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Sample records for memory encoding blocked

  1. Hippocampal activation during face-name associative memory encoding: blocked versus permuted design

    De Vogelaere, Frederick; Vingerhoets, Guy; Santens, Patrick; Boon, Paul; Achten, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of the hippocampal subregions to episodic memory through the formation of new associations between previously unrelated items such as faces and names is established but remains under discussion. Block design studies in this area of research generally tend to show posterior hippocampal activation during encoding of novel associational material while event-related studies emphasize anterior hippocampal involvement. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the involvement of anterior and posterior hippocampus in the encoding of novel associational material compared to the viewing of previously seen associational material. We used two different experimental designs, a block design and a permuted block design, and applied it to the same associative memory task to perform valid statistical comparisons. Our results indicate that the permuted design was able to capture more anterior hippocampal activation compared to the block design, which emphasized more posterior hippocampal involvement. These differences were further investigated and attributed to a combination of the polymodal stimuli we used and the experimental design. Activation patterns during encoding in both designs occurred along the entire longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, but with different centers of gravity. The maximal activated voxel in the block design was situated in the posterior half of the hippocampus while in the permuted design this was located in the anterior half. (orig.)

  2. Hippocampal activation during face-name associative memory encoding: blocked versus permuted design

    De Vogelaere, Frederick; Vingerhoets, Guy [Ghent University, Laboratory for Neuropsychology, Department of Neurology, Ghent (Belgium); Santens, Patrick; Boon, Paul [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Erik [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    The contribution of the hippocampal subregions to episodic memory through the formation of new associations between previously unrelated items such as faces and names is established but remains under discussion. Block design studies in this area of research generally tend to show posterior hippocampal activation during encoding of novel associational material while event-related studies emphasize anterior hippocampal involvement. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the involvement of anterior and posterior hippocampus in the encoding of novel associational material compared to the viewing of previously seen associational material. We used two different experimental designs, a block design and a permuted block design, and applied it to the same associative memory task to perform valid statistical comparisons. Our results indicate that the permuted design was able to capture more anterior hippocampal activation compared to the block design, which emphasized more posterior hippocampal involvement. These differences were further investigated and attributed to a combination of the polymodal stimuli we used and the experimental design. Activation patterns during encoding in both designs occurred along the entire longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, but with different centers of gravity. The maximal activated voxel in the block design was situated in the posterior half of the hippocampus while in the permuted design this was located in the anterior half. (orig.)

  3. Blocking of irrelevant memories by posterior alpha activity boosts memory encoding.

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jensen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    In our daily lives, we are confronted with a large amount of information. Because only a small fraction can be encoded in long-term memory, the brain must rely on powerful mechanisms to filter out irrelevant information. To understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying the gating of information into long-term memory, we employed a paradigm where the encoding was directed by a "Remember" or a "No-Remember" cue. We found that posterior alpha activity increased prior to the "No-Remember" stimuli, whereas it decreased prior to the "Remember" stimuli. The sources were localized in the parietal cortex included in the dorsal attention network. Subjects with a larger cue-modulation of the alpha activity had better memory for the to-be-remembered items. Interestingly, alpha activity reflecting successful inhibition following the "No-Remember" cue was observed in the frontal midline structures suggesting preparatory inhibition was mediated by anterior parts of the dorsal attention network. During the presentation of the memory items, there was more gamma activity for the "Remember" compared to the "No-Remember" items in the same regions. Importantly, the anticipatory alpha power during cue predicted the gamma power during item. Our findings suggest that top-down controlled alpha activity reflects attentional inhibition of sensory processing in the dorsal attention network, which then finally gates information to long-term memory. This gating is achieved by inhibiting the processing of visual information reflected by neuronal synchronization in the gamma band. In conclusion, the functional architecture revealed by region-specific changes in the alpha activity reflects attentional modulation which has consequences for long-term memory encoding. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. NMDA receptors and memory encoding.

    Morris, Richard G M

    2013-11-01

    It is humbling to think that 30 years have passed since the paper by Collingridge, Kehl and McLennan showing that one of Jeff Watkins most interesting compounds, R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (d-AP5), blocked the induction of long-term potentiation in vitro at synapses from area CA3 of the hippocampus to CA1 without apparent effect on baseline synaptic transmission (Collingridge et al., 1983). This dissociation was one of the key triggers for an explosion of interest in glutamate receptors, and much has been discovered since that collectively contributes to our contemporary understanding of glutamatergic synapses - their biophysics and subunit composition, of the agonists and antagonists acting on them, and their diverse functions in different networks of the brain and spinal cord. It can be fairly said that Collingridge et al.'s (1983) observation was the stimulus that has led, on the one hand, to structural biological work at the atomic scale describing the key features of NMDA receptors that enables their coincidence function to happen; and, on the other, to work with whole animals investigating the contributions that calcium signalling via this receptor can have on rhythmical activities controlled by spinal circuits, memory encoding in the hippocampus (the topic of this article), visual cortical plasticity, sensitization in pain, and other functions. In this article, I lay out how my then interest in long-term potentiation (LTP) as a model of memory enabled me to recognise the importance of Collingridge et al.'s discovery - and how I and my colleagues endeavoured to take things forward in the area of learning and memory. This is in some respects a personal story, and I tell it as such. The idea that NMDA receptor activation is essential for memory encoding, though not for storage, took time to develop and to be accepted. Along the way, there have been confusions, challenges, and surprises surrounding the idea that activation of NMDA receptors can

  5. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  6. Emotional arousal and memory after deep encoding.

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Camacho, Gabriela L; Ramos Rojas, Maria D; Ruedas, Angelica

    2018-05-22

    Emotion often enhances long-term memory. One mechanism for this enhancement is heightened arousal during encoding. However, reducing arousal, via emotion regulation (ER) instructions, has not been associated with reduced memory. In fact, the opposite pattern has been observed: stronger memory for emotional stimuli encoded with an ER instruction to reduce arousal. This pattern may be due to deeper encoding required by ER instructions. In the current research, we examine the effects of emotional arousal and deep-encoding on memory across three studies. In Study 1, adult participants completed a writing task (deep-encoding) for encoding negative, neutral, and positive picture stimuli, whereby half the emotion stimuli had the ER instruction to reduce the emotion. Memory was strong across conditions, and no memory enhancement was observed for any condition. In Study 2, adult participants completed the same writing task as Study 1, as well as a shallow-encoding task for one-third of negative, neutral, and positive trials. Memory was strongest for deep vs. shallow encoding trials, with no effects of emotion or ER instruction. In Study 3, adult participants completed a shallow-encoding task for negative, neutral, and positive stimuli, with findings indicating enhanced memory for negative emotional stimuli. Findings suggest that deep encoding must be acknowledged as a source of memory enhancement when examining manipulations of emotion-related arousal. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Rodolphe Nenert

    Full Text Available Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA. All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN. Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  8. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2014-01-01

    Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA) with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA). All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions) and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN). Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s) of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  9. Exploring the influence of encoding format on subsequent memory.

    Turney, Indira C; Dennis, Nancy A; Maillet, David; Rajah, M Natasha

    2017-05-01

    Distinctive encoding is greatly influenced by gist-based processes and has been shown to suffer when highly similar items are presented in close succession. Thus, elucidating the mechanisms underlying how presentation format affects gist processing is essential in determining the factors that influence these encoding processes. The current study utilised multivariate partial least squares (PLS) analysis to identify encoding networks directly associated with retrieval performance in a blocked and intermixed presentation condition. Subsequent memory analysis for successfully encoded items indicated no significant differences between reaction time and retrieval performance and presentation format. Despite no significant behavioural differences, behaviour PLS revealed differences in brain-behaviour correlations and mean condition activity in brain regions associated with gist-based vs. distinctive encoding. Specifically, the intermixed format encouraged more distinctive encoding, showing increased activation of regions associated with strategy use and visual processing (e.g., frontal and visual cortices, respectively). Alternatively, the blocked format exhibited increased gist-based processes, accompanied by increased activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Together, results suggest that the sequence that information is presented during encoding affects the degree to which distinctive encoding is engaged. These findings extend our understanding of the Fuzzy Trace Theory and the role of presentation format on encoding processes.

  10. Visual Memory : The Price of Encoding Details

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Kromm, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Studies on visual long-term memory have shown that we have a tremendous capacity for remembering pictures of objects, even at a highly detailed level. What remains unclear, however, is whether encoding objects at such a detailed level comes at any cost. In the current study, we examined how the

  11. How can survival processing improve memory encoding?

    Luo, Meng; Geng, Haiyan

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the psychological mechanism of survival processing advantage from the perspective of false memory in two experiments. Using a DRM paradigm in combination with analysis based on signal detection theory, we were able to separately examine participants' utilization of verbatim representation and gist representation. Specifically, in Experiment 1, participants rated semantically related words in a survival scenario for a survival condition but rated pleasantness of words in the same DRM lists for a non-survival control condition. The results showed that participants demonstrated more gist processing in the survival condition than in the pleasantness condition; however, the degree of item-specific processing in the two encoding conditions did not significantly differ. In Experiment 2, the control task was changed to a category rating task, in which participants were asked to make category ratings of words in the category lists. We found that the survival condition involved more item-specific processing than did the category condition, but we found no significant difference between the two encoding conditions at the level of gist processing. Overall, our study demonstrates that survival processing can simultaneously promote gist and item-specific representations. When the control tasks only promoted either item-specific representation or gist representation, memory advantages of survival processing occurred.

  12. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Aki Kondo

    Full Text Available The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location, and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape can be flexibly added to object representations.

  13. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Kondo, Aki; Saiki, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location), and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape) can be flexibly added to object representations.

  14. Emotional Encoding Context Leads to Memory Bias in Individuals with High Anxiety

    Lee, Christopher; Fernandes, Myra A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether anxious individuals, who adopt an inherently negative mindset, demonstrate a particularly salient memory bias for words tainted by negative contexts. To this end, sequentially presented target words, overlayed onto negative or neutral pictures, were studied in separate blocks (within-subjects) using a deep or shallow encoding instruction (between-subjects). Following study, in Test 1, participants completed separate recognition test blocks for the words overlayed onto ...

  15. Minimal-memory realization of pearl-necklace encoders of general quantum convolutional codes

    Houshmand, Monireh; Hosseini-Khayat, Saied

    2011-01-01

    Quantum convolutional codes, like their classical counterparts, promise to offer higher error correction performance than block codes of equivalent encoding complexity, and are expected to find important applications in reliable quantum communication where a continuous stream of qubits is transmitted. Grassl and Roetteler devised an algorithm to encode a quantum convolutional code with a ''pearl-necklace'' encoder. Despite their algorithm's theoretical significance as a neat way of representing quantum convolutional codes, it is not well suited to practical realization. In fact, there is no straightforward way to implement any given pearl-necklace structure. This paper closes the gap between theoretical representation and practical implementation. In our previous work, we presented an efficient algorithm to find a minimal-memory realization of a pearl-necklace encoder for Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) convolutional codes. This work is an extension of our previous work and presents an algorithm for turning a pearl-necklace encoder for a general (non-CSS) quantum convolutional code into a realizable quantum convolutional encoder. We show that a minimal-memory realization depends on the commutativity relations between the gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder. We find a realization by means of a weighted graph which details the noncommutative paths through the pearl necklace. The weight of the longest path in this graph is equal to the minimal amount of memory needed to implement the encoder. The algorithm has a polynomial-time complexity in the number of gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder.

  16. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study mapping the episodic memory encoding network in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Sidhu, Meneka K.; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; Bonelli, Silvia; Centeno, Maria; Vollmar, Christian; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J.; Koepp, Matthias J.

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated reorganization of memory encoding networks within the temporal lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy, but little is known of the extra-temporal networks in these patients. We investigated the temporal and extra-temporal reorganization of memory encoding networks in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and the neural correlates of successful subsequent memory formation. We studied 44 patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (24 left) and 26 healthy control subjects. All participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm of faces and words with subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessments. A blocked analysis was used to investigate activations during encoding and neural correlates of subsequent memory were investigated using an event-related analysis. Event-related activations were then correlated with out-of-scanner verbal and visual memory scores. During word encoding, control subjects activated the left prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis showed significant additional right temporal and extra-temporal activations. Control subjects displayed subsequent verbal memory effects within left parahippocampal gyrus, left orbitofrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis activated only right posterior hippocampus, parahippocampus and fusiform gyrus. Correlational analysis showed that patients with left hippocampal sclerosis with better verbal memory additionally activated left orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and left posterior hippocampus. During face encoding, control subjects showed right lateralized prefrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampal activations. Patients with right hippocampal sclerosis showed increased temporal activations within the superior temporal gyri bilaterally and no increased extra-temporal areas of activation compared with

  17. Emotional Encoding Context Leads to Memory Bias in Individuals with High Anxiety

    Christopher Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether anxious individuals, who adopt an inherently negative mindset, demonstrate a particularly salient memory bias for words tainted by negative contexts. To this end, sequentially presented target words, overlayed onto negative or neutral pictures, were studied in separate blocks (within-subjects using a deep or shallow encoding instruction (between-subjects. Following study, in Test 1, participants completed separate recognition test blocks for the words overlayed onto the negative and the neutral contexts. Following this, in Test 2, participants completed a recognition test for the foils from each Test 1 block. We found a significant three-way interaction on Test 2, such that individuals with high anxiety who initially studied target words using a shallow encoding instruction, demonstrated significantly elevated memory for foils that were contained within the negative Test 1 block. Results show that during retrieval (Test 1, participants re-entered the mode of processing (negative or neutral engaged at encoding, tainting the encoding of foils with that same mode of processing. The findings suggest that individuals with high relative to low anxiety, adopt a particularly salient negative retrieval mode, and this creates a downstream bias in encoding and subsequent retrieval of otherwise neutral information.

  18. Emotional Encoding Context Leads to Memory Bias in Individuals with High Anxiety.

    Lee, Christopher; Fernandes, Myra A

    2017-12-27

    We investigated whether anxious individuals, who adopt an inherently negative mindset, demonstrate a particularly salient memory bias for words tainted by negative contexts. To this end, sequentially presented target words, overlayed onto negative or neutral pictures, were studied in separate blocks (within-subjects) using a deep or shallow encoding instruction (between-subjects). Following study, in Test 1, participants completed separate recognition test blocks for the words overlayed onto the negative and the neutral contexts. Following this, in Test 2, participants completed a recognition test for the foils from each Test 1 block. We found a significant three-way interaction on Test 2, such that individuals with high anxiety who initially studied target words using a shallow encoding instruction, demonstrated significantly elevated memory for foils that were contained within the negative Test 1 block. Results show that during retrieval (Test 1), participants re-entered the mode of processing (negative or neutral) engaged at encoding, tainting the encoding of foils with that same mode of processing. The findings suggest that individuals with high relative to low anxiety, adopt a particularly salient negative retrieval mode, and this creates a downstream bias in encoding and subsequent retrieval of otherwise neutral information.

  19. Negative affect promotes encoding of and memory for details at the expense of the gist: affect, encoding, and false memories.

    Storbeck, Justin

    2013-01-01

    I investigated whether negative affective states enhance encoding of and memory for item-specific information reducing false memories. Positive, negative, and neutral moods were induced, and participants then completed a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false-memory task. List items were presented in unique spatial locations or unique fonts to serve as measures for item-specific encoding. The negative mood conditions had more accurate memories for item-specific information, and they also had fewer false memories. The final experiment used a manipulation that drew attention to distinctive information, which aided learning for DRM words, but also promoted item-specific encoding. For the condition that promoted item-specific encoding, false memories were reduced for positive and neutral mood conditions to a rate similar to that of the negative mood condition. These experiments demonstrated that negative affective cues promote item-specific processing reducing false memories. People in positive and negative moods encode events differently creating different memories for the same event.

  20. Memory block: a consequence of conflict resolution.

    Ito, Etsuro; Yamagishi, Miki; Hatakeyama, Dai; Watanabe, Takayuki; Fujito, Yutaka; Dyakonova, Varvara; Lukowiak, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Food deprivation for 1 day in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis before aversive classical conditioning results in optimal conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and long-term memory (LTM) formation, whereas 5-day food deprivation before training does not. We hypothesize that snails do in fact learn and form LTM when trained after prolonged food deprivation, but that severe food deprivation blocks their ability to express memory. We trained 5-day food-deprived snails under various conditions, and found that memory was indeed formed but is overpowered by severe food deprivation. Moreover, CTA-LTM was context dependent and was observed only when the snails were in a context similar to that in which the training occurred. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. False memory and importance: can we prioritize encoding without consequence?

    Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; McDonough, Ian M; Castel, Alan D

    2013-10-01

    Given the large amount of information that we encounter, we often must prioritize what information we attempt to remember. Although critical for everyday functioning, relatively little research has focused on how people prioritize the encoding of information. Recent research has shown that people can and do selectively remember information assigned with higher, relative to lower, importance. However, the mechanisms underlying this prioritization process and the consequences of these processes are still not well understood. In the present study, we sought to better understand these prioritization processes and whether implementing these processes comes at the cost of memory accuracy, by increasing false memories. We used a modified form of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, in which participants studied DRM lists, with each list paired with low, medium, or high point values. In Experiment 1, encoding higher values led to more false memories than did encoding lower values, possibly because prioritizing information enhanced relational processing among high-value words. In Experiment 2, disrupting relational processing selectively reduced false memories for high-value words. Finally, in Experiment 3, facilitating relational processing selectively increased false memories for low-value words. These findings suggest that while prioritizing information can enhance true memory, this process concomitantly increases false memories. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these prioritization processes depends on the ability to successfully engage in relational processing. Thus, how we prioritize the encoding of incoming information can come at a cost in terms of accurate memory.

  2. Encoding and retrieval of artificial visuoauditory memory traces in the auditory cortex requires the entorhinal cortex.

    Chen, Xi; Guo, Yiping; Feng, Jingyu; Liao, Zhengli; Li, Xinjian; Wang, Haitao; Li, Xiao; He, Jufang

    2013-06-12

    Damage to the medial temporal lobe impairs the encoding of new memories and the retrieval of memories acquired immediately before the damage in human. In this study, we demonstrated that artificial visuoauditory memory traces can be established in the rat auditory cortex and that their encoding and retrieval depend on the entorhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe in the rat. We trained rats to associate a visual stimulus with electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex using a classical conditioning protocol. After conditioning, we examined the associative memory traces electrophysiologically (i.e., visual stimulus-evoked responses of auditory cortical neurons) and behaviorally (i.e., visual stimulus-induced freezing and visual stimulus-guided reward retrieval). The establishment of a visuoauditory memory trace in the auditory cortex, which was detectable by electrophysiological recordings, was achieved over 20-30 conditioning trials and was blocked by unilateral, temporary inactivation of the entorhinal cortex. Retrieval of a previously established visuoauditory memory was also affected by unilateral entorhinal cortex inactivation. These findings suggest that the entorhinal cortex is necessary for the encoding and involved in the retrieval of artificial visuoauditory memory in the auditory cortex, at least during the early stages of memory consolidation.

  3. Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

    Leshikar, Eric D; Duarte, Audrey; Hertzog, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences). Neuroimaging evidence suggests that regions of the brain support memory reflecting the mental operations engaged at the time of study. That work, however, has not taken into account self-reported encoding task success (i.e., whether participants successfully generated a mediator). It is unknown, therefore, whether task-selective memory effects specific to each strategy might be found when encoding strategies are successfully implemented. In this experiment, participants studied pairs of abstract nouns under either visual imagery or sentence generation encoding instructions. At the time of study, participants reported their success at generating a mediator. Outside of the scanner, participants further reported the quality of the generated mediator (e.g., images, sentences) for each word pair. We observed task-selective memory effects for visual imagery in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and the lingual gyrus. No such task-selective effects were observed for sentence generation. Intriguingly, activity at the time of study in the left precuneus was modulated by the self-reported quality (vividness) of the generated mental images with greater activity for trials given higher ratings of quality. These data suggest that regions of the brain support memory in accord with the encoding operations engaged at the time of study.

  4. Audiovisual semantic congruency during encoding enhances memory performance.

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Alho, Kimmo; Hyvönen, Heidi; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Studies of memory and learning have usually focused on a single sensory modality, although human perception is multisensory in nature. In the present study, we investigated the effects of audiovisual encoding on later unisensory recognition memory performance. The participants were to memorize auditory or visual stimuli (sounds, pictures, spoken words, or written words), each of which co-occurred with either a semantically congruent stimulus, incongruent stimulus, or a neutral (non-semantic noise) stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent memory performance was overall better when the stimulus to be memorized was initially accompanied by a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than when it was accompanied by a neutral stimulus. These results suggest that semantically congruent multisensory experiences enhance encoding of both nonverbal and verbal materials, resulting in an improvement in their later recognition memory.

  5. [The effect of encoding on false memory: examination on levels of processing and list presentation format].

    Hamajima, Hideki

    2004-04-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm, the effects of lists presentation format (blocked/random) and levels of processing of critical nonpresented lures were examined. A levels-of-processing effect in a blocked presentation order was not observed for lures. Rates of false recognition and remember judgments for lures in a shallow level of processing were significantly lower than those in a deep level of processing when items from various themes were inter-mixed instead of blocked. Results showed an interaction between levels of processing and list presentation format. It is thus concluded that encoding of each word and whole list should be both considered in understanding false memory.

  6. Movement Interferes with Visuospatial Working Memory during the Encoding: An ERP Study

    Rumeysa Gunduz Can

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the functional interactions of cognition and manual action control. Particularly, we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of the dual-task costs of a manual-motor task (requiring grasping an object, holding it, and subsequently placing it on a target for working memory (WM domains (verbal and visuospatial and processes (encoding and retrieval. Thirty participants were tested in a cognitive-motor dual-task paradigm, in which a single block (a verbal or visuospatial WM task was compared with a dual block (concurrent performance of a WM task and a motor task. Event-related potentials (ERPs were analyzed separately for the encoding and retrieval processes of verbal and visuospatial WM domains both in single and dual blocks. The behavioral analyses show that the motor task interfered with WM and decreased the memory performance. The performance decrease was larger for the visuospatial task compared with the verbal task, i.e., domain-specific memory costs were obtained. The ERP analyses show the domain-specific interference also at the neurophysiological level, which is further process-specific to encoding. That is, comparing the patterns of WM-related ERPs in the single block and dual block, we showed that visuospatial ERPs changed only for the encoding process when a motor task was performed at the same time. Generally, the present study provides evidence for domain- and process-specific interactions of a prepared manual-motor movement with WM (visuospatial domain during the encoding process. This study, therefore, provides an initial neurophysiological characterization of functional interactions of WM and manual actions in a cognitive-motor dual-task setting, and contributes to a better understanding of the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of motor action control.

  7. Encoding specificity manipulations do affect retrieval from memory.

    Zeelenberg, René

    2005-05-01

    In a recent article, P.A. Higham (2002) [Strong cues are not necessarily weak: Thomson and Tulving (1970) and the encoding specificity principle revisited. Memory &Cognition, 30, 67-80] proposed a new way to analyze cued recall performance in terms of three separable aspects of memory (retrieval, monitoring, and report bias) by comparing performance under both free-report and forced-report instructions. He used this method to derive estimates of these aspects of memory in an encoding specificity experiment similar to that reported by D.M. Thomson and E. Tulving (1970) [Associative encoding and retrieval: weak and strong cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 86, 255-262]. Under forced-report instructions, the encoding specificity manipulation did not affect performance. Higham concluded that the manipulation affected monitoring and report bias, but not retrieval. I argue that this interpretation of the results is problematic because the Thomson and Tulving paradigm is confounded, and show in three experiments using a more appropriate design that encoding specificity manipulations do affect performance in forced-report cued recall. Because in Higham's framework forced-report performance provides a measure of retrieval that is uncontaminated by monitoring and report bias it is concluded that encoding specificity manipulations do affect retrieval from memory.

  8. Aerobic Exercise During Encoding Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory.

    Soga, Keishi; Kamijo, Keita; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how aerobic exercise during encoding affects hippocampus-dependent memory through a source memory task that assessed hippocampus-independent familiarity and hippocampus-dependent recollection processes. Using a within-participants design, young adult participants performed a memory-encoding task while performing a cycling exercise or being seated. The subsequent retrieval phase was conducted while sitting on a chair. We assessed behavioral and event-related brain potential measures of familiarity and recollection processes during the retrieval phase. Results indicated that source accuracy was lower for encoding with exercise than for encoding in the resting condition. Event-related brain potential measures indicated that the parietal old/new effect, which has been linked to recollection processing, was observed in the exercise condition, whereas it was absent in the rest condition, which is indicative of exercise-induced hippocampal activation. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise during encoding impairs hippocampus-dependent memory, which may be attributed to inefficient source encoding during aerobic exercise.

  9. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  10. Divided Attention Can Enhance Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect in Implicit Memory

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W.; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute…

  11. Thought probes during prospective memory encoding: Evidence for perfunctory processes

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Dasse, Michelle N.; Lee, Ji hae; Kurinec, Courtney A.; Tami, Claudina; Krueger, Madison L.

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, psychologists have studied prospective memory, or the ability to execute delayed intentions. Yet, there remains a gap in understanding as to whether initial encoding of the intention must be elaborative and strategic, or whether some components of successful encoding can occur in a perfunctory, transient manner. In eight studies (N = 680), we instructed participants to remember to press the Q key if they saw words representing fruits (cue) during an ongoing lexical decision task. They then typed what they were thinking and responded whether they encoded fruits as a general category, as specific exemplars, or hardly thought about it at all. Consistent with the perfunctory view, participants often reported mind wandering (42.9%) and hardly thinking about the prospective memory task (22.5%). Even though participants were given a general category cue, many participants generated specific category exemplars (34.5%). Bayesian analyses of encoding durations indicated that specific exemplars came to mind in a perfunctory manner rather than via strategic, elaborative mechanisms. Few participants correctly guessed the research hypotheses and changing from fruit category cues to initial-letter cues eliminated reports of specific exemplar generation, thereby arguing against demand characteristics in the thought probe procedure. In a final experiment, encoding duration was unrelated to prospective memory performance; however, specific-exemplar encoders outperformed general-category encoders with no ongoing task monitoring costs. Our findings reveal substantial variability in intention encoding, and demonstrate that some components of prospective memory encoding can be done “in passing.” PMID:29874277

  12. Prefrontal activity and impaired memory encoding strategies in schizophrenia.

    Guimond, Synthia; Hawco, Colin; Lepage, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients have significant memory difficulties that have far-reaching implications in their daily life. These impairments are partly attributed to an inability to self-initiate effective memory encoding strategies, but its core neurobiological correlates remain unknown. The current study addresses this critical gap in our knowledge of episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients (n = 35) and healthy controls (n = 23) underwent a Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) during an fMRI scan. Brain activity was examined for conditions where participants were a) prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, or b) not prompted but required to self-initiate such strategies. When prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, schizophrenia patients exhibited similar recognition performance and brain activity as healthy controls. However, when required to self-initiate these strategies, patients had significant reduced recognition performance and brain activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as in the left temporal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. When patients were divided based on performance on the SEMT, the subgroup with more severe deficits in self-initiation also showed greater reduction in left dorsolateral prefrontal activity. These results suggest that impaired self-initiation of elaborative encoding strategies is a driving feature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. We also identified the neural correlates of impaired self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies, in which a failure to activate the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a key role. These findings provide important new targets in the development of novel treatments aiming to improve memory and ultimately patients' outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

    Eric D Leshikar

    Full Text Available Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that regions of the brain support memory reflecting the mental operations engaged at the time of study. That work, however, has not taken into account self-reported encoding task success (i.e., whether participants successfully generated a mediator. It is unknown, therefore, whether task-selective memory effects specific to each strategy might be found when encoding strategies are successfully implemented. In this experiment, participants studied pairs of abstract nouns under either visual imagery or sentence generation encoding instructions. At the time of study, participants reported their success at generating a mediator. Outside of the scanner, participants further reported the quality of the generated mediator (e.g., images, sentences for each word pair. We observed task-selective memory effects for visual imagery in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and the lingual gyrus. No such task-selective effects were observed for sentence generation. Intriguingly, activity at the time of study in the left precuneus was modulated by the self-reported quality (vividness of the generated mental images with greater activity for trials given higher ratings of quality. These data suggest that regions of the brain support memory in accord with the encoding operations engaged at the time of study.

  14. Encoding, Memory, and Transcoding Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Strand, Edythe A.; Jakielski, Kathy J.

    2012-01-01

    A central question in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is whether the core phenotype is limited to transcoding (planning/programming) deficits or if speakers with CAS also have deficits in auditory-perceptual "encoding" (representational) and/or "memory" (storage and retrieval of representations) processes. We addressed this and other questions…

  15. Neural Activity during Encoding Predicts False Memories Created by Misinformation

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The authors used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and…

  16. How Does Intentionality of Encoding Affect Memory for Episodic Information?

    Craig, Michael; Butterworth, Karla; Nilsson, Jonna; Hamilton, Colin J.; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory enables the detailed and vivid recall of past events, including target and wider contextual information. In this paper, we investigated whether/how encoding intentionality affects the retention of target and contextual episodic information from a novel experience. Healthy adults performed (1) a "What-Where-When"…

  17. Enhanced tactile encoding and memory recognition in congenital blindness.

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Waraich, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Several behavioural studies have shown that early-blind persons possess superior tactile skills. Since neurophysiological data show that early-blind persons recruit visual as well as somatosensory cortex to carry out tactile processing (cross-modal plasticity), blind persons' sharper tactile skills may be related to cortical re-organisation resulting from loss of vision early in their life. To examine the nature of blind individuals' tactile superiority and its implications for cross-modal plasticity, we compared the tactile performance of congenitally totally blind, low-vision and sighted children on raised-line picture identification test and re-test, assessing effects of task familiarity, exploratory strategy and memory recognition. What distinguished the blind from the other children was higher memory recognition and higher tactile encoding associated with efficient exploration. These results suggest that enhanced perceptual encoding and recognition memory may be two cognitive correlates of cross-modal plasticity in congenital blindness.

  18. Perceptual priming versus explicit memory: dissociable neural correlates at encoding.

    Schott, Björn; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Düzel, Emrah

    2002-05-15

    We addressed the hypothesis that perceptual priming and explicit memory have distinct neural correlates at encoding. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants studied visually presented words at deep versus shallow levels of processing (LOPs). The ERPs were sorted by whether or not participants later used studied words as completions to three-letter word stems in an intentional memory test, and by whether or not they indicated that these completions were remembered from the study list. Study trials from which words were later used and not remembered (primed trials) and study trials from which words were later used and remembered (remembered trials) were compared to study trials from which words were later not used (forgotten trials), in order to measure the ERP difference associated with later memory (DM effect). Primed trials involved an early (200-450 msec) centroparietal negative-going DM effect. Remembered trials involved a late (900-1200 msec) right frontal, positive-going DM effect regardless of LOP, as well as an earlier (600-800 msec) central, positive-going DM effect during shallow study processing only. All three DM effects differed topographically, and, in terms of their onset or duration, from the extended (600-1200 msec) fronto-central, positive-going shift for deep compared with shallow study processing. The results provide the first clear evidence that perceptual priming and explicit memory have distinct neural correlates at encoding, consistent with Tulving and Schacter's (1990) distinction between brain systems concerned with perceptual representation versus semantic and episodic memory. They also shed additional light on encoding processes associated with later explicit memory, by suggesting that brain processes influenced by LOP set the stage for other, at least partially separable, brain processes that are more directly related to encoding success.

  19. Long Term Memory for Noise: Evidence of Robust Encoding of Very Short Temporal Acoustic Patterns.

    Viswanathan, Jayalakshmi; Rémy, Florence; Bacon-Macé, Nadège; Thorpe, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that humans are able to implicitly encode and retain repeating patterns in meaningless auditory noise. Our study aimed at testing the robustness of long-term implicit recognition memory for these learned patterns. Participants performed a cyclic/non-cyclic discrimination task, during which they were presented with either 1-s cyclic noises (CNs) (the two halves of the noise were identical) or 1-s plain random noises (Ns). Among CNs and Ns presented once, target CNs were implicitly presented multiple times within a block, and implicit recognition of these target CNs was tested 4 weeks later using a similar cyclic/non-cyclic discrimination task. Furthermore, robustness of implicit recognition memory was tested by presenting participants with looped (shifting the origin) and scrambled (chopping sounds into 10- and 20-ms bits before shuffling) versions of the target CNs. We found that participants had robust implicit recognition memory for learned noise patterns after 4 weeks, right from the first presentation. Additionally, this memory was remarkably resistant to acoustic transformations, such as looping and scrambling of the sounds. Finally, implicit recognition of sounds was dependent on participant's discrimination performance during learning. Our findings suggest that meaningless temporal features as short as 10 ms can be implicitly stored in long-term auditory memory. Moreover, successful encoding and storage of such fine features may vary between participants, possibly depending on individual attention and auditory discrimination abilities. Significance Statement Meaningless auditory patterns could be implicitly encoded and stored in long-term memory.Acoustic transformations of learned meaningless patterns could be implicitly recognized after 4 weeks.Implicit long-term memories can be formed for meaningless auditory features as short as 10 ms.Successful encoding and long-term implicit recognition of meaningless patterns may

  20. How does the sparse memory "engram" neurons encode the memory of a spatial-temporal event?

    Ji-Song Guan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory in human brain is not a fixed 2-D picture but a highly dynamic movie serial, integrating information at both the temporal and the spatial domains. Recent studies in neuroscience reveal that memory storage and recall are closely related to the activities in discrete memory engram (trace neurons within the dentate gyrus region of hippocampus and the layer 2/3 of neocortex. More strikingly, optogenetic reactivation of those memory trace neurons is able to trigger the recall of naturally encoded memory. It is still unknown how the discrete memory traces encode and reactivate the memory. Considering a particular memory normally represents a natural event, which consists of information at both the temporal and spatial domains, it is unknown how the discrete trace neurons could reconstitute such enriched information in the brain. Furthermore, as the optogenetic-stimuli induced recall of memory did not depend on firing pattern of the memory traces, it is most likely that the spatial activation pattern, but not the temporal activation pattern of the discrete memory trace neurons encodes the memory in the brain. How does the neural circuit convert the activities in the spatial domain into the temporal domain to reconstitute memory of a natural event? By reviewing the literature, here we present how the memory engram (trace neurons are selected and consolidated in the brain. Then, we will discuss the main challenges in the memory trace theory. In the end, we will provide a plausible model of memory trace cell network, underlying the conversion of neural activities between the spatial domain and the temporal domain. We will also discuss on how the activation of sparse memory trace neurons might trigger the replay of neural activities in specific temporal patterns.

  1. Electroencephalographic brain dynamics of memory encoding in emotionally arousing context

    Carlos Enrique eUribe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional content/context enhances declarative memory through modulation of encoding and retrieval mechanisms. At encoding, neurophysiological data have consistently demonstrated the subsequent memory effect in theta and gamma oscillations. Yet, the existing studies were focused on the emotional content effect and let the emotional context effect unexplored. We hypothesized that theta and gamma oscillations show higher evoked/induced activity during the encoding of visual stimuli when delivered in an emotionally arousing context. Twenty-five healthy volunteers underwent evoked potentials recordings using a 21 scalp electrodes montage. They attended to an audiovisual test of emotional declarative memory being randomly assigned to either emotionally arousing or neutral context. Visual stimulus presentation was used as the time-locking event. Grand-averages of the evoked potentials and evoked spectral perturbations were calculated for each volunteer. Evoked potentials showed a higher negative deflection from 80 to 140 ms for the emotional condition. Such effect was observed over central, frontal and prefrontal locations bilaterally. Evoked theta power was higher in left parietal, central, frontal and prefrontal electrodes from -50 to 300 ms in the emotional condition. Evoked gamma power was higher in the emotional condition with a spatial distribution that overlapped at some points with the theta topography. The early theta power increase could be related to expectancy induced by auditory information processing that facilitates visual encoding in emotional contexts. Together, our results suggest that declarative memory enhancement for both emotional content and emotional context are supported by similar neural mechanisms at encoding, and offer new evidence about the brain processing of relevant environmental stimuli.

  2. Contribution of stress and sex hormones to memory encoding.

    Merz, Christian J

    2017-08-01

    Distinct stages of the menstrual cycle and the intake of oral contraceptives (OC) affect sex hormone levels, stress responses, and memory processes critically involved in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. To characterize the interaction of sex and stress hormones on memory encoding, 30 men, 30 women in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (FO), 30 women in the luteal phase (LU), and 30 OC women were exposed to either a stress (socially evaluated cold-pressor test) or a control condition prior to memory encoding and immediate recall of neutral, positive, and negative words. On the next day, delayed free and cued recall was tested. Sex hormone levels verified distinct estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels between groups. Stress increased blood pressure, cortisol concentrations, and ratings of stress appraisal in all four groups as well as cued recall performance of negative words in men. Stress exposure in OC women led to a blunted cortisol response and rather enhanced cued recall of neutral words. Thus, pre-encoding stress facilitated emotional cued recall performance in men only, but not women with different sex hormone statuses pointing to the pivotal role of circulating sex hormones in modulation of learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Memory Activation in Creating False Memories of Encoding Context

    Arndt, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Using 3 experiments, I examined false memory for encoding context by presenting Deese-Roediger-McDermott themes (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) in usual-looking fonts and by testing related, but unstudied, lure items in a font that was shown during encoding. In 2 of the experiments, testing lure items in the font used to study their…

  4. Artificial theta stimulation impairs encoding of contextual fear memory.

    Arto Lipponen

    Full Text Available Several experiments have demonstrated an intimate relationship between hippocampal theta rhythm (4-12 Hz and memory. Lesioning the medial septum or fimbria-fornix, a fiber track connecting the hippocampus and the medial septum, abolishes the theta rhythm and results in a severe impairment in declarative memory. To assess whether there is a causal relationship between hippocampal theta and memory formation we investigated whether restoration of hippocampal theta by electrical stimulation during the encoding phase also restores fimbria-fornix lesion induced memory deficit in rats in the fear conditioning paradigm. Male Wistar rats underwent sham or fimbria-fornix lesion operation. Stimulation electrodes were implanted in the ventral hippocampal commissure and recording electrodes in the septal hippocampus. Artificial theta stimulation of 8 Hz was delivered during 3-min free exploration of the test cage in half of the rats before aversive conditioning with three foot shocks during 2 min. Memory was assessed by total freezing time in the same environment 24 h and 28 h after fear conditioning, and in an intervening test session in a different context. As expected, fimbria-fornix lesion impaired fear memory and dramatically attenuated hippocampal theta power. Artificial theta stimulation produced continuous theta oscillations that were almost similar to endogenous theta rhythm in amplitude and frequency. However, contrary to our predictions, artificial theta stimulation impaired conditioned fear response in both sham and fimbria-fornix lesioned animals. These data suggest that restoration of theta oscillation per se is not sufficient to support memory encoding after fimbria-fornix lesion and that universal theta oscillation in the hippocampus with a fixed frequency may actually impair memory.

  5. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  6. Subjective memory complaints are associated with brain activation supporting successful memory encoding.

    Hayes, Jessica M; Tang, Lingfei; Viviano, Raymond P; van Rooden, Sanneke; Ofen, Noa; Damoiseaux, Jessica S

    2017-12-01

    Subjective memory complaints, the perceived decline in cognitive abilities in the absence of clinical deficits, may precede Alzheimer's disease. Individuals with subjective memory complaints show differential brain activation during memory encoding; however, whether such differences contribute to successful memory formation remains unclear. Here, we investigated how subsequent memory effects, activation which is greater for hits than misses during an encoding task, differed between healthy older adults aged 50 to 85 years with (n = 23) and without (n = 41) memory complaints. Older adults with memory complaints, compared to those without, showed lower subsequent memory effects in the occipital lobe, superior parietal lobe, and posterior cingulate cortex. In addition, older adults with more memory complaints showed a more negative subsequent memory effects in areas of the default mode network, including the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that for successful memory formation, older adults with subjective memory complaints rely on distinct neural mechanisms which may reflect an overall decreased task-directed attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adult ADHD and working memory: neural evidence of impaired encoding.

    Kim, Soyeon; Liu, Zhongxu; Glizer, Daniel; Tannock, Rosemary; Woltering, Steven

    2014-08-01

    To investigate neural and behavioural correlates of visual encoding during a working memory (WM) task in young adults with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A sample of 30 college students currently meeting a diagnosis of ADHD and 25 typically developing students, matched on age and gender, performed a delayed match-to-sample task with low and high memory load conditions. Dense-array electroencephalography was recorded. Specifically, the P3, an event related potential (ERP) associated with WM, was examined because of its relation with attentional allocation during WM. Task performance (accuracy, reaction time) as well as performance on other neuropsychological tasks of WM was analyzed. Neural differences were found between the groups. Specifically, the P3 amplitude was smaller in the ADHD group compared to the comparison group for both load conditions at parietal-occipital sites. Lower scores on behavioural working memory tasks were suggestive of impaired behavioural WM performance in the ADHD group. Findings from this study provide the first evidence of neural differences in the encoding stage of WM in young adults with ADHD, suggesting ineffective allocation of attentional resources involved in encoding of information in WM. These findings, reflecting alternate neural functioning of WM, may explain some of the difficulties related to WM functioning that college students with ADHD report in their every day cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long term memory for noise: evidence of robust encoding of very short temporal acoustic patterns.

    Jayalakshmi Viswanathan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that humans are able to implicitly encode and retain repeating patterns in meaningless auditory noise. Our study aimed at testing the robustness of long-term implicit recognition memory for these learned patterns. Participants performed a cyclic/non-cyclic discrimination task, during which they were presented with either 1-s cyclic noises (CNs (the two halves of the noise were identical or 1-s plain random noises (Ns. Among CNs and Ns presented once, target CNs were implicitly presented multiple times within a block, and implicit recognition of these target CNs was tested 4 weeks later using a similar cyclic/non-cyclic discrimination task. Furthermore, robustness of implicit recognition memory was tested by presenting participants with looped (shifting the origin and scrambled (chopping sounds into 10- and 20-ms bits before shuffling versions of the target CNs. We found that participants had robust implicit recognition memory for learned noise patterns after 4 weeks, right from the first presentation. Additionally, this memory was remarkably resistant to acoustic transformations, such as looping and scrambling of the sounds. Finally, implicit recognition of sounds was dependent on participant’s discrimination performance during learning. Our findings suggest that meaningless temporal features as short as 10 ms can be implicitly stored in long-term auditory memory. Moreover, successful encoding and storage of such fine features may vary between participants, possibly depending on individual attention and auditory discrimination abilities.

  9. Are animacy effects in episodic memory independent of encoding instructions?

    Gelin, Margaux; Bugaiska, Aurélia; Méot, Alain; Bonin, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive view of human memory [Nairne, J. S. 2010. Adaptive memory: Evolutionary constraints on remembering. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 53 pp. 1-32). Burlington: Academic Press; Nairne, J. S., & Pandeirada, J. N. S. 2010a. Adaptive memory: Ancestral priorities and the mnemonic value of survival processing. Cognitive Psychology, 61, 1-22, 2010b; Memory functions. In The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science, (Vol 3, 4th ed. pp. 977-979). Hokoben, NJ: John Wiley & Sons] assumes that animates (e.g., baby, rabbit presented as words or pictures) are better remembered than inanimates (e.g., bottle, mountain) because animates are more important for fitness than inanimates. In four studies, we investigated whether the animacy effect in episodic memory (i.e., the better remembering of animates over inanimates) is independent of encoding instructions. Using both a factorial (Studies 1 and 3) and a multiple regression approach (Study 2), three studies tested whether certain contexts drive people to attend to inanimate more than to animate things (or the reverse), and therefore lead to differential animacy effects. The findings showed that animacy effects on recall performance were observed in the grassland-survival scenario used by Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007. Adaptive memory: Survival processing enhances retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 33, 263-273) (Studies 1-3), when words were rated for their pleasantness (Study 2), and in explicit learning (Study 3). In the non-survival scenario of moving to a foreign land (Studies 1-2), animacy effects on recall rates were not reliable in Study 1, but were significant in Study 2, whereas these effects were reliable in the non-survival scenario of planning a trip as a tour guide (Study 3). A final (control) study (Study 4) was conducted to test specifically whether animacy effects are related to the more organised

  10. Mnemons: encoding memory by protein super-assembly

    Fabrice Caudron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Memory is mainly understood as the recollection of past events. The human brain and its simplest unit, the synapse, belong to the places in which such memories are physically stored. From an experimental point of view, memory can be tested in humans by recall. However, in other organisms, memory is reflected in its use by individuals to learn about and adapt their behavior to their environment. Under this criterion, even unicellular organisms are able to learn from their environments and show the ability to adapt their responses to repeating stimuli. This indicates that they are able to keep track of their histories and use these traces to elaborate adapted responses, making these traces akin to memory encodings. Understanding these phenomena may even help us to dissect part of the rather complex molecular orchestration happening in our synapses. When exposed unsuccessfully to mating pheromone, i.e. when mating does not happen, budding yeast cells become refractory to the mating signal. This refractory state is restricted to the mother cell and not inherited by the daughter cells, even though it is stable for most if not the entire life span of the mother cell. Interestingly, both stability and asymmetric segregation of the acquired state are explained by the molecular mechanism underlying its establishment, which shows important analogies and distinctions to prions. Here we discuss these similarities and differences

  11. Mnemons: encoding memory by protein super-assembly.

    Caudron, Fabrice; Barral, Yves

    2014-02-25

    Memory is mainly understood as the recollection of past events. The human brain and its simplest unit, the synapse, belong to the places in which such memories are physically stored. From an experimental point of view, memory can be tested in humans by recall. However, in other organisms, memory is reflected in its use by individuals to learn about and adapt their behavior to their environment. Under this criterion, even unicellular organisms are able to learn from their environments and show the ability to adapt their responses to repeating stimuli. This indicates that they are able to keep track of their histories and use these traces to elaborate adapted responses, making these traces akin to memory encodings. Understanding these phenomena may even help us to dissect part of the rather complex molecular orchestration happening in our synapses. When exposed unsuccessfully to mating pheromone, i.e. when mating does not happen, budding yeast cells become refractory to the mating signal. This refractory state is restricted to the mother cell and not inherited by the daughter cells, even though it is stable for most if not the entire life span of the mother cell. Interestingly, both stability and asymmetric segregation of the acquired state are explained by the molecular mechanism underlying its establishment, which shows important analogies and distinctions to prions. Here we discuss these similarities and differences.

  12. Reduced prefrontal activation in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder during verbal episodic memory encoding.

    Batistuzzo, Marcelo Camargo; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Martin, Maria da Graça Morais; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Bernardes, Elisa Teixeira; Borcato, Sonia; Souza, Marina de Marco E; Querido, Cicero Nardini; Morais, Rosa Magaly; de Alvarenga, Pedro Gomes; Lopes, Antonio Carlos; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke; Savage, Cary R; Amaro, Edson; Miguel, Euripedes C; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Miotto, Eliane C

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often present with deficits in episodic memory, and there is evidence that these difficulties may be secondary to executive dysfunction, that is, impaired selection and/or application of memory-encoding strategies (mediation hypothesis). Semantic clustering is an effective strategy to enhance encoding of verbal episodic memory (VEM) when word lists are semantically related. Self-initiated mobilization of this strategy has been associated with increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex, a key region in the pathophysiology of OCD. We therefore studied children and adolescents with OCD during uncued semantic clustering strategy application in a VEM functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-encoding paradigm. A total of 25 pediatric patients with OCD (aged 8.1-17.5 years) and 25 healthy controls (HC, aged 8.1-16.9) matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ were evaluated using a block design VEM paradigm that manipulated semantically related and unrelated words. The semantic clustering strategy score (SCS) predicted VEM performance in HC (p semantic clustering in OCD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlled encoding strategies in memory tests in lithium patients.

    Opgenoorth, E; Karlick-Bolten, E

    1986-03-01

    The "levels of processing" theory (Craik and Lockhart) and "dual coding" theory (Paivio) provide new aspects for clinical memory research work. Therefore, an incidental learning paradigm on the basis of these two theoretical approaches was chosen to test aspects of memory performances with lithium therapy. Results of two experiments, with controlled non-semantic processing (rating experiment "comparison of size") and additive semantic processing (rating "living--non-living") indicate a slight reduction in recall (Fig. 1) and recognition performance (Fig. 2) in lithium patients. Effects on encoding strategies are of equal quality in patients and healthy subjects (Tab. 1, 2) but performance differs between both groups: poorer systematic benefit from within code repetitions ("word-word" items, "picture-picture" items) and dual coding (repeated variable item presentation "picture-word") is obtained. The less efficient encoding strategies in the speeded task are discussed with respect to cognitive rigidity and slowing of performance by emotional states. This investigation of so-called "memory deficits" with lithium is an attempt to explore impairments at an early stage of processing; the characterization of the perceptual cognitive analysis seems useful for further clinical research work on this topic.

  14. Design issues for block-oriented reflective memory system

    Jovanovic, M; Tomasevic, M; Milutinovic, V

    1996-12-31

    The block-oriented reflective memory (BORM) system represents a modular bus-based system architecture that belongs to the class of distributed shared memory systems. The results of the evaluation study of the BORM implementation strategies and design decisions in regard to the different values of input parameters are presented. 5 refs.

  15. Effect of tobacco craving cues on memory encoding and retrieval in smokers.

    Heishman, Stephen J; Boas, Zachary P; Hager, Marguerite C; Taylor, Richard C; Singleton, Edward G; Moolchan, Eric T

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that cue-elicited tobacco craving disrupted performance on cognitive tasks; however, no study has examined directly the effect of cue-elicited craving on memory encoding and retrieval. A distinction between encoding and retireval has been reported such that memory is more impaired when attention is divided at encoding than at retrieval. This study tested the hypothesis that active imagery of smoking situations would impair encoding processes, but have little effect on retrieval. Imagery scripts (cigarette craving and neutral content) were presented either before presentation of a word list (encoding trials) or before word recall (retrieval trials). A working memory task at encoding and free recall of words were assessed. Results indicated that active imagery disrupted working memory on encoding trials, but not on retrieval trials. There was a trend toward impaired working memory following craving scripts compared with neutral scripts. These data support the hypothesis that the cognitive underpinnings of encoding and retrieval processes are distinct.

  16. Working memory and individual differences in the encoding of vertical, horizontal and diagonal symmetry.

    Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Pieroni, Laura; Spataro, Pietro; Baddeley, Alan

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies, using a modified version of the sequential Corsi block task to examine the impact of symmetry on visuospatial memory, showed an advantage of vertical symmetry over non-symmetrical sequences, but no effect of horizontal or diagonal symmetry. The present four experiments investigated the mechanisms underlying the encoding of vertical, horizontal and diagonal configurations using simultaneous presentation and a dual-task paradigm. Results indicated that the recall of vertically symmetric arrays was always better than that of all other patterns and was not influenced by any of the concurrent tasks. Performance with horizontally or diagonally symmetrical patterns differed, with high performing participants showing little effect of concurrent tasks, while low performers were disrupted by concurrent visuospatial and executive tasks. A verbal interference had no effect on either group. Implications for processes involved in the encoding of symmetry are discussed, together with the crucial importance of individual differences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A practical block detector for a depth encoding PET camera

    Rogers, J.G.; Moisan, C.; Hoskinson, E.M.

    1995-10-01

    The depth-of-interaction effect in block detectors degrades the image resolution in commercial PET cameras and impedes the natural evolution of smaller, less expensive cameras. A method for correcting the measured position of each detected gamma ray by measuring its depth-of-interaction was tested and found to recover 38% of the lost resolution in a table-top 50 cm diameter camera. To obtain the desired depth sensitivity, standard commercial detectors were modified by a simple and practical process, which is suitable for mass production of the detectors. The impact of the detectors modifications on central image resolution and on the ability of the camera to correct for object scatter were also measured. (authors)

  18. Auditory feedback blocks memory benefits of cueing during sleep.

    Schreiner, Thomas; Lehmann, Mick; Rasch, Björn

    2015-10-28

    It is now widely accepted that re-exposure to memory cues during sleep reactivates memories and can improve later recall. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. As reactivation during wakefulness renders memories sensitive to updating, it remains an intriguing question whether reactivated memories during sleep also become susceptible to incorporating further information after the cue. Here we show that the memory benefits of cueing Dutch vocabulary during sleep are in fact completely blocked when memory cues are directly followed by either correct or conflicting auditory feedback, or a pure tone. In addition, immediate (but not delayed) auditory stimulation abolishes the characteristic increases in oscillatory theta and spindle activity typically associated with successful reactivation during sleep as revealed by high-density electroencephalography. We conclude that plastic processes associated with theta and spindle oscillations occurring during a sensitive period immediately after the cue are necessary for stabilizing reactivated memory traces during sleep.

  19. Beyond initial encoding: Measures of the post-encoding status of memory traces predict long-term recall in infancy

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    The first years of life are witness to rapid changes in long-term recall ability. In the present research, we contributed to explanation of the changes by testing the absolute and relative contributions to long-term recall of encoding and post-encoding processes. Using elicited imitation, we sampled the status of 16-, 20-, and 24-month-old infants’ memory representations at various time points after experience of events. In Experiment 1, infants were tested immediately, 1 week after encoding,...

  20. Post-encoding emotional arousal enhances consolidation of item memory, but not reality-monitoring source memory.

    Wang, Bo; Sun, Bukuan

    2017-03-01

    The current study examined whether the effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on item memory extends to reality-monitoring source memory and, if so, whether the effect depends on emotionality of learning stimuli and testing format. In Experiment 1, participants encoded neutral words and imagined or viewed their corresponding object pictures. Then they watched a neutral, positive, or negative video. The 24-hour delayed test showed that emotional arousal had little effect on both item memory and reality-monitoring source memory. Experiment 2 was similar except that participants encoded neutral, positive, and negative words and imagined or viewed their corresponding object pictures. The results showed that positive and negative emotional arousal induced after encoding enhanced consolidation of item memory, but not reality-monitoring source memory, regardless of emotionality of learning stimuli. Experiment 3, identical to Experiment 2 except that participants were tested only on source memory for all the encoded items, still showed that post-encoding emotional arousal had little effect on consolidation of reality-monitoring source memory. Taken together, regardless of emotionality of learning stimuli and regardless of testing format of source memory (conjunction test vs. independent test), the facilitatory effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on item memory does not generalize to reality-monitoring source memory.

  1. Enhancing memory performance after organic brain disease relies on retrieval processes rather than encoding or consolidation

    Hildebrandt, H.; Gehrmann, A.; Mödden, C.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological rehabilitation of memory performance is still a controversial topic, and rehabilitation studies have not analyzed to which stage of memory processing (encoding, consolidation, or retrieval) enhancement may be attributed. We first examined the efficacy of a computer training

  2. Integrated cannabinoid CB1 receptor transmission within the amygdala-prefrontal cortical pathway modulates neuronal plasticity and emotional memory encoding.

    Tan, Huibing; Lauzon, Nicole M; Bishop, Stephanie F; Bechard, Melanie A; Laviolette, Steven R

    2010-06-01

    The cannabinoid CB1 receptor system is functionally involved in the processing and encoding of emotionally salient sensory information, learning and memory. The CB1 receptor is found in high concentrations in brain structures that are critical for emotional processing, including the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP) within the BLA > mPFC pathway is an established correlate of exposure to emotionally salient events. We performed a series of in vivo LTP studies by applying tetanic stimulation to the BLA combined with recordings of local field potentials within prelimbic cortical (PLC) region of the rat mPFC. Systemic pretreatment with AM-251 dose dependently blocked LTP along the BLA-PLC pathway and also the behavioral acquisition of conditioned fear memories. We next performed a series of microinfusion experiments wherein CB1 receptor transmission within the BLA > PLC circuit was pharmacologically blocked. Asymmetrical, interhemispheric blockade of CB1 receptor transmission along the BLA > PLC pathway prevented the acquisition of emotionally salient associative memory. Our results indicate that coordinated CB1 receptor transmission within the BLA > PLC pathway is critically involved in the encoding of emotional fear memories and modulates neural plasticity related to the encoding of emotionally salient associative learning.

  3. The neuropsychology of emerging psychosis and the role of working memory in episodic memory encoding

    Pflueger MO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marlon O Pflueger,1 Pasquale Calabrese,2 Erich Studerus,3 Ronan Zimmermann,4 Ute Gschwandtner,4 Stefan Borgwardt,5 Jacqueline Aston,3 Rolf-Dieter Stieglitz,6 Anita Riecher-Rössler3 1Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University of Basel Psychiatric Clinics, Basel, Switzerland; 2Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Center for Gender Research and Early Detection, University of Basel Psychiatric Hospital, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 5Department of Psychiatry (UPK, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Episodic memory encoding and working memory (WM deficits are among the first cognitive signs and symptoms in the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, it is not clear whether the deficit pattern is generalized or specific in nature. We hypothesized that encoding deficits at an early stage of the disease might be due to the more fundamental WM deficits. Methods: We examined episodic memory encoding and WM by administering the California Verbal Learning Test, a 2-back task, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in 90 first-episode psychosis (FE patients and 116 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS compared to 57 healthy subjects. Results: Learning progress, but not span of apprehension, was diminished to a similar extent in both the ARMS and the FE. We showed that this was due to WM impairment by applying a structural equation approach. Conclusion: Thus, we conclude that verbal memory encoding deficits are secondary to primary WM impairment in emerging psychosis. Keywords: at-risk mental state, first-episode psychosis, cognition, serial position effect, recency, semantic cluster ratio, 2-back task, rate of learning

  4. Object-based Encoding in Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Memory-driven Attentional Capture

    Gao, Zaifeng; Yu, Shixian; Zhu, Chengfeng; Shui, Rende; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Peng; Shen, Mowei

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) adopts a specific manner of object-based encoding (OBE) to extract perceptual information: Whenever one feature-dimension is selected for entry into VWM, the others are also extracted. Currently most studies revealing OBE probed an ?irrelevant-change distracting effect?, where changes of irrelevant-features dramatically affected the performance of the target feature. However, the existence of irrelevant-feature change may affect participants? processing manner, lea...

  5. Visual short-term memory: activity supporting encoding and maintenance in retinotopic visual cortex.

    Sneve, Markus H; Alnæs, Dag; Endestad, Tor; Greenlee, Mark W; Magnussen, Svein

    2012-10-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated that retinotopic cortex maintains information about visual stimuli during retention intervals. However, the process by which transient stimulus-evoked sensory responses are transformed into enduring memory representations is unknown. Here, using fMRI and short-term visual memory tasks optimized for univariate and multivariate analysis approaches, we report differential involvement of human retinotopic areas during memory encoding of the low-level visual feature orientation. All visual areas show weaker responses when memory encoding processes are interrupted, possibly due to effects in orientation-sensitive primary visual cortex (V1) propagating across extrastriate areas. Furthermore, intermediate areas in both dorsal (V3a/b) and ventral (LO1/2) streams are significantly more active during memory encoding compared with non-memory (active and passive) processing of the same stimulus material. These effects in intermediate visual cortex are also observed during memory encoding of a different stimulus feature (spatial frequency), suggesting that these areas are involved in encoding processes on a higher level of representation. Using pattern-classification techniques to probe the representational content in visual cortex during delay periods, we further demonstrate that simply initiating memory encoding is not sufficient to produce long-lasting memory traces. Rather, active maintenance appears to underlie the observed memory-specific patterns of information in retinotopic cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of post-encoding stress on performance in the DRM false memory paradigm

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false memory task) and memory was tested 24 h later. Stress decreased recognition of studied words, while increasing false recognition of semantically rel...

  7. Aging and Memory as Discrimination: Influences of Encoding Specificity, Cue Overload, and Prior Knowledge

    Badham, S. P.; Poirier, M.; Gandhi, N.; Hadjivassiliou, A.; Maylor, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue?s relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue?s capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encod...

  8. Effects of Post-Encoding Stress on Performance in the DRM False Memory Paradigm

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false…

  9. Factors affecting reorganisation of memory encoding networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Sidhu, M.K.; Stretton, J.; Winston, G.P.; Symms, M.; Thompson, P.J.; Koepp, M.J.; Duncan, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aims In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis reorganisation in the memory encoding network has been consistently described. Distinct areas of reorganisation have been shown to be efficient when associated with successful subsequent memory formation or inefficient when not associated with successful subsequent memory. We investigated the effect of clinical parameters that modulate memory functions: age at onset of epilepsy, epilepsy duration and seizure frequency in a large cohort of patients. Methods We studied 53 patients with unilateral TLE and hippocampal sclerosis (29 left). All participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm of faces and words. A continuous regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of age at onset of epilepsy, epilepsy duration and seizure frequency on the activation patterns in the memory encoding network. Results Earlier age at onset of epilepsy was associated with left posterior hippocampus activations that were involved in successful subsequent memory formation in left hippocampal sclerosis patients. No association of age at onset of epilepsy was seen with face encoding in right hippocampal sclerosis patients. In both left hippocampal sclerosis patients during word encoding and right hippocampal sclerosis patients during face encoding, shorter duration of epilepsy and lower seizure frequency were associated with medial temporal lobe activations that were involved in successful memory formation. Longer epilepsy duration and higher seizure frequency were associated with contralateral extra-temporal activations that were not associated with successful memory formation. Conclusion Age at onset of epilepsy influenced verbal memory encoding in patients with TLE due to hippocampal sclerosis in the speech-dominant hemisphere. Shorter duration of epilepsy and lower seizure frequency were associated with less disruption of the efficient memory encoding network whilst

  10. Evidence for Human Fronto-Central Gamma Activity during Long-Term Memory Encoding of Word Sequences

    Meeuwissen, Esther Berendina; Takashima, Atsuko; Fernández, Guillén; Jensen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Although human gamma activity (30–80 Hz) associated with visual processing is often reported, it is not clear to what extend gamma activity can be reliably detected non-invasively from frontal areas during complex cognitive tasks such as long term memory (LTM) formation. We conducted a memory experiment composed of 35 blocks each having three parts: LTM encoding, working memory (WM) maintenance and LTM retrieval. In the LTM encoding and WM maintenance parts, participants had to respectively encode or maintain the order of three sequentially presented words. During LTM retrieval subjects had to reproduce these sequences. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) we identified significant differences in the gamma and beta activity. Robust gamma activity (55–65 Hz) in left BA6 (supplementary motor area (SMA)/pre-SMA) was stronger during LTM rehearsal than during WM maintenance. The gamma activity was sustained throughout the 3.4 s rehearsal period during which a fixation cross was presented. Importantly, the difference in gamma band activity correlated with memory performance over subjects. Further we observed a weak gamma power difference in left BA6 during the first half of the LTM rehearsal interval larger for successfully than unsuccessfully reproduced word triplets. In the beta band, we found a power decrease in left anterior regions during LTM rehearsal compared to WM maintenance. Also this suppression of beta power correlated with memory performance over subjects. Our findings show that an extended network of brain areas, characterized by oscillatory activity in different frequency bands, supports the encoding of word sequences in LTM. Gamma band activity in BA6 possibly reflects memory processes associated with language and timing, and suppression of beta activity at left frontal sensors is likely to reflect the release of inhibition directly associated with the engagement of language functions. PMID:21738641

  11. Evidence for human fronto-central gamma activity during long-term memory encoding of word sequences.

    Esther Berendina Meeuwissen

    Full Text Available Although human gamma activity (30-80 Hz associated with visual processing is often reported, it is not clear to what extend gamma activity can be reliably detected non-invasively from frontal areas during complex cognitive tasks such as long term memory (LTM formation. We conducted a memory experiment composed of 35 blocks each having three parts: LTM encoding, working memory (WM maintenance and LTM retrieval. In the LTM encoding and WM maintenance parts, participants had to respectively encode or maintain the order of three sequentially presented words. During LTM retrieval subjects had to reproduce these sequences. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG we identified significant differences in the gamma and beta activity. Robust gamma activity (55-65 Hz in left BA6 (supplementary motor area (SMA/pre-SMA was stronger during LTM rehearsal than during WM maintenance. The gamma activity was sustained throughout the 3.4 s rehearsal period during which a fixation cross was presented. Importantly, the difference in gamma band activity correlated with memory performance over subjects. Further we observed a weak gamma power difference in left BA6 during the first half of the LTM rehearsal interval larger for successfully than unsuccessfully reproduced word triplets. In the beta band, we found a power decrease in left anterior regions during LTM rehearsal compared to WM maintenance. Also this suppression of beta power correlated with memory performance over subjects. Our findings show that an extended network of brain areas, characterized by oscillatory activity in different frequency bands, supports the encoding of word sequences in LTM. Gamma band activity in BA6 possibly reflects memory processes associated with language and timing, and suppression of beta activity at left frontal sensors is likely to reflect the release of inhibition directly associated with the engagement of language functions.

  12. Where to start? Bottom-up attention improves working memory by determining encoding order.

    Ravizza, Susan M; Uitvlugt, Mitchell G; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the mechanism by which working memory is enhanced for items that capture attention because of their novelty or saliency-that is, via bottom-up attention. The first experiment replicated previous research by corroborating that bottom-up attention directed to an item is sufficient for enhancing working memory and, moreover, generalized the effect to the domain of verbal working memory. The subsequent 3 experiments sought to determine how bottom-up attention affects working memory. We considered 2 hypotheses: (1) Bottom-up attention enhances the encoded representation of the stimulus, similar to how voluntary attention functions, or (2) It affects the order of encoding by shifting priority onto the attended stimulus. By manipulating how stimuli were presented (simultaneous/sequential display) and whether the cue predicted the tested items, we found evidence that bottom-up attention improves working memory performance via the order of encoding hypothesis. This finding was observed across change detection and free recall paradigms. In contrast, voluntary attention improved working memory regardless of encoding order and showed greater effects on working memory. We conclude that when multiple information sources compete, bottom-up attention prioritizes the location at which encoding should begin. When encoding order is set, bottom-up attention has little or no benefit to working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Modulating the Focus of Attention for Spoken Words at Encoding Affects Frontoparietal Activation for Incidental Verbal Memory

    Christensen, Thomas A.; Almryde, Kyle R.; Fidler, Lesley J.; Lockwood, Julie L.; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Plante, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as ...

  14. Object-based Encoding in Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Memory-driven Attentional Capture.

    Gao, Zaifeng; Yu, Shixian; Zhu, Chengfeng; Shui, Rende; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Peng; Shen, Mowei

    2016-03-09

    Visual working memory (VWM) adopts a specific manner of object-based encoding (OBE) to extract perceptual information: Whenever one feature-dimension is selected for entry into VWM, the others are also extracted. Currently most studies revealing OBE probed an 'irrelevant-change distracting effect', where changes of irrelevant-features dramatically affected the performance of the target feature. However, the existence of irrelevant-feature change may affect participants' processing manner, leading to a false-positive result. The current study conducted a strict examination of OBE in VWM, by probing whether irrelevant-features guided the deployment of attention in visual search. The participants memorized an object's colour yet ignored shape and concurrently performed a visual-search task. They searched for a target line among distractor lines, each embedded within a different object. One object in the search display could match the shape, colour, or both dimensions of the memory item, but this object never contained the target line. Relative to a neutral baseline, where there was no match between the memory and search displays, search time was significantly prolonged in all match conditions, regardless of whether the memory item was displayed for 100 or 1000 ms. These results suggest that task-irrelevant shape was extracted into VWM, supporting OBE in VWM.

  15. Similar patterns of neural activity predict memory function during encoding and retrieval.

    Kragel, James E; Ezzyat, Youssef; Sperling, Michael R; Gorniak, Richard; Worrell, Gregory A; Berry, Brent M; Inman, Cory; Lin, Jui-Jui; Davis, Kathryn A; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stein, Joel M; Jobst, Barbara C; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Sheth, Sameer A; Rizzuto, Daniel S; Kahana, Michael J

    2017-07-15

    Neural networks that span the medial temporal lobe (MTL), prefrontal cortex, and posterior cortical regions are essential to episodic memory function in humans. Encoding and retrieval are supported by the engagement of both distinct neural pathways across the cortex and common structures within the medial temporal lobes. However, the degree to which memory performance can be determined by neural processing that is common to encoding and retrieval remains to be determined. To identify neural signatures of successful memory function, we administered a delayed free-recall task to 187 neurosurgical patients implanted with subdural or intraparenchymal depth electrodes. We developed multivariate classifiers to identify patterns of spectral power across the brain that independently predicted successful episodic encoding and retrieval. During encoding and retrieval, patterns of increased high frequency activity in prefrontal, MTL, and inferior parietal cortices, accompanied by widespread decreases in low frequency power across the brain predicted successful memory function. Using a cross-decoding approach, we demonstrate the ability to predict memory function across distinct phases of the free-recall task. Furthermore, we demonstrate that classifiers that combine information from both encoding and retrieval states can outperform task-independent models. These findings suggest that the engagement of a core memory network during either encoding or retrieval shapes the ability to remember the past, despite distinct neural interactions that facilitate encoding and retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Semantic Congruence Accelerates the Onset of the Neural Signals of Successful Memory Encoding.

    Packard, Pau A; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Bunzeck, Nico; Nicolás, Berta; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Fuentemilla, Lluís

    2017-01-11

    As the stream of experience unfolds, our memory system rapidly transforms current inputs into long-lasting meaningful memories. A putative neural mechanism that strongly influences how input elements are transformed into meaningful memory codes relies on the ability to integrate them with existing structures of knowledge or schemas. However, it is not yet clear whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding. In the current investigation, we examined the encoding-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans. We showed that actively integrating words with congruent semantic information provided by a category cue enhances memory for words and increases false recall. The memory effect of such active integration with congruent information was robust, even with an interference task occurring right after each encoding word list. In addition, via electroencephalography, we show in 2 separate studies that the onset of the neural signals of successful encoding appeared early (∼400 ms) during the encoding of congruent words. That the neural signals of successful encoding of congruent and incongruent information followed similarly ∼200 ms later suggests that this earlier neural response contributed to memory formation. We propose that the encoding of events that are congruent with readily available contextual semantics can trigger an accelerated onset of the neural mechanisms, supporting the integration of semantic information with the event input. This faster onset would result in a long-lasting and meaningful memory trace for the event but, at the same time, make it difficult to distinguish it from plausible but never encoded events (i.e., related false memories). Conceptual or schema congruence has a strong influence on long-term memory. However, the question of whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding has yet to be clarified. We investigated the neural mechanisms reflecting how the active

  17. Event-related rTMS at encoding affects differently deep and shallow memory traces.

    Innocenti, Iglis; Giovannelli, Fabio; Cincotta, Massimo; Feurra, Matteo; Polizzotto, Nicola R; Bianco, Giovanni; Cappa, Stefano F; Rossi, Simone

    2010-10-15

    The "level of processing" effect is a classical finding of the experimental psychology of memory. Actually, the depth of information processing at encoding predicts the accuracy of the subsequent episodic memory performance. When the incoming stimuli are analyzed in terms of their meaning (semantic, or deep, encoding), the memory performance is superior with respect to the case in which the same stimuli are analyzed in terms of their perceptual features (shallow encoding). As suggested by previous neuroimaging studies and by some preliminary findings with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the left prefrontal cortex may play a role in semantic processing requiring the allocation of working memory resources. However, it still remains unclear whether deep and shallow encoding share or not the same cortical networks, as well as how these networks contribute to the "level of processing" effect. To investigate the brain areas casually involved in this phenomenon, we applied event-related repetitive TMS (rTMS) during deep (semantic) and shallow (perceptual) encoding of words. Retrieval was subsequently tested without rTMS interference. RTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) abolished the beneficial effect of deep encoding on memory performance, both in terms of accuracy (decrease) and reaction times (increase). Neither accuracy nor reaction times were instead affected by rTMS to the right DLPFC or to an additional control site excluded by the memory process (vertex). The fact that online measures of semantic processing at encoding were unaffected suggests that the detrimental effect on memory performance for semantically encoded items took place in the subsequent consolidation phase. These results highlight the specific causal role of the left DLPFC among the wide left-lateralized cortical network engaged by long-term memory, suggesting that it probably represents a crucial node responsible for the improved memory performance induced by

  18. Developing a hippocampal neural prosthetic to facilitate human memory encoding and recall

    Hampson, Robert E.; Song, Dong; Robinson, Brian S.; Fetterhoff, Dustin; Dakos, Alexander S.; Roeder, Brent M.; She, Xiwei; Wicks, Robert T.; Witcher, Mark R.; Couture, Daniel E.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Munger-Clary, Heidi; Popli, Gautam; Sollman, Myriam J.; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Berger, Theodore W.; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. We demonstrate here the first successful implementation in humans of a proof-of-concept system for restoring and improving memory function via facilitation of memory encoding using the patient’s own hippocampal spatiotemporal neural codes for memory. Memory in humans is subject to disruption by drugs, disease and brain injury, yet previous attempts to restore or rescue memory function in humans typically involved only nonspecific, modulation of brain areas and neural systems related to memory retrieval. Approach. We have constructed a model of processes by which the hippocampus encodes memory items via spatiotemporal firing of neural ensembles that underlie the successful encoding of short-term memory. A nonlinear multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) model of hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural firing is computed that predicts activation patterns of CA1 neurons during the encoding (sample) phase of a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) human short-term memory task. Main results. MIMO model-derived electrical stimulation delivered to the same CA1 locations during the sample phase of DMS trials facilitated short-term/working memory by 37% during the task. Longer term memory retention was also tested in the same human subjects with a delayed recognition (DR) task that utilized images from the DMS task, along with images that were not from the task. Across the subjects, the stimulated trials exhibited significant improvement (35%) in both short-term and long-term retention of visual information. Significance. These results demonstrate the facilitation of memory encoding which is an important feature for the construction of an implantable neural prosthetic to improve human memory.

  19. Recognition memory is improved by a structured temporal framework during encoding

    Sathesan eThavabalasingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to function optimally within our environment, we continuously extract temporal patterns from our experiences and formulate expectations that facilitate adaptive behavior. Given that our memories are embedded within spatiotemporal contexts, an intriguing possibility is that mnemonic processes are sensitive to the temporal structure of events. To test this hypothesis, in a series of behavioral experiments we manipulated the regularity of interval durations at encoding to create temporally structured and unstructured frameworks. Our findings revealed enhanced recognition memory (d’ for stimuli that were explicitly encoded within a temporally structured versus unstructured framework. Encoding information within a temporally structured framework was also associated with a reduction in the negative effects of proactive interference and was linked to greater recollective recognition memory. Furthermore, rhythmic temporal structure was found to enhance recognition memory for incidentally encoded information. Collectively, these results support the possibility that we possess a greater capacity to learn and subsequently remember temporally structured information.

  20. Affect influences false memories at encoding: evidence from recognition data.

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L

    2011-08-01

    Memory is susceptible to illusions in the form of false memories. Prior research found, however, that sad moods reduce false memories. The current experiment had two goals: (1) to determine whether affect influences retrieval processes, and (2) to determine whether affect influences the strength and the persistence of false memories. Happy or sad moods were induced either before or after learning word lists designed to produce false memories. Control groups did not experience a mood induction. We found that sad moods reduced false memories only when induced before learning. Signal detection analyses confirmed that sad moods induced prior to learning reduced activation of nonpresented critical lures suggesting that they came to mind less often. Affective states, however, did not influence retrieval effects. We conclude that negative affective states promote item-specific processing, which reduces false memories in a similar way as using an explicitly guided cognitive control strategy. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Vantage perspective during encoding: The effects on phenomenological memory characteristics.

    Mooren, Nora; Krans, Julie; Näring, Gérard W B; Moulds, Michelle L; van Minnen, Agnes

    2016-05-01

    The vantage perspective from which a memory is retrieved influences the memory's emotional impact, intrusiveness, and phenomenological characteristics. This study tested whether similar effects are observed when participants were instructed to imagine the events from a specific perspective. Fifty student participants listened to a verbal report of car-accidents and visualized the scenery from either a field or observer perspective. There were no between-condition differences in emotionality of memories and the number of intrusions, but imagery experienced from a relative observer perspective was rated as less self-relevant. In contrast to earlier studies on memory retrieval, vantage perspective influenced phenomenological memory characteristics of the memory representation such as sensory details, and ratings of vividness and distancing of the memory. However, vantage perspective is most likely not a stable phenomenological characteristic itself. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distinctiveness of Encoding and Memory for Learning Tasks.

    Glover, John A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A distinctiveness of encoding hypothesis, as applied to the facilitative effects that higher order objectives have on readers' prose recall, was evaluated in three experiments. Results suggest that distinctiveness of encoding may offer a theoretical basis for the effects of adjunct aids as well as a guide to their construction. (Author/GK)

  3. The effect of encoding duration on implicit and explicit eyewitness memory.

    Carol, Rolando N; Schreiber Compo, Nadja

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigated the effect of encoding duration on implicit and explicit eyewitness memory. Participants (N = 227) viewed a mock crime (brief, 15-s vs. long, 30-s vs. irrelevant/control) and were then tested with both implicit and explicit memory prompts or with explicit memory prompts only. Brief-encoding participants revealed more critical details implicitly than long-encoding or control participants. Further, the number and percentage of accurate details recalled explicitly were higher for long-encoding than for brief-encoding participants. Implicit testing prior to explicit recall-as compared to completing a filler task-was detrimental to free recall performance. Interestingly, brief-encoding participants were significantly more likely to remember critical details implicitly but not explicitly than long-encoding participants. This is the first study to investigate implicit eyewitness memory for a multimodal mock crime. Findings are theoretically consistent with prior research on cognition while expanding upon the extant eyewitness memory and investigative interviewing literature. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Alpha Oscillations during Incidental Encoding Predict Subsequent Memory for New "Foil" Information.

    Vogelsang, David A; Gruber, Matthias; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2018-05-01

    People can employ adaptive strategies to increase the likelihood that previously encoded information will be successfully retrieved. One such strategy is to constrain retrieval toward relevant information by reimplementing the neurocognitive processes that were engaged during encoding. Using EEG, we examined the temporal dynamics with which constraining retrieval toward semantic versus nonsemantic information affects the processing of new "foil" information encountered during a memory test. Time-frequency analysis of EEG data acquired during an initial study phase revealed that semantic compared with nonsemantic processing was associated with alpha decreases in a left frontal electrode cluster from around 600 msec after stimulus onset. Successful encoding of semantic versus nonsemantic foils during a subsequent memory test was related to decreases in alpha oscillatory activity in the same left frontal electrode cluster, which emerged relatively late in the trial at around 1000-1600 msec after stimulus onset. Across participants, left frontal alpha power elicited by semantic processing during the study phase correlated significantly with left frontal alpha power associated with semantic foil encoding during the memory test. Furthermore, larger left frontal alpha power decreases elicited by semantic foil encoding during the memory test predicted better subsequent semantic foil recognition in an additional surprise foil memory test, although this effect did not reach significance. These findings indicate that constraining retrieval toward semantic information involves reimplementing semantic encoding operations that are mediated by alpha oscillations and that such reimplementation occurs at a late stage of memory retrieval, perhaps reflecting additional monitoring processes.

  5. Spectrotemporal dynamics of the EEG during working memory encoding and maintenance predicts individual behavioral capacity.

    Bashivan, Pouya; Bidelman, Gavin M; Yeasin, Mohammed

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effect of memory load on encoding and maintenance of information in working memory. Electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded while participants performed a modified Sternberg visual memory task. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to factorise the EEG signals into distinct temporal activations to perform spectrotemporal analysis and localisation of source activities. We found 'encoding' and 'maintenance' operations were correlated with negative and positive changes in α-band power, respectively. Transient activities were observed during encoding of information in the bilateral cuneus, precuneus, inferior parietal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, and a sustained activity in the inferior frontal gyrus. Strong correlations were also observed between changes in α-power and behavioral performance during both encoding and maintenance. Furthermore, it was also found that individuals with higher working memory capacity experienced stronger neural oscillatory responses during the encoding of visual objects into working memory. Our results suggest an interplay between two distinct neural pathways and different spatiotemporal operations during the encoding and maintenance of information which predict individual differences in working memory capacity observed at the behavioral level. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  7. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    Laura eFerreri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. 22 healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  8. The effect of encoding strategy on the neural correlates of memory for faces.

    Bernstein, Lori J; Beig, Sania; Siegenthaler, Amy L; Grady, Cheryl L

    2002-01-01

    Encoding and recognition of unfamiliar faces in young adults were examined using positron emission tomography to determine whether different encoding strategies would lead to encoding/retrieval differences in brain activity. Three types of encoding were compared: a 'deep' task (judging pleasantness/unpleasantness), a 'shallow' task (judging right/left orientation), and an intentional learning task in which subjects were instructed to learn the faces for a subsequent memory test but were not provided with a specific strategy. Memory for all faces was tested with an old/new recognition test. A modest behavioral effect was obtained, with deeply-encoded faces being recognized more accurately than shallowly-encoded or intentionally-learned faces. Regardless of encoding strategy, encoding activated a primarily ventral system including bilateral temporal and fusiform regions and left prefrontal cortices, whereas recognition activated a primarily dorsal set of regions including right prefrontal and parietal areas. Within encoding, the type of strategy produced different brain activity patterns, with deep encoding being characterized by left amygdala and left anterior cingulate activation. There was no effect of encoding strategy on brain activity during the recognition conditions. Posterior fusiform gyrus activation was related to better recognition accuracy in those conditions encouraging perceptual strategies, whereas activity in left frontal and temporal areas correlated with better performance during the 'deep' condition. Results highlight three important aspects of face memory: (1) the effect of encoding strategy was seen only at encoding and not at recognition; (2) left inferior prefrontal cortex was engaged during encoding of faces regardless of strategy; and (3) differential activity in fusiform gyrus was found, suggesting that activity in this area is not only a result of automatic face processing but is modulated by controlled processes.

  9. Neural correlates of relational memory: successful encoding and retrieval of semantic and perceptual associations

    Prince, S.E.; Daselaar, S.M.; Cabeza, R.

    2005-01-01

    Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified brain regions involved in successful relational memory (RM) during encoding and retrieval for semantic and perceptual associations or in general, independent of phase and content. Participants were scanned while encoding and

  10. Selective Memories: Infants' Encoding Is Enhanced in Selection via Suppression

    Markant, Julie; Amso, Dima

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis that inhibitory visual selection mechanisms play a vital role in memory by limiting distractor interference during item encoding. In Experiment 1a we used a modified spatial cueing task in which 9-month-old infants encoded multiple category exemplars in the contexts of an attention orienting mechanism…

  11. A review on "A Novel Technique for Image Steganography Based on Block-DCT and Huffman Encoding"

    Das, Rig; Tuithung, Themrichon

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews the embedding and extraction algorithm proposed by "A. Nag, S. Biswas, D. Sarkar and P. P. Sarkar" on "A Novel Technique for Image Steganography based on Block-DCT and Huffman Encoding" in "International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, Volume 2, Number 3, June 2010" [3] and shows that the Extraction of Secret Image is Not Possible for the algorithm proposed in [3]. 8 bit Cover Image of size is divided into non joint blocks and a two dimensional Discrete Cosine Transformation (2-D DCT) is performed on each of the blocks. Huffman Encoding is performed on an 8 bit Secret Image of size and each bit of the Huffman Encoded Bit Stream is embedded in the frequency domain by altering the LSB of the DCT coefficients of Cover Image blocks. The Huffman Encoded Bit Stream and Huffman Table

  12. Cingulo-opercular activity affects incidental memory encoding for speech in noise.

    Vaden, Kenneth I; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2017-08-15

    Correctly understood speech in difficult listening conditions is often difficult to remember. A long-standing hypothesis for this observation is that the engagement of cognitive resources to aid speech understanding can limit resources available for memory encoding. This hypothesis is consistent with evidence that speech presented in difficult conditions typically elicits greater activity throughout cingulo-opercular regions of frontal cortex that are proposed to optimize task performance through adaptive control of behavior and tonic attention. However, successful memory encoding of items for delayed recognition memory tasks is consistently associated with increased cingulo-opercular activity when perceptual difficulty is minimized. The current study used a delayed recognition memory task to test competing predictions that memory encoding for words is enhanced or limited by the engagement of cingulo-opercular activity during challenging listening conditions. An fMRI experiment was conducted with twenty healthy adult participants who performed a word identification in noise task that was immediately followed by a delayed recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings, word identification trials in the poorer signal-to-noise ratio condition were associated with increased cingulo-opercular activity and poorer recognition memory scores on average. However, cingulo-opercular activity decreased for correctly identified words in noise that were not recognized in the delayed memory test. These results suggest that memory encoding in difficult listening conditions is poorer when elevated cingulo-opercular activity is not sustained. Although increased attention to speech when presented in difficult conditions may detract from more active forms of memory maintenance (e.g., sub-vocal rehearsal), we conclude that task performance monitoring and/or elevated tonic attention supports incidental memory encoding in challenging listening conditions. Copyright © 2017

  13. Optimal entangling operations between deterministic blocks of qubits encoded into single photons

    Smith, Jake A.; Kaplan, Lev

    2018-01-01

    Here, we numerically simulate probabilistic elementary entangling operations between rail-encoded photons for the purpose of scalable universal quantum computation or communication. We propose grouping logical qubits into single-photon blocks wherein single-qubit rotations and the controlled-not (cnot) gate are fully deterministic and simple to implement. Interblock communication is then allowed through said probabilistic entangling operations. We find a promising trend in the increasing probability of successful interblock communication as we increase the number of optical modes operated on by our elementary entangling operations.

  14. Examining the Causes of Memory Strength Variability: Recollection, Attention Failure, or Encoding Variability?

    Koen, Joshua D.; Aly, Mariam; Wang, Wei-Chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    A prominent finding in recognition memory is that studied items are associated with more variability in memory strength than new items. Here, we test 3 competing theories for why this occurs--the "encoding variability," "attention failure", and "recollection" accounts. Distinguishing among these theories is critical…

  15. Utilizing Computerized Cognitive Training to Improve Working Memory and Encoding: Piloting a School-Based Intervention

    Wiest, Dudley J.; Wong, Eugene H.; Minero, Laura P.; Pumaccahua, Tessy T.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory has been well documented as a significant predictor of academic outcomes (e.g., reading and math achievement as well as general life outcomes). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training to improve both working memory and encoding abilities in a school setting. Thirty students…

  16. What-Where-When Memory and Encoding Strategies in Healthy Aging

    Cheke, Lucy G.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults exhibit disproportionate impairments in memory for item-associations. These impairments may stem from an inability to self-initiate deep encoding strategies. The present study investigates this using the "treasure-hunt task"; a what-where-when style episodic memory test that requires individuals to "hide" items…

  17. Working Memory Encoding Delays Top-Down Attention to Visual Cortex

    Scalf, Paige E.; Dux, Paul E.; Marois, Rene

    2011-01-01

    The encoding of information from one event into working memory can delay high-level, central decision-making processes for subsequent events [e.g., Jolicoeur, P., & Dell'Acqua, R. The demonstration of short-term consolidation. "Cognitive Psychology, 36", 138-202, 1998, doi:10.1006/cogp.1998.0684]. Working memory, however, is also believed to…

  18. Layout Geometry in Encoding and Retrieval of Spatial Memory

    Mou, Weimin; Liu, Xianyun; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the spatial reference directions that are used to specify objects' locations in memory can be solely determined by layout geometry. Participants studied a layout of objects from a single viewpoint while their eye movements were recorded. Subsequently, participants used memory to make judgments of relative…

  19. Encoding Modality Can Affect Memory Accuracy via Retrieval Orientation

    Pierce, Benton H.; Gallo, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that false memory is lower following visual than auditory study, potentially because visual information is more distinctive. In the present study we tested the extent to which retrieval orientation can cause a modality effect on memory accuracy. Participants studied unrelated words in different modalities, followed by criterial…

  20. Memory Self-Efficacy Beliefs Modulate Brain Activity when Encoding Real-World Future Intentions

    Kalpouzos, Gr?goria; Eriksson, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Background: While the use of different cognitive strategies when encoding episodic memory information has been extensively investigated, modulation of brain activity by memory self-efficacy beliefs has not been studied yet. Methodology/Principal Findings: Sixteen young adults completed the prospective and retrospective metamemory questionnaire, providing individual subjective judgments of everyday memory function. The day after, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the participants ha...

  1. Examining the causes of memory strength variability: recollection, attention failure, or encoding variability?

    Koen, Joshua D; Aly, Mariam; Wang, Wei-Chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2013-11-01

    A prominent finding in recognition memory is that studied items are associated with more variability in memory strength than new items. Here, we test 3 competing theories for why this occurs-the encoding variability, attention failure, and recollection accounts. Distinguishing among these theories is critical because each provides a fundamentally different account of the processes underlying recognition memory. The encoding variability and attention failure accounts propose that old item variance will be unaffected by retrieval manipulations because the processes producing this effect are ascribed to encoding. The recollection account predicts that both encoding and retrieval manipulations that preferentially affect recollection will affect memory variability. These contrasting predictions were tested by examining the effect of response speeding (Experiment 1), dividing attention at retrieval (Experiment 2), context reinstatement (Experiment 3), and increased test delay (Experiment 4) on recognition performance. The results of all 4 experiments confirm the predictions of the recollection account and are inconsistent with the encoding variability account. The evidence supporting the attention failure account is mixed, with 2 of the 4 experiments confirming the account and 2 disconfirming the account. These results indicate that encoding variability and attention failure are insufficient accounts of memory variance and provide support for the recollection account. Several alternative theoretical accounts of the results are also considered. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Memory loss versus memory distortion: the role of encoding and retrieval deficits in Korsakoff patients' false memories.

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm have revealed that Korsakoff patients show reduced levels of false recognition and different patterns of false recall compared to controls. The present experiment examined whether this could be attributed to an encoding deficit, or rather to problems with explicitly retrieving thematic information at test. In a variation on the DRM paradigm, both patients and controls were presented with associative as well as categorised word lists, with the order of recall and recognition tests manipulated between-subjects. The results point to an important role for the automatic/controlled retrieval distinction: Korsakoff patients' false memory was only diminished compared to controls' when automatic or short-term memory processes could not be used to fulfil the task at hand. Hence, the patients' explicit retrieval deficit appears to be crucial in explaining past and present data. Results are discussed in terms of fuzzy-trace and activation-monitoring theories.

  3. An electrophysiological investigation of memory encoding, depth of processing, and word frequency in humans.

    Guo, Chunyan; Zhu, Ying; Ding, Jinhong; Fan, Silu; Paller, Ken A

    2004-02-12

    Memory encoding can be studied by monitoring brain activity correlated with subsequent remembering. To understand brain potentials associated with encoding, we compared multiple factors known to affect encoding. Depth of processing was manipulated by requiring subjects to detect animal names (deep encoding) or boldface (shallow encoding) in a series of Chinese words. Recognition was more accurate with deep than shallow encoding, and for low- compared to high-frequency words. Potentials were generally more positive for subsequently recognized versus forgotten words; for deep compared to shallow processing; and, for remembered words only, for low- than for high-frequency words. Latency and topographic differences between these potentials suggested that several factors influence the effectiveness of encoding and can be distinguished using these methods, even with Chinese logographic symbols.

  4. Modality-specific alpha modulations facilitate long-term memory encoding in the presence of distracters.

    Jiang, Haiteng; van Gerven, Marcel A J; Jensen, Ole

    2015-03-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory encoding is not only dependent on engaging task-relevant regions but also on disengaging task-irrelevant regions. In particular, oscillatory alpha activity has been shown to be involved in shaping the functional architecture of the working brain because it reflects the functional disengagement of specific regions in attention and memory tasks. We here ask if such allocation of resources by alpha oscillations generalizes to long-term memory encoding in a cross-modal setting in which we acquired the ongoing brain activity using magnetoencephalography. Participants were asked to encode pictures while ignoring simultaneously presented words and vice versa. We quantified the brain activity during rehearsal reflecting subsequent memory in the different attention conditions. The key finding was that successful long-term memory encoding is reflected by alpha power decreases in the sensory region of the to-be-attended modality and increases in the sensory region of the to-be-ignored modality to suppress distraction during rehearsal period. Our results corroborate related findings from attention studies by demonstrating that alpha activity is also important for the allocation of resources during long-term memory encoding in the presence of distracters.

  5. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children.

  6. Aberrant prefrontal beta oscillations predict episodic memory encoding deficits in schizophrenia

    Federica Meconi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal episodic memory is one of the core cognitive functions affected in patients with schizophrenia (SZ. Although this verbal memory impairment in SZ is a well-known finding, our understanding about its underlying neurophysiological mechanisms is rather scarce. Here we address this issue by recording brain oscillations during a memory task in a sample of healthy controls and patients with SZ. Brain oscillations represent spectral fingerprints of specific neurocognitive operations and are therefore a promising tool to identify neurocognitive mechanisms that are affected by SZ. Healthy controls showed a prominent suppression of left prefrontal beta oscillatory activity during successful memory formation, which replicates several previous oscillatory memory studies. In contrast, patients failed to exhibit such a left prefrontal beta power suppression. Utilizing a new topographical pattern similarity approach, we further demonstrate that the degree of similarity between a patient's beta power decrease to that of the controls reliably predicted memory performance. This relationship between beta power decreases and memory was such that the patients' memory performance improved as they showed a more similar topographical beta desynchronization pattern compared to that of healthy controls. Together, these findings support left prefrontal beta desynchronization as the spectral fingerprint of verbal episodic memory formation, likely indicating deep semantic processing of verbal material. These findings also demonstrate that left prefrontal beta power suppression (or lack thereof during memory encoding are a reliable biomarker for the observed encoding impairments in SZ in verbal memory.

  7. Aberrant prefrontal beta oscillations predict episodic memory encoding deficits in schizophrenia.

    Meconi, Federica; Anderl-Straub, Sarah; Raum, Heidelore; Landgrebe, Michael; Langguth, Berthold; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T; Hanslmayr, Simon

    Verbal episodic memory is one of the core cognitive functions affected in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Although this verbal memory impairment in SZ is a well-known finding, our understanding about its underlying neurophysiological mechanisms is rather scarce. Here we address this issue by recording brain oscillations during a memory task in a sample of healthy controls and patients with SZ. Brain oscillations represent spectral fingerprints of specific neurocognitive operations and are therefore a promising tool to identify neurocognitive mechanisms that are affected by SZ. Healthy controls showed a prominent suppression of left prefrontal beta oscillatory activity during successful memory formation, which replicates several previous oscillatory memory studies. In contrast, patients failed to exhibit such a left prefrontal beta power suppression. Utilizing a new topographical pattern similarity approach, we further demonstrate that the degree of similarity between a patient's beta power decrease to that of the controls reliably predicted memory performance. This relationship between beta power decreases and memory was such that the patients' memory performance improved as they showed a more similar topographical beta desynchronization pattern compared to that of healthy controls. Together, these findings support left prefrontal beta desynchronization as the spectral fingerprint of verbal episodic memory formation, likely indicating deep semantic processing of verbal material. These findings also demonstrate that left prefrontal beta power suppression (or lack thereof) during memory encoding are a reliable biomarker for the observed encoding impairments in SZ in verbal memory.

  8. Odor Memory and Discrimination Covary as a Function of Delay between Encoding and Recall in Rats.

    Hackett, Chelsea; Choi, Christina; O'Brien, Brenna; Shin, Philip; Linster, Christiane

    2015-06-01

    Nonassociative odor learning paradigms are often used to assess memory, social recognition and neuromodulation of olfactory pathways. We here use a modified object recognition paradigm to investigate how an important task parameter, delay between encoding and recall trials, affects the properties of this memory. We show that both memory for a previously investigated odorant and discrimination of a novel odorant decay with delay time and that rats can remember an odorant for up to 45min after a single trial encoding event. The number of odorants that can be encoded, as well as the specificity of the encoded memory, decrease with increased delay and also depend on stimulus concentration. Memory for an odorant and discrimination of a novel odorant decay at approximately the same rate, whereas the specificity of the formed memory decays faster than the memory itself. These results have important implications for the interpretation of behavioral data obtained with this paradigm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Encoding Strategy for Maximum Noise Tolerance Bidirectional Associative Memory

    Shen, Dan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the Basic Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) is extended by choosing weights in the correlation matrix, for a given set of training pairs, which result in a maximum noise tolerance set for BAM...

  10. Motivated encoding selectively promotes memory for future inconsequential semantically-related events.

    Oyarzún, Javiera P; Packard, Pau A; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Fuentemilla, Lluis

    2016-09-01

    Neurobiological models of long-term memory explain how memory for inconsequential events fades, unless these happen before or after other relevant (i.e., rewarding or aversive) or novel events. Recently, it has been shown in humans that retrospective and prospective memories are selectively enhanced if semantically related events are paired with aversive stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether motivating stimuli, as opposed to aversive, have the same effect in humans. Here, participants performed a three phase incidental encoding task where one semantic category was rewarded during the second phase. A memory test 24h after, but not immediately after encoding, revealed that memory for inconsequential items was selectively enhanced only if items from the same category had been previously, but not subsequently, paired with rewards. This result suggests that prospective memory enhancement of reward-related information requires, like previously reported for aversive memories, of a period of memory consolidation. The current findings provide the first empirical evidence in humans that the effects of motivated encoding are selectively and prospectively prolonged over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Staying cool when things get hot: Emotion regulation modulates neural mechanisms of memory encoding

    Jasmeet P Hayes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During times of emotional stress, individuals often engage in emotion regulation to reduce the experiential and physiological impact of negative emotions. Interestingly, emotion regulation strategies also influence memory encoding of the event. Cognitive reappraisal is associated with enhanced memory while expressive suppression is associated with impaired explicit memory of the emotional event. However, the mechanism by which these emotion regulation strategies affect memory is unclear. We used event-related fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms that give rise to memory formation during emotion regulation. Twenty-five participants viewed negative pictures while alternately engaging in cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, or passive viewing. As part of the subsequent memory design, participants returned to the laboratory two weeks later for a surprise memory test. Behavioral results showed a reduction in negative affect and a retention advantage for reappraised stimuli relative to the other conditions. Imaging results showed that successful encoding during reappraisal was uniquely associated with greater co-activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting a possible role for elaborative encoding of negative memories. This study provides neurobehavioral evidence that engaging in cognitive reappraisal is advantageous to both affective and mnemonic processes.

  12. Imbalance of incidental encoding across tasks: an explanation for non-memory-related hippocampal activations?

    Reas, Emilie T; Brewer, James B

    2013-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have increasingly noted hippocampal activation associated with a variety of cognitive functions--such as decision making, attention, perception, incidental learning, prediction, and working memory--that have little apparent relation to declarative memory. Such findings might be difficult to reconcile with classical hippocampal lesion studies that show remarkable sparing of cognitive functions outside the realm of declarative memory. Even the oft-reported hippocampal activations during confident episodic retrieval are not entirely congruent with evidence that hippocampal lesions reliably impair encoding but inconsistently affect retrieval. Here we explore the conditions under which the hippocampus responds during episodic recall and recognition. Our findings suggest that anterior hippocampal activity may be related to the imbalance of incidental encoding across tasks and conditions rather than due to retrieval per se. Incidental encoding and hippocampal activity may be reduced during conditions where retrieval requires greater attentional engagement. During retrieval, anterior hippocampal activity decreases with increasing search duration and retrieval effort, and this deactivation corresponds with a coincident impaired encoding of the external environment (Israel, Seibert, Black, & Brewer, 2010; Reas & Brewer, 2013; Reas, Gimbel, Hales, & Brewer, 2011). In light of this emerging evidence, we discuss the proposal that some hippocampal activity observed during memory retrieval, or other non-memory conditions, may in fact be attributable to concomitant encoding activity that is regulated by the attentional demands of the principal task. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Source memory that encoding was self-referential: the influence of stimulus characteristics.

    Durbin, Kelly A; Mitchell, Karen J; Johnson, Marcia K

    2017-10-01

    Decades of research suggest that encoding information with respect to the self improves memory (self-reference effect, SRE) for items (item SRE). The current study focused on how processing information in reference to the self affects source memory for whether an item was self-referentially processed (a source SRE). Participants self-referentially or non-self-referentially encoded words (Experiment 1) or pictures (Experiment 2) that varied in valence (positive, negative, neutral). Relative to non-self-referential processing, self-referential processing enhanced item recognition for all stimulus types (an item SRE), but it only enhanced source memory for positive words (a source SRE). In fact, source memory for negative and neutral pictures was worse for items processed self-referentially than non-self-referentially. Together, the results suggest that item SRE and source SRE (e.g., remembering an item was encoded self-referentially) are not necessarily the same across stimulus types (e.g., words, pictures; positive, negative). While an item SRE may depend on the overall likelihood the item generates any association, the enhancing effects of self-referential processing on source memory for self-referential encoding may depend on how embedded a stimulus becomes in one's self-schema, and that depends, in part, on the stimulus' valence and format. Self-relevance ratings during encoding provide converging evidence for this interpretation.

  14. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation. PMID:28358852

  15. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding.

    Mei-Chun Cheung

    Full Text Available Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group. The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation.

  16. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding.

    Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W Y

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation.

  17. Blocked vs. interleaved presentation and proactive interference in episodic memory.

    Del Missier, Fabio; Sassano, Alessia; Coni, Valentina; Salomonsson, Martina; Mäntylä, Timo

    2018-05-01

    Although a number of theoretical accounts of proactive interference (PI) in episodic memory have been proposed, existing empirical evidence does not support conclusively a single view yet. In two experiments we tested the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI against alternative accounts by manipulating the presentation schedule of study materials (lists blocked by category vs. interleaved). In line with the temporal discrimination theory, we observed a clear buildup of (and release from) PI in the blocked condition, in which all the lists of the same category were presented sequentially. In the interleaved condition, with alternating lists of different categories, a more gradual and smoother buildup of PI was observed. When participants were left free to choose their presentation schedule, they spontaneously adopted an interleaved schedule, resulting again in more gradual PI. After longer delays, we observed recency effects at the list level in overall recall and, in the blocked condition, PI-related effects. The overall pattern of findings agrees with the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI, complemented with categorical processing of list items, but not with alternative accounts, shedding light on the dynamics and underpinnings of PI under diverse presentation schedules and over different time scales.

  18. Fast entrainment of human electroencephalogram to a theta-band photic flicker during successful memory encoding

    Naoyuki eSato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Theta band power (4-8Hz in the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG is thought to be stronger during memory encoding for subsequently remembered items than for forgotten items. According to simultaneous EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measurements, the memory-dependent EEG theta is associated with multiple regions of the brain. This suggests that the multiple regions cooperate with EEG theta synchronization during successful memory encoding. However, a question still remains: What kind of neural dynamic organizes such a memory-dependent global network? In this study, the modulation of the EEG theta entrainment property during successful encoding was hypothesized to lead to EEG theta synchronization among a distributed network. Then, a transient response of EEG theta to a theta-band photic flicker with a short duration was evaluated during memory encoding. In the results, flicker-induced EEG power increased and decreased with a time constant of several hundred milliseconds following the onset and the offset of the flicker, respectively. Importantly, the offset response of EEG power was found to be significantly decreased during successful encoding. Moreover, the offset response of the phase locking index was also found to associate with memory performance. According to computational simulations, the results are interpreted as a smaller time constant (i.e., faster response of a driven harmonic oscillator rather than a change in the spontaneous oscillatory input. This suggests that the fast response of EEG theta forms a global EEG theta network among memory-related regions during successful encoding, and it contributes to a flexible formation of the network along the time course.

  19. Fast entrainment of human electroencephalogram to a theta-band photic flicker during successful memory encoding.

    Sato, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Theta band power (4-8 Hz) in the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) is thought to be stronger during memory encoding for subsequently remembered items than for forgotten items. According to simultaneous EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements, the memory-dependent EEG theta is associated with multiple regions of the brain. This suggests that the multiple regions cooperate with EEG theta synchronization during successful memory encoding. However, a question still remains: What kind of neural dynamic organizes such a memory-dependent global network? In this study, the modulation of the EEG theta entrainment property during successful encoding was hypothesized to lead to EEG theta synchronization among a distributed network. Then, a transient response of EEG theta to a theta-band photic flicker with a short duration was evaluated during memory encoding. In the results, flicker-induced EEG power increased and decreased with a time constant of several hundred milliseconds following the onset and the offset of the flicker, respectively. Importantly, the offset response of EEG power was found to be significantly decreased during successful encoding. Moreover, the offset response of the phase locking index was also found to associate with memory performance. According to computational simulations, the results are interpreted as a smaller time constant (i.e., faster response) of a driven harmonic oscillator rather than a change in the spontaneous oscillatory input. This suggests that the fast response of EEG theta forms a global EEG theta network among memory-related regions during successful encoding, and it contributes to a flexible formation of the network along the time course.

  20. The influence of encoding strategy on episodic memory and cortical activity in schizophrenia.

    Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Haut, Kristen; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M

    2005-07-01

    Recent work suggests that episodic memory deficits in schizophrenia may be related to disturbances of encoding or retrieval. Schizophrenia patients appear to benefit from instruction in episodic memory strategies. We tested the hypothesis that providing effective encoding strategies to schizophrenia patients enhances encoding-related brain activity and recognition performance. Seventeen schizophrenia patients and 26 healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans while performing incidental encoding tasks of words and faces. Subjects were required to make either deep (abstract/concrete) or shallow (alphabetization) judgments for words and deep (gender) judgments for faces, followed by subsequent recognition tests. Schizophrenia and comparison subjects recognized significantly more words encoded deeply than shallowly, activated regions in inferior frontal cortex (Brodmann area 45/47) typically associated with deep and successful encoding of words, and showed greater left frontal activation for the processing of words compared with faces. However, during deep encoding and material-specific processing (words vs. faces), participants with schizophrenia activated regions not activated by control subjects, including several in prefrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that a deficit in use of effective strategies influences episodic memory performance in schizophrenia and that abnormalities in functional brain activation persist even when such strategies are applied.

  1. Theta oscillations at encoding mediate the context-dependent nature of human episodic memory.

    Staudigl, Tobias; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2013-06-17

    Human episodic memory is highly context dependent. Therefore, retrieval benefits when a memory is recalled in the same context compared to a different context. This implies that items and contexts are bound together during encoding, such that the reinstatement of the initial context at test improves retrieval. Animal studies suggest that theta oscillations and theta-to-gamma cross-frequency coupling modulate such item-context binding, but direct evidence from humans is scarce. We investigated this issue by manipulating the overlap of contextual features between encoding and retrieval. Participants studied words superimposed on movie clips and were later tested by presenting the word with either the same or a different movie. The results show that memory performance and the oscillatory correlates of memory formation crucially depend on the overlap of the context between encoding and test. When the context matched, high theta power during encoding was related to successful recognition, whereas the opposite pattern emerged in the context-mismatch condition. In addition, cross-frequency coupling analysis revealed a context-dependent theta-to-gamma memory effect specifically in the left hippocampus. These results reveal for the first time that context-dependent episodic memory effects are mediated by theta oscillatory activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Angular Gyrus Involvement at Encoding and Retrieval Is Associated with Durable But Less Specific Memories.

    van der Linden, Marieke; Berkers, Ruud M W J; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-09-27

    After consolidation, information belonging to a mental schema is better remembered, but such memory can be less specific when it comes to details. A neuronal mechanism consistent with this behavioral pattern could result from a dynamic interaction that entails mediation by a specific cortical network with associated hippocampal disengagement. We now report that, in male and female adult human subjects, encoding and later consolidation of a series of objects embedded in a semantic schema was associated with a buildup of activity in the angular gyrus (AG) that predicted memory 24 h later. In parallel, the posterior hippocampus became less involved as schema objects were encoded successively. Hippocampal disengagement was related to an increase in falsely remembering objects that were not presented at encoding. During both encoding and retrieval, the AG and lateral occipital complex (LOC) became functionally connected and this interaction was beneficial for successful retrieval. Therefore, a network including the AG and LOC enhances the overnight retention of schema-related memories and their simultaneous detachment from the hippocampus reduces the specificity of the memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study provides the first empirical evidence on how the hippocampus and the neocortex interact dynamically when acquiring and then effectively retaining durable knowledge that is associated to preexisting knowledge, but they do so at the cost of memory specificity. This interaction is a fundamental mnemonic operation that has thus far been largely overlooked in memory research. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/379474-12$15.00/0.

  3. Neural correlates of encoding processes predicting subsequent cued recall and source memory.

    Angel, Lucie; Isingrini, Michel; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Fay, Séverine

    2013-03-06

    In this experiment, event-related potentials were used to examine whether the neural correlates of encoding processes predicting subsequent successful recall differed from those predicting successful source memory retrieval. During encoding, participants studied lists of words and were instructed to memorize each word and the list in which it occurred. At test, they had to complete stems (the first four letters) with a studied word and then make a judgment of the initial temporal context (i.e. list). Event-related potentials recorded during encoding were segregated according to subsequent memory performance to examine subsequent memory effects (SMEs) reflecting successful cued recall (cued recall SME) and successful source retrieval (source memory SME). Data showed a cued recall SME on parietal electrode sites from 400 to 1200 ms and a late inversed cued recall SME on frontal sites in the 1200-1400 ms period. Moreover, a source memory SME was reported from 400 to 1400 ms on frontal areas. These findings indicate that patterns of encoding-related activity predicting successful recall and source memory are clearly dissociated.

  4. Aging and Memory as Discrimination: Influences of Encoding Specificity, Cue Overload, and Prior Knowledge

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue’s relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue’s capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue–target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue–target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults’ associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates—hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. PMID:27831714

  5. Aging and memory as discrimination: Influences of encoding specificity, cue overload, and prior knowledge.

    Badham, Stephen P; Poirier, Marie; Gandhi, Navina; Hadjivassiliou, Anna; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue's relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue's capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue-target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue-target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults' associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates-hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Medial prefrontal-hippocampal connectivity during emotional memory encoding predicts individual differences in the loss of associative memory specificity.

    Berkers, Ruud M W J; Klumpers, Floris; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-10-01

    Emotionally charged items are often remembered better, whereas a paradoxical loss of specificity is found for associative emotional information (specific memory). The balance between specific and generalized emotional memories appears to show large individual differences, potentially related to differences in (the risk for) affective disorders that are characterized by 'overgeneralized' emotional memories. Here, we investigate the neural underpinnings of individual differences in emotional associative memory. A large group of healthy male participants were scanned while encoding associations of face-photographs and written occupational identities that were of either neutral ('driver') or negative ('murderer') valence. Subsequently, memory was tested by prompting participants to retrieve the occupational identities corresponding to each face. Whereas in both valence categories a similar amount of faces was labeled correctly with 'neutral' and 'negative' identities, (gist memory), specific associations were found to be less accurately remembered when the occupational identity was negative compared to neutral (specific memory). This pattern of results suggests reduced memory specificity for associations containing a negatively valenced component. The encoding of these negative associations was paired with a selective increase in medial prefrontal cortex activity and medial prefrontal-hippocampal connectivity. Individual differences in valence-specific neural connectivity were predictive of valence-specific reduction of memory specificity. The relationship between loss of emotional memory specificity and medial prefrontal-hippocampal connectivity is in line with the hypothesized role of a medial prefrontal-hippocampal circuit in regulating memory specificity, and warrants further investigations in individuals displaying 'overgeneralized' emotional memories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Flash memory management system and method utilizing multiple block list windows

    Chow, James (Inventor); Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a flash memory management system and method with increased performance. The flash memory management system provides the ability to efficiently manage and allocate flash memory use in a way that improves reliability and longevity, while maintaining good performance levels. The flash memory management system includes a free block mechanism, a disk maintenance mechanism, and a bad block detection mechanism. The free block mechanism provides efficient sorting of free blocks to facilitate selecting low use blocks for writing. The disk maintenance mechanism provides for the ability to efficiently clean flash memory blocks during processor idle times. The bad block detection mechanism provides the ability to better detect when a block of flash memory is likely to go bad. The flash status mechanism stores information in fast access memory that describes the content and status of the data in the flash disk. The new bank detection mechanism provides the ability to automatically detect when new banks of flash memory are added to the system. Together, these mechanisms provide a flash memory management system that can improve the operational efficiency of systems that utilize flash memory.

  8. Vantage perspective during encoding: The effects on phenomenological memory characteristics

    Mooren, N.; Krans, J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moulds, M.L.; Minnen, A. van

    2016-01-01

    The vantage perspective from which a memory is retrieved influences the memory’s emotional impact, intrusiveness, and phenomenological characteristics. This study tested whether similar effects are observed when participants were instructed to imagine the events from a specific perspective. Fifty

  9. Digital memory encoding in Chinese dyscalculia: An event-related potential study.

    Wang, Enguo; Qin, Shutao; Chang, MengYan; Zhu, Xiangru

    2014-10-22

    This study reports the neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of digital memory encoding features in Chinese individuals with and without dyscalculia. Eighteen children with dyscalculia (ages 11.5-13.5) and 18 matched controls were tested, and their event-related potentials (ERPs) were digitally recorded simultaneously with behavioral measures. The results showed that both groups had a significant Dm effect, and this effect was greater in the control group. In the 300-400-ms, 400-500-ms, and 600-700-ms processing stages, both groups showed significant differences of digital memory encoding in the frontal, central, and parietal regions. In the 500-600-ms period, the Dm effect in the control group was significantly greater than that in the dyscalculia group only in the parietal region. These results suggest that individuals with dyscalculia exhibit impaired digital memory encoding and deficits in psychological resource allocation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-Interfering Effects of Active Post-Encoding Tasks on Episodic Memory Consolidation in Humans.

    Varma, Samarth; Takashima, Atsuko; Krewinkel, Sander; van Kooten, Maaike; Fu, Lily; Medendorp, W Pieter; Kessels, Roy P C; Daselaar, Sander M

    2017-01-01

    So far, studies that investigated interference effects of post-learning processes on episodic memory consolidation in humans have used tasks involving only complex and meaningful information. Such tasks require reallocation of general or encoding-specific resources away from consolidation-relevant activities. The possibility that interference can be elicited using a task that heavily taxes our limited brain resources, but has low semantic and hippocampal related long-term memory processing demands, has never been tested. We address this question by investigating whether consolidation could persist in parallel with an active, encoding-irrelevant, minimally semantic task, regardless of its high resource demands for cognitive processing. We distinguish the impact of such a task on consolidation based on whether it engages resources that are: (1) general/executive, or (2) specific/overlapping with the encoding modality. Our experiments compared subsequent memory performance across two post-encoding consolidation periods: quiet wakeful rest and a cognitively demanding n-Back task. Across six different experiments (total N = 176), we carefully manipulated the design of the n-Back task to target general or specific resources engaged in the ongoing consolidation process. In contrast to previous studies that employed interference tasks involving conceptual stimuli and complex processing demands, we did not find any differences between n-Back and rest conditions on memory performance at delayed test, using both recall and recognition tests. Our results indicate that: (1) quiet, wakeful rest is not a necessary prerequisite for episodic memory consolidation; and (2) post-encoding cognitive engagement does not interfere with memory consolidation when task-performance has minimal semantic and hippocampally-based episodic memory processing demands. We discuss our findings with reference to resource and reactivation-led interference theories.

  11. Hippocampal-medial prefrontal circuit supports memory updating during learning and post-encoding rest

    Schlichting, Margaret L.; Preston, Alison R.

    2015-01-01

    Learning occurs in the context of existing memories. Encountering new information that relates to prior knowledge may trigger integration, whereby established memories are updated to incorporate new content. Here, we provide a critical test of recent theories suggesting hippocampal (HPC) and medial prefrontal (MPFC) involvement in integration, both during and immediately following encoding. Human participants with established memories for a set of initial (AB) associations underwent fMRI scanning during passive rest and encoding of new related (BC) and unrelated (XY) pairs. We show that HPC-MPFC functional coupling during learning was more predictive of trial-by-trial memory for associations related to prior knowledge relative to unrelated associations. Moreover, the degree to which HPC-MPFC functional coupling was enhanced following overlapping encoding was related to memory integration behavior across participants. We observed a dissociation between anterior and posterior MPFC, with integration signatures during post-encoding rest specifically in the posterior subregion. These results highlight the persistence of integration signatures into post-encoding periods, indicating continued processing of interrelated memories during rest. We also interrogated the coherence of white matter tracts to assess the hypothesis that integration behavior would be related to the integrity of the underlying anatomical pathways. Consistent with our predictions, more coherent HPC-MPFC white matter structure was associated with better performance across participants. This HPC-MPFC circuit also interacted with content-sensitive visual cortex during learning and rest, consistent with reinstatement of prior knowledge to enable updating. These results show that the HPC-MPFC circuit supports on- and offline integration of new content into memory. PMID:26608407

  12. Fragments of a larger whole: retrieval cues constrain observed neural correlates of memory encoding.

    Otten, Leun J

    2007-09-01

    Laying down a new memory involves activity in a number of brain regions. Here, it is shown that the particular regions associated with successful encoding depend on the way in which memory is probed. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging signals were acquired while subjects performed an incidental encoding task on a series of visually presented words denoting objects. A recognition memory test using the Remember/Know procedure to separate responses based on recollection and familiarity followed 1 day later. Critically, half of the studied objects were cued with a corresponding spoken word, and half with a corresponding picture. Regardless of cue, activity in prefrontal and hippocampal regions predicted subsequent recollection of a word. Type of retrieval cue modulated activity in prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. Words subsequently recognized on the basis of a sense of familiarity were at study also associated with differential activity in a number of brain regions, some of which were probe dependent. Thus, observed neural correlates of successful encoding are constrained by type of retrieval cue, and are only fragments of all encoding-related neural activity. Regions exhibiting cue-specific effects may be sites that support memory through the degree of overlap between the processes engaged during encoding and those engaged during retrieval.

  13. Seeing Iconic Gestures While Encoding Events Facilitates Children's Memory of These Events.

    Aussems, Suzanne; Kita, Sotaro

    2017-11-08

    An experiment with 72 three-year-olds investigated whether encoding events while seeing iconic gestures boosts children's memory representation of these events. The events, shown in videos of actors moving in an unusual manner, were presented with either iconic gestures depicting how the actors performed these actions, interactive gestures, or no gesture. In a recognition memory task, children in the iconic gesture condition remembered actors and actions better than children in the control conditions. Iconic gestures were categorized based on how much of the actors was represented by the hands (feet, legs, or body). Only iconic hand-as-body gestures boosted actor memory. Thus, seeing iconic gestures while encoding events facilitates children's memory of those aspects of events that are schematically highlighted by gesture. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Interaction between attentional systems and episodic memory encoding: the impact of conflict on binding of information.

    Sperduti, Marco; Armougum, Allan; Makowski, Dominique; Blondé, Philippe; Piolino, Pascale

    2017-12-01

    Episodic memory (EM) is defined as a long-term memory system that stores information that can be retrieved along with details of the context of the original events (binding). Several studies have shown that manipulation of attention during encoding can impact subsequent memory performance. An influential model of attention distinguishes between three partially independent attentional networks: the alerting, the orienting and the executive or conflict resolution component. To date, the impact of the engagement of these sub-systems during encoding on item and relational context binding has not been investigated. Here, we developed a new task combining the Attentional Network Test and an incidental episodic memory encoding task to study this issue. We reported that when the alerting network was not solicited, resolving conflict hindered item encoding. Moreover, resolving conflict, independently of the cueing condition, had a negative impact on context binding. These novel findings could have a potential impact in the understanding EM formation, and memory disorders in different populations, including healthy elderly people.

  15. ERPs and oscillations during encoding predict retrieval of digit memory in superior mnemonists.

    Pan, Yafeng; Li, Xianchun; Chen, Xi; Ku, Yixuan; Dong, Yujie; Dou, Zheng; He, Lin; Hu, Yi; Li, Weidong; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that superior mnemonists (SMs) outperform normal individuals in domain-specific memory tasks. However, the neural correlates of memory-related processes remain unclear. In the current EEG study, SMs and control participants performed a digit memory task during which their brain activity was recorded. Chinese SMs used a digit-image mnemonic for encoding digits, in which they associated 2-digit groups with images immediately after the presentation of each even-position digit in sequences. Behaviorally, SMs' memory of digit sequences was better than the controls'. During encoding in the study phase, SMs showed an increased right central P2 (150-250ms post onset) and a larger right posterior high-alpha (10-14Hz, 500-1720ms) oscillation on digits at even-positions compared with digits at odd-positions. Both P2 and high-alpha oscillations in the study phase co-varied with performance in the recall phase, but only in SMs, indicating that neural dynamics during encoding could predict successful retrieval of digit memory in SMs. Our findings suggest that representation of a digit sequence in SMs using mnemonics may recruit both the early-stage attention allocation process and the sustained information preservation process. This study provides evidence for the role of dynamic and efficient neural encoding processes in mnemonists. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Dopaminergic inputs in the dentate gyrus direct the choice of memory encoding

    Du, Huiyun; Deng, Wei; Aimone, James B.; Ge, Minyan; Parylak, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2–expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning. Computational modeling based on this dopamine modulation indicated an asymmetric association of events occurring before and after reward in memory tasks. In subsequent behavioral experiments, preexposure to a natural reward suppressed hippocampus-dependent memory formation, with an effective time window consistent with the duration of dopamine-induced changes of dentate activity. Altogether, our results suggest a mechanism by which dopamine enables the hippocampus to encode memory with reduced interference from subsequent experience.

  17. Neuroanatomical correlates of encoding in episodic memory: levels of processing effect.

    Kapur, S; Craik, F I; Tulving, E; Wilson, A A; Houle, S; Brown, G M

    1994-01-01

    Cognitive studies of memory processes demonstrate that memory for stimuli is a function of how they are encoded; stimuli processed semantically are better remembered than those processed in a perceptual or shallow fashion. This study investigates the neural correlates of this cognitive phenomenon. Twelve subjects performed two different cognitive tasks on a series of visually presented nouns. In one task, subjects detected the presence or absence of the letter a; in the other, subjects catego...

  18. Seeing iconic gestures while encoding events facilitates children's memory of these events

    Aussems, Suzanne; Kita, Sotaro

    2017-01-01

    An experiment with 72 three-year-olds investigated whether encoding events while seeing iconic gestures boosts children's memory representation of these events. The events, shown in videos of actors moving in an unusual manner, were presented with either iconic gestures depicting how the actors performed these actions, interactive gestures, or no gesture. In a recognition memory task, children in the iconic gesture condition remembered actors and actions better than children in the control co...

  19. Perceptual difficulty in source memory encoding and retrieval: prefrontal versus parietal electrical brain activity.

    Kuo, Trudy Y; Van Petten, Cyma

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that source memory retrieval--remembering relationships between a core item and some additional attribute of an event--engages prefrontal cortex (PFC) more than simple item memory. In event-related potentials (ERPs), this is manifest in a late-onset difference over PFC between studied items which mandate retrieval of a second attribute, and unstudied items which can be immediately rejected. Although some sorts of attribute conjunctions are easier to remember than others, the role of source retrieval difficulty on prefrontal activity has received little attention. We examined memory for conjunctions of object shape and color when color was an integral part of the depicted object, and when monochrome objects were surrounded by colored frames. Source accuracy was reliably worse when shape and color were spatially separated, but prefrontal activity did not vary across the object-color and frame-color conditions. The insensitivity of prefrontal ERPs to this perceptual manipulation of difficulty stands in contrast to their sensitivity to encoding task: deliberate voluntary effort to integrate objects and colors during encoding reduced prefrontal activity during retrieval, but perceptual organization of stimuli did not. The amplitudes of ERPs over parietal cortex were larger for frame-color than object-color stimuli during both study and test phases of the memory task. Individual variability in parietal ERPs was strongly correlated with memory accuracy, which we suggest reflects a contribution of visual working memory to long-term memory. We discuss multiple bottlenecks for source memory performance.

  20. Temporal lobe cortical electrical stimulation during the encoding and retrieval phase reduces false memories.

    Paulo S Boggio

    Full Text Available A recent study found that false memories were reduced by 36% when low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS was applied to the left anterior temporal lobe after the encoding (study phase. Here we were interested in the consequences on a false memory task of brain stimulation throughout the encoding and retrieval task phases. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS because it has been shown to be a useful tool to enhance cognition. Specifically, we examined whether tDCS can induce changes in a task assessing false memories. Based on our preliminary results, three conditions of stimulation were chosen: anodal left/cathodal right anterior temporal lobe (ATL stimulation ("bilateral stimulation"; anodal left ATL stimulation (with a large contralateral cathodal electrode--referred as "unilateral stimulation" and sham stimulation. Our results showed that false memories were reduced significantly after the two active conditions (unilateral and bilateral stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. There were no significant changes in veridical memories. Our findings show that false memories are reduced by 73% when anodal tDCS is applied to the anterior temporal lobes throughout the encoding and retrieval stages, suggesting a possible strategy for improving certain aspects of learning.

  1. Episodic Memory Encoding Interferes with Reward Learning and Decreases Striatal Prediction Errors

    Braun, Erin Kendall; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Learning is essential for adaptive decision making. The striatum and its dopaminergic inputs are known to support incremental reward-based learning, while the hippocampus is known to support encoding of single events (episodic memory). Although traditionally studied separately, in even simple experiences, these two types of learning are likely to co-occur and may interact. Here we sought to understand the nature of this interaction by examining how incremental reward learning is related to concurrent episodic memory encoding. During the experiment, human participants made choices between two options (colored squares), each associated with a drifting probability of reward, with the goal of earning as much money as possible. Incidental, trial-unique object pictures, unrelated to the choice, were overlaid on each option. The next day, participants were given a surprise memory test for these pictures. We found that better episodic memory was related to a decreased influence of recent reward experience on choice, both within and across participants. fMRI analyses further revealed that during learning the canonical striatal reward prediction error signal was significantly weaker when episodic memory was stronger. This decrease in reward prediction error signals in the striatum was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the hippocampus and striatum at the time of choice. Our results suggest a mechanism by which memory encoding may compete for striatal processing and provide insight into how interactions between different forms of learning guide reward-based decision making. PMID:25378157

  2. Obligatory encoding of task-irrelevant features depletes working memory resources.

    Marshall, Louise; Bays, Paul M

    2013-02-18

    Selective attention is often considered the "gateway" to visual working memory (VWM). However, the extent to which we can voluntarily control which of an object's features enter memory remains subject to debate. Recent research has converged on the concept of VWM as a limited commodity distributed between elements of a visual scene. Consequently, as memory load increases, the fidelity with which each visual feature is stored decreases. Here we used changes in recall precision to probe whether task-irrelevant features were encoded into VWM when individuals were asked to store specific feature dimensions. Recall precision for both color and orientation was significantly enhanced when task-irrelevant features were removed, but knowledge of which features would be probed provided no advantage over having to memorize both features of all items. Next, we assessed the effect an interpolated orientation-or color-matching task had on the resolution with which orientations in a memory array were stored. We found that the presence of orientation information in the second array disrupted memory of the first array. The cost to recall precision was identical whether the interfering features had to be remembered, attended to, or could be ignored. Therefore, it appears that storing, or merely attending to, one feature of an object is sufficient to promote automatic encoding of all its features, depleting VWM resources. However, the precision cost was abolished when the match task preceded the memory array. So, while encoding is automatic, maintenance is voluntary, allowing resources to be reallocated to store new visual information.

  3. Episodic memory encoding interferes with reward learning and decreases striatal prediction errors.

    Wimmer, G Elliott; Braun, Erin Kendall; Daw, Nathaniel D; Shohamy, Daphna

    2014-11-05

    Learning is essential for adaptive decision making. The striatum and its dopaminergic inputs are known to support incremental reward-based learning, while the hippocampus is known to support encoding of single events (episodic memory). Although traditionally studied separately, in even simple experiences, these two types of learning are likely to co-occur and may interact. Here we sought to understand the nature of this interaction by examining how incremental reward learning is related to concurrent episodic memory encoding. During the experiment, human participants made choices between two options (colored squares), each associated with a drifting probability of reward, with the goal of earning as much money as possible. Incidental, trial-unique object pictures, unrelated to the choice, were overlaid on each option. The next day, participants were given a surprise memory test for these pictures. We found that better episodic memory was related to a decreased influence of recent reward experience on choice, both within and across participants. fMRI analyses further revealed that during learning the canonical striatal reward prediction error signal was significantly weaker when episodic memory was stronger. This decrease in reward prediction error signals in the striatum was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the hippocampus and striatum at the time of choice. Our results suggest a mechanism by which memory encoding may compete for striatal processing and provide insight into how interactions between different forms of learning guide reward-based decision making. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414901-12$15.00/0.

  4. Increased resting-state perfusion after repeated encoding is related to later retrieval of declarative associative memories.

    Georg Groen

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in animals have shown coordinated reactivation of neuronal ensembles during a restricted time period of behavioral inactivity that immediately followed active encoding. In the present study we directly investigated off-line processing of associative memory formation in the human brain. Subjects' regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF as a surrogate marker of neural activity during rest was measured by MR-based perfusion imaging in a sample of 14 healthy male subjects prior to (Pre2 and after (Post extensive learning of 24 face-name associations within a selective reminding task (SR. Results demonstrated significant Post-Pre2 rCBF increases in hippocampal and temporal lobe regions, while in a control comparison of two perfusion scans with no learning task in-between (Pre2-Pre1 no differences in rCBF emerged. Post perfusion scanning was followed by a surprise cued associative recall task from which two types of correctly retrieved names were obtained: older names already correctly retrieved at least once during one of the SR blocks, and recent names acquired during the last SR block immediately prior to the Post scan. In the anterior hippocampus individual perfusion increases were correlated with both correct retrievals of older and recent names. By contrast, older but not recently learned names showed a significant correlation with perfusion increases in the left lateral temporal cortex known to be associated with long-term memory. Recent, but not older names were correlated with dopaminergic midbrain structures reported to contribute to the persistence of memory traces for novel information. Although the direct investigation of off-line memory processing did not permit concomitant experimental control, neither intentional rehearsal, nor substantial variations in subjects' states of alertness appear to contribute to present results. We suggest that the observed rCBF increases might reflect processes that possibly

  5. Correcting false information in memory: manipulating the strength of misinformation encoding and its retraction.

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Swire, Briony; Chang, Darren

    2011-06-01

    Information that is presumed to be true at encoding but later on turns out to be false (i.e., misinformation) often continues to influence memory and reasoning. In the present study, we investigated how the strength of encoding and the strength of a later retraction of the misinformation affect this continued influence effect. Participants read an event report containing misinformation and a subsequent correction. Encoding strength of the misinformation and correction were orthogonally manipulated either via repetition (Experiment 1) or by imposing a cognitive load during reading (Experiment 2). Results suggest that stronger retractions are effective in reducing the continued influence effects associated with strong misinformation encoding, but that even strong retractions fail to eliminate continued influence effects associated with relatively weak encoding. We present a simple computational model based on random sampling that captures this effect pattern, and conclude that the continued influence effect seems to defy most attempts to eliminate it.

  6. Neural correlates of the in-group memory advantage on the encoding and recognition of faces.

    Grit Herzmann

    Full Text Available People have a memory advantage for faces that belong to the same group, for example, that attend the same university or have the same personality type. Faces from such in-group members are assumed to receive more attention during memory encoding and are therefore recognized more accurately. Here we use event-related potentials related to memory encoding and retrieval to investigate the neural correlates of the in-group memory advantage. Using the minimal group procedure, subjects were classified based on a bogus personality test as belonging to one of two personality types. While the electroencephalogram was recorded, subjects studied and recognized faces supposedly belonging to the subject's own and the other personality type. Subjects recognized in-group faces more accurately than out-group faces but the effect size was small. Using the individual behavioral in-group memory advantage in multivariate analyses of covariance, we determined neural correlates of the in-group advantage. During memory encoding (300 to 1000 ms after stimulus onset, subjects with a high in-group memory advantage elicited more positive amplitudes for subsequently remembered in-group than out-group faces, showing that in-group faces received more attention and elicited more neural activity during initial encoding. Early during memory retrieval (300 to 500 ms, frontal brain areas were more activated for remembered in-group faces indicating an early detection of group membership. Surprisingly, the parietal old/new effect (600 to 900 ms thought to indicate recollection processes differed between in-group and out-group faces independent from the behavioral in-group memory advantage. This finding suggests that group membership affects memory retrieval independent of memory performance. Comparisons with a previous study on the other-race effect, another memory phenomenon influenced by social classification of faces, suggested that the in-group memory advantage is dominated by

  7. Encoding of contextual fear memory requires de novo proteins in the prelimbic cortex

    Rizzo, Valerio; Touzani, Khalid; Raveendra, Bindu L.; Swarnkar, Supriya; Lora, Joan; Kadakkuzha, Beena M.; Liu, Xin-An; Zhang, Chao; Betel, Doron; Stackman, Robert W.; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite our understanding of the significance of the prefrontal cortex in the consolidation of long-term memories (LTM), its role in the encoding of LTM remains elusive. Here we investigated the role of new protein synthesis in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in encoding contextual fear memory. Methods Because a change in the association of mRNAs to polyribosomes is an indicator of new protein synthesis, we assessed the changes in polyribosome-associated mRNAs in the mPFC following contextual fear conditioning (CFC) in the mouse. Differential gene expression in mPFC was identified by polyribosome profiling (n = 18). The role of new protein synthesis in mPFC was determined by focal inhibition of protein synthesis (n = 131) and by intra-prelimbic cortex manipulation (n = 56) of Homer 3, a candidate identified from polyribosome profiling. Results We identified several mRNAs that are differentially and temporally recruited to polyribosomes in the mPFC following CFC. Inhibition of protein synthesis in the prelimbic (PL), but not in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) region of the mPFC immediately after CFC disrupted encoding of contextual fear memory. Intriguingly, inhibition of new protein synthesis in the PL 6 hours after CFC did not impair encoding. Furthermore, expression of Homer 3, an mRNA enriched in polyribosomes following CFC, in the PL constrained encoding of contextual fear memory. Conclusions Our studies identify several molecular substrates of new protein synthesis in the mPFC and establish that encoding of contextual fear memories require new protein synthesis in PL subregion of mPFC. PMID:28503670

  8. Evidence for anomalous network connectivity during working memory encoding in schizophrenia: an ICA based analysis.

    Shashwath A Meda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous neuroimaging studies report abnormal regional brain activity during working memory performance in schizophrenia, but few have examined brain network integration as determined by "functional connectivity" analyses.We used independent component analysis (ICA to identify and characterize dysfunctional spatiotemporal networks in schizophrenia engaged during the different stages (encoding and recognition of a Sternberg working memory fMRI paradigm. 37 chronic schizophrenia and 54 healthy age/gender-matched participants performed a modified Sternberg Item Recognition fMRI task. Time series images preprocessed with SPM2 were analyzed using ICA. Schizophrenia patients showed relatively less engagement of several distinct "normal" encoding-related working memory networks compared to controls. These encoding networks comprised 1 left posterior parietal-left dorsal/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, cingulate, basal ganglia, 2 right posterior parietal, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and 3 default mode network. In addition, the left fronto-parietal network demonstrated a load-dependent functional response during encoding. Network engagement that differed between groups during recognition comprised the posterior cingulate, cuneus and hippocampus/parahippocampus. As expected, working memory task accuracy differed between groups (p<0.0001 and was associated with degree of network engagement. Functional connectivity within all three encoding-associated functional networks correlated significantly with task accuracy, which further underscores the relevance of abnormal network integration to well-described schizophrenia working memory impairment. No network was significantly associated with task accuracy during the recognition phase.This study extends the results of numerous previous schizophrenia studies that identified isolated dysfunctional brain regions by providing evidence of disrupted schizophrenia functional connectivity using ICA within

  9. Stability Analysis on Sparsely Encoded Associative Memory with Short-Term Synaptic Dynamics

    Xu, Muyuan; Katori, Yuichi; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    This study investigates the stability of sparsely encoded associative memory in a network composed of stochastic neurons. The incorporation of short-term synaptic dynamics significantly changes the stability with respect to synaptic properties. Various states including static and oscillatory states are found in the network dynamics. Specifically, the sparseness of memory patterns raises the problem of spurious states. A mean field model is used to analyze the detailed structure in the stability and show that the performance of memory retrieval is recovered by appropriate feedback.

  10. Memory for emotional words: The role of semantic relatedness, encoding task and affective valence.

    Ferré, Pilar; Fraga, Isabel; Comesaña, Montserrat; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have been repeatedly demonstrated to be better remembered than neutral ones. The aim of the present study was to test whether this advantage in memory is mainly produced by the affective content of the stimuli or it can be rather accounted for by factors such as semantic relatedness or type of encoding task. The valence of the stimuli (positive, negative and neutral words that could be either semantically related or unrelated) as well as the type of encoding task (focused on either familiarity or emotionality) was manipulated. The results revealed an advantage in memory for emotional words (either positive or negative) regardless of semantic relatedness. Importantly, this advantage was modulated by the encoding task, as it was reliable only in the task which focused on emotionality. These findings suggest that congruity with the dimension attended at encoding might contribute to the superiority in memory for emotional words, thus offering us a more complex picture of the underlying mechanisms behind the advantage for emotional information in memory.

  11. Non-interfering effects of active post-encoding tasks on episodic memory consolidation in humans

    Varma, S.; Takashima, A.; Krewinkel, S.C.; Kooten, M.E. van; Fu, L.; Medendorp, W.P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Daselaar, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    So far, studies that investigated interference effects of post-learning processes on episodic memory consolidation in humans have only used tasks involving complex and meaningful information. Such tasks require reallocation of general or encoding-specific resources away from consolidation-relevant

  12. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  13. The influence of encoding intention on electrophysiological indices of recognition memory.

    van Hooff, Johanna Catharina

    2005-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to further specify the encoding and retrieval conditions that determine the success of an ERP-based memory assessment procedure, originally derived from lie detection studies. We examined whether event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded during successful and unsuccessful retrieval would vary according to intentional (study) and incidental (repetition) encoding conditions. Participants (N=20) were asked to indicate recognition of previously studied words (learned targets, p=0.2) and words that were used as distractors in a preceding recognition task (repeated targets, p=0.2). Words that were recognised elicited a P3 component, which was largely absent for new words and words that failed to be recognised. Encoding intention was found to increase the P3 amplitude slightly but had no influence on P3 scalp distribution, suggesting that the differently encoded targets were similarly processed during retrieval but to a different extent. The amplitude difference was explained in terms of variance in memory trace strength and decision confidence. With respect to negative findings for repeated items in our earlier study (Van Hooff, J.C., Golden, S. 2002. Validation of an event-related potential memory assessment procedure: Intentional learning as opposed to simple repetition. J. Psychophysiol., 16, 12-22.), it was suggested that the instruction to actively retrieve the repeated words was essential for obtaining reliable indications of the presence or absence of weak memory traces.

  14. Collaborative Encoding and Memory Accuracy: Examining the Effects of Interactive Components of Co-Construction Processes

    Foley, Mary Ann; Fried, Adina Rachel; Cowan, Emily; Bays, Rebecca Brooke

    2014-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the effect of collaborative encoding on memory was examined by testing 2 interactive components of co-construction processes. One component focused on the nature of the interactive exchange between collaborators: As the partners worked together to create descriptions about ways to interact with familiar objects, constraints were…

  15. Theta and gamma oscillations predict encoding and retrieval of declarative memory

    Osipova, D.; Takashima, A.; Oostenveld, R.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Maris, E.G.G.; Jensen, O.

    2006-01-01

    Although studies in animals and patients have demonstrated that brain oscillations play a role in declarative memory encoding and retrieval, little has been done to investigate the temporal dynamics and sources of brain activity in healthy human subjects performing such tasks. In a

  16. Theta and gamma oscillations predict encoding and retrieval of declarative memory.

    Osipova, D.; Takashima, A.; Oostenveld, R.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Maris, E.G.G.; Jensen, O.

    2006-01-01

    Although studies in animals and patients have demonstrated that brain oscillations play a role in declarative memory encoding and retrieval, little has been done to investigate the temporal dynamics and sources of brain activity in healthy human subjects performing such tasks. In a

  17. Modality-specific Alpha Modulations Facilitate Long-term Memory Encoding in the Presence of Distracters

    Jiang, H.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Jensen, O.

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory encoding is not only dependent on engaging task-relevant regions but also on disengaging task-irrelevant regions. In particular, oscillatory alpha activity has been shown to be involved in shaping the functional architecture of the working brain because it

  18. Modality-specific Alpha Modulations Facilitate Long-term Memory Encoding in the Presence of Distracters

    Jiang, H.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Jensen, O.

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory encoding is not only dependent on engaging task-relevant regions but also on disengaging task-irrelevant regions. In particular, oscillatory alpha activity has been shown to be involved in shaping the functional architecture of the working brain because it

  19. Effects of emotion and reward motivation on neural correlates of episodic memory encoding: a PET study.

    Shigemune, Yayoi; Abe, Nobuhito; Suzuki, Maki; Ueno, Aya; Mori, Etsuro; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2010-05-01

    It is known that emotion and reward motivation promote long-term memory formation. It remains unclear, however, how and where emotion and reward are integrated during episodic memory encoding. In the present study, subjects were engaged in intentional encoding of photographs under four different conditions that were made by combining two factors (emotional valence, negative or neutral; and monetary reward value, high or low for subsequent successful recognition) during H2 15O positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. As for recognition performance, we found significant main effects of emotional valence (negative>neutral) and reward value (high value>low value), without an interaction between the two factors. Imaging data showed that the left amygdala was activated during the encoding conditions of negative pictures relative to neutral pictures, and the left orbitofrontal cortex was activated during the encoding conditions of high reward pictures relative to low reward pictures. In addition, conjunction analysis of these two main effects detected right hippocampal activation. Although we could not find correlations between recognition performance and activity of these three regions, we speculate that the right hippocampus may integrate the effects of emotion (processed in the amygdala) and monetary reward (processed in the orbitofrontal cortex) on episodic memory encoding. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Minimum BER Receiver Filters with Block Memory for Uplink DS-CDMA Systems

    Mérouane Debbah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of synchronous multiuser receiver design in the case of direct-sequence single-antenna code division multiple access (DS-CDMA uplink networks is studied over frequency selective fading channels. An exact expression for the bit error rate (BER is derived in the case of BPSK signaling. Moreover, an algorithm is proposed for finding the finite impulse response (FIR receiver filters with block memory such that the exact BER of the active users is minimized. Several properties of the minimum BER FIR filters with block memory are identified. The algorithm performance is found for scenarios with different channel qualities, spreading code lengths, receiver block memory size, near-far effects, and channel mismatch. For the BPSK constellation, the proposed FIR receiver structure with block memory has significant better BER with respect to Eb/N0 and near-far resistance than the corresponding minimum mean square error (MMSE filters with block memory.

  1. Minimum BER Receiver Filters with Block Memory for Uplink DS-CDMA Systems

    Debbah Mérouane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problem of synchronous multiuser receiver design in the case of direct-sequence single-antenna code division multiple access (DS-CDMA uplink networks is studied over frequency selective fading channels. An exact expression for the bit error rate (BER is derived in the case of BPSK signaling. Moreover, an algorithm is proposed for finding the finite impulse response (FIR receiver filters with block memory such that the exact BER of the active users is minimized. Several properties of the minimum BER FIR filters with block memory are identified. The algorithm performance is found for scenarios with different channel qualities, spreading code lengths, receiver block memory size, near-far effects, and channel mismatch. For the BPSK constellation, the proposed FIR receiver structure with block memory has significant better BER with respect to and near-far resistance than the corresponding minimum mean square error (MMSE filters with block memory.

  2. Olfactory short-term memory encoding and maintenance - an event-related potential study.

    Lenk, Steffen; Bluschke, Annet; Beste, Christian; Iannilli, Emilia; Rößner, Veit; Hummel, Thomas; Bender, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    This study examined whether the memory encoding and short term maintenance of olfactory stimuli is associated with neurophysiological activation patterns which parallel those described for sensory modalities such as vision and auditory. We examined olfactory event-related potentials in an olfactory change detection task in twenty-four healthy adults and compared the measured activation to that found during passive olfactory stimulation. During the early olfactory post-processing phase, we found a sustained negativity over bilateral frontotemporal areas in the passive perception condition which was enhanced in the active memory task. There was no significant lateralization in either experimental condition. During the maintenance interval at the end of the delay period, we still found sustained activation over bilateral frontotemporal areas which was more negative in trials with correct - as compared to incorrect - behavioural responses. This was complemented by a general significantly stronger frontocentral activation. Summarizing, we were able to show that olfactory short term memory involves a parallel sequence of activation as found in other sensory modalities. In addition to olfactory-specific frontotemporal activations in the memory encoding phase, we found slow cortical potentials over frontocentral areas during the memory maintenance phase indicating the activation of a supramodal memory maintenance system. These findings could represent the neurophysiological underpinning of the 'olfactory flacon', the olfactory counter-part to the visual sketchpad and phonological loop embedded in Baddeley's working memory model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotion regulation during the encoding of emotional stimuli: Effects on subsequent memory.

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2016-02-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Furthermore, we implemented a reappraisal instruction to manipulate (down-regulate) emotional arousal at encoding to examine the relation between emotional arousal and subsequent memory. Participants (8-year-old girls) viewed emotional scenes as electrophysiological (EEG) data were recorded and participated in a memory task 1 to 5days later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. The reappraisal instruction successfully reduced emotional arousal responses to negative stimuli but not positive stimuli. Similarly, recognition performance in both event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavior was impaired for reappraised negative stimuli but not positive stimuli. The findings indicate that ERPs are sensitive to the reappraisal of negative stimuli in children as young as 8years. Furthermore, the findings suggest an interaction of emotion and memory during the school years, implicating the explanatory role of emotional arousal at encoding on subsequent memory performance in female children as young as 8years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determining the Neural Substrate for Encoding a Memory of Human Pain and the Influence of Anxiety.

    Tseng, Ming-Tsung; Kong, Yazhuo; Eippert, Falk; Tracey, Irene

    2017-12-06

    To convert a painful stimulus into a briefly maintainable construct when the painful stimulus is no longer accessible is essential to guide human behavior and avoid dangerous situations. Because of the aversive nature of pain, this encoding process might be influenced by emotional aspects and could thus vary across individuals, but we have yet to understand both the basic underlying neural mechanisms as well as potential interindividual differences. Using fMRI in combination with a delayed-discrimination task in healthy volunteers of both sexes, we discovered that brain regions involved in this working memory encoding process were dissociable according to whether the to-be-remembered stimulus was painful or not, with the medial thalamus and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex encoding painful and the primary somatosensory cortex encoding nonpainful stimuli. Encoding of painful stimuli furthermore significantly enhanced functional connectivity between the thalamus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With regards to emotional aspects influencing encoding processes, we observed that more anxious participants showed significant performance advantages when encoding painful stimuli. Importantly, only during the encoding of pain, the interindividual differences in anxiety were associated with the strength of coupling between medial thalamus and mPFC, which was furthermore related to activity in the amygdala. These results indicate not only that there is a distinct signature for the encoding of a painful experience in humans, but also that this encoding process involves a strong affective component. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To convert the sensation of pain into a briefly maintainable construct is essential to guide human behavior and avoid dangerous situations. Although this working memory encoding process is implicitly contained in the majority of studies, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. Using fMRI in a delayed-discrimination task, we found that the

  5. New learning while consolidating memory during sleep is actively blocked by a protein synthesis dependent process.

    Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J

    2016-12-06

    Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory.

  6. Spatial short-term memory in children with nonverbal learning disabilities: impairment in encoding spatial configuration.

    Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.

  7. Dissociation and Memory Fragmentation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Evaluation of the Dissociative Encoding Hypothesis

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review, we summarize the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus, initial evidence points more toward a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation. PMID:22348400

  8. The spectro-contextual encoding and retrieval theory of episodic memory.

    Watrous, Andrew J; Ekstrom, Arne D

    2014-01-01

    The spectral fingerprint hypothesis, which posits that different frequencies of oscillations underlie different cognitive operations, provides one account for how interactions between brain regions support perceptual and attentive processes (Siegel etal., 2012). Here, we explore and extend this idea to the domain of human episodic memory encoding and retrieval. Incorporating findings from the synaptic to cognitive levels of organization, we argue that spectrally precise cross-frequency coupling and phase-synchronization promote the formation of hippocampal-neocortical cell assemblies that form the basis for episodic memory. We suggest that both cell assembly firing patterns as well as the global pattern of brain oscillatory activity within hippocampal-neocortical networks represents the contents of a particular memory. Drawing upon the ideas of context reinstatement and multiple trace theory, we argue that memory retrieval is driven by internal and/or external factors which recreate these frequency-specific oscillatory patterns which occur during episodic encoding. These ideas are synthesized into a novel model of episodic memory (the spectro-contextual encoding and retrieval theory, or "SCERT") that provides several testable predictions for future research.

  9. Deeper processing is beneficial during episodic memory encoding for adults with Williams syndrome.

    Greer, Joanna; Hamiliton, Colin; Riby, Deborah M; Riby, Leigh M

    2014-07-01

    Previous research exploring declarative memory in Williams syndrome (WS) has revealed impairment in the processing of episodic information accompanied by a relative strength in semantic ability. The aim of the current study was to extend this literature by examining how relatively spared semantic memory may support episodic remembering. Using a level of processing paradigm, older adults with WS (aged 35-61 years) were compared to typical adults of the same chronological age and typically developing children matched for verbal ability. In the study phase, pictures were encoded using either a deep (decide if a picture belongs to a particular category) or shallow (perceptual based processing) memory strategy. Behavioural indices (reaction time and accuracy) at retrieval were suggestive of an overall difficulty in episodic memory for WS adults. Interestingly, however, semantic support was evident with a greater recall of items encoded with deep compared to shallow processing, indicative of an ability to employ semantic encoding strategies to maximise the strength of the memory trace created. Unlike individuals with autism who find semantic elaboration strategies problematic, the pattern of findings reported here suggests in those domains that are relatively impaired in WS, support can be recruited from relatively spared cognitive processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val(158)Met association with parahippocampal physiology during memory encoding in schizophrenia.

    Di Giorgio, A; Caforio, G; Blasi, G; Taurisano, P; Fazio, L; Romano, R; Ursini, G; Gelao, B; Bianco, L Lo; Papazacharias, A; Sinibaldi, L; Popolizio, T; Bellomo, A; Bertolino, A

    2011-08-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met has been associated with activity of the mesial temporal lobe during episodic memory and it may weakly increase risk for schizophrenia. However, how this variant affects parahippocampal and hippocampal physiology when dopamine transmission is perturbed is unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the COMT Val158Met genotype on parahippocampal and hippocampal physiology during encoding of recognition memory in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy subjects. Using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied 28 patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy subjects matched for a series of sociodemographic and genetic variables while they performed a recognition memory task. We found that healthy subjects had greater parahippocampal and hippocampal activity during memory encoding compared to patients with schizophrenia. We also found different activity of the parahippocampal region between healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia as a function of the COMT genotype, in that the predicted COMT Met allele dose effect had an opposite direction in controls and patients. Our results demonstrate a COMT Val158Met genotype by diagnosis interaction in parahippocampal activity during memory encoding and may suggest that modulation of dopamine signaling interacts with other disease-related processes in determining the phenotype of parahippocampal physiology in schizophrenia. © Cambridge University Press 2010

  11. Working memory contributes to the encoding of object location associations: Support for a 3-part model of object location memory.

    Gillis, M Meredith; Garcia, Sarah; Hampstead, Benjamin M

    2016-09-15

    A recent model by Postma and colleagues posits that the encoding of object location associations (OLAs) requires the coordination of several cognitive processes mediated by ventral (object perception) and dorsal (spatial perception) visual pathways as well as the hippocampus (feature binding) [1]. Within this model, frontoparietal network recruitment is believed to contribute to both the spatial processing and working memory task demands. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test each step of this model in 15 participants who encoded OLAs and performed standard n-back tasks. As expected, object processing resulted in activation of the ventral visual stream. Object in location processing resulted in activation of both the ventral and dorsal visual streams as well as a lateral frontoparietal network. This condition was also the only one to result in medial temporal lobe activation, supporting its role in associative learning. A conjunction analysis revealed areas of shared activation between the working memory and object in location phase within the lateral frontoparietal network, anterior insula, and basal ganglia; consistent with prior working memory literature. Overall, findings support Postma and colleague's model and provide clear evidence for the role of working memory during OLA encoding. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. An overview of the neuro-cognitive processes involved in the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of true and false memories.

    Straube, Benjamin

    2012-07-24

    Perception and memory are imperfect reconstructions of reality. These reconstructions are prone to be influenced by several factors, which may result in false memories. A false memory is the recollection of an event, or details of an episode, that did not actually occur. Memory formation comprises at least three different sub-processes: encoding, consolidation and the retrieval of the learned material. All of these sub-processes are vulnerable for specific errors and consequently may result in false memories. Whereas, processes like imagery, self-referential encoding or spreading activation can lead to the formation of false memories at encoding, semantic generalization during sleep and updating processes due to misleading post event information, in particular, are relevant at the consolidation stage. Finally at the retrieval stage, monitoring processes, which are assumed to be essential to reject false memories, are of specific importance. Different neuro-cognitive processes have been linked to the formation of true and false memories. Most consistently the medial temporal lobe and the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex have been reported with regard to the formation of true and false memories. Despite the fact that all phases entailing memory formation, consolidation of stored information and retrieval processes, are relevant for the forming of false memories, most studies focused on either memory encoding or retrieval. Thus, future studies should try to integrate data from all phases to give a more comprehensive view on systematic memory distortions. An initial outline is developed within this review to connect the different memory stages and research strategies.

  13. Distinct neural correlates of associative working memory and long-term memory encoding in the medial temporal lobe.

    Bergmann, Heiko C; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernández, Guillén; Kessels, Roy P C

    2012-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a role for the hippocampus not only in long-term memory (LTM) but also in relational working memory (WM) processes, challenging the view of the hippocampus as being solely involved in episodic LTM. However, hippocampal involvement reported in some neuroimaging studies using "classical" WM tasks may at least partly reflect incidental LTM encoding. To disentangle WM processing and LTM formation we administered a delayed-match-to-sample associative WM task in an event-related fMRI study design. Each trial of the WM task consisted of four pairs of faces and houses, which had to be maintained during a delay of 10 s. This was followed by a probe phase consisting of three consecutively presented pairs; for each pair participants were to indicate whether it matched one of the pairs of the encoding phase. After scanning, an unexpected recognition-memory (LTM) task was administered. Brain activity during encoding was analyzed based on WM and LTM performance. Hence, encoding-related activity predicting WM success in the absence of successful LTM formation could be isolated. Furthermore, regions critical for successful LTM formation for pairs previously correctly processed in WM were analyzed. Results showed that the left parahippocampal gyrus including the fusiform gyrus predicted subsequent accuracy on WM decisions. The right anterior hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus, in contrast, predicted successful LTM for pairs that were previously correctly classified in the WM task. Our results suggest that brain regions associated with higher-level visuo-perceptual processing are involved in successful associative WM encoding, whereas the anterior hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus are involved in successful LTM formation during incidental encoding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Associative false consumer memory: effects of need for cognition and encoding task.

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2018-04-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of product-attribute associations on false consumer memory. In both experiments, subjects were presented with sets of related product attributes under incidental encoding conditions. Later, recognition memory was tested with studied attributes, non-studied but associated attributes (critical lures) and non-studied unrelated attributes. In Experiment 1, the effect of Need for Cognition (NFC) was assessed. It was found that individuals high in NFC recognised more presented attributes and falsely recognised more associative critical lures. The increase in both true and associative false memory was accompanied by a greater number of responses that index the retrieval of detailed episodic-like information. Experiment 2, replicated the main findings through an experimental manipulation of the encoding task that required subjects to consider purchase likelihood. Explanations for these findings are considered from the perspective of activation processes and knowledge structures in the form of gist-based representations.

  15. Narrative organisation at encoding facilitated children's long-term episodic memory.

    Wang, Qi; Bui, Van-Kim; Song, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of narrative organisation at encoding on long-term episodic memory in a sample of five- to seven-year-old children (N = 113). At an initial interview, children were asked to narrate a story from a picture book. Six months later, they were interviewed again and asked to recall the story and answer a series of direct questions about the story. Children who initially encoded more information in narrative and produced more complete, complex, cohesive and coherent narratives remembered the story in greater detail and accuracy following the six-month interval, independent of age and verbal skills. The relation between narrative organisation and memory was consistent across culture and gender. These findings provide new insight into the critical role of narrative in episodic memory.

  16. Characterization of a Poly(styrene-block-methylacrylate-random-octadecylacrylate-block-styrene) Shape Memory ABA Triblock Copolymer

    Fei, Pengzhan; Cavicchi, Kevin

    2011-03-01

    A new ABA triblock copolymer of poly(styrene-block- methylacrylate-random-octadecylacrylate-block-styrene) (PS-b- PMA-r-PODA-b-PS) was synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The triblock copolymer can generate a three-dimensional, physically crosslinked network by self-assembly, where the glassy PS domains physically crosslink the midblock chains. The side chain crystallization of the polyoctadecylacrylare (PODA) side chain generates a second reversible network enabling shape memory properties. Shape memory tests by uniaxial deformation and recovery of molded dog-bone shape samples demonstrate that shape fixities above 96% and shape recoveries above 98% were obtained for extensional strains up to 300%. An outstanding advantage of this shape memory material is that it can be very easily shaped and remolded by elevating the temperature to 140circ; C, and after remolding the initial shape memory properties are totally recovered by eliminating the defects introduced by the previous deformation cycling.

  17. Memory structures for encoding and retrieving a piece of music: an ERP investigation.

    Williamon, Aaron; Egner, Tobias

    2004-12-01

    This study examined behavioral and neural correlates of expert musical memory, specifically the hypothesis that particular bars within a complex piece of music would serve as structural markers for encoding to and retrieval from memory. Six pianists were asked to learn and memorize a set prelude by J.S. Bach for performance, and to identify bars that they employed for structuring the prelude into component sections. Following performance from memory, the participants took part in a visual recognition memory task, in which single bars from the prelude had to be distinguished from matched new bars. During the recognition task, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, and event-related potentials (ERPs) from correctly identified prelude stimulus trials were averaged according to their hypothesized status into "structural" and "nonstructural" bars. The results showed that correct identification of structural bars was significantly faster (and tended to display higher accuracy) than recognition of non-structural ones. In addition, recognition of structural bars was associated with a significantly greater negative ERP peak of 300-400 ms latency and a right centro-parietal scalp distribution. This mid-latency negativity appears to index processing of stimuli that served as cues for encoding and retrieval of a complex semantic structure, and is qualitatively and conceptually different from other previously identified recognition memory ERPs (such as the "old/new" effect), as well as from the classic N400 ERP. The data support existing theories of expert memory and music cognition.

  18. Hippocampal subfield and medial temporal cortical persistent activity during working memory reflects ongoing encoding

    Rachel K Nauer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies support a role for the medial temporal lobes (MTL in maintaining novel stimuli over brief working memory (WM delays, and suggest delay period activity predicts subsequent memory. Additionally, slice recording studies have demonstrated neuronal persistent spiking in entorhinal cortex (EC, perirhinal cortex (PrC, and hippocampus (CA1, CA3, subiculum. These data have led to computational models that suggest persistent spiking in parahippocampal regions could sustain neuronal representations of sensory information over many seconds. This mechanism may support both WM maintenance and encoding of information into long term episodic memory. The goal of the current study was to use high-resolution fMRI to elucidate the contributions of the MTL cortices and hippocampal subfields to WM maintenance as it relates to later episodic recognition memory. We scanned participants while they performed a delayed match to sample task with novel scene stimuli, and assessed their memory for these scenes post-scan. We hypothesized stimulus-driven activation that persists into the delay period—a putative correlate of persistent spiking—would predict later recognition memory. Our results suggest sample and delay period activation in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC, PrC, and subiculum (extending into DG/CA3 and CA1 was linearly related to increases in subsequent memory strength. These data extend previous neuroimaging studies that have constrained their analysis to either the sample or delay period by modeling these together as one continuous ongoing encoding process, and support computational frameworks that predict persistent activity underlies both WM and episodic encoding.

  19. Effects of attention during encoding on sex differences in object location memory.

    Barel, Efrat

    2018-04-16

    Attention plays a key role in memory processes and has been widely studied in various memory tasks. The role of attention in sex differences in object location memory is not clearly understood. In the present study, two experiments involving 186 participants and using an object array presented on paper were conducted to examine two encoding conditions: incidental and intentional. In each experiment, the participants were randomly assigned to divided versus full attention conditions. In the first experiment, which involved incidental encoding, women outperformed men in memorising location-exchanged objects in both the full and in the divided attention condition. In the second experiment, which involved intentional encoding, women outperformed men in memorising location-exchanged objects in the full attention condition, but not the divided attention condition. These findings deepen our knowledge regarding the role of attention in object location memory, specifically in terms of the conditions under which females have an advantage for detecting changes in an array of objects. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Threat of punishment motivates memory encoding via amygdala, not midbrain, interactions with the medial temporal lobe.

    Murty, Vishnu P; Labar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2012-06-27

    Neural circuits associated with motivated declarative encoding and active threat avoidance have both been described, but the relative contribution of these systems to punishment-motivated encoding remains unknown. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to examine mechanisms of declarative memory enhancement when subjects were motivated to avoid punishments that were contingent on forgetting. A motivational cue on each trial informed participants whether they would be punished or not for forgetting an upcoming scene image. Items associated with the threat of shock were better recognized 24 h later. Punishment-motivated enhancements in subsequent memory were associated with anticipatory activation of right amygdala and increases in its functional connectivity with parahippocampal and orbitofrontal cortices. On a trial-by-trial basis, right amygdala activation during the motivational cue predicted hippocampal activation during encoding of the subsequent scene; across participants, the strength of this interaction predicted memory advantages due to motivation. Of note, punishment-motivated learning was not associated with activation of dopaminergic midbrain, as would be predicted by valence-independent models of motivation to learn. These data are consistent with the view that motivation by punishment activates the amygdala, which in turn prepares the medial temporal lobe for memory formation. The findings further suggest a brain system for declarative learning motivated by punishment that is distinct from that for learning motivated by reward.

  1. Brain systems underlying attentional control and emotional distraction during working memory encoding.

    Ziaei, Maryam; Peira, Nathalie; Persson, Jonas

    2014-02-15

    Goal-directed behavior requires that cognitive operations can be protected from emotional distraction induced by task-irrelevant emotional stimuli. The brain processes involved in attending to relevant information while filtering out irrelevant information are still largely unknown. To investigate the neural and behavioral underpinnings of attending to task-relevant emotional stimuli while ignoring irrelevant stimuli, we used fMRI to assess brain responses during attentional instructed encoding within an emotional working memory (WM) paradigm. We showed that instructed attention to emotion during WM encoding resulted in enhanced performance, by means of increased memory performance and reduced reaction time, compared to passive viewing. A similar performance benefit was also demonstrated for recognition memory performance, although for positive pictures only. Functional MRI data revealed a network of regions involved in directed attention to emotional information for both positive and negative pictures that included medial and lateral prefrontal cortices, fusiform gyrus, insula, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the amygdala. Moreover, we demonstrate that regions in the striatum, and regions associated with the default-mode network were differentially activated for emotional distraction compared to neutral distraction. Activation in a sub-set of these regions was related to individual differences in WM and recognition memory performance, thus likely contributing to performing the task at an optimal level. The present results provide initial insights into the behavioral and neural consequences of instructed attention and emotional distraction during WM encoding. © 2013.

  2. Parietal cortex integrates contextual and saliency signals during the encoding of natural scenes in working memory.

    Santangelo, Valerio; Di Francesco, Simona Arianna; Mastroberardino, Serena; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2015-12-01

    The Brief presentation of a complex scene entails that only a few objects can be selected, processed indepth, and stored in memory. Both low-level sensory salience and high-level context-related factors (e.g., the conceptual match/mismatch between objects and scene context) contribute to this selection process, but how the interplay between these factors affects memory encoding is largely unexplored. Here, during fMRI we presented participants with pictures of everyday scenes. After a short retention interval, participants judged the position of a target object extracted from the initial scene. The target object could be either congruent or incongruent with the context of the scene, and could be located in a region of the image with maximal or minimal salience. Behaviourally, we found a reduced impact of saliency on visuospatial working memory performance when the target was out-of-context. Encoding-related fMRI results showed that context-congruent targets activated dorsoparietal regions, while context-incongruent targets de-activated the ventroparietal cortex. Saliency modulated activity both in dorsal and ventral regions, with larger context-related effects for salient targets. These findings demonstrate the joint contribution of knowledge-based and saliency-driven attention for memory encoding, highlighting a dissociation between dorsal and ventral parietal regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pupil size reflects successful encoding and recall of memory in humans.

    Kucewicz, Michal T; Dolezal, Jaromir; Kremen, Vaclav; Berry, Brent M; Miller, Laura R; Magee, Abigail L; Fabian, Vratislav; Worrell, Gregory A

    2018-03-21

    Pupil responses are known to indicate brain processes involved in perception, attention and decision-making. They can provide an accessible biomarker of human memory performance and cognitive states in general. Here we investigated changes in the pupil size during encoding and recall of word lists. Consistent patterns in the pupil response were found across and within distinct phases of the free recall task. The pupil was most constricted in the initial fixation phase and was gradually more dilated through the subsequent encoding, distractor and recall phases of the task, as the word items were maintained in memory. Within the final recall phase, retrieving memory for individual words was associated with pupil dilation in absence of visual stimulation. Words that were successfully recalled showed significant differences in pupil response during their encoding compared to those that were forgotten - the pupil was more constricted before and more dilated after the onset of word presentation. Our results suggest pupil size as a potential biomarker for probing and modulation of memory processing.

  4. Grapheme-color synesthesia can enhance immediate memory without disrupting the encoding of relational cues.

    Gibson, Bradley S; Radvansky, Gabriel A; Johnson, Ann C; McNerney, M Windy

    2012-12-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that grapheme-color synesthesia can enhance memory for words, but little is known about how these photisms cue retrieval. Often, the encoding of specific features of individual words can disrupt the encoding of ordered relations between words, resulting in an overall decrease in recall accuracy. Here we show that the photisms arising from grapheme-color synesthesia do not function like these item-specific cues. The influences of high and low word frequency on the encoding of ordered relations and the accuracy of immediate free recall were compared across a group of 10 synesthetes and 48 nonsynesthetes. The main findings of Experiment 1 showed that the experience of synesthesia had no adverse effect on the encoding of ordered relations (as measured by input-output correspondence); furthermore, it enhanced recall accuracy in a strictly additive fashion across the two word frequency conditions. Experiment 2 corroborated these findings by showing that the synesthetes only outperformed the nonsynesthetes when the materials involved words and letters, not when they involved digits and spatial locations. Altogether, the present findings suggest that synesthesia can boost immediate memory performance without disrupting the encoding of ordered relations.

  5. Automatic semantic encoding in verbal short-term memory: evidence from the concreteness effect.

    Campoy, Guillermo; Castellà, Judit; Provencio, Violeta; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    The concreteness effect in verbal short-term memory (STM) tasks is assumed to be a consequence of semantic encoding in STM, with immediate recall of concrete words benefiting from richer semantic representations. We used the concreteness effect to test the hypothesis that semantic encoding in standard verbal STM tasks is a consequence of controlled, attention-demanding mechanisms of strategic semantic retrieval and encoding. Experiment 1 analysed the effect of presentation rate, with slow presentations being assumed to benefit strategic, time-dependent semantic encoding. Experiments 2 and 3 provided a more direct test of the strategic hypothesis by introducing three different concurrent attention-demanding tasks. Although Experiment 1 showed a larger concreteness effect with slow presentations, the following two experiments yielded strong evidence against the strategic hypothesis. Limiting available attention resources by concurrent tasks reduced global memory performance, but the concreteness effect was equivalent to that found in control conditions. We conclude that semantic effects in STM result from automatic semantic encoding and provide tentative explanations for the interaction between the concreteness effect and the presentation rate.

  6. Verbal learning and memory impairments in posttraumatic stress disorder: the role of encoding strategies.

    Johnsen, Grethe E; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2009-01-30

    The present study examined mechanisms underlying verbal memory impairments in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Earlier studies have reported that the verbal learning and memory alterations in PTSD are related to impaired encoding, but the use of encoding and organizational strategies in patients with PTSD has not been fully explored. This study examined organizational strategies in 21 refugees/immigrants exposed to war and political violence who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for chronic PTSD compared with a control sample of 21 refugees/immigrants with similar exposure, but without PTSD. The California Verbal Learning Test was administered to examine differences in organizational strategies and memory. The semantic clustering score was slightly reduced in both groups, but the serial cluster score was significantly impaired in the PTSD group and they also reported more items from the recency region of the list. In addition, intrusive errors were significantly increased in the PTSD group. The data support an assumption of changed memory strategies in patients with PTSD associated with a specific impairment in executive control. However, memory impairment and the use of ineffective learning strategies may not be related to PTSD symptomatology only, but also to self-reported symptoms of depression and general distress.

  7. IRF-4-mediated CIITA transcription is blocked by KSHV encoded LANA to inhibit MHC II presentation.

    Qiliang Cai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides presentation to T cells by MHC class II molecules is of importance in initiation of immune response to a pathogen. The level of MHC II expression directly influences T lymphocyte activation and is often targeted by various viruses. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV encoded LANA is known to evade MHC class I peptide processing, however, the effect of LANA on MHC class II remains unclear. Here, we report that LANA down-regulates MHC II expression and presentation by inhibiting the transcription of MHC II transactivator (CIITA promoter pIII and pIV in a dose-dependent manner. Strikingly, although LANA knockdown efficiently disrupts the inhibition of CIITA transcripts from its pIII and pIV promoter region, the expression of HLA-DQβ but no other MHC II molecules was significantly restored. Moreover, we revealed that the presentation of HLA-DQβ enhanced by LANA knockdown did not help LANA-specific CD4+ T cell recognition of PEL cells, and the inhibition of CIITA by LANA is independent of IL-4 or IFN-γ signaling but dependent on the direct interaction of LANA with IRF-4 (an activator of both the pIII and pIV CIITA promoters. This interaction dramatically blocked the DNA-binding ability of IRF-4 on both pIII and pIV promoters. Thus, our data implies that LANA can evade MHC II presentation and suppress CIITA transcription to provide a unique strategy of KSHV escape from immune surveillance by cytotoxic T cells.

  8. Properties of the block BFGS update and its application to the limited-memory block BNS method for unconstrained minimization

    Vlček, Jan; Lukšan, Ladislav

    Online: 02 April (2018) ISSN 1017-1398 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Unconstrained minimization * Block variable metric methods * Limited-memory methods * BFGS update * Global convergence * Numerical results Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.241, year: 2016

  9. The proximate memory mechanism underlying the survival-processing effect: richness of encoding or interactive imagery?

    Kroneisen, Meike; Erdfelder, Edgar; Buchner, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Nairne and collaborators showed that assessing the relevance of words in the context of an imagined survival scenario boosts memory for these words. Although this survival-processing advantage has attracted a considerable amount of research, little is known about the proximate memory mechanism mediating this effect. Recently, Kroneisen and Erdfelder (2011) argued that it is not survival processing itself that facilitates recall but rather the richness and distinctiveness of encoding that is triggered by the survival-processing task. Alternatively, however, it is also conceivable that survival processing fosters interactive imagery, a process known to improve associative learning. To test these explanations we compared relevance-rating and interactive imagery tasks for survival and control scenarios. Results show that the survival advantage replicates in the relevance-rating condition but vanishes in the interactive imagery condition. This refutes the interactive imagery explanation and corroborates the richness-of-encoding hypothesis of the survival-processing effect.

  10. Individual differences in rate of encoding predict estimates of visual short-term memory capacity (K).

    Jannati, Ali; McDonald, John J; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    The capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) is commonly estimated by K scores obtained with a change-detection task. Contrary to common belief, K may be influenced not only by capacity but also by the rate at which stimuli are encoded into VSTM. Experiment 1 showed that, contrary to earlier conclusions, estimates of VSTM capacity obtained with a change-detection task are constrained by temporal limitations. In Experiment 2, we used change-detection and backward-masking tasks to obtain separate within-subject estimates of K and of rate of encoding, respectively. A median split based on rate of encoding revealed significantly higher K estimates for fast encoders. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between K and the estimated rate of encoding. The present findings raise the prospect that the reported relationships between K and such cognitive concepts as fluid intelligence may be mediated not only by VSTM capacity but also by rate of encoding. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Implementation-intention encoding in a prospective memory task enhances spontaneous retrieval of intentions.

    Rummel, Jan; Einstein, Gilles O; Rampey, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Although forming implementation intentions (Gollwitzer, 1999) has been demonstrated to generally improve prospective memory, the underlying cognitive mechanisms are not completely understood. It has been proposed that implementation-intention encoding encourages spontaneous retrieval (McDaniel & Scullin, 2010). Alternatively one could assume the positive effect of implementation-intention encoding is caused by increased or more efficient monitoring for target cues. To test these alternative explanations and to further investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying implementation-intention benefits, in two experiments participants formed the intention to respond to specific target cues in a lexical decision task with a special key, but then had to suspend this intention during an intervening word-categorisation task. Response times on trials directly following the occurrence of target cues in the intervening task were significantly slower with implementation-intention encoding than with standard encoding, indicating that spontaneous retrieval was increased (Experiment 1). However, when activation of the target cues was controlled for, similar slowing was found with both standard and implementation-intention encoding (Experiment 2). The results imply that implementation-intention encoding as well as increased target-cue activation foster spontaneous retrieval processes.

  12. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  13. Auditory cortical function during verbal episodic memory encoding in Alzheimer's disease.

    Dhanjal, Novraj S; Warren, Jane E; Patel, Maneesh C; Wise, Richard J S

    2013-02-01

    Episodic memory encoding of a verbal message depends upon initial registration, which requires sustained auditory attention followed by deep semantic processing of the message. Motivated by previous data demonstrating modulation of auditory cortical activity during sustained attention to auditory stimuli, we investigated the response of the human auditory cortex during encoding of sentences to episodic memory. Subsequently, we investigated this response in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and probable Alzheimer's disease (pAD). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, 31 healthy participants were studied. The response in 18 MCI and 18 pAD patients was then determined, and compared to 18 matched healthy controls. Subjects heard factual sentences, and subsequent retrieval performance indicated successful registration and episodic encoding. The healthy subjects demonstrated that suppression of auditory cortical responses was related to greater success in encoding heard sentences; and that this was also associated with greater activity in the semantic system. In contrast, there was reduced auditory cortical suppression in patients with MCI, and absence of suppression in pAD. Administration of a central cholinesterase inhibitor (ChI) partially restored the suppression in patients with pAD, and this was associated with an improvement in verbal memory. Verbal episodic memory impairment in AD is associated with altered auditory cortical function, reversible with a ChI. Although these results may indicate the direct influence of pathology in auditory cortex, they are also likely to indicate a partially reversible impairment of feedback from neocortical systems responsible for sustained attention and semantic processing. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  14. Lower Parietal Encoding Activation Is Associated with Sharper Information and Better Memory.

    Lee, Hongmi; Chun, Marvin M; Kuhl, Brice A

    2017-04-01

    Mean fMRI activation in ventral posterior parietal cortex (vPPC) during memory encoding often negatively predicts successful remembering. A popular interpretation of this phenomenon is that vPPC reflects "off-task" processing. However, recent fMRI studies considering distributed patterns of activity suggest that vPPC actively represents encoded material. Here, we assessed the relationships between pattern-based content representations in vPPC, mean activation in vPPC, and subsequent remembering. We analyzed data from two fMRI experiments where subjects studied then recalled word-face or word-scene associations. For each encoding trial, we measured 1) mean univariate activation within vPPC and 2) the strength of face/scene information as indexed by pattern analysis. Mean activation in vPPC negatively predicted subsequent remembering, but the strength of pattern-based information in the same vPPC voxels positively predicted later memory. Indeed, univariate amplitude averaged across vPPC voxels negatively correlated with pattern-based information strength. This dissociation reflected a tendency for univariate reductions to maximally occur in voxels that were not strongly tuned for the category of encoded stimuli. These results indicate that vPPC activity patterns reflect the content and quality of memory encoding and constitute a striking example of lower univariate activity corresponding to stronger pattern-based information. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Remembering with Gains and Losses: Effects of Monetary Reward and Punishment on Successful Encoding Activation of Source Memories

    Shigemune, Yayoi; Tsukiura, Takashi; Kambara, Toshimune; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    The motivation of getting rewards or avoiding punishments reinforces learning behaviors. Although the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of rewards on episodic memory have been demonstrated, there is little evidence of the effect of punishments on this memory. Our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of monetary rewards and punishments on activation during the encoding of source memories. During encoding, participants memorized words (item) and locations of presented words (source) under 3 conditions (Reward, Punishment, and Control). During retrieval, participants retrieved item and source memories of the words and were rewarded or penalized according to their performance. Source memories encoded with rewards or punishments were remembered better than those without such encoding. fMRI data demonstrated that the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra and nucleus accumbens activations reflected both the processes of reward and punishment, whereas insular activation increased as a linear function of punishment. Activation in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex predicted subsequent retrieval success of source memories. Additionally, correlations between these reward/punishment-related regions and the hippocampus were significant. The successful encoding of source memories could be enhanced by punishments and rewards, and interactions between reward/punishment-related regions and memory-related regions could contribute to memory enhancement by reward and/or punishment. PMID:23314939

  16. Remembering with gains and losses: effects of monetary reward and punishment on successful encoding activation of source memories.

    Shigemune, Yayoi; Tsukiura, Takashi; Kambara, Toshimune; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    The motivation of getting rewards or avoiding punishments reinforces learning behaviors. Although the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of rewards on episodic memory have been demonstrated, there is little evidence of the effect of punishments on this memory. Our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of monetary rewards and punishments on activation during the encoding of source memories. During encoding, participants memorized words (item) and locations of presented words (source) under 3 conditions (Reward, Punishment, and Control). During retrieval, participants retrieved item and source memories of the words and were rewarded or penalized according to their performance. Source memories encoded with rewards or punishments were remembered better than those without such encoding. fMRI data demonstrated that the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra and nucleus accumbens activations reflected both the processes of reward and punishment, whereas insular activation increased as a linear function of punishment. Activation in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex predicted subsequent retrieval success of source memories. Additionally, correlations between these reward/punishment-related regions and the hippocampus were significant. The successful encoding of source memories could be enhanced by punishments and rewards, and interactions between reward/punishment-related regions and memory-related regions could contribute to memory enhancement by reward and/or punishment.

  17. The impact of path crossing on visuo-spatial serial memory: encoding or rehearsal effect?

    Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrés, Pilar

    2006-11-01

    The determinants of visuo-spatial serial memory have been the object of little research, despite early evidence that not all sequences are equally remembered. Recently, empirical evidence was reported indicating that the complexity of the path formed by the to-be-remembered locations impacted on recall performance, defined for example by the presence of crossings in the path formed by successive locations (Parmentier, Elford, & Maybery, 2005). In this study, we examined whether this effect reflects rehearsal or encoding processes. We examined the effect of a retention interval and spatial interference on the ordered recall of spatial sequences with and without path crossings. Path crossings decreased recall performance, as did a retention interval. In line with the encoding hypothesis, but in contrast with the rehearsal hypothesis, the effect of crossing was not affected by the retention interval nor by tapping. The possible nature of the impact of path crossing on encoding mechanisms is discussed.

  18. Verbal episodic memory in 426 multiple sclerosis patients: impairment in encoding, retrieval or both?

    Brissart, H; Morele, E; Baumann, C; Debouverie, M

    2012-10-01

    Episodic memory is frequently impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients but the exact nature of the disorder is controversial. It was initially thought to be due to a retrieval deficit but some studies have demonstrated an encoding deficit, which could be linked to a slowing of information processing speed or to a deficit in elaboration of strategies. The main objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and the nature of verbal episodic memory (VEM) impairment in MS patients. We retrieved memory performances of 426 patients [314 F-112 M; mean age: 46.1 years; median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score: 3.1] from a neuropsychological data base. VEM was assessed using the 16 words RL-RI 16 test. 66% MS patients present at least one recall impaired in VEM (37.2% from 2 to 5 recall). 14.2% MS patients present an impairment in encoding phase. We observed that 5% of patients presented recognition difficulties. Correlations were observed between VEM performances and EDSS, and disease duration but no group effect (ANOVA) is observed between form of MS and VEM performances. These results confirm the high prevalence of VEM impairment in MS patients. Deficits affect mainly information retrieval in early stage MS patients and are then linked to encoding as disability increases. Storage disorders are infrequent, so cognitive rehabilitation with mental imaging could be effective in MS patients.

  19. Preferential recruitment of the basolateral amygdala during memory encoding of negative scenes in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Patel, Ronak; Girard, Todd A; Pukay-Martin, Nicole; Monson, Candice

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of functional neuroimaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have examined the amygdala as a unitary structure. However, an emerging body of studies indicates that separable functions are subserved by discrete amygdala subregions. The basolateral subdivision (BLA), as compared with the centromedial amygdala (CMA), plays a unique role in learning and memory-based processes for threatening events, and alterations to the BLA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PTSD. We assessed whether PTSD is associated with differential involvement of the BLA versus the CMA during successful encoding of emotionally charged events. Participants with PTSD (n=11) and a trauma-exposed comparison (TEC) group (n=11) viewed a series of photos that varied in valence (negative versus positive) and arousal (high versus low) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subsequently, participants completed an old/new recognition memory test. Using analytic methods based on probabilistic cytoarchitectonic mapping, PTSD was associated with greater activation of the BLA, as compared to the CMA, during successful encoding of negative scenes, a finding which was not observed in the TEC group. Moreover, this memory-related activity in the BLA independently predicted PTSD status. Contrary to hypotheses, there was no evidence of altered BLA activity during memory encoding of high arousing relative to low arousing scenes. Task-related brain activation in PTSD does not appear to be consistent across the entire amygdala. Importantly, memory-related processing of negative information in PTSD is associated with preferential recruitment of the BLA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Visual encoding impairment in patients with schizophrenia: contribution of reduced working memory span, decreased processing speed, and affective symptoms.

    Brébion, Gildas; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Abellán-Vega, Helena; Roca, Mercedes; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has revealed the contribution of decreased processing speed and reduced working memory span in verbal and visual memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia. The role of affective symptoms in verbal memory has also emerged in a few studies. The authors designed a picture recognition task to investigate the impact of these factors on visual encoding. Two types of pictures (black and white vs. colored) were presented under 2 different conditions of context encoding (either displayed at a specific location or in association with another visual stimulus). It was assumed that the process of encoding associated pictures was more effortful than that of encoding pictures that were presented alone. Working memory span and processing speed were assessed. In the patient group, working memory span was significantly associated with the recognition of the associated pictures but not significantly with that of the other pictures. Controlling for processing speed eliminated the patients' deficit in the recognition of the colored pictures and greatly reduced their deficit in the recognition of the black-and-white pictures. The recognition of the black-and-white pictures was inversely related to anxiety in men and to depression in women. Working memory span constrains the effortful visual encoding processes in patients, whereas processing speed decrement accounts for most of their visual encoding deficit. Affective symptoms also have an impact on visual encoding, albeit differently in men and women. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Neuroanatomical correlates of encoding in episodic memory: levels of processing effect.

    Kapur, S; Craik, F I; Tulving, E; Wilson, A A; Houle, S; Brown, G M

    1994-03-15

    Cognitive studies of memory processes demonstrate that memory for stimuli is a function of how they are encoded; stimuli processed semantically are better remembered than those processed in a perceptual or shallow fashion. This study investigates the neural correlates of this cognitive phenomenon. Twelve subjects performed two different cognitive tasks on a series of visually presented nouns. In one task, subjects detected the presence or absence of the letter a; in the other, subjects categorized each noun as living or nonliving. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans using 15O-labeled water were obtained during both tasks. Subjects showed substantially better recognition memory for nouns seen in the living/nonliving task, compared to nouns seen in the a-checking task. Comparison of the PET images between the two cognitive tasks revealed a significant activation in the left inferior prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's areas 45, 46, 47, and 10) in the semantic task as compared to the perceptual task. We propose that memory processes are subserved by a wide neurocognitive network and that encoding processes involve preferential activation of the structures in the left inferior prefrontal cortex.

  2. Parietal and early visual cortices encode working memory content across mental transformations.

    Christophel, Thomas B; Cichy, Radoslaw M; Hebart, Martin N; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2015-02-01

    Active and flexible manipulations of memory contents "in the mind's eye" are believed to occur in a dedicated neural workspace, frequently referred to as visual working memory. Such a neural workspace should have two important properties: The ability to store sensory information across delay periods and the ability to flexibly transform sensory information. Here we used a combination of functional MRI and multivariate decoding to indentify such neural representations. Subjects were required to memorize a complex artificial pattern for an extended delay, then rotate the mental image as instructed by a cue and memorize this transformed pattern. We found that patterns of brain activity already in early visual areas and posterior parietal cortex encode not only the initially remembered image, but also the transformed contents after mental rotation. Our results thus suggest that the flexible and general neural workspace supporting visual working memory can be realized within posterior brain regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of attention during encoding in implicit and explicit memory.

    Mulligan, N W

    1998-01-01

    In 5 experiments, participants read study words under conditions of divided or full attention. Dividing attention reduced performance on the general knowledge test, a conceptual implicit test of memory. Likewise, dividing attention reduced conceptual priming on the word--association task, as well as on a matched explicit test, associate-cued recall. In contrast, even very strong division of attention did not reduce perceptual priming on word-fragment completion, although it did reduce recall on the matched explicit test of word-fragment-cued recall. Finally, dividing attention reduced recall on the perceptual explicit tests of graphemic-cued recall and graphemic recognition. The results indicate that perceptual implicit tests rely minimally on attention-demanding encoding processes relative to other types of memory tests. The obtained pattern of dissociations is not readily accommodated by the transfer-appropriate-processing (TAP) account of implicit and explicit memory. Potential extensions of the TAP view are discussed.

  4. Anticipation of electric shocks modulates low beta power and event-related fields during memory encoding.

    Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-09-01

    In humans, the temporal and oscillatory dynamics of pain anticipation and its effects on long-term memory are largely unknown. Here, we investigated this open question by using a previously established behavioral paradigm in combination with magnetoencephalography (MEG). Healthy human subjects encoded a series of scene images, which was combined with cues predicting an aversive electric shock with different probabilities (0.2, 0.5 or 0.8). After encoding, memory for the studied images was tested using a remember/know recognition task. Behaviorally, pain anticipation did not modulate recollection-based recognition memory per se, but interacted with the perceived unpleasantness of the electric shock [visual analogue scale rating from 1 (not unpleasant) to 10 (highly unpleasant)]. More precisely, the relationship between pain anticipation and recollection followed an inverted u-shaped function the more unpleasant the shocks were rated by a subject. At the physiological level, this quadratic effect was mimicked in the event-related magnetic fields associated with successful memory formation ('DM-effect') ∼450ms after image onset at left frontal sensors. Importantly, across all subjects, shock anticipation modulated oscillatory power in the low beta frequency range (13-20Hz) in a linear fashion at left temporal sensors. Taken together, our findings indicate that beta oscillations provide a generic mechanism underlying pain anticipation; the effect on subsequent long-term memory, on the other hand, is much more variable and depends on the level of individual pain perception. As such, our findings give new and important insights into how aversive motivational states can drive memory formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of pointing compared with naming and observing during encoding on item and source memory in young and older adults.

    Ouwehand, Kim; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2016-10-01

    Research showed that source memory functioning declines with ageing. Evidence suggests that encoding visual stimuli with manual pointing in addition to visual observation can have a positive effect on spatial memory compared with visual observation only. The present study investigated whether pointing at picture locations during encoding would lead to better spatial source memory than naming (Experiment 1) and visual observation only (Experiment 2) in young and older adults. Experiment 3 investigated whether response modality during the test phase would influence spatial source memory performance. Experiments 1 and 2 supported the hypothesis that pointing during encoding led to better source memory for picture locations than naming or observation only. Young adults outperformed older adults on the source memory but not the item memory task in both Experiments 1 and 2. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants manually responded in the test phase. Experiment 3 showed that if participants had to verbally respond in the test phase, the positive effect of pointing compared with naming during encoding disappeared. The results suggest that pointing at picture locations during encoding can enhance spatial source memory in both young and older adults, but only if the response modality is congruent in the test phase.

  6. Age-related effects on perceptual and semantic encoding in memory.

    Kuo, M C C; Liu, K P Y; Ting, K H; Chan, C C H

    2014-03-07

    This study examined the age-related subsequent memory effect (SME) in perceptual and semantic encoding using event-related potentials (ERPs). Seventeen younger adults and 17 older adults studied a series of Chinese characters either perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining whether the depicted object makes sounds). The two tasks had similar levels of difficulty. The participants made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Younger adults performed better in both conditions, with significant SMEs detected in the time windows of P2, N3, P550, and late positive component (LPC). In the older group, SMEs were observed in the P2 and N3 latencies in both conditions but were only detected in the P550 in the semantic condition. Between-group analyses showed larger frontal and central SMEs in the younger sample in the LPC latency regardless of encoding type. Aging effect appears to be stronger on influencing perceptual than semantic encoding processes. The effects seem to be associated with a decline in updating and maintaining representations during perceptual encoding. The age-related decline in the encoding function may be due in part to changes in frontal lobe function. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of Protein Synthesis but Not ß-Adrenergic Receptors Blocks Reconsolidation of a Cocaine-Associated Cue Memory

    Dunbar, Amber B.; Taylor, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    Previously consolidated memories have the potential to enter a state of lability upon memory recall, during which time the memory can be altered before undergoing an additional consolidation-like process and being stored again as a long-term memory. Blocking reconsolidation of aberrant memories has been proposed as a potential treatment for…

  8. Inert gas narcosis and the encoding and retrieval of long-term memory.

    Kneller, Wendy; Hobbs, Malcolm

    2013-12-01

    Prior research has indicated that inert gas narcosis (IGN) causes decrements in free recall memory performance and that these result from disruption of either encoding or self-guided search in the retrieval process. In a recent study we provided evidence, using a Levels of Processing approach, for the hypothesis that IGN affects the encoding of new information. The current study sought to replicate these results with an improved methodology. The effect of ambient pressure (111.5-212.8 kPa/1-11 msw vs. 456-516.8 kPa/35-41 msw) and level of processing (shallow vs. deep) on free recall memory performance was measured in 34 divers in the context of an underwater field experiment. Free recall was significantly worse at high ambient pressure compared to low ambient pressure in the deep processing condition (low pressure: M = 5.6; SD = 2.7; high pressure: M = 3.3; SD = 1.4), but not in the shallow processing condition (low pressure: M = 3.9; SD = 1.7; high pressure: M = 3.1; SD = 1.8), indicating IGN impaired memory ability in the deep processing condition. In the shallow water, deep processing improved recall over shallow processing but, significantly, this effect was eliminated in the deep water. In contrast to our earlier study this supported the hypothesis that IGN affects the self-guided search of information and not encoding. It is suggested that IGN may affect both encoding and self-guided search and further research is recommended.

  9. Abnormalities of brain response during encoding into verbal working memory among euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    McKenna, Benjamin S; Sutherland, Ashley N; Legenkaya, Anna P; Eyler, Lisa T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) have trait-like deficits in attention and working memory (WM). A fundamental dissociation for most verbal WM theories involves the separation of sensory-perceptual encoding, reliant upon attention, from the maintenance of this information in WM proper. The present study examined if patients with BD demonstrate differential neural changes in encoding and maintenance WM processes that underlie cognitive impairment. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during a delayed match-to-sample WM paradigm was employed in 23 inter-episode medicated patients with BD and 23 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. We examined brain regions during encoding and maintenance task intervals to identify regions that demonstrated differential effects between groups. Medication effects and functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia/thalamus were examined during the encoding interval due to the importance of these regions and the connection among them for encoding into WM. Patients with BD exhibited deficits in task accuracy and attenuated brain response during the encoding interval in areas of the prefrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus, and posterior visual regions. In contrast, patients with BD exhibited hyperactivation in posterior sensory regions during the maintenance interval. Among the BD group, those with greater medication load exhibited the greatest brain response within the prefrontal cortex. Reduction in activation during the encoding interval suggests that attentional deficits underlie WM deficits in patients with BD. These deficits appear to be trait-like in so far as they were observed during periods of euthymia in patients with BD. Medication effects remain to be further explored as there was evidence of prefrontal changes dependent on medication load. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Persistent non-verbal memory impairment in remitted major depression - caused by encoding deficits?

    Behnken, Andreas; Schöning, Sonja; Gerss, Joachim; Konrad, Carsten; de Jong-Meyer, Renate; Zwanzger, Peter; Arolt, Volker

    2010-04-01

    While neuropsychological impairments are well described in acute phases of major depressive disorders (MDD), little is known about the neuropsychological profile in remission. There is evidence for episodic memory impairments in both acute depressed and remitted patients with MDD. Learning and memory depend on individuals' ability to organize information during learning. This study investigates non-verbal memory functions in remitted MDD and whether nonverbal memory performance is mediated by organizational strategies whilst learning. 30 well-characterized fully remitted individuals with unipolar MDD and 30 healthy controls matching in age, sex and education were investigated. Non-verbal learning and memory were measured by the Rey-Osterrieth-Complex-Figure-Test (RCFT). The RCFT provides measures of planning, organizational skills, perceptual and non-verbal memory functions. For assessing the mediating effects of organizational strategies, we used the Savage Organizational Score. Compared to healthy controls, participants with remitted MDD showed more deficits in their non-verbal memory function. Moreover, participants with remitted MDD demonstrated difficulties in organizing non-verbal information appropriately during learning. In contrast, no impairments regarding visual-spatial functions in remitted MDD were observed. Except for one patient, all the others were taking psychopharmacological medication. The neuropsychological function was solely investigated in the remitted phase of MDD. Individuals with MDD in remission showed persistent non-verbal memory impairments, modulated by a deficient use of organizational strategies during encoding. Therefore, our results strongly argue for additional therapeutic interventions in order to improve these remaining deficits in cognitive function. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An overview of the neuro-cognitive processes involved in the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of true and false memories

    2012-01-01

    Perception and memory are imperfect reconstructions of reality. These reconstructions are prone to be influenced by several factors, which may result in false memories. A false memory is the recollection of an event, or details of an episode, that did not actually occur. Memory formation comprises at least three different sub-processes: encoding, consolidation and the retrieval of the learned material. All of these sub-processes are vulnerable for specific errors and consequently may result in false memories. Whereas, processes like imagery, self-referential encoding or spreading activation can lead to the formation of false memories at encoding, semantic generalization during sleep and updating processes due to misleading post event information, in particular, are relevant at the consolidation stage. Finally at the retrieval stage, monitoring processes, which are assumed to be essential to reject false memories, are of specific importance. Different neuro-cognitive processes have been linked to the formation of true and false memories. Most consistently the medial temporal lobe and the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex have been reported with regard to the formation of true and false memories. Despite the fact that all phases entailing memory formation, consolidation of stored information and retrieval processes, are relevant for the forming of false memories, most studies focused on either memory encoding or retrieval. Thus, future studies should try to integrate data from all phases to give a more comprehensive view on systematic memory distortions. An initial outline is developed within this review to connect the different memory stages and research strategies. PMID:22827854

  12. Orbitofrontal Cortex Encodes Memories within Value-Based Schemas and Represents Contexts That Guide Memory Retrieval

    Farovik, Anja; Place, Ryan J.; McKenzie, Sam; Porter, Blake; Munro, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    There are a substantial number of studies showing that the orbitofrontal cortex links events to reward values, whereas the hippocampus links events to the context in which they occur. Here we asked how the orbitofrontal cortex contributes to memory where context determines the reward values associated with events. After rats learned object–reward associations that differed depending on the spatial context in which the objects were presented, neuronal ensembles in orbitofrontal cortex represented distinct value-based schemas, each composed of a systematic organization of the representations of objects in the contexts and positions where they were associated with reward or nonreward. Orbitofrontal ensembles also represent the different spatial contexts that define the mappings of stimuli to actions that lead to reward or nonreward. These findings, combined with observations on complementary memory representation within the hippocampus, suggest mechanisms through which prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus interact in support of context-guided memory. PMID:26019346

  13. Posterior Parietal Cortex and Episodic Encoding: Insights from fMRI Subsequent Memory Effects and Dual Attention Theory

    Uncapher, Melina; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of episodic memories –– memories for life events –– is affected by attention during event processing. A leading neurobiological model of attention posits two separate yet interacting systems that depend on distinct regions in lateral posterior parietal cortex (PPC). From this dual-attention perspective, dorsal PPC is thought to support the goal-directed allocation of attention, whereas ventral PPC is thought to support reflexive orienting to information that automatically captures attention. To advance understanding of how parietal mechanisms may impact event encoding, we review functional MRI studies that document the relationship between lateral PPC activation during encoding and subsequent memory performance (e.g., later remembering or forgetting). This review reveals that (a) encoding-related activity is frequently observed in human lateral PPC, (b) increased activation in dorsal PPC is associated with later memory success, and (c) increased activation in ventral PPC predominantly correlates with later memory failure. From a dual-attention perspective, these findings suggest that allocating goal-directed attention during event processing increases the probability that the event will be remembered later, whereas the capture of reflexive attention during event processing may have negative consequences for event encoding. The prevalence of encoding-related activation in parietal cortex suggests that neurobiological models of episodic memory should consider how parietal-mediated attentional mechanisms regulate encoding. PMID:19028591

  14. Posterior parietal cortex and episodic encoding: insights from fMRI subsequent memory effects and dual-attention theory.

    Uncapher, Melina R; Wagner, Anthony D

    2009-02-01

    The formation of episodic memories--memories for life events--is affected by attention during event processing. A leading neurobiological model of attention posits two separate yet interacting systems that depend on distinct regions in lateral posterior parietal cortex (PPC). From this dual-attention perspective, dorsal PPC is thought to support the goal-directed allocation of attention, whereas ventral PPC is thought to support reflexive orienting to information that automatically captures attention. To advance understanding of how parietal mechanisms may impact event encoding, we review functional MRI studies that document the relationship between lateral PPC activation during encoding and subsequent memory performance (e.g., later remembering or forgetting). This review reveals that (a) encoding-related activity is frequently observed in human lateral PPC, (b) increased activation in dorsal PPC is associated with later memory success, and (c) increased activation in ventral PPC predominantly correlates with later memory failure. From a dual-attention perspective, these findings suggest that allocating goal-directed attention during event processing increases the probability that the event will be remembered later, whereas the capture of reflexive attention during event processing may have negative consequences for event encoding. The prevalence of encoding-related activation in parietal cortex suggests that neurobiological models of episodic memory should consider how parietal-mediated attentional mechanisms regulate encoding.

  15. Modulating the Focus of Attention for Spoken Words at Encoding Affects Frontoparietal Activation for Incidental Verbal Memory

    Thomas A. Christensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as listeners heard a list of single English nouns. We then presented these words again in the context of a recognition task and assessed the effect of modulating attention at encoding on the BOLD responses to words that were either attended strongly, weakly, or not heard previously. MRI revealed activity in right-lateralized inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, and positive BOLD signals varied with the relative level of attention present at encoding. Temporal analysis of hemodynamic responses further showed that the time course of BOLD activity was modulated differentially by unintentionally encoded words compared to novel items. Our findings largely support current models of memory consolidation and retrieval, but they also provide fresh evidence for hemispheric differences and functional subdivisions in right frontoparietal attention networks that help shape auditory episodic recall.

  16. Modulating the focus of attention for spoken words at encoding affects frontoparietal activation for incidental verbal memory.

    Christensen, Thomas A; Almryde, Kyle R; Fidler, Lesley J; Lockwood, Julie L; Antonucci, Sharon M; Plante, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as listeners heard a list of single English nouns. We then presented these words again in the context of a recognition task and assessed the effect of modulating attention at encoding on the BOLD responses to words that were either attended strongly, weakly, or not heard previously. MRI revealed activity in right-lateralized inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, and positive BOLD signals varied with the relative level of attention present at encoding. Temporal analysis of hemodynamic responses further showed that the time course of BOLD activity was modulated differentially by unintentionally encoded words compared to novel items. Our findings largely support current models of memory consolidation and retrieval, but they also provide fresh evidence for hemispheric differences and functional subdivisions in right frontoparietal attention networks that help shape auditory episodic recall.

  17. Why Distinctive Information Reduces False Memories: Evidence for Both Impoverished Relational-Encoding and Distinctiveness Heuristic Accounts

    Hege, Amanda C. G.; Dodson, Chad S.

    2004-01-01

    Two accounts explain why studying pictures reduces false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (J. Deese, 1959; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995). The impoverished relational-encoding account suggests that studying pictures interferes with the encoding of relational information, which is the primary basis for false memories…

  18. A Developmental Study of Conceptual, Semantic Differential, and Acoustical Dimensions as Encoding Categories in Short-Term Memory. Final Report.

    Pender, Nola J.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes. It attempted to determine the extent to which children of varying ages utilize semantic (denotative or connotative) and acoustical encoding categories in a short-term memory task. It appears to be a reasonable assumption that as associational hierarchies…

  19. The role of encoding and attention in facial emotion memory: an EEG investigation.

    Brenner, Colleen A; Rumak, Samuel P; Burns, Amy M N; Kieffaber, Paul D

    2014-09-01

    Facial expressions are encoded via sensory mechanisms, but meaning extraction and salience of these expressions involve cognitive functions. We investigated the time course of sensory encoding and subsequent maintenance in memory via EEG. Twenty-nine healthy participants completed a facial emotion delayed match-to-sample task. P100, N170 and N250 ERPs were measured in response to the first stimulus, and evoked theta power (4-7Hz) was measured during the delay interval. Negative facial expressions produced larger N170 amplitudes and greater theta power early in the delay. N170 amplitude correlated with theta power, however larger N170 amplitude coupled with greater theta power only predicted behavioural performance for one emotion condition (very happy) out of six tested (see Supplemental Data). These findings indicate that the N170 ERP may be sensitive to emotional facial expressions when task demands require encoding and retention of this information. Furthermore, sustained theta activity may represent continued attentional processing that supports short-term memory, especially of negative facial stimuli. Further study is needed to investigate the potential influence of these measures, and their interaction, on behavioural performance. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Negative polarity illusions and the format of hierarchical encodings in memory.

    Parker, Dan; Phillips, Colin

    2016-12-01

    Linguistic illusions have provided valuable insights into how we mentally navigate complex representations in memory during language comprehension. Two notable cases involve illusory licensing of agreement and negative polarity items (NPIs), where comprehenders fleetingly accept sentences with unlicensed agreement or an unlicensed NPI, but judge those same sentences as unacceptable after more reflection. Existing accounts have argued that illusions are a consequence of faulty memory access processes, and make the additional assumption that the encoding of the sentence remains fixed over time. This paper challenges the predictions made by these accounts, which assume that illusions should generalize to a broader set of structural environments and a wider range of syntactic and semantic phenomena. We show across seven reading-time and acceptability judgment experiments that NPI illusions can be reliably switched "on" and "off", depending on the amount of time from when the potential licensor is processed until the NPI is encountered. But we also find that the same profile does not extend to agreement illusions. This contrast suggests that the mechanisms responsible for switching the NPI illusion on and off are not shared across all illusions. We argue that the contrast reflects changes over time in the encoding of the semantic/pragmatic representations that can license NPIs. Just as optical illusions have been informative about the visual system, selective linguistic illusions are informative not only about the nature of the access mechanisms, but also about the nature of the encoding mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Encoding the world around us: motor-related processing influences verbal memory.

    Madan, Christopher R; Singhal, Anthony

    2012-09-01

    It is known that properties of words such as their imageability can influence our ability to remember those words. However, it is not known if other object-related properties can also influence our memory. In this study we asked whether a word representing a concrete object that can be functionally interacted with (i.e., high-manipulability word) would enhance the memory representations for that item compared to a word representing a less manipulable object (i.e., low-manipulability word). Here participants incidentally encoded high-manipulability (e.g., CAMERA) and low-manipulability words (e.g., TABLE) while making word judgments. Using a between-subjects design, we varied the depth-of-processing involved in the word judgment task: participants judged the words based on personal experience (deep/elaborative processing), word length (shallow), or functionality (intermediate). Participants were able to remember high-manipulability words better than low-manipulability words in both the personal experience and word length groups; thus presenting the first evidence that manipulability can influence memory. However, we observed better memory for low- than high-manipulability words in the functionality group. We explain this surprising interaction between manipulability and memory as being mediated by automatic vs. controlled motor-related cognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Encoding vs. retention: differential effects of cue manipulation on working memory performance in schizophrenia.

    Javitt, Daniel C; Rabinowicz, Esther; Silipo, Gail; Dias, Elisa C

    2007-03-01

    Deficits in working memory performance are among the most widely replicated findings in schizophrenia. Roles of encoding vs. memory retention in working memory remain unresolved. The present study evaluated working memory performance in schizophrenia using an AX-type continuous performance test (AX-CPT) paradigm. Participants included 48 subjects with schizophrenia and 27 comparison subjects. Behavior was obtained in 3 versions of the task, which differed based upon ease of cue interoperability. In a simple cue version of the task, cue letters were replaced with red or green circles. In the complex cue version, letter/color conjunctions served as cues. In the base version of the task, patients showed increased rates of false alarms to invalidly cued targets, similar to prior reports. However, when the cue stimuli were replaced with green or red circles to ease interpretation, patients showed similar false alarm rates to controls. When feature conjunction cues were used, patients were also disproportionately affected relative to controls. No significant group by interstimulus interval interaction effects were observed in either the simple or complex cue conditions, suggesting normal retention of information even in the presence of overall performance decrements. These findings suggest first, that cue manipulation disproportionately affects AX-CPT performance in schizophrenia and, second, that substantial behavioral deficits may be observed on working memory tasks even in the absence of disturbances in mnemonic retention.

  3. The role of chronic physical exercise and selective attention at encoding on implicit and explicit memory.

    Padilla, Concepción; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad; Andrés, Pilar

    2017-09-01

    Despite the evidence revealing benefits of chronic cardiovascular exercise on executive functions, little research has been conducted on long-term memory. We aimed to investigate the effect of physical exercise on implicit and explicit memory when attention was modulated at encoding in two groups of active and sedentary participants. With this purpose, attention was manipulated in a similar way in the implicit and explicit memory tasks by presenting picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, and participants were asked to pay attention only to one of them. Implicit memory was assessed through conceptual priming and explicit memory through a free recall task followed by recognition. The results did not reveal significant differences between groups in conceptual priming or free recall. However, in recognition, while both groups had similar discrimination for attended stimuli, active participants showed lower discrimination between unattended and new stimuli. These results suggested that exercise may have effects on specific cognitive processes, that is, that active participants may suppress non-relevant information better than sedentary participants, making the discrimination between unattended and new items more difficult.

  4. Encoding of faces and objects into visual working memory: an event-related brain potential study.

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Berti, Stefan

    2013-09-11

    Visual working memory (VWM) is an important prerequisite for cognitive functions, but little is known on whether the general perceptual processing advantage for faces also applies to VWM processes. The aim of the present study was (a) to test whether there is a general advantage for face stimuli in VWM and (b) to unravel whether this advantage is related to early sensory processing stages. To address these questions, we compared encoding of faces and complex nonfacial objects into VWM within a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) study. In detail, we tested whether the N170 ERP component - which is associated with face-specific holistic processing - is affected by memory load for faces or whether it might be involved in WM encoding of any complex object. Participants performed a same-different task with either face or watch stimuli and with two different levels of memory load. Behavioral measures show an advantage for faces on the level of VWM, mirrored in higher estimated VWM capacity (i.e. Cowan's K) for faces compared with watches. In the ERP, the N170 amplitude was enhanced for faces compared with watches. However, the N170 was not modulated by working memory load either for faces or for watches. In contrast, the P3b component was affected by memory load irrespective of the stimulus category. Taken together, the results suggest that the VWM advantage for faces is not reflected at the sensory stages of stimulus processing, but rather at later higher-level processes as reflected by the P3b component.

  5. Depth of processing effects on neural correlates of memory encoding: relationship between findings from across- and within-task comparisons.

    Otten, L J; Henson, R N; Rugg, M D

    2001-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex and medial temporal areas in the successful encoding of verbal material into episodic memory. The present study used event-related functional MRI to investigate whether the brain areas associated with successful episodic encoding of words in a semantic study task are a subset of those demonstrating depth of processing effects. In addition, we tested whether the brain areas associated with successful episodic encoding differ depending on the nature of the study task. At study, 15 volunteers were cued to make either animacy or alphabetical decisions about words. A recognition memory test including confidence judgements followed after a delay of 15 min. Prefrontal and medial temporal regions showed greater functional MRI activations for semantically encoded words relative to alphabetically encoded words. Two of these regions (left anterior hippocampus and left ventral inferior frontal gyrus) showed greater activation for semantically encoded words that were subsequently recognized confidently. However, other regions (left posterior hippocampus and right inferior frontal cortex) demonstrated subsequent memory effects, but not effects of depth of processing. Successful memory for alphabetically encoded words was also associated with greater activation in the left anterior hippocampus and left ventral inferior frontal gyrus. The findings suggest that episodic encoding for words in a semantic study task involves a subset of the regions activated by deep relative to shallow processing. The data provide little evidence that successful episodic encoding during a shallow study task depends upon regions different from those that support the encoding of deeply studied words. Instead, the findings suggest that successful episodic encoding during a shallow study task relies on a subset of the regions engaged during successful encoding in a deep task.

  6. Neural Plasticity and Memory: Is Memory Encoded in Hydrogen Bonding Patterns?

    Amtul, Zareen; Rahman, Atta-Ur

    2016-02-01

    Current models of memory storage recognize posttranslational modification vital for short-term and mRNA translation for long-lasting information storage. However, at the molecular level things are quite vague. A comprehensive review of the molecular basis of short and long-lasting synaptic plasticity literature leads us to propose that the hydrogen bonding pattern at the molecular level may be a permissive, vital step of memory storage. Therefore, we propose that the pattern of hydrogen bonding network of biomolecules (glycoproteins and/or DNA template, for instance) at the synapse is the critical edifying mechanism essential for short- and long-term memories. A novel aspect of this model is that nonrandom impulsive (or unplanned) synaptic activity functions as a synchronized positive-feedback rehearsal mechanism by revising the configurations of the hydrogen bonding network by tweaking the earlier tailored hydrogen bonds. This process may also maintain the elasticity of the related synapses involved in memory storage, a characteristic needed for such networks to alter intricacy and revise endlessly. The primary purpose of this review is to stimulate the efforts to elaborate the mechanism of neuronal connectivity both at molecular and chemical levels. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Recall of Others' Actions after Incidental Encoding Reveals Episodic-like Memory in Dogs.

    Fugazza, Claudia; Pogány, Ákos; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-12-05

    The existence of episodic memory in non-human animals is a debated topic that has been investigated using different methodologies that reflect diverse theoretical approaches to its definition. A fundamental feature of episodic memory is recalling after incidental encoding, which can be assessed if the recall test is unexpected [1]. We used a modified version of the "Do as I Do" method [2], relying on dogs' ability to imitate human actions, to test whether dogs can rely on episodic memory when recalling others' actions from the past. Dogs were first trained to imitate human actions on command. Next, they were trained to perform a simple training exercise (lying down), irrespective of the previously demonstrated action. This way, we substituted their expectation to be required to imitate with the expectation to be required to lie down. We then tested whether dogs recalled the demonstrated actions by unexpectedly giving them the command to imitate, instead of lying down. Dogs were tested with a short (1 min) and a long (1 hr) retention interval. They were able to recall the demonstrated actions after both intervals; however, their performance declined more with time compared to conditions in which imitation was expected. These findings show that dogs recall past events as complex as human actions even if they do not expect the memory test, providing evidence for episodic-like memory. Dogs offer an ideal model to study episodic memory in non-human species, and this methodological approach allows investigating memory of complex, context-rich events. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Divided Attention Can Enhance Early-Phase Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect and Study Trial Duration

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Spataro, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Divided attention during encoding typically produces marked reductions in later memory. The attentional boost effect (ABE) is a surprising variation on this phenomenon. In this paradigm, each study stimulus (e.g., a word) is presented along with a target or a distractor (e.g., different colored circles) in a detection task. Later memory is better…

  9. Encoding and Retrieval Processes Involved in the Access of Source Information in the Absence of Item Memory

    Ball, B. Hunter; DeWitt, Michael R.; Knight, Justin B.; Hicks, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the relative contributions of encoding and retrieval processes in accessing contextual information in the absence of item memory using an extralist cuing procedure in which the retrieval cues used to query memory for contextual information were "related" to the target item but never actually studied.…

  10. Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli

    Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

  11. Effects of pointing compared with naming and observing during encoding on item and source memory in young and older adults

    Ouwehand, Kim; Gog, Tamara van; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Research showed that source memory functioning declines with ageing. Evidence suggests that encoding visual stimuli with manual pointing in addition to visual observation can have a positive effect on spatial memory compared with visual observation only. The present study investigated whether

  12. Encoding instructions and stimulus presentation in local environmental context-dependent memory studies.

    Markopoulos, G; Rutherford, A; Cairns, C; Green, J

    2010-08-01

    Murnane and Phelps (1993) recommend word pair presentations in local environmental context (EC) studies to prevent associations being formed between successively presented items and their ECs and a consequent reduction in the EC effect. Two experiments were conducted to assess the veracity of this assumption. In Experiment 1, participants memorised single words or word pairs, or categorised them as natural or man made. Their free recall protocols were examined to assess any associations established between successively presented items. Fewest associations were observed when the item-specific encoding task (i.e., natural or man made categorisation of word referents) was applied to single words. These findings were examined further in Experiment 2, where the influence of encoding instructions and stimulus presentation on local EC dependent recognition memory was examined. Consistent with recognition dual-process signal detection model predictions and findings (e.g., Macken, 2002; Parks & Yonelinas, 2008), recollection sensitivity, but not familiarity sensitivity, was found to be local EC dependent. However, local EC dependent recognition was observed only after item-specific encoding instructions, irrespective of stimulus presentation. These findings and the existing literature suggest that the use of single word presentations and item-specific encoding enhances local EC dependent recognition.

  13. Prospective memory function in late adulthood: affect at encoding and resource allocation costs.

    Julie D Henry

    Full Text Available Some studies have found that prospective memory (PM cues which are emotionally valenced influence age effects in prospective remembering, but it remains unclear whether this effect reflects the operation of processes implemented at encoding or retrieval. In addition, none of the prior ageing studies of valence on PM function have examined potential costs of engaging in different valence conditions, or resource allocation trade-offs between the PM and the ongoing task. In the present study, younger, young-old and old-old adults completed a PM task in which the valence of the cues varied systematically (positive, negative or neutral at encoding, but was kept constant (neutral at retrieval. The results indicated that PM accuracy did not vary as a function of affect at encoding, and that this effect did not interact with age group. There was also no main or interaction effect of valence on PM reaction time in PM cue trials, indicating that valence costs across the three encoding conditions were equivalent. Old-old adults' PM accuracy was reduced relative to both young-old and younger adults. Prospective remembering incurred dual-task costs for all three groups. Analyses of reaction time data suggested that for both young-old and old-old, these costs were greater, implying differential resource allocation cost trade-offs. However, when reaction time data were expressed as a proportional change that adjusted for the general slowing of the older adults, costs did not differ as a function of group.

  14. Impaired encoding of rapid pitch information underlies perception and memory deficits in congenital amusia.

    Albouy, Philippe; Cousineau, Marion; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-06

    Recent theories suggest that the basis of neurodevelopmental auditory disorders such as dyslexia or specific language impairment might be a low-level sensory dysfunction. In the present study we test this hypothesis in congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe deficits in the processing of pitch-based material. We manipulated the temporal characteristics of auditory stimuli and investigated the influence of the time given to encode pitch information on participants' performance in discrimination and short-term memory. Our results show that amusics' performance in such tasks scales with the duration available to encode acoustic information. This suggests that in auditory neuro-developmental disorders, abnormalities in early steps of the auditory processing can underlie the high-level deficits (here musical disabilities). Observing that the slowing down of temporal dynamics improves amusics' pitch abilities allows considering this approach as a potential tool for remediation in developmental auditory disorders.

  15. Inert gas narcosis disrupts encoding but not retrieval of long term memory.

    Hobbs, Malcolm; Kneller, Wendy

    2015-05-15

    Exposure to increased ambient pressure causes inert gas narcosis of which one symptom is long-term memory (LTM) impairment. Narcosis is posited to impair LTM by disrupting information encoding, retrieval (self-guided search), or both. The effect of narcosis on the encoding and retrieval of LTM was investigated by testing the effect of learning-recall pressure and levels of processing (LoP) on the free-recall of word lists in divers underwater. All participants (n=60) took part in four conditions in which words were learnt and then recalled at either low pressure (1.4-1.9atm/4-9msw) or high pressure (4.4-5.0atm/34-40msw), as manipulated by changes in depth underwater: low-low (LL), low-high(LH), high-high (HH), and high-low (HL). In addition, participants were assigned to either a deep or shallow processing condition, using LoP methodology. Free-recall memory ability was significantly impaired only when words were initially learned at high pressure (HH & HL conditions). When words were learned at low pressure and then recalled at low pressure (LL condition) or high pressure (LH condition) free-recall was not impaired. Although numerically superior in several conditions, deeper processing failed to significantly improve free-recall ability in any of the learning-recall conditions. This pattern of results support the hypothesis that narcosis disrupts encoding of information into LTM, while retrieval appears to be unaffected. These findings are discussed in relation to similar effects reported by some memory impairing drugs and the practical implications for workers in pressurised environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Successful declarative memory formation is associated with ongoing activity during encoding in a distributed neocortical network related to working memory: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Takashima, A.; Jensen, O.; Oostenveld, R.; Maris, E.G.G.; Coevering, M. van de; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of the neural correlates of declarative memory formation as assessed by the subsequent memory effect, i.e. the difference in encoding activity between subsequently remembered and subsequently forgotten items.

  17. Successful declarative memory formation is associated with ongoing activity during encoding in a distributed neocortical network related to working memory: A magnetoencephalography study

    Takashima, A.; Jensen, O.; Oostenveld, R.; Maris, E.G.G.; Coevering, M. van de; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of the neural correlates of declarative memory formation as assessed by the subsequent memory effect, i.e. the difference in encoding activity between subsequently remembered and subsequently forgotten items.

  18. Area, speed and power measurements of FPGA-based complex orthogonal space-time block code channel encoders

    Passas, Georgios; Freear, Steven; Fawcett, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Space-time coding (STC) is an important milestone in modern wireless communications. In this technique, more copies of the same signal are transmitted through different antennas (space) and different symbol periods (time), to improve the robustness of a wireless system by increasing its diversity gain. STCs are channel coding algorithms that can be readily implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. This work provides some figures for the amount of required FPGA hardware resources, the speed that the algorithms can operate and the power consumption requirements of a space-time block code (STBC) encoder. Seven encoder very high-speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) designs have been coded, synthesised and tested. Each design realises a complex orthogonal space-time block code with a different transmission matrix. All VHDL designs are parameterisable in terms of sample precision. Precisions ranging from 4 bits to 32 bits have been synthesised. Alamouti's STBC encoder design [Alamouti, S.M. (1998), 'A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique for Wireless Communications', IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 16:55-108.] proved to be the best trade-off, since it is on average 3.2 times smaller, 1.5 times faster and requires slightly less power than the next best trade-off in the comparison, which is a 3/4-rate full-diversity 3Tx-antenna STBC.

  19. Persistent schema-dependent hippocampal-neocortical connectivity during memory encoding and postencoding rest in humans.

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Fernández, Guillén; Norris, David G; Hermans, Erno J

    2010-04-20

    The hippocampus is thought to promote gradual incorporation of novel information into long-term memory by binding, reactivating, and strengthening distributed cortical-cortical connections. Recent studies implicate a key role in this process for hippocampally driven crosstalk with the (ventro)medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which is proposed to become a central node in such representational networks over time. The existence of a relevant prior associative network, or schema, may moreover facilitate this process. Thus, hippocampal-vmPFC crosstalk may support integration of new memories, particularly in the absence of a relevant prior schema. To address this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and prior schema manipulation to track hippocampal-vmPFC connectivity during encoding and postencoding rest. We manipulated prior schema knowledge by exposing 30 participants to the first part of a movie that was temporally scrambled for 15 participants. The next day, participants underwent fMRI while encoding the movie's final 15 min in original order and, subsequently, while resting. Schema knowledge and item recognition performance show that prior schema was successfully and selectively manipulated. Intersubject synchronization (ISS) and interregional partial correlation analyses furthermore show that stronger prior schema was associated with more vmPFC ISS and less hippocampal-vmPFC interregional connectivity during encoding. Notably, this connectivity pattern persisted during postencoding rest. These findings suggest that additional crosstalk between hippocampus and vmPFC is required to compensate for difficulty integrating novel information during encoding and provide tentative support for the notion that functionally relevant hippocampal-neocortical crosstalk persists during off-line periods after learning.

  20. Male carriers of the FMR1 premutation show altered hippocampal-prefrontal function during memory encoding

    John M Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous functional MRI (fMRI studies have shown that fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 premutation allele carriers (FXPCs exhibit decreased hippocampal activation during a recall task and lower inferior frontal activation during a working memory task compared to matched controls. The molecular characteristics of FXPCs includes 55 to 200 CGG trinucleoutide expansions, increased FMR1 mRNA levels, and decreased FMRP levels especially at higher repeat sizes. In the current study, we utilized MRI to examine differences in hippocampal volume and function during an encoding task in young male FXPCs. While no decreases in either hippocampal volume or hippocampal activity were observed during the encoding task in FXPCs, FMRP level (measured in blood correlated with decreases in parahippocampal activation. In addition, activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during correctly encoded trials correlated negatively with mRNA levels. These results, as well as the established biological effects associated with elevated mRNA levels and decreased FMRP levels on dendritic maturation and axonal growth, prompted us to explore functional connectivity between the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus using a psychophysiological interaction analysis. In FXPCs, the right hippocampus evinced significantly lower connectivity with right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and right parahippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, the weaker connectivity between the right hippocampus and VLPFC was associated with reduced FMRP in the FXPC group. These results suggest that while FXPCs show relatively typical brain response during encoding, faulty connectivity between frontal and hippocampal regions may have subsequent effects on recall and working memory.

  1. The posterior medial cortex is involved in visual but not in verbal memory encoding processing: an intracerebral recording study.

    Stillová, K; Jurák, P; Chládek, J; Halámek, J; Telecká, S; Rektor, I

    2013-03-01

    The objective is to study the involvement of the posterior medial cortex (PMC) in encoding and retrieval by visual and auditory memory processing. Intracerebral recordings were studied in two epilepsy-surgery candidates with depth electrodes implanted in the retrosplenial cingulate, precuneus, cuneus, lingual gyrus and hippocampus. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERP) evoked by visual and auditory memory encoding-retrieval tasks. In the hippocampus, ERP were elicited in the encoding and retrieval phases in the two modalities. In the PMC, ERP were recorded in both the encoding and the retrieval visual tasks; in the auditory modality, they were recorded in the retrieval task, but not in the encoding task. In conclusion, the PMC is modality dependent in memory processing. ERP is elicited by memory retrieval, but it is not elicited by auditory encoding memory processing in the PMC. The PMC appears to be involved not only in higher-order top-down cognitive activities but also in more basic, rather than bottom-up activities.

  2. Facilitation of memory encoding in primate hippocampus by a neuroprosthesis that promotes task-specific neural firing

    Hampson, Robert E.; Song, Dong; Opris, Ioan; Santos, Lucas M.; Shin, Dae C.; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Berger, Theodore W.; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. Memory accuracy is a major problem in human disease and is the primary factor that defines Alzheimer’s, ageing and dementia resulting from impaired hippocampal function in the medial temporal lobe. Development of a hippocampal memory neuroprosthesis that facilitates normal memory encoding in nonhuman primates (NHPs) could provide the basis for improving memory in human disease states. Approach. NHPs trained to perform a short-term delayed match-to-sample (DMS) memory task were examined with multi-neuron recordings from synaptically connected hippocampal cell fields, CA1 and CA3. Recordings were analyzed utilizing a previously developed nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) neuroprosthetic model, capable of extracting CA3-to-CA1 spatiotemporal firing patterns during DMS performance. Main results. The MIMO model verified that specific CA3-to-CA1 firing patterns were critical for the successful encoding of sample phase information on more difficult DMS trials. This was validated by the delivery of successful MIMO-derived encoding patterns via electrical stimulation to the same CA1 recording locations during the sample phase which facilitated task performance in the subsequent, delayed match phase, on difficult trials that required more precise encoding of sample information. Significance. These findings provide the first successful application of a neuroprosthesis designed to enhance and/or repair memory encoding in primate brain.

  3. Effects of Age on Negative Subsequent Memory Effects Associated with the Encoding of Item and Item–Context Information

    Mattson, Julia T.; Wang, Tracy H.; de Chastelaine, Marianne; Rugg, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    It has consistently been reported that “negative” subsequent memory effects—lower study activity for later remembered than later forgotten items—are attenuated in older individuals. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated whether these findings extend to subsequent memory effects associated with successful encoding of item–context information. Older (n = 25) and young (n = 17) subjects were scanned while making 1 of 2 encoding judgments on a series of pictures. Memory was assessed for the study item and, for items judged old, the item's encoding task. Both memory judgments were made using confidence ratings, permitting item and source memory strength to be unconfounded and source confidence to be equated across age groups. Replicating prior findings, negative item effects in regions of the default mode network in young subjects were reversed in older subjects. Negative source effects, however, were invariant with respect to age and, in both age groups, the magnitude of the effects correlated with source memory performance. It is concluded that negative item effects do not reflect processes necessary for the successful encoding of item–context associations in older subjects. Negative source effects, in contrast, appear to reflect the engagement of processes that are equally important for successful episodic encoding in older and younger individuals. PMID:23904464

  4. New learning while consolidating memory during sleep is actively blocked by a protein synthesis dependent process

    Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J

    2016-01-01

    Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17769.001 PMID:27919318

  5. Evidence for a differential contribution of early perceptual and late cognitive processes during encoding to episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia.

    Green, Amity E; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Johnston, Patrick J; Nathan, Pradeep J; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Croft, Rodney J

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia is characterised by significant episodic memory impairment that is thought to be related to problems with encoding, however the neuro-functional mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. The present study used a subsequent recognition memory paradigm and event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate temporal aspects of episodic memory encoding deficits in schizophrenia. Electroencephalographic data was recorded in 24 patients and 19 healthy controls whilst participants categorised single words as pleasant/unpleasant. ERPs were generated to subsequently recognised versus unrecognised words on the basis of a forced-choice recognition memory task. Subsequent memory effects were examined with the late positive component (LPP). Group differences in N1, P2, N400 and LPP were examined for words correctly recognised. Patients performed more poorly than controls on the recognition task. During encoding patients had significantly reduced N400 and LPP amplitudes than controls. LPP amplitude correlated with task performance however amplitudes did not differ between patients and controls as a function of subsequent memory. No significant differences in N1 or P2 amplitude or latency were observed. The present results indicate that early sensory processes are intact and dysfunctional higher order cognitive processes during encoding are contributing to episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  6. Acute Sleep Deprivation Blocks Short- and Long-Term Operant Memory in Aplysia.

    Krishnan, Harini C; Gandour, Catherine E; Ramos, Joshua L; Wrinkle, Mariah C; Sanchez-Pacheco, Joseph J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Insufficient sleep in individuals appears increasingly common due to the demands of modern work schedules and technology use. Consequently, there is a growing need to understand the interactions between sleep deprivation and memory. The current study determined the effects of acute sleep deprivation on short and long-term associative memory using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica , a relatively simple model system well known for studies of learning and memory. Aplysia were sleep deprived for 9 hours using context changes and tactile stimulation either prior to or after training for the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI). The effects of sleep deprivation on short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) were assessed. Acute sleep deprivation prior to LFI training impaired the induction of STM and LTM with persistent effects lasting at least 24 h. Sleep deprivation immediately after training blocked the consolidation of LTM. However, sleep deprivation following the period of molecular consolidation did not affect memory recall. Memory impairments were independent of handling-induced stress, as daytime handled control animals demonstrated no memory deficits. Additional training immediately after sleep deprivation failed to rescue the induction of memory, but additional training alleviated the persistent impairment in memory induction when training occurred 24 h following sleep deprivation. Acute sleep deprivation inhibited the induction and consolidation, but not the recall of memory. These behavioral studies establish Aplysia as an effective model system for studying the interactions between sleep and memory formation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Blocking mineralocorticoid receptors impairs, blocking glucocorticoid receptors enhances memory retrieval in humans.

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Memory retrieval is impaired at very low as well as very high cortisol levels, but not at intermediate levels. This inverted-U-shaped relationship between cortisol levels and memory retrieval may originate from different roles of the mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that bind cortisol with distinctly different affinity. Here, we examined the role of MRs and GRs in human memory retrieval using specific receptor antagonists. In two double-blind within-subject, cross-over designed studies, young healthy men were asked to retrieve emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learnt 3 days earlier) between 0745 and 0915 hours in the morning, either after administration of 400 mg of the MR blocker spironolactone vs placebo (200 mg at 2300 hours and 200 mg at 0400 hours, Study I) or after administration of the GR blocker mifepristone vs placebo (200 mg at 2300 hours, Study II). Blockade of MRs impaired free recall of both texts and pictures particularly for emotional material. In contrast, blockade of GRs resulted in better memory retrieval for pictures, with the effect being more pronounced for neutral than emotional materials. These findings indicate indeed opposing roles of MRs and GRs in memory retrieval, with optimal retrieval at intermediate cortisol levels likely mediated by high MR but concurrently low GR activation.

  8. Is prospective memory enhanced by cue-action semantic relatedness and enactment at encoding?

    Pereira, Antonina; Ellis, Judi; Freeman, Jayne

    2012-09-01

    Benefits and costs on prospective memory performance, of enactment at encoding and a semantic association between a cue-action word pair, were investigated in two experiments. Findings revealed superior performance for both younger and older adults following enactment, in contrast to verbal encoding, and when cue-action semantic relatedness was high. Although younger adults outperformed older adults, age did not moderate benefits of cue-action relatedness or enactment. Findings from a second experiment revealed that the inclusion of an instruction to perform a prospective memory task led to increments in response latency to items from the ongoing activity in which that task was embedded, relative to latencies when the ongoing task only was performed. However, this task interference 'cost' did not differ as a function of either cue-action relatedness or enactment. We argue that the high number of cue-action pairs employed here influenced meta-cognitive consciousness, hence determining attention allocation, in all experimental conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pupillometry as a glimpse into the neurochemical basis of human memory encoding.

    Hoffing, Russell Cohen; Seitz, Aaron R

    2015-04-01

    Neurochemical systems are well studied in animal learning; however, ethical issues limit methodologies to explore these systems in humans. Pupillometry provides a glimpse into the brain's neurochemical systems, where pupil dynamics in monkeys have been linked with locus coeruleus (LC) activity, which releases norepinephrine (NE) throughout the brain. Here, we use pupil dynamics as a surrogate measure of neurochemical activity to explore the hypothesis that NE is involved in modulating memory encoding. We examine this using a task-irrelevant learning paradigm in which learning is boosted for stimuli temporally paired with task targets. We show that participants better recognize images that are paired with task targets than distractors and, in correspondence, that pupil size changes more for target-paired than distractor-paired images. To further investigate the hypothesis that NE nonspecifically guides learning for stimuli that are present with its release, a second procedure was used that employed an unexpected sound to activate the LC-NE system and induce pupil-size changes; results indicated a corresponding increase in memorization of images paired with the unexpected sounds. Together, these results suggest a relationship between the LC-NE system, pupil-size changes, and human memory encoding.

  10. Generalization of perceptual and motor learning: a causal link with memory encoding and consolidation?

    Censor, N

    2013-10-10

    In both perceptual and motor learning, numerous studies have shown specificity of learning to the trained eye or hand and to the physical features of the task. However, generalization of learning is possible in both perceptual and motor domains. Here, I review evidence for perceptual and motor learning generalization, suggesting that generalization patterns are affected by the way in which the original memory is encoded and consolidated. Generalization may be facilitated during fast learning, with possible engagement of higher-order brain areas recurrently interacting with the primary visual or motor cortices encoding the stimuli or movements' memories. Such generalization may be supported by sleep, involving functional interactions between low and higher-order brain areas. Repeated exposure to the task may alter generalization patterns of learning and overall offline learning. Development of unifying frameworks across learning modalities and better understanding of the conditions under which learning can generalize may enable to gain insight regarding the neural mechanisms underlying procedural learning and have useful clinical implications. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficient implementations of block sparse matrix operations on shared memory vector machines

    Washio, T.; Maruyama, K.; Osoda, T.; Doi, S.; Shimizu, F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we propose vectorization and shared memory-parallelization techniques for block-type random sparse matrix operations in finite element (FEM) applications. Here, a block corresponds to unknowns on one node in the FEM mesh and we assume that the block size is constant over the mesh. First, we discuss some basic vectorization ideas (the jagged diagonal (JAD) format and the segmented scan algorithm) for the sparse matrix-vector product. Then, we extend these ideas to the shared memory parallelization. After that, we show that the techniques can be applied not only to the sparse matrix-vector product but also to the sparse matrix-matrix product, the incomplete or complete sparse LU factorization and preconditioning. Finally, we report the performance evaluation results obtained on an NEC SX-4 shared memory vector machine for linear systems in some FEM applications. (author)

  12. Beyond Initial Encoding: Measures of the Post-Encoding Status of Memory Traces Predict Long-Term Recall during Infancy

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The first years of life are witness to rapid changes in long-term recall ability. In the current research we contributed to an explanation of the changes by testing the absolute and relative contributions to long-term recall of encoding and post-encoding processes. Using elicited imitation, we sampled the status of 16-, 20-, and 24-month-old…

  13. Memory, priority encoding, and overcoming high-value proactive interference in younger and older adults.

    Friedman, Michael C; Castel, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    It is often necessary to remember important information while directing attention away from encoding less valuable information. To examine how aging influences the ability to control and update the encoding of high-value information, younger and older adults studied six lists of words that varied in terms of the point values associated with each word. The words were paired with the same high and low point values for three study-test cycles, but on the fourth and subsequent cycles the value-word pairings were switched such that the lowest value pairs became the highest values (and vice versa). For the first three study-test cycles, younger adults outperformed older adults in terms of the number of words recalled and overall point totals, but performance was similar in terms of selectively remembering high-value words. When the values were switched, both groups displayed substantial interference from the previous pairings. Although both groups improved with additional study-test cycles, only younger adults were able to fully recover from the interference effects. A similar, and more pronounced, set of results were obtained when positive and negative point values were paired with the words. The findings are interpreted in a value-directed remembering framework, emphasizing the role of benefits and costs of strategic encoding and age-related differences in the effects of interference on memory.

  14. Encoding: the keystone to efficient functioning of verbal short-term memory.

    Barry, Johanna G; Sabisch, Beate; Friederici, Angela D; Brauer, Jens

    2011-11-01

    Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to play a critical role in language learning. It is indexed by the nonword repetition task where listeners are asked to repeat meaningless words like 'blonterstaping'. The present study investigated the effect on nonword repetition performance of differences in efficiency of functioning of some part of the neural architecture mediating VSTM. Hypotheses were stated within Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) multicomponent model of VSTM, with respect to regions of the brain known to be active during tasks tapping into VSTM. We were specifically interested in activations associated with the posterior planum temporale (Spt) which emerge during rehearsal since this region is hypothesized to be central to VTSM (Buchsbaum, Olsen, Koch, & Berman, 2005a). Participants performed a delayed reaction time task in the scanner which explicitly mimicked the three main stages of information-processing involved in VSTM (encoding, rehearsal, recall (here recognition)). The data for each stage were then convolved with scores from a separately measured nonword repetition task. Rather than observing a pattern of individual differences located to specific regions specialized for supporting VSTM, a dissociation in direction of correlation in overlapping regions of the brain was observed during encoding and recognition. Larger hemodynamic responses during encoding were associated with better nonword repetition, and vice versa during recognition. There was little evidence for a network of activations specialized for VSTM. Instead, the main correlations were observed in regions also known to be involved in long-term memory. It seems that individuals who are better at nonword repetition and hence at language learning, activate these regions more efficiently than poorer nonword-repeaters early after stimulus input. These observations are discussed with respect to various models proposed for explaining the phenomenon of VSTM. Crown Copyright © 2011

  15. Cholinergic Enhancement of Brain Activation in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI during Episodic Memory Encoding

    Shannon L Risacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the physiological impact of treatment with donepezil (Aricept on neural circuitry supporting episodic memory encoding in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI using functional MRI (fMRI. Methods: 18 patients with MCI and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC were scanned twice while performing an event-related verbal episodic encoding task. MCI participants were scanned before treatment and after approximately 3 months on donepezil; HC were untreated but rescanned at the same interval. Voxel-level analyses assessed treatment effects in activation profile relative to retest changes in non-treated HC. Changes in task-related connectivity in medial temporal circuitry were also evaluated, as were associations between brain activation pattern, task-related functional connectivity, task performance, and clinical measures of cognition.Results: At baseline, the MCI group showed reduced activation during encoding relative to HC in the right medial temporal lobe (MTL; hippocampal/parahippocampal and additional regions, as well as attenuated task-related deactivation, relative to rest, in a medial parietal lobe cluster. After treatment, the MCI group showed normalized MTL activation and improved parietal deactivation. These changes were associated with cognitive performance. After treatment, the MCI group also demonstrated increased task-related functional connectivity from the right MTL cluster seed region to a network of other sites including the basal nucleus/caudate and bilateral frontal lobes. Increased functional connectivity was associated with improved task performance.Conclusions: Pharmacologic enhancement of cholinergic function in amnestic MCI is associated with changes in brain activation pattern and functional connectivity during episodic memory processing which are in turn related to increased cognitive performance. fMRI is a promising biomarker for assessing treatment related changes in brain function.

  16. Encoding and immediate retrieval tasks in patients with epilepsy: A functional MRI study of verbal and visual memory.

    Saddiki, Najat; Hennion, Sophie; Viard, Romain; Ramdane, Nassima; Lopes, Renaud; Baroncini, Marc; Szurhaj, William; Reyns, Nicolas; Pruvo, Jean Pierre; Delmaire, Christine

    2018-05-01

    Medial lobe temporal structures and more specifically the hippocampus play a decisive role in episodic memory. Most of the memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies evaluate the encoding phase; the retrieval phase being performed outside the MRI. We aimed to determine the ability to reveal greater hippocampal fMRI activations during retrieval phase. Thirty-five epileptic patients underwent a two-step memory fMRI. During encoding phase, subjects were requested to identify the feminine or masculine gender of faces and words presented, in order to encourage stimulus encoding. One hour after, during retrieval phase, subjects had to recognize the word and face. We used an event-related design to identify hippocampal activations. There was no significant difference between patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy, patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy and patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy on verbal and visual learning task. For words, patients demonstrated significantly more bilateral hippocampal activation for retrieval task than encoding task and when the tasks were associated than during encoding alone. Significant difference was seen between face-encoding alone and face retrieval alone. This study demonstrates the essential contribution of the retrieval task during a fMRI memory task but the number of patients with hippocampal activations was greater when the two tasks were taken into account. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Effects of Pre-Encoding Stress on Brain Correlates Associated with the Long-Term Memory for Emotional Scenes

    Wirkner, Janine; Weymar, Mathias; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O.

    2013-01-01

    Recent animal and human research indicates that stress around the time of encoding enhances long-term memory for emotionally arousing events but neural evidence remains unclear. In the present study we used the ERP old/new effect to investigate brain dynamics underlying the long-term effects of acute pre-encoding stress on memory for emotional and neutral scenes. Participants were exposed either to the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressure Test (SECPT) or a warm water control procedure before viewing 30 unpleasant, 30 neutral and 30 pleasant pictures. Two weeks after encoding, recognition memory was tested using 90 old and 90 new pictures. Emotional pictures were better recognized than neutral pictures in both groups and related to an enhanced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference (400–800 ms) during recognition, which suggests better recollection. Most interestingly, pre-encoding stress exposure specifically increased the ERP old/new-effect for emotional (unpleasant) pictures, but not for neutral pictures. These enhanced ERP/old new differences for emotional (unpleasant) scenes were particularly pronounced for those participants who reported high levels of stress during the SECPT. The results suggest that acute pre-encoding stress specifically strengthens brain signals of emotional memories, substantiating a facilitating role of stress on memory for emotional scenes. PMID:24039697

  18. Effects of pre-encoding stress on brain correlates associated with the long-term memory for emotional scenes.

    Janine Wirkner

    Full Text Available Recent animal and human research indicates that stress around the time of encoding enhances long-term memory for emotionally arousing events but neural evidence remains unclear. In the present study we used the ERP old/new effect to investigate brain dynamics underlying the long-term effects of acute pre-encoding stress on memory for emotional and neutral scenes. Participants were exposed either to the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressure Test (SECPT or a warm water control procedure before viewing 30 unpleasant, 30 neutral and 30 pleasant pictures. Two weeks after encoding, recognition memory was tested using 90 old and 90 new pictures. Emotional pictures were better recognized than neutral pictures in both groups and related to an enhanced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference (400-800 ms during recognition, which suggests better recollection. Most interestingly, pre-encoding stress exposure specifically increased the ERP old/new-effect for emotional (unpleasant pictures, but not for neutral pictures. These enhanced ERP/old new differences for emotional (unpleasant scenes were particularly pronounced for those participants who reported high levels of stress during the SECPT. The results suggest that acute pre-encoding stress specifically strengthens brain signals of emotional memories, substantiating a facilitating role of stress on memory for emotional scenes.

  19. Benefits of deep encoding in Alzheimer disease. Analysis of performance on a memory task using the Item Specific Deficit Approach.

    Oltra-Cucarella, J; Pérez-Elvira, R; Duque, P

    2014-06-01

    the aim of this study is to test the encoding deficit hypothesis in Alzheimer disease (AD) using a recent method for correcting memory tests. To this end, a Spanish-language adaptation of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test was interpreted using the Item Specific Deficit Approach (ISDA), which provides three indices: Encoding Deficit Index, Consolidation Deficit Index, and Retrieval Deficit Index. We compared the performances of 15 patients with AD and 20 healthy control subjects and analysed results using either the task instructions or the ISDA approach. patients with AD displayed deficient encoding of more than half the information, but items that were encoded properly could be retrieved later with the help of the same semantic clues provided individually during encoding. Virtually all the information retained over the long-term was retrieved by using semantic clues. Encoding was shown to be the most impaired process, followed by retrieval and consolidation. Discriminant function analyses showed that ISDA indices are more sensitive and specific for detecting memory impairments in AD than are raw scores. These results indicate that patients with AD present impaired information encoding, but they benefit from semantic hints that help them recover previously learned information. This should be taken into account for intervention techniques focusing on memory impairments in AD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Control of information in working memory: Encoding and removal of distractors in the complex-span paradigm.

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    The article reports four experiments with complex-span tasks in which encoding of memory items alternates with processing of distractors. The experiments test two assumptions of a computational model of complex span, SOB-CS: (1) distractor processing impairs memory because distractors are encoded into working memory, thereby interfering with memoranda; and (2) free time following distractors is used to remove them from working memory by unbinding their representations from list context. Experiment 1 shows that distractors are erroneously chosen for recall more often than not-presented stimuli, demonstrating that distractors are encoded into memory. Distractor intrusions declined with longer free time, as predicted by distractor removal. Experiment 2 shows these effects even when distractors precede the memory list, ruling out an account based on selective rehearsal of memoranda during free time. Experiments 3 and 4 test the notion that distractors decay over time. Both experiments show that, contrary to the notion of distractor decay, the chance of a distractor intruding at test does not decline with increasing time since encoding of that distractor. Experiment 4 provides additional evidence against the prediction from distractor decay that distractor intrusions decline over an unfilled retention interval. Taken together, the results support SOB-CS and rule out alternative explanations. Data and simulation code are available on Open Science Framework: osf.io/3ewh7. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual integration enhances associative memory equally for young and older adults without reducing hippocampal encoding activation.

    Memel, Molly; Ryan, Lee

    2017-06-01

    The ability to remember associations between previously unrelated pieces of information is often impaired in older adults (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). Unitization, the process of creating a perceptually or semantically integrated representation that includes both items in an associative pair, attenuates age-related associative deficits (Bastin et al., 2013; Ahmad et al., 2015; Zheng et al., 2015). Compared to non-unitized pairs, unitized pairs may rely less on hippocampally-mediated binding associated with recollection, and more on familiarity-based processes mediated by perirhinal cortex (PRC) and parahippocampal cortex (PHC). While unitization of verbal materials improves associative memory in older adults, less is known about the impact of visual integration. The present study determined whether visual integration improves associative memory in older adults by minimizing the need for hippocampal (HC) recruitment and shifting encoding to non-hippocampal medial temporal structures, such as the PRC and PHC. Young and older adults were presented with a series of objects paired with naturalistic scenes while undergoing fMRI scanning, and were later given an associative memory test. Visual integration was varied by presenting the object either next to the scene (Separated condition) or visually integrated within the scene (Combined condition). Visual integration improved associative memory among young and older adults to a similar degree by increasing the hit rate for intact pairs, but without increasing false alarms for recombined pairs, suggesting enhanced recollection rather than increased reliance on familiarity. Also contrary to expectations, visual integration resulted in increased hippocampal activation in both age groups, along with increases in PRC and PHC activation. Activation in all three MTL regions predicted discrimination performance during the Separated condition in young adults, while only a marginal relationship between PRC activation and performance was

  2. Encoding into working memory of spatial location, color, and shape: electrophysiological investigations.

    Martín-Loeches, M; Rubia, F J

    1997-10-01

    Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while subjects memorized either the location, the color or the shape of stimuli which could be located in 1 of 4 positions relative to a central fixation point (top, bottom, left or right), be of 1 of 4 positions relative to a central fixation point (top, bottom, left or right), be of 1 of 4 colors (white, green, red or blue), and present 1 of 4 shapes (triangle, cross, circle or square). These ERP were compared to ERP recorded while subjects looked at the same stimuli but performed other control, nonmemory tasks. Only ERP corresponding to the memorization of spatial location showed a differential pattern which could be specifically attributed to memory encoding processes. This reveals an important difference in ERP modulation between a working memory subsystem for spatial location and other subsystem (or subsystems) for color or shape, which would provide evidence supporting the existence of different working memory subsystems for visual information in the brain.

  3. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mucosal delivery of a transmission-blocking DNA vaccine encoding Giardia lamblia CWP2 by Salmonella typhimurium bactofection vehicle.

    Abdul-Wahid, Aws; Faubert, Gaétan

    2007-12-05

    In this study, we investigated the use of Salmonella typhimurium (STM1 strain) as a bactofection vehicle to deliver a transmission-blocking DNA vaccine (TBDV) plasmid to the intestinal immune system. The gene encoding the full length cyst wall protein-2 (CWP2) from Giardia lamblia was subcloned into the pCDNA3 mammalian expression vector and stably introduced into S. typhimurium STM1. Eight-week-old female BALB/c mice were orally immunized every 2 weeks, for a total of three immunizations. Vaccinated and control mice were sacrificed 1 week following the last injection. Administration of the DNA vaccine led to the production of CWP2-specific cellular immune responses characterized by a mixed Th1/Th2 response. Using ELISA, antigen-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal secretions. Moreover, analysis of sera demonstrated that the DNA immunization also stimulated the production of CWP2-specific IgG antibodies that were mainly of the IgG2a isotype. Finally, challenge infection with live Giardia muris cysts revealed that mice receiving the CWP2-encoding DNA vaccine were able to reduce cyst shedding by approximately 60% compared to control mice. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the development of parasite transmission-blocking immunity at the intestinal level following the administration of a mucosal DNA vaccine delivered by S. typhimurium STM1.

  5. The influence of strategic encoding on false memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease dementia.

    Tat, Michelle J; Soonsawat, Anothai; Nagle, Corinne B; Deason, Rebecca G; O'Connor, Maureen K; Budson, Andrew E

    2016-11-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia exhibit high rates of memory distortions in addition to their impairments in episodic memory. Several investigations have demonstrated that when healthy individuals (young and old) engaged in an encoding strategy that emphasized the uniqueness of study items (an item-specific encoding strategy), they were able to improve their discrimination between old items and unstudied critical lure items in a false memory task. In the present study we examined if patients with AD could also improve their memory discrimination when engaging in an item-specific encoding strategy. Healthy older adult controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, and patients with mild AD dementia were asked to study lists of categorized words. In the Item-Specific condition, participants were asked to provide a unique detail or personal experience with each study item. In the Relational condition, they were asked to determine how each item in the list was related to the others. To assess the influence of both strategies, recall and recognition memory tests were administered. Overall, both patient groups exhibited poorer memory in both recall and recognition tests compared to controls. In terms of recognition, healthy older controls and patients with MCI due to AD exhibited improved memory discrimination in the Item-Specific condition compared to the Relational condition, whereas patients with AD dementia did not. We speculate that patients with MCI due to AD use intact frontal networks to effectively engage in this strategy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The influence of strategic encoding on false memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease dementia

    Tat, Michelle J.; Soonsawat, Anothai; Nagle, Corinne B.; Deason, Rebecca G.; O’Connor, Maureen K.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2018-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia exhibit high rates of memory distortions in addition to their impairments in episodic memory. Several investigations have demonstrated that when healthy individuals (young and old) engaged in an encoding strategy that emphasized the uniqueness of study items (an item-specific encoding strategy), they were able to improve their discrimination between old items and unstudied critical lure items in a false memory task. In the present study we examined if patients with AD could also improve their memory discrimination when engaging in an item-specific encoding strategy. Healthy older adult controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, and patients with mild AD dementia were asked to study lists of categorized words. In the Item-Specific condition, participants were asked to provide a unique detail or personal experience with each study item. In the Relational condition, they were asked to determine how each item in the list was related to the others. To assess the influence of both strategies, recall and recognition memory tests were administered. Overall, both patient groups exhibited poorer memory in both recall and recognition tests compared to controls. In terms of recognition, healthy older controls and patients with MCI due to AD exhibited improved memory discrimination in the Item-Specific condition compared to the Relational condition, whereas patients with AD dementia did not. We speculate that patients with MCI due to AD use intact frontal networks to effectively engage in this strategy. PMID:27643951

  7. The influence of directed attention at encoding on source memory retrieval in the young and old: an ERP study.

    Dulas, Michael R; Duarte, Audrey

    2013-03-15

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests that older adults exhibit deficits in frontally-mediated strategic retrieval processes, such as post-retrieval monitoring. Behavioral research suggests that explicitly directing attention toward source features during encoding may improve source memory for both young and older adults and alleviate age-related source memory impairments, in part, by reducing demands on post-retrieval monitoring. We investigated this hypothesis in the present event-related potential (ERP) study. Young and older adults attended to either objects and their presented color (source) or to the object alone during study and made color source memory decisions at test. We attempted to match performance between groups by halving the memory load for older adults. Behavioral results showed that, while direction of attention to object and color improved source memory for both groups, older adults benefited less than the young. ERPs revealed that demands on late right frontal effects, indicative of post-retrieval monitoring, were similarly reduced by directed attention at encoding for both groups. However, older adults showed reduced ERP correlates of recollection (parietal old-new effect), as well as a sustained widespread negativity, potentially indicative of memory searches for perceptual details in the face of impaired recollection. These results suggest that older adults, like the young, can engage in post-retrieval monitoring when source details are difficult to recover. However, impaired recollection may underlie persistent age-related source memory deficits, even when encoding is supported via directed attention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of encoding condition on free recall in Parkinson's disease: incidental and intentional memory are equally affected.

    Ellfolk, Ulla; Huurinainen, Salla; Joutsa, Juho; Karrasch, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Free recall memory deficits are common at early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). As most studies have used intentional memory tasks, there is little information on how non-intentional, incidental encoding conditions affect memory performance in PD. We studied possible differences between PD patients and controls on free recall using incidental and intentional visual memory tasks. Free recall was examined in relation to attentive/executive functioning and subjective memory complaints. A total of 29 non-demented, medicated PD patients (age 60, disease duration 19 months) and 29 healthy controls (age 61) participated in the study. Incidental free recall was studied using a memory-modification of the Boston naming test (Memo-BNT) and intentional free recall with the 20 Objects test. There was a significant main effect for group due to worse free recall performances in the PD group. No statistically significant interaction between group and encoding condition was observed. The free recall deficit in the PD group was related to cognitive/psychomotor slowing, but not to attentive/executive task demands, or to subjective memory complaints. The results indicate that PD patients are impaired on free recall irrespective of encoding condition.

  9. Functional mapping of the neural basis for the encoding and retrieval of human episodic memory using H215O PET

    Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang Kun; Jang, Myoung Jin; Ahn, Ji Young; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    Episodic memory is described as an 'autobiographical' memory responsible for storing a record of the events in our lives. We performed functional brain activation study using H 2 1 5O PET to reveal the neural basis of the encoding and the retrieval of episodic memory in human normal volunteers. Four repeated H 2 1 5O PET scans with two reference and two activation tasks were performed on 6 normal volunteers to activate brain areas engaged in encoding and retrieval with verbal materials. Images from the same subject were spatially registered and normalized using linear and nonlinear transformation. Using the means and variances for every condition which were adjusted with analysis of covariance, t-statistic analysis were performed voxel-wise. Encoding of episodic memory activated the opercular and triangular parts of left inferior frontal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal area, cingulate gyrus, posterior middle and inferior temporal gyri, and cerebellum, and both primary visual and visual association areas. Retrieval of episodic memory activated the triangular part of left inferior frontal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex and medial temporal ares, and both cerebellum and primary visual and visual association areas. The activations in the opercular part of left inferior frontal gyrus and the right prefrontal cortex meant the essential role of these areas in the encoding and retrieval of episodic memeory. We could localize the neural basis of the encoding and retrieval of episodic memory using H 2 1 5O PET, which was partly consistent with the hypothesis of hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry.=20

  10. Such stuff as dreams are made on? Elaborative encoding, the ancient art of memory, and the hippocampus.

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2013-12-01

    This article argues that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming is elaborative encoding for episodic memories. Elaborative encoding in REM can, at least partially, be understood through ancient art of memory (AAOM) principles: visualization, bizarre association, organization, narration, embodiment, and location. These principles render recent memories more distinctive through novel and meaningful association with emotionally salient, remote memories. The AAOM optimizes memory performance, suggesting that its principles may predict aspects of how episodic memory is configured in the brain. Integration and segregation are fundamental organizing principles in the cerebral cortex. Episodic memory networks interconnect profusely within the cortex, creating omnidirectional "landmark" junctions. Memories may be integrated at junctions but segregated along connecting network paths that meet at junctions. Episodic junctions may be instantiated during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep after hippocampal associational function during REM dreams. Hippocampal association involves relating, binding, and integrating episodic memories into a mnemonic compositional whole. This often bizarre, composite image has not been present to the senses; it is not "real" because it hyperassociates several memories. During REM sleep, on the phenomenological level, this composite image is experienced as a dream scene. A dream scene may be instantiated as omnidirectional neocortical junction and retained by the hippocampus as an index. On episodic memory retrieval, an external stimulus (or an internal representation) is matched by the hippocampus against its indices. One or more indices then reference the relevant neocortical junctions from which episodic memories can be retrieved. Episodic junctions reach a processing (rather than conscious) level during normal wake to enable retrieval. If this hypothesis is correct, the stuff of dreams is the stuff of memory.

  11. Block of glucocorticoid synthesis during re-activation inhibits extinction of an established fear memory.

    Blundell, Jacqueline; Blaiss, Cory A; Lagace, Diane C; Eisch, Amelia J; Powell, Craig M

    2011-05-01

    The pharmacology of traumatic memory extinction has not been fully characterized despite its potential as a therapeutic target for established, acquired anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here we examine the role of endogenous glucocorticoids in traumatic memory extinction. Male C57BL/6J mice were injected with corticosterone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or metyrapone (50 mg/kg, s.c.) during re-activation of a contextual fear memory, and compared to vehicle groups (N=10-12 per group). To ensure that metyrapone was blocking corticosterone synthesis, we measured corticosterone levels following re-activation of a fear memory in metyrapone- and vehicle-treated animals. Corticosterone administration following extinction trials caused a long-lasting inhibition of the original fear memory trace. In contrast, blockade of corticosteroid synthesis with metyrapone prior to extinction trials enhanced retrieval and prevented extinction of context-dependent fear responses in mice. Further behavioral analysis suggested that the metyrapone enhancement of retrieval and prevention of extinction were not due to non-specific alterations in locomotor or anxiety-like behavior. In addition, the inhibition of extinction by metyrapone was rescued by exogenous administration of corticosterone following extinction trials. Finally, we confirmed that the rise in corticosterone during re-activation of a contextual fear memory was blocked by metyrapone. We demonstrate that extinction of a classical contextual fear memory is dependent on endogenous glucocorticoid synthesis during re-activation of a fear memory. Our data suggest that decreased glucocorticoids during fear memory re-activation may contribute to the inability to extinguish a fear memory, thus contributing to one of the core symptoms of PTSD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of protein synthesis but not β-adrenergic receptors blocks reconsolidation of a cocaine-associated cue memory

    Dunbar, Amber B.; Taylor, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    Previously consolidated memories have the potential to enter a state of lability upon memory recall, during which time the memory can be altered before undergoing an additional consolidation-like process and being stored again as a long-term memory. Blocking reconsolidation of aberrant memories has been proposed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders including addiction. Here we investigated of the effect of systemically administering the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide ...

  13. Visual memory for random block patterns defined by luminance and color contrast

    Cornelissen, FW; Greenlee, MW

    2000-01-01

    We studied the ability of human subjects to memorize the visual information in computer-generated random block patterns defined either by luminance contrast, by color contrast, or by both. Memory performance declines rapidly with increasing inter-stimulus interval, showing a half-life of

  14. Slow oscillation electrical brain stimulation during waking promotes EEG theta activity and memory encoding

    Kirov, Roumen; Weiss, Carsten; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2009-01-01

    typically occurring during this state of sleep were also enhanced. Here, we show that the same tSOS applied in the waking brain also induced an increase in endogenous EEG slow oscillations (0.4-1.2 Hz), although in a topographically restricted fashion. Applied during wakefulness tSOS, additionally, resulted......The application of transcranial slow oscillation stimulation (tSOS; 0.75 Hz) was previously shown to enhance widespread endogenous EEG slow oscillatory activity when applied during a sleep period characterized by emerging endogenous slow oscillatory activity. Processes of memory consolidation...... induced by tSOS critically depend on brain state. In response to tSOS during wakefulness the brain transposes stimulation by responding preferentially with theta oscillations and facilitated encoding....

  15. Mushroom body output neurons encode valence and guide memory-based action selection in Drosophila.

    Aso, Yoshinori; Sitaraman, Divya; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Kaun, Karla R; Vogt, Katrin; Belliart-Guérin, Ghislain; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Robie, Alice A; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Schnaitmann, Christopher; Rowell, William J; Johnston, Rebecca M; Ngo, Teri-T B; Chen, Nan; Korff, Wyatt; Nitabach, Michael N; Heberlein, Ulrike; Preat, Thomas; Branson, Kristin M; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Rubin, Gerald M

    2014-12-23

    Animals discriminate stimuli, learn their predictive value and use this knowledge to modify their behavior. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) plays a key role in these processes. Sensory stimuli are sparsely represented by ∼2000 Kenyon cells, which converge onto 34 output neurons (MBONs) of 21 types. We studied the role of MBONs in several associative learning tasks and in sleep regulation, revealing the extent to which information flow is segregated into distinct channels and suggesting possible roles for the multi-layered MBON network. We also show that optogenetic activation of MBONs can, depending on cell type, induce repulsion or attraction in flies. The behavioral effects of MBON perturbation are combinatorial, suggesting that the MBON ensemble collectively represents valence. We propose that local, stimulus-specific dopaminergic modulation selectively alters the balance within the MBON network for those stimuli. Our results suggest that valence encoded by the MBON ensemble biases memory-based action selection.

  16. Impact of encoding depth on awareness of perceptual effects in recognition memory.

    Gardiner, J M; Gregg, V H; Mashru, R; Thaman, M

    2001-04-01

    Pictorial stimuli are more likely to be recognized if they are the same size, rather than a different size, at study and at test. This size congruency effect was replicated in two experiments in which the encoding variables were respectively undivided versus divided attention and level of processing. In terms of performance, these variables influenced recognition and did not influence size congruency effects. But in terms of awareness, measured by remember and know responses, these variables did influence size congruency effects. With undivided attention and with a deep level of processing, size congruency effects occurred only in remembering. With divided attention and with a shallow level of processing, size congruency effects occurred only in knowing. The results show that effects that occur in remembering may also occur independently in knowing. They support theories in which remembering and knowing reflect different memory processes or systems. They do not support the theory that remembering and knowing reflect differences in trace strength.

  17. Glucose administration enhances fMRI brain activation and connectivity related to episodic memory encoding for neutral and emotional stimuli.

    Parent, Marise B; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L; Ryan, John P; Wilson, Jennifer S; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

    2011-04-01

    Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with episodic memory encoding and whether these effects would differ depending on the emotional valence of the material. We used a double-blind, within-participants, crossover design in which either glucose (50g) or a saccharin placebo were administered before scanning, on days approximately 1 week apart. We scanned healthy young male participants with fMRI as they viewed emotionally arousing negative pictures and emotionally neutral pictures, intermixed with baseline fixation. Free recall was tested at 5 min after scanning and again after 1 day. Glucose administration increased activation in brain regions associated with successful episodic memory encoding. Glucose also enhanced activation in regions whose activity was correlated with subsequent successful recall, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and other regions, and these effects differed for negative vs. neutral stimuli. Finally, glucose substantially increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and amygdala and a network of regions previously implicated in successful episodic memory encoding. These findings fit with evidence from nonhuman animals indicating glucose modulates memory by selectively enhancing neural activity in brain regions engaged during memory tasks. Our results highlight the modulatory effects of glucose and the importance of examining both regional changes in activity and functional connectivity to fully characterize the effects of glucose on brain function and memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pictures as cues or as support to verbal cues at encoding and execution of prospective memories in individuals with intellectual disability

    Levén, Anna; Lyxell, Björn; Andersson, Jan; Danielsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on prospective memory in persons with intellectual disability and age-matched controls. Persons with intellectual disability have limited prospective memory function. We investigated prospective memory with words and pictures as cues at encoding and retrieval. Prospective and episodic memory was estimated from Prospective Memory Game performance. Pictures at retrieval were important for prospective memory in particular in the intellectual disability group. Prospective memor...

  19. An Excitatory Neural Assembly Encodes Short-Term Memory in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Yonglu Tian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory (STM is crucial for animals to hold information for a small period of time. Persistent or recurrent neural activity, together with neural oscillations, is known to encode the STM at the cellular level. However, the coding mechanisms at the microcircuitry level remain a mystery. Here, we performed two-photon imaging on behaving mice to monitor the activity of neuronal microcircuitry. We discovered a neuronal subpopulation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC that exhibited emergent properties in a context-dependent manner underlying a STM-like behavior paradigm. These neuronal subpopulations exclusively comprise excitatory neurons and mainly represent a group of neurons with stronger functional connections. Microcircuitry plasticity was maintained for minutes and was absent in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Thus, these results point to a functional coding mechanism that relies on the emergent behavior of a functionally defined neuronal assembly to encode STM.

  20. Use of incidentally encoded memory from a single experience in cats.

    Takagi, Saho; Tsuzuki, Mana; Chijiiwa, Hitomi; Arahori, Minori; Watanabe, Arii; Saito, Atsuko; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether cats could retrieve and utilize incidentally encoded information from a single past event in a simple food-exploration task previously used for dogs (Fujita et al., 2012). In Experiment 1, cats were led to four open, baited containers and allowed to eat from two of them (Exposure phase). After a 15-min delay during which the cats were absent and all containers were replaced with empty ones, the cats were unexpectedly returned to the room and allowed to explore the containers (Test phase). Although the cats' first choice of container to visit was random, they explored containers from which they had not previously eaten for longer than those from which they did previously eat. In the Exposure phase of Experiment 2, two containers held food, one held a nonedible object, and the fourth was empty. Cats were allowed to eat from one of them. In the post-delay Test phase, the cats first visited the remaining baited-uneaten container significantly more often than chance and they spent more time exploring this container. Because the cats' behavior in the Test phase cannot be explained by association of the container with a pleasant experience (eating), the results suggest that cats retrieved and utilized "what" and "where" information from an incidentally encoded memory from a single experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Relationship between Visual Attention and Visual Working Memory Encoding: A Dissociation between Covert and Overt Orienting

    Tas, A. Caglar; Luck, Steven J.; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial debate over whether visual working memory (VWM) and visual attention constitute a single system for the selection of task-relevant perceptual information or whether they are distinct systems that can be dissociated when their representational demands diverge. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between visual attention and the encoding of objects into visual working memory (VWM). Participants performed a color change-detection task. During the retention interval, a secondary object, irrelevant to the memory task, was presented. Participants were instructed either to execute an overt shift of gaze to this object (Experiments 1–3) or to attend it covertly (Experiments 4 and 5). Our goal was to determine whether these overt and covert shifts of attention disrupted the information held in VWM. We hypothesized that saccades, which typically introduce a memorial demand to bridge perceptual disruption, would lead to automatic encoding of the secondary object. However, purely covert shifts of attention, which introduce no such demand, would not result in automatic memory encoding. The results supported these predictions. Saccades to the secondary object produced substantial interference with VWM performance, but covert shifts of attention to this object produced no interference with VWM performance. These results challenge prevailing theories that consider attention and VWM to reflect a common mechanism. In addition, they indicate that the relationship between attention and VWM is dependent on the memorial demands of the orienting behavior. PMID:26854532

  2. Differences in prefrontal cortex activation and deactivation during strategic episodic verbal memory encoding in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Joana Bisol Balardin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined differences in fMRI activation and deactivation patterns during episodic verbal memory encoding between individuals with MCI (n=18 and healthy controls (n=17. Participants were scanned in two different sessions during the application of self-initiated or directed instructions to apply semantic strategies at encoding of word lists. MCI participants showed reduced free recall scores when using self-initiated encoding strategies that were increased to baseline controls’ level after directed instructions were provided. During directed strategic encoding, greater recruitment of frontoparietal regions was observed in both MCI and control groups; group differences between sessions were observed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the right superior frontal gyrus. This study provides evidence suggesting that differences of activity in these regions may be related to encoding deficits in MCI, possibly mediating executive functions during task performance.

  3. Strategic neuronal encoding in medial prefrontal cortex of spatial working memory in the T-maze.

    Yang, Yang; Mailman, Richard B

    2018-05-02

    Strategic neuronal encoding in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the rat was correlated with spatial working memory (sWM) assessed by behavior in the T-maze. Neurons increased their firing rate around choice, with the increase largely occurring before choice as a prospective encode of behavior. This could be classified as sensitive-to-spatial information or sensitive-to-choice outcome. The sensitivity-to-spatial choice was defined by distinct firing rate changes before left- or right-choice. The percentage of left-choice sensitive neurons was not different from the percentage of right-choice sensitive neurons. There was also location-related neuronal activity in which neurons fired at distinct rates when rats were in a left- or right-location. More neurons were sensitive to left-location, as most of them were recorded from rats preferring to enter the right-location. The sensitivity to outcome was defined by a distinct firing rate around correct or error choice. Significantly more neurons were sensitive to error outcome, and, among these, more preferred to encode prospectively, increasing firing in advance of an error outcome. Similar to single neuron activity, the mPFC enhanced its neuronal network as measured by the oscillation of local field potential. The maximum power of oscillation was around choice, and occurred slightly earlier before error versus before correct outcome. Thus, sWM modulation in the mPFC includes not only spatial, but also outcome-related inputs, and neuronal ensembles monitor behavioral outcome to make strategic adjustments ensuring successful task performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Visually encoded working memory is closely associated with mobility in older adults.

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2014-06-01

    Previous research suggests that older adults' motor performance is associated with cognitive function. Although this has been reported especially for executive function, it is not yet clear for various types of working memory (WM). In fact, age-related decline in WM is more severe for faces than other types of visual objects. The present study focused on the relationship between diverse WM and two types of motor performance (mobility and manual dexterity), which are implicated in pathological decline. To measure diverse WM, we adopted N-back tasks using three distinct types of stimuli (numbers, locations, and faces). Mobility was measured with the timed up and go test and manual dexterity was measured with the Pegboard Test. Participants were community-dwelling older adults (age: mean 78.6 years). Comparisons of younger and older adults' N-back performances indicated that WM for faces is more sensitive to aging compared with WM for the other stimuli. Correlation analyses within the older group indicated that WM tasks mainly correlated with mobility, but less so with manual dexterity. Among the three types of WM, spatial WM and face WM had significant partial correlation coefficients with mobility after age and general cognitive decline were controlled. These results indicate that visually encoded WM is associated only with mobility, although general cognitive function is related to both motor abilities. The selective association between the visually encoded WM and mobility is discussed in terms of the interactive processes between executive processing and perceptual encoding, where dynamic visual processing for locomotion plays a role.

  5. A practical block detector for a depth-encoding PET camera

    Rogers, J.G.; Moisan, C.; Hoskinson, E.M.; Andreaco, M.S.; Williams, C.W.; Nutt, R.

    1996-01-01

    The depth-of-interaction effect in block detectors degrades the image resolution in commercial PET cameras and impedes the natural evolution of smaller, less expensive cameras. A method for correcting the measured position of each detected gamma ray by measuring its depth-of-interaction was tested and found to recover 38% of the lost resolution at 7.5 cm radius in a tabletop, 50-cm-diameter camera. To obtain the desired depth sensitivity, standard commercial detectors were modified by a simple and practical process that is suitable for mass production of the detectors. The impact of the detector modifications on central image resolution and on the ability of the camera to correct for object scatter were also measured

  6. Acoustic Masking Disrupts Time-Dependent Mechanisms of Memory Encoding in Word-List Recall

    Cousins, Katheryn A.Q.; Dar, Jonathan; Wingfield, Arthur; Miller, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Recall of recently heard words is affected by the clarity of presentation: even if all words are presented with sufficient clarity for successful recognition, those that are more difficult to hear are less likely to be recalled. Such a result demonstrates that memory processing depends on more than whether a word is simply “recognized” versus “not-recognized”. More surprising is that when a single item in a list of spoken words is acoustically masked, prior words that were heard with full clarity are also less likely to be recalled. To account for such a phenomenon, we developed the Linking by Active Maintenance Model (LAMM). This computational model of perception and encoding predicts that these effects are time dependent. Here we challenge our model by investigating whether and how the impact of acoustic masking on memory depends on presentation rate. We find that a slower presentation rate causes a more disruptive impact of stimulus degradation on prior, clearly heard words than does a fast rate. These results are unexpected according to prior theories of effortful listening, but we demonstrate that they can be accounted for by LAMM. PMID:24838269

  7. Revisiting the effect of reminders on infants' media memories: does the encoding format matter?

    Barr, Rachel; Brito, Natalie; Simcock, Gabrielle

    2013-11-01

    With the present research, the authors examined whether reminders could maintain 18-month-olds' memories generated from picture books and videos. Infants (N = 98) were shown a series of target actions in a picture book or on video. Either 24 hr or 2 weeks prior to a 4-week deferred imitation test, they were exposed to a reminder, a partial presentation of the original media demonstration. After both reminder delays, groups that received a video demonstration and a video reminder (video/video) performed significantly better than did the video-reminder-only control group (x/video), but groups that received a picture-book demonstration and a picture-book reminder (book/book) did not perform better than did the picture-book-reminder-only control (x/book). Additionally, if reminders did not veridically match the conditions of encoding (e.g., video demonstration and a book reminder, video/book or vice versa), infants also failed to perform better than controls. Theoretical implications for the understanding of long-term memory processing during early childhood and practical implications for early multimedia usage are discussed.

  8. Strength cues and blocking at test promote reliable within-list criterion shifts in recognition memory.

    Hicks, Jason L; Starns, Jeffrey J

    2014-07-01

    In seven experiments, we explored the potential for strength-based, within-list criterion shifts in recognition memory. People studied a mix of target words, some presented four times (strong) and others studied once (weak). In Experiments 1, 2, 4A, and 4B, the test was organized into alternating blocks of 10, 20, or 40 trials. Each block contained lures intermixed with strong targets only or weak targets only. In strength-cued conditions, test probes appeared in a unique font color for strong and weak blocks. In the uncued conditions of Experiments 1 and 2, similar strength blocks were tested, but strength was not cued with font color. False alarms to lures were lower in blocks containing strong target words, as compared with lures in blocks containing weak targets, but only when strength was cued with font color. Providing test feedback in Experiment 2 did not alter these results. In Experiments 3A-3C, test items were presented in a random order (i.e., not blocked by strength). Of these three experiments, only one demonstrated a significant shift even though strength cues were provided. Overall, the criterion shift was larger and more reliable as block size increased, and the shift occurred only when strength was cued with font color. These results clarify the factors that affect participants' willingness to change their response criterion within a test list.

  9. Translating working memory into action: behavioral and neural evidence for using motor representations in encoding visuo-spatial sequences.

    Langner, Robert; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Kellermann, Tanja S; Grefkes, Christian; Kurth, Florian; Schneider, Frank; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-07-01

    The neurobiological organization of action-oriented working memory is not well understood. To elucidate the neural correlates of translating visuo-spatial stimulus sequences into delayed (memory-guided) sequential actions, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants encoded sequences of four to seven dots appearing on fingers of a left or right schematic hand. After variable delays, sequences were to be reproduced with the corresponding fingers. Recall became less accurate with longer sequences and was initiated faster after long delays. Across both hands, encoding and recall activated bilateral prefrontal, premotor, superior and inferior parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia, whereas hand-specific activity was found (albeit to a lesser degree during encoding) in contralateral premotor, sensorimotor, and superior parietal cortex. Activation differences after long versus short delays were restricted to motor-related regions, indicating that rehearsal during long delays might have facilitated the conversion of the memorandum into concrete motor programs at recall. Furthermore, basal ganglia activity during encoding selectively predicted correct recall. Taken together, the results suggest that to-be-reproduced visuo-spatial sequences are encoded as prospective action representations (motor intentions), possibly in addition to retrospective sensory codes. Overall, our study supports and extends multi-component models of working memory, highlighting the notion that sensory input can be coded in multiple ways depending on what the memorandum is to be used for. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Neural correlates of memory encoding and recognition for own-race and other-race faces in an associative-memory task.

    Herzmann, Grit; Minor, Greta; Adkins, Makenzie

    2017-01-15

    The ability to recognize faces of family members, friends, and acquaintances plays an important role in our daily interactions. The other-race effect is the reduced ability to recognize other-race faces as compared to own-race faces. Previous studies showed different patterns of event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with recollection and familiarity during memory encoding (i.e., Dm) and recognition (i.e., parietal old/new effect) for own-race and other-race faces in a subjective-recollection task (remember-know judgments). The present study investigated the same neural correlates of the other-race effect in an associative-memory task, in which Caucasian and East Asian participants learned and recognized own-race and other-race faces along with background colors. Participants made more false alarms for other-race faces indicating lower memory performance. During the study phase, subsequently recognized other-race faces (with and without correct background information) elicited more positive mean amplitudes than own-race faces, suggesting increased neural activation during encoding of other-race faces. During the test phase, recollection-related old/new effects dissociated between own-race and other-race faces. Old/new effects were significant only for own-race but not for other-race faces, indicating that recognition only of own-race faces was supported by recollection and led to more detailed memory retrieval. Most of these results replicated previous studies that used a subjective-recollection task. Our study also showed that the increased demand on memory encoding during an associative-memory task led to Dm patterns that indicated similarly deep memory encoding for own-race and other-race faces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tau and β-Amyloid Are Associated with Medial Temporal Lobe Structure, Function, and Memory Encoding in Normal Aging

    Marks, Shawn M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Helen Wills Neuroscience Inst.; Lockhart, Samuel N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Helen Wills Neuroscience Inst.; Baker, Suzanne L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging; Jagust, William J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Helen Wills Neuroscience Inst.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging

    2017-03-22

    Normal aging is associated with a decline in episodic memory and also with aggregation of the β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau proteins and atrophy of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures crucial to memory formation. Although some evidence suggests that Aβ is associated with aberrant neural activity, the relationships among these two aggregated proteins, neural function, and brain structure are poorly understood. Using in vivo human Aβ and tau imaging, we demonstrate that increased Aβ and tau are both associated with aberrant fMRI activity in the MTL during memory encoding in cognitively normal older adults. This pathological neural activity was in turn associated with worse memory performance and atrophy within the MTL. A mediation analysis revealed that the relationship with regional atrophy was explained by MTL tau. These findings broaden the concept of cognitive aging to include evidence of Alzheimer’s disease-related protein aggregation as an underlying mechanism of age-related memory impairment.

  12. Dissociation and memory fragmentation in post-traumatic stress disorder: an evaluation of the dissociative encoding hypothesis.

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review we summarise the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus initial evidence points more towards a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation.

  13. The relationship between visual attention and visual working memory encoding: A dissociation between covert and overt orienting.

    Tas, A Caglar; Luck, Steven J; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    There is substantial debate over whether visual working memory (VWM) and visual attention constitute a single system for the selection of task-relevant perceptual information or whether they are distinct systems that can be dissociated when their representational demands diverge. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between visual attention and the encoding of objects into VWM. Participants performed a color change-detection task. During the retention interval, a secondary object, irrelevant to the memory task, was presented. Participants were instructed either to execute an overt shift of gaze to this object (Experiments 1-3) or to attend it covertly (Experiments 4 and 5). Our goal was to determine whether these overt and covert shifts of attention disrupted the information held in VWM. We hypothesized that saccades, which typically introduce a memorial demand to bridge perceptual disruption, would lead to automatic encoding of the secondary object. However, purely covert shifts of attention, which introduce no such demand, would not result in automatic memory encoding. The results supported these predictions. Saccades to the secondary object produced substantial interference with VWM performance, but covert shifts of attention to this object produced no interference with VWM performance. These results challenge prevailing theories that consider attention and VWM to reflect a common mechanism. In addition, they indicate that the relationship between attention and VWM is dependent on the memorial demands of the orienting behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Poly-dipeptides encoded by the C9ORF72 repeats block global protein translation.

    Kanekura, Kohsuke; Yagi, Takuya; Cammack, Alexander J; Mahadevan, Jana; Kuroda, Masahiko; Harms, Matthew B; Miller, Timothy M; Urano, Fumihiko

    2016-05-01

    The expansion of the GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in the non-coding region of the Chromosome 9 open-reading frame 72 (C9orf72) gene is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This genetic alteration leads to the accumulation of five types of poly-dipeptides translated from the GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat. Among these, poly-proline-arginine (poly-PR) and poly-glycine-arginine (poly-GR) peptides are known to be neurotoxic. However, the mechanisms of neurotoxicity associated with these poly-dipeptides are not clear. A proteomics approach identified a number of interacting proteins with poly-PR peptide, including mRNA-binding proteins, ribosomal proteins, translation initiation factors and translation elongation factors. Immunostaining of brain sections from patients with C9orf72 ALS showed that poly-GR was colocalized with a mRNA-binding protein, hnRNPA1. In vitro translation assays showed that poly-PR and poly-GR peptides made insoluble complexes with mRNA, restrained the access of translation factors to mRNA, and blocked protein translation. Our results demonstrate that impaired protein translation mediated by poly-PR and poly-GR peptides plays a role in neurotoxicity and reveal that the pathways altered by the poly-dipeptides-mRNA complexes are potential therapeutic targets for treatment of C9orf72 FTD/ALS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The antimetabolite ara-CTP blocks long-term memory of conditioned taste aversion.

    Wang, Jianpeng; Ren, Keqin; Pérez, Javier; Silva, Alcino J; Peña de Ortiz, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that processes related to DNA recombination and repair are involved in learning and memory. Rats received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of the antimetabolite 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine triphosphate (ara-CTP) or its precursor cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) 30 min prior to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training. Both ara-CTP and ara-C caused significant impairments in long-term memory (LTM) of CTA. Control experiments indicate that the effect of ara-CTP on CTA memory is related to interference with learning. Furthermore, as it was previously demonstrated for the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, ara-CTP had no effect on CTA memory when it was injected 1 h after training. Importantly, although both ara-CTP and anisomycin significantly blocked LTM in the task, short-term memory (STM) measured 1 h after training was not affected by either of the drugs. Finally, ara-CTP had no effect on in vitro transcription, but it did effectively block nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) activity of brain protein extracts. We suggest that DNA ligase-mediated DNA recombination and repair processes are necessary for the expression of LTM in the brain.

  16. Patterns of effective connectivity during memory encoding and retrieval differ between patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults.

    Hampstead, B M; Khoshnoodi, M; Yan, W; Deshpande, G; Sathian, K

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that there is considerable overlap in the neural networks mediating successful memory encoding and retrieval. However, little is known about how the relevant human brain regions interact during these distinct phases of memory or how such interactions are affected by memory deficits that characterize mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition that often precedes dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Here we employed multivariate Granger causality analysis using autoregressive modeling of inferred neuronal time series obtained by deconvolving the hemodynamic response function from measured blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) time series data, in order to examine the effective connectivity between brain regions during successful encoding and/or retrieval of object location associations in MCI patients and comparable healthy older adults. During encoding, healthy older adults demonstrated a left hemisphere dominant pattern where the inferior frontal junction, anterior intraparietal sulcus (likely involving the parietal eye fields), and posterior cingulate cortex drove activation in most left hemisphere regions and virtually every right hemisphere region tested. These regions are part of a frontoparietal network that mediates top-down cognitive control and is implicated in successful memory formation. In contrast, in the MCI patients, the right frontal eye field drove activation in every left hemisphere region examined, suggesting reliance on more basic visual search processes. Retrieval in the healthy older adults was primarily driven by the right hippocampus with lesser contributions of the right anterior thalamic nuclei and right inferior frontal sulcus, consistent with theoretical models holding the hippocampus as critical for the successful retrieval of memories. The pattern differed in MCI patients, in whom the right inferior frontal junction and right anterior thalamus drove successful memory retrieval, reflecting the

  17. Context reinstatement and memory for intrinsic versus extrinsic context: the role of item generation at encoding or retrieval.

    Nieznański, Marek

    2014-10-01

    According to many theoretical accounts, reinstating study context at the time of test creates optimal circumstances for item retrieval. The role of context reinstatement was tested in reference to context memory in several experiments. On the encoding phase, participants were presented with words printed in two different font colors (intrinsic context) or two different sides of the computer screen (extrinsic context). At test, the context was reinstated or changed and participants were asked to recognize words and recollect their study context. Moreover, a read-generate manipulation was introduced at encoding and retrieval, which was intended to influence the relative salience of item and context information. The results showed that context reinstatement had no effect on memory for extrinsic context but affected memory for intrinsic context when the item was generated at encoding and read at test. These results supported the hypothesis that context information is reconstructed at retrieval only when context was poorly encoded at study. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Influence of controlled encoding and retrieval facilitation on memory performance in patients with different profiles of mild cognitive impairment.

    Perri, Roberta; Monaco, Marco; Fadda, Lucia; Serra, Laura; Marra, Camillo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bruni, Amalia C; Curcio, Sabrina; Bozzali, M; Carlesimo, Giovanni A

    2015-01-01

    Memory tests able to differentiate encoding and retrieval processes from the memoranda storing ones should be used to differentiate patients in a very early phase of AD. In fact, individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be characterized by two different memory profiles: a pure amnestic one (with poor learning and retrieval and poor improvement when encoding is assisted and retrieval is facilitated) and a dysexecutive one (with inefficient encoding and/or poor retrieval strategies and improvement with assisted encoding and retrieval). The amnestic profile characterizes subjects affected by medio-temporal atrophy typical of AD. In this study, a Grober-Buschke memory procedure was used to evaluate normal controls and MCI patients with different cognitive profiles: pure amnestic (aMCIsd), amnestic plus other cognitive impairments (aMCImd) and non-amnestic (naMCI). An index of sensitivity of cueing (ISC) measured the advantage passing from free to cued recall. Results showed that both strategic and consolidation abilities were impaired in the aMCIsd and aMCImd groups and were preserved in the naMCI group. aMCImd, however, compensated the memory deficit with assisted encoding and retrieval, but aMCIsd performed very poorly. When MCI subjects were defined according to the ISC value, subjects with poor ISC were primarily in the aMCIsd group and, to a lesser extent, in the aMCImd group and the naMCI group. Finally, patients with a poor ISC showed cerebral atrophy documented in the precocious phase of AD and the retrosplenial cerebral areas seemed to be the most useful areas for identifying patients in the early phase of AD.

  19. Encoding and retrieval processes involved in the access of source information in the absence of item memory.

    Ball, B Hunter; DeWitt, Michael R; Knight, Justin B; Hicks, Jason L

    2014-09-01

    The current study sought to examine the relative contributions of encoding and retrieval processes in accessing contextual information in the absence of item memory using an extralist cuing procedure in which the retrieval cues used to query memory for contextual information were related to the target item but never actually studied. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants studied 1 category member (e.g., onion) from a variety of different categories and at test were presented with an unstudied category label (e.g., vegetable) to probe memory for item and source information. In Experiments 3 and 4, 1 member of unidirectional (e.g., credit or card) or bidirectional (e.g., salt or pepper) associates was studied, whereas the other unstudied member served as a test probe. When recall failed, source information was accessible only when items were processed deeply during encoding (Experiments 1 and 2) and when there was strong forward associative strength between the retrieval cue and target (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings suggest that a retrieval probe diagnostic of semantically related item information reinstantiates information bound in memory during encoding that results in reactivation of associated contextual information, contingent upon sufficient learning of the item itself and the association between the item and its context information.

  20. Cellular dynamical mechanisms for encoding the time and place of events along spatiotemporal trajectories in episodic memory.

    Hasselmo, Michael E; Giocomo, Lisa M; Brandon, Mark P; Yoshida, Motoharu

    2010-12-31

    Understanding the mechanisms of episodic memory requires linking behavioral data and lesion effects to data on the dynamics of cellular membrane potentials and population interactions within brain regions. Linking behavior to specific membrane channels and neurochemicals has implications for therapeutic applications. Lesions of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and subcortical nuclei impair episodic memory function in humans and animals, and unit recording data from these regions in behaving animals indicate episodic memory processes. Intracellular recording in these regions demonstrates specific cellular properties including resonance, membrane potential oscillations and bistable persistent spiking that could underlie the encoding and retrieval of episodic trajectories. A model presented here shows how intrinsic dynamical properties of neurons could mediate the encoding of episodic memories as complex spatiotemporal trajectories. The dynamics of neurons allow encoding and retrieval of unique episodic trajectories in multiple continuous dimensions including temporal intervals, personal location, the spatial coordinates and sensory features of perceived objects and generated actions, and associations between these elements. The model also addresses how cellular dynamics could underlie unit firing data suggesting mechanisms for coding continuous dimensions of space, time, sensation and action. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The location but not the attributes of visual cues are automatically encoded into working memory.

    Chen, Hui; Wyble, Brad

    2015-02-01

    Although it has been well known that visual cues affect the perception of subsequent visual stimuli, relatively little is known about how the cues themselves are processed. The present study attempted to characterize the processing of a visual cue by investigating what information about the cue is stored in terms of both location ("where" is the cue) and attributes ("what" are the attributes of the cue). In 11 experiments subjects performed several trials of reporting a target letter and then answered an unexpected question about the cue (e.g., the location, color, or identity of the cue). This surprise question revealed that participants could report the location of the cue even when the cue never indicated the target location and they were explicitly told to ignore it. Furthermore, the memory trace of this location information endured during encoding of the subsequent target. In contrast to location, attributes of the cue (e.g., color) were poorly reported, even for attributes that were used by subjects to perform the task. These results shed new light on the mechanisms underlying cueing effects and suggest also that the visual system may create empty object files in response to visual cues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Object-based encoding in visual working memory: a life span study.

    Zhang, Qiong; Shen, Mowei; Tang, Ning; Zhao, Guohua; Gao, Zaifeng

    2013-08-20

    Recent studies on development of visual working memory (VWM) predominantly focus on VWM capacity and spatial-based information filtering in VWM. Here we explored another new aspect of VWM development: object-based encoding (OBE), which refers to the fact that even if one feature dimension is required to be selected into VWM, the other irrelevant dimensions are also extracted. We explored the OBE in children, young adults, and old adults, by probing an "irrelevant-change distracting effect" in which a change of stored irrelevant feature dramatically affects the performance of task-relevant features in a change-detection task. Participants were required to remember two or four simple colored shapes, while color was used as the relevant dimension. We found that changes to irrelevant shapes led to a significant distracting effect across the three age groups in both load conditions; however, children showed a greater degree of OBE than did young and old adults. These results suggest that OBE exists in VWM over the life span (6-67 years), yet continues to develop along with VWM.

  3. A brain stress test: Cerebral perfusion during memory encoding in mild cognitive impairment.

    Xie, Long; Dolui, Sudipto; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stockbower, Grace E; Daffner, Molly; Rao, Hengyi; Yushkevich, Paul A; Detre, John A; Wolk, David A

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (ASL MRI) provides non-invasive quantification of cerebral blood flow, which can be used as a biomarker of brain function due to the tight coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain metabolism. A growing body of literature suggests that regional CBF is altered in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we examined ASL MRI CBF in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 65) and cognitively normal healthy controls (n = 62), both at rest and during performance of a memory-encoding task. As compared to rest, task-enhanced ASL MRI improved group discrimination, which supports the notion that physiologic measures during a cognitive challenge, or "stress test", may increase the ability to detect subtle functional changes in early disease stages. Further, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ASL MRI and concomitantly acquired structural MRI provide complementary information of disease status. The current findings support the potential utility of task-enhanced ASL MRI as a biomarker in early Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Mushroom body output neurons encode valence and guide memory-based action selection in Drosophila

    Aso, Yoshinori; Sitaraman, Divya; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Kaun, Karla R; Vogt, Katrin; Belliart-Guérin, Ghislain; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Robie, Alice A; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Schnaitmann, Christopher; Rowell, William J; Johnston, Rebecca M; Ngo, Teri-T B; Chen, Nan; Korff, Wyatt; Nitabach, Michael N; Heberlein, Ulrike; Preat, Thomas; Branson, Kristin M; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Rubin, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Animals discriminate stimuli, learn their predictive value and use this knowledge to modify their behavior. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) plays a key role in these processes. Sensory stimuli are sparsely represented by ∼2000 Kenyon cells, which converge onto 34 output neurons (MBONs) of 21 types. We studied the role of MBONs in several associative learning tasks and in sleep regulation, revealing the extent to which information flow is segregated into distinct channels and suggesting possible roles for the multi-layered MBON network. We also show that optogenetic activation of MBONs can, depending on cell type, induce repulsion or attraction in flies. The behavioral effects of MBON perturbation are combinatorial, suggesting that the MBON ensemble collectively represents valence. We propose that local, stimulus-specific dopaminergic modulation selectively alters the balance within the MBON network for those stimuli. Our results suggest that valence encoded by the MBON ensemble biases memory-based action selection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04580.001 PMID:25535794

  5. Power shifts track serial position and modulate encoding in human episodic memory.

    Serruya, Mijail D; Sederberg, Per B; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    The first events in a series exert a powerful influence on cognition and behavior in both humans and animals. This is known as the law of primacy. Here, we analyze the neural correlates of primacy in humans by analyzing electrocorticographic recordings in 84 neurosurgical patients as they studied and subsequently recalled lists of common words. We found that spectral power in the gamma frequency band (28-100 Hz) was elevated at the start of the list and gradually subsided, whereas lower frequency (2-8 Hz) delta and theta band power exhibited the opposite trend. This gradual shift in the power spectrum was found across a widespread network of brain regions. The degree to which the subsequent memory effect was modulated by list (serial) position was most pronounced in medial temporal lobe structures. These results suggest that globally increased gamma and decreased delta-theta spectral powers reflect a brain state that predisposes medial temporal lobe structures to enhance the encoding and maintenance of early list items.

  6. Encoding of rat working memory by power of multi-channel local field potentials via sparse non-negative matrix factorization

    Xu Liu; Tiao-Tiao Liu; Wen-Wen Bai; Hu Yi; Shuang-Yan Li; Xin Tian

    2013-01-01

    Working memory plays an important role in human cognition.This study investigated how working memory was encoded by the power of multi-channel local field potentials (LFPs) based on sparse nonnegative matrix factorization (SNMF).SNMF was used to extract features from LFPs recorded from the prefrontal cortex of four Sprague-Dawley rats during a memory task in a Y maze,with 10 trials for each rat.Then the power-increased LFP components were selected as working memory-related features and the other components were removed.After that,the inverse operation of SNMF was used to study the encoding of working memory in the timefrequency domain.We demonstrated that theta and gamma power increased significantly during the working memory task.The results suggested that postsynaptic activity was simulated well by the sparse activity model.The theta and gamma bands were meaningful for encoding working memory.

  7. Encoding-related brain activity dissociates between the recollective processes underlying successful recall and recognition: a subsequent-memory study.

    Sadeh, Talya; Maril, Anat; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2012-07-01

    The subsequent-memory (SM) paradigm uncovers brain mechanisms that are associated with mnemonic activity during encoding by measuring participants' neural activity during encoding and classifying the encoding trials according to performance in the subsequent retrieval phase. The majority of these studies have converged on the notion that the mechanism supporting recognition is mediated by familiarity and recollection. The process of recollection is often assumed to be a recall-like process, implying that the active search for the memory trace is similar, if not identical, for recall and recognition. Here we challenge this assumption and hypothesize - based on previous findings obtained in our lab - that the recollective processes underlying recall and recognition might show dissociative patterns of encoding-related brain activity. To this end, our design controlled for familiarity, thereby focusing on contextual, recollective processes. We found evidence for dissociative neurocognitive encoding mechanisms supporting subsequent-recall and subsequent-recognition. Specifically, the contrast of subsequent-recognition versus subsequent-recall revealed activation in the Parahippocampal cortex (PHc) and the posterior hippocampus--regions associated with contextual processing. Implications of our findings and their relation to current cognitive models of recollection are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensory mediation of memory blocking stressors in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Dalesman, Sarah; Karnik, Vikram; Lukowiak, Ken

    2011-08-01

    The great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is commonly used as a model species to study how stress affects the ability to form long-term memory (LTM); however, we still have little information about how the snail senses stressful stimuli. The osphradium is an external sensory organ that demonstrates electrophysiological responses to a variety of external chemical stimuli. We examined the role, if any, played by the osphradium in sensing two environmental stressors, crowding and low environmental calcium, both known to block LTM in intact animals. We severed the osphradial nerve, blocking external sensory input from this organ to the central nervous system, and then exposed the snails to low environmental calcium or crowding stress to assess whether these stressors continued to block LTM formation. When exposed to low environmental calcium, snails with their osphradial nerve severed responded as if they were maintained in our standard calcium environment. That is, they did not respond to low calcium as a stressor blocking LTM; therefore, the osphradium plays a crucial role in mediating how snails respond to this stressor. However, following crowding, LTM formation was blocked in both control groups and snails that had the osphradial nerve severed, indicating that sensory information from the osphradium is not required to sense crowded conditions. Together these data show that two stressors that result in the same behavioural phenotype, blocking LTM formation, do so via two distinct sensory pathways.

  9. FMRI activity during associative encoding is correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness and source memory performance in older adults

    Hayes, Scott M.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Williams, Victoria J.; Liu, Huiting; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Older adults (OA), relative to young adults (YA), exhibit age-related alterations in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) activity during associative encoding, which contributes to deficits in source memory. Yet, there are remarkable individual differences in brain health and memory performance among OA. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one individual difference factor that may attenuate brain aging, and thereby contribute to enhanced source memory in OA. To examine this possibility, 26 OA and 31 YA completed a treadmill-based exercise test to evaluate CRF (peak VO2) and fMRI to examine brain activation during a face-name associative encoding task. Our results indicated that in OA, peak VO2 was positively associated with fMRI activity during associative encoding in multiple regions including bilateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, bilateral thalamus and left hippocampus. Next, a conjunction analysis was conducted to assess whether CRF influenced age-related differences in fMRI activation. We classified OA as high or low CRF and compared their activation to YA. High fit OA (HFOA) showed fMRI activation more similar to YA than low fit OA (LFOA) (i.e., reduced age-related differences) in multiple regions including thalamus, posterior and prefrontal cortex. Conversely, in other regions, primarily in prefrontal cortex, HFOA, but not LFOA, demonstrated greater activation than YA (i.e., increased age-related differences). Further, fMRI activity in these brain regions was positively associated with source memory among OA, with a mediation model demonstrating that associative encoding activation in medial frontal cortex indirectly influenced the relationship between peak VO2 and subsequent source memory performance. These results indicate that CRF may contribute to neuroplasticity among OA, reducing age-related differences in some brain regions, consistent with the brain maintenance hypothesis, but accentuating age-differences in other regions

  10. FMRI activity during associative encoding is correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness and source memory performance in older adults.

    Hayes, Scott M; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Williams, Victoria J; Liu, Huiting; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2017-06-01

    Older adults (OA), relative to young adults (YA), exhibit age-related alterations in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) activity during associative encoding, which contributes to deficits in source memory. Yet, there are remarkable individual differences in brain health and memory performance among OA. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one individual difference factor that may attenuate brain aging, and thereby contribute to enhanced source memory in OA. To examine this possibility, 26 OA and 31 YA completed a treadmill-based exercise test to evaluate CRF (peak VO 2 ) and fMRI to examine brain activation during a face-name associative encoding task. Our results indicated that in OA, peak VO 2 was positively associated with fMRI activity during associative encoding in multiple regions including bilateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, bilateral thalamus and left hippocampus. Next, a conjunction analysis was conducted to assess whether CRF influenced age-related differences in fMRI activation. We classified OA as high or low CRF and compared their activation to YA. High fit OA (HFOA) showed fMRI activation more similar to YA than low fit OA (LFOA) (i.e., reduced age-related differences) in multiple regions including thalamus, posterior and prefrontal cortex. Conversely, in other regions, primarily in prefrontal cortex, HFOA, but not LFOA, demonstrated greater activation than YA (i.e., increased age-related differences). Further, fMRI activity in these brain regions was positively associated with source memory among OA, with a mediation model demonstrating that associative encoding activation in medial frontal cortex indirectly influenced the relationship between peak VO 2 and subsequent source memory performance. These results indicate that CRF may contribute to neuroplasticity among OA, reducing age-related differences in some brain regions, consistent with the brain maintenance hypothesis, but accentuating age-differences in other regions

  11. Blocking Dopaminergic Signaling Soon after Learning Impairs Memory Consolidation in Guinea Pigs.

    Kiera-Nicole Lee

    Full Text Available Formation of episodic memories (i.e. remembered experiences requires a process called consolidation which involves communication between the neocortex and hippocampus. However, the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying this neocortico-hippocampal communication are poorly understood. Here, we examined the involvement of dopamine D1 receptors (D1R and D2 receptors (D2R mediated signaling on memory consolidation using the Novel Object Recognition (NOR test. We conducted the tests in male Hartley guinea pigs and cognitive behaviors were assessed in customized Phenotyper home cages utilizing Ethovision XT software from Noldus enabled for the 3-point detection system (nose, center of the body, and rear. We found that acute intraperitoneal injections of either 0.25 mg/kg SCH23390 to block D1Rs or 1.0 mg/kg sulpiride to block D2Rs soon after acquisition (which involved familiarization to two similar objects attenuated subsequent discrimination for novel objects when tested after 5-hours in the NOR test. By contrast guinea pigs treated with saline showed robust discrimination for novel objects indicating normal operational processes undergirding memory consolidation. The data suggests that involvement of dopaminergic signaling is a key post-acquisition factor in modulating memory consolidation in guinea pigs.

  12. pH Memory Effects of Tunable Block Copolymer Photonic Gels and Their Applications

    Kang, Youngjong; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2007-03-01

    Materials with hysteresis, showing a bistable state to the external stimuli, have been widely investigated due to their potential applications. For example, they could be used as memory devices or optical switches when they have magnetic or optical hysteresis response to the external stimuli. Here we report pH tunable photonic gels which are spontaneously assembled from block copolymers. The general idea of this research is based on the selective swelling of block copolymer lamellar mesogels, where the solubility of one block is responsive to the change of pH. In this system, the domain spacing of the lamellar is varied with the extent of swelling. As a model system, we used protonated polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinly pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymers forming lamellar structures. The photonic gel films prepared from protonated PS-b-P2VP show a strong reflectance in aqueous solution and the band position was varied with pH. Interestingly, a very strong optical hysteresis was observed while the reflection band of photonic gels was tuned by changing pH. We anticipate that pH tunable photonic gels with hysteresis can be applicable to novel applications such as a component of memory devices, photonic switches or drug delivery vehicles.

  13. Divided attention can enhance early-phase memory encoding: the attentional boost effect and study trial duration.

    Mulligan, Neil W; Spataro, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Divided attention during encoding typically produces marked reductions in later memory. The attentional boost effect (ABE) is a surprising variation on this phenomenon. In this paradigm, each study stimulus (e.g., a word) is presented along with a target or a distractor (e.g., different colored circles) in a detection task. Later memory is better for stimuli co-occurring with targets. The present experiments indicate that the ABE arises during an early phase of memory encoding that involves initial stimulus perception and comprehension rather than at a later phase entailing controlled, elaborative rehearsal. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the ABE was robust at a short study duration (700 ms) and did not increase with increasing study trial durations (1,500 ms and 4,000 ms). Furthermore, the target condition is boosted to the level of memory performance in a full-attention condition for the short duration but not the long duration. Both results followed from the early-phase account. This account also predicts that for very short study times (limiting the influence of late-phase controlled encoding and thus minimizing the usual negative effect of divided attention), the target condition will produce better memory than will the full-attention condition. Experiment 2 used a study time of 400 ms and found that words presented with targets lead to greater recognition accuracy than do either words presented with distractors or words in the full-attention condition. Consistent with the early-phase account, a divided attention condition actually produced superior memory than did the full-attention condition, a very unusual but theoretically predicted result. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Medial prefrontal-hippocampal connectivity during emotional memory encoding predicts individual differences in the loss of associative memory specificity

    Berkers, R.M.W.J.; Klumpers, F.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionally charged items are often remembered better, whereas a paradoxical loss of specificity is found for associative emotional information (specific memory). The balance between specific and generalized emotional memories appears to show large individual differences, potentially related to

  15. Medial prefrontal–hippocampal connectivity during emotional memory encoding predicts individual differences in the loss of associative memory specificity

    Berkers, R.M.W.J.; Klumpers, F.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionally charged items are often remembered better, whereas a paradoxical loss of specificity is found for associative emotional information (specific memory). The balance between specific and generalized emotional memories appears to show large individual differences, potentially related to

  16. The dual effect of context on memory of related and unrelated themes: discrimination at encoding and cue at retrieval.

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Vakil, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The influence of contextual factors on encoding and retrieval in recognition memory was investigated using a retroactive interference paradigm. Participants were randomly assigned to four context conditions constructed by manipulating types of presentation modality (pictures vs words) for study, interference, and test stages, respectively (ABA, ABB, AAA, & AAB). In Experiment 1 we presented unrelated items in the study and interference stages, while in Experiment 2 each stage contained items from the same semantic category. The results demonstrate a dual role for context in memory processes-at encoding as well as at retrieval. In Experiment 1 there is a hierarchical order between the four context conditions, depending on both target-test and target-interference contextual similarity. Adding a categorical context in Experiment 2 helped to specify each list and therefore better distinguish between target and interferer information, and in some conditions compensated for their perceptual similarity.

  17. Saccades phase-locked to alpha oscillations in the occipital and medial temporal lobe enhance memory encoding

    Noachtar, Soheyl; Doeller, Christian; Jensen, Ole; Hartl, Elisabeth; Staudigl, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Efficient sampling of visual information requires a coordination of eye movements and ongoing brain oscillations. Using intracranial and MEG recordings, we show that saccades are locked to the phase of visual alpha oscillations, and that this coordination supports mnemonic encoding of visual scenes. Furthermore, parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortex involvement in this coordination reflects effective vision-to-memory mapping, highlighting the importance of neural oscillations for the inter...

  18. The attentional blink reveals serial working memory encoding: evidence from virtual and human event-related potentials.

    Craston, Patrick; Wyble, Brad; Chennu, Srivas; Bowman, Howard

    2009-03-01

    Observers often miss a second target (T2) if it follows an identified first target item (T1) within half a second in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), a finding termed the attentional blink. If two targets are presented in immediate succession, however, accuracy is excellent (Lag 1 sparing). The resource sharing hypothesis proposes a dynamic distribution of resources over a time span of up to 600 msec during the attentional blink. In contrast, the ST(2) model argues that working memory encoding is serial during the attentional blink and that, due to joint consolidation, Lag 1 is the only case where resources are shared. Experiment 1 investigates the P3 ERP component evoked by targets in RSVP. The results suggest that, in this context, P3 amplitude is an indication of bottom-up strength rather than a measure of cognitive resource allocation. Experiment 2, employing a two-target paradigm, suggests that T1 consolidation is not affected by the presentation of T2 during the attentional blink. However, if targets are presented in immediate succession (Lag 1 sparing), they are jointly encoded into working memory. We use the ST(2) model's neural network implementation, which replicates a range of behavioral results related to the attentional blink, to generate "virtual ERPs" by summing across activation traces. We compare virtual to human ERPs and show how the results suggest a serial nature of working memory encoding as implied by the ST(2) model.

  19. Input from the medial geniculate nucleus modulates amygdala encoding of fear memory discrimination.

    Ferrara, Nicole C; Cullen, Patrick K; Pullins, Shane P; Rotondo, Elena K; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2017-09-01

    Generalization of fear can involve abnormal responding to cues that signal safety and is common in people diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. Differential auditory fear conditioning can be used as a tool to measure changes in fear discrimination and generalization. Most prior work in this area has focused on elevated amygdala activity as a critical component underlying generalization. The amygdala receives input from auditory cortex as well as the medial geniculate nucleus (MgN) of the thalamus, and these synapses undergo plastic changes in response to fear conditioning and are major contributors to the formation of memory related to both safe and threatening cues. The requirement for MgN protein synthesis during auditory discrimination and generalization, as well as the role of MgN plasticity in amygdala encoding of discrimination or generalization, have not been directly tested. GluR1 and GluR2 containing AMPA receptors are found at synapses throughout the amygdala and their expression is persistently up-regulated after learning. Some of these receptors are postsynaptic to terminals from MgN neurons. We found that protein synthesis-dependent plasticity in MgN is necessary for elevated freezing to both aversive and safe auditory cues, and that this is accompanied by changes in the expressions of AMPA receptor and synaptic scaffolding proteins (e.g., SHANK) at amygdala synapses. This work contributes to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying increased fear to safety signals after stress. © 2017 Ferrara et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. To boost or to CRUNCH? Effect of effortful encoding on episodic memory in older adults is dependent on executive functioning.

    Li Fu

    Full Text Available It is essential to develop effective interventions aimed at ameliorating age-related cognitive decline. Previous studies found that effortful encoding benefits episodic memory in older adults. However, to date it is unclear whether this benefit is different for individuals with strong versus weak executive functioning (EF. Fifty-one older adults were recruited and divided into low (N = 26 and high (N = 25 functioning groups, based on their EF capacity. All participants performed a semantic and a perceptual incidental encoding task. Each encoding task was performed under four difficulty levels to establish different effort levels. Encoding was followed by a recognition task. Results showed that the high EF group benefitted from increased effort in both tasks. However, the low EF group only showed a beneficial effect under low levels of effort. Results are consistent with the Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis (CRUNCH and suggest that future research directed at developing efficient memory strategies to reduce negative cognitive aging effects should take individual cognitive differences among older adults into account, such as differences in EF.

  1. Value-based modulation of memory encoding involves strategic engagement of fronto-temporal semantic processing regions.

    Cohen, Michael S; Rissman, Jesse; Suthana, Nanthia A; Castel, Alan D; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2014-06-01

    A number of prior fMRI studies have focused on the ways in which the midbrain dopaminergic reward system coactivates with hippocampus to potentiate memory for valuable items. However, another means by which people could selectively remember more valuable to-be-remembered items is to be selective in their use of effective but effortful encoding strategies. To broadly examine the neural mechanisms of value on subsequent memory, we used fMRI to assess how differences in brain activity at encoding as a function of value relate to subsequent free recall for words. Each word was preceded by an arbitrarily assigned point value, and participants went through multiple study-test cycles with feedback on their point total at the end of each list, allowing for sculpting of cognitive strategies. We examined the correlation between value-related modulation of brain activity and participants' selectivity index, which measures how close participants were to their optimal point total, given the number of items recalled. Greater selectivity scores were associated with greater differences in the activation of semantic processing regions, including left inferior frontal gyrus and left posterior lateral temporal cortex, during the encoding of high-value words relative to low-value words. Although we also observed value-related modulation within midbrain and ventral striatal reward regions, our fronto-temporal findings suggest that strategic engagement of deep semantic processing may be an important mechanism for selectively encoding valuable items.

  2. Value-based modulation of memory encoding involves strategic engagement of fronto-temporal semantic processing regions

    Cohen, Michael S.; Rissman, Jesse; Suthana, Nanthia A.; Castel, Alan D.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of prior fMRI studies have focused on the ways in which the midbrain dopaminergic reward system co-activates with hippocampus to potentiate memory for valuable items. However, another means by which people could selectively remember more valuable to-be-remembered items is to be selective in their use of effective but effortful encoding strategies. To broadly examine the neural mechanisms of value on subsequent memory, we used fMRI to examine how differences in brain activity at encoding as a function of value relate to subsequent free recall for words. Each word was preceded by an arbitrarily assigned point value, and participants went through multiple study-test cycles with feedback on their point total at the end of each list, allowing for sculpting of cognitive strategies. We examined the correlation between value-related modulation of brain activity and participants’ selectivity index, a measure of how close participants were to their optimal point total given the number of items recalled. Greater selectivity scores were associated with greater differences in activation of semantic processing regions, including left inferior frontal gyrus and left posterior lateral temporal cortex, during encoding of high-value words relative to low-value words. Although we also observed value-related modulation within midbrain and ventral striatal reward regions, our fronto-temporal findings suggest that strategic engagement of deep semantic processing may be an important mechanism for selectively encoding valuable items. PMID:24683066

  3. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features.

  4. Pushing Memory Bandwidth Limitations Through Efficient Implementations of Block-Krylov Space Solvers on GPUs

    Clark, M. A. [NVIDIA Corp., Santa Clara; Strelchenko, Alexei [Fermilab; Vaquero, Alejandro [Utah U.; Wagner, Mathias [NVIDIA Corp., Santa Clara; Weinberg, Evan [Boston U.

    2017-10-26

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics simulations in nuclear physics have benefited from a tremendous number of algorithmic advances such as multigrid and eigenvector deflation. These improve the time to solution but do not alleviate the intrinsic memory-bandwidth constraints of the matrix-vector operation dominating iterative solvers. Batching this operation for multiple vectors and exploiting cache and register blocking can yield a super-linear speed up. Block-Krylov solvers can naturally take advantage of such batched matrix-vector operations, further reducing the iterations to solution by sharing the Krylov space between solves. However, practical implementations typically suffer from the quadratic scaling in the number of vector-vector operations. Using the QUDA library, we present an implementation of a block-CG solver on NVIDIA GPUs which reduces the memory-bandwidth complexity of vector-vector operations from quadratic to linear. We present results for the HISQ discretization, showing a 5x speedup compared to highly-optimized independent Krylov solves on NVIDIA's SaturnV cluster.

  5. Involvement of hippocampal NMDA receptors in encoding and consolidation, but not retrieval, processes of spontaneous object location memory in rats.

    Yamada, Kazuo; Arai, Misaki; Suenaga, Toshiko; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-07-28

    The hippocampus is thought to be involved in object location recognition memory, yet the contribution of hippocampal NMDA receptors to the memory processes, such as encoding, retention and retrieval, is unknown. First, we confirmed that hippocampal infusion of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, 20-40nmol), impaired performance of spontaneous object location recognition test but not that of novel object recognition test in Wistar rats. Next, the effects of hippocampal AP5 treatment on each process of object location recognition memory were examined with three different injection times using a 120min delay-interposed test: 15min before the sample phase (Time I), immediately after the sample phase (Time II), and 15min before the test phase (Time III). The blockade of hippocampal NMDA receptors before and immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, markedly impaired performance of object location recognition test, suggesting that hippocampal NMDA receptors play an important role in encoding and consolidation/retention, but not retrieval, of spontaneous object location memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hy...

  7. Blocking Synaptic Removal of GluA2-Containing AMPA Receptors Prevents the Natural Forgetting of Long-Term Memories.

    Migues, Paola Virginia; Liu, Lidong; Archbold, Georgina E B; Einarsson, Einar Ö; Wong, Jacinda; Bonasia, Kyra; Ko, Seung Hyun; Wang, Yu Tian; Hardt, Oliver

    2016-03-23

    The neurobiological processes underpinning the natural forgetting of long-term memories are poorly understood. Based on the critical role of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (GluA2/AMPARs) in long-term memory persistence, we tested in rats whether their synaptic removal underpins time-dependent memory loss. We found that blocking GluA2/AMPAR removal with the interference peptides GluA23Y or G2CT in the dorsal hippocampus during a memory retention interval prevented the normal forgetting of established, long-term object location memories, but did not affect their acquisition. The same intervention also preserved associative memories of food-reward conditioned place preference that would otherwise be lost over time. We then explored whether this forgetting process could play a part in behavioral phenomena involving time-dependent memory change. We found that infusing GluA23Y into the dorsal hippocampus during a 2 week retention interval blocked generalization of contextual fear expression, whereas infusing it into the infralimbic cortex after extinction of auditory fear prevented spontaneous recovery of the conditioned response. Exploring possible physiological mechanisms that could be involved in this form of memory decay, we found that bath application of GluA23Y prevented depotentiation, but not induction of long-term potentiation, in a hippocampal slice preparation. Together, these findings suggest that a decay-like forgetting process that involves the synaptic removal of GluA2/AMPARs erases consolidated long-term memories in the hippocampus and other brain structures over time. This well regulated forgetting process may critically contribute to establishing adaptive behavior, whereas its dysregulation could promote the decline of memory and cognition in neuropathological disorders. The neurobiological mechanisms involved in the natural forgetting of long-term memory and its possible functions are not fully understood. Based on our previous work describing the

  8. Sustaining prospective memory functioning in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A lifespan approach to the critical role of encoding.

    Pereira, Antonina; Altgassen, Mareike; Atchison, Lesley; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Ellis, Judi

    2018-04-16

    Prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember to perform future activities, is a fundamental requirement for independent living. PM tasks pervade our daily lives, and PM failures represent one of the most prominent memory concerns across the entire life span. This study aimed to address this issue by exploring the potential benefits of specific encoding strategies on memory for intentions across healthy adulthood and in the early stages of cognitive impairment. PM performance was explored through an experimental paradigm in 96 participants: 32 amnestic mild cognitively impaired patients aged 64-87 years (M = 6.75, SD = 5.88), 32 healthy older adults aged 62-84 years (M = 76.06, SD = 6.03), and 32 younger adults 18-22 years (M = 19.75, SD = 1.16). The potential benefit of the use of enactment (i.e., physically simulating the intended action) at encoding to support an autonomous performance despite neuronal degeneration was assessed. PM was consistently identified as a sensitive and specific indicator of cognitive impairment. Importantly, enacted encoding was consistently beneficial for PM performance of all the participants, but especially so in the case of healthy and cognitively impaired older adults. These positive results have unveiled the potential of this encoding technique to optimize attentional demands through an adaptive allocation of strategic resources across both healthy and cognitively impaired samples. Theoretical implications of this work are discussed as well as the considerable translational potential to improve social well-being. A better understanding of the strategies that can enhance PM offers the potential for cost-effective and widely applicable tools which may support independent living across the adult life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Cortical activation patterns during long-term memory retrieval of visually or haptically encoded objects and locations.

    Stock, Oliver; Röder, Brigitte; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Rösler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to delineate cortical networks that are activated when objects or spatial locations encoded either visually (visual encoding group, n=10) or haptically (haptic encoding group, n=10) had to be retrieved from long-term memory. Participants learned associations between auditorily presented words and either meaningless objects or locations in a 3-D space. During the retrieval phase one day later, participants had to decide whether two auditorily presented words shared an association with a common object or location. Thus, perceptual stimulation during retrieval was always equivalent, whereas either visually or haptically encoded object or location associations had to be reactivated. Moreover, the number of associations fanning out from each word varied systematically, enabling a parametric increase of the number of reactivated representations. Recall of visual objects predominantly activated the left superior frontal gyrus and the intraparietal cortex, whereas visually learned locations activated the superior parietal cortex of both hemispheres. Retrieval of haptically encoded material activated the left medial frontal gyrus and the intraparietal cortex in the object condition, and the bilateral superior parietal cortex in the location condition. A direct test for modality-specific effects showed that visually encoded material activated more vision-related areas (BA 18/19) and haptically encoded material more motor and somatosensory-related areas. A conjunction analysis identified supramodal and material-unspecific activations within the medial and superior frontal gyrus and the superior parietal lobe including the intraparietal sulcus. These activation patterns strongly support the idea that code-specific representations are consolidated and reactivated within anatomically distributed cell assemblies that comprise sensory and motor processing systems.

  10. Distinct neural correlates of associative working memory and long-term memory encoding in the medial temporal lobe

    Bergmann, H.C.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a role for the hippocampus not only in long-term memory (LTM) but also in relational working memory (WM) processes, challenging the view of the hippocampus as being solely involved in episodic LTM. However, hippocampal involvement reported in some neuroimaging studies

  11. Memory for Emotional Words in the First and the Second Language: Effects of the Encoding Task

    Ferre, Pilar; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Fraga, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Emotional words are better remembered than neutral words in the first language. Ferre, Garcia, Fraga, Sanchez-Casas and Molero (2010) found this emotional effect also for second language words by using an encoding task focused on emotionality. The aim of the present study was to test whether the same effect can also be observed with encoding tasks…

  12. Memory in pregnancy and post-partum: Item specific and relational encoding processes in recall and recognition.

    Spataro, Pietro; Saraulli, Daniele; Oriolo, Debora; Costanzi, Marco; Zanetti, Humberto; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2016-08-01

    It has been recently proposed that pregnant women would perform memory tasks by focusing more on item-specific processes and less on relational processing, compared to post-partum women (Mickes, Wixted, Shapiro & Scarff, ). The present cross-sectional study tested this hypothesis by directly manipulating the type of encoding employed in the study phase. Pregnant, post-partum and control women either rated the pleasantness of word meaning (which induced item-specific elaboration) or named the semantic category to which they belonged (which induced relational elaboration). Memory for the encoded words was later tested in free recall (which emphasizes relational processing) and in recognition (which emphasizes item-specific processing). In line with Mickes et al.'s () conclusions, pregnant women in the item-specific condition performed worse than post-partum women in the relational condition in free recall, but not in recognition. However, compared to the other two groups, pregnant women also exhibited lower recognition accuracy in the item-specific condition. Overall, these results confirm that pregnant women rely on relational encoding less than post-partum women, but additionally suggest that the former group might use item-specific processes less efficiently than post-partum and control women. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The parietal cortices participate in encoding, short-term memory, and decision-making related to tactile shape.

    Rojas-Hortelano, Eduardo; Concha, Luis; de Lafuente, Victor

    2014-10-15

    We routinely identify objects with our hands, and the physical attributes of touched objects are often held in short-term memory to aid future decisions. However, the brain structures that selectively process tactile information to encode object shape are not fully identified. In this article we describe the areas within the human cerebral cortex that specialize in encoding, short-term memory, and decision-making related to the shape of objects explored with the hand. We performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects performing a shape discrimination task in which two sequentially presented objects had to be explored to determine whether they had the same shape or not. To control for low-level and nonspecific brain activations, subjects performed a temperature discrimination task in which they compared the temperature of two spheres. Our results show that although a large network of brain structures is engaged in somatosensory processing, it is the areas lining the intraparietal sulcus that selectively participate in encoding, maintaining, and deciding on tactile information related to the shape of objects. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Imbalance of incidental encoding across tasks: An explanation for non-memory-related hippocampal activations?

    Reas, Emilie T.; Brewer, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have increasingly noted hippocampal activation associated with a variety of cognitive functions such as decision-making, attention, perception, incidental learning, prediction and working memory, which have little apparent relation to declarative memory. Such findings might be difficult to reconcile with classical hippocampal lesion studies that show remarkable sparing of cognitive functions outside the realm of declarative memory. Even the oft-reported hippoca...

  15. Obligatory encoding of task-irrelevant features depletes working memory resources

    Marshall, Louise; Bays, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention is often considered the “gateway” to visual working memory (VWM). However, the extent to which we can voluntarily control which of an object's features enter memory remains subject to debate. Recent research has converged on the concept of VWM as a limited commodity distributed between elements of a visual scene. Consequently, as memory load increases, the fidelity with which each visual feature is stored decreases. Here we used changes in recall precision to probe whether...

  16. Episodic Short-Term Recognition Requires Encoding into Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Probe Recognition after Letter Report.

    Poth, Christian H; Schneider, Werner X

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is organized in discrete processing episodes (e.g., eye fixations or task-steps). Object information must be transmitted across episodes to enable episodic short-term recognition: recognizing whether a current object has been seen in a previous episode. We ask whether episodic short-term recognition presupposes that objects have been encoded into capacity-limited visual working memory (VWM), which retains visual information for report. Alternatively, it could rely on the activation of visual features or categories that occurs before encoding into VWM. We assessed the dependence of episodic short-term recognition on VWM by a new paradigm combining letter report and probe recognition. Participants viewed displays of 10 letters and reported as many as possible after a retention interval (whole report). Next, participants viewed a probe letter and indicated whether it had been one of the 10 letters (probe recognition). In Experiment 1, probe recognition was more accurate for letters that had been encoded into VWM (reported letters) compared with non-encoded letters (non-reported letters). Interestingly, those letters that participants reported in their whole report had been near to one another within the letter displays. This suggests that the encoding into VWM proceeded in a spatially clustered manner. In Experiment 2, participants reported only one of 10 letters (partial report) and probes either referred to this letter, to letters that had been near to it, or far from it. Probe recognition was more accurate for near than for far letters, although none of these letters had to be reported. These findings indicate that episodic short-term recognition is constrained to a small number of simultaneously presented objects that have been encoded into VWM.

  17. Episodic Short-Term Recognition Requires Encoding into Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Probe Recognition after Letter Report

    Christian H. Poth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human vision is organized in discrete processing episodes (e.g. eye fixations or task-steps. Object information must be transmitted across episodes to enable episodic short-term recognition: recognizing whether a current object has been seen in a previous episode. We ask whether episodic short-term recognition presupposes that objects have been encoded into capacity-limited visual working memory (VWM, which retains visual information for report. Alternatively, it could rely on the activation of visual features or categories that occurs before encoding into VWM. We assessed the dependence of episodic short-term recognition on VWM by a new paradigm combining letter report and probe recognition. Participants viewed displays of ten letters and reported as many as possible after a retention interval (whole report. Next, participants viewed a probe letter and indicated whether it had been one of the ten letters (probe recognition. In Experiment 1, probe recognition was more accurate for letters that had been encoded into VWM (reported letters compared with non-encoded letters (non-reported letters. Interestingly, those letters that participants reported in their whole report had been near to one another within the letter displays. This suggests that the encoding into VWM proceeded in a spatially clustered manner. In Experiment 2 participants reported only one of ten letters (partial report and probes either referred to this letter, to letters that had been near to it, or far from it. Probe recognition was more accurate for near than for far letters, although none of these letters had to be reported. These findings indicate that episodic short-term recognition is constrained to a small number of simultaneously presented objects that have been encoded into VWM.

  18. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The list-composition effect in memory for emotional and neutral pictures: Differential contribution of ventral and dorsal attention networks to successful encoding

    Barnacle, Gemma; Montaldi, Daniela; Talmi, Deborah; Sommer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) is observed in immediate free-recall memory tests when emotional and neutral stimuli are encoded and tested together (“mixed lists”), but surprisingly, not when they are encoded and tested separately (“pure lists”). Here our aim was to investigate whether the effect of list-composition (mixed versus pure lists) on the EEM is due to differential allocation of attention. We scanned participants with fMRI during encoding of semantically-related emotional...

  20. Violent and sexual media impair second-language memory during encoding and retrieval

    Lull, R.B.; Cetin, Y.; Bushman, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to media containing violence and sex impairs attention and memory. Learning a foreign language is one domain in which attention and memory are critical. Two experiments addressed whether exposure to media containing violence and sex interferes with foreign-language

  1. A dream model: Reactivation and re-encoding mechanisms for sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    Kachergis, G.E.; Kleijn, R. de; Hommel, B.; Papafragou, A.; Grodner, D.; Mirman, D.; Trueswell, J.

    2016-01-01

    We humans spend almost a third of our lives asleep, and there is mounting evidence that sleep not only maintains, but actually improves many of our cognitive functions. Memory consolidation - the process of crystallizing and integrating memories into knowledge and skills - is particularly benefitted

  2. A Buffer Model of Memory Encoding and Temporal Correlations in Retrieval

    Lehman, Melissa; Malmberg, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Atkinson and Shiffrin's (1968) dual-store model of memory includes structural aspects of memory along with control processes. The rehearsal buffer is a process by which items are kept in mind and long-term episodic traces are formed. The model has been both influential and controversial. Here, we describe a novel variant of Atkinson and Shiffrin's…

  3. Processing Depth, Elaboration of Encoding, Memory Stores, and Expended Processing Capacity.

    Eysenck, Michael W.; Eysenck, M. Christine

    1979-01-01

    The effects of several factors on expended processing capacity were measured. Expended processing capacity was greater when information was retrieved from secondary memory than from primary memory, when processing was of a deep, semantic nature than when it was shallow and physical, and when processing was more elaborate. (Author/GDC)

  4. The list-composition effect in memory for emotional and neutral pictures: Differential contribution of ventral and dorsal attention networks to successful encoding.

    Barnacle, Gemma E; Montaldi, Daniela; Talmi, Deborah; Sommer, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    The Emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) is observed in immediate free-recall memory tests when emotional and neutral stimuli are encoded and tested together ("mixed lists"), but surprisingly, not when they are encoded and tested separately ("pure lists"). Here our aim was to investigate whether the effect of list-composition (mixed versus pure lists) on the EEM is due to differential allocation of attention. We scanned participants with fMRI during encoding of semantically-related emotional (negative valence only) and neutral pictures. Analysis of memory performance data replicated previous work, demonstrating an interaction between list composition and emotional valence. In mixed lists, neural subsequent memory effects in the dorsal attention network were greater for neutral stimulus encoding, while neural subsequent memory effects for emotional stimuli were found in a region associated with the ventral attention network. These results imply that when life experiences include both emotional and neutral elements, memory for the latter is more highly correlated with neural activity representing goal-directed attention processing at encoding. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a role in self-initiated elaborative cognitive processing during episodic memory encoding: rTMS evidence.

    Colin Hawco

    Full Text Available During episodic memory encoding, elaborative cognitive processing can improve later recall or recognition. While multiple studies examined the neural correlates of encoding strategies, few studies have explicitly focused on the self-initiation of elaborative encoding. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, a method which can transiently disrupt neural activity, was administered during an associative encoding task. rTMS was either applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or to the vertex (a control region not involved in memory encoding during presentation of pairs of words. Pairs could be semantically related or not related. Two encoding instructions were given, either cueing participants to analyze semantic relationships (cued condition, or to memorize the pair without any specific strategy cues (the self-initiated condition. Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding their use of memory strategies and performed a cued-recall task. We hypothesized that if the DLPFC plays a role in the self-initiation of elaborative encoding we would observe a reduction in memory performance in the self-initiated condition, particularly for related. We found a significant correlation between the effects of rTMS and strategy use, only in the self-initiated condition with related pairs. High strategy users showed reduced performance following DLPFC stimulation, while low strategy users tended to show increased recall following DLPFC stimulation during encoding. These results suggest the left DLPFC may be involved in the self-initiation of memory strategy use, and individuals may utilize different neural networks depending on their use of encoding strategies.

  6. Enhanced recognition memory after incidental encoding in children with developmental dyslexia.

    Martina Hedenius

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia (DD has previously been associated with a number of cognitive deficits. Little attention has been directed to cognitive functions that remain intact in the disorder, though the investigation and identification of such strengths might be useful for developing new, and improving current, therapeutical interventions. In this study, an old/new recognition memory paradigm was used to examine previously untested aspects of declarative memory in children with DD and typically developing control children. The DD group was not only not impaired at the task, but actually showed superior recognition memory, as compared to the control children. These findings complement previous reports of enhanced cognition in other domains (e.g., visuo-spatial processing in DD. Possible underlying mechanisms for the observed DD advantage in declarative memory, and the possibility of compensation by this system for reading deficits in dyslexia, are discussed.

  7. Sensory memory for odors is encoded in spontaneous correlated activity between olfactory glomeruli.

    Galán, Roberto F; Weidert, Marcel; Menzel, Randolf; Herz, Andreas V M; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Sensory memory is a short-lived persistence of a sensory stimulus in the nervous system, such as iconic memory in the visual system. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying olfactory sensory memory. We have therefore analyzed the effect of odor stimuli on the first odor-processing network in the honeybee brain, the antennal lobe, which corresponds to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We stained output neurons with a calcium-sensitive dye and measured across-glomerular patterns of spontaneous activity before and after a stimulus. Such a single-odor presentation changed the relative timing of spontaneous activity across glomeruli in accordance with Hebb's theory of learning. Moreover, during the first few minutes after odor presentation, correlations between the spontaneous activity fluctuations suffice to reconstruct the stimulus. As spontaneous activity is ubiquitous in the brain, modifiable fluctuations could provide an ideal substrate for Hebbian reverberations and sensory memory in other neural systems.

  8. Deeper processing is beneficial during episodic memory encoding for adults with Williams syndrome.

    Greer, J.; Hamilton, C.; Riby, D. M.; Riby, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research exploring declarative memory in Williams syndrome (WS) has revealed impairment in the processing of episodic information accompanied by a relative strength in semantic ability. The aim of the current study was to extend this literature by examining how relatively spared semantic memory may support episodic remembering. Using a level of processing paradigm, older adults with WS (aged 35–61 years) were compared to typical adults of the same chronological age and typically deve...

  9. Propofol and midazolam inhibit conscious memory processes very soon after encoding: an event-related potential study of familiarity and recollection in volunteers.

    Veselis, Robert A; Pryor, Kane O; Reinsel, Ruth A; Li, Yuelin; Mehta, Meghana; Johnson, Ray

    2009-02-01

    Intravenous drugs active via gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors to produce memory impairment during conscious sedation. Memory function was assessed using event-related potentials (ERPs) while drug was present. The continuous recognition task measured recognition of photographs from working (6 s) and long-term (27 s) memory while ERPs were recorded from Cz (familiarity recognition) and Pz electrodes (recollection recognition). Volunteer participants received sequential doses of one of placebo (n = 11), 0.45 and 0.9 microg/ml propofol (n = 10), 20 and 40 ng/ml midazolam (n = 12), 1.5 and 3 microg/ml thiopental (n = 11), or 0.25 and 0.4 ng/ml dexmedetomidine (n = 11). End-of-day yes/no recognition 225 min after the end of drug infusion tested memory retention of pictures encoded on the continuous recognition tasks. Active drugs increased reaction times and impaired memory on the continuous recognition task equally, except for a greater effect of midazolam (P memory for familiarity (P = 0.03) and possibly for recollection processes (P = 0.12). Propofol shifted ERP amplitudes to smaller voltages (P memory but not working memory. ERP measures of memory revealed different pathways to end-of-day memory loss as early as 27 s after encoding.

  10. Memory as Discrimination: A Challenge to the Encoding-Retrieval Match Principle

    Poirier, Marie; Nairne, James S.; Morin, Caroline; Zimmermann, Friederike G. S.; Koutmeridou, Kyriaki; Fowler, James

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments contrasted the predictions of a general encoding-retrieval match hypothesis with those of a view claiming that the distinctiveness of the cue-target relationship is the causal factor in retrieval. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4 participants learned the relationships between 4 targets and trios of cues; in Experiment 3 there were 3…

  11. Memory effects in annealed hybrid gold nanoparticles/block copolymer bilayers

    Ruffino Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the use of the self-organization process of sputtered gold nanoparticles on a self-assembled block copolymer film deposited by horizontal precipitation Langmuir-Blodgett (HP-LB method. The morphology and the phase-separation of a film of poly-n-butylacrylate-block-polyacrylic acid (PnBuA-b-PAA were studied at the nanometric scale by using atomic force microscopy (AFM and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS. The templating capability of the PnBuA-b-PAA phase-separated film was studied by sputtering gold nanoparticles (NPs, forming a film of nanometric thickness. The effect of the polymer chain mobility onto the organization of gold nanoparticle layer was assessed by heating the obtained hybrid PnBuA-b-PAA/Au NPs bilayer at T >Tg. The nanoparticles' distribution onto the different copolymer domains was found strongly affected by the annealing treatment, showing a peculiar memory effect, which modifies the AFM phase response of the Au NPs layer onto the polar domains, without affecting their surfacial composition. The effect is discussed in terms of the peculiar morphological features induced by enhanced mobility of polymer chains on the Au NPs layer.

  12. Auditory feedback and memory for music performance: sound evidence for an encoding effect.

    Finney, Steven A; Palmer, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Research on the effects of context and task on learning and memory has included approaches that emphasize processes during learning (e.g., Craik & Tulving, 1975) and approaches that emphasize a match of conditions during learning with conditions during a later test of memory (e.g., Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977; Proteau, 1992; Tulving & Thomson, 1973). We investigated the effects of auditory context on learning and retrieval in three experiments on memorized music performance (a form of serial recall). Auditory feedback (presence or absence) was manipulated while pianists learned musical pieces from notation and when they later played the pieces from memory. Auditory feedback during learning significantly improved later recall. However, auditory feedback at test did not significantly affect recall, nor was there an interaction between conditions at learning and test. Auditory feedback in music performance appears to be a contextual factor that affects learning but is relatively independent of retrieval conditions.

  13. Stroboscopic visual training improves information encoding in short-term memory.

    Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Schroeder, Julia E; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2012-11-01

    The visual system has developed to transform an undifferentiated and continuous flow of information into discrete and manageable representations, and this ability rests primarily on the uninterrupted nature of the input. Here we explore the impact of altering how visual information is accumulated over time by assessing how intermittent vision influences memory retention. Previous work has shown that intermittent, or stroboscopic, visual training (i.e., practicing while only experiencing snapshots of vision) can enhance visual-motor control and visual cognition, yet many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms that are altered. In the present study, we used a partial-report memory paradigm to assess the possible changes in visual memory following training under stroboscopic conditions. In Experiment 1, the memory task was completed before and immediately after a training phase, wherein participants engaged in physical activities (e.g., playing catch) while wearing either specialized stroboscopic eyewear or transparent control eyewear. In Experiment 2, an additional group of participants underwent the same stroboscopic protocol but were delayed 24 h between training and assessment, so as to measure retention. In comparison to the control group, both stroboscopic groups (immediate and delayed retest) revealed enhanced retention of information in short-term memory, leading to better recall at longer stimulus-to-cue delays (640-2,560 ms). These results demonstrate that training under stroboscopic conditions has the capacity to enhance some aspects of visual memory, that these faculties generalize beyond the specific tasks that were trained, and that trained improvements can be maintained for at least a day.

  14. Posterior parietal cortex is critical for the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of a memory that guides attention for learning.

    Schiffino, Felipe L; Zhou, Vivian; Holland, Peter C

    2014-02-01

    Within most contemporary learning theories, reinforcement prediction error, the difference between the obtained and expected reinforcer value, critically influences associative learning. In some theories, this prediction error determines the momentary effectiveness of the reinforcer itself, such that the same physical event produces more learning when its presentation is surprising than when it is expected. In other theories, prediction error enhances attention to potential cues for that reinforcer by adjusting cue-specific associability parameters, biasing the processing of those stimuli so that they more readily enter into new associations in the future. A unique feature of these latter theories is that such alterations in stimulus associability must be represented in memory in an enduring fashion. Indeed, considerable data indicate that altered associability may be expressed days after its induction. Previous research from our laboratory identified brain circuit elements critical to the enhancement of stimulus associability by the omission of an expected event, and to the subsequent expression of that altered associability in more rapid learning. Here, for the first time, we identified a brain region, the posterior parietal cortex, as a potential site for a memorial representation of altered stimulus associability. In three experiments using rats and a serial prediction task, we found that intact posterior parietal cortex function was essential during the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of an associability memory enhanced by surprising omissions. We discuss these new results in the context of our previous findings and additional plausible frontoparietal and subcortical networks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Context-dependent encoding of fear and extinction memories in a large-scale network model of the basal amygdala.

    Vlachos, Ioannis; Herry, Cyril; Lüthi, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-03-01

    The basal nucleus of the amygdala (BA) is involved in the formation of context-dependent conditioned fear and extinction memories. To understand the underlying neural mechanisms we developed a large-scale neuron network model of the BA, composed of excitatory and inhibitory leaky-integrate-and-fire neurons. Excitatory BA neurons received conditioned stimulus (CS)-related input from the adjacent lateral nucleus (LA) and contextual input from the hippocampus or medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We implemented a plasticity mechanism according to which CS and contextual synapses were potentiated if CS and contextual inputs temporally coincided on the afferents of the excitatory neurons. Our simulations revealed a differential recruitment of two distinct subpopulations of BA neurons during conditioning and extinction, mimicking the activation of experimentally observed cell populations. We propose that these two subgroups encode contextual specificity of fear and extinction memories, respectively. Mutual competition between them, mediated by feedback inhibition and driven by contextual inputs, regulates the activity in the central amygdala (CEA) thereby controlling amygdala output and fear behavior. The model makes multiple testable predictions that may advance our understanding of fear and extinction memories.

  16. Context-dependent encoding of fear and extinction memories in a large-scale network model of the basal amygdala.

    Ioannis Vlachos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The basal nucleus of the amygdala (BA is involved in the formation of context-dependent conditioned fear and extinction memories. To understand the underlying neural mechanisms we developed a large-scale neuron network model of the BA, composed of excitatory and inhibitory leaky-integrate-and-fire neurons. Excitatory BA neurons received conditioned stimulus (CS-related input from the adjacent lateral nucleus (LA and contextual input from the hippocampus or medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. We implemented a plasticity mechanism according to which CS and contextual synapses were potentiated if CS and contextual inputs temporally coincided on the afferents of the excitatory neurons. Our simulations revealed a differential recruitment of two distinct subpopulations of BA neurons during conditioning and extinction, mimicking the activation of experimentally observed cell populations. We propose that these two subgroups encode contextual specificity of fear and extinction memories, respectively. Mutual competition between them, mediated by feedback inhibition and driven by contextual inputs, regulates the activity in the central amygdala (CEA thereby controlling amygdala output and fear behavior. The model makes multiple testable predictions that may advance our understanding of fear and extinction memories.

  17. Cross-Layer Framework for Multiuser Real Time H.264/AVC Video Encoding and Transmission over Block Fading MIMO Channels Using Outage Probability

    Slavche Pejoski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework for cross-layer optimized real time multiuser encoding of video using a single layer H.264/AVC and transmission over MIMO wireless channels. In the proposed cross-layer adaptation, the channel of every user is characterized by the probability density function of its channel mutual information and the performance of the H.264/AVC encoder is modeled by a rate distortion model that takes into account the channel errors. These models are used during the resource allocation of the available slots in a TDMA MIMO communication system with capacity achieving channel codes. This framework allows for adaptation to the statistics of the wireless channel and to the available resources in the system and utilization of the multiuser diversity of the transmitted video sequences. We show the effectiveness of the proposed framework for video transmission over Rayleigh MIMO block fading channels, when channel distribution information is available at the transmitter.

  18. Count out your intrusions: Effects of verbal encoding on intrusive memories

    Krans, J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Becker, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    Peri-traumatic information processing is thought to affect the development of intrusive trauma memories. This study aimed to replicate and improve the study by Holmes, Brewin, and Hennessy (2004, Exp. 3) on the role of peri-traumatic verbal processing in analogue traumatic intrusion development.

  19. The Basolateral Amygdala Is Necessary for the Encoding and the Expression of Odor Memory

    Sevelinges, Yannick; Desgranges, Bertrand; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Conditioned odor avoidance (COA) results from the association between a novel odor and a delayed visceral illness. The present experiments investigated the role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in acquisition and retrieval of COA memory. To address this, we used the GABAA agonist muscimol to temporarily inactivate the BLA during COA acquisition…

  20. The Impact of Threat of Shock-Induced Anxiety on Memory Encoding and Retrieval

    Bolton, Sorcha; Robinson, Oliver J.

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders, and daily transient feelings of anxiety (or "stress") are ubiquitous. However, the precise impact of both transient and pathological anxiety on higher-order cognitive functions, including short- and long-term memory, is poorly understood. A clearer understanding of the…

  1. Lateralized Spatial and Object Memory Encoding in Entorhinal and Perirhinal Cortices

    Bellgowan, Patrick S. F.; Buffalo, Elizabeth A.; Bodurka, Jerzy; Martin, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The perirhinal and entorhinal cortices are critical components of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) declarative memory system. Study of their specific functions using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), however, has suffered from severe magnetic susceptibility signal dropout resulting in poor…

  2. Revisiting the Effect of Reminders on Infants' Media Memories: Does the Encoding Format Matter?

    Barr, Rachel; Brito, Natalie; Simcock, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    With the present research, the authors examined whether reminders could maintain 18-month-olds' memories generated from picture books and videos. Infants (N = 98) were shown a series of target actions in a picture book or on video. Either 24 hr or 2 weeks prior to a 4-week deferred imitation test, they were exposed to a reminder, a partial…

  3. Differential Involvement of Amygdala and Cortical NMDA Receptors Activation upon Encoding in Odor Fear Memory

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guilaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the…

  4. Impaired encoding of rapid pitch information underlies perception and memory deficits in congenital amusia

    Philippe Albouy; Marion Cousineau; Anne Caclin; Barbara Tillmann; Isabelle Peretz

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories suggest that the basis of neurodevelopmental auditory disorders such as dyslexia or specific language impairment might be a low-level sensory dysfunction. In the present study we test this hypothesis in congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe deficits in the processing of pitch-based material. We manipulated the temporal characteristics of auditory stimuli and investigated the influence of the time given to encode pitch information on participa...

  5. Using virtual reality to characterize episodic memory profiles in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: influence of active and passive encoding.

    Plancher, G; Tirard, A; Gyselinck, V; Nicolas, S; Piolino, P

    2012-04-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments of episodic memory bear little similarity to the events that patients actually experience as memories in daily life. The first aim of this study was to use a virtual environment to characterize episodic memory profiles in an ecological fashion, which includes memory for central and perceptual details, spatiotemporal contextual elements, and binding. This study included subjects from three different populations: healthy older adults, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and patients with early to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Second, we sought to determine whether environmental factors that can affect encoding (active vs. passive exploration) influence memory performance in pathological aging. Third, we benchmarked the results of our virtual reality episodic memory test against a classical memory test and a subjective daily memory complaint scale. Here, the participants were successively immersed in two virtual environments; the first, as the driver of a virtual car (active exploration) and the second, as the passenger of that car (passive exploration). Subjects were instructed to encode all elements of the environment as well as the associated spatiotemporal contexts. Following each immersion, we assessed the patient's recall and recognition of central information (i.e., the elements of the environment), contextual information (i.e., temporal, egocentric and allocentric spatial information) and lastly, the quality of binding. We found that the AD patients' performances were inferior to that of the aMCI and even more to that of the healthy aged groups, in line with the progression of hippocampal atrophy reported in the literature. Spatial allocentric memory assessments were found to be particularly useful for distinguishing aMCI patients from healthy older adults. Active exploration yielded enhanced recall of central and allocentric spatial information, as well as binding in all groups. This led a

  6. Functional mapping of the neural basis for the encoding and retrieval of human episodic memory using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O PET

    Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang Kun; Jang, Myoung Jin; Ahn, Ji Young; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Episodic memory is described as an 'autobiographical' memory responsible for storing a record of the events in our lives. We performed functional brain activation study using H{sub 2}{sup 1}5O PET to reveal the neural basis of the encoding and the retrieval of episodic memory in human normal volunteers. Four repeated H{sub 2}{sup 1}5O PET scans with two reference and two activation tasks were performed on 6 normal volunteers to activate brain areas engaged in encoding and retrieval with verbal materials. Images from the same subject were spatially registered and normalized using linear and nonlinear transformation. Using the means and variances for every condition which were adjusted with analysis of covariance, t-statistic analysis were performed voxel-wise. Encoding of episodic memory activated the opercular and triangular parts of left inferior frontal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal area, cingulate gyrus, posterior middle and inferior temporal gyri, and cerebellum, and both primary visual and visual association areas. Retrieval of episodic memory activated the triangular part of left inferior frontal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex and medial temporal ares, and both cerebellum and primary visual and visual association areas. The activations in the opercular part of left inferior frontal gyrus and the right prefrontal cortex meant the essential role of these areas in the encoding and retrieval of episodic memeory. We could localize the neural basis of the encoding and retrieval of episodic memory using H{sub 2}{sup 1}5O PET, which was partly consistent with the hypothesis of hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry.

  7. Using an Insect Mushroom Body Circuit to Encode Route Memory in Complex Natural Environments.

    Paul Ardin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ants, like many other animals, use visual memory to follow extended routes through complex environments, but it is unknown how their small brains implement this capability. The mushroom body neuropils have been identified as a crucial memory circuit in the insect brain, but their function has mostly been explored for simple olfactory association tasks. We show that a spiking neural model of this circuit originally developed to describe fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster olfactory association, can also account for the ability of desert ants (Cataglyphis velox to rapidly learn visual routes through complex natural environments. We further demonstrate that abstracting the key computational principles of this circuit, which include one-shot learning of sparse codes, enables the theoretical storage capacity of the ant mushroom body to be estimated at hundreds of independent images.

  8. A buffer model of memory encoding and temporal correlations in retrieval.

    Lehman, Melissa; Malmberg, Kenneth J

    2013-01-01

    Atkinson and Shiffrin's (1968) dual-store model of memory includes structural aspects of memory along with control processes. The rehearsal buffer is a process by which items are kept in mind and long-term episodic traces are formed. The model has been both influential and controversial. Here, we describe a novel variant of Atkinson and Shiffrin's buffer model within the framework of the retrieving effectively from memory theory (REM; Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997) that accounts for findings previously thought to be difficult for such models to explain. This model assumes a limited-capacity buffer where information is stored about items, along with information about associations between items and between items and the context in which they are studied. The strength of association between items and context is limited by the number of items simultaneously occupying the buffer (Lehman & Malmberg, 2009). The contents of the buffer are managed by complementary processes of rehearsal and compartmentalization (Lehman & Malmberg, 2011). New findings that directly test a priori predictions of the model are reported, including serial position effects and conditional and first recall probabilities in immediate and delayed free recall, in a continuous distractor paradigm, and in experiments using list-length manipulations of single-item and paired-item study lists.

  9. Cannabinoids disrupt memory encoding by functionally isolating hippocampal CA1 from CA3.

    Roman A Sandler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research on cannabinoids (CBs has focused on their effects at the molecular and synaptic level. However, the effects of CBs on the dynamics of neural circuits remains poorly understood. This study aims to disentangle the effects of CBs on the functional dynamics of the hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapse by using data-driven nonparametric modeling. Multi-unit activity was recorded from rats doing an working memory task in control sessions and under the influence of exogenously administered tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the primary CB found in marijuana. It was found that THC left firing rate unaltered and only slightly reduced theta oscillations. Multivariate autoregressive models, estimated from spontaneous spiking activity, were then used to describe the dynamical transformation from CA3 to CA1. They revealed that THC served to functionally isolate CA1 from CA3 by reducing feedforward excitation and theta information flow. The functional isolation was compensated by increased feedback excitation within CA1, thus leading to unaltered firing rates. Finally, both of these effects were shown to be correlated with memory impairments in the working memory task. By elucidating the circuit mechanisms of CBs, these results help close the gap in knowledge between the cellular and behavioral effects of CBs.

  10. Memory as discrimination: a challenge to the encoding-retrieval match principle

    Poirier, M.; Nairne, J. S.; Morin, C.; Zimmermann, F. G.; Koutmeridou, K.; Fowler, J.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments contrasted the predictions of a general encoding-retrieval match hypothesis with those of a view claiming that the distinctiveness of the cue-target relationship is the causal factor in retrieval. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4 participants learned the relationships between 4 targets and trios of cues; in Experiment 3 there were 3 targets, each associated with a pair of cues. A learning phase was followed by a cued-recognition task where the correct target had to be identified ba...

  11. A super-assembly of Whi3 encodes memory of deceptive encounters by single cells during yeast courtship.

    Caudron, Fabrice; Barral, Yves

    2013-12-05

    Cellular behavior is frequently influenced by the cell's history, indicating that single cells may memorize past events. We report that budding yeast permanently escape pheromone-induced cell-cycle arrest when experiencing a deceptive mating attempt, i.e., not reaching their putative partner within reasonable time. This acquired behavior depends on super-assembly and inactivation of the G1/S inhibitor Whi3, which liberates the G1 cyclin Cln3 from translational inhibition. Super-assembly of Whi3 is a slow response to pheromone, driven by polyQ and polyN domains, counteracted by Hsp70, and stable over generations. Unlike prion aggregates, Whi3 super-assemblies are not inherited mitotically but segregate to the mother cell. We propose that such polyQ- and polyN-based elements, termed here mnemons, act as cellular memory devices to encode previous environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal limits of selection and memory encoding: A comparison of whole versus partial report in rapid serial visual presentation.

    Nieuwenstein, Mark R; Potter, Mary C

    2006-06-01

    People often fail to recall the second of two visual targets presented within 500 ms in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). This effect is called the attentional blink. One explanation of the attentional blink is that processes involved in encoding the first target into memory are slow and capacity limited. Here, however, we show that the attentional blink should be ascribed to attentional selection, not consolidation of the first target. Rapid sequences of six letters were presented, and observers had to report either all the letters (whole-report condition) or a subset of the letters (partial-report condition). Selection in partial report was based on color (e.g., report the two red letters) or identity (i.e., report all letters from a particular letter onward). In both cases, recall of letters presented shortly after the first selected letter was impaired, whereas recall of the corresponding letters was relatively accurate with whole report.

  13. Biodegradable shape-memory block co-polymers for fast self-expandable stents.

    Xue, Liang; Dai, Shiyao; Li, Zhi

    2010-11-01

    Block co-polymers PCTBVs (M(n) of 36,300-65,300 g/mol, T(m) of 39-40 and 142 degrees C) containing hyperbranched three-arm poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) as switching segment and microbial polyester PHBV as crystallizable hard segment were designed as biodegradable shape-memory polymer (SMP) for fast self-expandable stent and synthesized in 96% yield by the reaction of three-arm PCL-triol (M(n) of 4200 g/mol, T(m) of 47 degrees C) with methylene diphenyl 4,4'-diisocyanate isocynate (MDI) to form the hyperbrached MDI-linked PCL (PTCM; M(n) of 25,400 g/mol and a T(m) of 38 degrees C), followed by further polymerization with PHBV-diol (M(n) of 2200 g/mol, T(m) of 137 and 148 degrees C). The polymers were characterized by (1)H NMR, GPC, DSC, tensile test, and cyclic thermomechanical tensile test. PCTBVs showed desired thermal properties, mechanical properties, and ductile nature. PCTBV containing 25 wt% PHBV (PCTBV-25) demonstrated excellent shape-memory property at 40 degrees C, with R(f) of 94%, R(r) of 98%, and shape recovery within 25s. PCTBV-25 was also shown as a safe material with good biocompatibility by cytotoxicity tests and cell growth experiments. The stent made from PCTBV-25 film showed nearly complete self-expansion at 37 degrees C within only 25 s, which is much better and faster than the best known self-expandable stents. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hippocampal Cortactin Levels are Reduced Following Spatial Working Memory Formation, an Effect Blocked by Chronic Calpain Inhibition.

    Olson, Mikel L; Ingebretson, Anna E; Harmelink, Katherine M

    2015-06-19

    The mechanism by which the hippocampus facilitates declarative memory formation appears to involve, among other things, restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton within neuronal dendrites. One protein involved in this process is cortactin, which is an important link between extracellular signaling and cytoskeletal reorganization. In this paper, we demonstrate that total hippocampal cortactin, as well as Y421-phosphorylated cortactin are transiently reduced following spatial working memory formation in the radial arm maze (RAM). Because cortactin is a substrate of the cysteine protease calpain, we also assessed the effect of chronic calpain inhibition on RAM performance and cortactin expression. Calpain inhibition impaired spatial working memory and blocked the reduction in hippocampal cortactin levels following RAM training. These findings add to a growing body of research implicating cortactin and calpain in hippocampus-dependent memory formation.

  15. Hippocampal Cortactin Levels are Reduced Following Spatial Working Memory Formation, an Effect Blocked by Chronic Calpain Inhibition

    Mikel L. Olson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which the hippocampus facilitates declarative memory formation appears to involve, among other things, restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton within neuronal dendrites. One protein involved in this process is cortactin, which is an important link between extracellular signaling and cytoskeletal reorganization. In this paper, we demonstrate that total hippocampal cortactin, as well as Y421-phosphorylated cortactin are transiently reduced following spatial working memory formation in the radial arm maze (RAM. Because cortactin is a substrate of the cysteine protease calpain, we also assessed the effect of chronic calpain inhibition on RAM performance and cortactin expression. Calpain inhibition impaired spatial working memory and blocked the reduction in hippocampal cortactin levels following RAM training. These findings add to a growing body of research implicating cortactin and calpain in hippocampus-dependent memory formation.

  16. Following instructions from working memory: Why does action at encoding and recall help?

    Jaroslawska, Agnieszka J; Gathercole, Susan E; Allen, Richard J; Holmes, Joni

    2016-11-01

    Two experiments investigated the consequences of action at encoding and recall on the ability to follow sequences of instructions. Children ages 7-9 years recalled sequences of spoken action commands under presentation and recall conditions that either did or did not involve their physical performance. In both experiments, recall was enhanced by carrying out the instructions as they were being initially presented and also by performing them at recall. In contrast, the accuracy of instruction-following did not improve above spoken presentation alone, either when the instructions were silently read or heard by the child (Experiment 1), or when the child repeated the spoken instructions as they were presented (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that the enactment advantage at presentation does not simply reflect a general benefit of a dual exposure to instructions, and that it is not a result of their self-production at presentation. The benefits of action-based recall were reduced following enactment during presentation, suggesting that the positive effects of action at encoding and recall may have a common origin. It is proposed that the benefits of physical movement arise from the existence of a short-term motor store that maintains the temporal, spatial, and motoric features of either planned or already executed actions.

  17. Some methods of encoding simple visual images for use with a sparse distributed memory, with applications to character recognition

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    To study the problems of encoding visual images for use with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM), I consider a specific class of images- those that consist of several pieces, each of which is a line segment or an arc of a circle. This class includes line drawings of characters such as letters of the alphabet. I give a method of representing a segment of an arc by five numbers in a continuous way; that is, similar arcs have similar representations. I also give methods for encoding these numbers as bit strings in an approximately continuous way. The set of possible segments and arcs may be viewed as a five-dimensional manifold M, whose structure is like a Mobious strip. An image, considered to be an unordered set of segments and arcs, is therefore represented by a set of points in M - one for each piece. I then discuss the problem of constructing a preprocessor to find the segments and arcs in these images, although a preprocessor has not been developed. I also describe a possible extension of the representation.

  18. The path to memory is guided by strategy: distinct networks are engaged in associative encoding under visual and verbal strategy and influence memory performance in healthy and impaired individuals

    Hales, J. B.; Brewer, J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Given the diversity of stimuli encountered in daily life, a variety of strategies must be used for learning new information. Relating and encoding visual and verbal stimuli into memory has been probed using various tasks and stimulus-types. Engagement of specific subsequent memory and cortical processing regions depends on the stimulus modality of studied material; however, it remains unclear whether different encoding strategies similarly influence regional activity when stimulus-type is held constant. In this study, subjects encoded object pairs using a visual or verbal associative strategy during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and subsequent memory was assessed for pairs encoded under each strategy. Each strategy elicited distinct regional processing and subsequent memory effects: middle / superior frontal, lateral parietal, and lateral occipital for visually-associated pairs and inferior frontal, medial frontal, and medial occipital for verbally-associated pairs. This regional selectivity mimics the effects of stimulus modality, suggesting that cortical involvement in associative encoding is driven by strategy, and not simply by stimulus-type. The clinical relevance of these findings, probed in two patients with recent aphasic strokes, suggest that training with strategies utilizing unaffected cortical regions might improve memory ability in patients with brain damage. PMID:22390467

  19. Learning and memory performance in breast cancer survivors 2 to 6 years post-treatment: the role of encoding versus forgetting.

    Root, James C; Andreotti, Charissa; Tsu, Loretta; Ellmore, Timothy M; Ahles, Tim A

    2016-06-01

    Our previous retrospective analysis of clinically referred breast cancer survivors' performance on learning and memory measures found a primary weakness in initial encoding of information into working memory with intact retention and recall of this same information at a delay. This suggests that survivors may misinterpret cognitive lapses as being due to forgetting when, in actuality, they were not able to properly encode this information at the time of initial exposure. Our objective in this study was to replicate and extend this pattern of performance to a research sample to increase the generalizability of this finding in a sample in which subjects were not clinically referred for cognitive issues. We contrasted learning and memory performance between breast cancer survivors on endocrine therapy 2 to 6 years post-treatment with age- and education-matched healthy controls. We then stratified lower- and higher-performing breast cancer survivors to examine specific patterns of learning and memory performance. Contrasts were generated for four aggregate visual and verbal memory variables from the California Verbal Learning Test-2 (CVLT-2) and the Brown Location Test (BLT): Single-trial Learning: Trial 1 performance, Multiple-trial Learning: Trial 5 performance, Delayed Recall: Long-delay Recall performance, and Memory Errors: False-positive errors. As predicted, breast cancer survivors' performance as a whole was significantly lower on Single-trial Learning than the healthy control group but exhibited no significant difference in Delayed Recall. In the secondary analysis contrasting lower- and higher-performing survivors on cognitive measures, the same pattern of lower Single-trial Learning performance was exhibited in both groups, with the additional finding of significantly weaker Multiple-trial Learning performance in the lower-performing breast cancer group and intact Delayed Recall performance in both groups. As with our earlier finding of weaker initial

  20. Effects of load and maintenance duration on the time course of information encoding and retrieval in working memory: from perceptual analysis to post-categorization processes.

    Diego ePinal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM involves three cognitive events: information encoding, maintenance and retrieval; these are supported by brain activity in a network of frontal, parietal and temporal regions. Manipulation of WM load and duration of the maintenance period can modulate this activity. Although such modulations have been widely studied using the ERP technique, a precise description of the time course of brain activity during encoding and retrieval is still required. Here, we used this technique and principal component analysis to assess the time course of brain activity during encoding and retrieval in a delayed match to sample task. We also investigated the effects of memory load and duration of the maintenance period on ERP activity. Brain activity was similar during information encoding and retrieval and comprised six temporal factors, which closely matched the latency and scalp distribution of some ERP components: P1, N1, P2, N2, P300 and a slow wave. Changes in memory load modulated task performance and yielded variations in frontal lobe activation. Moreover, the P300 amplitude was smaller in the high than in the low load condition during encoding and retrieval. Conversely, the slow wave amplitude was higher in the high than in the low load condition during encoding, and the same was true for the N2 amplitude during retrieval. Thus, during encoding, memory load appears to modulate the processing resources for context updating and post-categorization processes, and during retrieval it modulates resources for stimulus classification and context updating. Besides, despite the lack of differences in task performance related to duration of the maintenance period, larger N2 amplitude and stronger activation of the left temporal lobe after long than after short maintenance periods were found during information retrieval. Thus, results regarding the duration of maintenance period were complex, and future work is required to test the time-based decay

  1. Clonidine treatment delays postnatal motor development and blocks short-term memory in young mice.

    Cristina Calvino-Núñez

    Full Text Available During the development of the nervous system, the perinatal period is particularly sensitive as neuronal connections are still forming in the brain of the neonate. Alpha2-adrenergic receptors are overexpressed temporarily in proliferative zones in the developing brain, reaching a peak during the first postnatal week of life. Both stimulation and blocking of these receptors during this period alter the development of neural circuits, affecting synaptic connectivity and neuronal responses. They even affect motor and cognitive skills later on in the adult. It's especially important to look for the early neurological consequences resulting from such modifications, because they may go unnoticed. The main objective of the present study has been to reaffirm the importance of the maturation of alpha-adrenergic system in mice, by carrying out a comprehensive examination of motor, behavioral and cognitive effects in neonates, during early postnatal development, following chronic administration of the drug Clonidine, an alpha2 adrenergic system agonist. Our study shows that mice treated postnatally with clonidine present a temporal delay in the appearance of developmental markers, a slow execution of vestibular reflexes during first postnatal week of life and a blockade of the short term memory in the novel object recognition task. Shortly after the treatment the startle response is hyperreactive.

  2. Motor memory is encoded as a gain-field combination of intrinsic and extrinsic action representations.

    Brayanov, Jordan B; Press, Daniel Z; Smith, Maurice A

    2012-10-24

    Actions can be planned in either an intrinsic (body-based) reference frame or an extrinsic (world-based) frame, and understanding how the internal representations associated with these frames contribute to the learning of motor actions is a key issue in motor control. We studied the internal representation of this learning in human subjects by analyzing generalization patterns across an array of different movement directions and workspaces after training a visuomotor rotation in a single movement direction in one workspace. This provided a dense sampling of the generalization function across intrinsic and extrinsic reference frames, which allowed us to dissociate intrinsic and extrinsic representations and determine the manner in which they contributed to the motor memory for a trained action. A first experiment showed that the generalization pattern reflected a memory that was intermediate between intrinsic and extrinsic representations. A second experiment showed that this intermediate representation could not arise from separate intrinsic and extrinsic learning. Instead, we find that the representation of learning is based on a gain-field combination of local representations in intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates. This gain-field representation generalizes between actions by effectively computing similarity based on the (Mahalanobis) distance across intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates and is in line with neural recordings showing mixed intrinsic-extrinsic representations in motor and parietal cortices.

  3. The effect of contextual cues on the encoding of motor memories.

    Howard, Ian S; Wolpert, Daniel M; Franklin, David W

    2013-05-01

    Several studies have shown that sensory contextual cues can reduce the interference observed during learning of opposing force fields. However, because each study examined a small set of cues, often in a unique paradigm, the relative efficacy of different sensory contextual cues is unclear. In the present study we quantify how seven contextual cues, some investigated previously and some novel, affect the formation and recall of motor memories. Subjects made movements in a velocity-dependent curl field, with direction varying randomly from trial to trial but always associated with a unique contextual cue. Linking field direction to the cursor or background color, or to peripheral visual motion cues, did not reduce interference. In contrast, the orientation of a visual object attached to the hand cursor significantly reduced interference, albeit by a small amount. When the fields were associated with movement in different locations in the workspace, a substantial reduction in interference was observed. We tested whether this reduction in interference was due to the different locations of the visual feedback (targets and cursor) or the movements (proprioceptive). When the fields were associated only with changes in visual display location (movements always made centrally) or only with changes in the movement location (visual feedback always displayed centrally), a substantial reduction in interference was observed. These results show that although some visual cues can lead to the formation and recall of distinct representations in motor memory, changes in spatial visual and proprioceptive states of the movement are far more effective than changes in simple visual contextual cues.

  4. Inhibition of protein synthesis but not β-adrenergic receptors blocks reconsolidation of a cocaine-associated cue memory.

    Dunbar, Amber B; Taylor, Jane R

    2016-08-01

    Previously consolidated memories have the potential to enter a state of lability upon memory recall, during which time the memory can be altered before undergoing an additional consolidation-like process and being stored again as a long-term memory. Blocking reconsolidation of aberrant memories has been proposed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders including addiction. Here we investigated of the effect of systemically administering the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide or the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol on reconsolidation. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, during which each lever press resulted in the presentation of a cue paired with an intravenous infusion of cocaine. After undergoing lever press extinction to reduce operant responding, the cue memory was reactivated and rats were administered systemic injections of propranolol, cycloheximide, or vehicle. Post-reactivation cycloheximide, but not propranolol, resulted in a reactivation-dependent decrease in cue-induced reinstatement, indicative of reconsolidation blockade by protein synthesis inhibition. The present data indicate that systemically targeting protein synthesis as opposed to the β-adrenergic system may more effectively attenuate the reconsolidation of a drug-related memory and decrease drug-seeking behavior. © 2016 Dunbar and Taylor; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Recognition memory of neutral words can be impaired by task-irrelevant emotional encoding contexts: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Xuan; An, Wei; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yinan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the effects of emotional context on memory for centrally presented neutral items have obtained inconsistent results. And in most of those studies subjects were asked to either make a connection between the item and the context at study or retrieve both the item and the context. When no response for the contexts is required, how emotional contexts influence memory for neutral items is still unclear. Thus, the present study attempted to investigate the influences of four types of emotional picture contexts on recognition memory of neutral words using both behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements. During study, words were superimposed centrally onto emotional contexts, and subjects were asked to just remember the words. During test, both studied and new words were presented without the emotional contexts and subjects had to make "old/new" judgments for those words. The results revealed that, compared with the neutral context, the negative contexts and positive high-arousing context impaired recognition of words. ERP results at encoding demonstrated that, compared with items presented in the neutral context, items in the positive and negative high-arousing contexts elicited more positive ERPs, which probably reflects an automatic process of attention capturing of high-arousing context as well as a conscious and effortful process of overcoming the interference of high-arousing context. During retrieval, significant FN400 old/new effects occurred in conditions of the negative low-arousing, positive, and neutral contexts but not in the negative high-arousing condition. Significant LPC old/new effects occurred in all conditions of context. However, the LPC old/new effect in the negative high-arousing condition was smaller than that in the positive high-arousing and low-arousing conditions. These results suggest that emotional context might influence both the familiarity and recollection processes.

  6. Hydrodynamic delivery of plasmid DNA encoding human Fc?R-Ig dimers blocks immune-complex mediated inflammation in mice

    Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Machiah, Deepa; Bozeman, Erica N.; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina; Cho, Alice; Jacob, Joshy; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic use and function of recombinant molecules can be studied by the expression of foreign genes in mice. In this study, we have expressed human Fcgamma receptor ?Ig fusion molecules (Fc?R-Igs) in mice by administering Fc?R-Ig plasmid DNAs hydrodynamically and compared their effectiveness to purified molecules in blocking immune-complex (IC) mediated inflammation in mice. The concentration of hydrodynamically expressed Fc?R-Igs (CD16AF-Ig, CD32AR-Ig and CD32AH-Ig) reached a maximum of ...

  7. Gamma and Beta Oscillations in Human MEG Encode the Contents of Vibrotactile Working Memory

    Alexander H. von Lautz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence suggests that oscillations in the beta band represent quantitative information about somatosensory features during stimulus retention. Visual and auditory working memory (WM research, on the other hand, has indicated a predominant role of gamma oscillations for active WM processing. Here we reconciled these findings by recording whole-head magnetoencephalography during a vibrotactile frequency comparison task. A Braille stimulator presented healthy subjects with a vibration to the left fingertip that was retained in WM for comparison with a second stimulus presented after a short delay. During this retention interval spectral power in the beta band from the right intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG monotonically increased with the to-be-remembered vibrotactile frequency. In contrast, induced gamma power showed the inverse of this pattern and decreased with higher stimulus frequency in the right IFG. Together, these results expand the previously established role of beta oscillations for somatosensory WM to the gamma band and give further evidence that quantitative information may be processed in a fronto-parietal network.

  8. Encoding of Discriminative Fear Memory by Input-Specific LTP in the Amygdala.

    Kim, Woong Bin; Cho, Jun-Hyeong

    2017-08-30

    In auditory fear conditioning, experimental subjects learn to associate an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. With sufficient training, animals fear conditioned to an auditory CS show fear response to the CS, but not to irrelevant auditory stimuli. Although long-term potentiation (LTP) in the lateral amygdala (LA) plays an essential role in auditory fear conditioning, it is unknown whether LTP is induced selectively in the neural pathways conveying specific CS information to the LA in discriminative fear learning. Here, we show that postsynaptically expressed LTP is induced selectively in the CS-specific auditory pathways to the LA in a mouse model of auditory discriminative fear conditioning. Moreover, optogenetically induced depotentiation of the CS-specific auditory pathways to the LA suppressed conditioned fear responses to the CS. Our results suggest that input-specific LTP in the LA contributes to fear memory specificity, enabling adaptive fear responses only to the relevant sensory cue. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A shared representation of order between encoding and recognition in visual short-term memory.

    Kalm, Kristjan; Norris, Dennis

    2017-07-15

    Many complex tasks require people to bind individual events into a sequence that can be held in short term memory (STM). For this purpose information about the order of the individual events in the sequence needs to be maintained in an active and accessible form in STM over a period of few seconds. Here we investigated how the temporal order information is shared between the presentation and response phases of an STM task. We trained a classification algorithm on the fMRI activity patterns from the presentation phase of the STM task to predict the order of the items during the subsequent recognition phase. While voxels in a number of brain regions represented positional information during either presentation and recognition phases, only voxels in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) represented position consistently across task phases. A shared positional code in the ATL might reflect verbal recoding of visual sequences to facilitate the maintenance of order information over several seconds. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social cues at encoding affect memory in 4-month-old infants.

    Kopp, Franziska; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that infants use adults' social cues for learning by the second half of the first year of life. However, little is known about the short-term or long-term effects of joint attention interactions on learning and memory in younger infants. In the present study, 4-month-old infants were familiarized with visually presented objects in either of two conditions that differed in the degree of joint attention (high vs. low). Brain activity in response to familiar and novel objects was assessed immediately after the familiarization phase (immediate recognition), and following a 1-week delay (delayed recognition). The latency of the Nc component differentiated between recognition of old versus new objects. Pb amplitude and latency were affected by joint attention in delayed recognition. Moreover, the frequency of infant gaze to the experimenter during familiarization differed between the two experimental groups and modulated the Pb response. Results show that joint attention affects the mechanisms of long-term retention in 4-month-old infants. We conclude that joint attention helps children at this young age to recognize the relevance of learned items.

  11. Effects of load and maintenance duration on the time course of information encoding and retrieval in working memory: from perceptual analysis to post-categorization processes.

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    information encoding, maintenance, and retrieval; these are supported by brain activity in a network of frontal, parietal and temporal regions. Manipulation of WM load and duration of the maintenance period can modulate this activity. Although such modulations have been widely studied using the event-related potentials (ERP) technique, a precise description of the time course of brain activity during encoding and retrieval is still required. Here, we used this technique and principal component analysis to assess the time course of brain activity during encoding and retrieval in a delayed match to sample task. We also investigated the effects of memory load and duration of the maintenance period on ERP activity. Brain activity was similar during information encoding and retrieval and comprised six temporal factors, which closely matched the latency and scalp distribution of some ERP components: P1, N1, P2, N2, P300, and a slow wave. Changes in memory load modulated task performance and yielded variations in frontal lobe activation. Moreover, the P300 amplitude was smaller in the high than in the low load condition during encoding and retrieval. Conversely, the slow wave amplitude was higher in the high than in the low load condition during encoding, and the same was true for the N2 amplitude during retrieval. Thus, during encoding, memory load appears to modulate the processing resources for context updating and post-categorization processes, and during retrieval it modulates resources for stimulus classification and context updating. Besides, despite the lack of differences in task performance related to duration of the maintenance period, larger N2 amplitude and stronger activation of the left temporal lobe after long than after short maintenance periods were found during information retrieval. Thus, results regarding the duration of maintenance period were complex, and future work is required to test the time-based decay theory predictions.

  12. [Optogenetic activation of dorsal hippocampal astrocytic Rac1 blocks the learning of associative memory].

    Guo, Xiao-Mu; Liao, Zhao-Hui; Tao, Ye-Zheng; Wang, Fei-Fei; Ma, Lan

    2017-06-25

    Rac1 belongs to the family of Rho GTPases, and plays important roles in the brain function. It affects the cell migration and axon guidance via regulating the cytoskeleton and cellular morphology. However, the effect of its dynamic activation in regulating physiological function remains unclear. Recently, a photoactivatable analogue of Rac1 (PA-Rac1) has been developed, allowing the activation of Rac1 by the specific wavelength of light in living cells. Thus, we constructed recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) of PA-Rac1 and its light-insensitive mutant PA-Rac1-C450A under the control of the mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein (mGFAP) promoter to manipulate Rac1 activity in astrocytes by optical stimulation. Primary culture of hippocampal astrocytes was infected with the recombinant AAV-PA-Rac1 or AAV-PA-Rac1-C450A. Real-time fluorescence imaging showed that the cell membrane of the astrocyte expressing PA-Rac1 protruded near the light spot, while the astrocyte expressing PA-Rac1-C450A did not. We injected AAV-PA-Rac1 and AAV-PA-Rac1-C450A into dorsal hippocampus to investigate the role of the activation of Rac1 in regulating the associative learning. With optical stimulation, the PA-Rac1 group, rather than the PA-Rac1-C450A group, showed slower learning curve during the fear conditioning compared with the control group, indicating that activating astrocytic Rac1 blocks the formation of contextual memory. Our data suggest that the activation of Rac1 in dorsal hippocampal astrocyte plays an important role in the associative learning.

  13. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  14. Eyewitness memory: The impact of a negative mood during encoding and/or retrieval upon recall of a non-emotive event.

    Thorley, Craig; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Abel, Joseph W; Knott, Lauren M

    2016-07-01

    The police often appeal for eyewitnesses to events that were unlikely to have been emotive when observed. An eyewitness, however, may be in a negative mood whilst encoding or retrieving such events as mood can be influenced by a range of personal, social, and environmental factors. For example, bad weather can induce a negative mood. This experiment compared the impact of negative and neutral moods during encoding and/or retrieval upon eyewitness recall of a non-emotive event. A negative mood during encoding had no impact upon the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at retrieval) but a negative mood during retrieval impaired the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at encoding). A negative mood at both time points enhanced the number of correct details recalled, demonstrating a mood-dependent memory enhancement. The forensic implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Intrinsic monitoring of learning success facilitates memory encoding via the activation of the SN/VTA-Hippocampal loop

    Ripollés, Pablo; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Alicart, Helena; Tempelmann, Claus; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Noesselt, Toemme

    2016-01-01

    Humans constantly learn in the absence of explicit rewards. However, the neurobiological mechanisms supporting this type of internally-guided learning (without explicit feedback) are still unclear. Here, participants who completed a task in which no external reward/feedback was provided, exhibited enhanced fMRI-signals within the dopaminergic midbrain, hippocampus, and ventral striatum (the SN/VTA-Hippocampal loop) when successfully grasping the meaning of new-words. Importantly, new-words that were better remembered showed increased activation and enhanced functional connectivity between the midbrain, hippocampus, and ventral striatum. Moreover, enhanced emotion-related physiological measures and subjective pleasantness ratings during encoding were associated with remembered new-words after 24 hr. Furthermore, increased subjective pleasantness ratings were also related to new-words remembered after seven days. These results suggest that intrinsic—potentially reward-related—signals, triggered by self-monitoring of correct performance, can promote the storage of new information into long-term memory through the activation of the SN/VTA-Hippocampal loop, possibly via dopaminergic modulation of the midbrain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17441.001 PMID:27644419

  16. Intrinsic monitoring of learning success facilitates memory encoding via the activation of the SN/VTA-Hippocampal loop.

    Ripollés, Pablo; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Alicart, Helena; Tempelmann, Claus; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Noesselt, Toemme

    2016-09-20

    Humans constantly learn in the absence of explicit rewards. However, the neurobiological mechanisms supporting this type of internally-guided learning (without explicit feedback) are still unclear. Here, participants who completed a task in which no external reward/feedback was provided, exhibited enhanced fMRI-signals within the dopaminergic midbrain, hippocampus, and ventral striatum (the SN/VTA-Hippocampal loop) when successfully grasping the meaning of new-words. Importantly, new-words that were better remembered showed increased activation and enhanced functional connectivity between the midbrain, hippocampus, and ventral striatum. Moreover, enhanced emotion-related physiological measures and subjective pleasantness ratings during encoding were associated with remembered new-words after 24 hr. Furthermore, increased subjective pleasantness ratings were also related to new-words remembered after seven days. These results suggest that intrinsic-potentially reward-related-signals, triggered by self-monitoring of correct performance, can promote the storage of new information into long-term memory through the activation of the SN/VTA-Hippocampal loop, possibly via dopaminergic modulation of the midbrain.

  17. Antigen-Encoding Bone Marrow Terminates Islet-Directed Memory CD8+ T-Cell Responses to Alleviate Islet Transplant Rejection

    Coleman, Miranda; Jessup, Claire F.; Bridge, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    in islet transplantation, and this will extend to application of personalized approaches using stem cell–derived replacement β-cells. New approaches are required to limit memory autoimmune attack of transplanted islets or replacement β-cells. Here, we show that transfer of bone marrow encoding cognate......Islet-specific memory T cells arise early in type 1 diabetes (T1D), persist for long periods, perpetuate disease, and are rapidly reactivated by islet transplantation. As memory T cells are poorly controlled by “conventional” therapies, memory T cell–mediated attack is a substantial challenge......-cell responses, and this can alleviate destruction of antigen-expressing islets. This addresses a key challenge facing islet transplantation and, importantly, the clinical application of personalized β-cell replacement therapies using patient-derived stem cells....

  18. A Time and Place for Everything: Developmental Differences in the Building Blocks of Episodic Memory

    Lee, Joshua K.; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A.; Ghetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated whether episodic memory development can be explained by improvements in relational binding processes, involved in forming novel associations between events and the context in which they occurred. Memory for item-space, item-time, and item-item relations was assessed in an ethnically diverse sample of 151 children aged…

  19. Differing Time of Onset of Concurrent TMS-fMRI during Associative Memory Encoding: A Measure of Dynamic Connectivity

    Colin Hawco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been a distinct shift in neuroimaging from localization of function into a more network based approach focused on connectivity. While fMRI has proven very fruitful for this, the hemodynamic signal is inherently slow which limits the temporal resolution of fMRI-only connectivity measures. The brain, however, works on a time scale of milliseconds. This study utilized concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS-fMRI in a novel way to obtain measures of dynamic connectivity by measuring changes in fMRI signal amplitude in regions distal to the site of stimulation following differing TMS onset times. Seventeen healthy subjects completed an associative memory encoding task known to involve the DLPFC, viewing pairs of objects which could be semantically related or unrelated. Three pulses of 10 Hz repetitive TMS were applied over the left DLPFC starting either at 200, 600, or 1000 ms after stimulus onset. Associations for related pairs were better remembered than unrelated pairs in a post-scan cued recall test. Differences in neural activity were assessed across different TMS onsets, separately for related and unrelated pairs. Time specific TMS effects were observed in several regions, including those associated with higher-level processing (lateral frontal, anterior cingulate, visual areas (occipital, and regions involved in semantic processing (e.g., left mid-temporal and medial frontal. Activity in the frontal cortex was decreased at 200 ms post-stimulus for unrelated pairs, and 1000 ms post-stimulus for related pairs. This suggests differences in the timing across conditions in which the DLFPC interacts with other PFC regions, consistent with the notion that the DLPFC is facilitating extended semantic processing for related items. This study demonstrates that time-varying TMS onset inside the MRI can be used to reliably measure fast dynamic connectivity with a temporal resolution in the hundreds of milliseconds.

  20. The Antimetabolite ara-CTP Blocks Long-Term Memory of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Wang, Jianpeng; Ren, Keqin; Pérez, Javier; Silva, Alcino J.; Peña de Ortiz, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that processes related to DNA recombination and repair are involved in learning and memory. Rats received intracerebroventricular (icv) infusions of the antimetabolite 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine triphosphate (ara-CTP) or its precursor cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) 30 min prior to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training. Both ara-CTP and ara-C caused significant impairments in long-term memory (LTM) of CTA. Control experiments indicate that the effect of ara-...

  1. Blocking estradiol synthesis affects memory for songs in auditory forebrain of male zebra finches.

    Yoder, Kathleen M; Lu, Kai; Vicario, David S

    2012-11-14

    Estradiol (E2) has recently been shown to modulate sensory processing in an auditory area of the songbird forebrain, the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). When a bird hears conspecific song, E2 increases locally in NCM, where neurons express both the aromatase enzyme that synthesizes E2 from precursors and estrogen receptors. Auditory responses in NCM show a form of neuronal memory: repeated playback of the unique learned vocalizations of conspecific individuals induces long-lasting stimulus-specific adaptation of neural responses to each vocalization. To test the role of E2 in this auditory memory, we treated adult male zebra finches (n=16) with either the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (FAD) or saline for 8 days. We then exposed them to 'training' songs and, 6 h later, recorded multiunit auditory responses with an array of 16 microelectrodes in NCM. Adaptation rates (a measure of stimulus-specific adaptation) to playbacks of training and novel songs were computed, using established methods, to provide a measure of neuronal memory. Recordings from the FAD-treated birds showed a significantly reduced memory for the training songs compared with saline-treated controls, whereas auditory processing for novel songs did not differ between treatment groups. In addition, FAD did not change the response bias in favor of conspecific over heterospecific song stimuli. Our results show that E2 depletion affects the neuronal memory for vocalizations in songbird NCM, and suggest that E2 plays a necessary role in auditory processing and memory for communication signals.

  2. Auditory enhancement of visual memory encoding is driven by emotional content of the auditory material and mediated by superior frontal cortex.

    Proverbio, A M; De Benedetto, F

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how auditory background interacts with learning and memory. Both facilitatory (e.g., "Mozart effect") and interfering effects of background have been reported, depending on the type of auditory stimulation and of concurrent cognitive tasks. Here we recorded event related potentials (ERPs) during face encoding followed by an old/new memory test to investigate the effect of listening to classical music (Čajkovskij, dramatic), environmental sounds (rain) or silence on learning. Participants were 15 healthy non-musician university students. Almost 400 (previously unknown) faces of women and men of various age were presented. Listening to music during study led to a better encoding of faces as indexed by an increased Anterior Negativity. The FN400 response recorded during the memory test showed a gradient in its amplitude reflecting face familiarity. FN400 was larger to new than old faces, and to faces studied during rain sound listening and silence than music listening. The results indicate that listening to music enhances memory recollection of faces by merging with visual information. A swLORETA analysis showed the main involvement of Superior Temporal Gyrus (STG) and medial frontal gyrus in the integration of audio-visual information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Encoding, Consolidation, and Retrieval of Contextual Memory: Differential Involvement of Dorsal CA3 and CA1 Hippocampal Subregions

    Daumas, Stephanie; Halley, Helene; Frances, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting…

  4. Immediate recall influences the effects of pre-encoding stress on emotional episodic long-term memory consolidation in healthy young men.

    Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-05-01

    The stress-associated activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis influences memory. Several studies have supported the notion that post-learning stress enhances memory consolidation, while pre-retrieval stress impairs retrieval. Findings regarding the effects of pre-encoding stress, in contrast, have been rather inconsistent. In the current two studies, the impact of an immediate retrieval task on these effects was explored. In the first study, 24 healthy young male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition before viewing positive, negative, and neutral photographs, which were accompanied by a brief narrative. Immediate as well as delayed (24 h later) free recall was assessed. Stress was expected to enhance emotional long-term memory without affecting immediate recall performance. Stress caused a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations but had no significant effects on immediate or delayed retrieval performance, even though a trend toward poorer memory of the stress group was apparent. Based on these findings, the second experiment tested the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of stress on emotional long-term memory performance might be abolished by an immediate recall test. In the second study (n = 32), the same design was used, except for the omission of the immediate retrieval test. This time stressed participants recalled significantly more negative photographs compared to the control group. The present study indicates that an immediate retrieval attempt of material studied after stress exposure can prevent or even reverse the beneficial effects of pre-encoding stress on emotional long-term memory consolidation.

  5. Cell characteristics of FePt nano-dot memories with a high-k Al2O3 blocking oxide

    Lee, Gae Hun; Lee, Jung Min; Yang, Hyung Jun; Song, Yun Heub; Bea, Ji Cheol; Tanaka, Testsu

    2012-01-01

    The cell characteristics of an alloy FePt nano-dot (ND) charge trapping memory with a high-k dielectric as a blocking oxide was investigated. Adoption of a high-k Al 2 O 3 material as a blocking oxide for the metal nano-dot memory provided a superior scaling of the operation voltage compared to silicon oxide under a similar gate leakage level. For the 40-nm-thick high-k (Al 2 O 3 ) blocking oxide, we confirmed an operation voltage reduction of ∼7 V under the same memory window on for silicon dioxide. Also, this device showed a large memory window of 7.8 V and a low leakage current under 10 -10 A in an area of Φ 0.25 mm. From these results, the use of a dielectric (Al 2 O 3 ) as a blocking oxide for a metal nano-dot device is essential, and a metal nano-dot memory with a high-k dielectric will be one of the candidates for a high-density non-volatile memory device.

  6. Shape Memory Composites Based on Electrospun Poly(vinyl alcohol) Fibers and a Thermoplastic Polyether Block Amide Elastomer.

    Shirole, Anuja; Sapkota, Janak; Foster, E Johan; Weder, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at developing new thermally responsive shape-memory composites, that were fabricated by compacting mats of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers and sheets of a thermoplastic polyether block amide elastomer (PEBA). This design was based on the expectation that the combination of the rubber elasticity of the PEBA matrix and the mechanical switching exploitable through the reversible glass transition temperature (Tg) of the PVA filler could be combined to create materials that display shape memory characteristics as an emergent effect. Dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) show that, upon introduction of 10-20% w/w PVA fibers, the room-temperature storage modulus (E') increased by a factor of 4-5 in comparison to the neat PEBA, and they reveal a stepwise reduction of E' around the Tg of PVA (85 °C). This transition could indeed be utilized to fix a temporary shape and recover the permanent shape. At low strain, the fixity was 66 ± 14% and the recovery was 98 ± 2%. Overall, the data validate a simple and practical strategy for the fabrication of shape memory composites that involves a melt compaction process and employs two commercially available polymers.

  7. Attention and Working Memory Capacity: Insights from Blocking, Highlighting, and Knowledge Restructuring

    Sewell, David K.; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The concept of attention is central to theorizing in learning as well as in working memory. However, research to date has yet to establish how attention as construed in one domain maps onto the other. We investigate two manifestations of attention in category- and cue-learning to examine whether they might provide common ground between learning…

  8. The self-imagination effect: benefits of a self-referential encoding strategy on cued recall in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage.

    Grilli, Matthew D; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of oneself is preserved in many memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage. Therefore, cognitive strategies that capitalize on mechanisms related to the self may be particularly effective at enhancing memory in this population. The present study investigated the effect of "self-imagining," imagining an event from a personal perspective, on short and long delayed cued recall in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage. Sixteen patients intentionally encoded word pairs under four separate conditions: visual imagery, semantic elaboration, other person imagining, and self-imagining. The results revealed that self-imagining led to better performance than other-imagining, semantic elaboration, and visual imagery. Furthermore, the "self-imagination effect" (SIE) was preserved after a 30-min delay and was independent of memory functioning. These findings indicate that self-imagining provides a mnemonic advantage in brain-injured individuals, even those with relatively poor memory functioning, and suggest that self-imagining may tap into mnemonic mechanisms related to the self.

  9. Blocking in children's causal learning depends on working memory and reasoning abilities

    McCormack, T.; Simms, V.; McGourty, J.; Beckers, T.

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 99 children completed a causal learning task that was an analogue of the food allergy paradigm used with adults. The cue competition effects of blocking and unovershadowing were assessed under forward and backward presentation conditions. Children also answered questions probing their

  10. Post-encoding control of working memory enhances processing of relevant information in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Brady, Ryan J; Hampton, Robert R

    2018-06-01

    Working memory is a system by which a limited amount of information can be kept available for processing after the cessation of sensory input. Because working memory resources are limited, it is adaptive to focus processing on the most relevant information. We used a retro-cue paradigm to determine the extent to which monkey working memory possesses control mechanisms that focus processing on the most relevant representations. Monkeys saw a sample array of images, and shortly after the array disappeared, they were visually cued to a location that had been occupied by one of the sample images. The cue indicated which image should be remembered for the upcoming recognition test. By determining whether the monkeys were more accurate and quicker to respond to cued images compared to un-cued images, we tested the hypothesis that monkey working memory focuses processing on relevant information. We found a memory benefit for the cued image in terms of accuracy and retrieval speed with a memory load of two images. With a memory load of three images, we found a benefit in retrieval speed but only after shortening the onset latency of the retro-cue. Our results demonstrate previously unknown flexibility in the cognitive control of memory in monkeys, suggesting that control mechanisms in working memory likely evolved in a common ancestor of humans and monkeys more than 32 million years ago. Future work should be aimed at understanding the interaction between memory load and the ability to control memory resources, and the role of working memory control in generating differences in cognitive capacity among primates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal dynamics of attention during encoding vs. maintenance of working memory: complementary views from event-related potentials and alpha-band oscillations

    Myers, Nicholas E.; Walther, Lena; Wallis, George; Stokes, Mark G.; Nobre, Anna C.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is strongly influenced by attention. In visual working-memory tasks, recall performance can be improved by an attention-guiding cue presented before encoding (precue) or during maintenance (retrocue). Although precues and retrocues recruit a similar fronto-parietal control network, the two are likely to exhibit some processing differences, since precues invite anticipation of upcoming information, while retrocues may guide prioritisation, protection, and selection of information already in mind. Here we explored the behavioral and electrophysiological differences between precueing and retrocueing in a new visual working-memory task designed to permit a direct comparison between cueing conditions. We found marked differences in event-related potential (ERP) profiles between the precue and retrocue conditions. In line with precues primarily generating an anticipatory shift of attention toward the location of an upcoming item, we found a robust lateralization in late cue-evoked potentials associated with target anticipation. Retrocues elicited a different pattern of ERPs that was compatible with an early selection mechanism, but not with stimulus anticipation. In contrast to the distinct ERP patterns, alpha band (8-14 Hz) lateralization was indistinguishable between cue types (reflecting, in both conditions, the location of the cued item). We speculate that whereas alpha-band lateralization after a precue is likely to enable anticipatory attention, lateralization after a retrocue may instead enable the controlled spatiotopic access to recently encoded visual information. PMID:25244118

  12. Effects of ¿9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration on human encoding and recall memory function: a pharmacological fMRI study

    Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Hell, van H.H.; Zuurman, L.; Jansma, J.M.; Mehta, M.A.; Gerven, van J.; Kahn, R.S.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in memory function are an incapacitating aspect of various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Animal studies have recently provided strong evidence for involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in memory function. Neuropsychological studies in humans have shown less convincing

  13. Gender Differences in Memory for Objects and Their Locations: A Study on Automatic versus Controlled Encoding and Retrieval Contexts

    De Goede, Maartje; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Object-location memory is the only spatial task where female subjects have been shown to outperform males. This result is not consistent across all studies, and may be due to the combination of the multi-component structure of object location memory with the conditions under which different studies were done. Possible gender differences in object…

  14. The Selectivity of Aversive Memory Reconsolidation and Extinction Processes Depends on the Initial Encoding of the Pavlovian Association

    Debiec, Jacek; Diaz-Mataix, Lorenzo; Bush, David E. A.; Doyère, Valérie; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    In reconsolidation studies, memories are typically retrieved by an exposure to a single conditioned stimulus (CS). We have previously demonstrated that reconsolidation processes are CS-selective, suggesting that memories retrieved by the CS exposure are discrete and reconsolidate separately. Here, using a compound stimulus in which two distinct…

  15. Evidence for Human Fronto-Central Gamma Activity during Long-Term Memory Encoding of Word Sequences

    Meeuwissen, E.B.; Takashima, A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Jensen, O.

    2011-01-01

    Although human gamma activity (30–80 Hz) associated with visual processing is often reported, it is not clear to what extend gamma activity can be reliably detected non-invasively from frontal areas during complex cognitive tasks such as long term memory (LTM) formation. We conducted a memory

  16. Evidence for human fronto-central gamma activity during long-term memory encoding of word sequences.

    Meeuwissen, E.B.; Takashima, A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Jensen, O.

    2011-01-01

    Although human gamma activity (30-80 Hz) associated with visual processing is often reported, it is not clear to what extend gamma activity can be reliably detected non-invasively from frontal areas during complex cognitive tasks such as long term memory (LTM) formation. We conducted a memory

  17. Functional Dissociation of Confident and Not-Confident Errors in the Spatial Delayed Response Task Demonstrates Impairments in Working Memory Encoding and Maintenance in Schizophrenia

    Jutta S. Mayer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though extensively investigated, the nature of working memory (WM deficits in patients with schizophrenia (PSZ is not yet fully understood. In particular, the contribution of different WM sub-processes to the severe WM deficit observed in PSZ is a matter of debate. So far, most research has focused on impaired WM maintenance. By analyzing different types of errors in a spatial delayed response task (DRT, we have recently demonstrated that incorrect yet confident responses (which we labeled as false memory errors rather than incorrect/not-confident responses reflect failures of WM encoding, which was also impaired in PSZ. In the present study, we provide further evidence for a functional dissociation between confident and not-confident errors by manipulating the demands on WM maintenance, i.e., the length over which information has to be maintained in WM. Furthermore, we investigate whether these functionally distinguishable WM processes are impaired in PSZ. Twenty-four PSZ and 24 demographically matched healthy controls (HC performed a spatial DRT in which the length of the delay period was varied between 1, 2, 4, and 6 s. In each trial, participants also rated their level of response confidence. Across both groups, longer delays led to increased rates of incorrect/not-confident responses, while incorrect/confident responses were not affected by delay length. This functional dissociation provides additional support for our proposal that false memory errors (i.e., confident errors reflect problems at the level of WM encoding, while not-confident errors reflect failures of WM maintenance. Schizophrenic patients showed increased numbers of both confident and not-confident errors, suggesting that both sub-processes of WM—encoding and maintenance—are impaired in schizophrenia. Combined with the delay length-dependent functional dissociation, we propose that these impairments in schizophrenic patients are functionally distinguishable.

  18. The role of the thalamic nuclei in recognition memory accompanied by recall during encoding and retrieval: an fMRI study.

    Pergola, Giulio; Ranft, Alexander; Mathias, Klaus; Suchan, Boris

    2013-07-01

    The present functional imaging study aimed at investigating the contribution of the mediodorsal nucleus and the anterior nuclei of the thalamus with their related cortical networks to recognition memory and recall. Eighteen subjects performed associative picture encoding followed by a single item recognition test during the functional magnetic resonance imaging session. After scanning, subjects performed a cued recall test using the formerly recognized pictures as cues. This post-scanning test served to classify recognition trials according to subsequent recall performance. In general, single item recognition accompanied by successful recall of the associations elicited stronger activation in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and in the prefrontal cortices both during encoding and retrieval compared to recognition without recall. In contrast, the anterior nuclei of the thalamus were selectively active during the retrieval phase of recognition followed by recall. A correlational analysis showed that activation of the anterior thalamus during retrieval as assessed by measuring the percent signal changes predicted lower rates of recognition without recall. These findings show that the thalamus is critical for recognition accompanied by recall, and provide the first evidence of a functional segregation of the thalamic nuclei with respect to the memory retrieval phase. In particular, the mediodorsal thalamic-prefrontal cortical network is activated during successful encoding and retrieval of associations, which suggests a role of this system in recall and recollection. The activity of the anterior thalamic-temporal network selectively during retrieval predicts better memory performances across subjects and this confirms the paramount role of this network in recall and recollection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissociating effects of stimulus identity and load on working memory attentional guidance: lengthening encoding time eliminates the effect of load but not identity.

    Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2012-01-01

    Effects of the identity and load of items in working memory (WM) on visual attention were examined. With a short interval between the WM item and a subsequent search task, there were effects of both load (slowed overall reaction times, RTs, in a WM condition relative to a mere repetition baseline) and identity (search RTs were affected by re-presentation of the item in WM in the search display). As the time to encode the initial display increased, the effects of load decreased while the effect of identity remained. The data indicate that the identity of stimuli in WM can affect the subsequent deployment of attention even when time is allowed for consolidation of the stimuli in WM, and that the WM effects are not causally related to the presence of cognitive load. The results are consistent with the identity of stimuli in WM modulating attention post the memory consolidation stage.

  20. Working Memory Capacity and Recall from Long-Term Memory: Examining the Influences of Encoding Strategies, Study Time Allocation, Search Efficiency, and Monitoring Abilities

    Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    The relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and recall from long-term memory (LTM) was examined in the current study. Participants performed multiple measures of delayed free recall varying in presentation duration and self-reported their strategy usage after each task. Participants also performed multiple measures of WMC. The results…

  1. Reduction of nocturnal slow-wave activity affects daytime vigilance lapses and memory encoding but not reaction time or implicit learning.

    Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Altena, Ellemarije; Vis, José C; Koene, Teddy; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2011-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects has a profound effect on the performance on tasks measuring sustained attention or vigilance. We here report how a selective disruption of deep sleep only, that is, selective slow-wave activity (SWA) reduction, affects the performance of healthy well-sleeping subjects on several tasks: a "simple" and a "complex" vigilance task, a declarative learning task, and an implicit learning task despite unchanged duration of sleep. We used automated electroencephalogram (EEG) dependent acoustic feedback aimed at selective interference with-and reduction of-SWA. In a within-subject repeated measures crossover design, performance on the tasks was assessed in 13 elderly adults without sleep complaints after either SWA-reduction or after normal sleep. The number of vigilance lapses increased as a result of SWA reduction, irrespective of the type of vigilance task. Recognition on the declarative memory task was also affected by SWA reduction, associated with a decreased activation of the right hippocampus on encoding (measured with fMRI) suggesting a weaker memory trace. SWA reduction, however, did not affect reaction time on either of the vigilance tasks or implicit memory task performance. These findings suggest a specific role of slow oscillations in the subsequent daytime ability to maintain sustained attention and to encode novel declarative information but not to maintain response speed or to build implicit memories. Of particular interest is that selective SWA reduction can mimic some of the effects of total sleep deprivation, while not affecting sleep duration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blocking muscarinic receptors in the olfactory bulb impairs performance on an olfactory short term memory task

    Sasha eDevore

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic inputs to cortical processing networks have long been associated with attentional and top-down processing. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that cholinergic inputs to the main olfactory bulb (OB can modulate both neural and behavioral odor discrimination. Previous experiments from our laboratory and others demonstrate that blockade of nicotinic receptors directly impairs olfactory discrimination, whereas blockade of muscarinic receptors only measurably impairs olfactory perception when task demands are made more challenging, such as when very low-concentration odors are used or rats are required to maintain sensory memory over long durations. To further investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in the OB, we developed an olfactory delayed match-to-sample task using a digging-based behavioral paradigm. We find that rats are able to maintain robust short-term odor memory for tens to hundreds of seconds. To investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in task performance, we bilaterally infused scopolamine into the OB. We find that high dosages of scopolamine (38 mM impair performance on the task across all delays tested, including the baseline condition with no delay, whereas lower dosages (7.6 mM and 22.8 mM had no measureable effects. These results indicate that general execution of the match-to-sample task, even with no delay, is at least partially dependent on muscarinic signaling in the OB.

  3. Cellular dynamical mechanisms for encoding the time and place of events along spatiotemporal trajectories in episodic memory

    Hasselmo, Michael E.; Giocomo, Lisa M.; Yoshida, Motoharu

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of episodic memory requires linking behavioural data and lesion effects to data on the dynamics of cellular membrane potentials and population interactions within these brain regions. Linking behavior to specific membrane channels and neurochemicals has implications for therapeutic applications. Lesions of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and subcortical nuclei impair episodic memory function in humans and animals, and unit recording data from these regions in b...

  4. Blocking mineralocorticoid receptors prior to retrieval reduces contextual fear memory in mice.

    Ming Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid hormones regulate appraisal and consolidation of information via mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs respectively. How activation of these receptors modulates retrieval of fearful information and the subsequent expression of fear is largely unknown. We tested here whether blockade of MRs or GRs during retrieval also affects subsequent expression of fear memory. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were trained in contextual or tone cue fear conditioning paradigms, by pairing mild foot shocks with a particular context or tone respectively. Twenty-four hours after training, context-conditioned animals were re-exposed to the context for 3 or 30 minutes (day 2; tone-conditioned animals were placed in a different context and re-exposed to one or six tones. Twenty-four hours (day 3 and one month later, freezing behavior to the aversive context/tone was scored again. MR or GR blockade was achieved by giving spironolactone or RU486 subcutaneously one hour before retrieval on day 2. Spironolactone administered prior to brief context re-exposure reduced freezing behavior during retrieval and 24 hours later, but not one month later. Administration of spironolactone without retrieval of the context or immediately after retrieval on day 2 did not reduce freezing on day 3. Re-exposure to the context for 30 minutes on day 2 significantly reduced freezing on day 3 and one month later, but freezing was not further reduced by spironolactone. Administration of spironolactone prior to tone-cue re-exposure on day 2 did not affect freezing behavior. Treatment with RU486 prior to re-exposure did not affect context or tone-cue fear memories at any time point. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that MR blockade prior to retrieval strongly reduces the expression of contextual fear, implying that MRs, rather than GRs, play an important role in retrieval of emotional information and subsequent fear expression.

  5. Coarse-to-Fine Encoding of Spatial Frequency Information into Visual Short-Term Memory for Faces but Impartial Decay

    Gao, Zaifeng; Bentin, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    Face perception studies investigated how spatial frequencies (SF) are extracted from retinal display while forming a perceptual representation, or their selective use during task-imposed categorization. Here we focused on the order of encoding low-spatial frequencies (LSF) and high-spatial frequencies (HSF) from perceptual representations into…

  6. When higher activations reflect lower deactivations: a PET study in Alzheimer’s disease during encoding and retrieval in episodic memory

    Alexandre eBejanin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the cerebral substrates of episodic memory disorders in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and investigate patients' hyperactivations frequently reported in the functional imaging literature. It remains unclear whether some of these hyperactivations reflect compensatory mechanisms or deactivation disturbances in the default mode network. Using positron emission tomography (15O-H2O, cerebral blood flow was measured in eleven ADs and twelve healthy elderly controls at rest and during encoding and stem-cued recall of verbal items. We performed subtractions analyses between the experimental and control conditions between groups. The average signal was extracted in regions showing hyperactivation in AD patients versus controls in both contrasts. To determine whether hyperactivations occurred in regions that were activated or deactivated during the memory tasks, we compared signal intensities between the experimental conditions versus rest. Our results showed reduced activation in ADs compared to controls in several core episodic memory regions, including the medial temporal structures, during both encoding and retrieval. ADs also showed hyperactivations compared to controls in a set of brain areas. Further analyses conducted on the signal extracted in these areas indicated that most of these hyperactivations in ADs actually reflected a failure of deactivation. Indeed, almost all of these regions were significantly more activated at rest than during the experimental conditions in controls, only one region presented a similar pattern of deactivation in ADs. Altogether, our findings suggest that hyperactivations in AD must be interpreted with caution and may not systematically reflect compensatory mechanisms. Although there has been evidence supporting the existence of genuine compensatory mechanisms, dysfunction within the default mode network may be responsible for part of the apparent hyperactivations reported in

  7. Visuospatial bootstrapping: Binding useful visuospatial information during verbal working memory encoding does not require set-shifting executive resources.

    Calia, Clara; Darling, Stephen; Havelka, Jelena; Allen, Richard J

    2018-05-01

    Immediate serial recall of digits is better when the digits are shown by highlighting them in a familiar array, such as a phone keypad, compared with presenting them serially in a single location, a pattern referred to as "visuospatial bootstrapping." This pattern implies the establishment of temporary links between verbal and spatial working memory, alongside access to information in long-term memory. However, the role of working memory control processes like those implied by the "Central Executive" in bootstrapping has not been directly investigated. Here, we report a study addressing this issue, focusing on executive processes of attentional shifting. Tasks in which information has to be sequenced are thought to be heavily dependent on shifting. Memory for digits presented in keypads versus single locations was assessed under two secondary task load conditions, one with and one without a sequencing requirement, and hence differing in the degree to which they invoke shifting. Results provided clear evidence that multimodal binding (visuospatial bootstrapping) can operate independently of this form of executive control process.

  8. Quasi-cyclic unit memory convolutional codes

    Justesen, Jørn; Paaske, Erik; Ballan, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Unit memory convolutional codes with generator matrices, which are composed of circulant submatrices, are introduced. This structure facilitates the analysis of efficient search for good codes. Equivalences among such codes and some of the basic structural properties are discussed. In particular......, catastrophic encoders and minimal encoders are characterized and dual codes treated. Further, various distance measures are discussed, and a number of good codes, some of which result from efficient computer search and some of which result from known block codes, are presented...

  9. The posterior medial cortex is involved in visual but not in verbal memory encoding processing: an intracerebral recording study

    Štillová, K.; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Halámek, Josef; Telecká, S.; Rektor, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2013), s. 391-397 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Event-related potential (ERP) * Memory * Posterior medial cortex (PMC) – SEEG Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.871, year: 2013

  10. Impaired memory for material related to a problem solved prior to encoding: suppression at learning or interference at recall?

    Kowalczyk, Marek

    2017-07-01

    Earlier research by the author revealed that material encoded incidentally in a speeded affective classification task and related to the demands of a divergent problem tends to be recalled worse in participants who solved the problem prior to encoding than in participants in the control, no-problem condition. The aim of the present experiment was to replicate this effect with a new, size-comparison orienting task, and to test for possible mechanisms of impaired recall. Participants either solved a problem before the orienting task or not, and classified each item in this task either once or three times. There was a reliable effect of impaired recall of problem-related items in the repetition condition, but not in the no-repetition condition. Solving the problem did not influence repetition priming for these items. These results support an account that attributes the impaired recall to inhibitory processes at learning and speak against a proactive interference explanation. However, they can be also accommodated by an account that refers to inefficient context cues and competitor interference at retrieval.

  11. Memory

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  12. Alpha desynchronization and fronto­parietal connectivity during spatial working memory encoding deficits in ADHD: A simultaneous EEG­fMRI study

    Agatha Lenartowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The underlying mechanisms of alpha band (8–12 Hz neural oscillations are of importance to the functioning of attention control systems as well as to neuropsychiatric conditions that are characterized by deficits of that system, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objectives of the present study were to test if visual encoding-related alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD correlates with fronto-parieto-occipital connectivity, and whether this is disrupted in ADHD during spatial working memory (SWM performance. We acquired EEG concurrently with fMRI in thirty boys (12–16 yrs. old, 15 with ADHD, during SWM encoding. Psychophysiological connectivity analyses indicated that alpha ERD during SWM encoding was associated with both occipital activation and fronto-parieto-occipital functional connectivity, a finding that expands on prior associations between alpha ERD and occipital activation. This finding provides novel support for the interpretation of alpha ERD (and the associated changes in occipital activation as a phenomenon that involves, and perhaps arises as a result of, top-down network interactions. Alpha ERD was associated less strongly with occipital activity, but associated more strongly with fronto-parieto-occipital connectivity in ADHD, consistent with a compensatory attentional response. Additionally, we illustrate that degradation of EEG data quality by MRI-amplified motion artifacts is robust to existing cleaning algorithms and is significantly correlated with hyperactivity symptoms and the ADHD Combined Type diagnosis. We conclude that persistent motion-related MR artifacts in EEG data can increase variance and introduce bias in interpretation of group differences in populations characterized by hypermobility — a clear limitation of current-state EEG-fMRI methodology.

  13. Fine motor movements while drawing during the encoding phase of a serial verbal recall task reduce working memory performance.

    Tindle, Richard; Longstaff, Mitchell G

    2016-02-01

    The time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model of working memory indicates that secondary tasks that capture attention for relatively long periods can result in the interference of working memory processing and maintenance. The current study investigates if discrete and continuous movements have differing effects on a concurrent, verbal serial recall task. In the listening condition, participants were asked to recall spoken words presented in lists of six. In the drawing conditions, participants performed the same task while producing discrete (star) or continuous (circle) movements. As hypothesised, participants recalled more words overall in the listening condition compared to the combined drawing conditions. The prediction that the continuous movement condition would reduce recall compared to listening was also supported. Fine-grained analysis at each serial position revealed significantly more words were recalled at mid serial positions in the listening condition, with worst recall for the continuous condition at position 5 compared to the listening and discrete conditions. Kinematic analysis showed that participants increased the size and speed of the continuous movements resulting in a similar duration and number of strokes for each condition. The duration of brief pauses in the discrete condition was associated with the number of words recalled. The results indicate that fine motor movements reduced working memory performance; however, it was not merely performing a movement but the type of the movement that determined how resources were diverted. In the context of the TBRS, continuous movements could be capturing attention for longer periods relative to discrete movements, reducing verbal serial recall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. MPEG-1 low-cost encoder solution

    Grueger, Klaus; Schirrmeister, Frank; Filor, Lutz; von Reventlow, Christian; Schneider, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerriet; Sefzik, Nicolai; Fiedrich, Sven

    1995-02-01

    A solution for real-time compression of digital YCRCB video data to an MPEG-1 video data stream has been developed. As an additional option, motion JPEG and video telephone streams (H.261) can be generated. For MPEG-1, up to two bidirectional predicted images are supported. The required computational power for motion estimation and DCT/IDCT, memory size and memory bandwidth have been the main challenges. The design uses fast-page-mode memory accesses and requires only one single 80 ns EDO-DRAM with 256 X 16 organization for video encoding. This can be achieved only by using adequate access and coding strategies. The architecture consists of an input processing and filter unit, a memory interface, a motion estimation unit, a motion compensation unit, a DCT unit, a quantization control, a VLC unit and a bus interface. For using the available memory bandwidth by the processing tasks, a fixed schedule for memory accesses has been applied, that can be interrupted for asynchronous events. The motion estimation unit implements a highly sophisticated hierarchical search strategy based on block matching. The DCT unit uses a separated fast-DCT flowgraph realized by a switchable hardware unit for both DCT and IDCT operation. By appropriate multiplexing, only one multiplier is required for: DCT, quantization, inverse quantization, and IDCT. The VLC unit generates the video-stream up to the video sequence layer and is directly coupled with an intelligent bus-interface. Thus, the assembly of video, audio and system data can easily be performed by the host computer. Having a relatively low complexity and only small requirements for DRAM circuits, the developed solution can be applied to low-cost encoding products for consumer electronics.

  15. Hydrodynamic delivery of plasmid DNA encoding human FcγR-Ig dimers blocks immune-complex mediated inflammation in mice.

    Shashidharamurthy, R; Machiah, D; Bozeman, E N; Srivatsan, S; Patel, J; Cho, A; Jacob, J; Selvaraj, P

    2012-09-01

    Therapeutic use and function of recombinant molecules can be studied by the expression of foreign genes in mice. In this study, we have expressed human Fcγ receptor-Ig fusion molecules (FcγR-Igs) in mice by administering FcγR-Ig plasmid DNAs hydrodynamically and compared their effectiveness with purified molecules in blocking immune-complex (IC)-mediated inflammation in mice. The concentration of hydrodynamically expressed FcγR-Igs (CD16A(F)-Ig, CD32A(R)-Ig and CD32A(H)-Ig) reached a maximum of 130 μg ml(-1) of blood within 24 h after plasmid DNA administration. The in vivo half-life of FcγR-Igs was found to be 9-16 days and western blot analysis showed that the FcγR-Igs were expressed as a homodimer. The hydrodynamically expressed FcγR-Igs blocked 50-80% of IC-mediated inflammation up to 3 days in a reverse passive Arthus reaction model. Comparative analysis with purified molecules showed that hydrodynamically expressed FcγR-Igs are more efficient than purified molecules in blocking IC-mediated inflammation and had a higher half-life. In summary, these results suggest that the administration of a plasmid vector with the FcγR-Ig gene can be used to study the consequences of blocking IC binding to FcγRs during the development of inflammatory diseases. This approach may have potential therapeutic value in treating IC-mediated inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as lupus, arthritis and autoimmune vasculitis.

  16. Low message sensation health promotion videos are better remembered and activate areas of the brain associated with memory encoding.

    David Seelig

    Full Text Available Greater sensory stimulation in advertising has been postulated to facilitate attention and persuasion. For this reason, video ads promoting health behaviors are often designed to be high in "message sensation value" (MSV, a standardized measure of sensory intensity of the audiovisual and content features of an ad. However, our previous functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study showed that low MSV ads were better remembered and produced more prefrontal and temporal and less occipital cortex activation, suggesting that high MSV may divert cognitive resources from processing ad content. The present study aimed to determine whether these findings from anti-smoking ads generalize to other public health topics, such as safe sex. Thirty-nine healthy adults viewed high- and low MSV ads promoting safer sex through condom use, during an fMRI session. Recognition memory of the ads was tested immediately and 3 weeks after the session. We found that low MSV condom ads were better remembered than the high MSV ads at both time points and replicated the fMRI patterns previously reported for the anti-smoking ads. Occipital and superior temporal activation was negatively related to the attitudes favoring condom use (see Condom Attitudes Scale, Methods and Materials section. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis of the relation between occipital and fronto-temporal (middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri cortices revealed weaker negative interactions between occipital and fronto-temporal cortices during viewing of the low MSV that high MSV ads. These findings confirm that the low MSV video health messages are better remembered than the high MSV messages and that this effect generalizes across public health domains. The greater engagement of the prefrontal and fronto-temporal cortices by low MSV ads and the greater occipital activation by high MSV ads suggest that that the "attention-grabbing" high MSV format could impede the learning and

  17. Low message sensation health promotion videos are better remembered and activate areas of the brain associated with memory encoding.

    Seelig, David; Wang, An-Li; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Jaganathan, Kanchana; Loughead, James W; Blady, Shira J; Childress, Anna Rose; Romer, Daniel; Langleben, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Greater sensory stimulation in advertising has been postulated to facilitate attention and persuasion. For this reason, video ads promoting health behaviors are often designed to be high in "message sensation value" (MSV), a standardized measure of sensory intensity of the audiovisual and content features of an ad. However, our previous functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study showed that low MSV ads were better remembered and produced more prefrontal and temporal and less occipital cortex activation, suggesting that high MSV may divert cognitive resources from processing ad content. The present study aimed to determine whether these findings from anti-smoking ads generalize to other public health topics, such as safe sex. Thirty-nine healthy adults viewed high- and low MSV ads promoting safer sex through condom use, during an fMRI session. Recognition memory of the ads was tested immediately and 3 weeks after the session. We found that low MSV condom ads were better remembered than the high MSV ads at both time points and replicated the fMRI patterns previously reported for the anti-smoking ads. Occipital and superior temporal activation was negatively related to the attitudes favoring condom use (see Condom Attitudes Scale, Methods and Materials section). Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis of the relation between occipital and fronto-temporal (middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri) cortices revealed weaker negative interactions between occipital and fronto-temporal cortices during viewing of the low MSV that high MSV ads. These findings confirm that the low MSV video health messages are better remembered than the high MSV messages and that this effect generalizes across public health domains. The greater engagement of the prefrontal and fronto-temporal cortices by low MSV ads and the greater occipital activation by high MSV ads suggest that that the "attention-grabbing" high MSV format could impede the learning and retention of public

  18. Blocking the eIF2α kinase (PKR) enhances positive and negative forms of cortex-dependent taste memory.

    Stern, Elad; Chinnakkaruppan, Adaikkan; David, Orit; Sonenberg, Nahum; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2013-02-06

    Age-associated memory deterioration (and the decline in ability to acquire new information) is one of the major diseases of our era. Cognitive enhancement can be achieved by using psycho-stimulants, such as caffeine or nicotine, but very little is known about drugs that can enhance the consolidation phase of memories in the cortex, the brain structure considered to store, at least partially, long-term memories. We used cortex-dependent taste-learning paradigms to test the hypothesis that pharmacological manipulation of the translation initiation eIF2α, which plays a role in hippocampus-dependent memory, can enhance positive or negative forms of taste memories. We found that dephosphorylation (Ser51) of eIF2α, specifically in the cortex, is both correlated with and necessary for normal memory consolidation. To reduce eIF2α phosphorylation and improve memory consolidation, we pharmacologically inhibited one of the eIF2α kinases, PKR, which is known to be involved in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. Systemic or local microinjection of PKR inhibitor to the gustatory cortex enhanced both positive and negative forms of taste memory in rats and mice. Our results provide clear evidence that PKR plays a major role in cortex-dependent memory consolidation and, therefore, that pharmacological inhibition of PKR is a potential target for drugs to enhance cognition.

  19. Antagonism of brain insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors blocks estradiol effects on memory and levels of hippocampal synaptic proteins in ovariectomized rats

    Nelson, Britta S.; Springer, Rachel C.; Daniel, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Treatment with estradiol, the primary estrogen produced by the ovaries, enhances hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and increases levels of hippocampal synaptic proteins in ovariectomized rats. Increasing evidence indicates that the ability of estradiol to impact the brain and behavior is dependent upon its interaction with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Objectives The goal of the current experiment was to test the hypothesis that the ability of estradiol to impact hippocampus-dependent memory and levels of hippocampal synaptic proteins is dependent on its interaction with IGF-1. Methods Adult rats were ovariectomized and implanted with estradiol or control capsules and trained on a radial-maze spatial memory task. After training, rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular cannulae attached to osmotic minipumps (flow rate 0.15 μl/hr). Half of each hormone treatment group received continuous delivery of JB1 (300 μg/ml), an IGF-1 receptor antagonist, and half received delivery of aCSF vehicle. Rats were tested on trials in the radial-arm maze during which delays were imposed between the 4th and 5th arm choices. Hippocampal levels of synaptic proteins were measured by western blotting. Results Estradiol treatment resulted in significantly enhanced memory. JB1 blocked that enhancement. Estradiol treatment resulted in significantly increased hippocampal levels of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), spinophilin, and synaptophysin. JB1 blocked the estradiol-induced increase of PSD-95 and spinophilin and attenuated the increase of synaptophysin. Conclusions Results support a role for IGF-1 receptor activity in estradiol-induced enhancement of spatial memory that may be dependent on changes in synapse structure in the hippocampus brought upon by estradiol/IGF-1 interactions. PMID:24146138

  20. ERP Correlates of Encoding Success and Encoding Selectivity in Attention Switching

    Yeung, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Long-term memory encoding depends critically on effective processing of incoming information. The degree to which participants engage in effective encoding can be indexed in electroencephalographic (EEG) data by studying event-related potential (ERP) subsequent memory effects. The current study investigated ERP correlates of memory success operationalised with two different measures—memory selectivity and global memory—to assess whether previously observed ERP subsequent memory effects reflect focused encoding of task-relevant information (memory selectivity), general encoding success (global memory), or both. Building on previous work, the present study combined an attention switching paradigm—in which participants were presented with compound object-word stimuli and switched between attending to the object or the word across trials—with a later recognition memory test for those stimuli, while recording their EEG. Our results provided clear evidence that subsequent memory effects resulted from selective attentional focusing and effective top-down control (memory selectivity) in contrast to more general encoding success effects (global memory). Further analyses addressed the question of whether successful encoding depended on similar control mechanisms to those involved in attention switching. Interestingly, differences in the ERP correlates of attention switching and successful encoding, particularly during the poststimulus period, indicated that variability in encoding success occurred independently of prestimulus demands for top-down cognitive control. These results suggest that while effects of selective attention and selective encoding co-occur behaviourally their ERP correlates are at least partly dissociable. PMID:27907075

  1. High-Efficient Parallel CAVLC Encoders on Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures

    H. Y. Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two high-efficient parallel realizations of the context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC based on heterogeneous multicore processors. By optimizing the architecture of the CAVLC encoder, three kinds of dependences are eliminated or weaken, including the context-based data dependence, the memory accessing dependence and the control dependence. The CAVLC pipeline is divided into three stages: two scans, coding, and lag packing, and be implemented on two typical heterogeneous multicore architectures. One is a block-based SIMD parallel CAVLC encoder on multicore stream processor STORM. The other is a component-oriented SIMT parallel encoder on massively parallel architecture GPU. Both of them exploited rich data-level parallelism. Experiments results show that compared with the CPU version, more than 70 times of speedup can be obtained for STORM and over 50 times for GPU. The implementation of encoder on STORM can make a real-time processing for 1080p @30fps and GPU-based version can satisfy the requirements for 720p real-time encoding. The throughput of the presented CAVLC encoders is more than 10 times higher than that of published software encoders on DSP and multicore platforms.

  2. Forward genetic screening identifies a small molecule that blocks Toxoplasma gondii growth by inhibiting both host- and parasite-encoded kinases.

    Kevin M Brown

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous targeting of host and pathogen processes represents an untapped approach for the treatment of intracellular infections. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is a host cell transcription factor that is activated by and required for the growth of the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii at physiological oxygen levels. Parasite activation of HIF-1 is blocked by inhibiting the family of closely related Activin-Like Kinase (ALK host cell receptors ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7, which was determined in part by use of an ALK4,5,7 inhibitor named SB505124. Besides inhibiting HIF-1 activation, SB505124 also potently blocks parasite replication under normoxic conditions. To determine whether SB505124 inhibition of parasite growth was exclusively due to inhibition of ALK4,5,7 or because the drug inhibited a second kinase, SB505124-resistant parasites were isolated by chemical mutagenesis. Whole-genome sequencing of these mutants revealed mutations in the Toxoplasma MAP kinase, TgMAPK1. Allelic replacement of mutant TgMAPK1 alleles into wild-type parasites was sufficient to confer SB505124 resistance. SB505124 independently impacts TgMAPK1 and ALK4,5,7 signaling since drug resistant parasites could not activate HIF-1 in the presence of SB505124 or grow in HIF-1 deficient cells. In addition, TgMAPK1 kinase activity is inhibited by SB505124. Finally, mice treated with SB505124 had significantly lower tissue burdens following Toxoplasma infection. These data therefore identify SB505124 as a novel small molecule inhibitor that acts by inhibiting two distinct targets, host HIF-1 and TgMAPK1.

  3. Contributions of Feature Binding During Encoding and Functional Connectivity of the Medial Temporal Lobe Structures to Episodic Memory Deficits Across the Prodromal and First-Episode Phases of Schizophrenia.

    Haut, Kristen M; van Erp, Theo G M; Knowlton, Barbara; Bearden, Carrie E; Subotnik, Kenneth; Ventura, Joseph; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2015-03-01

    Patients with and at risk for psychosis may have difficulty using associative strategies to facilitate episodic memory encoding and recall. In parallel studies, patients with first-episode schizophrenia ( n = 27) and high psychosis risk ( n = 28) compared with control participants ( n = 22 and n = 20, respectively) underwent functional MRI during a remember-know memory task. Psychophysiological interaction analyses, using medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures as regions of interest, were conducted to measure functional connectivity patterns supporting successful episodic memory. During encoding, patients with first-episode schizophrenia demonstrated reduced functional coupling between MTL regions and regions involved in stimulus representations, stimulus selection, and cognitive control. Relative to control participants and patients with high psychosis risk who did not convert to psychosis, patients with high psychosis risk who later converted to psychosis also demonstrated reduced connectivity between MTL regions and auditory-verbal and visual-association regions. These results suggest that episodic memory deficits in schizophrenia are related to inefficient recruitment of cortical connections involved in associative memory formation; such deficits precede the onset of psychosis among those individuals at high clinical risk.

  4. Using Virtual Reality to Characterize Episodic Memory Profiles in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: Influence of Active and Passive Encoding

    Plancher, G.; Tirard, A.; Gyselinck, V.; Nicolas, S.; Piolino, P.

    2012-01-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments of episodic memory bear little similarity to the events that patients actually experience as memories in daily life. The first aim of this study was to use a virtual environment to characterize episodic memory profiles in an ecological fashion, which includes memory for central and perceptual details,…

  5. Prefrontal cortex or basolateral amygdala lesions blocked the stress-induced inversion of serial memory retrieval pattern in mice.

    Chauveau, F; Piérard, C; Coutan, M; Drouet, I; Liscia, P; Béracochéa, D

    2008-09-01

    Previous data from our team have shown that pre-test stress in mice reversed the pattern of memory retrieval in a contextual serial spatial task (CSD; Celerier, A., Pierard, C., Rachbauer, D., Sarrieau, A., & Beracochea, D. (2004). Contextual and serial discriminations: A new learning paradigm to assess simultaneously the effects of acute stress on retrieval of flexible or stable information in mice. Learning and Memory, 11, 196-204). The present study is aimed at determining brain areas which might be critically involved in mediating the stress effect on memory retrieval in the CSD task. For that purpose, we studied hereby the effects of ibotenic acid lesions of either the prefrontal cortex (PFC) or the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in Stressed or Non-Stressed Balb/c mice on memory retrieval in the CSD task. In that task, mice learned two successive spatial discriminations (D1 and D2) within two different internal contexts in a four-hole board. The stressor (electric footshocks) was delivered 5 min before test, occurring 24 h after acquisition. During test, mice were relocated either on the floor of the first or of the second discrimination. Results showed that (i) spatial memory was substantial and remained unaffected both by lesions and stress; (ii) Non-Stressed controls as well as Non-Stressed or Stressed PFC and BLA-lesioned mice remembered accurately D1 but not D2; and (iii) in contrast, Stressed controls accurately remembered D2 but not D1. In parallel to behavioral experiments, we also showed that PFC and BLA lesions did not affect the stress-induced increase of plasma corticosterone levels. All together, PFC and BLA integrity are not necessary for retrieval processes per se; in contrast, the PFC and BLA are critically involved in the mediation of the deleterious stress effects on serial order memory retrieval.

  6. Differential effectiveness of tianeptine, clonidine and amitriptyline in blocking traumatic memory expression, anxiety and hypertension in an animal model of PTSD.

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2013-07-01

    Individuals exposed to life-threatening trauma are at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a debilitating condition that involves persistent anxiety, intrusive memories and several physiological disturbances. Current pharmacotherapies for PTSD manage only a subset of these symptoms and typically have adverse side effects which limit their overall effectiveness. We evaluated the effectiveness of three different pharmacological agents to ameliorate a broad range of PTSD-like symptoms in our established predator-based animal model of PTSD. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1-h cat exposures on two occasions that were separated by 10 days, in conjunction with chronic social instability. Beginning 24 h after the first cat exposure, rats received daily injections of amitriptyline, clonidine, tianeptine or vehicle. Three weeks after the second cat exposure, all rats underwent a battery of behavioral and physiological tests. The vehicle-treated, psychosocially stressed rats demonstrated a robust fear memory for the two cat exposures, as well as increased anxiety expressed on the elevated plus maze, an exaggerated startle response, elevated heart rate and blood pressure, reduced growth rate and increased adrenal gland weight, relative to the vehicle-treated, non-stressed (control) rats. Neither amitriptyline nor clonidine was effective at blocking the entire cluster of stress-induced sequelae, and each agent produced adverse side effects in control subjects. Only the antidepressant tianeptine completely blocked the effects of psychosocial stress on all of the physiological and behavioral measures that were examined. These findings illustrate the differential effectiveness of these three treatments to block components of PTSD-like symptoms in rats, and in particular, reveal the profile of tianeptine as the most effective of all three agents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The antidepressant agomelatine blocks the adverse effects of stress on memory and enables spatial learning to rapidly increase neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression in the hippocampus of rats.

    Conboy, Lisa; Tanrikut, Cihan; Zoladz, Phillip R; Campbell, Adam M; Park, Collin R; Gabriel, Cecilia; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Sandi, Carmen; Diamond, David M

    2009-04-01

    Agomelatine, a novel antidepressant with established clinical efficacy, acts as a melatonin receptor agonist and 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist. As stress is a significant risk factor in the development of depression, we sought to determine if chronic agomelatine treatment would block the stress-induced impairment of memory in rats trained in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM), a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. Moreover, since neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is known to be critically involved in memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity, we evaluated the effects of agomelatine on NCAM, and polysialylated NCAM (PSA-NCAM) expression in rats given spatial memory training with or without predator stress. Adult male rats were pre-treated with agomelatine (10 mg/kg i.p., daily for 22 d), followed by a single day of RAWM training and memory testing. Rats were given 12 training trials and then they were placed either in their home cages (no stress) or near a cat (predator stress). Thirty minutes later the rats were given a memory test trial followed immediately by brain extraction. We found that: (1) agomelatine blocked the predator stress-induced impairment of spatial memory; (2) agomelatine-treated stressed, as well as non-stressed, rats exhibited a rapid training-induced increase in the expression of synaptic NCAM in the ventral hippocampus; and (3) agomelatine treatment blocked the water-maze training-induced decrease in PSA-NCAM levels in both stressed and non-stressed animals. This work provides novel observations which indicate that agomelatine blocks the adverse effects of stress on hippocampus-dependent memory and activates molecular mechanisms of memory storage in response to a learning experience.

  8. On the Status of Cue Independence as a Criterion for Memory Inhibition: Evidence against the Covert Blocking Hypothesis

    Weller, Peter D.; Anderson, Michael C.; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Retrieving memories can impair recall of other related traces. Items affected by this retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) are often less accessible when tested with independent probes, a characteristic known as cue independence. Cue independence has been interpreted as evidence for inhibitory mechanisms that suppress competing items during…

  9. Memory

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  10. Displacement encoder

    Hesketh, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    In an optical encoder, light from an optical fibre input A is encoded by means of the encoding disc and is subsequently collected for transmission via optical fibre B. At some point in the optical path between the fibres A and B, the light is separated into component form by means of a filtering or dispersive system and each colour component is associated with a respective one of the coding channels of the disc. In this way, the significance of each bit of the coded information is represented by a respective colour thereby enabling the components to be re-combined for transmission by the fibre B without loss of information. (author)

  11. Lead (Pb+2) impairs long-term memory and blocks learning-induced increases in hippocampal protein kinase C activity

    Vazquez, Adrinel; Pena de Ortiz, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    The long-term storage of information in the brain known as long-term memory (LTM) depends on a variety of intracellular signaling cascades utilizing calcium (Ca 2+ ) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate as second messengers. In particular, Ca +2 /phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) activity has been proposed to be necessary for the transition from short-term memory to LTM. Because the neurobehavioral toxicity of lead (Pb +2 ) has been associated to its interference with normal Ca +2 signaling in neurons, we studied its effects on spatial learning and memory using a hippocampal-dependent discrimination task. Adult rats received microinfusions of either Na + or Pb +2 acetate in the CA1 hippocampal subregion before each one of four training sessions. A retention test was given 7 days later to examine LTM. Results suggest that intrahippocampal Pb +2 did not affect learning of the task, but significantly impaired retention. The effects of Pb +2 selectively impaired reference memory measured in the retention test, but had no effect on the general performance because it did not affect the latency to complete the task during the test. Finally, we examined the effects of Pb +2 on the induction of hippocampal Ca +2 /phospholipid-dependent PKC activity during acquisition training. The results showed that Pb +2 interfered with the learning-induced activation of Ca +2 /phospholipid-dependent PKC on day 3 of acquisition. Overall, our results indicate that Pb +2 causes cognitive impairments in adult rats and that such effects might be subserved by interference with Ca +2 -related signaling mechanisms required for normal LTM

  12. Suppression of the four-wave-mixing background noise in a quantum memory retrieval process by channel blocking

    Zhang, Kai; Guo, Jinxian; Chen, L. Q.; Yuan, Chunhua; Ou, Z. Y.; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    In a quantum memory scheme with the Raman process, the read process encounters noise from four-wave mixing (FWM), which can destroy the nonclassical properties of the generated quantum fields. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the noise from FWM can be greatly suppressed by simply reducing the FWM transition channels with a circularly polarized read beam while at the same time retaining relatively high retrieval efficiency.

  13. Blocking the Interaction between EphB2 and ADDLs by a Small Peptide Rescues Impaired Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Deficits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Shi, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Kai; Hu, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Hu, Qiu-Mei; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Yao, Bin; Sun, Nan; Hao, Jing-Ru; Wei, Pan; Han, Yuan; Gao, Can

    2016-11-23

    Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, also known as Aβ-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs), are thought to be the key pathogenic factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is still no effective treatment for preventing or reversing the progression of the disease. Targeting NMDA receptor trafficking and regulation is a new strategy for early treatment of AD. Aβ oligomers have been found to bind to the fibronectin (FN) type III repeat domain of EphB2 to trigger EphB2 degradation, thereby impairing the normal functioning of NMDA receptors and resulting in cognitive deficits. Here, we identified for the first time the interaction sites of the EphB2 FN domain with ADDLs by applying the peptide array method to design and synthesize four candidate peptides (Pep21, Pep25, Pep32, and Pep63) that might be able to block the EphB2-ADDL interaction. Among them, Pep63 was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the binding between EphB2 and ADDLs. We found that Pep63 not only rescued the ADDL-induced depletion of EphB2- and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors from the neuronal surface in cultured hippocampal neurons, but also improved impaired memory deficits in APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice and the phosphorylation and surface expression of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cultures. Together, these results suggest that blocking the EphB2-ADDL interaction by small interfering peptides may be a promising strategy for AD treatment. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and amyloid β-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs) play a key role in triggering the early cognitive deficits that constitute AD. ADDLs may bind EphB2 and alter NMDA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity. Here, we identified the interaction sites of the EphB2 FN domain with ADDLs for the first time to develop a small (10 aa) peptide (Pep63) capable of blocking the EphB2-ADDL interaction. We found that Pep63 not only rescued the ADDL-induced depletion of EphB2

  14. Memories.

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  15. Blocking muscarinic receptors in the olfactory bulb impairs performance on an olfactory short-term memory task.

    Devore, Sasha; Manella, Laura C; Linster, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs to cortical processing networks have long been associated with attentional and top-down processing. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that cholinergic inputs to the main olfactory bulb (OB) can modulate both neural and behavioral odor discrimination. Previous experiments from our laboratory and others demonstrate that blockade of nicotinic receptors directly impairs olfactory discrimination, whereas blockade of muscarinic receptors only measurably impairs olfactory perception when task demands are made more challenging, such as when very low-concentration odors are used or rats are required to maintain sensory memory over long durations. To further investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in the OB, we developed an olfactory delayed match-to-sample task using a digging-based behavioral paradigm. We find that rats are able to maintain robust short-term odor memory for 10-100 s. To investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in task performance, we bilaterally infused scopolamine into the OB. We find that high dosages of scopolamine (38 mM) impair performance on the task across all delays tested, including the baseline condition with no delay, whereas lower dosages (7.6 mM and 22.8 mM) had no measureable effects. These results indicate that general execution of the match-to-sample task, even with no delay, is at least partially dependent on muscarinic signaling in the OB.

  16. Charge trapping characteristics of Au nanocrystals embedded in remote plasma atomic layer-deposited Al2O3 film as the tunnel and blocking oxides for nonvolatile memory applications

    Lee, Jaesang; Kim, Hyungchul; Park, Taeyong; Ko, Youngbin; Ryu, Jaehun; Jeon, Heeyoung; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2012-01-01

    Remote plasma atomic layer deposited (RPALD) Al 2 O 3 films were investigated to apply as tunnel and blocking layers in the metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor memory utilizing Au nanocrystals (NCs) for nonvolatile memory applications. The interface stability of an Al 2 O 3 film deposited by RPALD was studied to observe the effects of remote plasma on the interface. The interface formed during RPALD process has high oxidation states such as Si +3 and Si +4 , indicating that RPALD process can grow more stable interface which has a small amount of fixed oxide trap charge. The significant memory characteristics were also observed in this memory device through the electrical measurement. The memory device exhibited a relatively large memory window of 5.6 V under a 10/-10 V program/erase voltage and also showed the relatively fast programming/erasing speed and a competitive retention characteristic after 10 4 s. These results indicate that Al 2 O 3 films deposited via RPALD can be applied as the tunnel and blocking oxides for next-generation flash memory devices.

  17. Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new "foil" information.

    Vogelsang, David A; Bonnici, Heidi M; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2016-08-01

    To remember a previous event, it is often helpful to use goal-directed control processes to constrain what comes to mind during retrieval. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that incidental learning of new "foil" words in a recognition test is superior if the participant is trying to remember studied items that were semantically encoded compared to items that were non-semantically encoded. Here, we applied subsequent memory analysis to fMRI data to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the "foil effect". Participants encoded information during deep semantic and shallow non-semantic tasks and were tested in a subsequent blocked memory task to examine how orienting retrieval towards different types of information influences the incidental encoding of new words presented as foils during the memory test phase. To assess memory for foils, participants performed a further surprise old/new recognition test involving foil words that were encountered during the previous memory test blocks as well as completely new words. Subsequent memory effects, distinguishing successful versus unsuccessful incidental encoding of foils, were observed in regions that included the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior parietal cortex. The left inferior frontal gyrus exhibited disproportionately larger subsequent memory effects for semantic than non-semantic foils, and significant overlap in activity during semantic, but not non-semantic, initial encoding and foil encoding. The results suggest that orienting retrieval towards different types of foils involves re-implementing the neurocognitive processes that were involved during initial encoding. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Nerve Blocks

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  19. Temporal dynamics of visual working memory.

    Sobczak-Edmans, M; Ng, T H B; Chan, Y C; Chew, E; Chuang, K H; Chen, S H A

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of the human cerebellum in working memory has been well established in the last decade. However, the cerebro-cerebellar network for visual working memory is not as well defined. Our previous fMRI study showed superior and inferior cerebellar activations during a block design visual working memory task, but specific cerebellar contributions to cognitive processes in encoding, maintenance and retrieval have not yet been established. The current study examined cerebellar contributions to each of the components of visual working memory and presence of cerebellar hemispheric laterality was investigated. 40 young adults performed a Sternberg visual working memory task during fMRI scanning using a parametric paradigm. The contrast between high and low memory load during each phase was examined. We found that the most prominent activation was observed in vermal lobule VIIIb and bilateral lobule VI during encoding. Using a quantitative laterality index, we found that left-lateralized activation of lobule VIIIa was present in the encoding phase. In the maintenance phase, there was bilateral lobule VI and right-lateralized lobule VIIb activity. Changes in activation in right lobule VIIIa were present during the retrieval phase. The current results provide evidence that superior and inferior cerebellum contributes to visual working memory, with a tendency for left-lateralized activations in the inferior cerebellum during encoding and right-lateralized lobule VIIb activations during maintenance. The results of the study are in agreement with Baddeley's multi-component working memory model, but also suggest that stored visual representations are additionally supported by maintenance mechanisms that may employ verbal coding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Paradoxical mineralocorticoid receptor-mediated effect in fear memory encoding and expression of rats submitted to an olfactory fear conditioning task

    Souza, R.R.; Dal Bó, S.; de Kloet, E.R.; Oitzl, M.S.; Carobrez, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    There is general agreement that the substantial modification in memory and motivational states exerted by corticosteroids after a traumatic experience is mediated in complementary manner by the mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors. Here we tested the hypothesis that

  1. The increase in medial prefrontal glutamate/glutamine concentration during memory encoding is associated with better memory performance and stronger functional connectivity in the human medial prefrontal-thalamus-hippocampus network.

    Thielen, Jan-Willem; Hong, Donghyun; Rohani Rankouhi, Seyedmorteza; Wiltfang, Jens; Fernández, Guillén; Norris, David G; Tendolkar, Indira

    2018-06-01

    The classical model of the declarative memory system describes the hippocampus and its interactions with representational brain areas in posterior neocortex as being essential for the formation of long-term episodic memories. However, new evidence suggests an extension of this classical model by assigning the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) a specific, yet not fully defined role in episodic memory. In this study, we utilized 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to lend further support for the idea of a mnemonic role of the mPFC in humans. By using MRS, we measured mPFC γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate/glutamine (GLx) concentrations before and after volunteers memorized face-name association. We demonstrate that mPFC GLx but not GABA levels increased during the memory task, which appeared to be related to memory performance. Regarding functional connectivity, we used the subsequent memory paradigm and found that the GLx increase was associated with stronger mPFC connectivity to thalamus and hippocampus for associations subsequently recognized with high confidence as opposed to subsequently recognized with low confidence/forgotten. Taken together, we provide new evidence for an mPFC involvement in episodic memory by showing a memory-related increase in mPFC excitatory neurotransmitter levels that was associated with better memory and stronger memory-related functional connectivity in a medial prefrontal-thalamus-hippocampus network. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Stress as a mnemonic filter: Interactions between medial temporal lobe encoding processes and post-encoding stress.

    Ritchey, Maureen; McCullough, Andrew M; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress has been shown to modulate memory for recently learned information, an effect attributed to the influence of stress hormones on medial temporal lobe (MTL) consolidation processes. However, little is known about which memories will be affected when stress follows encoding. One possibility is that stress interacts with encoding processes to selectively protect memories that had elicited responses in the hippocampus and amygdala, two MTL structures important for memory formation. There is limited evidence for interactions between encoding processes and consolidation effects in humans, but recent studies of consolidation in rodents have emphasized the importance of encoding "tags" for determining the impact of consolidation manipulations on memory. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to test the hypothesis that the effects of post-encoding stress depend on MTL processes observed during encoding. We found that changes in stress hormone levels were associated with an increase in the contingency of memory outcomes on hippocampal and amygdala encoding responses. That is, for participants showing high cortisol reactivity, memories became more dependent on MTL activity observed during encoding, thereby shifting the distribution of recollected events toward those that had elicited relatively high activation. Surprisingly, this effect was generally larger for neutral, compared to emotionally negative, memories. The results suggest that stress does not uniformly enhance memory, but instead selectively preserves memories tagged during encoding, effectively acting as mnemonic filter. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Reversible Inactivation of the Higher Order Auditory Cortex during Fear Memory Consolidation Prevents Memory-Related Activity in the Basolateral Amygdala during Remote Memory Retrieval.

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Renna, Annamaria; Milano, Luisella; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that the auditory cortex, and specifically the higher order Te2 area, is necessary for the consolidation of long-term fearful memories and that it interacts with the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term fearful memories. Here, we tested whether the reversible blockade of Te2 during memory consolidation may affect the activity changes occurring in the amygdala during the retrieval of fearful memories. To address this issue, we blocked Te2 in a reversible manner during memory consolidation processes. After 4 weeks, we assessed the activity of Te2 and individual nuclei of the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term memories. Rats in which Te2 was inactivated upon memory encoding showed a decreased freezing and failed to show Te2-to-basolateral amygdala (BLA) synchrony during memory retrieval. In addition, the expression of the immediate early gene zif268 in the lateral, basal and central amygdala nuclei did not show memory-related enhancement. As all sites were intact upon memory retrieval, we propose that the auditory cortex represents a key node in the consolidation of fear memories and it is essential for amygdala nuclei to support memory retrieval process.

  4. CMOL/CMOS hardware architectures and performance/price for Bayesian memory - The building block of intelligent systems

    Zaveri, Mazad Shaheriar

    The semiconductor/computer industry has been following Moore's law for several decades and has reaped the benefits in speed and density of the resultant scaling. Transistor density has reached almost one billion per chip, and transistor delays are in picoseconds. However, scaling has slowed down, and the semiconductor industry is now facing several challenges. Hybrid CMOS/nano technologies, such as CMOL, are considered as an interim solution to some of the challenges. Another potential architectural solution includes specialized architectures for applications/models in the intelligent computing domain, one aspect of which includes abstract computational models inspired from the neuro/cognitive sciences. Consequently in this dissertation, we focus on the hardware implementations of Bayesian Memory (BM), which is a (Bayesian) Biologically Inspired Computational Model (BICM). This model is a simplified version of George and Hawkins' model of the visual cortex, which includes an inference framework based on Judea Pearl's belief propagation. We then present a "hardware design space exploration" methodology for implementing and analyzing the (digital and mixed-signal) hardware for the BM. This particular methodology involves: analyzing the computational/operational cost and the related micro-architecture, exploring candidate hardware components, proposing various custom hardware architectures using both traditional CMOS and hybrid nanotechnology - CMOL, and investigating the baseline performance/price of these architectures. The results suggest that CMOL is a promising candidate for implementing a BM. Such implementations can utilize the very high density storage/computation benefits of these new nano-scale technologies much more efficiently; for example, the throughput per 858 mm2 (TPM) obtained for CMOL based architectures is 32 to 40 times better than the TPM for a CMOS based multiprocessor/multi-FPGA system, and almost 2000 times better than the TPM for a PC

  5. Encoding circuit for transform coding of a picture signal and decoding circuit for encoding said signal

    1991-01-01

    Encoding circuit for transforming a picture signal into blocks of, for example, 8*8 coefficients, in which each block of coefficients is read motion-adaptively. In the case of motion within a sub-picture, the block of coefficients is read in such an order that the obtained series of coefficients

  6. Semantic Encoding Enhances the Pictorial Superiority Effect in the Oldest-Old

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Walker, Erin Jackson; Smitherman, Emily A.; Boudreaux, Emily O.; Volaufova, Julia; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of a semantic orienting task during encoding on free recall and recognition of simple line drawings and matching words in middle-aged (44 to 59 years), older (60 to 89 years), and oldest-old (90 + years) adults. Participants studied line drawings and matching words presented in blocked order. Half of the participants were given a semantic orienting task and the other half received standard intentional learning instructions. Results confirmed that the pictorial superiority effect was greater in magnitude following semantic encoding compared to the control condition. Analyses of clustering in free recall revealed that oldest-old adults’ encoding and retrieval strategies were generally similar to the two younger groups. Self-reported strategy use was less frequent among the oldest-old adults. These data strongly suggest that semantic elaboration is an effective compensatory mechanism underlying preserved episodic memory performance that persists well into the ninth decade of life. PMID:22053814

  7. Memory hierarchy using row-based compression

    Loh, Gabriel H.; O'Connor, James M.

    2016-10-25

    A system includes a first memory and a device coupleable to the first memory. The device includes a second memory to cache data from the first memory. The second memory includes a plurality of rows, each row including a corresponding set of compressed data blocks of non-uniform sizes and a corresponding set of tag blocks. Each tag block represents a corresponding compressed data block of the row. The device further includes decompression logic to decompress data blocks accessed from the second memory. The device further includes compression logic to compress data blocks to be stored in the second memory.

  8. A Bit-Encoding Based New Data Structure for Time and Memory Efficient Handling of Spike Times in an Electrophysiological Setup.

    Ljungquist, Bengt; Petersson, Per; Johansson, Anders J; Schouenborg, Jens; Garwicz, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Recent neuroscientific and technical developments of brain machine interfaces have put increasing demands on neuroinformatic databases and data handling software, especially when managing data in real time from large numbers of neurons. Extrapolating these developments we here set out to construct a scalable software architecture that would enable near-future massive parallel recording, organization and analysis of neurophysiological data on a standard computer. To this end we combined, for the first time in the present context, bit-encoding of spike data with a specific communication format for real time transfer and storage of neuronal data, synchronized by a common time base across all unit sources. We demonstrate that our architecture can simultaneously handle data from more than one million neurons and provide, in real time (based on analysis of previously recorded data. In addition to managing recordings from very large numbers of neurons in real time, it also has the capacity to handle the extensive periods of recording time necessary in certain scientific and clinical applications. Furthermore, the bit-encoding proposed has the additional advantage of allowing an extremely fast analysis of spatiotemporal spike patterns in a large number of neurons. Thus, we conclude that this architecture is well suited to support current and near-future Brain Machine Interface requirements.

  9. Mental rotation impairs attention shifting and short-term memory encoding: neurophysiological evidence against the response-selection bottleneck model of dual-task performance.

    Pannebakker, Merel M; Jolicœur, Pierre; van Dam, Wessel O; Band, Guido P H; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-09-01

    Dual tasks and their associated delays have often been used to examine the boundaries of processing in the brain. We used the dual-task procedure and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how mental rotation of a first stimulus (S1) influences the shifting of visual-spatial attention to a second stimulus (S2). Visual-spatial attention was monitored by using the N2pc component of the ERP. In addition, we examined the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN) believed to index the retention of information in visual short-term memory. We found modulations of both the N2pc and the SPCN, suggesting that engaging mechanisms of mental rotation impairs the deployment of visual-spatial attention and delays the passage of a representation of S2 into visual short-term memory. Both results suggest interactions between mental rotation and visual-spatial attention in capacity-limited processing mechanisms indicating that response selection is not pivotal in dual-task delays and all three processes are likely to share a common resource like executive control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of encoding manipulation on word-stem cued recall: an event-related potential study.

    Fay, Séverine; Isingrini, Michel; Ragot, Richard; Pouthas, Viviane

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out whether the neural correlates of explicit retrieval from episodic memory would vary according to conditions at encoding when the words were presented in separate study/test blocks. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a word-stem cued-recall task. Deeply (semantically) studied words were associated with higher levels of recall and faster response times than shallowly (lexically) studied words. Robust ERP old/new effects were observed for each encoding condition. They varied in magnitude, being largest in the semantic condition. As expected, scalp distributions also differed: for deeply studied words, the old/new effect resembled that found in previous ERP studies of word-stem cued-recall tasks (parietal and right frontal effects, between 400-800 and 800-1100 ms post-stimulus), whereas for shallowly studied words, the parietal old/new effect was absent in the latter latency window. These results can be interpreted as reflecting access to different kinds of memory representation depending on the nature of the processing engaged during encoding. Furthermore, differences in the ERPs elicited by new items indicate that subjects adopted different processing strategies in the test blocks following each encoding condition.

  11. Interactions among emotional attention, encoding, and retrieval of ambiguous information: an eye-tracking study

    Everaert, Jonas; Koster, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Emotional biases in attention modulate encoding of emotional material into long-term memory, but little is known about the role of such attentional biases during emotional memory retrieval. The present study investigated how emotional biases in memory are related to attentional allocation during retrieval. Forty-nine individuals encoded emotionally positive and negative meanings derived from ambiguous information and then searched their memory for encoded meanings in response to a set of retr...

  12. Encoding of coordination complexes with XML.

    Vinoth, P; Sankar, P

    2017-09-01

    An in-silico system to encode structure, bonding and properties of coordination complexes is developed. The encoding is achieved through a semantic XML markup frame. Composition of the coordination complexes is captured in terms of central atom and ligands. Structural information of central atom is detailed in terms of electron status of valence electron orbitals. The ligands are encoded with specific reference to the electron environment of ligand centre atoms. Behaviour of ligands to form low or high spin complexes is accomplished by assigning a Ligand Centre Value to every ligand based on the electronic environment of ligand centre atom. Chemical ontologies are used for categorization purpose and to control different hybridization schemes. Complexes formed by the central atoms of transition metal, non-transition elements belonging to s-block, p-block and f-block are encoded with a generic encoding platform. Complexes of homoleptic, heteroleptic and bridged types are also covered by this encoding system. Utility of the encoded system to predict redox electron transfer reaction in the coordination complexes is demonstrated with a simple application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantization Distortion in Block Transform-Compressed Data

    Boden, A. F.

    1995-01-01

    The popular JPEG image compression standard is an example of a block transform-based compression scheme; the image is systematically subdivided into block that are individually transformed, quantized, and encoded. The compression is achieved by quantizing the transformed data, reducing the data entropy and thus facilitating efficient encoding. A generic block transform model is introduced.

  14. Strategic retrieval processing and the impact of knowing when a memory was first created.

    Roberts, J S; Tsivilis, D; Mayes, A R

    2014-04-01

    Retrieval orientation refers to a process where participants strategically alter how a memory cue is processed in response to different task demands. In the present study we explored whether retrieval orientation is influenced by knowing when an old stimulus was first encoded. Participants completed separate remember/know test blocks for old items from a recent delay (40min) and old items from a remote delay (48h). Manipulations at encoding ensured that performance levels were matched between these two blocks, thus avoiding confounds with differences in retrieval effort. Importantly, a third test block comprised old items from both delays randomly intermixed. As the nature of the old items varies unpredictably in the mixed block, it should not be possibly to adopt a specific retrieval orientation and the mixed block therefore acts as a control condition. Participants saw the words "mixed," "recent" or "remote" prior to each test block. Comparing ERPs from the recent and remote blocks permitted an investigation of whether participants alter their retrieval orientation in response to the specific length of the retention interval. Comparing ERPs from the pure (recent and remote) test blocks to ERPs from the mixed block permitted an investigation of whether delay information per se led to differences in retrieval strategy. Analysis of the ERP data found no differences between the recent and remote blocks. However, ERPs from these pure blocks were significantly less positive than ERPs from the mixed block from 200ms towards the end of the epoch. The findings suggest that the delay information was useful in a general sense and encouraged retrieval strategies distinct from those engaged in the mixed block. We speculate that such strategies might relate to whether or not the retrieval search is specific and constrained and/or whether processes that serve to reinstate the original encoding context are engaged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do you remember where sounds, pictures and words came from? The role of the stimulus format in object location memory.

    Delogu, Franco; Lilla, Christopher C

    2017-11-01

    Contrasting results in visual and auditory spatial memory stimulate the debate over the role of sensory modality and attention in identity-to-location binding. We investigated the role of sensory modality in the incidental/deliberate encoding of the location of a sequence of items. In 4 separated blocks, 88 participants memorised sequences of environmental sounds, spoken words, pictures and written words, respectively. After memorisation, participants were asked to recognise old from new items in a new sequence of stimuli. They were also asked to indicate from which side of the screen (visual stimuli) or headphone channel (sounds) the old stimuli were presented in encoding. In the first block, participants were not aware of the spatial requirement while, in blocks 2, 3 and 4 they knew that their memory for item location was going to be tested. Results show significantly lower accuracy of object location memory for the auditory stimuli (environmental sounds and spoken words) than for images (pictures and written words). Awareness of spatial requirement did not influence localisation accuracy. We conclude that: (a) object location memory is more effective for visual objects; (b) object location is implicitly associated with item identity during encoding and (c) visual supremacy in spatial memory does not depend on the automaticity of object location binding.

  16. Binding ‘when’ and ‘where’ impairs temporal, but not spatial recall in auditory and visual working memory

    Franco eDelogu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Information about where and when events happened seem naturally linked to each other, but only few studies have investigated whether and how they are associated in working memory. We tested whether the location of items and their temporal order are jointly or independently encoded. We also verified if spatio-temporal binding is influenced by the sensory modality of items. Participants were requested to memorize the location and/or the serial order of five items (environmental sounds or pictures sequentially presented from five different locations. Next, they were asked to recall either the item location or their order of presentation within the sequence. Attention during encoding was manipulated by contrasting blocks of trials in which participants were requested to encode only one feature, to blocks of trials where they had to encode both features. Results show an interesting interaction between task and attention. Accuracy in the serial order recall was affected by the simultaneous encoding of item location, whereas the recall of item location was unaffected by the concurrent encoding of the serial order of items. This asymmetric influence of attention on the two tasks was similar for the auditory and visual modality. Together, these data indicate that item location is processed in a relatively automatic fashion, whereas maintaining serial order is more demanding in terms of attention. The remarkably analogous results for auditory and visual memory performance, suggest that the binding of serial order and location in working memory is not modality-dependent, and may involve common intersensory mechanisms.

  17. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Schwabe, L.; Meyer, T.; Smeets, T.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the

  18. The effect of structural design parameters on FPGA-based feed-forward space-time trellis coding-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing channel encoders

    Passas, Georgios; Freear, Steven; Fawcett, Darren

    2010-08-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based feed-forward space-time trellis code (FFSTTC) encoders can be synthesised as very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) designs. Evaluation of their FPGA implementation can lead to conclusions that help a designer to decide the optimum implementation, given the encoder structural parameters. VLSI architectures based on 1-bit multipliers and look-up tables (LUTs) are compared in terms of FPGA slices and block RAMs (area), as well as in terms of minimum clock period (speed). Area and speed graphs versus encoder memory order are provided for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and 8 phase shift keying (8-PSK) modulation and two transmit antennas, revealing best implementation under these conditions. The effect of number of modulation bits and transmit antennas on the encoder implementation complexity is also investigated.

  19. Epidural block

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000484.htm Epidural block - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) ...

  20. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  1. FFT transformed quantitative EEG analysis of short term memory load.

    Singh, Yogesh; Singh, Jayvardhan; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana

    2015-07-01

    The EEG is considered as building block of functional signaling in the brain. The role of EEG oscillations in human information processing has been intensively investigated. To study the quantitative EEG correlates of short term memory load as assessed through Sternberg memory test. The study was conducted on 34 healthy male student volunteers. The intervention consisted of Sternberg memory test, which runs on a version of the Sternberg memory scanning paradigm software on a computer. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 19 scalp locations according to 10-20 international system of electrode placement. EEG signals were analyzed offline. To overcome the problems of fixed band system, individual alpha frequency (IAF) based frequency band selection method was adopted. The outcome measures were FFT transformed absolute powers in the six bands at 19 electrode positions. Sternberg memory test served as model of short term memory load. Correlation analysis of EEG during memory task was reflected as decreased absolute power in Upper alpha band in nearly all the electrode positions; increased power in Theta band at Fronto-Temporal region and Lower 1 alpha band at Fronto-Central region. Lower 2 alpha, Beta and Gamma band power remained unchanged. Short term memory load has distinct electroencephalographic correlates resembling the mentally stressed state. This is evident from decreased power in Upper alpha band (corresponding to Alpha band of traditional EEG system) which is representative band of relaxed mental state. Fronto-temporal Theta power changes may reflect the encoding and execution of memory task.

  2. Population Blocks.

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  3. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition via RGFP966 Releases the Brakes on Sensory Cortical Plasticity and the Specificity of Memory Formation.

    Bieszczad, Kasia M; Bechay, Kiro; Rusche, James R; Jacques, Vincent; Kudugunti, Shashi; Miao, Wenyan; Weinberger, Norman M; McGaugh, James L; Wood, Marcelo A

    2015-09-23

    Research over the past decade indicates a novel role for epigenetic mechanisms in memory formation. Of particular interest is chromatin modification by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which, in general, negatively regulate transcription. HDAC deletion or inhibition facilitates transcription during memory consolidation and enhances long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. A key open question remains: How does blocking HDAC activity lead to memory enhancements? To address this question, we tested whether a normal function of HDACs is to gate information processing during memory formation. We used a class I HDAC inhibitor, RGFP966 (C21H19FN4O), to test the role of HDAC inhibition for information processing in an auditory memory model of learning-induced cortical plasticity. HDAC inhibition may act beyond memory enhancement per se to instead regulate information in ways that lead to encoding more vivid sensory details into memory. Indeed, we found that RGFP966 controls memory induction for acoustic details of sound-to-reward learning. Rats treated with RGFP966 while learning to associate sound with reward had stronger memory and additional information encoded into memory for highly specific features of sounds associated with reward. Moreover, behavioral effects occurred with unusually specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Class I HDAC inhibition appears to engage A1 plasticity that enables additional acoustic features to become encoded in memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms act to regulate sensory cortical plasticity, which offers an information processing mechanism for gating what and how much is encoded to produce exceptionally persistent and vivid memories. Significance statement: Here we provide evidence of an epigenetic mechanism for information processing. The study reveals that a class I HDAC inhibitor (Malvaez et al., 2013; Rumbaugh et al., 2015; RGFP966, chemical formula C21H19FN4O) alters the formation of auditory memory by

  4. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition via RGFP966 Releases the Brakes on Sensory Cortical Plasticity and the Specificity of Memory Formation

    Bechay, Kiro; Rusche, James R.; Jacques, Vincent; Kudugunti, Shashi; Miao, Wenyan; Weinberger, Norman M.; McGaugh, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past decade indicates a novel role for epigenetic mechanisms in memory formation. Of particular interest is chromatin modification by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which, in general, negatively regulate transcription. HDAC deletion or inhibition facilitates transcription during memory consolidation and enhances long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. A key open question remains: How does blocking HDAC activity lead to memory enhancements? To address this question, we tested whether a normal function of HDACs is to gate information processing during memory formation. We used a class I HDAC inhibitor, RGFP966 (C21H19FN4O), to test the role of HDAC inhibition for information processing in an auditory memory model of learning-induced cortical plasticity. HDAC inhibition may act beyond memory enhancement per se to instead regulate information in ways that lead to encoding more vivid sensory details into memory. Indeed, we found that RGFP966 controls memory induction for acoustic details of sound-to-reward learning. Rats treated with RGFP966 while learning to associate sound with reward had stronger memory and additional information encoded into memory for highly specific features of sounds associated with reward. Moreover, behavioral effects occurred with unusually specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Class I HDAC inhibition appears to engage A1 plasticity that enables additional acoustic features to become encoded in memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms act to regulate sensory cortical plasticity, which offers an information processing mechanism for gating what and how much is encoded to produce exceptionally persistent and vivid memories. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we provide evidence of an epigenetic mechanism for information processing. The study reveals that a class I HDAC inhibitor (Malvaez et al., 2013; Rumbaugh et al., 2015; RGFP966, chemical formula C21H19FN4O) alters the formation of auditory memory by

  5. Aging, Culture, and Memory for Socially Meaningful Item-Context Associations: An East-West Cross-Cultural Comparison Study

    Yang, Lixia; Li, Juan; Spaniol, Julia; Hasher, Lynn; Wilkinson, Andrea J.; Yu, Jing; Niu, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older) and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older). All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age. PMID:23593288

  6. Aging, culture, and memory for socially meaningful item-context associations: an East-West cross-cultural comparison study.

    Lixia Yang

    Full Text Available Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older. All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age.

  7. Aging, culture, and memory for socially meaningful item-context associations: an East-West cross-cultural comparison study.

    Yang, Lixia; Li, Juan; Spaniol, Julia; Hasher, Lynn; Wilkinson, Andrea J; Yu, Jing; Niu, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older) and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older). All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningf