for the improvement of episodic memories.

  17. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  18. Memory, collective memory, orality and the gospels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... reframe the antagonism between individualist and collectivist approaches to memory more productively as a matter of moments in a dynamic process. This, to me, is the real message of Halbwachs' diverse insights. (Olick 2006:8b). In summary, Halbwachs' legacy is found in a number of different fields and ...

  19. Aging memories: differential decay of episodic memory components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Lucia M; Gorree, Eva

    2012-05-17

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a preferential loss of hippocampus-dependent, configurational information over more cortically based memory components, including memory for individual objects. The current study systematically tests this hypothesis, using a new paradigm that allows the contemporaneous assessment of memory for objects, object pairings, and object-position conjunctions. Retention of each memory component was tested, at multiple intervals, up to 3 mo following encoding. The three memory subtasks adopted the same retrieval paradigm and were matched for initial difficulty. Results show differential decay of the tested episodic memory components, whereby memory for configurational aspects of a scene (objects' co-occurrence and object position) decays faster than memory for featured objects. Interestingly, memory requiring a visually detailed object representation decays at a similar rate as global object recognition, arguing against interpretations based on task difficulty and against the notion that (visual) detail is forgotten preferentially. These findings show that memories undergo qualitative changes as they age. More specifically, event memories become less configurational over time, preferentially losing some of the higher order associations that are dependent on the hippocampus for initial fast encoding. Implications for theories of long-term memory are discussed.

  20. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  1. Associative working memory and subsequent episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Konings, E.P.C.; Tilborg, I.A.D.A. van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate deficits in associative working memory in patients with medial-temporal lobe amnesia. However, it is unclear whether these deficits reflect working memory processing or are due to hippocampally mediated long-term memory impairment. We investigated associative working memory

  2. Associative working memory and subsequent episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Konings, E.P.; Tilborg, I.A. Van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate deficits in associative working memory in patients with medial-temporal lobe amnesia. However, it is unclear whether these deficits reflect working memory processing or are due to hippocampally mediated long-term memory impairment. We investigated associative working memory

  3. Emotional memory expression is misleading : delineating transitions between memory processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faliagkas, L.; Rao-Ruiz, P.; Kindt, M.

    The hypothesis that fear memory is not necessarily permanent but can change when retrieved opens avenues to develop revolutionary treatments for emotional memory disorders. Memory reconsolidation is however only one of several mnemonic processes that may be triggered by memory reactivation and

  4. Executive function, episodic memory, and Medicare expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Alex C; Austin, Andrea M; Grodstein, Francine; Bynum, Julie P W

    2017-07-01

    We examined the relationship between health care expenditures and cognition, focusing on differences across cognitive systems defined by global cognition, executive function, or episodic memory. We used linear regression models to compare annual health expenditures by cognitive status in 8125 Nurses' Health Study participants who completed a cognitive battery and were enrolled in Medicare parts A and B. Adjusting for demographics and comorbidity, executive impairment was associated with higher total annual expenditures of $1488 per person (P episodic memory impairment was found. Expenditures exhibited a linear relationship with executive function, but not episodic memory ($584 higher for every 1 standard deviation decrement in executive function; P < .01). Impairment in executive function is specifically and linearly associated with higher health care expenditures. Focusing on management strategies that address early losses in executive function may be effective in reducing costly services. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Traces of Drosophila Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Studies using functional cellullar imaging of living flies have identified six memory traces that form in the olfactory nervous system after conditioning with odors. These traces occur in distinct nodes of the olfactory nervous system, form and disappear across different windows of time, and are detected in the imaged neurons as increased calcium influx or synaptic release in response to the conditioned odor. Three traces form at, or near acquisition and co-exist with short-term behavioral memory. One trace forms with a delay after learning and co-exists with intermediate-term behavioral memory. Two traces form many hours after acquisition and co-exist with long-term behavioral memory. The transient memory traces may support behavior across the time-windows of their existence. The experimental approaches for dissecting memory formation in the fly, ranging from the molecular to the systems, make it an ideal system for dissecting the logic by which the nervous system organizes and stores different temporal forms of memory. PMID:21482352

  6. Working memory and organizational skills problems in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Sarver, Dustin E; Harmon, Sherelle L; Moltisanti, Allison; Aduen, Paula A; Soto, Elia F; Ferretti, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    This study tested model-driven predictions regarding working memory's role in the organizational problems associated with ADHD. Children aged 8-13 (M = 10.33, SD = 1.42) with and without ADHD (N = 103; 39 girls; 73% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) were assessed on multiple, counterbalanced working memory tasks. Parents and teachers completed norm-referenced measures of organizational problems (Children's Organizational Skills Scale; COSS). Results confirmed large magnitude working memory deficits (d = 1.24) and organizational problems in ADHD (d = 0.85). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped conditional effects models linked impaired working memory with greater parent- and teacher-reported inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and organizational problems. Working memory predicted organization problems across all parent and teacher COSS subscales (R 2  = .19-.23). Approximately 38%-57% of working memory's effect on organization problems was conveyed by working memory's association with inattentive behavior. Unique effects of working memory remained significant for both parent- and teacher-reported task planning, as well as for teacher-reported memory/materials management and overall organization problems. Attention problems uniquely predicted worse organizational skills. Hyperactivity was unrelated to parent-reported organizational skills, but predicted better teacher-reported task planning. Children with ADHD exhibit multisetting, broad-based organizational impairment. These impaired organizational skills are attributable in part to performance deficits secondary to working memory dysfunction, both directly and indirectly via working memory's role in regulating attention. Impaired working memory in ADHD renders it extraordinarily difficult for these children to consistently anticipate, plan, enact, and maintain goal-directed actions. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Documenting a Contested Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at how symbols in the urban environment are intentionally produced and modified to regulate a community’s collective memory. Our urban environment is filled with symbols in the form of images, text, and structures that embody certain narratives about the past. Once those symbols...... to preserve the memory of the revolution through graffiti murals and the utilization of public space, and from the other, the authority’s efforts to replace those initiatives with its own official narrative. Building on the concept of collective memory, as well as Bartlett’s studies of serial reproductions...

  8. Memory, Meaning, and Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    occasion searching memory for question concept searching directly for input -- sM- SOCIAL -OCC found (GN590) The answer is: (CON233) yes, most recently at...UNCLASSIFIED TR-189 NL*° uuuuuuum I IuuIIInl --- I--I I/ MEMORY , MEANING, AND SYNTAX Roger C. Schank and Lawrence Birnbaum Research Report #189 November...1980 Appf ,r𔄃! f𔄁" * ,P,?, .- , lei so;ict ~YALE UNIVERSITY IDEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE 812 24 0Ot MEMORY , MEANING, AND SYNTAX Roger C. Schank

  9. Memories Persist in Silence

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Patricia Arenas Grisales

    2012-01-01

    This article exposes the hypothesis that memory artifacts, created to commemorate the victims of armed conflict in Colombia, are an expression of the underground memories and a way of political action in the midst of war. We analyze three cases of creations of memory artifacts in Medellín, Colombia, as forms of suffering, perceiving and resisting the power of armed groups in Medellín. The silence, inherent in these objects, should not be treated as an absence of language, but as another form ...

  10. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  11. History, Memory and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    In this paper I discuss history and memory from a theoretical and philosophical point of view and the non-fiction and fiction aspects of historical representation. I use Edgar Reitz’ monumental work Heimat 1-3 (and his recent film Die Andere Heimat) as examples of very different transformative...... historical narratives. In terms of narrative construction and aesthetic form the Heimat-project challenges the dominant forms of historical fiction. By combining personal memory, everyday life and collective memory and a more indirect way of representing factual history Reitz wants to transform our look...

  12. Memory complaints and prospective memory performance across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Eschen, A; Mattli, F; Sutter, C; Zöllig, J

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of prospective and retrospective memory failures from six age groups was gathered using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). Objective performance measures were obtained with a laboratory prospective memory task. Findings revealed more prospective than retrospective memory complaints in all age groups except in young children. While overall reported memory failures were similar in the adult groups, fewer failures were reported for the two children group...

  13. Context memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of memory. Specifically, context aspects of memory are impaired in AD. Our review sheds light on the neurocognitive mechanisms of this memory component that forms the core of episodic memory function.

  14. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  15. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  16. Memories are made of this

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, George

    2001-01-01

    Traditional semiconductor memory falls into two categories—volatile and non-volatile. Volatile memories, such as SRAM (static random access memory) and DRAM (dynamic random access memory), lose their contents when power is rémoved. RAM memories are easy to use and perform well, but require a continuous power source—not ideal for battery-powered portable devices. Non-volatile memories retain their contents when power is removed and those in current use are derived from ROM (read-only memory). ...

  17. Memory Circuit Fault Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

  18. Working Memory and Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YuLeung To, Eric; Abbott, Kathy; Foster, Dale S; Helmer, D'Arcy

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in working memory are typically associated with impairments in other cognitive faculties such as attentional processes and short-term memory. This paper briefly introduces neurofeedback as a treatment modality in general, and, more specifically, we review several of the current modalities successfully used in neurofeedback (NF) for the treatment of working memory deficits. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how neurofeedback is applied in treatment. The development of Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) and its application in neurofeedback now makes it possible to specifically target deep cortical/subcortical brain structures. Developments in neuroscience concerning neural networks, combined with highly specific yet practical NF technologies, makes neurofeedback of particular interest to neuropsychological practice, including the emergence of specific methodologies for treating very difficult working memory (WM) problems.

  19. Memory and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the rainbow in order of their wave lengths: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.) Don’t buy into ageist stereotypes about memory decline. Studies have shown that having positive beliefs ...

  20. Network Memory Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilcox, D

    1997-01-01

    This report presents initial research into the design of a new computer system local area network transport layer protocol, designated the network memory protocol, which provides clients with direct...

  1. Islamic Myths and Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and globalization and to the study of the place of the mass media in the contemporary Islamic resurgence. It explores the annulment of spatial and temporal distance by globalization and by the communications revolution underlying it, and how this has affected the cherished myths and memories of the Muslim community......Islamic myths and collective memory are very much alive in today’s localized struggles for identity, and are deployed in the ongoing construction of worldwide cultural networks. This book brings the theoretical perspectives of myth-making and collective memory to the study of Islam....... It shows how contemporary Islamic thinkers and movements respond to the challenges of globalization by preserving, reviving, reshaping, or transforming myths and memories....

  2. Memory mass storage

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni; Iaculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Covering all the fundamental storage technologies such as semiconductor, magnetic, optical and uncommon, this volume details their core characteristics. In addition, it includes an overview of the 'biological memory' of the human brain and its organization.

  3. Josephson Thermal Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarcello, Claudio; Solinas, Paolo; Braggio, Alessandro; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Giazotto, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    We propose a superconducting thermal memory device that exploits the thermal hysteresis in a flux-controlled temperature-biased superconducting quantum-interference device (SQUID). This system reveals a flux-controllable temperature bistability, which can be used to define two well-distinguishable thermal logic states. We discuss a suitable writing-reading procedure for these memory states. The time of the memory writing operation is expected to be on the order of approximately 0.2 ns for a Nb-based SQUID in thermal contact with a phonon bath at 4.2 K. We suggest a noninvasive readout scheme for the memory states based on the measurement of the effective resonance frequency of a tank circuit inductively coupled to the SQUID. The proposed device paves the way for a practical implementation of thermal logic and computation. The advantage of this proposal is that it represents also an example of harvesting thermal energy in superconducting circuits.

  4. Models of Working Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Working memory is a basic cognitive mechanism (or set of mechanisms) that is responsible for keeping track of multiple task related goals and subgoals, or integrating multiple sources of information...

  5. Conglomerate memory and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under what conditions do countries and cultures considered radically different find a basis for allegiance and kinship? What part does memory play in this process? This article responds to these questions in two ways: 1 Through Emmanuel Levinas and Hannah Arendt, I propose that when an other appears in empathetic discourses that both honor difference and cite shared human experiences, seemingly irreconcilable people can develop a sense of mutual responsibility and 2 Conglomerate memory, memories that fuse together others through common pains, contributes to such an appearance. To illustrate this point, I turn to Congolese voices as they are articulated in online American discourses; although currently, authors of online texts typically rely on traditional narrative forms that position Central Africa as incommensurate to Western civilizations, the Internet's worldwide accessibility and intertextual capacities render it a place primed for developing international collectives by connecting memories while maintaining difference.

  6. Optimizing memory use in Java applications, garbage collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan PREDA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Java applications are diverse, depending by use case, exist application that use small amount of memory till application that use huge amount, tens or hundreds of gigabits. Java Virtual Machine is designed to automatically manage memory for applications. Even in this case due diversity of hardware, software that coexist on the same system and applications itself, these automatic decision need to be accompanied by developer or system administrator to triage optimal memory use. After developer big role to write optimum code from memory allocation perspective , optimizing memory use at Java Virtual Machine and application level become in last year's one of the most important task. This is explained in special due increased demand in applications scalability.

  7. Sleep loss produces false memories

    OpenAIRE

    Diekelmann, S; Landolt, H P; Lahl, O; Born, J; Wagner, U

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representa...

  8. Tunable and Memory Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0402 TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS Dimitri Basov UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/02/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-08-2010 to 14-08-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550...common limitations of infrared metamaterials in order to achieve low electromagnetic losses and broad tunability of the electromagnetic response. One

  9. Music and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Haefliger, Anna Berenika

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Music and its different forms of use seem to benefit people in a number of ways. Research has suggested that extensive musical practice and musical listening enhances mental functioning in healthy adults and patients with neurodegenerative disease. Yet, the findings presented have not yet examined the effects both musical training and stimuli enhancement have on episodic memory recognition. 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians took part in an episodic memory task which evaluated m...

  10. Optical quantum memory

    OpenAIRE

    Lvovsky, A. I.; Sanders, B. C.; Tittel, W.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum memory is important to quantum information processing in many ways: a synchronization device to match various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a tool to convert heralded photons to photons-on-demand. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory would be instrumental for the implementation of long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the m...

  11. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-01-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications. - Highlights: • Advance fundamental knowledge of current-driven magnetic vortex phenomena. • Report appealing new magnetic racetrack memory based on current-controlled magnetic vortices in nanowires. • Provide a novel approach to adjust current magnitude for data propagation. • Overcome the limitations of domain wall racetrack memory.

  12. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Under various circumstances and in different species the outward expression of learning varies considerably, and this has led to the classification of different categories of learning. Just as there is no generally agreed on definition of learning, there is no one system of classification. Types of learning commonly recognized are: Habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, trial and error, taste aversion, latent learning, cultural learning, imprinting, insight learning, learning-set learning and instinct. The term memory must include at least two separate processes. It must involve, on the one hand, that of learning something and on the other, at some later date, recalling that thing. What lies between the learning and (he remembering must be some permanent record — a memory trace — within the brain. Memory exists in at least two forms: memory for very recent events (short-term which is relatively labile and easily disruptable; and long-term memory, which is much more stable. Not everything that gets into short-term memory becomes fixed in the long-term store; a filtering mechanism selects things that might be important and discards the rest.

  14. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  15. Laser memory (hologram) and coincident redundant multiplex memory (CRM-memory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostojic, Branko

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that besides the memory which remembers the object by memorising of the phases of the interferenting waves of the light (i.e. hologram) it is possible to construct the memory which remembers the object by memorising of the phases of the interferenting impulses (CFM-memory). It is given the mathematical description of the memory, based on the experimental model. Although in the paper only the technical aspect of CRM memory is given. It is mentioned the possibility that the human memory has the same principle and that the invention of CRM memory is due to cybernetical analysis of the system human eye-visual cortex

  16. A bio-inspired memory model for structural health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) systems need intelligent management of the monitoring data. By analogy with the way the human brain processes memories, we present a bio-inspired memory model (BIMM) that does not require prior knowledge of the structure parameters. The model contains three time-domain areas: a sensory memory area, a short-term memory area and a long-term memory area. First, the initial parameters of the structural state are specified to establish safety criteria. Then the large amount of monitoring data that falls within the safety limits is filtered while the data outside the safety limits are captured instantly in the sensory memory area. Second, disturbance signals are distinguished from danger signals in the short-term memory area. Finally, the stable data of the structural balance state are preserved in the long-term memory area. A strategy for priority scheduling via fuzzy c-means for the proposed model is then introduced. An experiment on bridge tower deformation demonstrates that the proposed model can be applied for real-time acquisition, limited-space storage and intelligent mining of the monitoring data in a long-term SHM system

  17. Long-term working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K A; Kintsch, W

    1995-04-01

    To account for the large demands on working memory during text comprehension and expert performance, the traditional models of working memory involving temporary storage must be extended to include working memory based on storage in long-term memory. In the proposed theoretical framework cognitive processes are viewed as a sequence of stable states representing end products of processing. In skilled activities, acquired memory skills allow these end products to be stored in long-term memory and kept directly accessible by means of retrieval cues in short-term memory, as proposed by skilled memory theory. These theoretical claims are supported by a review of evidence on memory in text comprehension and expert performance in such domains as mental calculation, medical diagnosis, and chess.

  18. False memories for aggressive acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Technical Memory 2010. Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The technical memory 2010 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentine Republic, compile the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety presented in journals, technical reports, congress or meetings of these subjects by the ARN personnel during 2010. In this edition the documents are presented on: environmental protection; safety transport of radioactive materials; regulations; licensing of medical installations; biological radiation effects; therapeutic uses of ionizing radiation and radioprotection of patients; internal dosimetry; radioactive waste management [es

  20. Technical Memory 2011. Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The technical memory 2011 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentine Republic, compile the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety presented in journals, technical reports, congress or meetings of these subjects by the ARN personnel during 2011. In this edition the documents are presented on: environmental protection; safety transport of radioactive materials; regulations; licensing of medical installations; biological radiation effects; therapeutic uses of ionizing radiation and radioprotection of patients; internal dosimetry; radioactive waste management [es

  1. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    KAUST Repository

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2015-05-26

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions.

  2. Diagnosis and management of dementia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Dementia is an acquired syndrome of memory decline with at least one other cognitive deficit in language, ... the diagnosis and management of dementia, memory lapses in the elderly are still erroneously brushed off at ..... because of sedation and anticholinergic side-effects. BPSD are associated with a.

  3. Neurocognitive architecture of working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan; Vogel, Edward K.; Lansner, Anders; Bergström, Fredrik; Nyberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The crucial role of working memory for temporary information processing and guidance of complex behavior has been recognized for many decades. There is emerging consensus that working memory maintenance results from the interactions among long-term memory representations and basic processes, including attention, that are instantiated as reentrant loops between frontal and posterior cortical areas, as well as subcortical structures. The nature of such interactions can account for capacity limitations, lifespan changes, and restricted transfer after working-memory training. Recent data and models indicate that working memory may also be based on synaptic plasticity, and that working memory can operate on non-consciously perceived information. PMID:26447571

  4. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  5. Sensory-perceptual episodic memory and its context: autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, M A

    2001-01-01

    Episodic memory is reconceived as a memory system that retains highly detailed sensory perceptual knowledge of recent experience over retention intervals measured in minutes and hours. Episodic knowledge has yet to be integrated with the autobiographical memory knowledge base and so takes as its context or referent the immediate past of the experiencing self (or the 'I'). When recalled it can be accessed independently of content and is recollectively experienced. Autobiographical memory, in contrast, retains knowledge over retention intervals measured in weeks, months, years, decades and across the life span. Autobiographical knowledge represents the experienced self (or the 'me'), is always accessed by its content and, when accessed, does not necessarily give rise to recollective experience. Instead, recollective experience occurs when autobiographical knowledge retains access to associated episodic memories. In this reworking of the 'episodic memory' concept autobiographical memory provides the instantiating context for sensory-perceptual episodic memory. PMID:11571029

  6. Behavioural memory reconsolidation of food and fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Charlotte R; Barber, David J; Lee, Jonathan L C

    2011-10-18

    The reactivation of a memory through retrieval can render it subject to disruption or modification through the process of memory reconsolidation. In both humans and rodents, briefly reactivating a fear memory results in effective erasure by subsequent extinction training. Here we show that a similar strategy is equally effective in the disruption of appetitive pavlovian cue-food memories. However, systemic administration of the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine, under the same behavioural conditions, did not potentiate appetitive memory extinction, suggesting that reactivation does not enhance subsequent extinction learning. To confirm that reactivation followed by extinction reflects a behavioural analogue of memory reconsolidation, we show that prevention of contextual fear memory reactivation by the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker nimodipine interferes with the amnestic outcome. Therefore, the reconsolidation process can be manipulated behaviourally to disrupt both aversive and appetitive memories. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Working Memory Influences on Long-Term Memory and Comprehension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radvansky, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    .... This study looked at how comprehension and memory processing at the mental model level is related to traditional measures of working memory capacity, including the word span, reading span, operation...

  8. Technical Memory 2008. Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The technical memory 2008 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentine Republic, compile the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, and presented in journals, technical reports, congress or meetings of these specialties by personnel of the mentioned institution during 2008. In this edition the documents are presented on: environmental protection; transport of radioactive materials; regulations; research reactors and nuclear power plants; biological radiation effects; therapeutic uses of ionizing radiation and radioprotection of patients; internal dosimetry; physical dosimetry; knowledge management; radioactive waste management. [es

  9. Functional memory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The field of shape memory phenomena in metals and alloys has developed in a sporadic fashion from a scientific curiosity to a vigorously growing niche industry, over a period close to a full working lifetime. Memory metal research and development is replete with scientist and engineer 'true believers', who can finally feel content that their longstanding confidence in the potential of these unusual functional materials has not been misplaced. This paper reviews the current range of medical and non-medical systems and devices which are based on memory metals and attempts to predict trends in applications over the next decade. The market is dominated by Ni Ti alloys which have proved to exhibit the best and most reproducible properties for application in a wide range of medical and non-medical devices

  10. Albert Einstein memorial lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Mechoulam, Raphael; The Israel Academy for Sciences and Humanities

    2012-01-01

    This volume consists of a selection of the Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures presented annually at the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Delivered by eminent scientists and scholars, including Nobel laureates, they cover a broad spectrum of subjects in physics, chemistry, life science, mathematics, historiography and social issues. This distinguished memorial lecture series was inaugurated by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities following an international symposium held in Jerusalem in March 1979 to commemorate the centenary of Albert Einstein's birth. Considering that Einstein's interests, activities and influence were not restricted to theoretical physics but spanned broad fields affecting society and the welfare of humankind, it was felt that these memorial lectures should be addressed to scientists, scholars and erudite laypersons rather than to physicists alone.

  11. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  12. Memory, Conviviality and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duru, Deniz Neriman

    2016-01-01

    that postulates cohesion and conflict as rooted in ethnic and religious differences. It suggests ‘conviviality’ as the production of space, by arguing that hard times, tensions as well as sensorial pleasures produce a sense of belonging in a place, through shared ways of living. While memories of ‘coexistence......The article explores the narratives and memories of past diversity and current practices of conviviality to investigate how class, lifestyle and tastes affect the daily interactions between people belonging to different ethno-religious backgrounds. This chapter critiques ‘coexistence’ as a concept......’ emphasize the fragmentation of people into ethnic and religious groups as a consequence of the homogenization process in the post-Ottoman Turkish context, bitter sweet memories of conviviality create a sense of belonging to Burgaz....

  13. Memory and the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Cesar; Letschka, Raoul

    2017-10-01

    Memory effects in scattering processes are described in terms of the asymptotic retarded fields. These fields are completely determined by the scattering data and the zero mode part is set by the soft photon theorem. The dressed asymptotic states defining an infrared finite S-matrix for charged particles can be defined as quantum coherent states using the corpuscular resolution of the asymptotic retarded fields. Imposing that the net radiated energy in the scattering is zero leads to the new set of conservation laws for the scattering S-matrix which are equivalent to the decoupling of the soft modes. The actual observability of the memory requires a non-vanishing radiated energy and could be described using the infrared part of the differential cross section that only depends on the scattering data and the radiated energy. This is the IR safe cross section with any number of emitted photons carrying total energy equal to the energy involved in the actual memory detection.

  14. Noradrenergic System and Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Zenger, Manuel

    2017-07-22

    There is ample evidence indicating that noradrenaline plays an important role in memory mechanisms. Noradrenaline is thought to modulate these procsses through activation of adrenergic receptors in neurons. Astrocytes that form essential partners for synaptic function, also express alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. In astrocytes, noradrenaline triggers metabolic actions such as the glycogenolysis leading to an increase in l-lactate formation and release. l-Lactate can be used by neurons as a sourc of energy during memory tasks and can also induc transcription of plasticity genes in neurons. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors can also trigger gliotransmitter release resulting of intracllular calcium waves. These gliotransmitters modulate the synaptic activity and thereby can modulate long-term potentiation mechanisms. In summary, recnt evidencs indicate that noradrenaline exerts its memory-promoting effects through different modes of action both on neurons and astrocytes.

  15. Echoic memory in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Christina; Kalenscher, Tobias; Güntürkün, Onur; Kaernbach, Christian

    2008-10-01

    It is unknown whether birds are able to retain the memory of purely sensory auditory information such as white noise over an extended period of time. In a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, four pigeons were trained to associate a mild electric shock with periodic random waveforms, and no shock with aperiodic noise. Periodic waveform detection requires echoic memory, i.e., the online retention of a waveform pattern over a limited time. Starting with 40ms, the waveform period was increased after successful learning until no significant stimulus discrimination could be found. Significant discrimination was achieved at periods of up to 2560ms. This is the first demonstration that echoic memory performance in birds is clearly superior to cats and gerbils, and comparable to naive human performance.

  16. Eavesdropping on Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2017-01-03

    For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. In my writings, classes, and public speeches, I've tried to convey one important take-home message: Just because someone tells you something in great detail, with much confidence, and with emotion, it doesn't mean that it is true. Here I describe my professional life as an experimental psychologist, in which I've eavesdropped on this process, as well as many personal experiences that may have influenced my thinking and choices.

  17. Mediated Cultural Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    (A revised, full paper will be published in the journal Mediekultur, spring 2014) This paper explores two examples of narratives representing memories of acts of mass violence: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester) about 1990’s Kosovo, and The Act of Killing (Denmark, 2012, director...... perspectives of semiosis (meaning-making) in relation to the films as redefining genres and what sorts of meanings different audiences create about the films. Acts of mass violence, including murder on civilians, genocide, and wars, can be seen as seeds for memories of the involved persons and following...... generations. Acts of mass violence also construct a sort of looking glass of culturally dominant memories that are mediated through stories: retold as oral stories through generations, as myths or sagas, or remediated in contemporary documentary or fiction films. In these processes of retelling acts...

  18. Matter and memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergson, Henri

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of the last century," Walter Benjamin wrote, "philosophy has made a series of attempts to lay hold of the 'true' experience as opposed to the kind that manifests itself in the standardized, denatured life of the civilized masses. It is customary to classify these efforts under the heading of a philosophy of life. Towering above this literature is Henri Bergson's early monumental work, Matter and Memory."Along with Husserl's Ideas and Heidegger's Being and Time, Bergson's work represents one of the great twentieth-century investigations into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Arguably Bergson's most significant book, Matter and Memory is essential to an understanding of his philosophy and its legacy.This new edition includes an annotated bibliography prepared by Bruno Paradis.Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927. His works include Time and Free Will, An Introduction to Metaphysics, Creative Evolution, and The Creative Mind.

  19. Limited capacity of working memory in unihemispheric random walks implies conceivable slow dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kun; Zhong, Suchuan

    2017-08-01

    Phenomenologically inspired by dolphins' unihemispheric sleep, we introduce a minimal model for random walks with physiological memory. The physiological memory consists of long-term memory which includes unconscious implicit memory and conscious explicit memory, and working memory which serves as a multi-component system for integrating, manipulating and managing short-term storage. The model assumes that the sleeping state allows retrievals of episodic objects merely from the episodic buffer where these memory objects are invoked corresponding to the ambient objects and are thus object-oriented, together with intermittent but increasing use of implicit memory in which decisions are unconsciously picked up from historical time series. The process of memory decay and forgetting is constructed in the episodic buffer. The walker's risk attitude, as a product of physiological heuristics according to the performance of objected-oriented decisions, is imposed on implicit memory. The analytical results of unihemispheric random walks with the mixture of object-oriented and time-oriented memory, as well as the long-time behavior which tends to the use of implicit memory, are provided, indicating the common sense that a conservative risk attitude is inclinable to slow movement.

  20. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term "working memory") that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1.

  1. Psychobiology of Active and Inactive Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Donald J.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the distinction between short-term memory and long-term memory is no longer adequate for either human or animal memory data. Recommends additional research on the physiological brain processes underlying memory interference and retrieval. (MP)

  2. Aging memories: differential decay of episodic memory components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Gorree, E.

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent

  3. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  4. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  5. Shape memory effect alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.

    1992-01-01

    Although the pseudo- or super-elasticity phenomena and the shape memory effect were known since the 1940's, the enormous curiosity and the great interest to their practical applications emerged with the development of the NITINOL alloy (Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordance Laboratory) by the NASA during the 1960's. This fact marked the appearance of a new class of materials, popularly known as shape memory effect alloys (SMEA). The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art of the development and applications for the SMEA. (E.O.)

  6. Entropic memory erasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moupriya

    2014-03-01

    We have considered a Brownian particle confined in a two-dimensional bilobal enclosure where the state of the particle represents a bit of information having binary value 0 (left lobe) or 1 (right lobe). A time linear force is applied on the particle, driving it selectively to a particular lobe, and thus erasing one bit of information. We explore the statistics of heat and work associated with memory erasure to realize the Landauer limit in the entropic domain. Our results suggest that the mean value of work done associated with the complete erasure procedure satisfies the Landauer bound even when the memory is purely entropic in nature.

  7. Bifurcation with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmstead, W.E.; Davis, S.H.; Rosenblat, S.; Kath, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A model equation containing a memory integral is posed. The extent of the memory, the relaxation time lambda, controls the bifurcation behavior as the control parameter R is increased. Small (large) lambda gives steady (periodic) bifurcation. There is a double eigenvalue at lambda = lambda 1 , separating purely steady (lambda 1 ) from combined steady/T-periodic (lambda > lambda 1 ) states with T → infinity as lambda → lambda + 1 . Analysis leads to the co-existence of stable steady/periodic states and as R is increased, the periodic states give way to the steady states. Numerical solutions show that this behavior persists away from lambda = lambda 1

  8. Emotional organization of autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D; Woldorf, Gillian M

    2005-09-01

    The emotional organization of autobiographical memory was examined by determining whether emotional cues would influence autobiographical retrieval in younger and older adults. Unfamiliar musical cues that represented orthogonal combinations of positive and negative valence and high and low arousal were used. Whereas cue valence influenced the valence of the retrieved memories, cue arousal did not affect arousal ratings. However, high-arousal cues were associated with reduced response latencies. A significant bias to report positive memories was observed, especially for the older adults, but neither the distribution of memories across the life span nor response latencies varied across memories differing in valence or arousal. These data indicate that emotional information can serve as effective cues for autobiographical memories and that autobiographical memories are organized in terms of emotional valence but not emotional arousal. Thus, current theories of autobiographical memory must be expanded to include emotional valence as a primary dimension of organization.

  9. Neuroepigenetic regulation of pathogenic memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Sillivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain’s emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on 2 neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  10. Memory and Forgetfulness: NIH Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness NIH Research Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... agency for research on Alzheimer's disease and related memory research. An analysis funded by the NIA finds ...

  11. Involuntary memories and restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Christopher T

    2015-05-01

    Most involuntary memories are elicited by external cues (e.g., smells, sounds) that have unique associations with specific memories (Berntsen's cue-retrieval hypothesis), but involuntary memories can sometimes be elicited by weak, even imperceptible, cues that raise the activation level of an already primed memory (Berntsen's motivation-priming hypothesis) to also reach conscious awareness during times of low attentional focus. The current study examined the effects of a motivation bias (restrained eating) on the involuntary memories recorded in daily diaries for seven days by 56 female participants. A large proportion of the involuntary memories were elicited by food-related cues and occurred in food-related contexts. A significant correlation was found between the participants' scores on a restrained eating scale and the percentage of involuntary memories involving cooking and eating content. These results parallel previous research involving voluntary memory retrievals during restrained eating. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Evolutionary Metal Oxide Clusters for Novel Applications: Toward High-Density Data Storage in Nonvolatile Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ye; Roy, Vellaisamy A L; Han, Su-Ting

    2018-01-01

    Because of current fabrication limitations, miniaturizing nonvolatile memory devices for managing the explosive increase in big data is challenging. Molecular memories constitute a promising candidate for next-generation memories because their properties can be readily modulated through chemical synthesis. Moreover, these memories can be fabricated through mild solution processing, which can be easily scaled up. Among the various materials, polyoxometalate (POM) molecules have attracted considerable attention for use as novel data-storage nodes for nonvolatile memories. Here, an overview of recent advances in the development of POMs for nonvolatile memories is presented. The general background knowledge of the structure and property diversity of POMs is also summarized. Finally, the challenges and perspectives in the application of POMs in memories are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Self, Nation, and Generational Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss/Bøss, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A study of the former Irish president Eamon de Valera's self-narrative in his official autobiography as an illustration Alistair Thomson's theory of memory as 'composure' and as reflecting generational memory........A study of the former Irish president Eamon de Valera's self-narrative in his official autobiography as an illustration Alistair Thomson's theory of memory as 'composure' and as reflecting generational memory.....

  14. Memory-Based Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    relevant cases quickly from a large memory -plus the requirement for an explicit theory of index content in the complex social domain where relevance often...Sep 89 - 31 Jan 92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS " MEMORY -BASED EXPERT SYSTEMS" (U) 61102F 2304/A7 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Roger C. Schank 7...three problems: (1) The development of a robust memory -based parsing technology (Direct Memory Access Parsing, or DMP), (2) The development of case

  15. Category Accessibility as Implicit Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-06

    necessary and identify by block number) FIELD j GROUP SUB-GROUP category accessibility, social cognition, social or) In categorization, memory 19 ABSTRACT...and explicit memory in a common theoretical framework. Several types of social phenomena may usefully be conceptualized as involving implicit memory ...NO ACCESSION NO 61153N 1I TITLE (Include Security Classification) Category accessibility as implicit memory 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Smith, Eliot R

  16. About sleep's role in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

  17. Constructive Memory: Past and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adapti...

  18. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  19. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  20. Specification and development of the sharing memory data management module for a nuclear processes simulator; Especificacion y desarrollo del modulo de administracion de datos de memoria compartida para un simulador de procesos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telesforo R, D. [UNAM, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: cchavez2@cableonline.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    Actually it is developed in the Engineering Faculty of UNAM a simulator of nuclear processes with research and teaching purposes. It consists of diverse modules, included the one that is described in the present work that is the shared memory module. It uses the IPC mechanisms of the UNIX System V operative system, and it was codified with C language. To model the diverse components of the simulator the RELAP code is used. The function of the module is to generate locations of shared memory for to deposit in these the necessary variables for the interaction among the diverse ones processes of the simulator. In its it will be able read and to write the information that generate the running of the simulation program, besides being able to interact with the internal variables of the code in execution time. The graphic unfolding (mimic, pictorials, tendency graphics, virtual instrumentation, etc.) they also obtain information of the shared memory. In turn, actions of the user in interactive unfolding, they modify the segments of shared memory, and the information is sent to the RELAP code to modify the simulation course. The program has two beginning modes: automatic and manual. In automatic mode taking an enter file of RELAP (indta) and it joins in shared memory, the control variables that in this appear. In manual mode the user joins, he reads and he writes the wanted control variables, whenever they exist in the enter file (indta). This is a dynamic mode of interacting with the simulator in a direct way and of even altering the values as when its don't exist in the board elements associated to the variables. (Author)

  1. Improving Memory in the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Linda M.; Pratt, Mary Alice

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of a didactic-experiential program designed to improve memory functioning in healthy older adults with memory complaints, and to allay their concerns (in this case, largely unfounded) about the decline of their memory. The 7-week workshop met weekly for 2 hours, each session consisting of a lecture…

  2. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  3. NUMA obliviousness through memory mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawade, M.; Kersten, M.; Pandis, I.; Kersten, M.

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of multi-socket multi-core CPUs a lot of effort is being put into how to best exploit their abundant CPU power. In a shared memory setting the multi-socket CPUs are equipped with their own memory module, and access memory modules across sockets in a non-uniform access pattern (NUMA).

  4. NUMA obliviousness through memory mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gawade (Mrunal); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWith the rise of multi-socket multi-core CPUs a lot of effort is being put into how to best exploit their abundant CPU power. In a shared memory setting the multi-socket CPUs are equipped with their own memory module, and access memory modules across sockets in a non-uniform

  5. Episodic memory in nonhuman animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-09-09

    Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of 'having been there', has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhuman species. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhuman animals and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap; however, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question "do nonhuman animals have episodic memory" to instead asking "what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans" are making progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Context Memory in Korsakoff's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kopelman, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for contextual information and target-context integration are crucial for successful episodic memory formation and are impaired in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. In this paper we review the evidence for the notion that a context memory deficit makes an important contribution to the

  7. Context memory in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kopelman, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for contextual information and target-context integration are crucial for successful episodic memory formation and are impaired in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. In this paper we review the evidence for the notion that a context memory deficit makes an important contribution to the

  8. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  9. Transacted Memory for Smart Cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Butler, Michael J.; de Jong, Eduard; Longley, Mark; Olivieira, J.N.; Zave, P.

    A transacted memory that is implemented using EEPROM technology offers persistence, undoability and auditing. The transacted memory system is formally specified in Z, and refined in two steps to a prototype C implementation / SPIN model. Conclusions are offered both on the transacted memory system

  10. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  11. Memory blindness: Altered memory reports lead to distortion in eyewitness memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Kevin J; Greenspan, Rachel L; Bogart, Daniel F; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2016-07-01

    Choice blindness refers to the finding that people can often be misled about their own self-reported choices. However, little research has investigated the more long-term effects of choice blindness. We examined whether people would detect alterations to their own memory reports, and whether such alterations could influence participants' memories. Participants viewed slideshows depicting crimes, and then either reported their memories for episodic details of the event (Exp. 1) or identified a suspect from a lineup (Exp. 2). Then we exposed participants to manipulated versions of their memory reports, and later tested their memories a second time. The results indicated that the majority of participants failed to detect the misinformation, and that exposing witnesses to misleading versions of their own memory reports caused their memories to change to be consistent with those reports. These experiments have implications for eyewitness memory.

  12. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...

  13. The Memory of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Houlind

    The thematic aim of the present dissertation is twofold: To contribute to the contemporary discussion within philosophy of religion, which revolves around ‘the death and (alleged) return of God’; more specifically, I want to rethink God through the concept memory, drawing on selected writings from...

  14. The Memory Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen-Bagneux, Ole

    2014-01-01

    of classification and retrieval processes is presented. The key element is to understand the library both as a physical structure and as a structure in the memory of the Alexandrian scholars. In this article, these structures are put together so to propose a new interpretation of the library....

  15. Memory Loss and Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Underlying the generally oblivious attitude of teachers and learners towards the past is insufficient respect for the role of memory in giving meaning to experience and access to knowledge. We shape our identity by making sense of our past and its relationship to present and future selves, a process that should be intensively cultivated when we…

  16. THE MEMORY OF JUDGMENT:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    category of trials, the Nuremburg, Eichmann, Demjanjuk and Barbie trials, deal with major Nazi criminals who perpetrated the crimes named under the. Nuremberg Charter, the laws of France and Israel. The second category of trials is a trial aimed at policing institutionally-sanctioned memory through the criminal law by ...

  17. Dreams Memories & Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  18. History, Memory and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    In this paper I discuss history and memory from a theoretical and philosophical point of view and the non-fiction and fiction aspects of historical representation. I use Edgar Reitz’ monumental work Heimat 1-3 (and his recent film Die Andere Heimat) as examples of very different transformative...

  19. Shape memory alloy engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a shape memory alloy engine, developed for the purpose of extracting the mechanical energy from a small difference in temperature. The engine is mainly composed of two pulleys (high temperature and low temperature) and single belt made of the nickel titanium shape memory alloy. The alloy memorizes a shape arcing in the direction opposite to the direction of the belt arc around the pulleys. When the temperature of the belt which is in contact with the high temperature pulley rises above the transformation temperature, a return to the memorized shape generates a force which rotates the pulleys. To make the heat transfer more effective, the engine was designed so that the lower part of the two pulleys are embedded in hot and cold water, respectively. To predict the performance of the shape memory alloy engine, the stress change of the shape memory alloy caused by temperature change has been also investigated with the bending stress test, and a torque loss of the engine system was measured. The predicted results were coincident with the output power experiment

  20. The Grammar of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This essay focuses on two sites of memory in my professional life. One is from my very early years of teaching, the second from about 10 years later. Each is centred on a moment of controversy in English curriculum in New South Wales, Australia, and each is to do with the teaching of writing and the supposed neglect of language study, including…

  1. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...

