WorldWideScience

Sample records for memory disorders

  1. Memory disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial

    2013-01-01

    Memory disorders are a frequent consequence of a variety of childhood neurological conditions. We will review the characteristics of memory disorders as a function of the main four memory systems: short-term memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, and procedural memory. For each system, we will identify the most typical cerebral and/or genetic correlates, and we will discuss the impact of impairment of each memory system on everyday life functioning. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Explicit memory in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Roth, W.T.; Andrich, M.; Margraf, J.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study selective memory bias favoring anxiety-relevant materials in patients with anxiety disorders. In the 1st experiment, 32 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 30 with social phobia (speaking anxiety), and 31 control participants incidentally learned

  3. Memory consolidation in sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola

    2017-10-01

    In recent years sleep-related memory consolidation has become a central topic in the sleep research field. Several studies have shown that in healthy individuals sleep promotes memory consolidation. Notwithstanding this, the consequences of sleep disorders on offline memory consolidation remain poorly investigated. Research studies indicate that patients with insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy often exhibit sleep-related impairment in the consolidation of declarative and procedural information. On the other hand, patients with parasomnias, such as sleep-walking, night terrors and rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder, do not present any memory impairment. These studies suggest that only sleep disorders characterized by increased post-learning arousal and disrupted sleep architecture seem to be associated with offline memory consolidation issues. Such impairments, arising already in childhood, may potentially affect the development and maintenance of an individual's cognitive abilities, reducing their quality of life and increasing the risk of accidents. However, promising findings suggest that successfully treating sleep symptoms can result in the restoration of memory functions and marked reduction of direct and indirect societal costs of sleep disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Autobiographical memory in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuchowicz, Paulina; Jasionowska, Justyna; Gałecki, Piotr; Talarowska, Monika

    2017-08-21

    Contemporary research studies regarding autobiographical memory (AM) indicate that its deficits have a significant impact on the development of mental disorders. We find particularly many reports regarding the comorbidity of AM deficits and depressive disorders. The characteristic feature of AM in the people suffering from depressive disorders is the presence of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM), i.e. the reminiscences which contain a summary of many emotion-laden situations, yet without significant detail. This type of reminiscences is observed in the patients with depressive disorders and the ones susceptible to the disease but not experiencing presently an episode of depression, as well as the ones being in the phase of disease remission. In recent years, the interest in the significance of negative thinking processes, such as ruminations, as risk factors in the development of depression has been growing. It is emphasized that they are significantly associated with the occurrence of OGM. Research shows that people suffering from OGM and characterised by a rumination-based style of processing experience a greater number of depressive episodes. There are also research studies which confirm that the activities aimed at reducing the number of ruminations influence an improvement of the detail level of reminiscences. These data may serve as valuable therapeutic advice in depression disorders. The aim of the paper is to present results of contemporary research regarding mutual interrelations between autobiographical memory dysfunctions and the occurrence of symptoms of depression and its course.

  5. Autobiographical memory in borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Morten; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    to understand who we are by connecting past, present and future experiences. It seems that autobiographical memory is in some way disrupted in individuals with borderline personality disorder. A systematic review is conducted looking at studies that focus on the potential connections. We find that although......Borderline personality disorder is a severe psychiatric illness. A key feature of the disorder is a disorganized sense of self often referred to as identity diffusion. Autobiographical memory is memory for personal life events. One of the main functions of these memories is to enable us......, autobiographical memory and borderline personality disorder....

  6. Towards universal therapeutics for memory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao-Kun; Nelson, Thomas J; Alkon, Daniel L

    2015-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating that many memory disorders, including those due to neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury (TBI), vascular disease, or abnormal brain development, share common features of memory-related pathology. Structural and functional deficits of synapses are at the core of the underlying pathophysiology, constituting a critical point of convergence in memory disorders. Memory therapeutics that target synaptic loss and dysfunction - that is, to slow, halt, or reverse progression of the disorders at the level of synapses, via synaptogenic molecular cascades such as those of protein kinase C (PKC) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) - possess universal therapeutic value for many forms of memory disorder. They may be useful either as standalone interventions for patients with memory disorders or as adjuncts to drugs that target the underlying pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Episodic Memories in Anxiety Disorders: Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583

  8. Episodic memories in anxiety disorders: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin eZlomuzica

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD. The available literature on explicit-, autobiographical- and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms.

  9. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  10. Autobiographical memory specificity in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Wessel, Ineke; Hermans, Dirk; van Minnen, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a specific event from memory located in time and place. Previous studies of overgeneral memory have not included patients with dissociative disorders. These patients are interesting to consider, as they are hypothesized to have the ability to selectively compartmentalize information linked to negative emotions. This study examined avoidance and overgeneral memory in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID; n = 12). The patients completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Their performance was compared with control groups of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients (n = 26), healthy controls (n = 29), and DID simulators (n = 26). Specifically, we compared the performance of separate identity states in DID hypothesized to diverge in the use of avoidance as a coping strategy to deal with negative affect. No significant differences in memory specificity were found between the separate identities in DID. Irrespective of identity state, DID patients were characterized by a lack of memory specificity, which was similar to the lack of memory specificity found in PTSD patients. The converging results for DID and PTSD patients add empirical evidence for the role of overgeneral memory involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  11. Negative autobiographical memories in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    OToole, Mia Skytte; Watson, Lynn Ann; Rosenberg, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Empirical interest in mental imagery in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has grown over the past years but still little is known about the specificity to SAD. The present study therefore examines negative autobiographical memories in participants with social anxiety disorder...

  12. False memories in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILA DE CAMARGO PALMA

    Full Text Available Abstract Background False memories are memories of events that never occurred or that occurred, but not exactly as we recall. Events with emotional content are subject to false memories production similar to neutral events. However, individual differences, such as the level of maladjustment and emotional instability characteristics of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, may interfere in the production of false memories. Objectives This study aimed to assess the effect of emotion in memory performance for an event witnessed by participants with and without SAD. Methods Participants were 61 young adults with SAD and 76 without any symptoms of SAD who were randomly assigned to watch a story with or without emotional arousal. Participants answered a subjective scale of emotion about the story and a recognition memory test. Results Participants with SAD recovered more true memories and more false memories for the non-emotional version compared to the emotional version of the story. Overall, participants with SAD produced fewer false memories compared to those without SAD. Discussion This finding suggests that social anxiety may have a significant impact on emotional memory accuracy, which may assist in the development and improvement of techniques for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Memory Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbruzzese

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have reported neuropsychological deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. These have mainly implicated frontal or temporal dysfunction. In this study, we compared the performances of OCD patients and normal subjects using a factorial interpretation of the Wechsler Memory Scale. Our results do not demonstrate significant memory impairment in OCD patients but point to the possibility of frontal lobe dysfunction as a factor in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  14. Control over interfering memories in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramaccia, Davide Francesco; Penolazzi, Barbara; Libardi, Arianna; Genovese, Aldo; Castelli, Luigi; Palomba, Daniela; Galfano, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that patients suffering from either anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) exhibit abnormal performance in the ability to control cognitive interference in response selection. We assessed the status of cognitive control in episodic memory by addressing the ability to inhibit interfering memories. To this end, we used the retrieval-practice paradigm, which allows for measuring both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of memory practice. The latter phenomenon, known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), is thought to reflect an adaptive inhibitory mechanism aimed at reducing competition in memory retrieval. Twenty-seven healthy controls and 27 patients suffering from eating disorders (either AN or BN) performed a retrieval-practice paradigm and a control task addressing general reactivity and filled a self-report questionnaire on impulsivity. No differences between patients and healthy controls were observed for the beneficial effects of practice. The same pattern also emerged for RIF. However, when patients with AN and BN were analyzed separately, a clear dissociation emerged: patients with AN displayed no hint of RIF, whereas patients with BN showed an intact memory suppression performance. No group differences emerged in the control task. Our findings suggest a specific impairment in the ability to suppress interfering memories in patients with AN, thus extending current evidence of cognitive control deficits in AN to episodic memory.

  15. Interidentity memory transfer in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lauren L; Allen, John J B; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2008-08-01

    Controversy surrounding dissociative identity disorder (DID) has focused on conflicting findings regarding the validity and nature of interidentity amnesia, illustrating the need for objective methods of examining amnesia that can discriminate between explicit and implicit memory transfer. In the present study, the authors used a cross-modal manipulation designed to mitigate implicit memory effects. Explicit memory transfer between identities was examined in 7 DID participants and 34 matched control participants. After words were presented to one identity auditorily, the authors tested another identity for memory of those words in the visual modality using an exclusion paradigm. Despite self-reported interidentity amnesia, memory for experimental stimuli transferred between identities. DID patients showed no superior ability to compartmentalize information, as would be expected with interidentity amnesia. The cross-modal nature of the test makes it unlikely that memory transfer was implicit. These findings demonstrate that subjective reports of interidentity amnesia are not necessarily corroborated by objective tests of explicit memory transfer. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Emotions and memory in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Elzinga, Bernet; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Memory processes such as encoding, storage, and retrieval of information are influenced by emotional content. Because patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are particularly susceptible to emotional information, it is relevant to understand whether such memory processes are altered in this patient group. This systematic literature review collects current evidence on this issue. Research suggests that emotional information interferes more strongly with information processing and learning in BPD patients than in healthy controls. In general, BPD patients do not seem to differ from healthy control subjects in their ability to memorize emotional information, but they tend to have specific difficulties forgetting negative information. Also, BPD patients seem to recall autobiographical, particularly negative events with stronger arousal than healthy controls, while BPD patients also show specific temporo-prefrontal alterations in neural correlates. No substantial evidence was found that the current affective state influences learning and memory in BPD patients any differently than in healthy control subjects. In general, a depressive mood seems to both deteriorate and negatively bias information processing and memories, while there is evidence that dissociative symptoms impair learning and memory independently of stimulus valence. This review discusses methodological challenges of studies on memory and emotions in BPD and makes suggestions for future research and clinical implications. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali Reza; Heydari, Ali Hosain; Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossain; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Dalgleish, Tim; Jobson, Laura

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Scenic False Memory paradigm (SFM, Hauschildt, Peters, Jelinek, & Moritz, 2012) was administered to male Iranian military personnel who had participated in the Iran-Iraq war and were diagnosed with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) PTSD and a sample of healthy male non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 21). Trauma-exposed participants recalled and recognized a significantly lower percentage of hits and a significantly greater percentage of false memories for both trauma-related and non-trauma-related video scenes, than non-trauma-exposed controls. Among the trauma-exposed participants, those with and without PTSD did not differ significantly in terms of percentage of hits and false memories recalled on the SFM. Those with PTSD were found to recognize significantly fewer hits for both the trauma-related and non-trauma-related videos than those without PTSD. Those with PTSD also recognized significantly more false memories for the trauma video scene than the non-PTSD group. The findings suggest that those with trauma exposure, and in particular those with PTSD, may have a greater susceptibility to visual false memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Everyday Memory in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Luen; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Lai, Hsuan-An

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have deficits in working memory, but little is known about the everyday memory of these children in real-life situations. We investigated the everyday memory function in children with DCD, and explored the specific profile of everyday memory across different domains. Nineteen children with…

  19. Event-based prospective memory performance in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Altgassen, Mareike; Schmitz-H?bsch, Maren; Kliegel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 matched neurotypical controls participated. The laboratory-based prospective memory test was embedded in a visuo-spatial working memory test and required participants to ...

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Autobiographical Memories in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke

    2017-03-01

    Evidence from self-reports and laboratory studies suggests that recall of nontrauma autobiographical memories may be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but investigations in everyday life are sparse. This study investigated unintentional nontrauma and trauma memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD ( N = 52), who kept an autobiographical memory diary for a week. We investigated whether unintentional nontrauma memories show an overgeneral memory bias and further memory abnormalities in people with PTSD, and whether unintentional trauma memories show distinct features. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group recorded fewer nontrauma memories, which were more overgeneral, more often from before the trauma or related to the trauma, were perceived as distant, and led to greater dwelling. Trauma memories were more vivid, recurrent, and present and led to greater suppression and dwelling. Within the PTSD group, the same features distinguished trauma and nontrauma memories. Results are discussed regarding theories of autobiographical memory and PTSD.

  1. Needs assessments of memory disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kate J; Gonzalez, Elizabeth W; Edwards, Carolyn Y; Lippa, Carol F

    2014-12-01

    Previous research shows that informal caregivers of individuals with a memory disorder experience financial strain, declining physical health, and psychological distress. Various resources and services have been developed to address and/or prevent these potential outcomes, yet caregivers continue to be negatively affected by the demands of caregiving. We hypothesize that better identification and clarification of concrete patient and caregiver needs will aid in the modification and improvement of the available resources. The purpose of this study is to determine the psychosocial needs of the cognitively impaired population and their caregivers. A one-page Needs Assessment was created to address areas of potential concern for the individual with a memory disorder and the caregiver. This assessment was administered during visits to an outpatient clinic in Philadelphia. A total of 204 Needs Assessments were collected. The significant needs found in our study cohort include sleep, exercise, clinical trials, education, and assistance with ADLs and IADLs. This study satisfied the initial identification of caregiver and patient needs; now each must be explored further to determine how to successfully meet such needs. If the primary needs of the patient can be met by a focused service, the caregiver will no longer be the sole provider of meeting the specific need. This will decrease the involved role of the caregiver, maximize patient homecare, minimize caregiver stress, and increase the quality of life for both the patient and caregiver. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Everyday false memories in older persons with depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejunaite, Karolina; Lanza, Claudia; Riepe, Matthias W

    2018-03-01

    Generally we tend to think that memory in daily living is complete and accurate in healthy persons. However, current memory research has revealed inconspicuous memory faults. Rarely omissions and distortions of memory are researched with tasks resembling everyday life. We investigated healthy older control subjects (HC) and patients with depressive disorder (DD). Cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and mood with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS). We assessed everyday veridical and distorted memories on showing participants original news and commercials. In most aspects of attention, executive functions, and memory, patients with DD performed worse than HC. Regarding memory content on viewing news or commercials the difference between patients with DD and HC was more pronounced for false memory content than for veridical memory content. Linear regression analysis showed the extent of false memory content being associated with mental flexibility as assessed with the Trail Making Test and mood as assessed with the MADRS for both information obtained on viewing news and commercials. Increase of false memories impedes overall accuracy of memory more than decrease of veridical memories in older persons with depressive disorder. Diminished executive functions and depressive mood partly explain these memory distortions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New avenues for treating emotional memory disorders : Towards a reconsolidation intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; van Emmerik, A.

    The discovery that fear memories may change upon retrieval, a process referred to as memory reconsolidation, opened avenues to develop a revolutionary new treatment for emotional memory disorders. Reconsolidation is a two-phase process in which retrieval of a memory initiates a transient period of

  4. Cognitive rehabilitation of episodic memory disorders: from theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Ptak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Memory disorders are among the most frequent and most debilitating cognitive impairments following acquired brain damage. Cognitive remediation strategies attempt to restore lost memory capacity, provide compensatory techniques or teach the use of external memory aids. Memory rehabilitation has strongly been influenced by memory theory, and the interaction between both has stimulated the development of techniques such as spaced retrieval, vanishing cues or errorless learning. These techniques partly rely on implicit memory and therefore enable even patients with dense amnesia to acquire new information. However, knowledge acquired in this way is often strongly domain-specific and inflexible. In addition, individual patients with amnesia respond differently to distinct interventions. The factors underlying these differences have not yet been identified. Behavioural management of memory failures therefore often relies on a careful description of environmental factors and measurement of associated behavioural disorders such as unawareness of memory failures. The current evidence suggests that patients with less severe disorders benefit from self-management techniques and mnemonics whereas rehabilitation of severely amnesic patients should focus on behaviour management, the transmission of domain-specific knowledge through implicit memory processes and the compensation for memory deficits with memory aids.

  5. Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Maski, Kiran; Steinhart, Erin; Holbrook, Hannah; Katz, Eliot S.; Kapur, Kush; Stickgold, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Memory consolidation is stabilized and even enhanced by sleep (and particularly by 12–15 Hz sleep spindles in NREM stage 2 sleep) in healthy children but it is unclear what happens to these processes when sleep is disturbed by obstructive sleep disordered breathing. This cross-sectional study investigates differences in declarative memory consolidation among children with primary snoring (PS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared to controls. We further investigate whether memory consoli...

  6. Complex Prospective Memory in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Westermann, Celina; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has been associated with disturbances of attention and executive functions. Furthermore, impairments of verbal and figural retrospective memory were reported. However, little is known about the effects of ADHD on prospective

  7. Event-based prospective memory performance in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Schmitz-Hübsch, M.; Kliegel, M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with

  8. The memory systems of children with (central) auditory disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Mayra Monteiro; Mota, Mailce Borges; Pinheiro, Maria Madalena Canina

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate working, declarative, and procedural memory in children with (central) auditory processing disorder who showed poor phonological awareness. Thirty 9- and 10-year-old children participated in the study and were distributed into two groups: a control group consisting of 15 children with typical development, and an experimental group consisting of 15 children with (central) auditory processing disorder who were classified according to three behavioral tests and who showed poor phonological awareness in the CONFIAS test battery. The memory systems were assessed through the adapted tests in the program E-PRIME 2.0. The working memory was assessed by the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C), whereas the declarative memory was assessed by a picture-naming test and the procedural memory was assessed by means of a morphosyntactic processing test. The results showed that, when compared to the control group, children with poor phonological awareness scored lower in the working, declarative, and procedural memory tasks. The results of this study suggest that in children with (central) auditory processing disorder, phonological awareness is associated with the analyzed memory systems.

  9. Event-based prospective memory performance in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Mareike; Schmitz-Hübsch, Maren; Kliegel, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 matched neurotypical controls participated. The laboratory-based prospective memory test was embedded in a visuo-spatial working memory test and required participants to remember to respond to a cue-event. Everyday planning performance was assessed with proxy ratings. Although parents of the autism group rated their children's everyday performance as significantly poorer than controls' parents, no group differences were found in event-based prospective memory. Nevertheless, individual differences in laboratory-based and everyday performances were related. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Neuropsychological performance in schizotypal personality disorder: importance of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulou, Vivian; Harvey, Phillip D; Zegarelli, Gayle; New, Antonia S; Silverman, Jeremy M; Siever, Larry J

    2005-10-01

    Cognitive deficits consistently have been reported in schizophrenia patients and in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. For this study, the authors wanted to identify which of the domains of cognitive impairment represent "core" deficits of schizophrenia, comparing subjects with schizotypal personality disorder to two comparison groups: healthy volunteers and patients with personality disorders unrelated to schizophrenia. Three groups completed a neuropsychological battery: patients with DSM-III-R schizotypal personality disorder (N=82); patients with DSM-III-R personality disorders unrelated to schizophrenia (i.e., a personality disorder other than schizotypal, schizoid, or paranoid [N=44]); and healthy volunteers (N=63). The battery included the California Verbal Learning Test, Trailmaking Test parts A and B, the Dot test of working memory, the Stroop Color and Word Test, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, the WMS visual reproduction test, and the WAIS-R vocabulary and block design. Normative standards for performance that controlled for age, gender, and education were created from the scores of the healthy volunteers. Overall, schizotypal personality disorder patients performed significantly worse than the healthy volunteers and those with personality disorders unrelated to schizophrenia. Specifically, patients with schizotypal personality disorder demonstrated impaired performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, WMS visual reproduction test, Dot test, and California Verbal Learning Test. In addition, in a regression analysis, performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test demonstrated the largest effect size. Indeed, it accounted for unique variance above and beyond all other cognitive measures, since controlling for Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test performance abolished group differences across all other measures. Patients with schizotypal personality disorder demonstrated moderate cognitive impairment compared with

  11. Negative autobiographical memories in social anxiety disorder: A comparison with panic disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Watson, Lynn A; Rosenberg, Nicole K; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-03-01

    Empirical interest in mental imagery in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has grown over the past years but still little is known about the specificity to SAD. The present study therefore examines negative autobiographical memories in participants with social anxiety disorder (SAD), compared to patients with panic disorder (PD), and healthy controls (HCs). A total of 107 participants retrieved four memories cued by verbal phrases associated with either social anxiety (SA) or panic anxiety (PA), with two memories for each cue category. PA-cued memories were experienced with stronger imagery and as more traumatic. They were also rated as more central to identity than SA-cued memories, but not among participants with SAD, who perceived SA-cued memories as equally central to their identity. When between-group effects were detected, participants with anxiety disorders differed from HCs, but not from each other. Central limitations include reliance on self-report measures, comorbidity in the anxiety disorder groups, and lack of a neutrally cued memory comparison. The findings align with models of SAD suggesting that past negative social events play a central role in this disorder. Future research is suggested to further explore the function of negative memories, not only in SAD, but also in other anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Memory impairments in posttraumatic stress disorder are related to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Grethe E; Kanagaratnam, Pushpa; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on verbal learning and memory alterations in refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder, and whether the alterations are related to attention, acquisition, storage, or retrieval. Twenty-one refugees exposed to war and political violence with chronic PTSD, were compared to an exposed control sample of 21 refugees without PTSD. No differences were found in attention span, but tests of verbal memory showed less efficient learning in the PTSD sample. Group differences in delayed recall could be explained by learning efficiency. No differences were seen in recognition memory. These results indicate that memory alterations in PTSD are related to impaired acquisition and less effective encoding of the memory material and not to impaired attention span and/or impaired retrieval. Controlling for specific PTSD symptom clusters and self-reported depression showed that the intrusion subscale and depressive reactions are the most important symptoms in understanding the memory alterations in PTSD.

  13. Examining procedural working memory processing in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Nitzan; Teodorescu, Andrei R; Anholt, Gideon E; Karmon-Presser, Anat; Meiran, Nachshon

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has suggested that a deficit in working memory might underlie the difficulty of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients to control their thoughts and actions. However, a recent meta-analyses found only small effect sizes for working memory deficits in OCD. Recently, a distinction has been made between declarative and procedural working memory. Working memory in OCD was tested mostly using declarative measurements. However, OCD symptoms typically concerns actions, making procedural working-memory more relevant. Here, we tested the operation of procedural working memory in OCD. Participants with OCD and healthy controls performed a battery of choice reaction tasks under high and low procedural working memory demands. Reaction-times (RT) were estimated using ex-Gaussian distribution fitting, revealing no group differences in the size of the RT distribution tail (i.e., τ parameter), known to be sensitive to procedural working memory manipulations. Group differences, unrelated to working memory manipulations, were found in the leading-edge of the RT distribution and analyzed using a two-stage evidence accumulation model. Modeling results suggested that perceptual difficulties might underlie the current group differences. In conclusion, our results suggest that procedural working-memory processing is most likely intact in OCD, and raise a novel, yet untested assumption regarding perceptual deficits in OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Memory deficit in patients with schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder: relational vs item-specific memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wookyoung Jung,1 Seung-Hwan Lee1,2 1Clinical Emotions and Cognition Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea Abstract: It has been well established that patients with schizophrenia have impairments in cognitive functioning and also that patients who experienced traumatic events suffer from cognitive deficits. Of the cognitive deficits revealed in schizophrenia or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients, the current article provides a brief review of deficit in episodic memory, which is highly predictive of patients’ quality of life and global functioning. In particular, we have focused on studies that compared relational and item-specific memory performance in schizophrenia and PTSD, because measures of relational and item-specific memory are considered the most promising constructs for immediate tangible development of clinical trial paradigm. The behavioral findings of schizophrenia are based on the tasks developed by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS initiative and the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia (CNTRACS Consortium. The findings we reviewed consistently showed that schizophrenia and PTSD are closely associated with more severe impairments in relational memory compared to item-specific memory. Candidate brain regions involved in relational memory impairment in schizophrenia and PTSD are also discussed. Keywords: schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, episodic memory deficit, relational memory, item-specific memory, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus

  15. New avenues for treating emotional memory disorders: towards a reconsolidation intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Merel; van Emmerik, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The discovery that fear memories may change upon retrieval, a process referred to as memory reconsolidation, opened avenues to develop a revolutionary new treatment for emotional memory disorders. Reconsolidation is a two-phase process in which retrieval of a memory initiates a transient period of memory destabilization, followed by a protein synthesis-dependent restabilization phase. This reconsolidation window offers unique opportunities for amnesic agents to interfere with the process of memory restabilization, thereby weakening or even erasing the emotional expression from specific fear memories. Here we present four uncontrolled case descriptions of patients with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who received a reconsolidation intervention. The intervention basically involves a brief reactivation of the trauma memory aimed to trigger memory destabilization, followed by the intake of one pill of 40 mg propranolol HCl (i.e. a noradrenergic beta-blocker) that should disrupt the process of memory restabilization. We present three cases who showed a steep decline of fear symptoms after only one or two intervention sessions. To illustrate that the translation from basic science to clinical practice is not self-evident, we also present a description of a noneffective intervention in a relatively complex case. Even though the reconsolidation intervention is very promising, the success of the treatment depends on whether the memory reactivation actually triggers memory reconsolidation. Obviously the uncontrolled observations described here warrant further study in placebo-controlled designs.

  16. A memory-based model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Johansen, Marlene Klindt

    2008-01-01

    In the mnemonic model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current memory of a negative event, not the event itself, determines symptoms. The model is an alternative to the current event-based etiology of PTSD represented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...... objective information about the trauma and peritraumatic emotions but uses retrospective memory reports that can have substantial biases. Negative events and emotions that do not satisfy the current diagnostic criteria for a trauma can be followed by symptoms that would otherwise qualify for PTSD....... Predisposing factors that affect the current memory have large effects on symptoms. The inability-to-recall-an-important-aspect-of-the-trauma symptom does not correlate with other symptoms. Loss or enhancement of the trauma memory affects PTSD symptoms in predictable ways. Special mechanisms that apply only...

  17. Setting a disordered password on a photonic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shih-Wei; Gou, Shih-Chuan; Chew, Lock Yue; Chang, Yu-Yen; Yu, Ite A.; Kalachev, Alexey; Liao, Wen-Te

    2017-06-01

    An all-optical method of setting a disordered password on different schemes of photonic memory is theoretically studied. While photons are regarded as ideal information carriers, it is imperative to implement such data protection on all-optical storage. However, we wish to address the intrinsic risk of data breaches in existing schemes of photonic memory. We theoretically demonstrate a protocol using spatially disordered laser fields to encrypt data stored on an optical memory, namely, encrypted photonic memory. To address the broadband storage, we also investigate a scheme of disordered echo memory with a high fidelity approaching unity. The proposed method increases the difficulty for the eavesdropper to retrieve the stored photon without the preset password even when the randomized and stored photon state is nearly perfectly cloned. Our results pave ways to significantly reduce the exposure of memories, required for long-distance communication, to eavesdropping and therefore restrict the optimal attack on communication protocols. The present scheme also increases the sensitivity of detecting any eavesdropper and so raises the security level of photonic information technology.

  18. Memory creation and modification: Enhancing the treatment of psychological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredlow, M Alexandra; Eichenbaum, Howard; Otto, Michael W

    2018-03-01

    Modification of the ongoing influence of maladaptive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral patterns is a fundamental feature of many psychological treatments. Accordingly, a clear understanding of the nature of memory adaptation and accommodation to therapeutic learning becomes an important issue for (1) understanding the impact of clinical interventions, and (2) considering innovations in treatment strategies. In this article, we consider advances in the conceptualization of memory processes and memory modification research relative to clinical treatment. We review basic research on the formation of memories, the way in which new learning is integrated within memory structures, and strategies to influence the nature and degree to which new learning is integrated. We then discuss cognitive/behavioral and pharmacological strategies for influencing memory formation in relation to disorder prevention or treatment. Our goal is to foster awareness of current strategies for enhancing therapeutic learning and to encourage research on potential new avenues for memory enhancement in service of the treatment of mental health disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A transdiagnostic comparison of trauma and panic memories in PTSD, panic disorder, and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Minnen, A. van; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Inadequate processing of trauma information is considered to lead to particularly vivid recollections and disorganized memories of the trauma. Although trauma memories have mainly been investigated in PTSD, memories in other psychiatric disorders may actually share some characteristics. This may

  20. Committing to Memory: Memory Prosthetics Show Promise in Helping Those with Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Cell phone chimes, sticky notes, even the proverbial string around a finger-these timehonored external cues help guard against our inevitable memory lapses. But some internal help to the brain itself may be on the way in the form of what's being called memory prosthetics. Once considered to be on the fringes of neuroscience, the idea of adding hardware to the brain to help with memory has gathered steam. In 2014, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) made a US$30 million investment in memory prosthetic research as part of the Obama administration's Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative. In August 2016, Kernel, a startup based in Los Angeles, California, announced its goal to develop a clinical memory device for those debilitated by neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Sleep Dependent Memory Consolidation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maski, Kiran; Holbrook, Hannah; Manoach, Dara; Hanson, Ellen; Kapur, Kush; Stickgold, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of declarative memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Case-control study. Home-based study with sleep and wake conditions. Twenty-two participants with ASD and 20 control participants between 9 and 16 y of age. Participants were trained to criterion on a spatial declarative memory task and then given a cued recall test. Retest occurred after a period of daytime wake (Wake) or a night of sleep (Sleep) with home-based polysomnography; Wake and Sleep conditions were counterbalanced. Children with ASD had poorer sleep efficiency than controls, but other sleep macroarchitectural and microarchitectural measures were comparable after controlling for age and medication use. Both groups demonstrated better memory consolidation across Sleep than Wake, although participants with ASD had poorer overall memory consolidation than controls. There was no interaction between group and condition. The change in performance across sleep, independent of medication and age, showed no significant relationships with any specific sleep parameters other than total sleep time and showed a trend toward less forgetting in the control group. This study shows that despite their more disturbed sleep quality, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) still demonstrate more stable memory consolidation across sleep than in wake conditions. The findings support the importance of sleep for stabilizing memory in children with and without neurodevelopmental disabilities. Our results suggest that improving sleep quality in children with ASD could have direct benefits to improving their overall cognitive functioning. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Mechanisms of Verbal Memory Impairment in Four Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sharon; Jones, Wendy; Roman, Mary J.; Wulfeck, Beverly; Delis, Dean C.; Reilly, Judy; Bellugi, Ursula

    2004-01-01

    Profiles of verbal learning and memory performance were compared for typically developing children and for four developmental disorders characterized by different patterns of language functioning: specific language impairment, early focal brain damage, Williams Syndrome, and Down Syndrome. A list-learning task was used that allowed a detailed…

  3. Phonological and Visuospatial Working Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, P.; Soriano, M. F.; Paredes, N.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated phonological and visuospatial working memory (WM) in autism spectrum disorders. Autistic children and typically developing children were compared. We used WM tasks that measured phonological and visuospatial WM up to the capacity limit of each children. Overall measures of WM did not show differences between autistic children and…

  4. Abnormal Fear Memory as a Model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    For over a century, clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical etiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e., the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favor of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathologic memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between normal/adaptive versus abnormal/maladaptive fear memory to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  6. Visuospatial memory in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Sahu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a clinically heterogeneous disorder. The previous studies have been conducted to elucidate visuospatial and nonverbal memory deficits in OCD patients. However, they did not reach equivocal results which need to be replicated. Objectives: The current study examines the visuospatial memory in male patients with OCD as compared to normal healthy controls. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional hospital-based study, in which 15 OCD patients and 15 age-, sex-, and education-matched normal healthy controls were chosen by purposive sampling technique. All the participants underwent the Extended Complex Figure Test (ECFT for the assessment of visuospatial memory. Results: Significant difference was found between OCD patients and normal healthy controls on various domains of ECFT. OCD patients performed poorly on copy condition (t = −4.46; P< 0.001, immediate recall (t = −5.20; P< 0.001, delayed recall (t = −5.18; P< 0.001, recognition task (P < 0.001, and matching task (P < 0.001 than the controls. Conclusion: Visuospatial memory was significantly impaired in OCD that included disturbed encoding and impaired visuospatial functioning. Hence, it is important to understand the significance of visuospatial memory in the pathophysiology for OCD diagnosis and therapeutic decision.

  7. Working memory in social anxiety disorder: better manipulation of emotional versus neutral material in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K Lira; Kutz, Amanda M; LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) engage in post-event processing, a form of perseverative thinking. Given that deficits in working memory might underlie perseverative thinking, we examined working memory in SAD with a particular focus on the effects of stimulus valence. SAD (n = 31) and healthy control (n = 20) participants either maintained (forward trials) or reversed (backward trials) in working memory the order of four emotional or four neutral pictures, and we examined sorting costs, which reflect the extent to which performance deteriorated on the backward trials compared to the forward trials. Emotionality of stimuli affected performance of the two groups differently. Whereas control participants exhibited higher sorting costs for emotional stimuli compared to neutral stimuli, SAD participants exhibited the opposite pattern. Greater attention to emotional stimuli in SAD might facilitate the processing of emotional (vs. neutral) stimuli in working memory.

  8. Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The role of Depressed Mood, Rumination, Working Memory and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults…

  9. Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maski, Kiran; Steinhart, Erin; Holbrook, Hannah; Katz, Eliot S; Kapur, Kush; Stickgold, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Memory consolidation is stabilized and even enhanced by sleep (and particularly by 12-15 Hz sleep spindles in NREM stage 2 sleep) in healthy children but it is unclear what happens to these processes when sleep is disturbed by obstructive sleep disordered breathing. This cross-sectional study investigates differences in declarative memory consolidation among children with primary snoring (PS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared to controls. We further investigate whether memory consolidation group differences are associated with NREM stage 2 (N2) sigma (12-15 Hz) or NREM slow oscillation (0.5-1 Hz) spectral power bands. In this study, we trained and tested participants on a spatial declarative memory task with cued recall. Retest occurred after a period of daytime wake (Wake) or a night of sleep (Sleep) with in-lab polysomnography. 36 participants ages 5-9 years completed the protocol: 14 with OSA as defined by respiratory disturbance index (RDI) > 1/hour, 12 with primary snoring (PS) and 10 controls. OSA participants had poorer overall memory consolidation than controls across Wake and Sleep conditions [OSA: mean = -18.7% (5.8), controls: mean = 1.9% (7.2), t = -2.20, P = 0.04]. In contrast, PS participants and controls had comparable memory consolidation across conditions (t = 0.41; P = 0.38). We did not detect a main effect for condition (Sleep, Wake) or group x condition interaction on memory consolidation. OSA participants had lower N2 sigma power than PS (P = 0.03) and controls (P = 0.004) and N2 sigma power inversely correlated with percentage of time snoring on the study night (r = -0.33, Pmemory consolidation in both Sleep (r = 0.37, P = 0.03) and Wake conditions (r = 0.44, P = 0.009). Further observed variable path analysis showed that N2 sigma power mediated the relationship between group and mean memory consolidation across Sleep and Wake states [Bindirect = 6.76(3.5), z = 2.03, P = 0.04]. NREM slow oscillation power did not correlate with memory

  10. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Speech-Disordered Children: Implications for Articulatory Coding in Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children with speech disorders had lower short-term memory capacity and smaller word length effect than control children. Children with speech disorders also had reduced speech-motor activity during rehearsal. Results suggest that speech rate may be a causal determinant of verbal short-term memory capacity. (BC)

  11. Working Memory Functioning in Children with Learning Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…

  12. Influence of memory theme and posttraumatic stress disorder on memory specificity in British and Iranian trauma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Laura; Cheraghi, Sepideh

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of culture, memory theme and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on autobiographical memory specificity in Iranian and British trauma survivors. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test and PTSD Diagnostic Scale. The results indicated that the British group provided significantly more personal-themed memories than the Iranian group, while the Iranian group provided significantly more social-themed memories than the British group. The British group also provided a significantly greater proportion of specific personal-themed and social-themed memories than the Iranian group. Overall, in both cultural groups memory specificity was found to be significantly correlated with PTSD symptoms. These findings provide further evidence that regardless of memory theme, specificity of autobiographical memories function to differentiate the self from others and reaffirm the independent self. They also further highlight that pan-culturally an overgeneral retrieval style may be employed by those with PTSD symptoms.

  13. Are Trauma Memories Disjointed from other Autobiographical Memories in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Birgit; Wallott, Franziska; Ehlers, Anke

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that trauma memories are disjointed from other autobiographical material in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Assault survivors with (n = 25) and without PTSD (n = 49) completed an autobiographical memory retrieval task during script-driven imagery of (a) the assault and (b) an unrelated negative event. When listening to a taped imagery script of the worst moment of their assault, survivors with PTSD took longer to retrieve unrelated non-traumatic autobiographical information than those without PTSD, but not when listening to a taped script of the worst moment of another negative life event. The groups also did not differ in general retrieval latencies, neither at baseline nor after the imagery tasks. The findings are in line with suggestions that traumatic memories are less integrated with other autobiographical information in trauma survivors with PTSD than in those without PTSD. PMID:21241538

  14. Brief Report: Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Katelynn; Burkhouse, Katie L.; Woody, Mary L.; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) bias serves as a state-like marker of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence or whether it would also be observed in currently nondepressed adolescents with a history of MDD. We examined differences in OGM to positive and negative cue words between adolescents (aged 11–18 years) with current MDD (n = 15), remitted MDD (n = 25), and no history of any depressive disorder (n = 25). Youth and their parents were administered a structured diagnostic interview and adolescents completed the autobiographical memory test. Compared to never depressed adolescents, adolescents with current or remitted MDD recalled less specific memories in response to positive and negative cue words. The difference between the two MDD groups was small and nonsignificant. These findings suggest that OGM is not simply a state-like marker in currently depressed adolescents, but is also evident in adolescents with remitted MDD, indicating that it may represent a trait-like vulnerability that increases risk for relapse. PMID:27498000

  15. Gender differences in immediate memory in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrus, D; Christodoulou, T; Hadjulis, M; Haldane, M; Galea, A; Koukopoulos, A; Kumari, V; Frangou, S

    2010-08-01

    Gender is known to modulate the clinical course and severity of bipolar disorder (BD). Although cognitive abnormalities are an established feature of BD, there is limited information regarding whether gender also influences the pattern and severity of cognitive impairment. We evaluated the performance of 86 remitted patients with BD, type 1, (BD-I) (36 male and 50 female) and 46 healthy participants (21 male and 25 female) on tasks of general intellectual ability, memory encoding, recognition and retrieval, response inhibition and executive function (abstraction and perseveration). The impact of illness severity in patients was assessed using the global assessment of functioning (GAF). We found a gender effect and an interaction between diagnosis and gender on immediate memory, implicating encoding and retrieval processes, both showing male BD-I patients being disadvantaged compared with female patients and healthy controls. Immediate memory correlated with GAF scores and this association was statistically significant for male BD-I patients. Our findings suggest that gender differences in BD-I are associated with memory function, particularly processes relating to encoding and retrieval, and may contribute to poor functional outcome particularly in men.

  16. Disorder-induced magnetic memory: experiments and theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, M.S.; Buechler, C.R.; Sorensen, L.B.; Kevan, S.D.; Jagla, E.A.; Deutsch, J.M.; Mai, T.; Narayan, O.; Davies, J.E.; Liu, K.; Zimanyi, G.T.; Katzgraber, H.G.; Hellwig, O.; Fullerton, E.E.; Fischer, P.; Kortright, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Beautiful theories of magnetic hysteresis based on random microscopic disorder have been developed over the past ten years. Our goal was to directly compare these theories with precise experiments. To do so, we first developed and then applied coherent x-ray speckle metrology to a series of thin multilayer perpendicular magnetic materials. To directly observe the effects of disorder, we deliberately introduced increasing degrees of disorder into our films. We used coherent x rays, produced at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to generate highly speckled magnetic scattering patterns. The apparently ''random'' arrangement of the speckles is due to the exact configuration of the magnetic domains in the sample.In effect, each speckle pattern acts as a unique fingerprint for the magnetic domain configuration. Small changes in the domain structure change the speckles, and comparison of the different speckle patterns provides a quantitative determination of how much the domain structure has changed. Our experiments quickly answered one longstanding question: How is the magnetic domain configuration at one point on the major hysteresis loop related to the configurations at the same point on the loop during subsequent cycles? This is called microscopic return-point memory ''RPM''. We found that the RPM is partial and imperfect in the disordered samples, and completely absent when the disorder is below a threshold level. We also introduced and answered a second important question: How are the magnetic domains at one point on the major loop related to the domains at the complementary point, the inversion symmetric point on the loop, during the same and during subsequent cycles? This is called microscopic complementary-point memory ''CPM''. We found that the CPM is also partial and imperfect in the disordered samples and completely absent when the disorder is not present. In addition, we found that the RPM is always a little larger than the

  17. Disorder-induced magnetic memory: Experiments and theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, M. S.; Buechler, C. R.; Sorensen, L. B.; Kevan, S. D.; Jagla, E. A.; Deutsch, J. M.; Mai, T.; Narayan, O.; Davies, J. E.; Liu, Kai; Zimanyi, G. T.; Katzgraber, H. G.; Hellwig, O.; Fullerton, E. E.; Fischer, P.; Kortright, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Beautiful theories of magnetic hysteresis based on random microscopic disorder have been developed over the past ten years. Our goal was to directly compare these theories with precise experiments. To do so, we first developed and then applied coherent x-ray speckle metrology to a series of thin multilayer perpendicular magnetic materials. To directly observe the effects of disorder, we deliberately introduced increasing degrees of disorder into our films. We used coherent x rays, produced at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to generate highly speckled magnetic scattering patterns. The apparently ''random'' arrangement of the speckles is due to the exact configuration of the magnetic domains in the sample. In effect, each speckle pattern acts as a unique fingerprint for the magnetic domain configuration. Small changes in the domain structure change the speckles, and comparison of the different speckle patterns provides a quantitative determination of how much the domain structure has changed. Our experiments quickly answered one long-standing question: How is the magnetic domain configuration at one point on the major hysteresis loop related to the configurations at the same point on the loop during subsequent cycles? This is called microscopic return-point memory (RPM). We found that the RPM is partial and imperfect in the disordered samples, and completely absent when the disorder is below a threshold level. We also introduced and answered a second important question: How are the magnetic domains at one point on the major loop related to the domains at the complementary point, the inversion symmetric point on the loop, during the same and during subsequent cycles? This is called microscopic complementary-point memory (CPM). We found that the CPM is also partial and imperfect in the disordered samples and completely absent when the disorder is not present. In addition, we found that the RPM is always a little larger than the CPM

  18. Are the neural substrates of memory the final common pathway in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?

    OpenAIRE

    Elzinga, B.M.; Bremner, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    A model for the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a disorder of memory is presented drawing both on psychological and neurobiological data. Evidence on intrusive memories and deficits in declarative memory function in PTSD-patients is reviewed in relation to three brain areas that are involved in memory functioning and the stress response: the hippocampus, amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex. Neurobiological studies have shown that the noradrenergic stress-system is involved in enhanced...

  19. Tempol prevents post-traumatic stress disorder induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Rababa'h, Abeer M; Al Yacoub, Omar N

    2018-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health disorder that can develop after a terrifying or life threatening event. Multiple symptoms are noticed in patients with PTSD including cognitive impairment, which was shown to be is associated with oxidative stress. Tempol is a highly efficient membrane-permeable antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effect of tempol on PTSD-induced memory impairment. To test this hypothesis, we used single prolonged stress (SPS) model (2h restrain, 20min forced swimming, 15min rest, and 1-2min diethyl ether exposure) as a model of PTSD. Rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control (provided distilled water), tempol (provided tempol; 80mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 4weeks), SPS (exposed to prolonged stress and administered distilled water) and tempol/SPS (exposed to prolonged stress and administered tempol for 4weeks). We used radial arm water maze to test spatial learning and memory functions and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to measure levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in the hippocampus. Results showed that SPS model of PTSD impaired both short and long-term memories (Ptempol administration prevented such effect. Tempol also prevented decreases in hippocampal catalase, and SOD activities, GSH/GSSG ratio and increases TBARS levels, which were all impaired by SPS model of PTSD (Ptempol administration against SPS model of PTSD-induced short- and long- term memory impairment, and we believe that this protective effect of tempol is accomplished, at least partly, through prevention of alternation in oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The neural correlates of emotional memory in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohawn, Kathryn Handwerger; Offringa, Reid; Pfaff, Danielle L; Hughes, Katherine C; Shin, Lisa M

    2010-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is marked by intrusive, chronic, and distressing memories of highly emotional events. Previous research has highlighted the role of the amygdala and its interactions with the hippocampus in mediating the effect of enhanced memory for emotional information in healthy individuals. As the functional integrity of these regions may be compromised in PTSD, the current study examined the neural correlates of emotional memory in PTSD. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an event-related subsequent memory recognition paradigm to study amygdala and hippocampus activation in 18 individuals with PTSD and 18 trauma-exposed non-PTSD control participants. Memory enhancement for negative, relative to neutral, pictures was found across all subjects, without significant differences between groups. Relative to the trauma-exposed non-PTSD group, the PTSD group showed exaggerated amygdala activation during the encoding of negative versus neutral pictures. This effect was even more pronounced when the analysis included data from only pictures that were subsequently remembered 1 week later. In the PTSD group, degree of amygdala activation during the encoding of negative versus neutral pictures was positively correlated with hippocampal activation and current PTSD symptom severity. The PTSD group also showed exaggerated hippocampal activation in response to negative pictures that were remembered versus forgotten. Finally, hippocampal activation associated with the successful encoding of negative relative to neutral pictures was significantly greater in the PTSD group. Exaggerated amygdala activation during the encoding of emotionally negative stimuli in PTSD is related to symptom severity and to hippocampal activation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methylphenidate Improves Visual-Spatial Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit- hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Anne-Claude; Martinussen, Rhonda; Ickowicz, Abel; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on visual-spatial memory, as measured by subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB), in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual-spatial memory is a core component of working memory that has been shown to be impaired in…

  2. Brief Report: Self-Defining and Everyday Autobiographical Memories in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been attributed to a failure in using the self as an effective memory organisational system. To explore this hypothesis, we compared self-defining and everyday memories in adults with and without ASD. Results demonstrated that both groups were able to distinguish between…

  3. Episodic Memory Retrieval in Adolescents with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joanna C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Two reasons may explain the discrepant findings regarding declarative memory in developmental language disorder (DLD) in the literature. First, standardized tests are one of the primary tools used to assess declarative memory in previous studies. It is possible they are not sensitive enough to subtle memory impairment. Second, the…

  4. Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    Episodic and semantic autobiographical memories were examined in a group of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a control group matched for age, gender and IQ. Results demonstrated a personal episodic memory deficit in the ASD group in the absence of a personal semantic memory deficit, suggesting a deficit dissociation between these…

  5. Time-Based Prospective Memory in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Williams, T.I.; Bölte, S.; Kliegel, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, for the first time, prospective memory was investigated in 11 school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders and 11 matched neurotypical controls. A computerised time-based prospective memory task was embedded in a visuospatial working memory test and required participants to

  6. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  7. A Prospective Study of Autobiographical Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…

  8. Response to psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: the role of pretreatment verbal memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J.; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies have consistently demonstrated impaired verbal memory in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma-focused treatment for PTSD is thought to rely on memory, but it is largely unknown whether treatment outcome is influenced by memory performance. The aim of the study,

  9. Emotional power of music in patients with memory disorders: clinical implications of cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Séverine; Dellacherie, Delphine; Platel, Hervé

    2009-07-01

    By adapting methods of cognitive psychology to neuropsychology, we examined memory and familiarity abilities in music in relation to emotion. First we present data illustrating how the emotional content of stimuli influences memory for music. Second, we discuss recent findings obtained in patients with two different brain disorders (medically intractable epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease) that show relatively spared memory performance for music, despite severe verbal memory disorders. Studies on musical memory and its relation to emotion open up paths for new strategies in cognitive rehabilitation and reinstate the importance of examining interactions between cognitive and clinical neurosciences.

  10. Stress, glucocorticoids and memory: implications for treating fear-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique; Schwabe, Lars; Roozendaal, Benno

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid stress hormones are crucially involved in modulating mnemonic processing of emotionally arousing experiences. They enhance the consolidation of new memories, including those that extinguish older memories, but impair the retrieval of information stored in long-term memory. As strong aversive memories lie at the core of several fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias, the memory-modulating properties of glucocorticoids have recently become of considerable translational interest. Clinical trials have provided the first evidence that glucocorticoid-based pharmacotherapies aimed at attenuating aversive memories might be helpful in the treatment of fear-related disorders. Here, we review important advances in the understanding of how glucocorticoids mediate stress effects on memory processes, and discuss the translational potential of these new conceptual insights.

  11. Does reconsolidation occur in natural settings? Memory reconsolidation and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo S; Pedreira, María E; Boccia, Mariano M

    2017-11-01

    In normal settings, our brain is able to update its stored representations in content, strength, and/or expectations by the memory reconsolidation process. Thus, a reactivated memory enters in a transient labile state (destabilization) followed by a re-stabilization phase in order to persist (memory reconsolidation). Cognitive neuroscience and its insight into psychiatric problems attributed a close relationship between memory (formation, maintenance, and utilization) and several mental disorders. In this framework, the reconsolidation process could be not only the mechanism for maintenance of some psychopathologies, but also open a novel therapeutic window. Here we aim to integrate recent experimental and theoretical research on memory reconsolidation and anxiety disorders maintenance. We propose a bayesian-like model about anxiety disorders persistence and postulate a new theoretical framework for how anxiety disorders are maintained through impaired memory updating due to a dysfunctional prediction error minimization strategy and anticipatory responses to threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of Memory Disorders in Gulf War Illness with High-Definition Transcranial Direct Cortical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0521 TITLE: Treatment of Memory Disorders in Gulf War Illness with High- Definition Transcranial Direct Cortical...Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Treatment of Memory Disorders in Gulf War Illness with High-Definition Transcranial Direct...0521 15. SUBJECT TERMS Gulf War Illness; High Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation; word finding; semantic memory 16. SECURITY

  13. The Effect of Working Memory Training on Auditory Stream Segregation in Auditory Processing Disorders Children

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah Moossavi; Saeideh Mehrkian; Yones Lotfi; Soghrat Faghih zadeh; Hamed Adjedi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of working memory training for improving working memory capacity and related auditory stream segregation in auditory processing disorders children. Methods: Fifteen subjects (9-11 years), clinically diagnosed with auditory processing disorder participated in this non-randomized case-controlled trial. Working memory abilities and auditory stream segregation were evaluated prior to beginning and six weeks after completing the training program...

  14. Sleep complaints and memory in psychotropic drug-free euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chieh-Hui; Chen, Kao-Chin; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Lee, I-Hui; Chiu, Nan-Ying; Chen, Po-See; Yang, Yen-Kuang

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have been conducted examining the genuine sleep condition and memory in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder. Thus we evaluated sleep complaints and memory functions in psychotropic drug-free euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Twenty-two psychotropic drug-free euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and 44 healthy controls matched by age and sex were recruited and assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). The quality of sleep and memory function of the euthymic patients with bipolar disorder were significantly poorer than those of the controls. Both years of education and the hypnotic use sub-item of the PSQI were significantly correlated with visual memory index of the WMS-R. Sleep complaints management is important in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Contraindicated medication use among patients in a memory disorders clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Cynthia; Sklenicka, Julie; Sayegh, Philip; Yaffe, Kristine

    2008-08-01

    Inappropriate or contraindicated use of medications in elderly patients is common and associated with poor outcomes. An important risk factor for adverse drug events is the increased sensitivity to drug effects on the central nervous system (CNS). There is a high rate of use of CNS-active drugs in patients with cognitive impairment, despite the fact that these medications may worsen cognition and be a possible "reversible" cause of memory loss. The goals of this study were to establish the prevalence of these contraindicated medications in a population of elderly patients referred to a memory disorders clinic for evaluation and to determine if those individuals receiving contraindicated medications had specific characteristics. This included determining how many patients were concurrently being prescribed a cholinesterase inhibitor. The review included new patients consecutively evaluated for cognitive complaints in a memory disorders clinic between June 2003 and August 2004. Each patient underwent a comprehensive evaluation by a multi-disciplinary team during a 3-hour clinic appointment. A thorough history of cognitive deficits and associated symptoms was obtained by the physician, who also performed a comprehensive neurologic examination. All patients underwent neuropsychologic testing with an extensive cognitive battery. In addition, patients' electronic medical records were reviewed to determine a list of prescribed and over-the-counter medications at the time of the initial referral. Contraindicated medications were identified using the updated Beers criteria of medications that should be avoided in older patients with cognitive impairment or that have high CNS adverse effects. A total of 100 patients (91 men, 9 women; mean [SD] age, 75.8 [9.7] years; 73% white) were included in the study. Eighty-six patients were determined at the time of evaluation to have some kind of cognitive impairment. They were mildly impaired, with a mean (SD) Mini-Mental State

  16. Functional connectivity pattern during rest within the episodic memory network in association with episodic memory performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent

    2015-02-28

    In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). The previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. We did a seed-based functional connectivity analysis (SBA), using the regions of the episodic memory network that showed a significantly different activation pattern during task-related fMRI as seeds. The functional connectivity scores (FC) were further correlated with episodic memory task performance. Our results revealed decreased FC scores within frontal areas and between frontal and temporal/hippocampal/limbic regions in BD patients in comparison with controls. We observed higher FC in BD patients compared with controls between frontal and limbic regions. The decrease in fronto-frontal functional connectivity in BD patients showed a significant positive association with episodic memory performance. The association between task-independent dysfunctional frontal-limbic FC and episodic memory performance may be relevant for current pathophysiological models of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deficient fear extinction memory in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicking, Manon; Steiger, Frauke; Nees, Frauke; Diener, Slawomira J; Grimm, Oliver; Ruttorf, Michaela; Schad, Lothar R; Winkelmann, Tobias; Wirtz, Gustav; Flor, Herta

    2016-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be maintained by deficient extinction memory. We used a cued fear conditioning design with extinction and a post-extinction phase to provoke the return of fear and examined the role of the interplay of amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal regions. We compared 18 PTSD patients with two healthy control groups: 18 trauma-exposed subjects without PTSD (nonPTSD) and 18 healthy controls (HC) without trauma experience. They underwent a three-day ABC-conditioning procedure in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Two geometric shapes that served as conditioned stimuli (CS) were presented in the context of virtual reality scenes. Electric painful stimuli were delivered after one of the two shapes (CS+) during acquisition (in context A), while the other (CS-) was never paired with pain. Extinction was performed in context B and extinction memory was tested in a novel context C. The PTSD patients showed significantly higher differential skin conductance responses than the non-PTSD and HC and higher differential amygdala and hippocampus activity than the HC in context C. In addition, elevated arousal to the CS+ during extinction and to the CS- throughout the experiment was present in the PTSD patients but self-reported differential valence or contingency were not different. During extinction recall, differential amygdala activity correlated positively with the intensity of numbing and ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity correlated positively with behavioral avoidance. PTSD patients show heightened return of fear in neural and peripheral measures. In addition, self-reported arousal was high to both danger (CS+) and safety (CS-) cues. These results suggest that a deficient maintenance of extinction and a failure to identify safety signals might contribute to PTSD symptoms, whereas non-PTSD subjects seem to show normal responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Organizational Learning Strategies and Verbal Memory Deficits in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzburg, George C; Cuesta-Diaz, Armando; Ospina, Luz H; Russo, Manuela; Shanahan, Megan; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes; Larsen, Emmett; Mulaimovic, Sandra; Burdick, Katherine E

    2017-04-01

    Verbal memory (VM) impairment is prominent in bipolar disorder (BD) and is linked to functional outcomes. However, the intricacies of VM impairment have not yet been studied in a large sample of BD patients. Moreover, some have proposed VM deficits that may be mediated by organizational strategies, such as semantic or serial clustering. Thus, the exact nature of VM break-down in BD patients is not well understood, limiting remediation efforts. We investigated the intricacies of VM deficits in BD patients versus healthy controls (HCs) and examined whether verbal learning differences were mediated by use of clustering strategies. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was administered to 113 affectively stable BD patients and 106 HCs. We compared diagnostic groups on all CVLT indices and investigated whether group differences in verbal learning were mediated by clustering strategies. Although BD patients showed significantly poorer attention, learning, and memory, these indices were only mildly impaired. However, BD patients evidenced poorer use of effective learning strategies and lower recall consistency, with these indices falling in the moderately impaired range. Moreover, relative reliance on semantic clustering fully mediated the relationship between diagnostic category and verbal learning, while reliance on serial clustering partially mediated this relationship. VM deficits in affectively stable bipolar patients were widespread but were generally mildly impaired. However, patients displayed inadequate use of organizational strategies with clear separation from HCs on semantic and serial clustering. Remediation efforts may benefit from education about mnemonic devices or "chunking" techniques to attenuate VM deficits in BD. (JINS, 2017, 23, 358-366).

  19. Disorders of working memory and selected cognitive processes inpatients treated for paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Giętkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Already since the times of Baddeley and Hitch the dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe was regarded as the function‑ al centre of the working memory. Working memory disorders are, on the other hand, one of the basic and consoli‑ dated disorders in the course of paranoid schizophrenia. The concept of neurodevelopmental schizophrenia com‑ bines these elements and associates the illness with the changes occurring in the brain in the prenatal period. The efficiency of the working memory system, which acts as a buffer manipulating with the possessed and inflowing information, influences the quality of other cognitive processes, such as long‑term memory, short‑term memory, con‑ centration and thinking. A study was performed on two groups: one experimental consisting of 31 people suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and one control group of 31 healthy people. In both groups a replica of Wisconsin Card Sorting Task was used in order to measure the efficiency of the working memory and selected tests from WAIS‑R (PL: the Polish adaptation of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to assess the functioning of concentration, memory and thinking. The results of the study showed that in the experimental group the efficiency of the working memory is very low and that the illness affects the performance of concentration, memory and thinking. Moreover the tests proved that the working memory disorder increases with time.

  20. Overgeneral memory and suppression of trauma memories in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke; Böllinghaus, Inga; Rief, Winfried

    2007-04-01

    The study investigated the relationship between the suppression of trauma memories and overgeneral memory in 42 assault survivors with and without PTSD. Overgeneral memory (OGM) was assessed with a standard autobiographical memory test (AMT). Participants completed two further AMTs under the instructions to either suppress or not suppress assault memories, in counterbalanced order. Participants with PTSD retrieved fewer and more general memories when following the suppression instruction than participants without PTSD, but not under the control instruction. OGM correlated with PTSD symptom severity, and measures of cognitive avoidance. The results are discussed with reference to current theories of overgeneral memory and its possible relationship with PTSD.

  1. Memory functioning in children with reading disabilities and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a clinical investigation of their working memory and long-term memory functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Cohen, Morris J

    2008-11-01

    We examined memory functioning in children with reading disabilities (RD), Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and RD/ADHD using a clinic sample with a clinical instrument: the Children's Memory Scale, enhancing its generalizability. Participants included 23 children with RD, 30 with ADHD, 30 with RD/ADHD, and 30 controls. Children with RD presented with reduced verbal short-term memory (STM) but intact visual STM, central executive (CE), and long-term memory (LTM) functioning. Their deficit in STM appeared specific to tasks requiring phonetic coding of material. Children with ADHD displayed intact CE and LTM functioning but reduced visual-spatial STM, especially when off stimulant medication. Children with RD/ADHD had deficits consistent with both disorders.

  2. Parents' Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…

  3. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Greater executive and visual memory dysfunction in comorbid bipolar disorder and substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David F; Walker, Sara J; Ryan, Kelly A; Kamali, Masoud; Saunders, Erika F H; Weldon, Anne L; Adams, Kenneth M; McInnis, Melvin G; Langenecker, Scott A

    2012-12-30

    Measures of cognitive dysfunction in Bipolar Disorder (BD) have identified state and trait dependent metrics. An influence of substance abuse (SUD) on BD has been suggested. This study investigates potential differential, additive, or interactive cognitive dysfunction in bipolar patients with or without a history of SUD. Two hundred fifty-six individuals with BD, 98 without SUD and 158 with SUD, and 97 Healthy Controls (HC) completed diagnostic interviews, neuropsychological testing, and symptom severity scales. The BD groups exhibited poorer performance than the HC group on most cognitive factors. The BD with SUD exhibited significantly poorer performance than BD without SUD in visual memory and conceptual reasoning/set-shifting. In addition, a significant interaction effect between substance use and depressive symptoms was found for auditory memory and emotion processing. BD patients with a history of SUD demonstrated worse visual memory and conceptual reasoning skills above and beyond the dysfunction observed in these domains among individuals with BD without SUD, suggesting greater impact on integrative, gestalt-driven processing domains. Future research might address longitudinal outcome as a function of BD, SUD, and combined BD/SUD to evaluate neural systems involved in risk for, and effects of, these illnesses. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Working Memory and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory…

  6. Learning and Memory Impairments in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per N.; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    There are relatively few studies on learning and delayed memory with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the present study was to examine acquisition, free delayed memory, and recognition skills in medication naive children and adolescents aged 8-16 years with ADHD combined subtype (36 participants) and inattentive…

  7. Imaging Evidence for Disturbances in Multiple Learning and Memory Systems in Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Suzanne; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to review neuroimaging studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that examine declarative, socio-emotional, and procedural learning and memory systems. Method: We conducted a search of PubMed from 1996 to 2010 using the terms "autism,""learning,""memory," and "neuroimaging." We limited our review to studies…

  8. A Preliminary Study of Gender Differences in Autobiographical Memory in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Lorna; Dritschel, Barbara; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memory was assessed in 24 children (12 male, 12 female, aged between 8 and 16 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a comparison group of 24 typically developing (TD) children matched for age, IQ, gender and receptive language. Results suggested that a deficit in specific memory retrieval in the ASD group was more…

  9. Pitch Discrimination and Melodic Memory in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanutz, Sandy; Wapnick, Joel; Burack, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pitch perception is enhanced among persons with autism. We extended this finding to memory for pitch and melody among school-aged children. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate pitch memory in musically untrained children with autism spectrum disorders, aged 7-13 years, and to compare it to that of age- and…

  10. Random walks in disordered lattice, CTRW, memory and dipole transport

    OpenAIRE

    Dzheparov, F. S.

    2017-01-01

    Application of CTRW to dipole hopping transport is considered. Correct versions of derivation of the CTRW-equations are presented. Existence of different forms of memory kernels is demonstrated. Correction of Scher-Lax memory kernel within geometrical memory approach is fulfilled in accordance with leading terms of concentration expansion. Approximate solution for autocorrelation function is constructed. Modern state of numerical simulation and experimental measurements of autocorrelation fun...

  11. Rumination mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yansong; Yu, Xinnian; Yang, Bixiu; Zhang, Fuquan; Zou, Wenhua; Na, Aiguo; Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Guangzhong

    2017-03-21

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been identified as a risk factor for the onset and maintenance of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might explain overgeneral autobiographical memory phenomenon in depression. The purpose of this study was to test the mediation effects of rumination on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms. Specifically, the mediation effects of brooding and reflection subtypes of rumination were examined in patients with major depressive disorder. Eighty-seven patients with major depressive disorder completed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Bootstrap mediation analysis for simple and multiple mediation models through the PROCESS macro was applied. Simple mediation analysis showed that rumination significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses showed that brooding, but not reflection, significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Our results indicate that global rumination partly mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, the present results suggest that the mediating role of rumination in the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression is mainly due to the maladaptive brooding subtype of rumination.

  12. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Mattfeld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  13. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder and memory: prescient medicolegal testimony at the International War Crimes Tribunal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparr, Landy F; Bremner, J Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The nature of remembrance of traumatic events has been particularly controversial during the past decade as vigorous new research has reshaped thinking about trauma and memory. Memory alterations in traumatized individuals have been investigated within both theoretical and biological frameworks. There are different types of memory, and empirical studies have associated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a simultaneous weakening and a strengthening of memory. Memory deficiencies in PTSD have been found to be related to problems in new learning (explicit memory), but other specific deficiencies are unvalidated. Recently, accuracy of memory has received particular scrutiny because considerable importance is attached to victims' recollections. In 1998, at the International War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague, The Netherlands, a Bosnian-Croatian soldier was tried for aiding and abetting the rape of a Muslim woman. The defendant's lawyers suggested that the woman's memory was inaccurate, having been adversely affected by her traumatic experiences, and that the defendant whom she identified was not present during her interrogation and abuse. The prosecution disagreed and argued that memories of traumatic experiences in individuals with PTSD are characteristically hyperaccessible. Expert witnesses on both sides were brought in to provide medicolegal testimony about the scientific parameters of stress and its long-term effects on brain regions associated with memory. With the expert witness discussion as background, this article reviews the most recent research about the nature of memory in the aftermath of trauma and the politics of psychological trauma and the law.

  15. Effectiveness of a working memory intervention program in children with language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Victor; Hernandez, Sergio; Ramirez, Gustavo

    2017-09-28

    The aim of this study was twofold: first, to obtain a neuropsychological characterization of children with language disorders, and second, to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program on working memory. We used a pretest-instruction-posttest design, carefully identifying a sample of 32 children with language disorders whom we then evaluated for short-term verbal and visuospatial memory, verbal and visuospatial working memory, attention, processing speed, and lexical-semantic skills. We then implemented an intervention program on working memory consisting of 72 sessions of 15 minutes each, after which we repeated the neuropsychological assessment of these functions. Children with language disorders performed worse than children in the control group in all memory tasks evaluated and in the lexical-semantic processing task. After the intervention, children with language disorders showed a significant increase over their own previous performance in all variables. Children with language disorders show significant cognitive deficits and not just linguistic impairment. We offer conclusive findings on the effectiveness of the intervention program used. Finally, we obtained partial support for the existence of a causal link between improved performance on memory tasks and performance in a lexical-semantic task.

  16. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  17. Remembering rejection: specificity and linguistic styles of autobiographical memories in borderline personality disorder and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Charlotte; Renneberg, Babette

    2015-03-01

    High levels of rejection sensitivity are assumed to be the result of early and prolonged experiences of rejection. Aim of this study was to investigate autobiographical memories of rejection in clinical samples high in rejection sensitivity (Borderline Personality Disorder, BPD, and Major Depressive Disorder, MDD) and to identify group differences in the quality of the memories. Memories of rejection were retrieved using an adapted version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; five positive cue words, five cue words referring to rejection). Specificity of memories and linguistic word usage was analyzed in 30 patients with BPD, 27 patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls. Patients with BPD retrieved less specific memories compared to the healthy control group, whereas patients with MDD did not differ from controls in this regard. The group difference was no longer significant when controlling for rejection sensitivity. Linguistic analysis indicated that compared to both other groups, patients with BPD showed a higher self-focus, used more anger-related words, referred more frequently to social environments, and rated memories of rejection as more relevant for today's life. Clinical symptoms were not assessed in the control group. Moreover, the written form of the AMT might reduce the total number of specific memories. The level of rejection sensitivity influenced the specificity of the retrieved memories. Analysis of linguistic styles revealed specific linguistic patterns in BPD compared to non-clinical as well as depressed participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overactive Pattern Separation Memory Associated with Negative Emotionality in Adults Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, M.; Stephenson, K. G.; Nielson, C. A.; Maisel, M.; Top, D. N.; Kirwan, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    Bowler et al. ("Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders" 44(9):2355-2362. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2105-y, 2014) have suggested that a specific memory impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) arises from hippocampal failure to consolidate multiple related pieces of information. Twenty-four adults diagnosed with ASD and matched…

  19. A Memory-Based Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evaluating Basic Assumptions Underlying the PTSD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Bohni, Malene Klindt

    2008-01-01

    In the mnemonic model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current memory of a negative event, not the event itself, determines symptoms. The model is an alternative to the current event-based etiology of PTSD represented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association,…

  20. Altered memory and affective instability in prisoners assessed for dangerous and severe personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Tim; Joyce, Eileen; Milton, John; Duggan, Conor; Tyrer, Peter; Rogers, Robert D

    2007-05-01

    Previous studies of borderline personality disorder report neuropsychological impairments in several domains, including memory. No studies have compared memory functioning in high-risk prisoners with borderline personality disorder with similar prisoners with other personality disorders. To explore mnemonic impairments in prisoners undergoing personality assessment as part of the dangerous and severe personality disorder initiative or detained in a medium secure facility. We investigated memory function in 18 prisoners with borderline personality disorder and 18 prisoners with other personality disorders. Prisoners with borderline personality disorder exhibited a pattern of multi-modal impairments in the immediate and delayed recall of verbal and visual information, with some association with affective instability. These deficits were not associated with the severity of personality disturbance. These data suggest that memory deficits have some specificity in relation to the constituent traits of borderline personality disorder and indicate that neuropsychological assessment may be a source of useful adjunctive information for distinguishing between the cognitive and psychological difficulties of individual prisoners.

  1. Annual Research Review: The neurobehavioral development of multiple memory systems: implications for childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Marsh, Rachel; Peterson, Bradley S.; Packard, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a “cognitive” memory system that depends upon the hippocampus and a stimulus-response “habit” memory system that depends upon the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence. These disorders include Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Human and nonhuman animal research shows that the typical development of memory systems comprises the early maturation of striatal-dependent habit memory and the relatively late maturation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory. We speculate that the differing rates of development of these memory systems may in part contribute to the early emergence of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence. In addition, abnormalities in hippocampal and striatal brain regions have been observed consistently in youth with these disorders, suggesting that the aberrant development of memory systems may also contribute to the emergence of habit-like symptoms as core pathological features of these illnesses. Considering these disorders within the context of multiple memory systems may help elucidate the pathogenesis of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence, and lead to novel treatments that lessen the habit-like behavioral features of these disorders. PMID:24286520

  2. The Effect of Working Memory Training on Auditory Stream Segregation in Auditory Processing Disorders Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Moossavi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of working memory training for improving working memory capacity and related auditory stream segregation in auditory processing disorders children. Methods: Fifteen subjects (9-11 years, clinically diagnosed with auditory processing disorder participated in this non-randomized case-controlled trial. Working memory abilities and auditory stream segregation were evaluated prior to beginning and six weeks after completing the training program. Ten control subjects, who did not participate in training program, underwent the same battery of tests at time intervals equivalent to the trained subjects. Differences between the two groups were measured using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The results of this study indicated children who received auditory working memory training performed significantly better on working memory abilities and auditory stream segregation task than children do not received training program. Discussion: Results from this case-control study support the benefits of working memory training for children with auditory processing disorders and indicate that training of auditory working memory is especially important for this population.

  3. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD: processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Since attention problems frequently co-occur with learning disorders, the study examined whether these three factors, which are known to be associated with attention problems, account for the comorbidity between these disorders. The sample comprised 99 primary school children in four groups: children with RD, children with MD, children with both disorders (RD+MD), and typically developing children (TD controls). Measures of processing speed, temporal processing, and memory were analyzed in a series of ANCOVAs including attention ratings as covariate. All three risk factors were associated with poor attention. After controlling for attention, associations with RD and MD differed: Although deficits in verbal memory were associated with both RD and MD, reduced processing speed was related to RD, but not MD; and the association with RD was restricted to processing speed for familiar nameable symbols. In contrast, impairments in temporal processing and visuospatial memory were associated with MD, but not RD. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  4. Semantic Dementia Shows both Storage and Access Disorders of Semantic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Previous studies have shown that some patients with semantic dementia (SD have memory storage disorders, while others have access disorders. Here, we report three SD cases with both disorders. Methods. Ten pictures and ten words were prepared as visual stimuli to determine if the patients could correctly answer names and select pictures after hearing the names of items (Card Presentation Task, assessing memory storage disorder. In a second task, the viewing time was set at 20 or 300 msec (Momentary Presentation Task, evaluating memory access disorder using items for which correct answers were given in the first task. The results were compared with those for 6 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Results. The SD patients had lower scores than the AD group for both tasks, suggesting both storage and access disorders. The AD group had almost perfect scores on the Card Presentation Task but showed impairment on the Momentary Presentation Task, although to a lesser extent than the SD cases. Conclusions. These results suggest that SD patients have both storage and access disorders and have more severe access disorder than patients with AD.

  5. Differences in attention and memory processes between children with and without post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Soto - Pérez; María Paula Baquero - Vargas; Mara Bernate - Navarro

    2009-01-01

    Selective and alternant attention and immediate and logic memory differences between children with and without post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were researched. The study was conformed by a control group of 15 children (8 to 10 years) and an experimental group of 15 children victims of sexual abuse, with a diagnosis of PSTD (8 to 10 years). Attention was evaluated by two subscales of the WISC- R; and the Difference Perception Test; for memory, two subscales of the Luria Neuropsychologica...

  6. Visual Memory of Meaningless Shapes in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salmanian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available objective: Visual memory is an important cognitive ability, which has been studied in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs. In such studies meaningful shapes were used more frequently. Since meaningless shapes provide a better assessment of short term visual memory, in this study we used them to evaluate visual memory in children and adolescents with ASDs compared to the normal group.Methods: Four visual memory tests of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB including Paired Associates Learning (PAL, Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM, Spatial Recognition Memory (SRM and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS were administered to 15 children and adolescents with ASDs (high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome and to 15 normal participants aged 8 to 17,with IQ of above 70.Results: Individuals with ASDs performed worse than the normal group on visual memory tasks. After eliminating IQ as a covariate, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of visual memory performance.Conclusion: It seems that deficits on visual memory tasks in youths with ASDs could be related to their general intellectual abilities.

  7. Deficits in episodic memory and mental time travel in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Woud, Marcella L; Machulska, Alla; Kleimt, Katharina; Dietrich, Lisa; Wolf, Oliver T; Assion, Hans-Joerg; Huston, Joseph P; De Souza Silva, Maria A; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-04-20

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by impairments in mnestic functions, especially in the domain of episodic memory. These alterations might affect different aspects of episodic memory functioning. Here we tested PTSD patients and healthy controls (matched for age, sex and education) in a newly developed virtual reality episodic memory test (VR-EMT), a test for mental time travel, episodic future thinking, and prospective memory (M3xT). In a cross-validation experiment, their performance was further evaluated in the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT). PTSD patients demonstrated impairments in episodic memory formation and mental time travel and showed difficulties in utilizing information from episodic memory to solve problems. Diminished attention and concentration in PTSD did not account for performance deficits in these tasks but higher levels of negative arousal were found in PTSD patients. Furthermore, performance in the VR-EMT and RBMT in PTSD patients correlated negatively with self-reported measures of stress and depression. Our results suggest that deficits in episodic memory formation and mental time travel in PTSD lead to difficulties in utilizing the content of episodic memories for solving problems in the present or to plan future behavior. Clinical implications of these findings and suggestions for cognitive-behavioral treatment of PTSD are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive impairment in depressive disorders. Neuropsychological evaluation of memory and behavioural disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, G; Penasse, C; Waltregny, A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the contribution that clinical neuropsychology and neuropsychological assessment can conter to neuropsychiatry, particularly in the evaluation of cognitive disturbances and pharmacological treatment of depression. Six patients (4 females, 2 males; age: 16-54 years old) suffering from depressive disorders underwent a clinical neuropsychological examination. Depending on the memory scores obtained on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, the patients were classified as having mild or no memory impairment (memory impairment (20-40% decrease) or severe memory alteration (> 60% deterioration). Evaluation of memory scores of two other memory tests (Wechsler memory scale and Rey visual design learning test) were also considered. Patients who were classified as having severe memory impairment were consistently reported as seriously impaired on all memory tests. The severity of cognitive dysfunction is in accordance with the serious ness of the neuropsychiatric disturbances of the patients as revealed by personality testing (MMPI, IDS and Eysenck questionnaires) or by personal details as assessed during the interview. This paper discusses the importance of the utility of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation of depressed patients and seriously considers the possibility of the use of this approach for pharmacological treatment evaluation.

  9. The relation between working memory capacity and auditory lateralization in children with auditory processing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moossavi, Abdollah; Mehrkian, Saiedeh; Lotfi, Yones; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; sajedi, Hamed

    2014-11-01

    Auditory processing disorder (APD) describes a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by poor speech perception, especially in noisy environments. APD may be responsible for a range of sensory processing deficits associated with learning difficulties. There is no general consensus about the nature of APD and how the disorder should be assessed or managed. This study assessed the effect of cognition abilities (working memory capacity) on sound lateralization in children with auditory processing disorders, in order to determine how "auditory cognition" interacts with APD. The participants in this cross-sectional comparative study were 20 typically developing and 17 children with a diagnosed auditory processing disorder (9-11 years old). Sound lateralization abilities investigated using inter-aural time (ITD) differences and inter-aural intensity (IID) differences with two stimuli (high pass and low pass noise) in nine perceived positions. Working memory capacity was evaluated using the non-word repetition, and forward and backward digits span tasks. Linear regression was employed to measure the degree of association between working memory capacity and localization tests between the two groups. Children in the APD group had consistently lower scores than typically developing subjects in lateralization and working memory capacity measures. The results showed working memory capacity had significantly negative correlation with ITD errors especially with high pass noise stimulus but not with IID errors in APD children. The study highlights the impact of working memory capacity on auditory lateralization. The finding of this research indicates that the extent to which working memory influences auditory processing depend on the type of auditory processing and the nature of stimulus/listening situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Overgeneral memory extends to pictorial retrieval cues and correlates with cognitive features in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke

    2006-11-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show overgeneral memory (OGM) when retrieving autobiographical memories to word cues. We investigated whether OGM extends to picture cues and whether it is related to PTSD symptoms and cognitions. Trauma survivors with (n = 29) and without (n = 26) PTSD completed the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) and a novel picture version. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group showed OGM in both test versions. Pictures facilitated specific memory retrieval, but this effect was no longer significant when verbal intelligence or depressive symptoms were controlled. OGM correlated with PTSD symptoms and perceived self-change; with intrusive memories, their perceived "nowness," responses to intrusions (thought suppression, rumination, dissociation), and negative interpretations of symptoms. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Dissociation and Memory Fragmentation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Evaluation of the Dissociative Encoding Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review, we summarize the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus, initial evidence points more toward a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation. PMID:22348400

  12. Working memory in school-age children with and without a persistent speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Hogan, Tiffany P; Bernthal, John E

    2017-03-17

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of working memory processes as a possible cognitive underpinning of persistent speech sound disorders (SSD). Forty school-aged children were enrolled; 20 children with persistent SSD (P-SSD) and 20 typically developing children. Children participated in three working memory tasks - one to target each of the components in Baddeley's working memory model: phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad and central executive. Children with P-SSD performed poorly only on the phonological loop tasks compared to their typically developing age-matched peers. However, mediation analyses revealed that the relation between working memory and a P-SSD was reliant upon nonverbal intelligence. These results suggest that co-morbid low-average nonverbal intelligence are linked to poor working memory in children with P-SSD. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Effects of erythropoietin on memory-relevant neurocircuitry activity and recall in mood disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Macoveanu, J; Vinberg, M

    2016-01-01

    cohort. The effects of EPO were not correlated with change in mood, red blood cells, blood pressure, or medication. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight enhanced encoding-related dlPFC and temporo-parietal activity as key neuronal underpinnings of EPO-associated memory improvement.......OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO) improves verbal memory and reverses subfield hippocampal volume loss across depression and bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to investigate with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whether these effects were accompanied by functional changes in memory...

  14. Selective preservation of memory for people in the context of semantic memory disorder: patterns of association and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Frances; Kay, Janice; Hanley, J Richard; Haslam, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A number of single cases in the literature demonstrate that person-specific semantic knowledge can be selectively impaired after acquired brain damage compared with that of object categories. However, there has been little unequivocal evidence for the reverse dissociation, selective preservation of person-specific semantic knowledge. Recently, three case studies have been published which provide support for the claim that such knowledge can be selectively preserved [Kay, J., & Hanley, J. R. (2002). Preservation of memory for people in semantic memory disorder: Further category-specific semantic dissociation. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 19, 113-134; Lyons, F., Hanley, J. R., & Kay, J. (2002). Anomia for common names and geographical names with preserved retrieval of names of people: A semantic memory disorder. Cortex, 38, 23-35; Thompson, S. A, Graham, K. S., Williams, G., Patterson, K., Kapur, N., & Hodges, J. R. (2004). Dissociating person-specific from general semantic knowledge: Roles of the left and right temporal lobes. Neuropsychologia, 42, 359-370]. In this paper, we supply further evidence from a series of 18 patients with acquired language disorder. Of this set, a number were observed to be impaired on tests of semantic association and word-picture matching using names of object categories (e.g. objects, animals and foods), but preserved on similar tests using names of famous people. Careful methodology was applied to match object and person-specific categories for item difficulty. The study also examined whether preservation of person-specific semantic knowledge was associated with preservation of knowledge of 'biological categories' such as fruit and vegetables and animals, or with preservation of 'token' knowledge of singular categories such as countries. The findings are discussed in the context of a variety of accounts that examine whether semantic memory has a categorical structure.

  15. The Influence of Task Demands, Verbal Ability and Executive Functions on Item and Source Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semino, Sara; Ring, Melanie; Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.

    2018-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is generally associated with difficulties in contextual source memory but not single item memory. There are surprising inconsistencies in the literature, however, that the current study seeks to address by examining item and source memory in age and ability matched groups of 22 ASD and 21 comparison adults. Results…

  16. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity is associated with impaired discrimination learning in anxiety disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaert, Bert; Boddez, Yannick; Vervliet, Bram; Schruers, Koen; Hermans, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Associative learning plays an important role in the development of anxiety disorders, but a thorough understanding of the variables that impact such learning is still lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in autobiographical memory specificity are related to discrimination learning and generalization. In an associative learning task, participants learned the association between two pictures of female faces and a non-aversive outcome. Subsequently, six morphed pictures functioning as generalization stimuli (GSs) were introduced. In a sample of healthy participants (Study 1), we did not find evidence for differences in discrimination learning as a function of memory specificity. In a sample of anxiety disorder patients (Study 2), individuals who were characterized by low memory specificity showed deficient discrimination learning relative to high specific individuals. In contrast to previous findings, results revealed no effect of memory specificity on generalization. These results indicate that impaired discrimination learning, previously shown in patients suffering from an anxiety disorder, may be—in part—due to limited memory specificity. Together, these studies emphasize the importance of incorporating cognitive variables in associative learning theories and their implications for the development of anxiety disorders. In addition, re-analyses of the data (Study 3) showed that patients suffering from panic disorder showed higher outcome expectancies in the presence of the stimulus that was never followed by an outcome during discrimination training, relative to patients suffering from other anxiety disorders and healthy participants. Because we used a neutral, non-aversive outcome (i.e., drawing of a lightning bolt), these data suggest that learning abnormalities in panic disorder may not be restricted to fear learning, but rather reflect a more general associative learning deficit that also manifests in fear irrelevant contexts. PMID

  17. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity is associated with impaired discrimination learning in anxiety disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert eLenaert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Associative learning plays an important role in the development of anxiety disorders, but a thorough understanding of the variables that impact such learning is still lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in autobiographical memory specificity are related to discrimination learning and generalization. In an associative learning task, participants learned the association between two pictures of female faces and a non-aversive outcome. Subsequently, six morphed pictures functioning as generalization stimuli (GSs were introduced. In a sample of healthy participants (Study 1, we did not find evidence for differences in discrimination learning as a function of memory specificity. In a sample of anxiety disorder patients (Study 2, individuals who were characterized by low memory specificity showed deficient discrimination learning relative to high specific individuals. In contrast to previous findings, results revealed no effect of memory specificity on generalization. These results indicate that impaired discrimination learning, previously shown in patients suffering from an anxiety disorder, may be – in part – due to limited memory specificity. Together, these studies emphasize the importance of incorporating cognitive variables in associative learning theories and their implications for the development of anxiety disorders. In addition, re-analyses of the data (Study 3 showed that patients suffering from panic disorder showed higher outcome expectancies in the presence of the stimulus that was never followed by an outcome during discrimination training, relative to patients suffering from other anxiety disorders and healthy participants. Because we used a neutral, non-aversive outcome (i.e., drawing of a lightning bolt, these data suggest that learning abnormalities in panic disorder may not be restricted to fear learning, but rather reflect a more general associative learning deficit that also manifests in fear irrelevant

  18. Exploring the Effects of Working Memory on Time Perception in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hom-Yi; Yang, En-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often reported to have deficits of time perception. However, there is a strong relation between performance on tasks of working memory and time perception. Thus, it is possible that the poor performance of children with ADHD on time perception results from their deficit of working memory. In this study, the working memory of participants was separately assessed; therefore, we could explore the relationship between working memory and time perception of children with ADHD. Fifty-six children with ADHD and those of healthy controls completed tasks measuring working memory and time perception. The results showed that the time discrimination ability of children with ADHD was poorer than that of controls. However, there was a strong association between time perception and working memory. After controlling working memory and intelligence, the time discrimination ability of children with ADHD was not significantly poorer than that of controls. We suggest that there is an interdependent relationship between time perception and working memory for children with ADHD.

  19. Inattention, working memory, and academic achievement in adolescents referred for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Maria; Hwang, Heungsun; Toplak, Maggie; Weiss, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of inattention and working memory in predicting academic achievement in 145 adolescents aged 13 to 18 referred for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Path analysis was used to examine whether auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory would mediate the relationships between classroom inattention symptoms and achievement outcomes. Results provide support for the mediational model. Behavioral inattention significantly predicted both auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory performance. Auditory-verbal working memory was strongly associated with adolescents' achievement in reading and mathematics, while visual-spatial working memory was only associated with achievement in mathematics. The path from inattention symptoms to reading was partially mediated by the working memory variables, but the path from inattention to mathematics was not mediated by working memory. The proposed model demonstrated a good fit to the data and explained a substantial amount of variance in the adolescents' achievement outcomes. These findings imply that working memory is a risk factor for academic failure for adolescents with attentional problems.

  20. No deficits in nonverbal memory, metamemory and internal as well as external source memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Ruhe, Claudia; Jelinek, Lena; Naber, Dieter

    2009-04-01

    A large body of literature suggests that some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) result from mnemonic dysfunctions. The present study tested various formulations of the memory deficit hypothesis considering important moderators, such as depression and response slowing. Thirty-two OCD patients and 32 healthy controls were presented verbal or nonverbal instructions for actions (e.g. simple gestures). These actions should either be performed or imagined. For recognition, previously presented as well as novel actions were displayed. Decisions had to be made whether an action was previously displayed (verbally vs. nonverbally) or not and whether an action was performed or imagined (internal source memory). Moreover, both judgments required confidence ratings. Groups did not differ in memory accuracy and metamemory for verbally presented material. Patients displayed some impairment for nonverbally presented material and imagined instructions, which, however, could be fully accounted for by response slowing and depressive symptoms. The study challenges the view that primary memory deficits underlie OCD or any of its subtypes. We claim that research should move forward from the mere study of objective impairment to the assessment of cognitive performance in conjunction with personality traits such as inflated responsibility.

  1. Deficits in executive and memory processes in delusional disorder: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ibanez-Casas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Delusional disorder has been traditionally considered a psychotic syndrome that does not evolve to cognitive deterioration. However, to date, very little empirical research has been done to explore cognitive executive components and memory processes in Delusional Disorder patients. This study will investigate whether patients with delusional disorder are intact in both executive function components (such as flexibility, impulsivity and updating components and memory processes (such as immediate, short term and long term recall, learning and recognition. METHODS: A large sample of patients with delusional disorder (n = 86 and a group of healthy controls (n = 343 were compared with regard to their performance in a broad battery of neuropsychological tests including Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Colour-Word Stroop Test, and Complutense Verbal Learning Test (TAVEC. RESULTS: When compared to controls, cases of delusional disorder showed a significantly poorer performance in most cognitive tests. Thus, we demonstrate deficits in flexibility, impulsivity and updating components of executive functions as well as in memory processes. These findings held significant after taking into account sex, age, educational level and premorbid IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support the traditional notion of patients with delusional disorder being cognitively intact.

  2. The Specificity of Health-Related Autobiographical Memories in Patients With Somatic Symptom Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentynowicz, Marta; Raes, Filip; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2017-01-01

    Patients with somatic symptom disorder (SSD) have persistent distressing somatic symptoms that are associated with excessive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) is related to a range of emotional disorders and is considered a vulnerability factor for an unfavorable course of pathology. The present study investigated whether the specificity of health-related autobiographical memories is reduced in patients with SSD with medically unexplained dyspnea complaints, compared with healthy controls. Female patients with SSD (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 24) completed a health-related Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Ruminative Response Scale, and rumination scales concerning bodily reactions. Depressive symptoms and rumination were assessed because both variables previously showed associations with rAMS. Patients with SSD recalled fewer specific (F(1,52) = 13.63, p = .001) and more categoric (F(1,52) = 7.62, p = .008) autobiographical memories to health-related cue words than healthy controls. Patients also reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and rumination (all t > 3.00, p < .01). Importantly, the differences in memory specificity were independent of depressive symptoms and trait rumination. The present study extends findings on rAMS to a previously unstudied sample of patients with SSD. Importantly, the presence of rAMS could not be explained by increased levels of depressive symptoms and rumination. We submit that rAMS in this group reflects how health-related episodes and associated symptoms are encoded in memory.

  3. Trauma memory characteristics and the development of acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, A; Brewer, N; Meiser-Stedman, R; Nixon, R D V

    2017-03-01

    The present study addresses gaps in knowledge regarding the association between trauma memory processes and posttraumatic stress responses in youth. Our primary goal was to explore the relative contribution of perceptions of trauma memory quality versus narrative trauma memory characteristics to explain overall adjustment. Children (N = 67) were interviewed within four weeks (T1) of an injury leading to hospital treatment and then again eight weeks later (T2). In each interview, the child told a trauma narrative (which were later coded), and answered the Trauma Memory Quality Questionnaire (Meiser-Stedman, Smith, Yule, & Dalgleish, 2007a), a self-report measure indexing the sensory, fragmented, and disorganised characteristics of trauma memory. They then completed measures of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T1 and measures of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T2. Self-reported trauma memory characteristics predicted ASD symptoms cross-sectionally at T1 and PTS symptoms prospectively over time. At both time points, self-reported trauma memory characteristics accounted for all of the unique variance in symptoms initially explained by narrative characteristics. A reduction in self-report ratings, but not the hypothesised narrative features (e.g., disorganised or lexical elements of the narrative), significantly predicted a reduction in PTS symptoms over time. The small sample size and the absence of a within-subjects narrative control were the main limitations of the study. These findings underscore the importance of self-reported trauma memory characteristics to the aetiology of PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cerebroprotective prevention of memory disorders using sodium valproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the disease resulting in impaired cognitive function. The paper deals with the use of nootropics against the background of an anticonvulsant effect. Results of experiments on rats showed that investigated nootropics piracetam (500 mg/kg, citicoline (500 mg/kg, memantine (10 mg/kg in combination with sodium valproate (80 mg/kg improve memory and do not change its anticonvulsant effect.

  5. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Hayden, Jill; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from…

  7. Atypical working memory decline across the adult lifespan in autism spectrum disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever, A.G.; Werkle-Bergner, M.; Brandmaier, A.M.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Geurts, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas working memory (WM) performance in typical development increases across childhood and adolescence, and decreases during adulthood, WM development seems to be delayed in young individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). How WM changes when individuals with ASD grow old is largely

  8. Atypical Neurophysiology Underlying Episodic and Semantic Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massand, Esha; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypicalities in episodic memory (Boucher et al. in Psychological Bulletin, 138 (3), 458-496, 2012). We asked participants to recall the colours of a set of studied line drawings (episodic judgement), or to recognize line drawings alone (semantic judgement). Cycowicz et al. ("Journal of…

  9. Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewijk, H. van; Weeda, W.D.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Luman, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in

  10. An Eye-Movement Study of Relational Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Melanie; Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.

    2017-01-01

    Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate good memory for single items but difficulties remembering contextual information related to these items. Recently, we found compromised explicit but intact implicit retrieval of object-location information in ASD (Ring et al. "Autism Res" 8(5):609-619, 2015). Eye-movement data…

  11. Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories in young people with tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pile, Victoria; Robinson, Sally; Roberts, Elystan; Topor, Marta; Hedderly, Tammy; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2018-05-01

    Depression is common in Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders (TS/CTD) and contributes to significant impairment. The specificity of autobiographical memories is implicated in an individual's sense of self and their daily functioning but also in the onset and development of depression in the general population. Here, we examined whether memory specificity is reduced in young people with TS/CTD, relative to control participants, and whether memory specificity is associated with depression. Thirty young people with TS/CTD (14 females; age: x̅ = 11.31; SD = 1.66; 87% White British) and twenty-six (12 females; age: x̅ = 11.23; SD = 2.43; 77% White British) control participants completed the study. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Task, which asks participants to respond with a specific memory to cue words, and a questionnaire measure of depressive symptoms. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, IQ and depressive symptomatology. Young people with TS/CTD had less specific autobiographical memories than their peers (p < 0.001, r = 0.49). Across both groups, increased memory specificity for positive cue words was associated with reduced depressive symptomatology (p < 0.001, R 2  = 0.51). Our findings indicate that autobiographical memory in young people with TS is characterised by a lack of specificity and, as with neurotypical peers, reduced memory specificity for positive words is associated with depressive symptoms. Autobiographical memory specificity could be an important factor in understanding mood symptoms that characterise young people with TS/CTD and may be an important cognitive target to reduce the development of depression in young people with TS/CTD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pitch discrimination and melodic memory in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanutz, Sandy; Wapnick, Joel; Burack, Jacob A

    2014-02-01

    Pitch perception is enhanced among persons with autism. We extended this finding to memory for pitch and melody among school-aged children. The purpose of this study was to investigate pitch memory in musically untrained children with autism spectrum disorders, aged 7-13 years, and to compare it to that of age- and IQ-matched typically developing children. The children were required to discriminate isolated tones in two differing contexts as well to remember melodies after a period of 1 week. The tasks were designed to employ both short- and long-term memory for music. For the pitch discrimination task, the children first had to indicate whether two isolated tones were the same or different when the second was the same or had been altered to be 25, 35, or 45 cents sharp or flat. Second, the children discriminated the tones within the context of melody. They were asked whether two melodies were the same or different when the leading tone of the second melody was the same or had been altered to be 25, 35, or 45 cents sharp or flat. Long-term memory for melody was also investigated, as the children attempted to recall four different two-bar melodies after 1 week. The children with autism spectrum disorders demonstrated elevated pitch discrimination ability in the single-tone and melodic context as well as superior long-term memory for melody. Pitch memory correlated positively with scores on measures of nonverbal fluid reasoning ability. Superior short- and long-term pitch memory was found among children with autism spectrum disorders. The results indicate an aspect to cognitive functioning that may predict both enhanced nonverbal reasoning ability and atypical language development.

  13. Do adults with autism spectrum disorders compensate in naturalistic prospective memory tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Mareike; Koban, Nancy; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    The present study is the first to directly compare event- and time-based prospective memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) using a contextual task mirroring real life demands of prospective memory. Twenty-five individuals with ASD and 25 age- and ability-matched controls completed the Dresden Breakfast task which required participants to prepare breakfast following a set of rules and time restrictions. Overall, adults with ASD had less correct time- and event-based prospective memory responses in comparison to controls, which is consistent with previous research in children with ASD. Moreover, ASD participants completed fewer tasks, followed rules less closely, and monitored the elapsing time less closely than controls. Individuals with ASD seem not to be compensating in naturalistic prospective memory tasks.

  14. Identity-related autobiographical memories and cultural life scripts in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Carsten René; Berntsen, Dorthe; Bech, Morten; Kjølbye, Morten; Bennedsen, Birgit E; Ramsgaard, Stine B

    2012-06-01

    Disturbed identity is one of the defining characteristics of Borderline Personality Disorder manifested in a broad spectrum of dysfunctions related to the self, including disturbances in meaning-generating self-narratives. Autobiographical memories are memories of personal events that provide crucial building-blocks in our construction of a life-story, self-concept, and a meaning-generating narrative identity. The cultural life script represents culturally shared expectations as to the order and timing of life events in a prototypical life course within a given culture. It is used to organize one's autobiographical memories. Here, 17 BPD-patients, 14 OCD-patients, and 23 non-clinical controls generated three important autobiographical memories and their conceptions of the cultural life script. BPD-patients reported substantially more negative memories, fewer of their memories were of prototypical life script events, their memory narratives were less coherent and more disoriented, and the overall typicality of their life scripts was lower as compared with the other two groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relation between Working Memory Capacity and Auditory Stream Segregation in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yones Lotfi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study assessed the relationship between working memory capacity and auditory stream segregation by using the concurrent minimum audible angle in children with a diagnosed auditory processing disorder (APD. Methods: The participants in this cross-sectional, comparative study were 20 typically developing children and 15 children with a diagnosed APD (age, 9–11 years according to the subtests of multiple-processing auditory assessment. Auditory stream segregation was investigated using the concurrent minimum audible angle. Working memory capacity was evaluated using the non-word repetition and forward and backward digit span tasks. Nonparametric statistics were utilized to compare the between-group differences. The Pearson correlation was employed to measure the degree of association between working memory capacity and the localization tests between the 2 groups. Results: The group with APD had significantly lower scores than did the typically developing subjects in auditory stream segregation and working memory capacity. There were significant negative correlations between working memory capacity and the concurrent minimum audible angle in the most frontal reference location (0° azimuth and lower negative correlations in the most lateral reference location (60° azimuth in the children with APD. Conclusion: The study revealed a relationship between working memory capacity and auditory stream segregation in children with APD. The research suggests that lower working memory capacity in children with APD may be the possible cause of the inability to segregate and group incoming information.

  16. Relation between Working Memory Capacity and Auditory Stream Segregation in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Yones; Mehrkian, Saiedeh; Moossavi, Abdollah; Zadeh, Soghrat Faghih; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the relationship between working memory capacity and auditory stream segregation by using the concurrent minimum audible angle in children with a diagnosed auditory processing disorder (APD). The participants in this cross-sectional, comparative study were 20 typically developing children and 15 children with a diagnosed APD (age, 9-11 years) according to the subtests of multiple-processing auditory assessment. Auditory stream segregation was investigated using the concurrent minimum audible angle. Working memory capacity was evaluated using the non-word repetition and forward and backward digit span tasks. Nonparametric statistics were utilized to compare the between-group differences. The Pearson correlation was employed to measure the degree of association between working memory capacity and the localization tests between the 2 groups. The group with APD had significantly lower scores than did the typically developing subjects in auditory stream segregation and working memory capacity. There were significant negative correlations between working memory capacity and the concurrent minimum audible angle in the most frontal reference location (0° azimuth) and lower negative correlations in the most lateral reference location (60° azimuth) in the children with APD. The study revealed a relationship between working memory capacity and auditory stream segregation in children with APD. The research suggests that lower working memory capacity in children with APD may be the possible cause of the inability to segregate and group incoming information.

  17. Agrammatism in a case of formal thought disorder: Beyond intellectual decline and working memory deficit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that naming and syntactic deficits in formal thought disorder may be related to global cognitive decline. This article reports the case of a patient, FM, with formal thought disorder schizophrenia who presents disproportionate deficits in receptive and expressive grammar with respect to his intellectual level of functioning. Syntactic and morphologic components of expressive grammar appeared equally impaired. Deficits in language comprehension were observed independently from working memory limitations. FM showed preserved grammaticality judgment, but defective sentence comprehension where semantic context does not provide heuristics for assigning thematic roles, but syntactic knowledge is essential. These atypical results are discussed within a neurodevelopmental aetiological model of formal thought disorder.

  18. Frontopolar cortical inefficiency may underpin reward and working memory dysfunction in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogia, Jigar; Dima, Danai; Kumari, Veena; Frangou, Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder is thought to arise from dysfunction within prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control coupled with increased or aberrant activation within regions engaged in emotional processing. The aim of this study was to determine the common and distinct patterns of functional brain abnormalities during reward and working memory processing in patients with bipolar disorder. Participants were 36 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 37 healthy comparison subjects matched for age, sex and IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted during the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the n-back working memory task. During both tasks, patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated a pattern of inefficient engagement within the ventral frontopolar prefrontal cortex with evidence of segregation along the medial-lateral dimension for reward and working memory processing, respectively. Moreover, patients also showed greater activation in the anterior cingulate cortex during the Iowa Gambling Task and in the insula during the n-back task. Our data implicate ventral frontopolar dysfunction as a core abnormality underpinning bipolar disorder and confirm that overactivation in regions involved in emotional arousal is present even in tasks that do not typically engage emotional systems.

  19. Attention and Memory Biases in Social Anxiety Disorder: The Role of Comorbid Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive biases play an important role in the onset and maintenance of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Few studies, however, have examined the role of comorbid Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in the processing of emotional material. In addition, little is known about the relation among different cognitive biases. In the current study, 73 participants (54.79% female) completed an emotion face dot-probe task followed by a recognition memory test. Compared to participants with SAD, participants with comorbid SAD and MDD oriented away from supraliminally presented angry faces. Subsequently, SAD participants with and without comorbidity recognized fewer angry faces than non-disordered controls. Furthermore, attention biases for subliminally presented stimuli predicted recognition accuracy only for comorbid participants. These results suggest that the presence of comorbid MDD affects attentional orienting in SAD participants. In addition, it highlights the interconnectedness of attention and memory biases for comorbid participants. PMID:23087492

  20. Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  1. Effects of childhood trauma on working memory in affective and non-affective psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidé, Yann; O'Reilly, Nicole; Rowland, Jesseca E; Carr, Vaughan J; Elzinga, Bernet M; Green, Melissa J

    2017-06-01

    Childhood trauma is a significant risk factor for the development of psychotic disorders, and may influence executive brain functions. We thus set out to investigate the long-term effects of childhood trauma exposure on brain function of adult chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and (psychotic) bipolar-I disorder while performing a standard 2/0-back working memory task. Participants were 50 cases diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SCZ), 42 cases with bipolar-I disorder (BD), and 47 healthy controls (HC). Among this sample, 56 clinical cases (SCZ = 32; BD = 24) and 17 HC reported significant levels of childhood trauma, while 36 clinical cases (SCZ = 18; BD = 18) and 30 HC did not. Effects of childhood trauma on working memory-related brain activation were examined in combined samples of clinical cases (independently of diagnosis) relative to HCs, as well as within each diagnostic category. Case-control analyses revealed increased activation of the left inferior parietal lobule as a main effect of trauma exposure. In addition, trauma exposure interacted with a diagnosis of SCZ or BD to reveal trauma-related increased activation in the cuneus in clinical cases and decreased activation in this region in controls. Disorder-specific functional alterations were also evident in the SCZ sample, but not BD. Childhood trauma exposure elicits aberrant function of parietal regions involved in working memory performance regardless of clinical status, as well as task-relevant visual regions that participates to attentional processes. Childhood trauma may therefore contribute to alterations in attention in SCZ and BD while performing an n-back working memory task.

  2. [Memory characteristic in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid learning disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaomin; Wang, Na; Qian, Qiujin; Yang, Li; Qian, Ying; Liu, Lu; Liu, Yuxin; Cheng, Jia; Sun, Li; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-06-10

    To explore the memory characteristic in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus learning disability (LD). A total of 97 ADHD boys with comorbid LD (ADHD+LD), 97 ADHD boys without comorbid LD (ADHD-LD) and 97 healthy controls (based on the criteria of DSM-IV) were recruited from the outpatient clinic of Peking University Sixth Hospital from December 2003 to September 2012. Individuals across three groups were matched by ages, intelligence quotient (IQ) and ADHD subtypes. The Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) was used to access the characteristics of several memory domains. ADHD +LD group performed the worst and control group the best in memory quotient (MQ) (90 ± 15 vs 98 ± 14 & 104 ± 14) and long-term memory domain ((36.0 ± 10.2) vs (42.1 ± 7.8) & (45.6 ± 6.7) score, all P 0.05). In most subscales of WMS, ADHD+LD group scored significantly lower than both ADHD-LD and control group in current information and orientation, mental control (1→100) , mental control (100→1) and associate learning subscales ( (8.8 ± 3.1) vs (10.0 ± 3.0) & (9.9 ± 2.3) score, (8.7 ± 4.1) vs (10.0 ± 3.9) & (11.1 ± 3.6) score, (10.7 ± 3.9) vs (12.9 ± 2.8) & (13.7 ± 2.2) score, (9.8 ± 3.1) vs (10.8 ± 2.6) & (11.1 ± 2.1) score, all P 0.05). Boys with ADHD comorbid LD show deficits in overall memory function and long-term memory while short-term memory is partially damaged. Impairment in immediate memory is not detected.

  3. Episodic memory retrieval in adolescents with and without developmental language disorder (DLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joanna C

    2018-03-01

    Two reasons may explain the discrepant findings regarding declarative memory in developmental language disorder (DLD) in the literature. First, standardized tests are one of the primary tools used to assess declarative memory in previous studies. It is possible they are not sensitive enough to subtle memory impairment. Second, the system underlying declarative memory is complex, and thus results may vary depending on the types of encoding and retrieval processes measured (e.g., item specific or relational) and/or task demands (e.g., recall or recognition during memory retrieval). To adopt an experimental paradigm to examine episodic memory functioning in adolescents with and without DLD, with the focus on memory recognition of item-specific and relational information. Two groups of adolescents, one with DLD (n = 23; mean age = 16.73 years) and the other without (n = 23; mean age = 16.75 years), participated in the study. The Relational and Item-Specific Encoding (RISE) paradigm was used to assess the effect of different encoding processes on episodic memory retrieval in DLD. The advantage of using the RISE task is that both item-specific and relational encoding/retrieval can be examined within the same learning paradigm. Adolescents with DLD and those with typical language development showed comparable engagement during the encoding phase. The DLD group showed significantly poorer item recognition than the comparison group. Associative recognition was not significantly different between the two groups; however, there was a non-significant trend for to be poorer in the DLD group than in the comparison group, suggesting a possible impairment in associative recognition in individuals with DLD, but to a lesser magnitude. These results indicate that adolescents with DLD have difficulty with episodic memory retrieval when stimuli are encoded and retrieved without support from contextual information. Associative recognition is relatively less affected than item

  4. Annual research review: The neurobehavioral development of multiple memory systems--implications for childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Marsh, Rachel; Peterson, Bradley S; Packard, Mark G

    2014-06-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a 'cognitive' memory system that depends on the hippocampus and a stimulus-response 'habit' memory system that depends on the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence. These disorders include Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Human and nonhuman animal research shows that the typical development of memory systems comprises the early maturation of striatal-dependent habit memory and the relatively late maturation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory. We speculate that the differing rates of development of these memory systems may in part contribute to the early emergence of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence. In addition, abnormalities in hippocampal and striatal brain regions have been observed consistently in youth with these disorders, suggesting that the aberrant development of memory systems may also contribute to the emergence of habit-like symptoms as core pathological features of these illnesses. Considering these disorders within the context of multiple memory systems may help elucidate the pathogenesis of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence, and lead to novel treatments that lessen the habit-like behavioral features of these disorders. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. How can the recall of early affiliative memories with peers influence on disordered eating behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana Laura; Marta-Simões, Joana; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the role of early affiliative memories with peers on the adoption of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours through the mechanisms of external shame and self-judgment. The sample used in the current study comprised 632 women from the community, aged between 18 and 60 years old.The tested model explained 22 % of eating psychopathology's variance and showed excellent model fit indices. Results indicated that the impact of the recall of early positive memories with peers on eating psychopathology was fully carried through the mechanisms of external shame and self-judgment. In fact, these findings seem to suggest that the lack of warm and safe affiliative memories with peers is linked to higher levels of shame (e.g., feelings of inferiority and inadequacy), and also to higher vulnerability to engage in maladaptive emotional strategies (such as self-judgmental attitudes), which appears to explain the increase of disordered eating behaviours.These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of peer-related early affiliative memories in the engagement in disordered eating. Furthermore, this study has significant clinical implications, emphasizing the importance of targeting shame and maladaptive emotional strategies, especially in a context involving early adverse emotional experiences with peers.

  6. Visual memory and sustained attention impairment in youths with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Y-L; Gau, S S-F; Shang, C-Y; Chiu, Y-N; Tsai, W-C; Wu, Y-Y

    2015-08-01

    An uneven neurocognitive profile is a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies focusing on the visual memory performance in ASD have shown controversial results. We investigated visual memory and sustained attention in youths with ASD and typically developing (TD) youths. We recruited 143 pairs of youths with ASD (males 93.7%; mean age 13.1, s.d. 3.5 years) and age- and sex-matched TD youths. The ASD group consisted of 67 youths with autistic disorder (autism) and 76 with Asperger's disorder (AS) based on the DSM-IV criteria. They were assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery involving the visual memory [spatial recognition memory (SRM), delayed matching to sample (DMS), paired associates learning (PAL)] and sustained attention (rapid visual information processing; RVP). Youths with ASD performed significantly worse than TD youths on most of the tasks; the significance disappeared in the superior intelligence quotient (IQ) subgroup. The response latency on the tasks did not differ between the ASD and TD groups. Age had significant main effects on SRM, DMS, RVP and part of PAL tasks and had an interaction with diagnosis in DMS and RVP performance. There was no significant difference between autism and AS on visual tasks. Our findings implied that youths with ASD had a wide range of visual memory and sustained attention impairment that was moderated by age and IQ, which supports temporal and frontal lobe dysfunction in ASD. The lack of difference between autism and AS implies that visual memory and sustained attention cannot distinguish these two ASD subtypes, which supports DSM-5 ASD criteria.

  7. How do warmth, safeness and connectedness-related memories and experiences explain disordered eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Silva, Carolina; Mendes, Ana Laura; Trindade, Inês A

    2017-10-20

    Literature suggested that the recall of early positive experiences have a major impact on the promotion of feelings of connectedness and social safeness, and seems to protect individuals against psychopathology. Recent research has also demonstrated that the absence of these positive rearing memories play a key role on disordered eating-related behaviours. The impact of early affiliative memories on disordered eating do not seem to be direct, and the mechanisms underlying this relationship are scarcely investigated. The present study aimed to clarify how memories of warmth and safeness explain the adoption of disordered eating attitudes, and tested the mediator role of social safeness, external shame and appearance-focused social comparison on aforementioned relationship, in a sample of 277 young women. The tested model explained 36% of eating psychopathology's variance and presented an excellent fit. Path analysis results indicated that the impact of rearing memories on eating psychopathology was fully mediated through the mechanisms of social safeness, external shame and appearance-focused social comparison. Specifically, these findings suggested that the extent to which positive rearing memories are associated with lower levels of disordered eating attitudes is influenced by the current feelings of social safeness and connectedness, which in turn are totally carried by decreased feelings of external shame and by lower endorsement on unfavourable comparison based on physical appearance with proximal targets (peers). These results seem to offer important insights for research and clinical work on body image and eating-related difficulties, suggesting the relevance of promoting warm and safe interactions with others. Level V, descriptive study.

  8. Malondialdehyde plasma concentration correlates with declarative and working memory in patients with recurrent depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarowska, Monika; Gałecki, Piotr; Maes, Michael; Gardner, Ann; Chamielec, Marcelina; Orzechowska, Agata; Bobińska, Kinga; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the cognitive decline, especially in memory impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with recurrent depressive disorders (rDD) and to define relationship between plasma levels of MDA and the cognitive performance. The study comprised 46 patients meeting criteria for rDD. Cognitive function assessment was based on: The Trail Making Test , The Stroop Test, Verbal Fluency Test and Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. The severity of depression symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Statistically significant differences were found in the intensity of depression symptoms, measured by the HDRS on therapy onset versus the examination results after 8 weeks of treatment (P cognitive function tests. There was no statistically significant correlation between plasma MDA levels, and the age, disease duration, number of previous depressive episodes and the results in HDRS applied on admission and on discharge. Elevated levels of MDA adversely affected the efficiency of visual-spatial and auditory-verbal working memory, short-term declarative memory and the delayed recall declarative memory. 1. Higher concentration of plasma MDA in rDD patients is associated with the severity of depressive symptoms, both at the beginning of antidepressants pharmacotherapy, and after 8 weeks of its duration. 2. Elevated levels of plasma MDA are related to the impairment of visual-spatial and auditory-verbal working memory and short-term and delayed declarative memory.

  9. Functional Neuroimaging of Emotionally Intense Autobiographical Memories in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jacques, Peggy L.; Botzung, Anne; Miles, Amanda; Rubin, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects regions that support autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval, such as the hippocampus, amygdala and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, it is not well understood how PTSD may impact the neural mechanisms of memory retrieval for the personal past. We used a generic cue method combined with parametric modulation analysis and functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms affected by PTSD symptoms during the retrieval of a large sample of emotionally intense AMs. There were three main results. First, the PTSD group showed greater recruitment of the amygdala/hippocampus during the construction of negative versus positive emotionally intense AMs, when compared to controls. Second, across both the construction and elaboration phases of retrieval the PTSD group showed greater recruitment of the ventral medial PFC for negatively intense memories, but less recruitment for positively intense memories. Third, the PTSD group showed greater functional coupling between the ventral medial PFC and the amygdala for negatively intense memories, but less coupling for positively intense memories. In sum, the fMRI data suggest that there was greater recruitment and coupling of emotional brain regions during the retrieval of negatively intense AMs in the PTSD group when compared to controls. PMID:21109253

  10. Binge-eating disorder may be distinguished by visuospatial memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneva, Kalina T; Murray, Susan M; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-08-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), characterized by recurrent episodes of loss of control overeating, is highly comorbid with overweight and obesity. Both loss of control eating and higher body mass index have been associated with poor memory. The current study sought to clarify the relationships between BED, weight and memory. Specifically, visual memory was examined, given evidence of impaired visuospatial abilities in overweight individuals and little research on visual memory in BED. Overweight and normal-weight women with BED and matched healthy controls were administered the Rey Complex Figure Test. Planned contrasts revealed that normal-weight healthy controls performed better than all other groups on the immediate and delayed recall portions of the task. Performance on the immediate recall portion was better among normal-weight individuals than overweight individuals, and performance on both the immediate and delayed recall portions was better among individuals without BED than those with BED. No differences between groups were seen on the copy or recognition trials. Visual memory appears to be impaired among overweight participants and both normal and overweight participants with BED. This finding was specific to retrieval. Replication of this finding in BED using different measures of memory is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Cognitive and neural consequences of memory suppression in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Levy, Benjamin J; Hamilton, J Paul; Maksimovskiy, Arkadiy; Hertel, Paula T; Joormann, Jutta; Anderson, Michael C; Wagner, Anthony D; Gotlib, Ian H

    2017-02-01

    Negative biases in cognition have been documented consistently in major depressive disorder (MDD), including difficulties in the ability to control the processing of negative material. Although negative information-processing biases have been studied using both behavioral and neuroimaging paradigms, relatively little research has been conducted examining the difficulties of depressed persons with inhibiting the retrieval of negative information from long-term memory. In this study, we used the think/no-think paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the cognitive and neural consequences of memory suppression in individuals diagnosed with depression and in healthy controls. The participants showed typical behavioral forgetting effects, but contrary to our hypotheses, there were no differences between the depressed and nondepressed participants or between neutral and negative memories. Relative to controls, depressed individuals exhibited greater activity in right middle frontal gyrus during memory suppression, regardless of the valence of the suppressed stimuli, and differential activity in the amygdala and hippocampus during memory suppression involving negatively valenced stimuli. These findings indicate that depressed individuals are characterized by neural anomalies during the suppression of long-term memories, increasing our understanding of the brain bases of negative cognitive biases in MDD.

  12. Memory updating in sub-clinical eating disorder: differential effects with food and body shape words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Olivia; Ecker, Ullrich K H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated how eating disorder (ED) relevant information is updated in working memory in people with high vs. low scores on a measure of eating disorder pathology (the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, EDE-Q). Participants performed two memory updating tasks. One was a neutral control task using digits; the other task involved food words and words relating to body-shape, and provided measures of updating speed and post-updating recall. We found that high EDE-Q participants (1) showed no sign of general memory updating impairment as indicated by performance in the control task; (2) showed a general recall deficit in the task involving ED-relevant stimuli, suggesting a general distraction of cognitive resources in the presence of ED-related items; (3) showed a relative facilitation in the recall of food words; and (4) showed quicker updating toward food words and relatively slower updating toward body-shape-related words. Results are discussed in the context of cognitive theories of eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Working memory network alterations and associated symptoms in adults with ADHD and Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ariel; Biederman, Joseph; Valera, Eve; Lomedico, Alexandra; Aleardi, Megan; Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J

    2012-04-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Bipolar Disorder (BPD) co-occur frequently and represent a particularly morbid clinical form of both disorders, however underlying neural circuitry contributing to the comorbidity remain understudied. Our aim was to investigate functional brain circuitry during working memory in a group of participants who meet criteria for both disorders (ADHD + BPD), and to explore the relationship of symptoms of each disorder to brain function. We used fMRI to image brain activity in 18 male adults with both ADHD and BPD, and 18 healthy control participants matched one-to-one on age, sex, and handedness, while they performed a sequential letter N-back task. We investigated differences in activation between these groups, and also correlations of brain activity during the task to symptoms of ADHD and BPD independently. We found significant hypoactivity in the subjects with ADHD + BPD vs. controls across frontal and parietal regions, and further, found that BPD and ADHD symptoms related to activity in anatomically distinct regions that were respectively characterized by activation and suppression during task. We conclude that comorbid ADHD + BPD is associated with alterations across anterior and posterior nodes of the working memory network, and symptoms of each disorder are related to anatomically and functionally distinct brain regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Auditory and Visual Working Memory Functioning in College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and/or Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Spencer W; Nelson, Jason M

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the auditory and visual working memory functioning in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and clinical controls. We examined the role attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtype status played in working memory functioning. The unique influence that both domains of working memory have on reading and math abilities was investigated. A sample of 268 individuals seeking postsecondary education comprise four groups of the present study: 110 had an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis only, 72 had a learning disability diagnosis only, 35 had comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disability diagnoses, and 60 individuals without either of these disorders comprise a clinical control group. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, and licensed psychologists employed a multi-informant, multi-method approach in obtaining diagnoses. In the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder only group, there was no difference between auditory and visual working memory functioning, t(100) = -1.57, p = .12. In the learning disability group, however, auditory working memory functioning was significantly weaker compared with visual working memory, t(71) = -6.19, p auditory or visual working memory functioning differences between participants with either a predominantly inattentive type or a combined type diagnosis. Visual working memory did not incrementally contribute to the prediction of academic achievement skills. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder did not demonstrate significant working memory differences compared with clinical controls. Individuals with a learning disability demonstrated weaker auditory working memory than individuals in either the attention-deficit/hyperactivity or clinical control groups. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Slow sleep spindle and procedural memory consolidation in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masaki; Nakashima, Yusaku; Nishikawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated, which indicates that, in healthy individuals, sleep enhances procedural memory consolidation, and that sleep spindle activity modulates this process. However, whether sleep-dependent procedural memory consolidation occurs in patients medicated for major depressive disorder remains unclear, as are the pharmacological and physiological mechanisms that underlie this process. Healthy control participants (n=17) and patients medicated for major depressive disorder (n=11) were recruited and subjected to a finger-tapping motor sequence test (MST; nondominant hand) paradigm to compare the averaged scores of different learning phases (presleep, postsleep, and overnight improvement). Participants' brain activity was recorded during sleep with 16 electroencephalography channels (between MSTs). Sleep scoring and frequency analyses were performed on the electroencephalography data. Additionally, we evaluated sleep spindle activity, which divided the spindles into fast-frequency spindle activity (12.5-16 Hz) and slow-frequency spindle activity (10.5-12.5 Hz). Sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in patients with depression was impaired in comparison with that in control participants. In patients with depression, age correlated negatively with overnight improvement. The duration of slow-wave sleep correlated with the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in patients with depression, but not in healthy controls. Slow-frequency spindle activity was associated with reduction in the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in both groups. Because the changes in slow-frequency spindle activity affected the thalamocortical network dysfunction in patients medicated for depression, dysregulated spindle generation may impair sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Our findings may help to elucidate the cognitive deficits that occur in patients with major depression both in the waking state and during sleep.

  16. Attention and working memory training: A feasibility study in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Kimberly A; Macoun, Sarah; MacSween, Jenny; Pei, Jacqueline; Hutchison, Marnie

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the efficacy of a game-based process specific intervention for improving attention and working memory in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The Caribbean Quest (CQ) is a 'serious game' that consists of five hierarchically structured tasks, delivered in an adaptive format, targeting different aspects of attention and/or working memory. In addition to game play, the intervention incorporates metacognitive strategies provided by trained educational assistants (EAs), to facilitate generalization and far transfer to academic and daily skills. EAs delivered the intervention to children (ages 6-13) during their regular school day, providing children with instruction in metacognitive strategies to improve game play, with participants completing approximately 12 hours of training over an 8 to 12 school week period. Pre- and post-test analyses revealed significant improvement on measures of working memory and attention, including reduced distractibility and improved divided attention skills. Additionally, children showed significant gains in performance on an academic measure of reading fluency, suggesting that training-related gains in attention and working memory transferred to classroom performance. Exit interviews with EAs revealed that the intervention was easily delivered within the school day, that children enjoyed the intervention, and that children transferred metacognitive strategies learned in game play into the classroom. Preliminary results support this game-based process specific intervention as a potentially effective treatment and useful tool for supporting cognitive improvements in children with FASD or ASD, when delivered as part of an overall treatment plan.

  17. The role of memory in posttraumatic stress disorder: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Montagner Rigoli

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a highly prevalent disorder with important social consequences. Several models have been developed with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying its symptoms. Intrusions are idiosyncratic symptoms that commonly take the form of involuntary recollection of images or flashbacks about the traumatic event. Objective: To review how memory is conceptualized in each of these models and the implications for clinical practice. Methods: A narrative review of the literature was conducted through analysis of the perspectives of memory in theoretical models of PTSD. Results: Two main perspectives were identified: 1 models in which specific mechanisms of memory for processing traumatic events are proposed, especially those based on clinical studies, and 2 models in which common mnemonic mechanisms are utilized to explain the phenomenon, primarily based on basic experimental research studies investigating memory. The different theories based on these approaches have led to distinct psychotherapy interventions. Conclusion: In order to clarify these discrepancies, future research should aim for the methodological rigor of experimental studies, while maintaining the ecological applicability of findings. Cognitive experimental psychopathology is therefore an area on which research funding should be focused. Such studies could elucidate the role of mnemonic aspects in PTSD and how they impact psychological treatments.

  18. Improving protein disorder prediction by deep bidirectional long short-term memory recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jack; Yang, Yuedong; Paliwal, Kuldip; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2017-03-01

    Capturing long-range interactions between structural but not sequence neighbors of proteins is a long-standing challenging problem in bioinformatics. Recently, long short-term memory (LSTM) networks have significantly improved the accuracy of speech and image classification problems by remembering useful past information in long sequential events. Here, we have implemented deep bidirectional LSTM recurrent neural networks in the problem of protein intrinsic disorder prediction. The new method, named SPOT-Disorder, has steadily improved over a similar method using a traditional, window-based neural network (SPINE-D) in all datasets tested without separate training on short and long disordered regions. Independent tests on four other datasets including the datasets from critical assessment of structure prediction (CASP) techniques and >10 000 annotated proteins from MobiDB, confirmed SPOT-Disorder as one of the best methods in disorder prediction. Moreover, initial studies indicate that the method is more accurate in predicting functional sites in disordered regions. These results highlight the usefulness combining LSTM with deep bidirectional recurrent neural networks in capturing non-local, long-range interactions for bioinformatics applications. SPOT-disorder is available as a web server and as a standalone program at: http://sparks-lab.org/server/SPOT-disorder/index.php . j.hanson@griffith.edu.au or yuedong.yang@griffith.edu.au or yaoqi.zhou@griffith.edu.au. Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Do Females with Bulimia Nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Have Selective Memory Biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Emma; Kuyken, Willem; Watkins, Ed; Jones, Alysun

    2015-09-01

    The cognitive model suggests memory biases for weight/shape and food related information could be important in the maintenance of eating disorders. The current study aims to evaluate this and extend previous research by (a) including females with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) as a discreet group; (b) considering whether levels of hunger and the pleasantness of the stimulus words are important in word recall. The study includes three groups of females, 16 with bulimia nervosa, 18 with EDNOS and 17 non-dieting general population controls. All participants completed a self-referential encoding and memory recall task. A main effect of word type (p eating disorder groups recalled significantly more weight/shape and food words compared to all other word categories (p eating disorder groups. In relation to the recall of food words, no significant differences were found between groups for levels of hunger. Both eating disorder groups rated the negative weight/shape (p < .01), negative food (p < .01) and neutral body words (p < .01) as more unpleasant than the control group. The implications for cognitive theory and future research are discussed.

  20. Induced-anxiety differentially disrupts working memory in generalized anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Vytal, Katherine E.; Arkin, Nicole E.; Overstreet, Cassie; Lieberman, Lynne; Grillon, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety is characterized by a bias towards threatening information, anxious apprehension, and disrupted concentration. Previous research in healthy subjects suggests that working memory (WM) is disrupted by induced anxiety, but that increased task-demand reduces anxiety and WM is preserved. However, it is unknown if patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can similarly normalize their performance on difficult WM tasks while reducing their anxiety. Increased threat-related ...

  1. Practitioner Review: Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Neurodevelopmental Disorders--Diagnosis and Remedial Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathercole, Susan E.; Alloway, Tracy Packiam

    2006-01-01

    Background: This article provides an introduction to current models of working and short-term memory, their links with learning, and diagnosis of impairments. The memory impairments associated with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders (Down's syndrome, Williams syndrome, Specific Language Impairment, and attentional deficits) are discussed.…

  2. The Effects of Incentives on Visual-Spatial Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Keri; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Lysczek, Cynthia L.; Tannock, Rosemary; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Gangloff, Brian P.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Working memory is one of several putative core neurocognitive processes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present work seeks to determine whether visual-spatial working memory is sensitive to motivational incentives, a laboratory analogue of behavioral treatment. Participants were 21 children (ages 7-10) with a diagnosis of…

  3. Personality Traits, Autobiographical Memory and Knowledge of Self and Others: A Comparative Study in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Howlin, Patricia; Russell, Ailsa

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between dissociable components of autobiographical memory (e.g. semantic personality traits and episodic memory retrieval) and other cognitive skills that are proposed to enable one to develop a sense of self (e.g. introspection) have not previously been explored for children with autism spectrum disorder. This study compared…

  4. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  5. Exploring epigenetic regulation of fear memory and biomarkers associated with Post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Maddox

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This review examines recent work on epigenetic mechanisms underlying animal models of fear learning as well as its translational implications in disorders of fear regulation, such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Specifically, we will examine work outlining roles of differential histone acetylation and DNA methylation associated with consolidation, reconsolidation and extinction in Pavlovian fear paradigms. We then focus on the numerous studies examining the epigenetic modifications of the Brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF pathway and the extension of these findings from animal models to recent work in human clinical populations. We will also review recently published data on FKBP5 regulation of glucocorticoid receptor function, and how this is modulated in animal models of PTSD and in human clinical populations via epigenetic mechanisms. As glucocorticoid regulation of memory consolidation is well established in fear models, we examine how these recent data contribute to our broader understanding of fear memory formation. The combined recent progress in epigenetic modulation of memory with the advances in fear neurobiology suggest that this area may be critical to progress in our understanding of fear-related disorders with implications for new approaches to treatment and prevention.

  6. Spatial Impairment and Memory in Genetic Disorders: Insights from Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ah Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research across the cognitive and brain sciences has begun to elucidate some of the processes that guide navigation and spatial memory. Boundary geometry and featural landmarks are two distinct classes of environmental cues that have dissociable neural correlates in spatial representation and follow different patterns of learning. Consequently, spatial navigation depends both on the type of cue available and on the type of learning provided. We investigated this interaction between spatial representation and memory by administering two different tasks (working memory, reference memory using two different environmental cues (rectangular geometry, striped landmark in mouse models of human genetic disorders: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWScrm+/p− mice, n = 12 and Beta-catenin mutation (Thr653Lys-substituted mice, n = 12. This exploratory study provides suggestive evidence that these models exhibit different abilities and impairments in navigating by boundary geometry and featural landmarks, depending on the type of memory task administered. We discuss these data in light of the specific deficits in cognitive and brain function in these human syndromes and their animal model counterparts.

  7. Trauma-related self-defining memories and future goals in Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Wessel, Ineke; Ostafin, Brian D; Boelen, Paul A; Behrens, Friederike; van Minnen, Agnes

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the content of self-defining autobiographical memories in different identities in patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and comparison groups of patients with PTSD, healthy controls, and DID simulators. Consistent with the DID trauma model, analyses of objective ratings showed that DID patients in trauma identities retrieved more negative and trauma-related self-defining memories than DID patients in avoidant identities. Inconsistent with the DID trauma model, DID patients' self-rated trauma-relatedness of self-defining memories and future life goals did not differ between trauma identities and trauma avoidant identities. That is, the DID patients did not seem to be "shut off" from their trauma while in their avoidant identity. Furthermore, DID patients in both identities reported a higher proportion of avoidance goals compared to PTSD patients, with the latter group scoring comparably to healthy controls. The simulators behaved according to the instructions to respond differently in each identity (i.e., to report memories and goals consistent with the identity tested). The discrepant task behavior by DID patients and simulators indicated that DID patients did not seem to intentionally produce the hypothesized differences in performance between identities. In conclusion, for patients with DID (i.e., in both identities) and patients with PTSD, trauma played a central role in the retrieval of self-defining memories and in the formulation of life goals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Declarative and procedural memory consolidation during sleep in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Orla P; Regen, Francesca; Warnstedt, Claudia; Anghelescu, Ion; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Heuser, Isabella; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich

    2008-07-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by changes in subjective and objective measures of sleep quality. As recent findings point to the importance of sleep in memory consolidation, sleep-related memory consolidation was investigated in 15 female BPD patients (mean age 26.1+/-6.1 years) and 15 female healthy controls (mean age 25.6+/-6.8 years). Before and after the study night, declarative and procedural memory performance was tested by a paired associate list and a mirror tracing task. Subjective sleep quality was assessed by a sleep questionnaire, objective sleep quality was measured by a portable sleep recording device. During the study night the restorative value of sleep was significantly reduced in BPD patients (psleep quality showed a trend for longer REM sleep duration (p=0.054). No significant differences were found regarding overnight performance improvement in the declarative and procedural memory tasks. Present findings suggest that declarative and procedural memory consolidation during sleep is intact in BPD patients.

  9. Verbal learning and memory impairments in posttraumatic stress disorder: the role of encoding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Grethe E; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2009-01-30

    The present study examined mechanisms underlying verbal memory impairments in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Earlier studies have reported that the verbal learning and memory alterations in PTSD are related to impaired encoding, but the use of encoding and organizational strategies in patients with PTSD has not been fully explored. This study examined organizational strategies in 21 refugees/immigrants exposed to war and political violence who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for chronic PTSD compared with a control sample of 21 refugees/immigrants with similar exposure, but without PTSD. The California Verbal Learning Test was administered to examine differences in organizational strategies and memory. The semantic clustering score was slightly reduced in both groups, but the serial cluster score was significantly impaired in the PTSD group and they also reported more items from the recency region of the list. In addition, intrusive errors were significantly increased in the PTSD group. The data support an assumption of changed memory strategies in patients with PTSD associated with a specific impairment in executive control. However, memory impairment and the use of ineffective learning strategies may not be related to PTSD symptomatology only, but also to self-reported symptoms of depression and general distress.

  10. Functional MRI study of verbal working memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Youran; Geng Daoying; Feng Xiaoyuan; Du Yasong; Zhao Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the verbal working memory of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as to explore the characteristics of functional areas of verbal working memory with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Eighteen children were selected in the study. There were 9 ADHD children with inattention subtype and 9 healthy subjects. All patients and healthy subjects completed the cognitive examination and the block- designed N-block verbal working memory task using a GE 3.0 T MR. Data were analyzed by AFNI software. Result: The neural activations of ADHD's children are lower than that of control under verbal working memory. Especially in the areas of bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri, bilateral superior parietal lobules and inferior parietal lobules, right basal ganglia in the 1-BACK task. And bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri, bilateral superior parietal lobules, left cortex inferior parietallobule, right basal ganglia, anterior cingulatecortex in the 2-BACK task. Conclusion: The hypofunctional areas of verbal working memory (including bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex) can be seen in the ADHD children especially who also has lower activation of anterior cingulate cortex under 2-BACK task. (authors)

  11. Will Working Memory Training Generalize to Improve Off-Task Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Chloe T.; Long, Debra L.; Green, David; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Dixon, J. Faye; Miller, Meghan R.; Fassbender, Catherine; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2012-01-01

    Computerized working memory and executive function training programs designed to target specific impairments in executive functioning are becoming increasingly available, yet how well these programs generalize to improve functional deficits in disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), beyond the training context is not well-established. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which working memory (WM) training in children with ADHD would diminish a core dy...

  12. Working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without comorbid language learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Tannock, Rosemary

    2006-10-01

    Our objectives were to examine whether children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impaired on one or more components of working memory (WM) independent of comorbid language learning disorders, and whether WM impairments are more strongly related to symptoms of inattention than to symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity. Four groups of children participated: ADHD (n = 62); ADHD+RD/LI (n = 32); RD/LI (n = 15); and a typically developing comparison group (n = 34). Four simple and brief measures of WM were used that varied in modality (auditory-verbal; visual-spatial) and processing demands (temporary storage versus manipulation of information). Children with ADHD without comorbid language learning disorders exhibited deficits in visual-spatial storage and verbal and visual-spatial central executive (C.E.) functions that were independent of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Children with language learning disorders, regardless of comorbidity with ADHD, exhibited impairments in both verbal and spatial storage as well as C.E. domains of WM. Symptoms of inattention, but not symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity, predicted performance on verbal and visual-spatial C.E. measures independent of age, verbal cognitive ability, and reading and language performance. Findings are consistent with data implicating neuropsychological impairments in ADHD. The dimensional results are also consistent with prior research demonstrating the neuropsychological impairments are more strongly associated with the inattention symptom dimension than with the hyperactive-impulsive dimension.

  13. PKCα is genetically linked to memory capacity in healthy subjects and to risk for posttraumatic stress disorder in genocide survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Ackermann, Sandra; Aerni, Amanda; Boesiger, Peter; Demougin, Philippe; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena; Gschwind, Leo; Hadziselimovic, Nils; Hanser, Edveena; Heck, Angela; Hieber, Petra; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Klarhöfer, Markus; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn; Scheffler, Klaus; Spalek, Klara; Stippich, Christoph; Vogler, Christian; Vukojevic, Vanja; Stetak, Attila; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2012-05-29

    Strong memory of a traumatic event is thought to contribute to the development and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, a genetic predisposition to build strong memories could lead to increased risk for PTSD after a traumatic event. Here we show that genetic variability of the gene encoding PKCα (PRKCA) was associated with memory capacity--including aversive memory--in nontraumatized subjects of European descent. This finding was replicated in an independent sample of nontraumatized subjects, who additionally underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI analysis revealed PRKCA genotype-dependent brain activation differences during successful encoding of aversive information. Further, the identified genetic variant was also related to traumatic memory and to the risk for PTSD in heavily traumatized survivors of the Rwandan genocide. Our results indicate a role for PKCα in memory and suggest a genetic link between memory and the risk for PTSD.

  14. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-03-04

    Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  15. Parents’ Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents’ strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD, n = 11). We focused on the prevalence of directives versus enrichment of events. Groups did not differ in number of events, length, and total turns. However, parents of children with ASD produced more direct questions, corrections, and unrelated turns than parents of TD children. Results highlight how parents adjusted their conversational style to their child's communication difficulties to maximize interactions and how these strategies may affect the development of personal conversations. PMID:25312278

  16. Visuospatial working memory assessment using a digital tablet in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Gi Jung; Park, Jin Wan; Kim, Jin Hee; Min, Kyoung Joon; Lee, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun

    2018-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder hypothesized to involve impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM). However, there are few studies utilizing neuropsychological tests to measure VSWM in ADHD adolescents. The Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test (ROCF) is commonly used as a neuropsychological test to assess visuospatial working memory for individuals with ADHD. We assessed working memory using the ROCF test on a digital Galaxy tablet with the technically new Gaussian filter method. Thirty adolescents with ADHD and 30 healthy control adolescents were recruited for participation in the current study. All adolescents were assessed with K-WISC-IV, Children's depression inventory, and the Korean ADHD rating scale. All adolescents were asked to copy the ROCF from paper onto a Galaxy tablet screen using a wireless pen. There was a significant difference in representative value of the deviation of the original images from template images (R-value) in copy and delayed recall between ADHD adolescents and healthy adolescents. There was no significant difference in R-value of immediate recall between ADHD adolescents and healthy adolescents. In all adolescents (ADHD and healthy) and ADHD adolescents, the R-value of copy was negatively correlated with visuospatial index and working memory index, and the R-value of delayed recall was negatively correlated with WMI. The R-value of copy and delayed recall was positively correlated with K-ARS in all adolescents and ADHD adolescents. ADHD adolescents showed differences in the R-values of copy and delayed recall in the digital ROCF version compared to healthy adolescents. The digital ROCF assessment tool can represent different patterns of visuospatial working memory abilities in ADHD adolescents compared to healthy adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV-infected persons with bipolar disorder are less aware of memory deficits as compared to HIV-infected persons without bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Kaitlin; Tobin, Alexis; Posada, Carolina; Gouaux, Ben; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory deficits are common in HIV infection and bipolar disorder, but patient insight into such deficits remains unclear. Thirty-four HIV-infected individuals without bipolar disorder l(HIV+/BD−) and 47 HIV+ individuals with comorbid bipolar disorder (HIV+/BD+) were administered the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised to examine objective learning/memory functioning. Subjective memory complaints were assessed via the memory subscale of the Patient’s Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory. HIV+/BD+ individuals performed poorer on tests of visual learning and visual/verbal recall compared to HIV+/BD− participants (psHIV+/BD− individuals. Memory complaints were not associated with memory performance within the HIV+/BD+ group (ps>0.10). Memory complaints were associated with affective symptoms in both groups. These complaints were also predictive of immunosuppression, higher unemployment, and greater dependence on Activities of Daily Living among the HIV+/BD+ individuals (psAwareness of memory abilities was particularly poor among HIV+/BD+ individuals (i.e., objective learning/memory did not correspond to reported complaints), which has important implications for the capacity of these individuals to engage in error-monitoring and compensatory strategies in daily life. Memory complaints are associated with depressed mood regardless of group membership. Among HIV+/BD+ individuals, these complaints may also signify worse HIV disease status and problems with everyday functioning. Clinicians and researchers should be cognizant of what these complaints indicate in order to lead treatment most effectively; use of objective neurocognitive assessments may still be warranted when working with these populations. PMID:22571839

  18. Attempts at memory control induce dysfunctional brain activation profiles in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An exploratory fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Re, Marta; Cecchetto, Filippo; Garzitto, Marco; Piccin, Sara; Bonivento, Carolina; Maieron, Marta; D'Agostini, Serena; Balestrieri, Matteo; Brambilla, Paolo

    2017-08-30

    Suppression of aversive memories through memory control has historically been proposed as a central psychological defense mechanism. Inability to suppress memories is considered a central psychological trait in several psychiatric disorders, including Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Yet, few studies have attempted the focused identification of dysfunctional brain activation profiles when patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorders attempt memory control. Using a well-characterized behavioral paradigm we studied brain activation profiles in a group of adult GAD patients and well-matched healthy controls (HC). Participants learned word-association pairs before imaging. During fMRI when presented with one word of the pair, they were instructed to either suppress memory of, or retrieve the paired word. Subsequent behavioral testing indicated both GAD and HC were able to engage in the task, but attempts at memory control (suppression or retrieval) during fMRI revealed vastly different activation profiles. GAD were characterized by substantive hypo-activation signatures during both types of memory control, with effects particularly strong during suppression in brain regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate and the ventral prefrontal cortex. Attempts at memory control in GAD fail to engage brain regions to the same extent HC, providing a putative neuronal signature for a well-established psychological characteristic of the illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Self-Defining Memories in Individuals with Severe Alcohol Use Disorders After Mid-Term Abstinence: The Impact of the Emotional Valence of Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    Self-defining memories (SDM) are distinguished from other autobiographical memory (AM) processes to delineate those associated with the sense of personal identity and continuity in one's individual history. With chronic alcohol consumption, the construction of such memories may be modified in terms of specificity, valence, meaning-making, and evoked topics. This study sought to characterize SDM in a population of 27 patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) who had been abstinent for at least 2 months compared with 28 control participants. Besides cognitive and clinical assessment, participants were told to describe verbally and date 5 SDM and their narratives were recorded. For each memory, 5 dimensions were evaluated: level of specificity, emotional valence, integration of meaning, topics, and distance of memory in time. Overall, SDM of participants with AUD were specifically characterized by (i) low specificity, (ii) low integration, (iii) a predominance of memories with negative emotional valence and a low frequency of positive memories, and (iv) a low frequency of topics related to success. When different dimensions of the SDM were crossed, their characteristics depended mainly on the valence of the memory. Negative memories were more frequent, more specific and more integrated, while positive SDM were less frequent, less specific and less integrated. The results underline the construction of a form of SDM with drinking problems that is mainly characterized by the disruption of positive memory and the presence of highly specific and integrated negative experiences. A disruption of the integration process modulated by the valence of memories could have repercussions on maintaining a sense of personal identity, the pursuit of personal goals and on social adaptability, and could constitute one of the main risks associated with persistent drinking problems. These results highlight the relevance of developing AM training programs for patients with AUD. Copyright

  20. Brief report: Overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Katelynn; Burkhouse, Katie L; Woody, Mary L; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) bias serves as a state-like marker of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence or whether it would also be observed in currently nondepressed adolescents with a history of MDD. We examined differences in OGM to positive and negative cue words between adolescents (aged 11-18 years) with current MDD (n = 15), remitted MDD (n = 25), and no history of any depressive disorder (n = 25). Youth and their parents were administered a structured diagnostic interview and adolescents completed the autobiographical memory test. Compared to never depressed adolescents, adolescents with current or remitted MDD recalled less specific memories in response to positive and negative cue words. The difference between the two MDD groups was small and nonsignificant. These findings suggest that OGM is not simply a state-like marker in currently depressed adolescents, but is also evident in adolescents with remitted MDD, indicating that it may represent a trait-like vulnerability that increases risk for relapse. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterogeneity in development of aspects of working memory predicts longitudinal attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalunas, Sarah L; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Tipsord, Jessica; Mitchell, Suzanne H; Nigg, Joel T

    2017-08-01

    The role of cognitive mechanisms in the clinical course of neurodevelopmental disorders is poorly understood. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is emblematic in that numerous alterations in cognitive development are apparent, yet how they relate to changes in symptom expression with age is unclear. To resolve the role of cognitive mechanisms in ADHD, a developmental perspective that takes into account expected within-group heterogeneity is needed. The current study uses an accelerated longitudinal design and latent trajectory growth mixture models in a sample of children ages 7-13 years carefully characterized as with (n = 437) and without (n = 297) ADHD to (a) identify heterogeneous developmental trajectories for response inhibition, visual spatial working memory maintenance, and delayed reward discounting and (b) to assess the relationships between these cognitive trajectories and ADHD symptom change. Best-fitting models indicated multiple trajectory classes in both the ADHD and typically developing samples, as well as distinct relationships between each cognitive process and ADHD symptom change. Developmental change in response inhibition and delayed reward discounting were unrelated to ADHD symptom change, while individual differences in the rate of visual spatial working memory maintenance improvement predicted symptom remission in ADHD. Characterizing heterogeneity in cognitive development will be crucial for clarifying mechanisms of symptom persistence and recovery. Results here suggest working memory maintenance may be uniquely related to ADHD symptom improvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Competitive Memory Training (COMET) for Treating Low Self-Esteem in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrelboom, Kees; de Jong, Martie; Huijbrechts, Irma; Daansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates a short stepwise cognitive-behavioral intervention for the treatment of low self-esteem in patients with eating disorders. Competitive memory training (COMET) for low self-esteem is based on insights and findings from experimental psychology. A total of 52 patients with eating disorders and low self-esteem were treated with…

  3. Comparing Iconic Memory in Children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Ahmadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD do not process most information due to inattention and loss of the opportunity to save and retrieve information. Therefore, these children experience memory impairment. Although visual memory has been previously studied in children with ADHD, iconic memory in these children has been less evaluated. We aimed to study the possibility of iconic memory impairment in children with ADHD, and compare the results with that of children without ADHD.Methods: The experimental group of this study were 6-9 year-old children who referred to the Imam Hosein Clinic and were diagnosed as having ADHD by a psychiatrist during 2011-2012 (n=30.The subjects were interviewed clinically by a psychologist; and in order to diagnose ADHD, their parents and teachers were asked to complete the child symptom inventory-4 (CSI-4. The comparison group were 6-9 year-old children without ADHD who studied in 1st and 2nd educational district of Yazd (n=30. Subjects’ iconic memory was assessed using an iconic memory task. Repeated measure ANOVA was used for data analysis. Results:Based on the iconic memory test, the mean score of ADHD children was significantly lower than that of children without ADHD (P˂0.001. Moreover, the performance of the experimental group differed significantly when the duration of the presentation differed from 50 ms to 100 ms as compared to the control group (P˂0.001. The number of correct answers increased in the experimental group as the duration of presentation increased. However, children with ADHD scored less than children without ADHD at 50 ms as well as 100 ms. The means of ADHD children increased as the duration of the presentation increased from 50 ms to 100 ms to 300 ms (P<0.001.Conclusion:Visual memory is weaker in children with ADHD, and they have weaker performance than normal children in both visual and auditory symbols at presentation durations of 50 and 100 ms. The

  4. Gait disorder as a predictor of spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-01-01

    significantly higher in the abnormal gait group as compared to that in the normal gait group (x = 21.986, P < 0.001. All five parameters used to assess gait predicted severe spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice (P < 0.01. However, the difference of the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve for each quantitative gait parameter was not statistically significant. Conclusion Gait disorders are a predictor of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice, and stride length, variability of stride length, base of support, cadence, and average speed are all sensitive parameters for assessing gait.

  5. An Eye-Movement Study of relational Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Melanie; Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B

    2017-10-01

    Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate good memory for single items but difficulties remembering contextual information related to these items. Recently, we found compromised explicit but intact implicit retrieval of object-location information in ASD (Ring et al. Autism Res 8(5):609-619, 2015). Eye-movement data collected from a sub-sample of the participants are the focus of the current paper. At encoding, trial-by-trial viewing durations predicted subsequent retrieval success only in typically developing (TD) participants. During retrieval, TD compared to ASD participants looked significantly longer at previously studied object-locations compared to alternative locations. These findings extend similar observations recently reported by Cooper et al. (Cognition 159:127-138, 2017a) and demonstrate that eye-movement data can shed important light on the source and nature of relational memory difficulties in ASD.

  6. [Theoretical reflection on the place of memory and temporal cognitive mechanisms in addictive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, L; Laprevote, V; Danion, J-M; Bacon, E

    2016-06-01

    Addictions can be regarded as cognitive disorders related to neurobiological impairments. On the one hand, some cognitive impairments occur as a result of substance intake and withdrawal upon stopping intake, while, on the other hand, cognitive mechanisms are responsible for initiating and maintaining addiction. In this review, we detail the memory and temporal mechanisms involved in this pathology. We reviewed the literature dedicated to the mechanisms of conditioning association between a substance and a context, and the memory and temporal mechanisms involved in the maintenance of addiction. Cognitive impairments in this context are accompanied by both short-term and long-term neurobiological disorders. Drug-context conditioning is dependent on learning abilities in rats and humans, and it is the first step towards the development of an addiction. In fact, with the beginning of an addiction, it is the context associated with the substance intake, which determines the reinforcing factors (such as pleasure in the case of drug consumption) for the development of an addiction. Maintenance of addiction is related to the persistence of this association between context and substance. Furthermore, the impulsiveness of patients renders them unable to delay their gratification. Consequently, even if delayed gratifications are more valuable, patients prefer immediate gratification such as substance use. The memory and temporal mechanisms of addiction are central to the initiation and maintenance of drug addiction. They also affect patients' ability to develop projects for the future. The salience of the memory association between drug and context is accompanied by a decline in autobiographical memories, which become poor and lacking in detail. It is probably these impairments which are responsible for the difficulty that the patients have while investigating their story during psychotherapy. On the other hand, given that even though delayed gratification is greater

  7. Preferential recruitment of the basolateral amygdala during memory encoding of negative scenes in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak; Girard, Todd A; Pukay-Martin, Nicole; Monson, Candice

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of functional neuroimaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have examined the amygdala as a unitary structure. However, an emerging body of studies indicates that separable functions are subserved by discrete amygdala subregions. The basolateral subdivision (BLA), as compared with the centromedial amygdala (CMA), plays a unique role in learning and memory-based processes for threatening events, and alterations to the BLA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PTSD. We assessed whether PTSD is associated with differential involvement of the BLA versus the CMA during successful encoding of emotionally charged events. Participants with PTSD (n=11) and a trauma-exposed comparison (TEC) group (n=11) viewed a series of photos that varied in valence (negative versus positive) and arousal (high versus low) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subsequently, participants completed an old/new recognition memory test. Using analytic methods based on probabilistic cytoarchitectonic mapping, PTSD was associated with greater activation of the BLA, as compared to the CMA, during successful encoding of negative scenes, a finding which was not observed in the TEC group. Moreover, this memory-related activity in the BLA independently predicted PTSD status. Contrary to hypotheses, there was no evidence of altered BLA activity during memory encoding of high arousing relative to low arousing scenes. Task-related brain activation in PTSD does not appear to be consistent across the entire amygdala. Importantly, memory-related processing of negative information in PTSD is associated with preferential recruitment of the BLA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effects of gender and executive function on visuospatial working memory in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoni, Riccardo Maria; Salgari, Giulia; Galimberti, Elisa; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; O'Neill, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is the ability of the brain to transiently store and manipulate visual information. VSWM deficiencies have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but not consistently, perhaps due to variability in task design and clinical patient factors. To explore this variability, this study assessed effects of the design factors task difficulty and executive organizational strategy and of the clinical factors gender, OCD symptom dimension, and duration of illness on VSWM in OCD. The CANTAB spatial working memory, spatial recognition memory, delayed matching to sample, and stop signal tasks were administered to 42 adult OCD patients and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Aims were to detect a possible VSWM deficit in the OCD sample, to evaluate influences of the above task and patient factors, to determine the specificity of the deficit to the visuospatial subdomain, and to examine effects of sustained attention as potential neurocognitive confound. We confirmed previous findings of a VSWM deficit in OCD that was more severe for greater memory load (task difficulty) and that was affected by task strategy (executive function). We failed to demonstrate significant deficits in neighboring or confounding neurocognitive subdomains (visual object recognition or visual object short-term memory, sustained attention). Notably, the VSWM deficit was only significant for female patients, adding to evidence for sexual dimorphism in OCD. Again as in prior work, more severe OCD symptoms in the symmetry dimension (but no other dimension) significantly negatively impacted VSWM. Duration of illness had no significant effect on VSWM. VSWM deficits in OCD appear more severe with higher task load and may be mediated through poor task strategy. Such deficits may present mainly in female patients and in (male and female) patients with symmetry symptoms.

  9. Working memory span in Persian-speaking children with speech sound disorders and normal speech development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Mohamad Reza; Ghorbani, Ali; Rashedi, Vahid; Jalilevand, Nahid; Kamali, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare working memory span in Persian-speaking preschool children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and their typically speaking peers. Additionally, the study aimed to examine Non-Word Repetition (NWR), Forward Digit Span (FDS) and Backward Digit Span (BDS) in four groups of children with varying severity levels of SSD. The participants in this study comprised 35 children with SSD and 35 typically developing (TD) children -matched for age and sex-as a control group. The participants were between the age range of 48 and 72 months. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. We used two tasks (NWR and FDS) to assess phonological loop component, and one task (BDS) to assess central executive component. Percentage of correct consonants (PCC) was used to calculate the severity of SSD. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in all tasks that assess working memory (p memory between the various severity groups indicated significant differences between different severities of both NWR and FDS tasks among the SSD children (p  0.05). The result showed that PCC scores in TD children were associated with NWR (p  0.05). The working memory skills were weaker in SSD children, in comparison to TD children. In addition, children with varying levels of severity of SSD differed in terms of NWR and FSD, but not BDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Episodic but not semantic order memory difficulties in autism spectrum disorder: evidence from the Historical Figures Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bowler, Dermot M; Gardiner, John M

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the episodic memory system operates abnormally in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) whereas the functions of the semantic memory system are relatively preserved. Here we show that the same dissociation also applies to the domain of order memory. We asked adult participants to order the names of famous historical figures either according to their chronological order in history (probing semantic memory) or according to a random sequence shown once on a screen (probing episodic memory). As predicted, adults with ASD performed less well than age- and IQ-matched comparison individuals only on the episodic task. This observation is of considerable importance in the context of developmental theory because semantic and episodic order memory abilities can be dissociated in typically developing infants before they reach the age at which the behavioural markers associated with ASD are first apparent. This raises the possibility that early emerging memory abnormalities play a role in shaping the developmental trajectory of the disorder. We discuss the broader implications of this possibility and highlight the urgent need for greater scrutiny of memory competences in ASD early in development.

  11. Attention, memory, visuoconstructive, and executive task performance in adolescents with anxiety disorders: a case-control community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Behs Jarros

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess children and adolescents with mild and severe anxiety disorders for their performance in attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, executive functions, and cognitive global functioning and conduct comparative analyses with the performance of children free from anxiety disorders. Methods: Our sample comprised 68 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years (41 with current diagnoses of anxiety disorders and 27 controls selected from a larger cross-sectional community sample of adolescents. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders were categorized into two groups on the basis of anxiety severity (mild or severe. All participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery to evaluate attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, and executive and cognitive functions. Results: No differences were found in any neuropsychological tests, with the single exception that the group with mild anxiety had better performance on the Digit Span backward test compared to subjects with severe anxiety and to controls (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.11. Conclusions: Not only might anxiety disorders spare main cognitive functions during adolescence, they may even enhance certain working memory processes.

  12. Attention, memory, visuoconstructive, and executive task performance in adolescents with anxiety disorders: a case-control community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarros, Rafaela Behs; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Silva, Cristiano Tschiedel Belem da; Toazza, Rudineia; Becker, Natália; Agranonik, Marilyn; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess children and adolescents with mild and severe anxiety disorders for their performance in attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, executive functions, and cognitive global functioning and conduct comparative analyses with the performance of children free from anxiety disorders. Our sample comprised 68 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years (41 with current diagnoses of anxiety disorders and 27 controls) selected from a larger cross-sectional community sample of adolescents. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders were categorized into two groups on the basis of anxiety severity (mild or severe). All participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery to evaluate attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, and executive and cognitive functions. No differences were found in any neuropsychological tests, with the single exception that the group with mild anxiety had better performance on the Digit Span backward test compared to subjects with severe anxiety and to controls (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.11). Not only might anxiety disorders spare main cognitive functions during adolescence, they may even enhance certain working memory processes.

  13. Social problem solving, autobiographical memory, trauma, and depression in women with borderline personality disorder and a history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurex, Liselotte; Lekander, Mats; Nilsonne, Asa; Andersson, Eva E; Asberg, Marie; Ohman, Arne

    2010-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare the retrieval of autobiographical memory and the social problem-solving performance of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of suicide attempts, with and without concurrent diagnoses of depression and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to that of controls. Additionally, the relationships between autobiographical memory, social problem-solving skills, and various clinical characteristics were examined in the BPD group. Individuals with BPD who had made at least two suicide attempts were compared to controls with regard to specificity of autobiographical memory and social problem-solving skills. Autobiographical memory specificity and social problem-solving skills were further studied in the BPD group by comparing depressed participants to non-depressed participants; and autobiographical memory specificity was also studied by comparing participants with and without PTSD. A total of 47 women with a diagnosis of BPD and 30 controls completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, assessing memory specificity, and the means-end problem solving-procedure, measuring social problem-solving skills. The prevalence of suicidal/self-injurious behaviour, and the exposure to violence, was also assessed in the BPD group. Compared to controls, participants with BPD showed reduced specificity of autobiographical memory, irrespective of either concurrent depression, previous depression, or concurrent PTSD. The depressed BPD group displayed poor problem-solving skills. Further, an association between unspecific memory and poor problem-solving was displayed in the BPD group. Our results confirmed that reduced specificity of autobiographical memory is an important characteristic of BPD individuals with a history of suicide attempt, independent of depression, or PTSD. Reduced specificity of autobiographical memory was further related to poor social problem-solving capacity in the BPD group.

  14. Mental Imagery and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neuroimaging and Experimental Psychopathology Approach to Intrusive Memories of Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    This hypothesis and theory paper presents a pragmatic framework to help bridge the clinical presentation and neuroscience of intrusive memories following psychological trauma. Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, key questions, including those involving etiology, remain. In particular, we know little about the brain mechanisms involved in why only some moments of the trauma return as intrusive memories while others do not. We first present an overview of the patient experience of intrusive memories and the neuroimaging studies that have investigated intrusive memories in PTSD patients. Next, one mechanism of how to model intrusive memories in the laboratory, the trauma film paradigm, is examined. In particular, we focus on studies combining the trauma film paradigm with neuroimaging. Stemming from the clinical presentation and our current understanding of the processes involved in intrusive memories, we propose a framework in which an intrusive memory comprises five component parts; autobiographical (trauma) memory, involuntary recall, negative emotions, attention hijacking, and mental imagery. Each component part is considered in turn, both behaviorally and from a brain imaging perspective. A mapping of these five components onto our understanding of the brain is described. Unanswered questions that exist in our understanding of intrusive memories are considered using the proposed framework. Overall, we suggest that mental imagery is key to bridging the experience, memory, and intrusive recollection of the traumatic event. Further, we suggest that by considering the brain mechanisms involved in the component parts of an intrusive memory, in particular mental imagery, we may be able to aid the development of a firmer bridge between patients' experiences of intrusive memories and the clinical neuroscience behind them.

  15. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  16. Defensive Responses to Early Memories with Peers: a Possible Pathway to Disordered Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Marta-Simões, Joana; Trindade, Inês A

    2016-07-18

    Childhood and early adolescence experiences, specifically those that provide an adulthood enriched with warm and safe memories, are consistently stated in literature as powerful emotional regulators. In contrast, individuals who scarcely recall positive experiences may begin to believe that others see the self as inferior, inadequate and unattractive. In order to cope with a perceived loss of social desirability and achieve other's acceptance, individuals may become submissive, and women, particularly, may resort to the presentation of a perfect body image. Both mechanisms are defensive responses suggested to be associated with mental health difficulties, particularly disordered eating behaviors. The present study aimed at exploring the association between early memories of warmth and safeness with peers and eating psychopathology. Also, a path analysis was conducted to investigate the mediator role of submissiveness and perfectionistic self-presentation focused on body image on this association, in a sample of 342 female students. Results revealed that the absence of early positive memories with peers holds a significant effect over eating psychopathology's severity, and also that this effect is mediated through submissiveness and body image-related perfectionistic self-presentation. This model accounted for 13%, 19% and 51% of submissiveness, perfectionistic self-presentation of body image and eating psychopathology's variances, respectively, and showed excellent model fit.

  17. The impact of malnutrition and post traumatic stress disorder on the performance of working memory in children

    OpenAIRE

    De Neubourg, Elise; De Neubourg, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is accepted to have a negative impact on the school performance of children and adolescents. Malnutrition also has a negative impact on cognitive development and a potentially lasting effect on (some) cognitive functions. This paper focuses on the effects of malnutrition and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on short-term-working-memory on children. These effects are important since defective working memory capacities limit the learning ability of young children and thus the ...

  18. Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan L C; Bertoglio, Leandro J; Guimarães, Francisco S; Stevenson, Carl W

    2017-10-01

    Learning to associate cues or contexts with potential threats or rewards is adaptive and enhances survival. Both aversive and appetitive memories are therefore powerful drivers of behaviour, but the inappropriate expression of conditioned responding to fear- and drug-related stimuli can develop into anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders respectively. These disorders are associated with abnormally persistent emotional memories and inadequate treatment, often leading to symptom relapse. Studies show that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, reduces anxiety via 5-HT 1A and (indirect) cannabinoid receptor activation in paradigms assessing innate responses to threat. There is also accumulating evidence from animal studies investigating the effects of cannabidiol on fear memory processing indicating that it reduces learned fear in paradigms that are translationally relevant to phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder. Cannabidiol does so by reducing fear expression acutely and by disrupting fear memory reconsolidation and enhancing fear extinction, both of which can result in a lasting reduction of learned fear. Recent studies have also begun to elucidate the effects of cannabidiol on drug memory expression using paradigms with translational relevance to addiction. The findings suggest that cannabidiol reduces the expression of drug memories acutely and by disrupting their reconsolidation. Here, we review the literature demonstrating the anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol before focusing on studies investigating its effects on various fear and drug memory processes. Understanding how cannabidiol regulates emotion and emotional memory processing may eventually lead to its use as a treatment for anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of Cognition: a Panacea for Neuropsychiatric Disease? To view the other articles in this section visit

  19. Working memory in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a lack of specialization of brain function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Fassbender

    Full Text Available Working memory impairments are frequent in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and create problems along numerous functional dimensions. The present study utilized the Visual Serial Addition Task (VSAT and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore working memory processes in thirteen typically developing (TD control and thirteen children with ADHD, Combined type. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used to examine both main effects and interactions. Working memory-specific activity was found in TD children in the bilateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast the within-group map in ADHD did not reveal any working-memory specific regions. Main effects of condition suggested that the right middle frontal gyrus (BA6 and the right precuneus were engaged by both groups during working memory processing. Group differences were driven by significantly greater, non-working memory-specific, activation in the ADHD relative to TD group in the bilateral insula extending into basal ganglia and the medial prefrontal cortex. A region of interest analysis revealed a region in left middle frontal gyrus that was more active during working memory in TD controls. Thus, only the TD group appeared to display working memory-modulated brain activation. In conclusion, children with ADHD demonstrated reduced working memory task specific brain activation in comparison to their peers. These data suggest inefficiency in functional recruitment by individuals with ADHD represented by a poor match between task demands and appropriate levels of brain activity.

  20. Working memory in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a lack of specialization of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Catherine; Schweitzer, Julie B; Cortes, Carlos R; Tagamets, Malle A; Windsor, T Andrew; Reeves, Gloria M; Gullapalli, Rao

    2011-01-01

    Working memory impairments are frequent in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and create problems along numerous functional dimensions. The present study utilized the Visual Serial Addition Task (VSAT) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore working memory processes in thirteen typically developing (TD) control and thirteen children with ADHD, Combined type. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to examine both main effects and interactions. Working memory-specific activity was found in TD children in the bilateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast the within-group map in ADHD did not reveal any working-memory specific regions. Main effects of condition suggested that the right middle frontal gyrus (BA6) and the right precuneus were engaged by both groups during working memory processing. Group differences were driven by significantly greater, non-working memory-specific, activation in the ADHD relative to TD group in the bilateral insula extending into basal ganglia and the medial prefrontal cortex. A region of interest analysis revealed a region in left middle frontal gyrus that was more active during working memory in TD controls. Thus, only the TD group appeared to display working memory-modulated brain activation. In conclusion, children with ADHD demonstrated reduced working memory task specific brain activation in comparison to their peers. These data suggest inefficiency in functional recruitment by individuals with ADHD represented by a poor match between task demands and appropriate levels of brain activity.

  1. Memory for past events: movement and action chains in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daprati, Elena; Nico, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we assessed whether individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show memory impairments for previously performed actions, as previously suggested for people suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (Ecker and Engelkamp in Behav Cogn Psychother 23:349-371, 1995; Merckelbach and Wessel in J Nerv Ment Dis 188(12):846-848, 2000). To test this possibility, we explored verbal memory for actions in individuals with a diagnosis of ASD, with and without co-morbidity for OCD, and in controls matched for age and gender. Participants observed or observed and enacted a number of actions while listening to the corresponding phrases being spoken. After a suitable delay, they were submitted to an old/new recognition task. Results showed that ASD individuals with OCD were less accurate and slower in responding compared to ASD individuals without OCD and controls, particularly when dealing with phrases describing simple movements. In contrast, ASD participants without OCD were more impaired when phrases described complex actions that involved pantomiming object use or coordinating movements of multiple body parts. These findings are discussed in terms of differential organization of the motor trace for simple versus complex actions in ASD individuals according to the concurrent presence of OCD.

  2. Dissociation and memory fragmentation in post-traumatic stress disorder: an evaluation of the dissociative encoding hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review we summarise the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus initial evidence points more towards a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation.

  3. Reduced amygdala reactivity and impaired working memory during dissociation in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Winter, Dorina; Schriner, Friederike; Chiu, Chui-De; Lis, Stefanie; Spinhoven, Philip; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2017-05-19

    Affective hyper-reactivity and impaired cognitive control of emotional material are core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A high percentage of individuals with BPD experience stress-related dissociation, including emotional numbing and memory disruptions. So far little is known about how dissociation influences the neural processing of emotional material in the context of a working memory task in BPD. We aimed to investigate whole-brain activity and amygdala functional connectivity (FC) during an Emotional Working Memory Task (EWMT) after dissociation induction in un-medicated BPD patients compared to healthy controls (HC). Using script-driven imagery, dissociation was induced in 17 patients ('BPD_D'), while 12 patients ('BPD_N') and 18 HC were exposed to neutral scripts during fMRI. Afterwards, participants performed the EWMT with neutral vs. negative IAPS pictures vs. no distractors. Main outcome measures were behavioral performance (reaction times, errors) and whole-brain activity during the EWMT. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to examine amygdala connectivity during emotional distraction. BPD patients after dissociation induction showed overall WM impairments, a deactivation in bilateral amygdala, and lower activity in left cuneus, lingual gyrus, and posterior cingulate than BPD_N, along with stronger left inferior frontal gyrus activity than HC. Furthermore, reduced amygdala FC with fusiform gyrus and stronger amygdala FC with right middle/superior temporal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule was observed in BPD_D. Findings suggest that dissociation affects reactivity to emotionally salient material and WM. Altered activity in areas associated with emotion processing, memory, and self-referential processes may contribute to dissociative states in BPD.

  4. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Hélène; Benkahoul, Aïcha; Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara; Roullet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the "city-like" test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans.

  5. Neural Correlates of Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Narayan, Meena; Staib, Lawrence H.; Southwick, Steven M.; McGlashan, Thomas; Charney, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Childhood sexual abuse is very common in our society, but little is known about the long-term effects of abuse on brain function. The purpose of this study was to measure neural correlates of memories of childhood abuse in sexually abused women with and without the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method Twenty-two women with a history of childhood sexual abuse underwent injection of [15O]H2O, followed by positron emission tomography imaging of the brain while they listened to neutral and traumatic (personalized childhood sexual abuse events) scripts. Brain blood flow during exposure to traumatic and neutral scripts was compared for sexually abused women with and without PTSD. Results Memories of childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater increases in blood flow in portions of anterior prefrontal cortex (superior and middle frontal gyri—areas 6 and 9), posterior cingulate (area 31), and motor cortex in sexually abused women with PTSD than in sexually abused women without PTSD. Abuse memories were associated with alterations in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex, with decreased blood flow in subcallosal gyrus (area 25), and a failure of activation in anterior cingulate (area 32). There was also decreased blood flow in right hippocampus, fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and visual association cortex in women with PTSD relative to women without PTSD. Conclusions These findings implicate dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (subcallosal gyrus and anterior cingulate), hippocampus, and visual association cortex in pathological memories of childhood abuse in women with PTSD. Increased activation in posterior cingulate and motor cortex was seen in women with PTSD. Dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie PTSD symptoms provoked by traumatic reminders in subjects with PTSD. PMID:10553744

  6. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers’ cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27 show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27, using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  7. Xenon impairs reconsolidation of fear memories in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Edward G; Gillis, Timothy E; Manoukian, Jasmine; Kaufman, Marc J

    2014-01-01

    Xenon (Xe) is a noble gas that has been developed for use in people as an inhalational anesthestic and a diagnostic imaging agent. Xe inhibits glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors involved in learning and memory and can affect synaptic plasticity in the amygdala and hippocampus, two brain areas known to play a role in fear conditioning models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because glutamate receptors also have been shown to play a role in fear memory reconsolidation--a state in which recalled memories become susceptible to modification--we examined whether Xe administered after fear memory reactivation could affect subsequent expression of fear-like behavior (freezing) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained for contextual and cued fear conditioning and the effects of inhaled Xe (25%, 1 hr) on fear memory reconsolidation were tested using conditioned freezing measured days or weeks after reactivation/Xe administration. Xe administration immediately after fear memory reactivation significantly reduced conditioned freezing when tested 48 h, 96 h or 18 d after reactivation/Xe administration. Xe did not affect freezing when treatment was delayed until 2 h after reactivation or when administered in the absence of fear memory reactivation. These data suggest that Xe substantially and persistently inhibits memory reconsolidation in a reactivation and time-dependent manner, that it could be used as a new research tool to characterize reconsolidation and other memory processes, and that it could be developed to treat people with PTSD and other disorders related to emotional memory.

  8. Xenon impairs reconsolidation of fear memories in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G Meloni

    Full Text Available Xenon (Xe is a noble gas that has been developed for use in people as an inhalational anesthestic and a diagnostic imaging agent. Xe inhibits glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors involved in learning and memory and can affect synaptic plasticity in the amygdala and hippocampus, two brain areas known to play a role in fear conditioning models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Because glutamate receptors also have been shown to play a role in fear memory reconsolidation--a state in which recalled memories become susceptible to modification--we examined whether Xe administered after fear memory reactivation could affect subsequent expression of fear-like behavior (freezing in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained for contextual and cued fear conditioning and the effects of inhaled Xe (25%, 1 hr on fear memory reconsolidation were tested using conditioned freezing measured days or weeks after reactivation/Xe administration. Xe administration immediately after fear memory reactivation significantly reduced conditioned freezing when tested 48 h, 96 h or 18 d after reactivation/Xe administration. Xe did not affect freezing when treatment was delayed until 2 h after reactivation or when administered in the absence of fear memory reactivation. These data suggest that Xe substantially and persistently inhibits memory reconsolidation in a reactivation and time-dependent manner, that it could be used as a new research tool to characterize reconsolidation and other memory processes, and that it could be developed to treat people with PTSD and other disorders related to emotional memory.

  9. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  10. Sleep promotes consolidation of emotional memory in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Munz, Manuel; Molzow, Ina; Wilhelm, Ines; Wiesner, Christian D; Baving, Lioba

    2013-01-01

    Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline) and delayed (target) retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline-corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake). We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta) during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD.

  11. Sleep promotes consolidation of emotional memory in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Prehn-Kristensen

    Full Text Available Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline and delayed (target retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline-corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake. We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD.

  12. Impaired working memory updating affects memory for emotional and non-emotional materials the same way: evidence from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Vahid; Salehinejad, Mohammad Ali; Sabayee, Azam

    2018-02-01

    Due to the limited capacity of working memory (WM), efficient suppression of no longer relevant memory contents (inhibition) and revising the current contents of the memory (updating) are crucial factors in memorizing. However, not every individual is able to do so; among them are post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients who seem to have trouble forgetting trauma-related materials, making their memory overloaded with irrelevant information. The present study assumes that the inability to forget in PTSD patients is due to the impaired updating function of WM and, therefore, suggests that these individuals have inferior WM function for both emotional and unemotional materials. A sample of 30 male veterans with PTSD and 30 healthy individuals (mean age = 46.62, SD = 5.23) participated in the study completing PTSD Checklist, Digit Span Task, and a computerized n-back task. Results revealed that although PTSD subjects showed a generally inferior WM compared with normal individuals; however, their WM performance for emotional and non-emotional stimuli was not significantly different. Supporting the main hypothesis of the study, the findings suggest that a dysfunctional updating function of WM underlies both forgetting and memorizing which affects memory for both emotional and non-emotional material similarly.

  13. Validation of two inventories for the diagnosis and monitoring of functional memory disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Klaus; Metternich, Birgitta

    2009-09-01

    Functional memory disorder (FMD) is an acquired nonorganic condition characterized by significant deficits of memory and concentration that occur in daily living and are thought to be caused by psychosocial burden and distress. FMD is an important differential diagnosis to organic mild cognitive impairment. Although frequent, FMD is under-researched and mostly diagnosed by exclusion rather than by positive diagnostic criteria. Diagnosis can be difficult in patients with borderline cognitive test results. To aid in the clinical diagnosis and monitoring of FMD, a short 10-item FMD questionnaire and a 22-item FMD rating scale were developed. They asses a range of memory complaints thought to be indicative of FMD. Each of the two inventories was applied and evaluated in a separate study involving FMD patients and control groups. In one study, the natural course of FMD was observed. In the other study, the effect of a therapeutic intervention was assessed. Here, we present the full text of the two FMD inventories and data on test quality characteristics. Internal consistency and split-half-reliability indices were excellent throughout. At suitable cutoffs, both versions discriminated FMD patients from control subjects with high accuracy. Both also demonstrated discriminant construct validity. Moreover, the long version demonstrated high test-retest reliability and convergent construct validity and proved to be sensitive to change. The short version of the FMD inventory is a helpful tool in the clinical diagnosis of FMD. The longer version is suitable for monitoring of FMD severity in the context of therapeutic interventions and observational studies. To determine whether the inventories can discriminate FMD from organic mild cognitive impairment, further studies are required.

  14. A Virtual Week study of prospective memory function in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D; Terrett, Gill; Altgassen, Mareike; Raponi-Saunders, Sandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-11-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to the implementation of delayed intentions, a cognitive ability that plays a critical role in daily life because of its involvement in goal-directed behavior and consequently the development and maintenance of independence. Emerging evidence indicates that PM may be disrupted in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), potentially contributing to the functional difficulties that characterize this group. However, the degree, nature, and specificity of ASD-related impairment remains poorly understood. In the current study, children between 8 and 12 years of age who were diagnosed with ASDs (n=30) were compared with typically developing children (n=30) on a child-appropriate version of the Virtual Week board game. This measure provides an opportunity to investigate the different sorts of PM failures that occur. The ASD group showed significant PM impairment on measures of time-based (but not event-based) prospective remembering. However, only a subtle difference emerged between regular and irregular PM tasks, and group differences were consistent across these tasks. Because regular and irregular tasks differentially load retrospective memory, these data imply that the PM difficulties seen in ASDs may primarily reflect a monitoring deficit and not an encoding and memory storage deficit. PM performance was poorer under conditions of high ongoing task absorption, but the magnitude of this effect did not vary as a function of group. In both groups, time-based (but not event-based) PM difficulties were associated with functional outcomes in daily life, but only an inconsistent association with executive control emerged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional and morphological alterations associated with working memory dysfunction in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-03-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been related to functional brain activities and structural brain abnormalities. Purpose To investigate the neural mechanism on working memory dysfunction in patients with GAD in terms of the combined functional and morphological brain abnormalities. Material and Methods Patients with GAD and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted (T1W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI). In this study, fMRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used for assessing the differential brain activation patterns, as well as for comparing the morphological alterations between the two groups. Results In response to the neutral distractors, the patients showed significantly lower activities in the regions of the fusiform gyrus (FuG), superior parietal gyrus (SPG), precuneus (PCu), superior occipital gyrus (SOG), lingual gyrus (LiG), cuneus (Cun), calcarine cortex (CaC), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and cerebellar cortex (Cb) compared to the controls. In response to the anxiety-inducing distractors, the patients showed significantly higher activity in the hippocampus and lower activities in the regions of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), FuG, SPG, PCu, SOG, and Cb. Also, the patients showed a significant reduction of the white matter volumes in the DLPFC, anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) and midbrain. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence for the association between the morphometric alterations and functional deficit in the working memory processing with the neutral and anxiety-inducing distractors in GAD patients. These findings would be helpful to understand the neural mechanisms on working memory impairment in connection with GAD symptoms.

  16. Visuospatial Short-Term Memory Explains Deficits in Tower Task Planning in High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinke, K.; Fries, E.; Altgassen, A.M.; Kirschbaum, C.; Dettenborn, L.; Kliegel, M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings on planning abilities in individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFA) are inconsistent. Exploring possible reasons for these mixed findings, the current study investigated the involvement of memory in planning performance in 15 children with HFA and 17 typically

  17. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  18. Brief Report: Memory Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Heather L.; Filliter, Jillian H.; Johnson, Shannon A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Task Support Hypothesis (TSH; Bowler et al. in Neuropsychologia 35:65-70, 1997) individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perform more similarly to their typically developing peers on learning and memory tasks when provided with external support at retrieval. We administered the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's…

  19. Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with "optimal outcomes" (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the…

  20. Anxiety modulates the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity and working memory-related brain activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, D.; Hoekstra, P.J.; van Rooij, D.; Winkler, A.M.; van Ewijk, H.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Faraone, S.V.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hartman, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have heightened levels of anxiety, which has been associated with worse performance on working memory tasks. Knowledge of the neural pathways underlying the combined presence of ADHD and anxiety may aid in a better

  1. Modeling of the electrostatic coupling between nanocrystals of a disordered nanocrystal floating gate memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armeanu, Dumitru; Leroy, Yann; Cordan, Anne-Sophie

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a realistic model that explicitly takes into account the electrostatic coupling between the nanocrystals of a disordered layer constituting the floating gate of a non-volatile memory. A statistical study of the neighborhood of a given nanocrystal is carried out, leading to the mean number of neighboring nanocrystals as a function of the radius of the central nanocrystal. We show that the empty neighborhood of every nanocrystal can be represented by an equivalent torus ring in the previous model of a single nanocrystal. Then the effects of charged nanocrystals are taken into account by an appropriate rigid shift of the energy levels of the central nanocrystal. The proposed model is validated by statistical comparisons with exact 3D computations, and the influence of the electrostatic coupling is analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  2. Cognitive interference and a food-related memory bias in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Schmitz, Florian; Trentowska, Monika; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Berking, Matthias; Naumann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The present study was concerned with cognitive interference and a specific memory bias for eating-related stimuli in binge eating disorder (BED). Further objectives were to find out under which circumstances such effects would occur, and whether they are related with each other and with reported severity of BED symptoms. A group of women diagnosed with BED and a matched sample of overweight controls completed two paradigms, an n-back task with lures and a recent-probes task. The BED group generally experienced more interference in the n-back task. Additionally, they revealed selectively increased interference for food items in the recent-probes task. Findings can be reconciled with the view that control functions are generally impaired in BED, and that there is an additional bias for eating-related stimuli, both of which were related with reported severity of BED symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroplasticity and memory formation in major depressive disorder: an imaging genetics perspective on serotonin and BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Manuel; Popovic, Ana; Pezawas, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    A vast number of imaging studies have demonstrated the impact of serotonin (5-HT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on emotion and memory-related networks in the context of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Underlying molecular mechanisms that affect the functionality of these networks have been examined in detail in animals and corroborate imaging findings. The crucial role of 5-HT and BDNF signaling in the context of MDD is reflected in the etiologic models of MDD such as the monoamine or neuroplasticity hypothesis as well as in pharmacological models of antidepressant response. While antidepressant drug treatment has been primarily linked to the modulation of emotion-related networks, cognitive behavioral therapy has been implicated in a top-down control of limbic structures. Initially, a simple lack of monoamines or BDNF has been proposed as causal factor of MDD etiology. However, recent findings suggest a much more complex neurobiology emphasizing epistatic and epigenetic mechanisms responsible for structural and functional changes observed in emotion and memory-related brain regions of healthy subjects and MDD patients. In this review, which focuses on neuroimaging studies in the context of MDD, the authors will provide a comprehensive overview of these networks as well as on the specific role of 5-HT and BDNF in their development and function.

  4. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Munguía, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad). Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction) seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account) and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core triadic symptoms of ASD On the other hand, theory of mind deficit in empathizing-systemizing theory is the most influential account for ASD, but its counterpart in the mnesic imbalance theory, faulty procedural memory, seems to occur earlier in development; consequently, this might be a better solution to the problem of the etiology of ASD, if it truly meets the precedence criterion. Hence, in the present paper I review the reasoning in favor of the theory of mind deficit but with a new interpretation based on the mnesic imbalance theory, which posits that faulty procedural memory causes deficits in several cognitive skills, resulting in poor performance in theory of mind tasks. PMID:23862063

  5. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Romero-Munguía

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad. Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core triadic symptoms of ASD On the other hand, theory of mind deficit in empathizing-systemizing theory is the most influential account for ASD, but its counterpart in the mnesic imbalance theory, faulty procedural memory, seems to occur earlier in development; consequently, this might be a better solution to the problem of the etiology of ASD, if it truly meets the precedence criterion. Hence, in the present paper I review the reasoning in favor of the theory of mind deficit but with a new interpretation based on the mnesic imbalance theory, which posits that faulty procedural memory causes deficits in several cognitive skills, resulting in poor performance in theory of mind tasks.

  6. Comparing working memory in bilingual and monolingual Hispanic/Latino preschoolers with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexis M; Ros, Rosmary; Hart, Katie C; Graziano, Paulo A

    2018-02-01

    The current study examined differences in working memory (WM) between monolingual and bilingual Hispanic/Latino preschoolers with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). A total of 149 children (M age  = 5.10 years, SD = 0.53; 76% male) with elevated levels of DBDs, as indicated by their parents or teachers, were recruited to participate in an 8-week summer program prior to the start of kindergarten (Summer Treatment Program for Pre-Kindergarteners). Prior to the start of treatment, parents completed several measures about their children's behavior and executive function, and children were administered two subtests of the Automated Working Memory Assessment to examine their current WM capabilities. After controlling for demographic variables (i.e., age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, and diagnostic status), no significant differences were observed between bilingual and monolingual children in verbal WM performance (β = .03, p > .05). However, children who were bilingual did perform better than monolinguals on spatial WM tasks (β = .23, p bilingual children were reported as having fewer WM problems by parents (β = -.19, p bilingualism may serve as a protective factor for preschoolers with DBDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Story-Based Interventions to Improve Episodic Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Tiffany L; Prelock, Patricia A

    2018-04-01

    Episodic memory (EM) and scene construction are critical for organizing and understanding personally experienced events and for developing several aspects of social cognition including self-concept, identity, introspection, future thinking, counterfactual reasoning, theory of mind, self-regulation, flexible problem-solving, and socially adaptive behavior. This article challenges the reader to think differently about EM in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as we expand our understanding of autobiographical memory that requires an ability to travel back in time and re-experience an event. The role of EM in cognitive and behavioral functioning for children with and without ASD is described. The value of story-based interventions such as Social Stories and Comic Strip Conversations for supporting EM is discussed with adaptations recommended to ensure a rich personal recall of an event. By focusing on EM and scene construction, there is potential for increasing the potency of story-based interventions for achieving maximum therapeutic impact. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Examining temporal alterations in Social Anxiety Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The relation between autobiographical memory, future goals, and current self-views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Julie; Peeters, Manon; Näring, Gérard; Brown, Adam D; de Bree, June; van Minnen, Agnes

    2017-12-01

    The self is a multi-faceted and temporally dynamic construct reflecting representations and beliefs about identity in the past, present, and future. Clinical studies have shown that individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) exhibit alterations in self-related processing but these studies have focused primarily on memory. Few studies in PTSD and SAD have examined self-related processing for the present and future, and no studies have directly compared these processes across these two disorders. Individuals diagnosed with PTSD (n=21), SAD (n=21), and healthy controls (n=21) completed cognitive tasks related to the past, present, and future. Disorder congruent temporal alterations were found across both disorders. Further, regression analyses revealed that trauma-related memories were significantly predicted by future goals related to the trauma, whereas social anxiety-related recall was predicted by current socially anxious self-views. Thus, although self-related processing may be common in PTSD and SAD, those aspects of the self most strongly associated with disorder-congruent recall differ by disorder. Self-alterations may be modifiable and developing a better understanding of past, present, and future self-processing might aid in the development of interventions that target these process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attentional control activation relates to working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Gregory C; Depue, Brendan E; Ruzic, Luka; Willcutt, Erik G; Du, Yiping P; Banich, Marie T

    2010-04-01

    Attentional control difficulties in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might reflect poor working memory (WM) ability, especially because WM ability and attentional control rely on similar brain regions. The current study examined whether WM ability might explain group differences in brain activation between adults with ADHD and normal control subjects during attentional demand. Participants were 20 adults with ADHD combined subtype with no comorbid psychiatric or learning disorders and 23 control subjects similar in age, IQ, and gender. The WM measures were obtained from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Brain activation was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a Color-Word Stroop task. Group differences in WM ability explained a portion of the activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which has been related to the creation and maintenance of an attentional set for task-relevant information. In addition, greater WM ability predicted increased activation of brain regions related to stimulus-driven attention and response selection processes in the ADHD group but not in the control group. The inability to maintain an appropriate task set in young adults with combined type ADHD, associated with decreased activity in left DLPFC, might in part be due to poor WM ability. Furthermore, in individuals with ADHD, higher WM ability might relate to increased recruitment of stimulus-driven attention and response selection processes, perhaps as a compensatory strategy. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetics and memory: causes, consequences and treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzimenti, C L; Lattal, K M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between fear and reward at the circuit and molecular levels has implications for basic scientific approaches to memory and for understanding the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Both stress and exposure to drugs of abuse induce epigenetic changes that result in persistent behavioral changes, some of which may contribute to the formation of a drug addiction or a stress-related psychiatric disorder. Converging evidence suggests that similar behavioral, neurobiological and molecular mechanisms control the extinction of learned fear and drug-seeking responses. This may, in part, account for the fact that individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder have a significantly elevated risk of developing a substance use disorder and have high rates of relapse to drugs of abuse, even after long periods of abstinence. At the behavioral level, a major challenge in treatments is that extinguished behavior is often not persistent, returning with changes in context, the passage of time or exposure to mild stressors. A common goal of treatments is therefore to weaken the ability of stressors to induce relapse. With the discovery of epigenetic mechanisms that create persistent molecular signals, recent work on extinction has focused on how modulating these epigenetic targets can create lasting extinction of fear or drug-seeking behavior. Here, we review recent evidence pointing to common behavioral, systems and epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of fear and drug seeking. We suggest that targeting these mechanisms in combination with behavioral therapy may promote treatment and weaken stress-induced relapse. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Anxiety modulates the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity and working memory-related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hoekstra, Pieter J; van Rooij, Daan; Winkler, Anderson M; van Ewijk, Hanneke; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have heightened levels of anxiety, which has been associated with worse performance on working memory tasks. Knowledge of the neural pathways underlying the combined presence of ADHD and anxiety may aid in a better understanding of their co-occurrence. Therefore, we investigated how anxiety modulates the effect of ADHD severity on neural activity during a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task. Neuroimaging data were available for 371 adolescents and young adults participating in the multicentre cohort study NeuroIMAGE (average age 17.1 years). We analysed the effects of ADHD severity, anxiety severity and their interaction on-task accuracy, and on neural activity associated with working memory (VSWM trials minus baseline), and memory load (high memory load trials minus low load trials). Anxiety significantly modulated the relation between ADHD severity and neural activity in the cerebellum for the working memory contrast, and bilaterally in the striatum and thalamus for the memory load contrast. We found that ADHD with co-occurring anxiety is associated with lowered neural activity during a VSWM task in regions important for information gating. This fits well with previous theorising on ADHD with co-occurring anxiety, and illustrates the neurobiological heterogeneity of ADHD.

  12. Long-Term Treatment with Paroxetine Increases Verbal Declarative Memory and Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Vythilingam, Meena; Southwick, Steven M.; Charney, Dennis S.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Animal studies have shown that stress is associated with damage to the hippocampus, inhibition of neurogenesis, and deficits in hippocampal-based memory dysfunction. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found deficits in hippocampal-based declarative verbal memory and smaller hippocampal volume, as measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent preclinical evidence has shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors promote neurogenesis and reverse the effects of stress on hippocampal atrophy. This study assessed the effects of long-term treatment with paroxetine on hippocampal volume and declarative memory performance in PTSD. Methods Declarative memory was assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised and Selective Reminding Test before and after 9–12 months of treatment with paroxetine in PTSD. Hippocampal volume was measured with MRI. Of the 28 patients who started the protocol, 23 completed the full course of treatment and neuropsychological testing. Twenty patients were able to complete MRI imaging. Results Patients with PTSD showed a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms with treatment. Treatment resulted in significant improvements in verbal declarative memory and a 4.6% increase in mean hippocampal volume. Conclusions These findings suggest that long-term treatment with paroxetine is associated with improvement of verbal declarative memory deficits and an increase in hippocampal volume in PTSD. PMID:14512209

  13. Functional neuroanatomy associated with the interaction between emotion and cognition in explicit memory tasks in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Yang, Jong-Chul; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy for explicit memory in conjunction with the major anxiety symptoms in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has not yet been clearly identified. To investigate the brain activation patterns on the interaction between emotional and cognitive function during the explicit memory tasks, as well as its correlation with clinical characteristics in GAD. The participants comprised GAD patients and age-matched healthy controls. The fMR images were obtained while the participants performed an explicit memory task with neutral and anxiety-inducing words. Patients showed significantly decreased functional activities in the putamen, head of the caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and middle cingulate gyrus during the memory tasks with the neutral and anxiety-inducing words, whereas the precentral gyrus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly increased only in the memory tasks with the anxiety-inducing words. Also, the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes in the hippocampus were positively correlated with the recognition accuracy for both neutral and anxiety-inducing words. This study identified the brain areas associated with the interaction between emotional regulation and cognitive function in the explicit memory tasks in patients with GAD. These findings would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism on the explicit memory-related cognitive deficits and emotional dysfunction with GAD symptoms. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2016.

  14. Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Properties of Voluntary and Involuntary, Traumatic and Nontraumatic Autobiographical Memories in People with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    One hundred fifteen undergraduates rated 15 word-cued memories and their 3 most negatively stressful, 3 most positive, and 7 most important events and completed tests of personality and depression. Eighty-nine also recorded involuntary memories online for 1 week. In the first 3-way comparisons needed to test existing theories, comparisons were…

  15. Physical Exercise And Cognitive Engagement Outcomes for Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-21

    Mild Cognitive Impairment; Memory Disorders; Mild Dementia; Impaired Cognition; Mild Cognitive Disorder; Amnestic Disorder; Dementia and Amnestic Conditions; Poor Short-term Memory; Memory Impairment; Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

  16. Effect of Kudzu Root on Memory and Learning Disorders in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent research has shown that diabetes leads to movement disorders and cognitive impairment in learning. Kudzu root is an isoflavone and saponin which has often been used as an antihyperglycemic agent. Kudzu has the ability to decrease a glucose level which is insulin independent and similar to the metformin. Also it can reduce oxidative stress by scavenging of free radicals. The present study has been conducted to evaluate of the effect of Kudzu root on learning¸ spatial cognition and mobility in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study¸24 male Wistar rats were divided into following groups: control¸ diabetic and Kudzu- treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (dose 50mg/kg. One week after STZ injection¸ Kudzu was gavaged at the dose of 50 mg/kg for six weeks. Behavioral tests including spatial recognition¸ object recognition and the grip traction motor tests were performed. Results In spatial recognition test¸ the number of locomotion and learning arms of the Y maze in the Kudzu root-treated group increased significantly in comparison with diabetic group. In objects recognition test¸ the number of recognition novel object in Kudzu root-treated diabetic group was significantly more than diabetic group. Conclusion Kudzu root treatment for diabetic rats within 6 weeks can improve movement disorders and cognitive dysfunction in memory and learning.

  17. Functional neuroimaging of visuospatial working memory tasks enables accurate detection of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubi Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding neurobiological markers for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, is a major objective of clinicians and neuroscientists. We examined if functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data from a few distinct visuospatial working memory (VSWM tasks enables accurately detecting cases with ADHD. We tested 20 boys with ADHD combined type and 20 typically developed (TD boys in four VSWM tasks that differed in feedback availability (feedback, no-feedback and reward size (large, small. We used a multimodal analysis based on brain activity in 16 regions of interest, significantly activated or deactivated in the four VSWM tasks (based on the entire participants' sample. Dimensionality of the data was reduced into 10 principal components that were used as the input variables to a logistic regression classifier. fMRI data from the four VSWM tasks enabled a classification accuracy of 92.5%, with high predicted ADHD probability values for most clinical cases, and low predicted ADHD probabilities for most TDs. This accuracy level was higher than those achieved by using the fMRI data of any single task, or the respective behavioral data. This indicates that task-based fMRI data acquired while participants perform a few distinct VSWM tasks enables improved detection of clinical cases.

  18. Efficacy of Medication and Nonmedication Methods on Working Memory of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadpanah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Working memory is the ability to keep and manipulate information in a short time. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are among the people suffering from deficiency in the active memory, and this deficiency has been attributed to the problem of frontal lobe. This study utilized a new approach with suitable tasks and methods for training active memory and assessment of its effects. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of medicinal and behavioral therapies on working memory of children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Patients and Methods The children participating in this study were 7 - 15 years old, and were diagnosed with ADHD by the psychiatrist and psychologist based on DSM-IV criteria. The intervention group comprised 8 boys and 6 girls with the average age of 11 (± 2 years, and the control group comprised 2 girls and 5 boys with an average age of 11.4 (± 3. Three children in the test group and 2 in the control group were under medicinal therapy. Results Training of working memory significantly improved the performance in nontrained areas as visual-spatial working memory as well as the performance in Raven progressive tests which are a perfect example of nonverbal, complicated reasoning tasks. Conclusions The performance of working memory improved through training, and these trainings extended to other areas of cognition functions not receiving any training. Trainings resulted in the improvement of performance in the tasks related to prefrontal area. They had also a positive and significant impact on the movement activities of hyperactive children.

  19. Long-term disorders of memory in the persons survived acute radiation sickness due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipchuk, K.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The study involved two groups of the patients: main group - 52 men survived ARS aged 35-55, controls - 23 healthy men aged 36-55. Auditory and visual memory was studied. The obtained results suggest that the changes in the structure of the anterior portions of the brain which are responsible for obtaining, processing and reproduction of verbal information, namely the cortex of the left temporal and frontal regions with their cortical-subcortical associations, play the leading role in the memory disorders in persons survived ARS

  20. Forgetting what you have checked: a link between working memory impairment and checking behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari, N; Frasca, M; Rigalleau, F; Rachid, F; Gil, R; Olié, J-P; Guehl, D; Burbaud, P; Aouizerate, B; Rotgé, J-Y; Vibert, N

    2013-02-01

    Compulsive checking behaviors are common in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several authors have suggested that these checking rituals could be related to memory deficits. Our aim was to test whether patients with OCD show working memory impairment in relation to their checking behavior. We evaluated the verbal and visuospatial components of patients' and controls' working memory using the reading span and backward location span tests. Checking behaviors were measured by recording participants' eye movements during an image comparison task using a non-invasive, infra-red TOBII 1750 eyetracker. Participants were seated, head-free, in a natural position in front of the eyetracker screen where the images were displayed. Patients with OCD made more gaze moves to compare images than controls. Both patients' working memory spans were reduced, and the patients' deficit in the comparison task was negatively related to their working memory spans. This work demonstrates that checking behavior in OCD is linked to a general reduction of the patients' verbal and visuospatial working memory span. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Can memory and executive functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder predict outcome of cognitive behavioural therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Hartmann, Tue Borst; Bennedsen, Birgit Egedal; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2016-01-01

    Most studies find that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have impaired memory and executive functions. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the recommended psychotherapeutic treatment of patients with OCD. We hypothesized that impairments in memory and executive functions would predict poor outcome of CBT. To investigate whether memory and executive functions in patients with OCD could predict outcome of CBT. We assessed 39 patients with OCD before CBT with neuropsychological tests of memory and executive functions, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Furthermore, we assessed severity of OCD symptoms before and after CBT using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. There were no statistically significant differences between recovered (41%) and non-recovered patients (59%) on any neuropsychological test variables or on any baseline demographic variables. Furthermore, change in OCD symptoms was not predicted by neuropsychological test performances or baseline severity of OCD symptoms. The only statistically significant finding was that non-recovered patients had lower social functioning before CBT than recovered patients (p = 0.018, d = 0.797). Memory and executive functions in patients with OCD could not predict outcome of CBT, but level of social functioning may be a predictor of CBT outcome. Some of the main clinical implications are that we cannot use memory and executive functions, or baseline severity of OCD symptoms to determine which patients should be offered CBT.

  2. Are there reliable changes in memory and executive functions after cognitive behavioural therapy in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Hartmann, Tue Borst; Bennedsen, Birgit Egedal; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have impaired memory and executive functions, but it is unclear whether these functions improve after cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) of OCD symptoms. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether memory and executive functions change after CBT in patients with OCD. We assessed 39 patients with OCD before and after CBT with neuropsychological tests of memory and executive functions. To correct for practice effects, 39 healthy controls (HCs) were assessed at two parallel time intervals with the neuropsychological tests. There were no changes in memory and executive functions after CBT in patients with OCD when results were corrected for practice effects. Patients performed worse on a test of visuospatial memory and organisational skills (Rey complex figure test [RCFT]) compared to HCs both before and after CBT (ps = .002-.036). The finding of persistent poor RCFT performances indicates that patients with OCD have impaired visuospatial memory and organisational skills that may be trait-related rather than state-dependent. These impairments may need to be considered in treatment. Our findings underline the importance of correcting for practice effects when investigating changes in cognitive functions.

  3. Working memory training with tDCS improves behavioral and neurophysiological symptoms in pilot group with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and with poor working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Nerida; Downham, Russell; Turman, Bulent; Kropotov, Juri; Clark, Richard; Yumash, Rustam; Szatmary, Arielle

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the feasibility of treating people suffering from both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and poor working memory by employing a combination of computerized working memory training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). After treatment, all four participants showed clinically significant improvements on a range of cognitive and emotional performance measures. Moreover, these improvements were accompanied by theoretically significant neurophysiological changes between pre- and post-treatment electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Specifically, the P3a component of participants' event related potentials (ERP) in response to novelty stimuli, characteristically abnormal in this clinical population, shifted significantly toward database norms. So, participants' initially slow alpha peak frequency (APF), theorized to underlie impaired cognitive processing abilities, also increased in both frequency and amplitude as a result of treatment. On the basis of these promising results, more extensive controlled studies are warranted.

  4. Neuron-specific chromatin remodeling: a missing link in epigenetic mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity, memory, and intellectual disability disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Wood, Marcelo A

    2014-05-01

    Long-term memory formation requires the coordinated regulation of gene expression. Until recently nucleosome remodeling, one of the major epigenetic mechanisms for controlling gene expression, had been largely unexplored in the field of neuroscience. Nucleosome remodeling is carried out by chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs) that interact with DNA and histones to physically alter chromatin structure and ultimately regulate gene expression. Human exome sequencing and gene wide association studies have linked mutations in CRC subunits to intellectual disability disorders, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. However, how mutations in CRC subunits were related to human cognitive disorders was unknown. There appears to be both developmental and adult specific roles for the neuron specific CRC nBAF (neuronal Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor). nBAF regulates gene expression required for dendritic arborization during development, and in the adult, contributes to long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We propose that the nBAF complex is a novel epigenetic mechanism for regulating transcription required for long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and memory processes and that impaired nBAF function may result in human cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Working Memory Training in the Form of Structured Games in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khalili Kermani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, a new training method of working memory (WM was used in the form of structured games, and the effect of training was evaluated with a controlled design. The training method of WM in the form of structured games includes 20 sets of structured games that can improve WM and performance of executive functions.Method: Sixty children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD aged 8.5 to 11.2 years (35 boys, using no stimulant medication were selected. We randomly assigned 30 participants to the experimental group and provided them with WM training. The training was in the form of structured games and was offered to the participants in two 60-minute sessions weekly for 12 weeks. Other participants were assigned to the control group, receiving no treatment. All the participants were also evaluated at follow-up 6 months later. The main measures were the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, the Digit Span and Symbol Search B subscale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV; and scores of dictation and mathematics were used in terms of pre and post-test.Results: The results of the t-test revealed a significant improvement in the post-test measures as well as a significant reduction of parents’ reports of inattentiveness, and improvement in academic performance in the experimental group. However, no significant changes were found in the control group.Conclusion: The academic and working memory improvements were primarily due to the training method of WM. Our findings suggest that the training method of WM in the form of structured games may be a practical method for treating children with ADHD, but it needs to be further investigated.

  6. The trauma of peer victimization: psychophysiological and emotional characteristics of memory imagery in subjects with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansen, Lisa M; Iffland, Benjamin; Neuner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the role of an associative information network as a mechanism underlying the relation of peer victimization and social anxiety disorder (SAD). A sample of N = 80 was divided according to diagnosis (SAD vs. no diagnosis) and amount of peer victimization (low vs. high). Responses to memory of a personally experienced aversive social situation and to imagining a standardized negative social situation were assessed. In terms of skin conductance level, subjects with SAD and peer victimization were more reactive to the memory script than the other three groups while responses to the standardized script did not vary. As to heart rate, there were no differences between the groups. Emotional responses presented with an inconsistent pattern. The results provide a first indication that associative memory structures resulting from aversive social experiences might play a role in the development and maintenance of SAD, but further research is needed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Memory-rescuing effects of cannabidiol in an animal model of cognitive impairment relevant to neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagherazzi, Elen V; Garcia, Vanessa A; Maurmann, Natasha; Bervanger, Thielly; Halmenschlager, Luis H; Busato, Stefano B; Hallak, Jaime E; Zuardi, Antônio W; Crippa, José A; Schröder, Nadja

    2012-02-01

    Cannabidiol, the main nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa, possesses a large number of pharmacological effects including anticonvulsive, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective, as demonstrated in clinical and preclinical studies. Many neurodegenerative disorders involve cognitive deficits, and this has led to interest in whether cannabidiol could be useful in the treatment of memory impairment associated to these diseases. We used an animal model of cognitive impairment induced by iron overload in order to test the effects of cannabidiol in memory-impaired rats. Rats received vehicle or iron at postnatal days 12-14. At the age of 2 months, they received an acute intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or cannabidiol (5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) immediately after the training session of the novel object recognition task. In order to investigate the effects of chronic cannabidiol, iron-treated rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of cannabidiol for 14 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, they were submitted to object recognition training. Retention tests were performed 24 h after training. A single acute injection of cannabidiol at the highest dose was able to recover memory in iron-treated rats. Chronic cannabidiol improved recognition memory in iron-treated rats. Acute or chronic cannabidiol does not affect memory in control rats. The present findings provide evidence suggesting the potential use of cannabidiol for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Further studies, including clinical trials, are warranted to determine the usefulness of cannabidiol in humans suffering from neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. The Role of Working Memory for Cognitive Control in Anorexia Nervosa versus Substance Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha J.; Funk, Sabina G.; Young, Susanne Y.; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2017-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex executive functions, such as working memory (WM) interact with limbic processes to foster impulse control. Such an interaction is referred to in a growing body of publications by terms such as cognitive control, cognitive inhibition, affect regulation, self-regulation, top-down control, and cognitive–emotion interaction. The rising trend of research into cognitive control of impulsivity, using various related terms reflects the importance of research into impulse control, as failure to employ cognitions optimally may eventually result in mental disorder. Against this background, we take a novel approach using an impulse control spectrum model – where anorexia nervosa (AN) and substance use disorder (SUD) are at opposite extremes – to examine the role of WM for cognitive control. With this aim, we first summarize WM processes in the healthy brain in order to frame a systematic review of the neuropsychological, neural and genetic findings of AN and SUD. In our systematic review of WM/cognitive control, we found n = 15 studies of AN with a total of n = 582 AN and n = 365 HC participants; and n = 93 studies of SUD with n = 9106 SUD and n = 3028 HC participants. In particular, we consider how WM load/capacity may support the neural process of excessive epistemic foraging (cognitive sampling of the environment to test predictions about the world) in AN that reduces distraction from salient stimuli. We also consider the link between WM and cognitive control in people with SUD who are prone to ‘jumping to conclusions’ and reduced epistemic foraging. Finally, in light of our review, we consider WM training as a novel research tool and an adjunct to enhance treatment that improves cognitive control of impulsivity. PMID:29018381

  9. The Role of Working Memory for Cognitive Control in Anorexia Nervosa versus Substance Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Brooks

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex executive functions, such as working memory (WM interact with limbic processes to foster impulse control. Such an interaction is referred to in a growing body of publications by terms such as cognitive control, cognitive inhibition, affect regulation, self-regulation, top-down control, and cognitive–emotion interaction. The rising trend of research into cognitive control of impulsivity, using various related terms reflects the importance of research into impulse control, as failure to employ cognitions optimally may eventually result in mental disorder. Against this background, we take a novel approach using an impulse control spectrum model – where anorexia nervosa (AN and substance use disorder (SUD are at opposite extremes – to examine the role of WM for cognitive control. With this aim, we first summarize WM processes in the healthy brain in order to frame a systematic review of the neuropsychological, neural and genetic findings of AN and SUD. In our systematic review of WM/cognitive control, we found n = 15 studies of AN with a total of n = 582 AN and n = 365 HC participants; and n = 93 studies of SUD with n = 9106 SUD and n = 3028 HC participants. In particular, we consider how WM load/capacity may support the neural process of excessive epistemic foraging (cognitive sampling of the environment to test predictions about the world in AN that reduces distraction from salient stimuli. We also consider the link between WM and cognitive control in people with SUD who are prone to ‘jumping to conclusions’ and reduced epistemic foraging. Finally, in light of our review, we consider WM training as a novel research tool and an adjunct to enhance treatment that improves cognitive control of impulsivity.

  10. Neural correlates of working memory deficits in schizophrenic patients. Ways to establish neurocognitive endophenotypes of psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, O.; Gruber, E.; Falkai, P.

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly reviews some methodological limitations of functional neuroimaging studies in psychiatric patients. We argue that the investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders requires a combination of functional neuroimaging studies in healthy subjects with corresponding behavioral experiments in patients. In order to exemplify this methodological approach we review recent findings regarding the functional neuroanatomy of distinct components of human working memory and provide evidence for selective dysfunctions of cortical networks that underlie specific working memory deficits in schizophrenia. This identification of subgroups of schizophrenic patients according to neurocognitive parameters may facilitate the establishment of behavioral and neurophysiological endophenotypes and the development of a neurobiological classification of psychiatric disorders. (orig.) [de

  11. Validation of a new scoring system for the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test in a memory disorders clinic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, L M; Bucks, R S; Cuerden, J M

    1998-04-01

    The Bristol Memory Disorders Clinic uses the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test (CFST) to appraise abstraction and the ability to shift set. The original scoring system for the CFST (Grewal & Haward, 1984), developed on the premise that sorting to form is more difficult than sorting to color, had no score for an individual able to sort to form and subsequently unable to shift to color with a cue. Clinical experience suggested that the performance of some individuals required such a score. A new scoring system was developed and validated in a memory-disorders-clinic sample. The validation showed the new score to be necessary and gave support to the original premise that people with organic brain damage show a preference for sorting to color.

  12. Memory-focused cognitive therapy for cocaine use disorder:Rationale, design and protocol for an external pilot randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, John; Goetz, Camille; Meynen, Tim; Mitcheson, Luke; Stillwell, Garry; Eastwood, Brian; Strang, John S; Grey, Nick

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionCocaine use disorder (CUD) is a debilitating condition characterised by maladaptive cocaine-related memories and impaired cognitive and behavioural control. There are no evidence-supported pharmacotherapies and only weakly effective psychological interventions specific for CUD. Our novel Memory-focused Cognitive Therapy (MFCT) aims to modify cocaine-related memories to reduce craving and drug use.MethodsThis is a single-centre (outpatient), 15-week, two-arm, pilot randomised contr...

  13. Sleep-wake profiles predict longitudinal changes in manic symptoms and memory in young people with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Hermens, Daniel F; Lee, Rico S C; Jones, Andrew; Carpenter, Joanne S; White, Django; Naismith, Sharon L; Southan, James; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2016-10-01

    Mood disorders are characterized by disabling symptoms and cognitive difficulties which may vary in intensity throughout the course of the illness. Sleep-wake cycles and circadian rhythms influence emotional regulation and cognitive functions. However, the relationships between the sleep-wake disturbances experienced commonly by people with mood disorders and the longitudinal changes in their clinical and cognitive profile are not well characterized. This study investigated associations between initial sleep-wake patterns and longitudinal changes in mood symptoms and cognitive functions in 50 young people (aged 13-33 years) with depression or bipolar disorder. Data were based on actigraphy monitoring conducted over approximately 2 weeks and clinical and neuropsychological assessment. As part of a longitudinal cohort study, these assessments were repeated after a mean follow-up interval of 18.9 months. No significant differences in longitudinal clinical changes were found between the participants with depression and those with bipolar disorder. Lower sleep efficiency was predictive of longitudinal worsening in manic symptoms (P = 0.007). Shorter total sleep time (P = 0.043) and poorer circadian rhythmicity (P = 0.045) were predictive of worsening in verbal memory. These findings suggest that some sleep-wake and circadian disturbances in young people with mood disorders may be associated with less favourable longitudinal outcomes, notably for subsequent manic symptoms and memory difficulties. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. [Sleep disturbances and spatial memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder: the case of L'Aquila (Central Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Mazza, Monica; Curcio, Giuseppe; Iaria, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luigi; Tempesta, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Altered sleep is a common and central symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In fact, sleep disturbances are included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for PTSD. However, it has been hypothesized that sleep disturbances are crucially involved in the aetiology of PTSD, rather than being solely a symptom arising secondarily from this disorder. Therefore, knowing the long-term effects of a trauma can be essential to establish the need of specific interventions for the prevention and treatment of mental disorders that may persist years after a traumatic experience. In one study we showed, for the first time, that even after a period of two years people exposed to a catastrophic disaster such as the L'Aquila earthquake continue to suffer from a reduced sleep quality. Moreover, we observed that sleep quality scores decreased as a function of the proximity to the epicentre, suggesting that the psychological effects of an earthquake may be pervasive and long-lasting. It has been widely shown that disruption of sleep by acute stress may lead to deterioration in memory processing. In fact, in a recent study we observed alterations in spatial memory in PTSD subjects. Our findings indicated that PTSD is accompanied by an impressive deficit in forming a cognitive map of the environment, as well as in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. The fact that this deterioration was correlated to the subjective sleep disturbances in our PTSD group demonstrates the existence of an intimate relationship between sleep, memory consolidation, and stress.

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the impact of methylphenidate on working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bolfer, Cristiana; Pacheco, Sandra Pasquali; Tsunemi, Miriam Harumi; Carreira, Walter Souza; Casella, Beatriz Borba; Casella, Erasmo Barbante

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), before and after the use of methylphenidate, and a control group, using tests of working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility. Methods Neuropsychological tests were administrated to 53 boys, 9–12 years old: the WISC-III digit span backward, and arithmetic; Stroop Color; and Trail Making Tests. The case group included 23 boys with ADHD, who were combined type, treatment-naive, and wit...

  16. Prospective memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Karley-Dale S; Müller, Ulrich; Kerns, Kimberly A

    2017-10-24

    The objective of the paper is to synthesize the research on prospective memory (PM) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research on PM and ADHD in youth was synthesized according to the PRISMA guidelines and a summary of the types of PM deficits typically seen in these children, as well as the methods currently available to assess and treat these deficits is provided. Suggestions on ways to better manage PM deficits in children's everyday lives are also discussed. Six studies have investigated PM in children with ADHD. The majority of these studies found a deficit in time-based PM, but not event-based PM. The mechanisms underlying this deficit, however, are still unknown. There are currently no specific measures available to clinically assess PM in children and there are no specific evidence-based interventions available that specifically target PM deficits in children with ADHD. Remediation strategies aimed at compensating for these PM deficits in daily life may be most useful. Nevertheless, more research is necessary to better understand PM in children with ADHD.

  17. Neural correlates of working memory deficits and associations to response inhibition in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Stephan; Kaufmann, Christian; Grützmann, Rosa; Hummel, Robert; Klawohn, Julia; Riesel, Anja; Bey, Katharina; Lennertz, Leonhard; Wagner, Michael; Kathmann, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Previous research in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has indicated performance decrements in working memory (WM) and response inhibition. However, underlying neural mechanisms of WM deficits are not well understood to date, and empirical evidence for a proposed conceptual link to inhibition deficits is missing. We investigated WM performance in a numeric n-back task with four WM load conditions during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in 51 patients with OCD and 49 healthy control participants who were matched for age, sex, and education. Additionally, a stop signal task was performed outside the MRI scanner in a subsample. On the behavioral level, a significant WM load by group interaction was found for both accuracy (p neural correlates of a load-dependent WM decrement in OCD in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Within the OCD sample, SMA-activity as well as n-back performance were correlated with stop signal task performance. Results from behavioral and fMRI-analyses indicate a reduced WM load-dependent modulation of neural activity in OCD and suggest a common neural mechanism for inhibitory dysfunction and WM decrements in OCD.

  18. Language and memory disorder in the case of Jonathan Swift: considerations on retrospective diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2006-11-01

    The cause of behavioural changes described by Alzheimer for his original case, Auguste D., has been recently reconfirmed by histological examination. However, there has been active speculation regarding the cause of behavioural changes exhibited by the political satirist Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) during the final three years of his life for over 250 years. Swift's symptoms of cognitive changes, memory impairment, personality alterations, language disorder and facial paralysis have all been apportioned differing levels of significance in various attempts at retrospective diagnosis. The various medical arguments put forward from the 18th through 20th centuries will be critically examined. The diagnoses considered refer to evolving theories of insanity, phrenology, localization of cortical function, hydrocephalus, psychoanalysis, aphasia, dementia and depression in ageing. Re-consideration of the attempts to re-diagnose Swift's final mental state by the leading neurological thinkers of the day, including Wilde (The Closing Years of Dean Swift's Life. Dublin: Hodges and Smith, 1849), Bucknill (1882), Osler [Osler's textbook Principles and Practice of Medicine (1892); published in St Thomas's Hospital Gazette (London) 1902; 12: 59-60), Brain (Irish Med J 1952: 320-1 and 337-346) and Boller and Forbes (J Neurol Sci 1998; 158: 125-133) reveal the changing attitudes regarding the significance of behavioural symptoms to neurological diagnosis from the 18th century to the present day.

  19. Delay discounting of losses and rewards in alcohol use disorder: The effect of working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Allen J; Gerst, Kyle; Finn, Peter R

    2018-03-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been consistently associated with elevated discounting rates for delayed rewards. However, there are few studies of delay discounting of losses in those with AUD even though their drinking behavior suggests that they discount future negative consequences of excessive drinking. The current study extends this literature by examining delay discounting of rewards and losses in a sample of those with AUD (n = 78) and healthy controls (n = 51) in 2 conditions: working memory (WM) load and no WM load. The AUD group discounted both rewards and losses at higher rates than the control group. The WM load increased discounting rates in the reward task but not in the loss task. There was also a significant Group × WM load interaction; the WM load increased discounting in control participants but not in AUD participants. These findings suggest that AUD is associated with a general propensity to discount future incentivized events regardless of nature of the incentive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Disentangling Working Memory Functioning in Mood States of Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia H. Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM deficits are often reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD. However, it is not clear about the nature of these WM deficits (update or serial order processes and their association with each BD states (euthymic, mania, and depressive. This review investigated the association between BD patient's states and the functioning of WM components. For this purpose, we carried out a systematic review fulfilling a search in the databases Medline, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science using specific terms in the abstracts of the articles that generated 212 outcomes in the restricted period from 2005 to 2016. Twenty-three papers were selected, completely read, and analyzed using PICOS strategy. The mood episodes predicted deficits in different components of WM in BD patients (the phonological loop or visuospatial sketchpad and were associated with different WM processes (updating and serial recall. Lower cognitive scores persist even in remission of symptoms. This result suggests that WM deficit apparently is stage-independent in BD patients. Furthermore, findings suggest that the neutral point on Hedonic Detector component of WM could be maladjusted by BD.

  1. Memory performance predicts recurrence of mania in bipolar disorder following psychotherapy: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Isabelle E.; Hautzinger, Martin; Meyer, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cognitive complaints are common features of bipolar disorder (BD). Not much is, however, known about the potential moderator effects of these factors on the outcome of talking therapies. The goal of our study was to explore whether learning and memory abilities predict risk of recurrence of mood episodes or interact with a psychological intervention. Method We analyzed data collected as part of a clinical trial evaluating relapse rates following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Therapy (ST) (Meyer & Hautzinger, 2012). We included cognitive (Auditive Verbal Learning Test, general intelligence - Leistungsprüfsystem) and clinical measures from 76 euthymic patients with BD randomly assigned to either 9 months of CBT or ST and followed up for 2 years. Results Survival analyses including treatment condition, AVLT measures, and general intelligence revealed that recurrence of mania was predicted by verbal free recall. The significant interaction between therapy condition and free recall indicated that while in CBT recurrence of mania was unrelated to free recall performance, in ST patients with a better free recall were more likely to remain euthymic, and those with a poorer free recall were less likely to remain mania-free1. Conclusions These findings constitute first evidence that, when considering treatment outcome in BD, differences in verbal free recall might interact with the kind of psychotherapy provided. More research is needed to determine what other areas of cognitive functioning are related to outcome in psychological interventions. PMID:27764692

  2. Verbal memory impairment in new onset bipolar disorder: Relationship with frontal and medial temporal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Trisha; Kozicky, Jan-Marie; Torres, Ivan J; Lam, Raymond W; Yatham, Lakshmi N

    2015-06-01

    Verbal memory (VM) impairment is a trait feature of bipolar I disorder (BDI) that is present at illness onset and associated with functional outcome. However, little is known about the morphological abnormalities underlying this deficit early in the disease course. This study examined the neurobiological correlates of VM impairment in euthymic newly diagnosed patients, with attention to frontal and medial temporal (MT) structures known to contribute to VM. Euthymic patients with BDI recently recovered from their first episode of mania (n = 42) were compared with healthy subjects (n = 37) using measures of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II) associated with frontal and MT functioning. A subset of participants had 3T MRI scan (n = 31 patient group, n = 30 healthy subject group). Hippocampal and prefrontal volumes were analyzed using FreeSurfer 5.1 and correlated with their corresponding CVLT-II subscores. Patients showed decreased performance in total learning as well as short and long delay verbal recall. Consistent with MT dysfunction, they also showed deficits in recognition discriminability and learning slope. In the patient group only, left hippocampal volumes were negatively correlated with these measures. These results suggest that anomalous MT functioning is involved with VM impairment early in the course of BDI.

  3. Decreased nocturnal growth hormone secretion and sleep fragmentation in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder; potential predictors of impaired memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, Saskia; Vermetten, Eric; Lentjes, Eef; Arends, Johan; Westenberg, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Background: Healthy sleep facilitates the consolidation of newly acquired memories. Although patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often complain of sleep disturbances and memory deficits, the interrelatedness of these symptoms is not well understood. Sleep may be disturbed in PTSD by

  4. Changes in FKBP5 expression and memory functions during cognitive-behavioral therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Csilla; Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2014-05-21

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal, flashbacks, avoidance, and memory dysfunctions. Although psychotherapy improves the clinical symptoms, its effect on memory has not been explored. In addition, there is no information about gene expression changes related to hippocampal functions. We assessed PTSD patients (n=20) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a paired associates learning (PAL) test, as well as changes in blood FK506 binding protein (FKBP5) mRNA expression before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Results revealed that before CBT PTSD patients were impaired on WAIS-R delayed recall, attention/concentration, and PAL compared with trauma-exposed control subjects (n=20). These memory dysfunctions showed a significant improvement after CBT. Better performance on the PAL test correlated with enhanced blood FKBP5 mRNA expression. These results suggest that elevated FKBP5 expression during CBT is related to improved associative memory linked to the hippocampal formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation and memory of social events in borderline personality disorder: Effects of valence and self-referential context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Koplin, Katrin; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2016-06-30

    People's memory of past social encounters influences current social interactions. Social rejection has been shown to increase people's memory for social events particularly when referring to others rather than themselves. Social rejection and neglect often characterize biographies of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a social memory task, we investigated whether the evaluation and memory of social events is altered in BPD and whether this depends on reference to the self or others. 30 patients with BPD and 30 healthy controls evaluated the valence of positive, neutral, and negative standardized events, which were either social or nonsocial. Subsequently, participants had to recall these events. BPD patients evaluated social events of negative and neutral valence as more negative than healthy controls. Further, only BPD patients tended to preferentially recall self-referential social events. These findings suggest altered self-referential processing of social events that affects both the evaluation and the memory for social events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Abnormalities in gray and white matter volumes associated with explicit memory dysfunction in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-03-01

    Background The neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with behavioral dysfunction on explicit memory in patients generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have not yet been clearly identified. Purpose To investigate the regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations over the whole brain in patients with GAD, as well as the correlation between the brain structural abnormality and explicit memory dysfunction. Material and Methods Twenty patients with GAD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The participants performed the explicit memory tasks with the neutral and anxiety-inducing words. Results Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced GM volumes in the midbrain (MB), thalamus, hippocampus (Hip), insula, and superior temporal gyrus (STG); and reduced WM volumes in the MB, anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and precentral gyrus (PrG). It is important to note that the GM volume of the Hip and the WM volume of the DLPFC were positively correlated with the recognition accuracy (%) in the explicit memory tasks with neutral and anxiety-inducing words, respectively. On the other hand, the WM volume of the PrG was negatively correlated with the reaction time in the same memory tasks. Conclusion This study demonstrated the regional volume changes on whole-brain GM and WM and the correlation between the brain structural alteration and explicit memory dysfunction in GAD patients. These findings would be helpful to understand the association between the brain structure abnormality and the functional deficit in the explicit memory in GAD.

  7. Functional changes during visuo-spatial working memory in autism spectrum disorder: 2-year longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogan, Vanessa M; Morgan, Benjamin R; Smith, Mary Lou; Taylor, Margot J

    2018-03-01

    This study examined functional changes longitudinally over 2 years in neural correlates associated with working memory in youth with and without autism spectrum disorder, and the impact of increasing cognitive load. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a visuo-spatial 1-back task with four levels of difficulty. A total of 14 children with autism spectrum disorder and 15 typically developing children (ages 7-13) were included at baseline and followed up approximately 2 years later. Despite similar task performance between groups, differences were evident in the developmental trajectories of neural responses. Typically developing children showed greater load-dependent activation which intensified over time in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes and the right fusiform gyrus, compared to those with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism spectrum disorder showed minimal age-related changes in load-dependent activation, but greater longitudinal load-dependent deactivation in default mode network compared to typically developing children. Results suggest inadequate modulation of neural activity with increasing cognitive demands in children with autism spectrum disorder, which does not mature into adolescence, unlike their typically developing peers. Diminished ability for children with autism spectrum disorder to modulate neural activity during this period of maturation suggests that they may be more vulnerable to the increasing complexity of social and academic demands as they progress through adolescence than their peers.

  8. Working Memory Arrest in Children with High-Functioning Autism Compared to Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per N.; Skogli, Erik W.; Hovik, Kjell T.; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically…

  9. Episodic and semantic components of autobiographical memories and imagined future events in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam D; Addis, Donna Rose; Romano, Tracy A; Marmar, Charles R; Bryant, Richard A; Hirst, William; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to retrieve autobiographical memories with less episodic specificity, referred to as overgeneralised autobiographical memory. In line with evidence that autobiographical memory overlaps with one's capacity to imagine the future, recent work has also shown that individuals with PTSD also imagine themselves in the future with less episodic specificity. To date most studies quantify episodic specificity by the presence of a distinct event. However, this method does not distinguish between the numbers of internal (episodic) and external (semantic) details, which can provide additional insights into remembering the past and imagining the future. This study employed the Autobiographical Interview (AI) coding scheme to the autobiographical memory and imagined future event narratives generated by combat veterans with and without PTSD. Responses were coded for the number of internal and external details. Compared to combat veterans without PTSD, those with PTSD generated more external than internal details when recalling past or imagining future events, and fewer internal details were associated with greater symptom severity. The potential mechanisms underlying these bidirectional deficits and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Variation in Parasympathetic Dysregulation Moderates Short-term Memory Problems in Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Anthony R; Alarcón, Gabriela; Nigg, Joel T; Musser, Erica D

    2015-11-01

    Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impairment in working memory and short-term memory, up to half of individual children with ADHD perform within a normative range. Heterogeneity in other ADHD-related mechanisms, which may compensate for or combine with cognitive weaknesses, is a likely explanation. One candidate is the robustness of parasympathetic regulation (as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Theory and data suggest that a common neural network is likely tied to both heart-rate regulation and certain cognitive functions (including aspects of working and short-term memory). Cardiac-derived indices of parasympathetic reactivity were collected during short-term memory (STM) storage and rehearsal tasks from 243 children (116 ADHD, 127 controls). ADHD was associated with lower STM performance, replicating previous work. In addition, RSA reactivity moderated the association between STM and ADHD - both as a category and a dimension - independent of comorbidity. Specifically, conditional effects revealed that high levels of withdrawal interacted with weakened STM but high levels of augmentation moderated a positive association predicting ADHD. Thus, variations in parasympathetic reactivity may help explain neuropsychological heterogeneity in ADHD.

  11. Age-dependent and -independent changes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during spatial working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Steffen; Ghisleni, Carmen; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Martin, Ernst; Ball, Juliane; Eich-Höchli, Dominique; Klaver, Peter; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Michels, Lars; Brandeis, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with spatial working memory as well as frontostriatal core deficits. However, it is still unclear how the link between these frontostriatal deficits and working memory function in ADHD differs in children and adults. This study examined spatial working memory in adults and children with ADHD, focussing on identifying regions demonstrating age-invariant or age-dependent abnormalities. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine a group of 26 children and 35 adults to study load manipulated spatial working memory in patients and controls. In comparison to healthy controls, patients demonstrated reduced positive parietal and frontostriatal load effects, i.e., less increase in brain activity from low to high load, despite similar task performance. In addition, younger patients showed negative load effects, i.e., a decrease in brain activity from low to high load, in medial prefrontal regions. Load effect differences between ADHD and controls that differed between age groups were found predominantly in prefrontal regions. Age-invariant load effect differences occurred predominantly in frontostriatal regions. The age-dependent deviations support the role of prefrontal maturation and compensation in ADHD, while the age-invariant alterations observed in frontostriatal regions provide further evidence that these regions reflect a core pathophysiology in ADHD.

  12. A neurodevelopmental approach to understanding memory processes among intellectually gifted youth with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ashley M; Bell, Terece S; Houskamp, Beth M; O'Callaghan, Erin T

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual giftedness is associated with strong strategic verbal memory while attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with strategic verbal memory deficits; however, no previous research has explored how this contradiction manifests in gifted populations with diagnoses of ADHD. The purpose of this study was to explore strategic verbal memory processes among intellectually gifted youth with and without ADHD to provide clarification regarding this specific aspect of neuropsychological functioning within this population. One hundred twenty-five youth completed neuropsychological evaluations including the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition and California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C). Results revealed significant differences between groups, with intellectually gifted youth with ADHD achieving lower T scores on CVLT-C Trials 1 through 5 compared with intellectually gifted youth without ADHD, and intellectually gifted youth with ADHD achieving higher T scores than youth of average intellectual abilities with ADHD. Additionally, repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect improvement among gifted youth with ADHD in short-delay recall when provided with organizational cues. Findings revealed new evidence about the role of twice exceptionality (specifically intellectual giftedness and ADHD) in strategic verbal memory and have important implications for parents, educators, psychologists and neuropsychologists, and other mental health professionals working with this population.

  13. Disruptions of working memory and inhibition mediate the association between exposure to institutionalization and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibu, F; Sheridan, M A; McLaughlin, K A; Nelson, C A; Fox, N A; Zeanah, C H

    2016-02-01

    Young children raised in institutions are exposed to extreme psychosocial deprivation that is associated with elevated risk for psychopathology and other adverse developmental outcomes. The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is particularly high in previously institutionalized children, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. We investigated whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) explain the link between institutionalization and ADHD. A sample of 136 children (aged 6-30 months) was recruited from institutions in Bucharest, Romania, and 72 never institutionalized community children matched for age and gender were recruited through general practitioners' offices. At 8 years of age, children's performance on a number of EF components (working memory, response inhibition and planning) was evaluated. Teachers completed the Health and Behavior Questionnaire, which assesses two core features of ADHD, inattention and impulsivity. Children with history of institutionalization had higher inattention and impulsivity than community controls, and exhibited worse performance on working memory, response inhibition and planning tasks. Lower performances on working memory and response inhibition, but not planning, partially mediated the association between early institutionalization and inattention and impulsivity symptom scales at age 8 years. Institutionalization was associated with decreased EF performance and increased ADHD symptoms. Deficits in working memory and response inhibition were specific mechanisms leading to ADHD in previously institutionalized children. These findings suggest that interventions that foster the development of EF might reduce risk for psychiatric problems in children exposed to early deprivation.

  14. Fornix As An Imaging Marker For Episodic Memory Deficits In Healthy Aging and in Various Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eDouet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fornix is a part of the limbic system and constitutes the major efferent and afferent white matter tracts from the hippocampi. The underdevelopment of or injuries to the fornix are strongly associated with memory deficits. Its role in memory impairments was suggested long ago with cases of surgical forniceal transaction. However, recent advances in brain imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging; enabling more qualitative and quantitative studies, have revealed that macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities of the fornix correlated highly with declarative and episodic memory performance. This structure appears to provide a robust and early imaging predictor for memory deficits not only in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis, but also in schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders, and during neurodevelopment and typical aging. The objective of the manuscript is to present a systematic review regarding published brain imaging research on the fornix, including the development of its tracts, its role in various neurological diseases, and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in human studies.

  15. Fornix as an imaging marker for episodic memory deficits in healthy aging and in various neurological disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Vanessa; Chang, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The fornix is a part of the limbic system and constitutes the major efferent and afferent white matter tracts from the hippocampi. The underdevelopment of or injuries to the fornix are strongly associated with memory deficits. Its role in memory impairments was suggested long ago with cases of surgical forniceal transections. However, recent advances in brain imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, have revealed that macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities of the fornix correlated highly with declarative and episodic memory performance. This structure appears to provide a robust and early imaging predictor for memory deficits not only in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, but also in schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders, and during neurodevelopment and “typical” aging. The objective of the manuscript is to present a systematic review regarding published brain imaging research on the fornix, including the development of its tracts, its role in various neurological diseases, and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in human studies. PMID:25642186

  16. The Nature of Trauma Memories in Acute Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…

  17. Autobiographical memory specificity and symptoms of complicated grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder following loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; van Deursen, Denise S.; van den Hout, Marcel A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the specificity and content of autobiographical memories among bereaved individuals. Self-report measures of bereavement-related distress and a standard and trait version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were administered to 109 bereaved people. We examined associations

  18. Language and verbal memory in individuals with a history of autism spectrum disorders who have achieved optimal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with "optimal outcomes" (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the average range or above on all measures and showed few differences from the TD group. The HFA group performed within the average range but showed significantly lower mean performance than the other groups on multiple language measures, even when controlling for verbal IQ. Results also indicate that OO individuals show strong language abilities in all areas tested, but that their language may show greater reliance on verbal memory.

  19. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks). These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  20. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Levy-Gigi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks. These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the impact of methylphenidate on working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Bolfer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To compare children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, before and after the use of methylphenidate, and a control group, using tests of working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility. Methods Neuropsychological tests were administrated to 53 boys, 9–12 years old: the WISC-III digit span backward, and arithmetic; Stroop Color; and Trail Making Tests. The case group included 23 boys with ADHD, who were combined type, treatment-naive, and with normal intelligence without comorbidities. The control group (n = 30 were age and gender matched. After three months on methylphenidate, the ADHD children were retested. The control group was also retested after three months. Results Before treatment, ADHD children had lower scores than the control group on the tests (p ≤ 0.001 and after methylphenidate had fewer test errors than before (p ≤ 0.001 Conclusion Methylphenidate treatment improves the working memory, inhibitory control and mental flexibility of ADHD boys.

  2. Uncovering the Signaling Pathway behind Extracellular Guanine-Induced Activation of NO System: New Perspectives in Memory-Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarini, Mariachiara; Giuliani, Patricia; Frinchi, Monica; Mudò, Giuseppa; Serio, Rosa Maria; Belluardo, Natale; Buccella, Silvana; Carluccio, Marzia; Condorelli, Daniele F; Caciagli, Francesco; Ciccarelli, Renata; Di Iorio, Patrizia

    2018-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the guanine-based purines stand out as key player in cell metabolism and in several models of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Guanosine (GUO) and guanine (GUA) are extracellular signaling molecules derived from the breakdown of the correspondent nucleotide, GTP, and their intracellular and extracellular levels are regulated by the fine-tuned activity of two major enzymes, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and guanine deaminase (GDA). Noteworthy, GUO and GUA, seem to play opposite roles in the modulation of cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. Indeed GUO, despite exerting neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic and neurotrophic effects, causes a decay of cognitive activities, whereas GUA administration in rats results in working memory improvement (prevented by L-NAME pre-treatment). This study was designed to investigate, in a model of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line, the signal transduction pathway activated by extracellular GUA. Altogether, our results showed that: (i) in addition to an enhanced phosphorylation of ASK1, p38 and JNK, likely linked to a non-massive and transient ROS production, the PKB/NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG/ERK cascade seems to be the main signaling pathway elicited by extracellular GUA; (ii) the activation of this pathway occurs in a pertussis-toxin sensitive manner, thus suggesting the involvement of a putative G protein coupled receptor; (iii) the GUA-induced NO production, strongly reduced by cell pre-treatment with L-NAME, is negatively modulated by the EPAC-cAMP-CaMKII pathway, which causes the over-expression of GDA that, in turn, reduces the levels of GUA. These molecular mechanisms activated by GUA may be useful to support our previous observation showing that GUA improves learning and memory functions through the stimulation of NO signaling pathway, and underscore the therapeutic potential of oral administration of guanine for treating memory-related disorders.

  3. Uncovering the Signaling Pathway behind Extracellular Guanine-Induced Activation of NO System: New Perspectives in Memory-Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariachiara Zuccarini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that the guanine-based purines stand out as key player in cell metabolism and in several models of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Guanosine (GUO and guanine (GUA are extracellular signaling molecules derived from the breakdown of the correspondent nucleotide, GTP, and their intracellular and extracellular levels are regulated by the fine-tuned activity of two major enzymes, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP and guanine deaminase (GDA. Noteworthy, GUO and GUA, seem to play opposite roles in the modulation of cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. Indeed GUO, despite exerting neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic and neurotrophic effects, causes a decay of cognitive activities, whereas GUA administration in rats results in working memory improvement (prevented by L-NAME pre-treatment. This study was designed to investigate, in a model of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line, the signal transduction pathway activated by extracellular GUA. Altogether, our results showed that: (i in addition to an enhanced phosphorylation of ASK1, p38 and JNK, likely linked to a non-massive and transient ROS production, the PKB/NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG/ERK cascade seems to be the main signaling pathway elicited by extracellular GUA; (ii the activation of this pathway occurs in a pertussis-toxin sensitive manner, thus suggesting the involvement of a putative G protein coupled receptor; (iii the GUA-induced NO production, strongly reduced by cell pre-treatment with L-NAME, is negatively modulated by the EPAC-cAMP-CaMKII pathway, which causes the over-expression of GDA that, in turn, reduces the levels of GUA. These molecular mechanisms activated by GUA may be useful to support our previous observation showing that GUA improves learning and memory functions through the stimulation of NO signaling pathway, and underscore the therapeutic potential of oral administration of guanine for treating memory

  4. Competitive Memory Training (COMET) for low self-esteem in patients with personality disorders: a randomized effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrelboom, Kees; Marissen, Marlies; van Assendelft, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Self-esteem is a major concern in the treatment of patients with personality disorders in general. In patients with borderline personality disorder, low self-esteem is associated with factors contributing to suicidal and self-injurious behaviour. At the moment there are no well-proven interventions that specifically target low self-esteem. Recently, a new approach, Competitive Memory Training or COMET, aimed at the enhancement of retrieving beneficial information from memory, appeared to be successful in addressing low self-esteem in different patient populations. To assess whether COMET for low self-esteem is also an effective intervention for patients with personality disorders. 91 patients with personality disorders who were already in therapy in a regular mental health institution were randomly assigned to either 7 group sessions of COMET in addition to their regular therapy or to 7 weeks of ongoing regular therapy. These latter patients received COMET after their “7 weeks waiting period for COMET”. All patients that completed COMET were contacted 3 months later to assess whether the effects of COMET had remained stable. Compared to the patients who received regular therapy only, patients in the COMET + regular therapy condition improved significantly and with large effect sizes on indices of self-esteem and depression. Significant differential improvements on measures of autonomy and social optimism were also in favour of COMET, but had small to intermediate effect sizes. The therapeutic effects of COMET remained stable after 3 months on three out of the four outcome measures. COMET for low self-esteem seems to be an efficacious trans-diagnostic approach that can rather easily be implemented in the treatment of patients with personality disorders.

  5. Differential role of visuospatial working memory in the propensity toward uncertainty in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecq, V; Rotge, J-Y; Jaafari, N; Aouizerate, B; Langbour, N; Bioulac, B; Liégeois-Chauvel, C; Burbaud, P; Guehl, D

    2014-07-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with visuospatial working memory deficits. Intolerance of uncertainty is thought to be a core component of OCD symptoms. Recent findings argue for a possible relationship between abilities in visuospatial memory and uncertainty. However, this relationship remains unclear in both OCD patients and healthy subjects. To address this issue, we measured performance in visuospatial working memory and the propensity to express uncertainty during decision making. We assessed their relationship and the temporal direction of this relationship in both OCD patients and healthy subjects. Baseline abilities in visuospatial working memory were measured with the Corsi block-tapping test. A delayed matching-to-sample task was used to identify explicit situations of certainty, uncertainty and ignorance and to assess continuous performance in visuospatial working memory. Behavioural variables were recorded over 360 consecutive trials in both groups. Baseline scores of visuospatial working memory did not predict the number of uncertain situations in OCD patients whereas they did in healthy subjects. Uncertain trials led to reduced abilities in visuospatial working memory to 65% of usual performance in OCD patients whereas they remained stable in healthy subjects. The present findings show an opposite temporal direction in the relationship between abilities in working memory and uncertainty in OCD patients and healthy subjects. Poor working memory performance contributes to the propensity to feel uncertainty in healthy subjects whereas uncertainty contributes to decreased continuous performance in working memory in OCD patients.

  6. Alterations in visual cortical activation and connectivity with prefrontal cortex during working memory updating in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thang M; Borghi, John A; Kujawa, Autumn J; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the impacts of major depressive disorder (MDD) on visual and prefrontal cortical activity as well as their connectivity during visual working memory updating and related them to the core clinical features of the disorder. Impairment in working memory updating is typically associated with the retention of irrelevant negative information which can lead to persistent depressive mood and abnormal affect. However, performance deficits have been observed in MDD on tasks involving little or no demand on emotion processing, suggesting dysfunctions may also occur at the more basic level of information processing. Yet, it is unclear how various regions in the visual working memory circuit contribute to behavioral changes in MDD. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 18 unmedicated participants with MDD and 21 age-matched healthy controls (CTL) while they performed a visual delayed recognition task with neutral faces and scenes as task stimuli. Selective working memory updating was manipulated by inserting a cue in the delay period to indicate which one or both of the two memorized stimuli (a face and a scene) would remain relevant for the recognition test. Our results revealed several key findings. Relative to the CTL group, the MDD group showed weaker postcue activations in visual association areas during selective maintenance of face and scene working memory. Across the MDD subjects, greater rumination and depressive symptoms were associated with more persistent activation and connectivity related to no-longer-relevant task information. Classification of postcue spatial activation patterns of the scene-related areas was also less consistent in the MDD subjects compared to the healthy controls. Such abnormalities appeared to result from a lack of updating effects in postcue functional connectivity between prefrontal and scene-related areas in the MDD group. In sum, disrupted working memory updating in MDD was revealed by

  7. Cognitive Training and Work Therapy for the Treatment of Verbal Learning and Memory Deficits in Veterans With Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Vissicchio, Nicholas A; Weinstein, Andrea J

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the efficacy of cognitive training for verbal learning and memory deficits in a population of older veterans with alcohol use disorders. Veterans with alcohol use disorders, who were in outpatient treatment at VA facilities and in early-phase recovery (N = 31), were randomized to receive a three-month trial of daily cognitive training plus work therapy (n = 15) or work therapy alone (n = 16), along with treatment as usual. Participants completed assessments at baseline and at three- and six-month follow-ups; the Hopkins Verbal Learning Task (HVLT) was the primary outcome measure. Participants were primarily male (97%) and in their mid-50s (M = 55.16, SD = 5.16) and had been sober for 1.64 (SD = 2.81) months. Study retention was excellent (91% at three-month follow-up) and adherence to treatment in both conditions was very good. On average, participants in the cognitive training condition had more than 41 hours of cognitive training, and both conditions had more than 230 hours of productive activity. HVLT results at three-month follow-up revealed significant condition effects favoring cognitive training for verbal learning (HVLT Trial-3 T-score, p cognitive training condition with clinically significant verbal memory deficits (p therapy alone condition and a trend toward significance for verbal learning deficits, which was not sustained at six-month follow-up. This National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded pilot study demonstrates that cognitive training within the context of another activating intervention (work therapy) may have efficacy in remediating verbal learning and memory deficits in patients with alcohol use disorder. Findings indicate a large effect for cognitive training in this pilot study, which suggests that further research is warranted. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT 01410110).

  8. Competitive memory training (COMET) for treating low self-esteem in patients with depressive disorders: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrelboom, Kees; Maarsingh, Maaike; Huijbrechts, Irma

    2012-02-01

    Self-esteem is a major concern in mood disorders