  2. Memory Mechanisms in Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Constanze; Franz, Volker H.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of visual information influences the execution of goal-directed movements. This is very prominent in memory conditions, where a delay is introduced between stimulus presentation and execution of the movement. The corresponding effects could be due to a decay of the visual information or to different processing mechanisms used for…

  3. Radiation Tolerant Embedded Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Brian

    2003-01-01

    ... event effects, and will scale to smaller geometries to provide the same performance. we then designed arrays of that memory to build up blocks to be used in complex Cool-RAD(tm) parts such as microprocessors and digital signal processors.

  4. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forgetting whole conversations could signal a problem. Other red flags: forgetting the name of a close friend or relative, frequently repeating yourself or asking the same questions in the same conversation. Are there signs of confusion? Serious memory lapses may cause individuals to get lost in ...

  5. Echoic memory in pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, C.; Kalenscher, T.; Güntürkün, O.; Kaernbach, C.

    2008-01-01

    It is unknown whether birds are able to retain the memory of purely sensory auditory information such as white noise over an extended period of time. In a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, four pigeons were trained to associate a mild electric shock with periodic random waveforms, and no

  6. Does Echoic Memory Develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Randall W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    To examine developmental aspects of auditory sensory memory, a series of experiments was conducted on the stimulus suffix effect with the primary variables being age of subject (7 and 11 years), rates of presentation, and length of list. Effects were nearly identical across age groups when a fast presentation rate was used. (Author/DB)

  7. Technical memory 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The technical memory 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic, compile the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, and presented in congress or meetings of these specialities by personnel of the mentioned institution during 1999

  8. Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.  The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.”  The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;  hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs.   ·         Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies i...

  9. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. False memories and memory confidence in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Nagel, Matthias; Moritz, Steffen

    2013-12-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding memory in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Prior reports and anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with BPD are prone to false memories but this assumption has to been put to firm empirical test, yet. Memory accuracy and confidence was assessed in 20 BPD patients and 22 healthy controls using a visual variant of the false memory (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) paradigm which involved a negative and a positive-valenced picture. Groups did not differ regarding veridical item recognition. Importantly, patients did not display more false memories than controls. At trend level, borderline patients rated more items as new with high confidence compared to healthy controls. The results tentatively suggest that borderline patients show uncompromised visual memory functions and display no increased susceptibility for distorted memories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-12-24

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

  12. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

  13. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  14. Milestoning with transition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Alexander T.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.

    2011-12-01

    Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics and thermodynamics of molecular processes occurring on time scales that are not accessible to brute force molecular dynamics (MD). In milestoning, the conformation space of the system is sectioned by hypersurfaces (milestones), an ensemble of trajectories is initialized on each milestone, and MD simulations are performed to calculate transitions between milestones. The transition probabilities and transition time distributions are then used to model the dynamics of the system with a Markov renewal process, wherein a long trajectory of the system is approximated as a succession of independent transitions between milestones. This approximation is justified if the transition probabilities and transition times are statistically independent. In practice, this amounts to a requirement that milestones are spaced such that trajectories lose position and velocity memory between subsequent transitions. Unfortunately, limiting the number of milestones limits both the resolution at which a system's properties can be analyzed, and the computational speedup achieved by the method. We propose a generalized milestoning procedure, milestoning with transition memory (MTM), which accounts for memory of previous transitions made by the system. When a reaction coordinate is used to define the milestones, the MTM procedure can be carried out at no significant additional expense as compared to conventional milestoning. To test MTM, we have applied its version that allows for the memory of the previous step to the toy model of a polymer chain undergoing Langevin dynamics in solution. We have computed the mean first passage time for the chain to attain a cyclic conformation and found that the number of milestones that can be used, without incurring significant errors in the first passage time is at least 8 times that permitted by conventional milestoning. We further demonstrate that, unlike conventional milestoning, MTM permits

  15. A performance evaluation of in-memory databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Talha Kabakus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of NoSQL databases has increased due to the need of (1 processing vast amount of data faster than the relational database management systems by taking the advantage of highly scalable architecture, (2 flexible (schema-free data structure, and, (3 low latency and high performance. Despite that memory usage is not major criteria to evaluate performance of algorithms, since these databases serve the data from memory, their memory usages are also experimented alongside the time taken to complete each operation in the paper to reveal which one uses the memory most efficiently. Currently there exists over 225 NoSQL databases that provide different features and characteristics. So it is necessary to reveal which one provides better performance for different data operations. In this paper, we experiment the widely used in-memory databases to measure their performance in terms of (1 the time taken to complete operations, and (2 how efficiently they use memory during operations. As per the results reported in this paper, there is no database that provides the best performance for all data operations. It is also proved that even though a RDMS stores its data in memory, its overall performance is worse than NoSQL databases.

  16. Dissociation and memory fragmentation: Experimental effects on meta-memory but not on actual memory performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between state dissociation and fragmentary memory was investigated by assessing both actual memory performance and meta-memory. From a sample of 330 normal subjects, 2 subsamples were selected on basis of trait dissociation, as measured by the Dissociative Experience Scale. 20 subjects

  17. High-bandwidth memory interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chulwoo; Song, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in memory interface design at both the architecture and circuit levels. Coverage includes signal integrity and testing, TSV interface, high-speed serial interface including equalization, ODT, pre-emphasis, wide I/O interface including crosstalk, skew cancellation, and clock generation and distribution. Trends for further bandwidth enhancement are also covered.   • Enables readers with minimal background in memory design to understand the basics of high-bandwidth memory interface design; • Presents state-of-the-art techniques for memory interface design; • Covers memory interface design at both the circuit level and system architecture level.

  18. Memory of titoism: Hegemony frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljić Todor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses today’s hegemony memory of titoism. The article presents the different reductions in the actually domestic memory culture which are connected with the demonisation and negative symbolisation of titoism. It was broader discussed diffent myths and ideologisations, the factors of a selective memory and a new context in the memory of titoism. Here are outlined the privatisation and the retraditionalisation as the main factors in the maintaing of a new frameworks for the memory of socialism and in the negative symbolisation of titoism.

  19. Rambrain - a library for virtually extending physical memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imgrund

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Rambrain, a user space C++ library that manages memory consumption of data-intense applications. Using Rambrain, one can overcommit memory beyond the size of physical memory present in the system. While there exist other more advanced techniques to solve this problem, Rambrain focuses on saving development time by providing a fast, general and easy-to-use solution. Rambrain takes care of temporarily swapping out data to disk and can handle multiples of the physical memory size present. Rambrain is thread-safe, OpenMP and MPI compatible and supports asynchronous I/O. The library is designed to require minimal changes to existing programs and pose only a small overhead.

  20. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  1. Topological Schemas of Memory Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Babichev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal cognitive map—a neuronal representation of the spatial environment—is widely discussed in the computational neuroscience literature for decades. However, more recent studies point out that hippocampus plays a major role in producing yet another cognitive framework—the memory space—that incorporates not only spatial, but also non-spatial memories. Unlike the cognitive maps, the memory spaces, broadly understood as “networks of interconnections among the representations of events,” have not yet been studied from a theoretical perspective. Here we propose a mathematical approach that allows modeling memory spaces constructively, as epiphenomena of neuronal spiking activity and thus to interlink several important notions of cognitive neurophysiology. First, we suggest that memory spaces have a topological nature—a hypothesis that allows treating both spatial and non-spatial aspects of hippocampal function on equal footing. We then model the hippocampal memory spaces in different environments and demonstrate that the resulting constructions naturally incorporate the corresponding cognitive maps and provide a wider context for interpreting spatial information. Lastly, we propose a formal description of the memory consolidation process that connects memory spaces to the Morris' cognitive schemas-heuristic representations of the acquired memories, used to explain the dynamics of learning and memory consolidation in a given environment. The proposed approach allows evaluating these constructs as the most compact representations of the memory space's structure.

  2. Neuropsychology and Advances in Memory Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gordon

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the functional and neural bases of several aspects of memory are described including long term cortical memory storage, the transition from immediate to permanent memory mediated by medial temporal structures, working memory, memory retrieval, and implicit memory. These are linked to current data on the nature of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in the degenerative diseases, and also to issues in the clinical diagnosis of memory impairments. Understanding the bases of memory can inform the diagnosis of memory impairments in degenerative diseases, and the patterns of impairment seen in the degenerative diseases can help contribute to knowledge of the mechanisms of normal memory.

  3. Using organisational memory in evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madri S. Jansen van Rensburg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the case of a regional intermediary organisation to investigate organisational memory (OM and its contribution to knowledge management and activities in evaluations. Understanding of, and accessing OM is critical for participatory evaluations. The aim of the article is to reflect on the OM of a non-governmental organisation (NGO and what implicationsthe structural changes in OM over the organisation’s life cycle have for evaluators. It further aims to advocate an awareness of OM and explains how evaluators can access and utilise it more effectively. Evaluators need to have an understanding of OM, and to take more responsibility for disseminating results to enhance it. This case study reflects on a retrospective case example of a regional NGO. The report reflects the development and structure of the life cycle of the organisation. The data collection included in-depth interviews with staff members and other key stakeholders, engagement with beneficiary organisations and donors, and analyses of documents, electronic files and audio-visual material. Since OM survives after the demise of an organisation, and is accessible through directories, it is important for the evaluator to include historical information. Specific implications for evaluators include the ability to access OM through directories and networks of the organisation. As evaluators hold OM of all the organisations they have engaged with, they also have a responsibility to share knowledge. The key findings of this study illustrate the importance of accessing the memory and historical information of the organisation. Understanding OM enhances the in-depth comprehension of the activity, project or programme under investigation, and the collective knowledge generated as a result of it.

  4. Global aspects of radiation memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicour, J

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the ‘electric’ type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although ‘magnetic’ type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged test particles obtain a net ‘kick’. Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B-mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E-mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution. (paper)

  5. Constructive memory: past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L

    2012-03-01

    Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications.

  6. Longevity pathways and memory aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkikas, Ilias; Petratou, Dionysia; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2014-01-01

    The aging process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of aging. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviors. Age-related memory impairment is an important phenotype of brain aging. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. Studies in invertebrate animal models have taught us much about the physiology of aging and its effects on learning and memory. In this review we survey recent progress relevant to conserved molecular pathways implicated in both aging and memory formation and consolidation.

  7. Longevity pathways and memory ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias eGkikas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ageing process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of ageing. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviours. Age-related memory impairment is an important phenotype of brain ageing. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. Studies in invertebrate animal models have taught us much about the physiology of ageing and its effects on learning and memory. In this review we survey recent progress relevant to conserved molecular pathways implicated in both ageing and memory formation and consolidation.

  8. True photographs and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D Stephen; Hagen, Lisa; Read, J Don; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne

    2004-03-01

    Some trauma-memory-oriented psychotherapists advise clients to review old family photo albums to cue suspected "repressed" memories of childhood sexual abuse. Old photos might cue long-forgotten memories, but when combined with other suggestive influences they might also contribute to false memories. We asked 45 undergraduates to work at remembering three school-related childhood events (two true events provided by parents and one pseudoevent). By random assignment, 23 subjects were also given their school classes' group photos from the years of the to-be-recalled events as memory cues. As predicted, the rate of false-memory reports was dramatically higher in the photo condition than in the no-photo condition. Indeed, the rate of false-memory reports in the photo condition was substantially higher than the rate in any previously published study.

  9. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Clinical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autobiographical memory plays a key role in psychological well-being, and the field has been investigated from multiple perspectives for more than thirty years. One large body of research has examined the basic mechanisms and characteristics of autobiographical memory during general cognition, an...... stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and autism, and how they affect autobiographical memory. It will be of interest to students of psychology, clinicians, and therapists alike......Autobiographical memory plays a key role in psychological well-being, and the field has been investigated from multiple perspectives for more than thirty years. One large body of research has examined the basic mechanisms and characteristics of autobiographical memory during general cognition......, and another body has studied what happens to it during psychological disorders, and how psychological therapies targeting memory disturbances can improve psychological well-being. This edited collection reviews and integrates current theories on autobiographical memory when viewed in a clinical perspective...

  11. Implicit Memory in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Latchford

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of neuropsychological studies have revealed that memory problems are relatively common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It may be useful to compare MS with conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD, which have been referred to as subcortical dementia. A characteristic of these conditions may be an impairment in implicit (unconscious memory, but not in explicit (conscious memory. The present study examined the functioning of explicit and implicit memory in MS. Results showed that implicit memory was not significantly impaired in the MS subjects, and that they were impaired on recall but not recognition. A correlation was found between implicit memory performance and disability status in MS patients. Findings also suggest the possibility of long-term priming of implicit memory in the control subjects. The implications of these results are discussed.

  12. Stress Effects on Working Memory, Explicit Memory, and Implicit Memory for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli in Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    Luethi, Mathias; Meier, Beat; Sandi, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Stress is a strong modulator of memory function. However, memory is not a unitary process and stress seems to exert different effects depending on the memory type under study. Here, we explored the impact of social stress on different aspects of human memory, including tests for explicit memory and working memory (for neutral materials), as well as implicit memory (perceptual priming, contextual priming and classical conditioning for emotional stimuli). A total of 35 young adult...

  13. Memory-Efficient Onboard Rock Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Michael C.; Thompson, David R.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; deGranville, Charles K.

    2013-01-01

    operations were re-coded to operate on horizontal data stripes across the image. Data types were reduced to smaller sizes where possible. Binary- valued intermediate results were squeezed into a more compact, one-bit-per-pixel representation through bit packing and bit manipulation macros. An estimated 16-fold reduction in memory footprint relative to the original Rockster algorithm was achieved. The resulting memory footprint is less than four times the base image size. Also, memory allocation calls were modified to draw from a static pool and consolidated to reduce memory management overhead and fragmentation. Rockster-MER has now been run onboard Opportunity numerous times as part of AEGIS with exceptional performance. Sample results are available on the AEGIS website at http://aegis.jpl.nasa.gov.

  14. Reward disrupts reactivated human skill memory

    OpenAIRE

    Dayan, Eran; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Censor, Nitzan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence across species and memory domains shows that when an existing memory is reactivated, it becomes susceptible to modifications. However, the potential role of reward signals in these mechanisms underlying human memory dynamics is unknown. Leaning on a wealth of findings on the role of reward in reinforcing memory, we tested the impact of reinforcing a skill memory trace with monetary reward following memory reactivation, on strengthening of the memory trace. Reinforcing re...

  15. TED KYCIA MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITTENBERG, L.; RUBINSTEIN, R.; SAMIOS, N.; LI, K.; GIACOMELLI, G.; MOCKETT, P.; CARROLL, A.; JOHNSON, R.; BRYMAN, D.; TIPPENS, B.

    2000-05-19

    On the afternoon of May 19 2000, a Memorial Seminar was held in the BNL physics Large Seminar Room to honor the memory of Ted Kyeia, a prominent particle physicist who had been a member of the BNL staff for 40 years. Although it was understandably a somewhat sad occasion because Ted was no longer with us, nevertheless there was much for his colleagues and friends to celebrate in recalling the outstanding contributions that he had made in those four decades. The Seminar speakers were all people who had worked with Ted during that period; each discussed one aspect of his career, but also included anecdotes and personal reminiscences. This booklet contains the Seminar program, listing the speakers, and also copies of transparencies of the talks (and one paper which was a later expansion of a talk); sadly, not all of the personal remarks appeared on the transparencies.

  16. Biomedical Shape Memory Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Xue-lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory polymers(SMPs are a class of functional "smart" materials that have shown bright prospects in the area of biomedical applications. The novel smart materials with multifunction of biodegradability and biocompatibility can be designed based on their general principle, composition and structure. In this review, the latest process of three typical biodegradable SMPs(poly(lactide acide, poly(ε-caprolactone, polyurethane was summarized. These three SMPs were classified in different structures and discussed, and shape-memory mechanism, recovery rate and fixed rate, response speed was analysed in detail, also, some biomedical applications were presented. Finally, the future development and applications of SMPs are prospected: two-way SMPs and body temperature induced SMPs will be the focus attension by researchers.

  17. Learning, memory, and synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here, we report on data from 11 color-grapheme synesthetes who had startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These are the first and only data to show learned synesthesia of this kind in more than a single individual. Whereas some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, our results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, in which perceptual contents are brought to mind in a manner akin to mental imagery or the perceptual-reinstatement effects found in memory studies.

  18. Mechanisms of epigenetic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, Agustina; Brickner, Jason H

    2014-06-01

    Although genetics has an essential role in defining the development, morphology, and physiology of an organism, epigenetic mechanisms have an essential role in modulating these properties by regulating gene expression. During development, epigenetic mechanisms establish stable gene expression patterns to ensure proper differentiation. Such mechanisms also allow organisms to adapt to environmental changes and previous experiences can impact the future responsiveness of an organism to a stimulus over long timescales and even over generations. Here, we discuss the concept of epigenetic memory, defined as the stable propagation of a change in gene expression or potential induced by developmental or environmental stimuli. We highlight three distinct paradigms of epigenetic memory that operate on different timescales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. TED KYCIA MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTENBERG, L.; RUBINSTEIN, R.; SAMIOS, N.; LI, K.; GIACOMELLI, G.; MOCKETT, P.; CARROLL, A.; JOHNSON, R.; BRYMAN, D.; TIPPENS, B.

    2000-01-01

    On the afternoon of May 19 2000, a Memorial Seminar was held in the BNL physics Large Seminar Room to honor the memory of Ted Kyeia, a prominent particle physicist who had been a member of the BNL staff for 40 years. Although it was understandably a somewhat sad occasion because Ted was no longer with us, nevertheless there was much for his colleagues and friends to celebrate in recalling the outstanding contributions that he had made in those four decades. The Seminar speakers were all people who had worked with Ted during that period; each discussed one aspect of his career, but also included anecdotes and personal reminiscences. This booklet contains the Seminar program, listing the speakers, and also copies of transparencies of the talks (and one paper which was a later expansion of a talk); sadly, not all of the personal remarks appeared on the transparencies

  20. Short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  1. Working memory in chess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Anderson, E J; Barker, D R; Bradley, A C; Fearnyhough, C; Henson, R; Hudson, S R

    1996-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of working memory in various aspects of thinking in chess. Experiment 1 examined the immediate memory for briefly presented chess positions from master games in players from a wide range of abilities, following the imposition of various secondary tasks designed to block separate components of working memory. Suppression of the articulatory loop (by preventing subvocal rehearsal) had no effect on measures of recall, whereas blocking the visuospatial sketchpad (by manipulation of a keypad) and blocking the central executive (by random letter generation) had equivalent disruptive effects, in comparison with a control condition. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of similar secondary tasks on the solution (i.e., move selection) of tactical chess positions, and a similar pattern was found, except that blocking the central executive was much more disruptive than in Experiment 1. Experiment 3 compared performance on two types of primary task, one concerned with solving chess positions as in Experiment 2, and the other a sentence-rearrangement task. The secondary tasks in each case were both designed to block the central executive, but one was verbal (vocal generation of random numbers), while the other was spatial in nature (random generation of keypresses). Performance of the spatial secondary task was affected to a greater extent by the chess primary task than by the verbal primary task, whereas there were no differential effects on these secondary tasks by the verbal primary task. In none of the three experiments were there any differential effects between weak and strong players. These results are interpreted in the context of the working-memory model and previous theories of the nature of cognition in chess.

  2. Segmenting memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Fredembach, Clément; Estrada, Francisco; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Memory colours refer to the colour of specific image classes that have the essential attribute of being perceived in a consistent manner by human observers. In colour correction or rendering tasks, this consistency implies that they have to be faithfully reproduced; their importance, in that respect, is greater than other regions in an image. Before these regions can be properly addressed, one must in general detect them. There are various schemes and attributes to do so, but the preferred me...

  3. Representation in Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-07

    notion of the schema finds its way into modern cognitive psychology from the writings of Bartlett (1932) and from Piaget (1952). Throughout most of its...Anderson. Cognitive algebra: Information integration applied to social attribution. December, 1972. 32. Jean H. Handler and Nancy L. Stein. Recall...knowledge in memory. January, 1976. 56. David E. Rumelhart. Toward an interactive model of reading. March, 1976. 57. Jean M. Handler, Nancy S

  4. Quantum Associative Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Dan; Martinez, Tony

    1998-01-01

    This paper combines quantum computation with classical neural network theory to produce a quantum computational learning algorithm. Quantum computation uses microscopic quantum level effects to perform computational tasks and has produced results that in some cases are exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. The unique characteristics of quantum theory may also be used to create a quantum associative memory with a capacity exponential in the number of neurons. This paper combi...

  5. A Memorial Gathering

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Bob Dobinson (1943-2004) Bob's friends and colleagues are warmly invited to join in a memorial gathering on Thursday 15th April 2004 at 11:00 hours in the CERN Council Chamber/ Salle de Conseil (Bldg 503 1st floor) Some colleagues will pay tribute to Bob's lifetime achievements and his contributions to past and present experiments. The gathering will conclude with refreshments in the Salle des Pas Perdus.

  6. Hidden memories: frontline memory T cells and early pathogen interception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masopust, David; Picker, Louis J

    2012-06-15

    Immunologic memory reflects the ability of a host to more effectively respond to a re-encounter with a particular pathogen than the first encounter, and when a vaccine mimics the first encounter, comprises the basis of vaccine efficacy. For T cells, memory is often equated with the anamnestic response, the ability of secondary lymphoid tissue-based (central) memory T cells to respond to pathogen exposure with a more rapid and higher magnitude production and infection-site delivery of pathogen-specific effector cells than observed in naive hosts. However, increasing evidence supports a fundamentally different kind of T cell memory in which differentiated, long-lived effector memory T cells, prepositioned in sites of potential pathogen invasion or rapidly mobilized to such sites from blood and marginated pools, intercept and potentially control/eliminate pathogen within hours of infection. In this article, we review the evidence for this "hidden" T cell memory and its implication for vaccine development.

  7. Antiferroelectric Shape Memory Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Uchino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiferroelectrics (AFE can exhibit a “shape memory function controllable by electric field”, with huge isotropic volumetric expansion (0.26% associated with the AFE to Ferroelectric (FE phase transformation. Small inverse electric field application can realize the original AFE phase. The response speed is quick (2.5 ms. In the Pb0.99Nb0.02[(Zr0.6Sn0.41-yTiy]0.98O3 (PNZST system, the shape memory function is observed in the intermediate range between high temperature AFE and low temperature FE, or low Ti-concentration AFE and high Ti-concentration FE in the composition. In the AFE multilayer actuators (MLAs, the crack is initiated in the center of a pair of internal electrodes under cyclic electric field, rather than the edge area of the internal electrodes in normal piezoelectric MLAs. The two-sublattice polarization coupling model is proposed to explain: (1 isotropic volume expansion during the AFE-FE transformation; and (2 piezoelectric anisotropy. We introduce latching relays and mechanical clampers as possible unique applications of shape memory ceramics.

  8. Dielectric elastomer memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Xie, Sheng Q.; Calius, Emilio P.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2011-04-01

    Life shows us that the distribution of intelligence throughout flexible muscular networks is a highly successful solution to a wide range of challenges, for example: human hearts, octopi, or even starfish. Recreating this success in engineered systems requires soft actuator technologies with embedded sensing and intelligence. Dielectric Elastomer Actuator(s) (DEA) are promising due to their large stresses and strains, as well as quiet flexible multimodal operation. Recently dielectric elastomer devices were presented with built in sensor, driver, and logic capability enabled by a new concept called the Dielectric Elastomer Switch(es) (DES). DES use electrode piezoresistivity to control the charge on DEA and enable the distribution of intelligence throughout a DEA device. In this paper we advance the capabilities of DES further to form volatile memory elements. A set reset flip-flop with inverted reset line was developed based on DES and DEA. With a 3200V supply the flip-flop behaved appropriately and demonstrated the creation of dielectric elastomer memory capable of changing state in response to 1 second long set and reset pulses. This memory opens up applications such as oscillator, de-bounce, timing, and sequential logic circuits; all of which could be distributed throughout biomimetic actuator arrays. Future work will include miniaturisation to improve response speed, implementation into more complex circuits, and investigation of longer lasting and more sensitive switching materials.

  9. Architecture and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the links between architecture design and restoration, considering the blurry frontier that distinguishes this actions. The study holds in two contemporary architects performance: Lina Bo Bardi (1914-1992 and Aldo Rossi (1931-1997. The analyses of the concrete production, presented here by a work of each architecture – Sesc Pompeia and the Teatro Del Mondo – is based on the ability of reflection on the role of the memory in architecture: not only the memory in the buildings and urban fabrics materiality, but also the memory as an active instrument inside the mental processes adopted by the projects authors. Resorting to architects writings as well as authors who analyses this interventions, they seek to reconstitute the design development path, recognizing the strategy that reinterprets past experiences in order to overcome the traditional contraposition between “old” and “new”, tutorship and innovation.

  10. Sudoku associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiann-Ming; Hsu, Pei-Hsun; Liou, Cheng-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    This work presents bipolar neural systems for check-rule embedded pattern restoration, fault-tolerant information encoding and Sudoku memory construction and association. The primitive bipolar neural unit is generalized to have internal fields and activations, which are respectively characterized by exponential growth and logistic differential dynamics, in response to inhibitory and excitatory stimuli. Coupling extended bipolar units induces multi-state artificial Potts neurons which are interconnected with inhibitory synapses for Latin square encoding, K-alphabet Latin square encoding and Sudoku encoding. The proposed neural dynamics can generally restore Sudoku patterns from partial sparse clues. Neural relaxation is based on mean field annealing that well guarantees reliable convergence to ground states. Sudoku associative memory combines inhibitory interconnections of Sudoku encoding with Hebb's excitatory synapses of encoding conjunctive relations among active units over memorized patterns. Sudoku associative memory is empirically shown reliable and effective for restoring memorized patterns subject to typical sparse clues, fewer partial clues, dense clues and perturbed or damaged clues. On the basis, compound Sudoku patterns are further extended to emulate complex topological information encoding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories.

  12. Unifying Memory and Database Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, João M.

    Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.

  13. The evolution of episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  14. Positive consequences of false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Patel, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote associates, some of whose solutions had been primed by false memories created when studying the previous lists. The results showed that regardless of age: (a) survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions; and (b) survival-related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-solving. These findings are discussed in the context of recent speculation concerning the positive consequences of false memories, and the adaptive nature of reconstructive memory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  16. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    Full Text Available People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",..., lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black". Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  17. Working Memory Systems in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratch, Alexander; Kann, Spencer; Cain, Joshua A; Wu, Jie-En; Rivera-Reyes, Nilda; Dalecki, Stefan; Arman, Diana; Dunn, Austin; Cooper, Shiloh; Corbin, Hannah E; Doyle, Amanda R; Pizzo, Matthew J; Smith, Alexandra E; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-02-08

    A fundamental feature of memory in humans is the ability to simultaneously work with multiple types of information using independent memory systems. Working memory is conceptualized as two independent memory systems under executive control [1, 2]. Although there is a long history of using the term "working memory" to describe short-term memory in animals, it is not known whether multiple, independent memory systems exist in nonhumans. Here, we used two established short-term memory approaches to test the hypothesis that spatial and olfactory memory operate as independent working memory resources in the rat. In the olfactory memory task, rats chose a novel odor from a gradually incrementing set of old odors [3]. In the spatial memory task, rats searched for a depleting food source at multiple locations [4]. We presented rats with information to hold in memory in one domain (e.g., olfactory) while adding a memory load in the other domain (e.g., spatial). Control conditions equated the retention interval delay without adding a second memory load. In a further experiment, we used proactive interference [5-7] in the spatial domain to compromise spatial memory and evaluated the impact of adding an olfactory memory load. Olfactory and spatial memory are resistant to interference from the addition of a memory load in the other domain. Our data suggest that olfactory and spatial memory draw on independent working memory systems in the rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multilevel radiative thermal memory realized by the hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO 2 film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management

  19. Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

  20. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed hi...

  1. A Phase Change Memory as a Secure Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Seznec , André

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Phase change memory (PCM) technology appears as more scalable than DRAM technology. As PCM exhibits access time slightly longer but in the same range as DRAMs, several recent studies have proposed to use PCMs for designing main memory systems. Unfortunately PCM technology suffers from a limited write endurance; typically each memory cell can be only be written a large but still limited number of times (107 to 109 writes are reported for current technology). Till now, r...

  2. Working Memory Influences on Long-Term Memory and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This project was conducted with the aim of understanding the role of working memory in the comprehension and long-term retention of event-specific...information. This study looked at how comprehension and memory processing at the mental model level is related to traditional measures of working memory ...capacity, including the word span, reading span, operation span, and spatial span tests. Issues of particular interest were the ability to remember

  3. Dreams are made of memories, but maybe not for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Ruby, Perrine; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's claim that rapid eye movement (REM) dream imagery may be related to the processes involved in memory consolidation during sleep is plausible. However, whereas there is voluntary and deliberate intention behind the construction of images in the ancient art of memory (AAOM) method, there is a lack of intentionality in producing dream images. The memory for dreams is also fragile, and dependent on encoding once awake.

  4. Shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feina

    Shape memory polymers are smart materials which can remember their original shapes. However, the low recovery stress and low mechanical strength limit the commercial applications of shape memory polymers. In this study, nanoclays were introduced to shape memory polyurethanes (SMPU) to augment these properties by enhance the network of SMPU. Several factors which influence the shape recovery stress were evaluated, including the nature of polymer chain by using different monomers, type of clay particles, extent of filler dispersion, clay content and deformation conditions. It was found that only reactive clay particles were well dispersed into polyurethane matrix by the tethering between --CH2CH 2OH functional groups in clay surfactants and polyurethane chains. Two different shape memory polyurethanes (Systems I & II) prepared by bulk polymerization were compared. The shape memory effect of System I was triggered by melting of the soft segment crystals, while that of System II was by glass transition of the soft segments. It was seen that the reactive clay particles dispersed well in both polyurethane matrices and augmented the recovery stress, e.g., 20% increase with 1 wt % nanoclay in System I and 40% increase with 5 wt % nanoclay in System II were observed. In System I, clay particles interfered with soft segment crystallization, and promoted phase mixing between the hard and soft segments, thus affecting the fixity and recovery ratio. Nevertheless, the soft segment crystallinity was still enough and in some cases increased due to stretching to exhibit excellent shape fixity and shape recovery ratio. The higher loading of clay particles accelerated the stress relaxation, resulting in reduction of recovery stress. In System II, no significant effect of clay particles in phase separation was observed, so there was no influence of clay on shape fixity and recovery ratio. The recovery stress increased with reactive nanoclay content. It was also found that the recovery

  5. Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2010-04-02

    Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L.; Guerin, Scott A.; St. Jacques, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    Memory is prone to distortions that can have serious consequences in everyday life. Here we integrate emerging evidence that several types of memory distortions – imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors, and post-event misinformation – reflect adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory, but produce distortions as a consequence of doing so. We consider recent cognitive and neuroimaging studies that link these distortions with adaptive processes, including simulation of future events, semantic and contextual encoding, creativity, and memory updating. We also discuss new evidence concerning factors that can influence the occurrence of memory distortions, such as sleep and retrieval conditions, as well as conceptual issues related to the development of an adaptive perspective. PMID:21908231

  7. Is memory for music special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D

    2009-07-01

    Although psychologists since Hermann Ebbinghaus have studied memory, research in this area has focused on visual and verbal stimuli with little attention paid to music. This bias is surprising because of the ubiquity of music in human cultures across history as well as current cultural beliefs that memory for music is "special." This paper examines the question of whether memory for music is special by addressing two related questions: First, do cultural beliefs about the mnemonic power of music stand up to empirical test? Second, can theories designed to explain memory for non-musical stimuli be applied to musical stimuli? A review of the literature suggests that music is special in some circumstances but not others and that some theories designed to explain cognitive processing of linguistic stimuli apply reasonably well to musical stimuli. Thus, although the question of whether memory for music is special remains open, the unique structure of musical stimuli strongly suggests that memory for music is indeed special.

  8. The Agency of Memory Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2016-01-01

    and international tourists’ photographs and notes, especially their visual encounters with the exhibition, are understood as participatory interactions in the course of memory work. The article’s aim is twofold: introducing an ANT-inspired methodology to the field of memory studies, and mapping a Sowetan memory......This article analyses the multifarious acts of cultural memory taking place in the small, almost hidden, exhibition space of the famous Regina Mundi Church in Soweto, South Africa, home to the photographic exhibition “The Story of Soweto.” Next to the photographs (1950-2010) by well-known apartheid...... of action, examining the idea that objects, such as images, that leave a trace can act as mediators of memory. Starting from visitors’ appropriations of the exhibition space, the essay sheds light on the different life cycles of memory objects, in particular images, and their diverse mediations. Domestic...

  9. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...... bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where...

  10. Using Childhood Memories to Gain Insight into Brand Meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun-LaTour, K.; Latour, M.; Zinkhan, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce the concept that people's earliest and defining product memories can be used as a projective tool to help managers more fully understand consumers' relationships to their products. The authors use a study on three generations of automobile consumers to

  11. Patterns of referral to Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health, University of Cape Town and Red Cross War. Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town. P. 1. ... and time of arrival and labelled with a standard hospital sticker indicating the name, date of binh, hospital ..... London: King Edward's Hospital Fund fOt London, 1983.' . 10. Technical Management Service, Cape Town ...

  12. The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Regina G.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory,…

  13. Long memory and changing persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Robinson; Sibbertsen, Philipp

    We study the empirical behaviour of semi-parametric log-periodogram estimation for long memory models when the true process exhibits a change in persistence. Simulation results confirm theoretical arguments which suggest that evidence for long memory is likely to be found. A recently proposed test...... by Sibbertsen and Kruse (2009) is shown to exhibit noticeable power to discriminate between long memory and a structural change in autoregressive parameters....

  14. Memory transition between communicating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena FELL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available What happens to a memory when it has been externalised and embodied but has not reached its addressee yet? A letter that has been written but has not been read, a monument before it is unveiled or a Neolithic tool buried in the ground – all these objects harbour human memories engrained in their physicality; messages intended for those who will read the letter, admire the monument and hold the tool. According to Ilyenkov’s theory of objective idealism, the conscious and wilful input encoded in all manmade objects as the ‘ideal’ has an objective existence, independent from the author, but this existence lasts only while memories are shared between communicating parties. If all human minds were absent from the world for a period of time, the ‘ideal’, or memories, would cease to exist. They would spring back to existence, however, once humans re-entered the world. Ilyenkov’s analysis of memories existing outside an individual human consciousness is informative and thorough but, following his line of thought, we would have to accept an ontological gap in the process of memory acquisition, storage and transmission. If there is a period, following memory acquisition and preceding its transmission, when memories plainly do not exist, then each time a new reader, spectator or user perceives them, he or she must create the author’s memories ex nihilo. Bergson’s theory of duration and intuition can help us to resolve this paradox.This paper will explore the ontological characteristics of memory passage in communication taken at different stages of the process. There will be an indication of how the findings of this investigation could be applicable to concrete cases of memory transmission. In particular, this concerns intergenerational communication, technological memory, the use of digital devices and the Internet.

  15. Longevity pathways and memory aging

    OpenAIRE

    Gkikas, Ilias; Petratou, Dionysia; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2014-01-01

    The aging process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of aging. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviors. Age-related memory impairment is an important pheno...

  16. Longevity pathways and memory ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias eGkikas; Dionisia ePetratou; Nektarios eTavernarakis

    2014-01-01

    The ageing process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of ageing. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviours. Age-related memory impairment is an important ph...

  17. Memory Overview - Technologies and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    As NASA has evolved it's usage of spaceflight computing, memory applications have followed as well. In this talk, we will discuss the history of NASA's memories from magnetic core and tape recorders to current semiconductor approaches. We will briefly describe current functional memory usage in NASA space systems followed by a description of potential radiation-induced failure modes along with considerations for reliable system design.

  18. Working memory and simultaneous interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Timarova, Sarka

    2009-01-01

    Working memory is a cognitive construct underlying a number of abilities, and it has been hypothesised for many years that it is crucial for interpreting. A number of studies have been conducted with the aim to support this hypothesis, but research has not yielded convincing results. Most researchers focused on studying working memory differences between interpreters and non-interpreters with the rationale that differences in working memory between the two groups would provide evidence of wor...

  19. Adding memory processing behaviors to the fuzzy behaviorist-based navigation of mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.; Bender, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Most fuzzy logic-based reasoning schemes developed for robot control are fully reactive, i.e., the reasoning modules consist of fuzzy rule bases that represent direct mappings from the stimuli provided by the perception systems to the responses implemented by the motion controllers. Due to their totally reactive nature, such reasoning systems can encounter problems such as infinite loops and limit cycles. In this paper, we proposed an approach to remedy these problems by adding a memory and memory-related behaviors to basic reactive systems. Three major types of memory behaviors are addressed: memory creation, memory management, and memory utilization. These are first presented, and examples of their implementation for the recognition of limit cycles during the navigation of an autonomous robot in a priori unknown environments are then discussed.

  20. Entanglement fidelity of quantum memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surmacz, K.; Nunn, J.; Waldermann, F. C.; Wang, Z.; Walmsley, I. A.; Jaksch, D.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a figure of merit for a quantum memory which measures the preservation of entanglement between a qubit stored in and retrieved from the memory and an auxiliary qubit. We consider a general quantum memory system consisting of a medium of two level absorbers, with the qubit to be stored encoded in a single photon. We derive an analytic expression for our figure of merit taking into account Gaussian fluctuations in the Hamiltonian parameters, which, for example, model inhomogeneous broadening and storage time dephasing. Finally we specialize to the case of an atomic quantum memory where fluctuations arise predominantly from Doppler broadening and motional dephasing

  1. Family Ties: Reframing Memory, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Nicky

    2014-01-01

    How might we read memory in relation to the family, and how might we enact these memories in visual form? This group exhibition addresses the representation of family memory through the lens-based works of six artists. Family Ties: Reframing Memory explores the bittersweet aspects of nostalgia, yet also questions the conflicts and contradictions inherent in acts of remembering. \\ud \\ud Suze Adams navigates the borders of fact and fiction in an exploratory re-tracing of her maternal ancestors....

  2. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829-839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension--the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance-long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory.

  3. Changing concepts of working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei Ji; Husain, Masud; Bays, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is widely considered to be limited in capacity, holding a fixed, small number of items, such as Miller's ‘magical number’ seven or Cowan's four. It has recently been proposed that working memory might better be conceptualized as a limited resource that is distributed flexibly among all items to be maintained in memory. According to this view, the quality rather than the quantity of working memory representations determines performance. Here we consider behavioral and emerging neural evidence for this proposal. PMID:24569831

  4. Acute exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory...... practice whereas lactate correlated with better retention 1 hour as well as 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Thus, improvements in motor skill acquisition and retention induced by acute cardiovascular exercise are associated with increased concentrations of biomarkers involved in memory and learning...... processes. More mechanistic studies are required to elucidate the specific role of each biomarker in the formation of motor memory....

  5. Dreaming and offline memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections.

  6. Updating optical pseudoinverse associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, B; Casasent, D

    1989-07-01

    Selected algorithms for adding to and deleting from optical pseudoinverse associative memories are presented and compared. New realizations of pseudoinverse updating methods using vector inner product matrix bordering and reduced-dimensionality Karhunen-Loeve approximations (which have been used for updating optical filters) are described in the context of associative memories. Greville's theorem is reviewed and compared with the Widrow-Hoff algorithm. Kohonen's gradient projection method is expressed in a different form suitable for optical implementation. The data matrix memory is also discussed for comparison purposes. Memory size, speed and ease of updating, and key vector requirements are the comparison criteria used.

  7. Effects of medicinal plants on Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits. Various studies have been carried out to find therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease. However, the proper treatment option is still not available. There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but symptomatic treatment may improve the memory and other dementia related problems. Traditional medicine is practiced worldwide as memory enhancer since ancient times. Natural therapy including herbs and medicinal plants has been used in the treatment of memory deficits such as dementia, amnesia, as well as Alzheimer's disease since a long time. Medicinal plants have been used in different systems of medicine, particularly Unani system of medicines and exhibited their powerful roles in the management and cure of memory disorders. Most of herbs and plants have been chemically evaluated and their efficacy has also been proven in clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms of actions are still on the way. In this paper, we have reviewed the role of different medicinal plants that play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits using conventional herbal therapy.

  8. Working Memory Performance among Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Heather M.; Ashford, Jason M.; Howarth, Robyn A.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Ogg, Robert J.; Santana, Victor; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    While longitudinal studies of children treated for brain tumors have consistently revealed declines on measures of intellectual functioning, greater specification of cognitive changes following treatment is imperative for isolating vulnerable neural systems and developing targeted interventions. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study evaluated the performance of childhood brain tumor survivors (n= 50) treated with conformal radiation therapy, solid tumor survivors (n= 40) who had not received CNS-directed therapy, and healthy sibling controls (n= 40) on measures of working memory [Digit Span and computerized self-ordered search (SOS) tasks]. Findings revealed childhood brain tumor survivors were impaired on both traditional [Digit Span Backward- F(2, 127)= 5.98, p< .01] and experimental [SOS-Verbal- F(2, 124)= 4.18, p< .05; SOS-Object- F(2, 126)= 5.29, p< .01] measures of working memory, and performance on working memory measures correlated with intellectual functioning (Digit Span Backward- r= .45, p< .0001; SOS- r= −.32 − −.26, p< .01). Comparison of performance on working memory tasks to recognition memory tasks (computerized delayed match-to-sample) offered some support for greater working memory impairment. This pattern of findings is consistent with vulnerability in functional networks that include prefrontal brain regions and has implications for the clinical management of children with brain tumors. PMID:22691544

  9. Les Caisses d’épargne face à l’avènement d’un groupe bancaire universel : le changement organisationnel entre ingénierie managériale de la mémoire et attachement au passé The Caisses d'Epargne, a mutual savings bank in transition to a global banking Group: Organisational change between managing institutional memory and attachment to the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tassel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Il est d’usage d’aborder le changement organisationnel sous l’angle de sa gestion, de son accompagnement ou de sa conduite. Si l’on ne peut nier le caractère opératoire de ces approches, elles passent sous silence la dimension essentielle pour la compréhension du changement que constitue le rapport à la mémoire et au passé.A partir d’une enquête ethnographique de terrain menée de 2003 à 2007 au sein d’une grande institution bancaire (le Groupe Caisse d’Epargne, cet article entend montrer quelques uns des enjeux proprement mémoriels que le changement engage : difficultés à reconnaître l’entreprise dans ce qu’il advient d’elle, production managériales visant à renouer le lien entre présent et passé que le changement est venu altérer, mise en place, par les collaborateurs de pratiques qui permettent de maintenir l’engagement originel de l’organisation.Organisational change is usually considered from a management or an implementation point of view. This approach, as operational as it may be, ignores the relationship to memory and the past generally, which is fundamental in order to understand changes.Based on ethnographic field studies carried out from 2003 and 2007 at a major financial institution (Caisse d'Epargne Group, this article purports to shed light on certain memory-based challenges induced by change: difficulties to recognise the company as it evolves, managerial efforts to link the current situation with the past, which has been altered by the changes, conducts of staff members influenced by a willingness to uphold the original mission of the organisation. 

  10. Milestoning with coarse memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Alexander T.

    2013-04-01

    Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics of molecular processes occurring on timescales inaccessible to traditional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In the method, the phase space of the system is partitioned by milestones (hypersurfaces), trajectories are initialized on each milestone, and short MD simulations are performed to calculate transitions between neighboring milestones. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process from the observed statistics of transition. The procedure is typically justified by the assumption that trajectories lose memory between crossing successive milestones. Here we present Milestoning with Coarse Memory (MCM), a generalization of Milestoning that relaxes the memory loss assumption of conventional Milestoning. In the method, milestones are defined and sample transitions are calculated in the standard Milestoning way. Then, after it is clear where trajectories sample milestones, the milestones are broken up into distinct neighborhoods (clusters), and each sample transition is associated with two clusters: the cluster containing the coordinates the trajectory was initialized in, and the cluster (on the terminal milestone) containing trajectory's final coordinates. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process in an extended state space built from milestone and cluster indices. To test the method, we apply it to a process that is particularly ill suited for Milestoning: the dynamics of a polymer confined to a narrow cylinder. We show that Milestoning calculations of both the mean first passage time and the mean transit time of reversal—which occurs when the end-to-end vector reverses direction—are significantly improved when MCM is applied. Finally, we note the overhead of performing MCM on top of conventional Milestoning is negligible.

  11. Item memory, source memory, and the medial temporal lobe: Concordant findings from fMRI and memory-impaired patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Smith, Christine N.; Bayley, Peter J.; Shrager, Yael; Brewer, James B.; Stark, Craig E. L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied item and source memory with fMRI in healthy volunteers and carried out a parallel study in memory-impaired patients. In experiment 1, volunteers studied a list of words in the scanner and later took an item memory test and a source memory test. Brain activity in the hippocampal region, perirhinal cortex, and parahippocampal cortex was associated with words that would later be remembered (item memory). The activity in these regions that predicted subsequent success at item memory pr...

  12. Nanoreinforced shape memory polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Tara Beth

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are functional materials, which find applications in a broad range of temperature sensing elements and biological micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). These polymers are capable of fixing a transient shape and recovering to their original shape after a series of thermo-mechanical treatments. Generally, these materials are thermoplastic segmented polyurethanes composed of soft segments, usually formed by a polyether macroglycol, and hard segments formed from the reaction of a diisocyanate with a low molecular mass diol. The hard segment content is a key parameter to control the final properties of the polymer, such as rubbery plateau modulus, melting point, hardness, and tensile strength. The long flexible soft segment largely controls the low temperature properties, solvent resistance, and weather resistance properties. The morphology and properties of polyurethanes (PU) are greatly influenced by the ratio of hard and soft block components and the average block lengths. However, in some applications, SMPs may not generate enough recovery force to be useful. The reinforcement of SMPs using nanofillers represents a novel approach of enhancing the performance of these materials. The incorporation of these fillers into SMPs can produce performance enhancements (particularly elastic modulus) at small nanoparticle loadings (˜1-2 wt %). An optimal performance of nanofiller-polymer nanocomposites requires uniform dispersion of filler in polymers and good interfacial adhesion. The addition of nanofillers like cellulose nanofibers (CNF), conductive cellulose nanofibers (C-CNF), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) allows for the production of stiffer materials with deformation capacity comparable to that of the unfilled polymer. Additionally, the use of conductive nanoreinforcements such as C-CNF and CNTs leads to new pathways for actuation of the shape memory effect. During this work, thermoplastic shape memory polyurethanes were synthesized with

  13. Memory, Mind and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memory, Mind and Language celebrates the 30th anniversary of the The Nordic Association of Linguists (NAL) and the main contribution is the history of those first 30 years. The book is also an overview of trends and basic problems in linguistics in the first decennium of the 21st century. It takes...... up a number of topics in the field, among them the question of synchrony vs. diachrony in the language sciences, and issues of how to investigate the relationship between language, brain and mind. The book proposes some preliminary solutions to that problem, and, most significantly, it touches...

  14. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter [Kensington, CA

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  15. Models of wave memory

    CERN Document Server

    Kashchenko, Serguey

    2015-01-01

    This monograph examines in detail models of neural systems described by delay-differential equations. Each element of the medium (neuron) is an oscillator that generates, in standalone mode, short impulses also known as spikes. The book discusses models of synaptic interaction between neurons, which lead to complex oscillatory modes in the system. In addition, it presents a solution to the problem of choosing the parameters of interaction in order to obtain attractors with predetermined structure. These attractors are represented as images encoded in the form of autowaves (wave memory). The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but it will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. Memory, collective memory, orality and the gospels | Duling | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article first explores individual memory as understood from the time of the ancient Greeks and Romans to modern-day neurology and psychology. The perspective is correlated with collective memory theory in the works of Halbwachs, Connerton, Gillis, Fentress and Wickham, Olick, Schwartz, Jan and Alida Assmann ...

  17. Memory in Architecture : Contemporary memorial projects and their predecessors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanovic, S.

    2015-01-01

    This research is focused on several case studies, all contemporary architectural projects, dedicated to commemoration of different atrocities. The process of creating a memorial is bound up with a wide range of influences and affects, like any architectural project. However, building a memorial is

  18. The relation between verbal and visuospatial memory and autobiographical memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.M.J.; Kristo, G.; Rouw, R.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The basic-systems approach (Rubin, 2005, 2006) states that autobiographical memory is supported by other cognitive systems and argues that autobiographical memories are constructed from interactions between cognitive systems, such as language, vision and emotion. Although deficiencies in one or more

  19. Addiction memory as a specific, individually learned memory imprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, J

    2009-05-01

    The construct of "addiction memory" (AM) and its importance for relapse occurrence has been the subject of discussion for the past 30 years. Neurobiological findings from "social neuroscience" and biopsychological learning theory, in conjunction with construct-valid behavioral pharmacological animal models, can now also provide general confirmation of addiction memory as a pathomorphological correlate of addiction disorders. Under multifactorial influences, experience-driven neuronal learning and memory processes of emotional and cognitive processing patterns in the specific individual "set" and "setting" play an especially pivotal role in this connection. From a neuropsychological perspective, the episodic (biographical) memory, located at the highest hierarchical level, is of central importance for the formation of the AM in certain structural and functional areas of the brain and neuronal networks. Within this context, neuronal learning and conditioning processes take place more or less unconsciously and automatically in the preceding long-term-memory systems (in particular priming and perceptual memory). They then regulate the individually programmed addiction behavior implicitly and thus subsequently stand for facilitated recollection of corresponding, previously stored cues or context situations. This explains why it is so difficult to treat an addiction memory, which is embedded above all in the episodic memory, from the molecular carrier level via the neuronal pattern level through to the psychological meaning level, and has thus meanwhile become a component of personality.

  20. On the Susceptibility of Adaptive Memory to False Memory Illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Derbish, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority…

  1. False memories, nonbelieved memories, and the unresolved primacy of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Mahr & Csibra (M&C) make a compelling case for a communicative function of episodic remembering, but a less compelling case that this is its primary function. Questions arise on whether confirming their predictions would support their account sufficiently, on the communicative function of preserving rich, nonbelieved memories, and on the epistemic benefits of developing false memories via the acceptance of misinformation.

  2. Nanographene charge trapping memory with a large memory window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianling; Yang, Rong; Zhao, Jing; He, Congli; Wang, Guole; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2015-11-01

    Nanographene is a promising alternative to metal nanoparticles or semiconductor nanocrystals for charge trapping memory. In general, a high density of nanographene is required in order to achieve high charge trapping capacity. Here, we demonstrate a strategy of fabrication for a high density of nanographene for charge trapping memory with a large memory window. The fabrication includes two steps: (1) direct growth of continuous nanographene film; and (2) isolation of the as-grown film into high-density nanographene by plasma etching. Compared with directly grown isolated nanographene islands, abundant defects and edges are formed in nanographene under argon or oxygen plasma etching, i.e. more isolated nanographene islands are obtained, which provides more charge trapping sites. As-fabricated nanographene charge trapping memory shows outstanding memory properties with a memory window as wide as ∼9 V at a relative low sweep voltage of ±8 V, program/erase speed of ∼1 ms and robust endurance of >1000 cycles. The high-density nanographene charge trapping memory provides an outstanding alternative for downscaling technology beyond the current flash memory.

  3. Relations between subjective evaluations of memory and objective memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.W; Berg, I.J; Deelman, B.G

    2001-01-01

    Several explanations for the weak relations between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance were investigated in two groups of normal older adults. Group 1 sampled a general population (mean age 61.6 yr., range 46-891, while Group 2 sampled subjects who were on a waiting Est for

  4. Reward disrupts reactivated human skill memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Eran; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Censor, Nitzan

    2016-06-16

    Accumulating evidence across species and memory domains shows that when an existing memory is reactivated, it becomes susceptible to modifications. However, the potential role of reward signals in these mechanisms underlying human memory dynamics is unknown. Leaning on a wealth of findings on the role of reward in reinforcing memory, we tested the impact of reinforcing a skill memory trace with monetary reward following memory reactivation, on strengthening of the memory trace. Reinforcing reactivated memories did not strengthen the memory, but rather led to disruption of the memory trace, breaking down the link between memory reactivation and subsequent memory strength. Statistical modeling further revealed a strong mediating role for memory reactivation in linking between memory encoding and subsequent memory strength only when the memory was replayed without reinforcement. We suggest that, rather than reinforcing the existing memory trace, reward creates a competing memory trace, impairing expression of the original reward-free memory. This mechanism sheds light on the processes underlying skill acquisition, having wide translational implications.

  5. Oscillatory Reinstatement Enhances Declarative Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Glen, James C; Halkiopoulos, Sara; Schulz, Mei; Spiers, Hugo J

    2017-10-11

    Declarative memory recall is thought to involve the reinstatement of neural activity patterns that occurred previously during encoding. Consistent with this view, greater similarity between patterns of activity recorded during encoding and retrieval has been found to predict better memory performance in a number of studies. Recent models have argued that neural oscillations may be crucial to reinstatement for successful memory retrieval. However, to date, no causal evidence has been provided to support this theory, nor has the impact of oscillatory electrical brain stimulation during encoding and retrieval been assessed. To explore this we used transcranial alternating current stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of human participants [ n = 70, 45 females; age mean (SD) = 22.12 (2.16)] during a declarative memory task. Participants received either the same frequency during encoding and retrieval (60-60 or 90-90 Hz) or different frequencies (60-90 or 90-60 Hz). When frequencies matched there was a significant memory improvement (at both 60 and 90 Hz) relative to sham stimulation. No improvement occurred when frequencies mismatched. Our results provide support for the role of oscillatory reinstatement in memory retrieval. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent neurobiological models of memory have argued that large-scale neural oscillations are reinstated to support successful memory retrieval. Here we used transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to test these models. tACS has recently been shown to induce neural oscillations at the frequency stimulated. We stimulated over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a declarative memory task involving learning a set of words. We found that tACS applied at the same frequency during encoding and retrieval enhances memory. We also find no difference between the two applied frequencies. Thus our results are consistent with the proposal that reinstatement of neural oscillations during retrieval

  6. Knowledge Management: A Skeptic's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation discussing knowledge management is shown. The topics include: 1) What is Knowledge Management? 2) Why Manage Knowledge? The Presenting Problems; 3) What Gets Called Knowledge Management? 4) Attempts to Rethink Assumptions about Knowledgs; 5) What is Knowledge? 6) Knowledge Management and INstitutional Memory; 7) Knowledge Management and Culture; 8) To solve a social problem, it's easier to call for cultural rather than organizational change; 9) Will the Knowledge Management Effort Succeed? and 10) Backup: Metrics for Valuing Intellectural Capital i.e. Knowledge.

  7. Concept of dynamic memory in economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Valentina V.; Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we discuss a concept of dynamic memory and an application of fractional calculus to describe the dynamic memory. The concept of memory is considered from the standpoint of economic models in the framework of continuous time approach based on fractional calculus. We also describe some general restrictions that can be imposed on the structure and properties of dynamic memory. These restrictions include the following three principles: (a) the principle of fading memory; (b) the principle of memory homogeneity on time (the principle of non-aging memory); (c) the principle of memory reversibility (the principle of memory recovery). Examples of different memory functions are suggested by using the fractional calculus. To illustrate an application of the concept of dynamic memory in economics we consider a generalization of the Harrod-Domar model, where the power-law memory is taken into account.

  8. Do memory aids help everyday memory? A controlled trial of a Memory Aids Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Bonnie-Kate; Kapur, Narinder; Kopelman, Michael

    2018-06-01

    There is a growing body of knowledge about the use of compensatory memory aids in memory rehabilitation, but relatively few controlled trials on how to train the use of such aids. This study investigated the effects of systematic training in the use of compensatory memory aids on everyday memory functioning within a Memory Aids Service. In a controlled clinical trial, a comparison was made between treatment participants and waiting list controls. Participants had everyday memory problems secondary to progressive or non-progressive neurological conditions. Following baseline assessment and goal setting, treatment participants underwent three training sessions, in which memory aids were matched to goals, across a six week period, with a follow-up assessment 12 weeks later. Outcome was measured by a goal attainment diary, neuropsychological test performance, psychosocial questionnaires and a problem solving inventory. There was a significant treatment effect of training on the goal attainment diary but only at 12 weeks follow-up. A post-hoc analysis indicated that treatment was effective for participants with a non-progressive condition but not for participants with a progressive condition. We conclude that a Memory Aids Service can be beneficial for patients with a non-progressive neurological condition, and make suggestions that might inform future applications of memory aids with those who have a progressive neurological disorder.

  9. Multistate Resistive Switching Memory for Synaptic Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2016-07-12

    Reproducible low bias bipolar resistive switching memory in HfZnOx based memristors is reported. The modification of the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the ternary oxide film, which is facilitated by adding ZnO into HfO2, results in improved memory operation by the ternary oxide compared to the single binary oxides. A controlled multistate memory operation is achieved by controlling current compliance and RESET stop voltages. A high DC cyclic stability up to 400 cycles in the multistate memory performance is observed. Conventional synaptic operation in terms of potentiation, depression plasticity, and Ebbinghaus forgetting process are also studied. The memory mechanism is shown to originate from the migration of the oxygen vacancies and modulation of the interfacial layers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  10. A construção da memória organizacional utilizando o gerenciamento de processo nas pactuações da comissão intergestores bipartite do Sistema Único de SaúdeThe construction of the organizacional memory using the management of process in the agreements in the intermanagers' bipartite Commission in the SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes de Costa Remor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o gerenciamento de processo e a sua implicação na construção da memória organizacional. Apresenta a relevância do conhecimento em uma organização e os danos causados quando eles não são incorporados à memória da organização. O gerenciamento de processo por organizar e sistematizar os trabalhos parece permitir a disseminação do conhecimento dentro da organização, tanto para os indivíduos quanto para os repositórios. E por fim, apresenta o processo da pactuação na Comissão Intergestores Bipartite, Fórum de negociação e tomada de decisão entre os Gestores: Municipais e Estadual do SUS.The article approaches the management process and the implication in the construction of the organization’s memory. It presents the relevance of the knowledge in an organization and the mischief caused when they are not incorporated to the memory of the organization. The management of the process by organizing and systematizing the works, and for that, it permits the dissemination of the knowledge inside the organization, so much for the individuals or for the repositories. And finally, it presents the process of the agreement in the Intergestores Bipartite Commission, Forum of negotiation and decision-making between the State and Municipal Agents of the SUS.

  11. Neural oscillations in auditory working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wilsch, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis investigated memory load and memory decay in auditory working memory. Alpha power as a marker for memory load served as the primary indicator for load and decay fluctuations hypothetically reflecting functional inhibition of irrelevant information. Memory load was induced by presenting auditory signals (syllables and pure-tone sequences) in noise because speech-in-noise has been shown before to increase memory load. The aim of the thesis was to assess with magnetoencephalog...

  12. An Experimental Analysis of Memory Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory strengthened. Capuchin monkeys, pigeons, and humans showed similar visual-memory changes. Rhesus learned an auditory memory task and showed octave gener...

  13. The memory loophole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    The memory loophole supposes that the measurement of an entangled pair is influenced by the measurements of earlier pairs in the same run of measurements. To assert the memory loophole is thus to deny that measurement is intrinsically random. It is argued that measurement might instead involve a process of recovery and equilibrium in the measuring apparatus akin to that described in thermodynamics by Le Chatelier's principle. The predictions of quantum mechanics would then arise from conservation of the measured property in the combined system of apparatus and measured ensemble. Measurement would be consistent with classical laws of conservation, not simply in the classical limit of large numbers, but whatever the size of the ensemble. However variances from quantum mechanical predictions would be self-correcting and centripetal, rather than Markovian and increasing as under the standard theory. Entanglement correlations would persist, not because the entangled particles act in concert (which would entail nonlocality), but because the measurements of the particles were influenced by the one fluctuating state of imbalance in the process of measurement.

  14. Memory of Power Transformed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maleska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is focused on the phenomenon of power. Special attention is paid to the past understanding, research and explanation of what power is, and how it has been understood throughout history. Traditionally, power has referred to authority, influence, control. The research of literary works, however, has led me to the realization that the notion of power is understood in different terms in literature in comparison to how it is explained in philosophy and the social sciences. In order to contribute to the broader understanding of power from a literary point of view, this essay examines many questions concerning this phenomenon, such as: how does the past understanding of power determine how it is accepted and interpreted in the present? How are the success of the present efforts and initiatives affected by the memory of power? The essay attempts to show that the memory of the notion of power is not and cannot be fixed and given once and for all. Therefore, the literary examples provided demonstrate how the definitions of power given in the past are transformed and transfigured by present literary works, which show how we may “forget” what we know about this phenomenon, and define it from a new perspective.

  15. Exercising control over memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Edwin M.; Takacs, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Exercise can improve human cognition. A mechanistic connection between exercise and cognition has been revealed in several recent studies. Exercise increases cortical excitability and this in turn leads to enhanced memory consolidation. Together these studies dovetail with our growing understanding of memory consolidation and how it is regulated through changes in motor cortical excitability.

  16. Frameworking memory and serotonergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2017-07-26

    The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory. Bidirectional influence occurs between 5-HT markers and memory/amnesia. A growing number of researchers report that memory, amnesia, or forgetting modifies neural markers. Diverse approaches support the translatability of using neural markers and cerebral functions/dysfunctions, including memory formation and amnesia. At least, 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors and SERT seem to be useful neural markers and therapeutic targets. Hence, several mechanisms cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity or memory, including changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters.

  17. Understand memory, design better vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Bevan, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Naive lymphocytes have a finite lifespan and are continually replaced by input from generative organs. In contrast, memory cells or their progeny can last a lifetime. The expanded populations of memory cells and their more widespread distribution provide protection against recurrent infection.

  18. Atomic crystals resistive switching memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunsen; Zhang David Wei; Zhou Peng

    2017-01-01

    Facing the growing data storage and computing demands, a high accessing speed memory with low power and non-volatile character is urgently needed. Resistive access random memory with 4F 2 cell size, switching in sub-nanosecond, cycling endurances of over 10 12 cycles, and information retention exceeding 10 years, is considered as promising next-generation non-volatile memory. However, the energy per bit is still too high to compete against static random access memory and dynamic random access memory. The sneak leakage path and metal film sheet resistance issues hinder the further scaling down. The variation of resistance between different devices and even various cycles in the same device, hold resistive access random memory back from commercialization. The emerging of atomic crystals, possessing fine interface without dangling bonds in low dimension, can provide atomic level solutions for the obsessional issues. Moreover, the unique properties of atomic crystals also enable new type resistive switching memories, which provide a brand-new direction for the resistive access random memory. (topical reviews)

  19. Narratives and Memory in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlinson, Michael; Casey, Andrea; Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations remember through narratives and storytelling. The articles in this Special Issue explore the interface between organization studies, memory studies, and historiography. They focus on the practices for organizational remembering. Taken together, the articles explore the similarities...... and differences between ethnographic and historical methods for studying memory in organizations, which represents a contribution to the historic turn in organization studies....

  20. Memory and Perception: Remembering Snowflake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi FERNÁNDEZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Memories have the power to elicit certain beliefs in us. These are beliefs about time and beliefs about perception. The aim of this paper is to propose a notion of mnemonic content that can account for the rationality of forming those beliefs on the basis of our memories.

  1. Glutamate mechanisms underlying opiate memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.; de Vries, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    As the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, glutamate plays an undisputable integral role in opiate addiction. This relates, in part, to the fact that addiction is a disorder of learning and memory, and glutamate is required for most types of memory formation. As opiate addiction

  2. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  3. Body memories in dance improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    . The repetition instantiates a fresh memory of these habits while moulding them at the same time. Accordingly, any movement performed is always improvised in different degrees. Throughout the analysis I draw on resent phenomenological discussions to describe how body-memories unfold and find their form...

  4. Understand memory, design better vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Naive lymphocytes have a finite lifespan and are continually replaced by input from generative organs. In contrast, memory cells or their progeny can last a lifetime. The expanded populations of memory cells and their more widespread distribution provide protection against recurrent infection.

  5. Windows Memory Forensic Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-12

    Processes and DLLs  Process Memory  Kernel Memory and Objects  Networking  Registry  Crash Dumps, Hibernation , and Conversion  File System...any unique patterns or trends. It does bear a close resemblance to the socket layout from the Malware 2 dataset (see Figure 39). The ports list

  6. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  7. The Role of Memory in Document Re-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, X; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fulton, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    . For participants the act of organizing documents is itself a memory aid. Participants’ recommendations for PIM tools include support for information organization and simplistic visualizations that can be customized, e.g., using colour to highlight folders or documents. Research limitations......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore graduate students’ behaviour and perspectives regarding personal digital document management, as well as insights into the connections between memory and document re-finding. Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured interviews were conducted...

  8. Model-Driven Study of Visual Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekuler, Robert

    2004-01-01

    .... We synthesized concepts, insights, and methods from memory research, and from vision research, working within a coherent, quantitative framework for understanding episodic visual recognition memory...

  9. Working Memory: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Phillip L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a selective overview of the evolution of the concept and assessment of working memory, and how its assessment has been confused with the assessment of some components of attention. A literature search using PsychNet Gold was conducted using the terms working memory. In addition, the writer reviewed recommendations from a sampling of recent neuropsychology texts in regard to the assessment of attention and working memory, as well as the two most recent editions of the Wechsler Memory Scale. It is argued that many clinicians have an incomplete understanding of the relationship between attention and working memory, and often conflate the two in assessment and treatment. Suggestions were made for assessing these abilities.

  10. All-printed paper memory

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2016-08-11

    All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described. In an embodiment, a paper-based memory device is prepared by coating one or more areas of a paper substrate with a conductor material such as a carbon paste, to form a first electrode of a memory, depositing a layer of insulator material, such as titanium dioxide, over one or more areas of the conductor material, and depositing a layer of metal over one or more areas of the insulator material to form a second electrode of the memory. In an embodiment, the device can further include diodes printed between the insulator material and the second electrode, and the first electrode and the second electrodes can be formed as a crossbar structure to provide a WORM memory. The various layers and the diodes can be printed onto the paper substrate by, for example, an ink jet printer.

  11. Memory B and T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitetta, E S; Berton, M T; Burger, C; Kepron, M; Lee, W T; Yin, X M

    1991-01-01

    Three remarkable and unique features of the immune system are specificity, diversity, and memory. Immunological memory involves both T and B cells and results in a secondary antibody response that is faster, of higher affinity, and results in the secretion of non-IgM isotypes of Ig. In this review we discuss the properties of memory T and B cells, their specific receptors, and the events which occur both in the nucleus and on the cell surface during generation and activation of these cells. Although memory T and B cells use different mechanisms to elaborate memory, there are a number of interesting analogies: lymphokines vs antibodies and affinity maturation of B cell antigen receptors vs upregulation of adhesion molecules on T cells. Finally, we discuss the importance of these cells in health and disease and suggest what impact additional information about these cells might have on the manipulation of the immune response.

  12. [Extinction and Reconsolidation of Memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzina, A B; Balaban, P M

    2015-01-01

    Retrieval of memory followed by reconsolidation can strengthen a memory, while retrieval followed by extinction results in a decrease of memory performance due to weakening of existing memory or formation of a competing memory. In our study we analyzed the behavior and responses of identified neurons involved in the network underlying aversive learning in terrestrial snail Helix, and made an attempt to describe the conditions in which the retrieval of memory leads either to extinction or reconsolidation. In the network underlying the withdrawal behavior, sensory neurons, premotor interneurons, motor neurons, and modulatory for this network serotonergic neurons are identified and recordings from representatives of these groups were made before and after aversive learning. In the network underlying feeding behavior, the premotor modulatory serotonergic interneurons and motor neurons involved in motor program of feeding are identified. Analysis of changes in neural activity after aversive learning showed that modulatory neurons of feeding behavior do not demonstrate any changes (sometimes a decrease of responses to food was observed), while responses to food in withdrawal behavior premotor interneurons changed qualitatively, from under threshold EPSPs to spike discharges. Using a specific for serotonergic neurons neurotoxin 5,7-DiHT it was shown previously that the serotonergic system is necessary for the aversive learning, but is not necessary for maintenance and retrieval of this memory. These results suggest that the serotonergic neurons that are necessary as part of a reinforcement for developing the associative changes in the network may be not necessary for the retrieval of memory. The hypothesis presented in this review concerns the activity of the "reinforcement" serotonergic neurons that is suggested to be the gate condition for the choice between extinction/reconsolidation triggered by memory retrieval: if these serotonergic neurons do not respond during the

  13. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  14. An experimental analysis of memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A

    2007-11-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory strengthened. Capuchin monkeys, pigeons, and humans showed similar visual-memory changes. Rhesus learned an auditory memory task and showed octave generalization for some lists of notes--tonal, but not atonal, musical passages. In contrast with visual list memory, auditory primacy memory diminished with delay and auditory recency memory strengthened. Manipulations of interitem intervals, list length, and item presentation frequency revealed proactive and retroactive inhibition among items of individual auditory lists. Repeating visual items from prior lists produced interference (on nonmatching tests) revealing how far back memory extended. The possibility of using the interference function to separate familiarity vs. recollective memory processing is discussed.

  15. Current Status of Nonvolatile Semiconductor Memory Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Yoshihisa

    2010-10-01

    In this report, an overview of the current status of nonvolatile semiconductor memory technology is presented. We are reaching the integration limit of flash memories, and many new types of memories to replace conventional flash memories have been proposed. Unlike flash memories, new nonvolatile memories do not require electric charge storing. The possibility of phase-change random access memory (PRAM) or resistive-change RAM (ReRAM) replacing ultrahigh-density NAND flash memories has been discussed; however, there are many issues to overcome, making the replacement difficult. Nonetheless, ferroelectric RAMs (FeRAMs) and MRAMs are gradually penetrating into fields where the shortcomings of flash memories, such as high operating voltage, slow rewriting speed, and limited number of rewrites, make their use inconvenient. For the successful application of new nonvolatile semiconductor memories, they must be practically utilized in new fields in which flash memories are not applicable, and the technology for them must be developed.

  16. Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A; Loveday, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The Self-Memory System encompasses the working self, autobiographical memory and episodic memory. Specific autobiographical memories are patterns of activation over knowledge structures in autobiographical and episodic memory brought about by the activating effect of cues. The working self can elaborate cues based on the knowledge they initially activate and so control the construction of memories of the past and the future. It is proposed that such construction takes place in the remembering-imagining system - a window of highly accessible recent memories and simulations of near future events. How this malfunctions in various disorders is considered as are the implication of what we term the modern view of human memory for notions of memory accuracy. We show how all memories are to some degree false and that the main role of memories lies in generating personal meanings. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Shape memory heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, R.

    1984-06-01

    The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available/cycle in a Ni-45 at. pct Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a subsequent increase in temperature caused a reversion to the parent phase during which a load was carried through the strain recovery (i.e., work was accomplished). The amount of heat necessary to carry the engines through a cycle was estimated from calorimeter measurements and the work performed/cycle. The measured efficiency of the system tested reached a maximum of 1.4 percent, which was well below the theoretical (Carnot) maximum efficiency of 35.6 percent.

  18. When Memories are Mediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    that are mediated through stories: told and retold as oral stories through generations, as myths or sagas, or remediated as contemporary documentary film accounts or more fictional film accounts. In these processes of retelling acts of violence, transformations of meanings across time, cultural, social...... and political contexts and media platforms take place and become contexts for audience reception. This paper explores two examples of narratives that construct memories of acts of mass violence: “Gzim Rewind” (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester) about 1990’s Kosovo, and “The Act of Killing” (Denmark, 2012......, director Joshua Oppenheimer) about 1960’s Indonesia. The two films, in very different ways, focus on persons who tell about their involvement in acts of mass violence. Both films use live action footage in combination with fictional elements and settings, and both films also convey personal relationships...

  19. Forensic Memories: After Testimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøndergaard, Johanne Helbo

    2014-01-01

    In the introduction to their book After Testimony (2012) Jakob Lothe, Susan Suleiman and James Phelan ask the question whether the disappearance of the last witness will affect the way the public discourse deals with the Holocaust. This article attempts to address that question and suggests a mode...... of writing that might in fact come “after” testimony. In this paper I attempt to describe a mode of writing in contemporary literature on memory and history, which allows later generations to address historical events to which they did not bear witness, challenging the testimonial mode while bearing its...... strategies and strengths in mind - “after” in both senses of the word. The central argument is that just as the legal concept of testimony was introduced into the cultural sphere to describe a particular genre or mode of writing, the legal concept of forensics will serve as a useful term for describing...

  20. Artsimovich memorial lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    2003-01-01

    After half a century of work, mastering on earth thermonuclear fusion to produce energy is becoming a realistic challenge: despite its scientific and technological complexity, considerable progress has been obtained without encountering insurmountable roadblocks. Such progress is due for a great part to all the pioneers, as Academician Lev Andreevich Artsimovich, who, with their talents and a visionary mind, internationally promoted the civil use of thermonuclear fusion, a source which could help to face the long term energy demand. To honour their faith and their investment in this challenge which would solve humankind energy needs on a millenary scale, I will try in this Artsimovich Memorial Lecture to: situate the fusion contribution in the future energy mix contemplated today ; survey the state of the art of fusion physics and technology fields, giving some examples; underline the next priority, to study a burning plasma, launching the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as soon as possible

  1. Familiarity in Source Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered. PMID:22789677

  2. The Importance of Memory Specificity and Memory Coherence for the Self: Linking Two Characteristics of Autobiographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elien Vanderveren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory forms a network of memories about personal experiences that defines and supports well-being and effective functioning of the self in various ways. During the last three decades, there have been two characteristics of autobiographical memory that have received special interest regarding their role in psychological well-being and psychopathology, namely memory specificity and memory coherence. Memory specificity refers to the extent to which retrieved autobiographical memories are specific (i.e., memories about a particular experience that happened on a particular day. Difficulty retrieving specific memories interferes with effective functioning of the self and is related to depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Memory coherence refers to the narrative expression of the overall structure of autobiographical memories. It has likewise been related to psychological well-being and the occurrence of psychopathology. Research on memory specificity and memory coherence has developed as two largely independent research domains, even though they show much overlap. This raises some important theoretical questions. How do these two characteristics of autobiographical memory relate to each other, both theoretically and empirically? Additionally, how can the integration of these two facilitate our understanding of the importance of autobiographical memory for the self? In this article, we give a critical overview of memory specificity and memory coherence and their relation to the self. We link both features of autobiographical memory by describing some important similarities and by formulating hypotheses about how they might relate to each other. By situating both memory specificity and memory coherence within Conway and Pleydell-Pearce’s Self-Memory System, we make a first attempt at a theoretical integration. Finally, we suggest some new and exciting research possibilities and explain how both research fields could benefit

  3. Effects of sleep deprivation on retrieval and reconsolidation of morphine reward memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hai-Shui; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Xue, Yan-Xue; Wu, Ping; Zhu, Wei-Li; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Lu, Lin

    2011-04-01

    Relapse induced by exposure to cues associated with drugs of abuse is a major challenge to the treatment of drug addiction. Drug seeking can be inhibited by manipulation of the reconsolidation of drug-related memory. Sleep has been proposed to be involved in various memory processes. However, the role of sleep in drug reward memory is not clear. The present study used conditioned place preference to examine the effects of total sleep deprivation on retrieval and reconsolidation of morphine reward memory in rats. Six-hour total sleep deprivation had no effect on the retrieval of morphine reward memory. However, sleep deprivation from 0-6 h, but not 6-12 h, after re-exposure disrupted the reconsolidation of morphine reward memory. This impairment was not attributable to the formation of an aversive associative memory between the drug-paired context and sleep deprivation. Our findings suggest that sleep plays a critical role in morphine reward memory reconsolidation, and sleep deprivation may be a potential non-pharmacotherapy for the management of relapse associated with drug-related memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Benchmarking and Evaluating Unified Memory for OpenMP GPU Offloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Alok [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Li, Lingda [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kong, Martin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chapman, Barbara [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, the latest OpenMP standard offers automatic device offloading capabilities which facilitate GPU programming. Despite this, there remain many challenges. One of these is the unified memory feature introduced in recent GPUs. GPUs in current and future HPC systems have enhanced support for unified memory space. In such systems, CPU and GPU can access each other's memory transparently, that is, the data movement is managed automatically by the underlying system software and hardware. Memory over subscription is also possible in these systems. However, there is a significant lack of knowledge about how this mechanism will perform, and how programmers should use it. We have modified several benchmarks codes, in the Rodinia benchmark suite, to study the behavior of OpenMP accelerator extensions and have used them to explore the impact of unified memory in an OpenMP context. We moreover modified the open source LLVM compiler to allow OpenMP programs to exploit unified memory. The results of our evaluation reveal that, while the performance of unified memory is comparable with that of normal GPU offloading for benchmarks with little data reuse, it suffers from significant overhead when GPU memory is over subcribed for benchmarks with large amount of data reuse. Based on these results, we provide several guidelines for programmers to achieve better performance with unified memory.

  5. The Role of Human Relations and Interactions in Designing Memory-Related Models for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim MAHMOOD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of Wireless Sensor Networks has become substantial in most of our life aspects. These networks have many issues and challenges at the design phase (e.g., memory and power consumption. There exists a huge amount of works and studies that offer and provide solutions for many of these challenges. However, the issues of predicting memory requirements and memory management have not received enough attention in sensor networks literature. Yet, most of the studies in this field focus on issues related to power consumption and connectivity of sensor nodes. This paper has two main purposes: first, we propose a metric for measuring the strength of a relation between two sensors. In the proposed metric, we involve three important characteristics of human relations and interactions: encounter frequencies, duration of encounters, and regularities of encounters. We then exploit this metric in predicting memory requirements in a sensor network. Second, based on the estimated memory size, we propose an approach for memory management in a sensor network. The proposed approach is based on two concepts: social capital in sociology and preferential return in human mobility. The results show that our approach is effective in managing sensor memories comparing to other approaches in the literature.

  6. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Memory and the executive functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustárroz, J; Muñoz-Céspedes, J M

    The terms 'executive functioning' or 'executive control' refer to a set of mechanisms involved in the improvement of cognitive processes to guide them towards the resolution of complex problems. Both the frontal lobes, acting as structure, and the executive processes, acting as function, work with memory contents, operating with information placed in the diencephalic structures and in the medial temporal lobe. Generally, we can state that many works find an association between frontal damage and specific memory shortages like working memory deficit, metamemory problems, source amnesia, or difficulties in the prospective memory. This paper is a critical review of the working memory concept and proposes a new term: the attentional operative system that works with memory contents. Concerning the metamemory, the frontal lobes are essential for monitoring processes in general and for 'the feeling of knowing' kind of judgements in particular. Patients suffering prefrontal damage show serious problems to remember the information source. Thus, the information is rightly remembered but the spatiotemporal context where that information was learned has been forgotten. Finally, the prospective memory deals with remembering to make something in a particular moment in the future and performing the plan previously drawn up.

  8. Location-based prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Andrea E; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2018-02-01

    This study explores location-based prospective memory. People often have to remember to do things when in a particular location, such as buying tissues the next time they are in the supermarket. For event cognition theory, location is important for structuring events. However, because event cognition has not been used to examine prospective memory, the question remains of how multiple events will influence prospective memory performance. In our experiments, people delivered messages from store to store in a virtual shopping mall as an ongoing task. The prospective tasks were to do certain activities in certain stores. For Experiment 1, each trial involved one prospective memory task to be done in a single location at one of three delays. The virtual environment and location cues were effective for prospective memory, and performance was unaffected by delay. For Experiment 2, each trial involved two prospective memory tasks, given in either one or two instruction locations, and to be done in either one or two store locations. There was improved performance when people received instructions from two locations and did both tasks in one location relative to other combinations. This demonstrates that location-based event structure influences how well people perform on prospective memory tasks.

  9. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2015-03-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the individual data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme which envisages a classical abacus with the beads operated by electron spins. It is inspired by the idea of second quantization, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantized' Hall voltage, representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This concept of `second quantization of memory' realizes the 3D memory architecture with superior reading and operation efficiency, thus is a promising approach for future nonvolatile magnetic random access memory.

  10. Stress, memory, and the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-01-01

    Stress hormones, i.e. cortisol in human and cortisone in rodents, influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including hippocampus-based declarative memory performance. Cortisol enhances memory consolidation, but impairs memory retrieval. In this context glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and hippocampal integrity play an important role. This review integrates findings on the relationships between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main coordinators of the stress response, hippocampus, and memory. Findings obtained in healthy participants will be compared with selected mental disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). These disorders are characterized by alterations of the HPA axis and hippocampal dysfunctions. Interestingly, the acute effects of stress hormones on memory in psychiatric patients are different from those found in healthy humans. While cortisol administration has failed to affect memory retrieval in patients with MDD, patients with PTSD and BPD have been found to show enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after hydrocortisone. This indicates an altered sensitivity to stress hormones in these mental disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Event boundaries and memory improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-03-01

    The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event boundaries can both impair and enhance memory. The current study explored whether the presence of event boundaries during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event boundaries from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface shape memory in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Many crosslinked polymers exhibit a shape memory effect wherein a permanent shape can be prescribed during crosslinking and arbitrary temporary shapes may be set through network chain immobilization. Researchers have extensively investigated such shape memory polymers in bulk form (bars, films, foams), revealing a multitude of approaches. Applications abound for such materials and a significant fraction of the studies in this area concern application-specific characterization. Recently, we have turned our attention to surface shape memory in polymers as a means to miniaturization of the effect, largely motivated to study the interaction of biological cells with shape memory polymers. In this presentation, attention will be given to several approaches we have taken to prepare and study surface shape memory phenomenon. First, a reversible embossing study involving a glassy, crosslinked shape memory material will be presented. Here, the permanent shape was flat while the temporary state consisted of embossed parallel groves. Further the fixing mechanism was vitrification, with Tg adjusted to accommodate experiments with cells. We observed that the orientation and spreading of adherent cells could be triggered to change by the topographical switch from grooved to flat. Second, a functionally graded shape memory polymer will be presented, the grading being a variation in glass transition temperature in one direction along the length of films. Characterization of the shape fixing and recovery of such films utilized an indentation technique that, along with polarizing microscopy, allowed visualization of stress distribution in proximity to the indentations. Finally, very recent research concerning shape memory induced wrinkle formation on polymer surfaces will be presented. A transformation from smooth to wrinkled surfaces at physiological temperatures has been observed to have a dramatic effect on the behavior of adherent cells. A look to the future in research and

  13. Does sleep promote false memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsaud, Annabelle; Dehon, Hedwige; Lahl, Olaf; Sterpenich, Virginie; Boly, Mélanie; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Gais, Stephen; Matarazzo, Luca; Peters, Frédéric; Schabus, Manuel; Schmidt, Christina; Tinguely, Gilberte; Vandewalle, Gilles; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word associates, half of the participants were allowed to sleep, whereas the others were totally sleep deprived on the first postencoding night. During a subsequent retest fMRI session taking place 3 days later, participants made recognition memory judgments about the previously studied associates, critical theme words (which had not been previously presented during encoding), and new words unrelated to the studied items. Sleep, relative to sleep deprivation, enhanced accurate and false recollections. No significant difference was observed in brain responses to false or illusory recollection between sleep and sleep deprivation conditions. However, after sleep but not after sleep deprivation (exclusive masking), accurate and illusory recollections were both associated with responses in the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex. The data suggest that sleep does not selectively enhance illusory memories but rather tends to promote systems-level consolidation in hippocampo-neocortical circuits of memories subsequently associated with both accurate and illusory recollections. We further observed that during encoding, hippocampal responses were selectively larger for items subsequently accurately retrieved than for material leading to illusory memories. The data indicate that the early organization of memory during encoding is a major factor influencing subsequent production of accurate or false memories.

  14. Memorial to Professor Antonio Barone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Francesco; Pepe, Giampiero; Vaglio, Ruggero

    2014-04-01

    Academy of Sciences in Moscow, and later the coveted Kapitza Prize. The discovery of high-Tc superconductors (HTS) offered new problems and perspectives. Antonio and his group significantly contributed by reporting original results on the 'archetype' high-Tc Josephson junctions. His studies on unconventional superconductivity, first developed for 'p-wave' superconductors, had great impact and were very influential on the d-wave experiments on HTS compounds, and later on the physics of HTS Josephson junctions. Macroscopic quantum phenomena and particle detectors are the keywords and the logical paths to recall several relevant contributions from Antonio scattered over more than 40 years of activity. Topics of his interest ranged from the fundamentals of macroscopic quantum tunnelling to barrier penetration in non stationary fields, to finally a project encompassing a wider vision of macroscopic quantum phenomena in unconventional systems. He has filled very important positions of scientific management in Italy and participated in many international committees. He chaired (with R Vaglio) the very successful EUCAS 2003 conference in Sorrento, Italy. He has significantly contributed to the popularization of superconductivity as a professor, as a researcher and as a manager. All scientists that had the privilege to deal with him remember Antonio as a real gentleman of science and life, a man of vision and perspective. The local Organizing Committee and the International Advisory Committee of EUCAS 2013 have dedicated the Session 'Junctions and Squids' to the memory of Professor Antonio Barone1. 1A longer version of this memorial has also been published on the Istituto SPIN-CNR website (www.spin.cnr.it/index.php/barone).

  15. Gender differences in navigational memory: pilots vs. nonpilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Paola; Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Guariglia, Cecilia; Carrozzo, Paolo; Morgagni, Fabio; Boccia, Maddalena; Di Fiore, Giacomo; Tomao, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    The coding of space as near and far is not only determined by arm-reaching distance, but is also dependent on how the brain represents the extension of the body space. Recent reports suggest that the dissociation between reaching and navigational space is not limited to perception and action but also involves memory systems. It has been reported that gender differences emerged only in adverse learning conditions that required strong spatial ability. In this study we investigated navigational versus reaching memory in air force pilots and a control group without flight experience. We took into account temporal duration (working memory and long-term memory) and focused on working memory, which is considered critical in the gender differences literature. We found no gender effects or flight hour effects in pilots but observed gender effects in working memory (but not in learning and delayed recall) in the nonpilot population (Women's mean = 5.33; SD= 0.90; Men's mean = 5.54; SD= 0.90). We also observed a difference between pilots and nonpilots in the maintenance of on-line reaching information: pilots (mean = 5.85; SD=0.76) were more efficient than nonpilots (mean = 5.21; SD=0.83) and managed this type of information similarly to that concerning navigational space. In the navigational learning phase they also showed better navigational memory (mean = 137.83; SD=5.81) than nonpilots (mean = 126.96; SD=15.81) and were significantly more proficient than the latter group. There is no gender difference in a population of pilots in terms of navigational abilities, while it emerges in a control group without flight experience. We found also that pilots performed better than nonpilots. This study suggests that once selected, male and female pilots do not differ from each other in visuo-spatial abilities and spatial navigation.

  16. Palimpsest, Memory and Agency in Faroese/Danish Memory Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kim

    In this paper I will analyse the creation and the dynamics of memory seen through the canonization of a 19th Century writer in Nólsoyar Páll as a national hero in the Faroe Islands. Combining approaches from cultural nationalism studies (working with literature), memory studies and imagology. We...... will investigate the use of cultural saints and national hero’s. I will argue, that narratives of hero’s recycle earlier forms of remembrance and images as in the metaphorical palimpsest figure seen through monuments and places of memory. Here is the question, how did we proceed from the mangrove swamp...... of different ethnic self-images to a instrumentalization of an image of the Faroe Islands? How did the use of the literary archive and the memory of the Faroe Islanders relate to a canonization of literature and national hero’s in a time of historical and political change?...

  17. Memory Loss: 7 Tips to Improve Your Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Healthy aging By Mayo Clinic Staff Can't find your car keys? Forget your grocery list? ... 15, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/memory-loss/art-20046518 . ...

  18. Losing memories during sleep after targeted memory reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Katharine C N S; Gómez, Rebecca L; Nadel, Lynn

    2018-03-17

    Targeting memories during sleep opens powerful and innovative ways to influence the mind. We used targeted memory reactivation (TMR), which to date has been shown to strengthen learned episodes, to instead induce forgetting (TMR-Forget). Participants were first trained to associate the act of forgetting with an auditory forget tone. In a second, separate, task they learned object-sound-location pairings. Shortly thereafter, some of the object sounds were played during slow wave sleep, paired with the forget tone to induce forgetting. One week later, participants demonstrated lower recall of reactivated versus non-reactivated objects and impaired recognition memory and lowered confidence for the spatial location of the reactivated objects they failed to spontaneously recall. The ability to target specific episodic memories for forgetting during sleep has implications for developing novel therapeutic techniques for psychological disorders such as PTSD and phobias. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does emotional memory enhancement assist the memory-impaired?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas S. Broster

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We review recent work on emotional memory enhancement in older adults and patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer dementia and evaluate the viability of incorporating emotional components into cognitive rehabilitation for these groups. First, we identify converging evidence regarding the effects of emotional valence on working memory in healthy aging. Second, we introduce work that suggests a more complex role for emotional memory enhancement in aging and identify a model capable of unifying disparate research findings. Third, we identify neuroimaging evidence that the amygdala may play a key role in mediating emotional memory enhancement in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer dementia. Finally, we assess the theoretical feasibility of incorporating emotional content into cognitive rehabilitation given all available evidence.

  20. Activating attachment representations during memory retrieval modulates intrusive traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Chan, Iris

    2017-10-01

    Although priming mental representations of attachment security reduces arousal, research has not examined the effect of attachment on the retrieval of emotionally arousing memories. This study investigated the effect of priming attachment security on the retrieval of emotional memories. Seventy-five participants viewed negative and neutral images, and two days later received either an attachment prime or a control prime immediately prior to free recall of the images. Two days later, participants reported how frequently they experienced intrusions of the negative images. The attachment group had less distress, and reported fewer subsequent intrusions than the control group. Attachment style moderated these effects such that individuals with an avoidant attachment style were not impacted by the attachment prime. These findings suggest that priming attachment security decreases distress during memory reactivation, and this may reduce subsequent intrusive memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Holographic Read-Only Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, F.; Zhou, G.; Psaltis, D.

    The most successful use of optical memories so far has been as read-only memories (ROM). A main reason for this success has been the availability of inexpensive methods to mass-produce copies of recorded disks. This has made it possible to publish data (audio, video, databases, computer games) and distribute it widely through normal retail channels. In this chapter, we show results of a holographic read-only memory (HROM) of which digital data on a master disk can be copied onto replicate disks efficiently.

  2. Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-30

    suspected of being the substrate of several forms of memory encoded by synapses in the forebrain of humans and other mammals. Work in the past year...of LTP will enhance the encoding of memory . Aniracetam , as noted, prolongs the open time of the AMPA receptor and in this way facilitates excitatory...121 t Iffw,,a" S. FUNO4NG mUMSERS Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Formation F 49620-92-0307 C (ci) b.q F Gary Lynch 7. Pf(RfO*INN ORGAMIZAMNIO NMMW(S

  3. Wavelet-based associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katharine J.

    2004-04-01

    Faces provide important characteristics of a person"s identification. In security checks, face recognition still remains the method in continuous use despite other approaches (i.e. fingerprints, voice recognition, pupil contraction, DNA scanners). With an associative memory, the output data is recalled directly using the input data. This can be achieved with a Nonlinear Holographic Associative Memory (NHAM). This approach can also distinguish between strongly correlated images and images that are partially or totally enclosed by others. Adaptive wavelet lifting has been used for Content-Based Image Retrieval. In this paper, adaptive wavelet lifting will be applied to face recognition to achieve an associative memory.

  4. Memory for future generations. To preserve and to transmit the memory of radioactive wastes. Press file - September 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This publication by the ANDRA describes the approach adopted to develop, to preserve and to transmit the memory about radioactive wastes. This approach comprises three components: messages (texts, archives, drawings...), physical supports (paper, disk, markers), and relays (institutions, companies, etc.). The publication describes how these components are already used or implemented for the different radioactive waste storage centres managed by the ANDRA. It also outlines that this memory is an issue of international concern. It evokes issues related to linguistics (how future generations will understand our messages?), to the ageing of materials used as physical support, to archaeology because of the evolution of landscapes, and to the evolution of archival systems. Some simple ideas and projects are briefly indicated which can be a support in memory building

  5. Memory and Education. Educating from the Memory of Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Santos Gómez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author emphasizes the necessity of a pedagogy of memory, which would include the memory of the victims produced by the course of history. In order to obtain this objective, he refers mainly to the philosophy of history of Walter Benjamin and the thought of T. W. Adorno. Some negative aspects of our way of life are indicated and a new pedagogy that avoids them is suggested.

  6. Psychotherapy and Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D. Stephen

    This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic…

  7. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  8. Memory Reactivation and Consolidation during Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, Ken A.; Voss, Joel L.

    2004-01-01

    Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes a fundamental characteristic of declarative memories. In general, declarative memories change due to retrieval events at various times after initial learning and…

  9. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  10. Shape memory alloys – characterization techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Shape memory alloys are the generic class of alloys that show both thermal and mechan- ical memory. The basic physics involved in the shape memory effect is the reversible thermoelastic martensitic transformation. In general, there exists two phases in shape memory alloys, viz., a high- temperature phase or ...

  11. Shape memory alloys – characterization techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shape memory alloys are the generic class of alloys that show both thermal and mechanical memory. The basic physics involved in the shape memory effect is the reversible thermoelastic martensitic transformation. In general, there exists two phases in shape memory alloys, viz., a hightemperature phase or austenitic ...

  12. Can Interactive Working Memory Training Improve Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working memory is linked to learning outcomes and there is emerging evidence that training working memory can yield gains in working memory and fluid intelligence. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether interactive working memory training would transfer to acquired cognitive skills, such as vocabulary and…

  13. Young adults' use of emotional food memories to build resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Essen, Elisabeth; Mårtensson, Fredrika

    2017-05-01

    The overall aim of this study is to specifically investigate how young adults make use of emotional-relational food memories related to "significant others" during childhood when trying to build resilience and solve developmental tasks in this period of life. A theoretical sample of three semi-structured interviews drawn from a larger sample of 30 interviews with young adults in Sweden formed the basis for analysis, guided by the steps of a phenomenologically oriented critical narrative analysis. The results illustrate three different overall directions in how the relationship to food can evolve throughout life among young adults: a relationship dominated by 1) positive emotional food memories associated with the use of food as a secure base and 2) negative emotional food memories associated with either a) being emotionally preoccupied with food or b) dismissing food. The results suggest that internalised memories related to food associated with positive emotions can be used to build resilience, by helping young people to adapt and better manage developmental stress. Internalised food memories related to negative emotions can cause vulnerability, but also become the object of a person's reconstruction. The implications and potential risks of using food practice for developing resilience and a healthy lifestyle are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Working memory in multilingual children: is there a bilingual effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M J

    2011-07-01

    This research investigates whether early childhood bilingualism affects working memory performance in 6- to 8-year-olds, followed over a longitudinal period of 3 years. The study tests the hypothesis that bilinguals might exhibit more efficient working memory abilities than monolinguals, potentially via the opportunity a bilingual environment provides to train cognitive control by combating interference and intrusions from the non-target language. A total of 44 bilingual and monolingual children, matched on age, sex, and socioeconomic status, completed assessments of working memory (simple span and complex span tasks), fluid intelligence, and language (vocabulary and syntax). The data showed that the monolinguals performed significantly better on the language measures across the years, whereas no language group effect emerged on the working memory and fluid intelligence tasks after verbal abilities were considered. The study suggests that the need to manage several language systems in the bilingual mind has an impact on children's language skills while having little effects on the development of working memory.

  15. Greater Huachuca Mountains Fire Management Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke S. Gebow; Carol Lambert

    2005-01-01

    The Greater Huachuca Mountains Fire Management Group is developing a fire management plan for 500,000 acres in southeast Arizona. Partner land managers include Arizona State Parks, Arizona State Lands, Audubon Research Ranch, Coronado National Forest, Coronado National Memorial, Fort Huachuca, The Nature Conservancy, San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area, and...

  16. Carbon nanomaterials for non-volatile memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ethan C.; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Pop, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Carbon can create various low-dimensional nanostructures with remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. These features make carbon nanomaterials especially interesting for next-generation memory and storage devices, such as resistive random access memory, phase-change memory, spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory and ferroelectric random access memory. Non-volatile memories greatly benefit from the use of carbon nanomaterials in terms of bit density and energy efficiency. In this Review, we discuss sp2-hybridized carbon-based low-dimensional nanostructures, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, in the context of non-volatile memory devices and architectures. Applications of carbon nanomaterials as memory electrodes, interfacial engineering layers, resistive-switching media, and scalable, high-performance memory selectors are investigated. Finally, we compare the different memory technologies in terms of writing energy and time, and highlight major challenges in the manufacturing, integration and understanding of the physical mechanisms and material properties.

  17. Can verbal working memory training improve reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.

  18. Cluster management of computing resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchkin V.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study suggests management of computing resources through set-theoretic clustering. The research proposes production modelling of knowledge — rules of managing explicit and fuzzy structures, according to their technical specifications: sustem productivity, number of computing modules, capacity of microprocessor memory, etc. The paper describes an algorithm of “evaluation of management criterion value”, according to the additive utility function.

  19. Optoelectronic Cache Memory System Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiarulli, Donald

    1999-01-01

    .... This technology enables the use of large page oriented optical memories in applications such as medical, image, and geo-spatial databases where high speed access to page structured data is essential.

  20. Daugherty Memorial Assessment Center (DMAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Daugherty Memorial Assessment Center (DMAC) is a 39,000-square-foot facility that doubles the warfare center's high-secured performance assessment capabilities. DMAC...

  1. Nicotine inhibits memory CTL programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Sun

    Full Text Available Nicotine is the main tobacco component responsible for tobacco addiction and is used extensively in smoking and smoking cessation therapies. However, little is known about its effects on the immune system. We confirmed that multiple nicotinic receptors are expressed on mouse and human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs and demonstrated that nicotinic receptors on mouse CTLs are regulated during activation. Acute nicotine presence during activation increases primary CTL expansion in vitro, but impairs in vivo expansion after transfer and subsequent memory CTL differentiation, which reduces protection against subsequent pathogen challenges. Furthermore, nicotine abolishes the regulatory effect of rapamycin on memory CTL programming, which can be attributed to the fact that rapamycin enhances expression of nicotinic receptors. Interestingly, naïve CTLs from chronic nicotine-treated mice have normal memory programming, which is impaired by nicotine during activation in vitro. In conclusion, simultaneous exposure to nicotine and antigen during CTL activation negatively affects memory development.

  2. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  3. Visual working memory contaminates perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Suk; Hong, Sang Wook; Blake, Randolph; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2011-10-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that the contents of visual working memory may be maintained within sensory areas early in the visual hierarchy. We tested this possibility using a well-studied motion repulsion phenomenon in which perception of one direction of motion is distorted when another direction of motion is viewed simultaneously. We found that observers misperceived the actual direction of motion of a single motion stimulus if, while viewing that stimulus, they were holding a different motion direction in visual working memory. Control experiments showed that none of a variety of alternative explanations could account for this repulsion effect induced by working memory. Our findings provide compelling evidence that visual working memory representations directly interact with the same neural mechanisms as those involved in processing basic sensory events.

  4. Sensory memory for ambiguous vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Joel; Brascamp, Jan

    2008-09-01

    In recent years the overlap between visual perception and memory has shed light on our understanding of both. When ambiguous images that normally cause perception to waver unpredictably are presented briefly with intervening blank periods, perception tends to freeze, locking into one interpretation. This indicates that there is a form of memory storage across the blank interval. This memory trace codes low-level characteristics of the stored stimulus. Although a trace is evident after a single perceptual instance, the trace builds over many separate stimulus presentations, indicating a flexible, variable-length time-course. This memory shares important characteristics with priming by non-ambiguous stimuli. Computational models now provide a framework to interpret many empirical observations.

  5. Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem In ... do by themselves." These activities, especially those involving music, can be especially therapeutic. Encourage regular routines. Important ...

  6. Distributed-memory matrix computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Susanne Mølleskov

    1995-01-01

    in these algorithms is that many scientific applications rely heavily on the performance of the involved dense linear algebra building blocks. Even though we consider the distributed-memory as well as the shared-memory programming paradigm, the major part of the thesis is dedicated to distributed-memory architectures....... We emphasize distributed-memory massively parallel computers - such as the Connection Machines model CM-200 and model CM-5/CM-5E - available to us at UNI-C and at Thinking Machines Corporation. The CM-200 was at the time this project started one of the few existing massively parallel computers...... algorithm is investigated. this algorithm is built on top of several scan-operations. What difficulties occur when implementing this algorithm to massively parallel computers?...

  7. Memories, subjectivities, and social actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Marlene Sánchez Moncada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a thematic synthesis of the research developed over the five years of the Master’s Program in Social Studies at the National Pedagogical University in Bogota. Indeed, students pursuing the emphasis on “Memories, identities and social actors” have developed their research around these issues following their own specificities. Regarding memories, they have worked some issues about school Social Sciences and nationwide collective memory patterns. With respect to this last issue, some students have worked alongside with social organizations in order to analyze processes of memory building about the Colombian armed conflict. Also, arange of topics have been approached to study individuals with potential for social change and transformation. Finally, in relation to subjectivities, topics such as performativity, ascribed identities, self-ascribed identities, and the constitution of the subject have been explored.

  8. Sleep stages, memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, L

    1996-04-15

    Learning and memory can be impaired by sleep loss during specific vulnerable "windows" for several days after new tasks have been learned. Different types of tasks are differentially vulnerable to the loss of different stages of sleep. Memory required to perform cognitive procedural tasks is affected by the loss of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep on the first night after learning occurs and again on the third night after learning. REM-sleep deprivation on the second night after learning does not produce memory deficits. Declarative memory, which is used for the recall of specific facts, is not similarly affected by REM-sleep loss. The learning of procedural motor tasks, including those required in many sports, is impaired by the loss of stage 2 sleep, which occurs primarily in the early hours of the morning. These findings have implications for the academic and athletic performance of students and for anyone whose work involves ongoing learning and demands high standards of performance.

  9. Nanoscale phase change memory materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Marissa A; Jeyasingh, Rakesh Gnana David; Wong, H-S Philip; Milliron, Delia J

    2012-08-07

    Phase change memory materials store information through their reversible transitions between crystalline and amorphous states. For typical metal chalcogenide compounds, their phase transition properties directly impact critical memory characteristics and the manipulation of these is a major focus in the field. Here, we discuss recent work that explores the tuning of such properties by scaling the materials to nanoscale dimensions, including fabrication and synthetic strategies used to produce nanoscale phase change memory materials. The trends that emerge are relevant to understanding how such memory technologies will function as they scale to ever smaller dimensions and also suggest new approaches to designing materials for phase change applications. Finally, the challenges and opportunities raised by integrating nanoscale phase change materials into switching devices are discussed.

  10. Sleep complaints and memory in psychotropic drug-free euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chieh-Hui; Chen, Kao-Chin; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Lee, I-Hui; Chiu, Nan-Ying; Chen, Po-See; Yang, Yen-Kuang

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have been conducted examining the genuine sleep condition and memory in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder. Thus we evaluated sleep complaints and memory functions in psychotropic drug-free euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Twenty-two psychotropic drug-free euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and 44 healthy controls matched by age and sex were recruited and assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). The quality of sleep and memory function of the euthymic patients with bipolar disorder were significantly poorer than those of the controls. Both years of education and the hypnotic use sub-item of the PSQI were significantly correlated with visual memory index of the WMS-R. Sleep complaints management is important in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ferromagnetic shape memory materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Robert Jay

    Ferromagnetic shape memory materials are a new class of active materials which combine the properties of ferromagnetism with those of a diffusionless, reversible martensitic transformation. These materials have been the subject of recent study due to the unusually large magnetostriction exhibited in the martensitic phase. In this thesis we report the results of experiments which characterize the magnetic and magnetomechanical properties of both austenitic and martensitic phases of ferromagnetic shape memory material Ni2MnGa. In the high temperature cubic phase, anisotropy and magnetostriction constants are determined for a range of temperatures from 50°C down to the transformation temperature, with room temperature values of K1 = 2.7 +/- 104 ergs/cm3 and lambda100 = -145 muepsilon. In the low temperature tetragonal phase, the phenomenon of field-induced variant rearrangement is shown to produce anomalous results when traditional techniques for determining anisotropy and magnetostriction properties are employed. The requirement of single variant specimen microstructure is explained, and experiments performed on such a specimen confirm a uniaxial anisotropy within each martensitic variant with anisotropy constant Ku = 2.45 x 106 ergs/cm3 and a magnetostriction constant of lambdasv = -288 +/- 73 muepsilon. A series of magnetomechanical experiments investigate the effects of microstructure bias, repeated field cycling, varying field ramp rate, applied load, and specimen geometry on the variant rearrangement phenomenon in the martensitic phase. In general, the field-induced strain is found to be a function of the variant microstructure. Experiments in which the initial microstructure is biased towards a single variant state with an applied load generate one-time strains of 4.3%, while those performed with a constant bias stress of 5 MPa generate reversible strains of 0.5% over a period of 50 cycles. An increase in the applied field ramp rate is shown to reduce the

  12. Recovery of Flash Memories for Reliable Mobile Storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daesung Moon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile appliance is applied to many ubiquitous services and the importance of the information stored in it is increased, the security issue to protect the information becomes one of the major concerns. However, most previous researches focused only on the communication security, not the storage security. Especially, a flash memory whose operational characteristics are different from those of HDD is used increasingly as a storage device for the mobile appliance because of its resistance to physical shock and lower power requirement. In this paper, we propose a flash memory management scheme targeted for guaranteeing the data integrity of the mobile storage. By maintaining the old data specified during the recovery window, we can recover the old data when the mobile appliance is attacked. Also, to reduce the storage requirement for the recovery, we restrict the number of versions to be copied, called Degree of Integrity (DoI. Especially, we consider both the reclaim efficiency and the wear leveling which is a unique characteristic of the flash memory. Based on the performance evaluation, we confirm that the proposed scheme can be acceptable to many applications as a flash memory management scheme for improving data integrity.

  13. MEMORY AS A MUSEUM PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Kregar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current public discourse memory is among the most common words, concepts, and contents of a multiplicity of meanings, connotations and contexts. Besides personal memory, the interpretations of our past and consequently our present often include refer-ences of collective and historical memory. This termi-nology is particularly popular with politicians and pub-licists striving for a more colourful vocabulary, who often use the fore mentioned terms as synonyms. Scien-tific and professional circles are more conscientious at differentiating these terms, as their research focuses on studying the past and, consequently, on the role of memory or on the very process of remembering. Howev-er, within this corpus certain differences in the termi-nology and different views on the types and forms of memory do exist. In this paper, rather than psychologi-cal and sociological theories (by Maurice Halbwachs and others we focus on how we, historians, look on the vari-ous forms of memory, especially those historians who study (still "alive" 20th century. And who in their work, let it be research, teaching, or, like in my case - work in a museum, rely on both, individual memories and collec-tive memory to shape the historical memory of a com-munity or society. Although greater terminological clari-ty in this regard would be more than welcome, it is most important that we correctly identify the different forms and types of memory and its components and that we use them appropriately in our work - that is in research, understanding and interpreting our past or our history. Even more so because they often intertwine with each other, overlap, complement, and transform from one to another, or, sometimes even exclude each other. There-fore it is often difficult to clearly distinguish one from another and to deal with them separately. Historians working in the Museum of Recent History Celje are faced with these issues and problems on a daily basis; many specific

  14. The Relation Between Goals and Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Rasmussen, Anne Scharling; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The present study examines involuntary (spontaneously retrieved) versus voluntary (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered goals measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found that the important and not yet planned goals...... facilitate recall of goal congruent autobiographical memories which supports the idea of autobiographical memory facilitating goal attainment. Further, no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of goal related content were found. Yet memories...

  15. Relaxed memory models: an operational approach

    OpenAIRE

    Boudol , Gérard; Petri , Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Memory models define an interface between programs written in some language and their implementation, determining which behaviour the memory (and thus a program) is allowed to have in a given model. A minimal guarantee memory models should provide to the programmer is that well-synchronized, that is, data-race free code has a standard semantics. Traditionally, memory models are defined axiomatically, setting constraints on the order in which memory operations are allow...

  16. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  17. Radiation hard memory cell and array thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunckel, T.L. II; Rovell, A.; Nielsen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A memory cell configuration that is implemented to be relatively hard to the adverse effects of a nuclear event is discussed. The presently disclosed memory cell can be interconnected with other like memory cells to form a high speed radiation hard register file. Information is selectively written into and read out of a memory cell comprising the register file, which memory cell preserves previously stored data without alteration in the event of exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation

  18. Assistive technology for memory support in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Roest, Henriëtte G; Wenborn, Jennifer; Pastink, Channah; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Orrell, Martin

    2017-06-11

    The sustained interest in electronic assistive technology in dementia care has been fuelled by the urgent need to develop useful approaches to help support people with dementia at home. Also the low costs and wide availability of electronic devices make it more feasible to use electronic devices for the benefit of disabled persons. Information Communication Technology (ICT) devices designed to support people with dementia are usually referred to as Assistive Technology (AT) or Electronic Assistive Technology (EAT). By using AT in this review we refer to electronic assistive devices. A range of AT devices has been developed to support people with dementia and their carers to manage their daily activities and to enhance safety, for example electronic pill boxes, picture phones, or mobile tracking devices. Many are commercially available. However, the usefulness and user-friendliness of these devices are often poorly evaluated. Although reviews of (electronic) memory aids do exist, a systematic review of studies focusing on the efficacy of AT for memory support in people with dementia is lacking. Such a review would guide people with dementia and their informal and professional carers in selecting appropriate AT devices. Primary objectiveTo assess the efficacy of AT for memory support in people with dementia in terms of daily performance of personal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL), level of dependency, and admission to long-term care. Secondary objectiveTo assess the impact of AT on: users (autonomy, usefulness and user-friendliness, adoption of AT); cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms; need for informal and formal care; perceived quality of life; informal carer burden, self-esteem and feelings of competence; formal carer work satisfaction, workload and feelings of competence; and adverse events. We searched ALOIS, the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), on 10 November 2016. ALOIS is

  19. Automatic controller at associated memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courty, P.

    1977-06-01

    Organized around an A2 type controller, this CAMAC device allows on command of the associated computer to start reading 64K 16 bit words into an outer memory. This memory is fully controlled by the computer. In the automatic mode, which works at 10 6 words/sec, the computer can access any other module of the same crate by cycle-stealing [fr

  20. Self-Testing Computer Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio, N.; Rennels, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Memory system for computer repeatedly tests itself during brief, regular interruptions of normal processing of data. Detects and corrects transient faults as single-event upsets (changes in bits due to ionizing radiation) within milliseconds after occuring. Self-testing concept surpasses conventional by actively flushing latent defects out of memory and attempting to correct before accumulating beyond capacity for self-correction or detection. Cost of improvement modest increase in complexity of circuitry and operating time.

  1. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use...... of a memory model. This approach is validated here by the comparison of the sensory dissonance using memory model to data obtained using human subjects....

  2. Solvable models of working memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    MéZard, M.; Nadal, J. P.; Toulouse, G.

    1987-11-01

    We consider a family of models, which generalizes the Hopfield model of neural networks, and can be solved likewise. This family contains palimpsestic schemes, which give memories that behave in a similar way as a working (short-term) memory. The replica method leads to a simple formalism that allows for a detailed comparison between various schemes, and the study of various effects, such as repetitive learning.

  3. Models of memory: information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, M W

    1988-01-01

    A complete understanding of human memory will necessarily involve consideration of the active processes involved at the time of learning and of the organization and nature of representation of information in long-term memory. In addition to process and structure, it is important for theory to indicate the ways in which stimulus-driven and conceptually driven processes interact with each other in the learning situation. Not surprisingly, no existent theory provides a detailed specification of all of these factors. However, there are a number of more specific theories which are successful in illuminating some of the component structures and processes. The working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) and modified subsequently has shown how the earlier theoretical construct of the short-term store should be replaced with the notion of working memory. In essence, working memory is a system which is used both to process information and to permit the transient storage of information. It comprises a number of conceptually distinct, but functionally interdependent components. So far as long-term memory is concerned, there is evidence of a number of different kinds of representation. Of particular importance is the distinction between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge, a distinction which has received support from the study of amnesic patients. Kosslyn has argued for a distinction between literal representation and propositional representation, whereas Tulving has distinguished between episodic and semantic memories. While Tulving's distinction is perhaps the best known, there is increasing evidence that episodic and semantic memory differ primarily in content rather than in process, and so the distinction may be of less theoretical value than was originally believed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masashi; Furuta, Hisakazu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Suzuki, Michio; Ochiai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Munehito; Matsui, Mie; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distil overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, 35 normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n = 17) or wake group (n = 18). The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT), a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 h later), they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The semantic clustering ratio (SCR), divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time × Group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further study.

  5. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  6. The mysteries of remote memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Long-lasting memories form the basis of our identity as individuals and lie central in shaping future behaviours that guide survival. Surprisingly, however, our current knowledge of how such memories are stored in the brain and retrieved, as well as the dynamics of the circuits involved, remains scarce despite seminal technical and experimental breakthroughs in recent years. Traditionally, it has been proposed that, over time, information initially learnt in the hippocampus is stored in distributed cortical networks. This process—the standard theory of memory consolidation—would stabilize the newly encoded information into a lasting memory, become independent of the hippocampus, and remain essentially unmodifiable throughout the lifetime of the individual. In recent years, several pieces of evidence have started to challenge this view and indicate that long-lasting memories might already ab ovo be encoded, and subsequently stored in distributed cortical networks, akin to the multiple trace theory of memory consolidation. In this review, we summarize these recent findings and attempt to identify the biologically plausible mechanisms based on which a contextual memory becomes remote by integrating different levels of analysis: from neural circuits to cell ensembles across synaptic remodelling and epigenetic modifications. From these studies, remote memory formation and maintenance appear to occur through a multi-trace, dynamic and integrative cellular process ranging from the synapse to the nucleus, and represent an exciting field of research primed to change quickly as new experimental evidence emerges. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue ‘Of mice and mental health: facilitating dialogue between basic and clinical neuroscientists’. PMID:29352028

  7. Dynamic object management for distributed data structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totty, Brian K.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    In distributed-memory multiprocessors, remote memory accesses incur larger delays than local accesses. Hence, insightful allocation and access of distributed data can yield substantial performance gains. The authors argue for the use of dynamic data management policies encapsulated within individual distributed data structures. Distributed data structures offer performance, flexibility, abstraction, and system independence. This approach is supported by data from a trace-driven simulation study of parallel scientific benchmarks. Experimental data on memory locality, message count, message volume, and communication delay suggest that data-structure-specific data management is superior to a single, system-imposed policy.

  8. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-08-22

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered 'quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.

  9. Memory consolidation in sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola

    2017-10-01

    In recent years sleep-related memory consolidation has become a central topic in the sleep research field. Several studies have shown that in healthy individuals sleep promotes memory consolidation. Notwithstanding this, the consequences of sleep disorders on offline memory consolidation remain poorly investigated. Research studies indicate that patients with insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy often exhibit sleep-related impairment in the consolidation of declarative and procedural information. On the other hand, patients with parasomnias, such as sleep-walking, night terrors and rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder, do not present any memory impairment. These studies suggest that only sleep disorders characterized by increased post-learning arousal and disrupted sleep architecture seem to be associated with offline memory consolidation issues. Such impairments, arising already in childhood, may potentially affect the development and maintenance of an individual's cognitive abilities, reducing their quality of life and increasing the risk of accidents. However, promising findings suggest that successfully treating sleep symptoms can result in the restoration of memory functions and marked reduction of direct and indirect societal costs of sleep disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Explicit memory in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, P A; Yaldoo, D T; Stress, M E; Fuerst, D R; Ginsburg, K A

    1998-09-01

    The study was conducted to systematically investigate previous anecdotal reports of memory decline during pregnancy. We used a longitudinal design to investigate memory in women throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Closely matched, nonpregnant women were similarly studied at equivalent intervals. We also assessed degree of depression and anxiety. There was a significant time-by-group interaction (P < .01) for both immediate and delayed recall of paragraph length material. Contrasts showed a significant decline in memory for the pregnant group from the second to the third trimester (P < .01). No significant changes in memory were noted for the control group. The pregnant women scored higher on both depression and anxiety scales; however, somatic rather than cognitive items accounted for the elevated scores. Fluctuations in mood and memory did not coincide. There is a pregnancy-related decline in memory, which is limited to the third trimester. The decline is not attributable to depression, anxiety, sleep deprivation, or other physical changes associated with pregnancy.

  11. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  12. A Sketchbook of Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen V. Lee

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The following arts-based autoethnography (BARONE, 2003; SLATTERY, 2001 reveals the author's emotional upheaval when her daughter leaves for a one-week camping trip with her father. The experience causes an ethnographic shift inward and outward on the personal and social aspects shaping her loss. She reflects on how she lives simultaneously in a culture of independence and a culture of dependence. Multiple layers of consciousness cause her to revisit her daughter's sketching albums. In doing so, she finds enormous peace and comfort by reflecting on the drawings. In the end, she creates both a picture book of memories and a movie (http://www.youtube.com/v/WFGTUP6PdKY&hl=en that becomes a manifestation of performative social science in order to "look towards means of (representation that embrace the humanness of social science pursuits" (JONES, 2006, p.67. By creating the art-based autoethnography, she is able to cope with missing her daughter as she resonates with memorable insights and triumphs. Overall, the author discovers how creating both the sketchbook and movie heightens the transformative nature of autoethnographic research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802400

  13. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  14. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basq...... with a discussion on the role of history teaching in promoting a more critical, reflexive, and pluralistic way of dealing with memory, and hence with conflict.......The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...

  15. Epigenetic memory in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eMigicovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic information can be passed on from one generation to another via DNA methylation, histone modifications and changes in small RNAs, a process called epigenetic memory. During a mammal’s lifecycle epigenetic reprogramming, or the resetting of most epigenetic marks, occurs twice. The first instance of reprogramming occurs in primordial germ cells and the second occurs following fertilization. These processes may be both passive and active. In order for epigenetic inheritance to occur the epigenetic modifications must be able to escape reprogramming. There are several examples supporting this non-Mendelian mechanism of inheritance including the prepacking of early developmental genes in histones instead of protamines in sperm, genomic imprinting via methylation marks, the retention of CenH3 in mammalian sperm and the inheritance of piwi-associated interfering RNAs. The ability of mammals to pass on epigenetic information to their progeny provides clear evidence that inheritance is not restricted to DNA sequence and epigenetics plays a key role in producing viable offspring.

  16. Remote direct memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  17. Memory in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, Gabriella

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the author discusses a specific type of dreams encountered in her clinical experience, which in her view provide an opportunity of reconstructing the traumatic emotional events of the patient's past. In 1900, Freud described a category of dreams--which he called 'biographical dreams'--that reflect historical infantile experience without the typical defensive function. Many authors agree that some traumatic dreams perform a function of recovery and working through. Bion contributed to the amplification of dream theory by linking it to the theory of thought and emphasizing the element of communication in dreams as well as their defensive aspect. The central hypothesis of this paper is that the predominant aspect of such dreams is the communication of an experience which the dreamer has in the dream but does not understand. It is often possible to reconstruct, and to help the patient to comprehend and make sense of, the emotional truth of the patient's internal world, which stems from past emotional experience with primary objects. The author includes some clinical examples and references to various psychoanalytic and neuroscientific conceptions of trauma and memory. She discusses a particular clinical approach to such dreams and how the analyst should listen to them.

  18. Prospective memory and glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Osipoff, Jennifer N; Dixon, Denise; Wilson, Thomas A; Preston, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Prospective memory is that memory which is required to carry out intended actions and is therefore essential in carrying out the daily activities required in the self-management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This study aimed to identify the relationships between prospective memory and diabetic control in children with T1DM. Method 94 children aged 6–18 years with T1DM completed an innovative prospective memory screen, PROMS, and a series of cognitive tests. Parents a...

  19. Developmental Dissociation Between the Maturation of Procedural Memory and Declarative Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Amy S.; Kalra, Priya B.; Goetz, Calvin; Leonard, Julia A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Declarative memory and procedural memory are known to be two fundamentally different kinds of memory that are dissociable in their psychological characteristics and measurement (explicit versus implicit) and in the neural systems that subserve each kind of memory. Declarative memory abilities are known to improve from childhood through young adulthood, but the developmental maturation of procedural memory is largely unknown. We compared 10-year-old children and young adults on measures of dec...

  20. The impact of auditory working memory training on the fronto-parietal working memory network

    OpenAIRE

    Schneiders, Julia A.; Opitz, Bertram; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan; Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Hong; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory ...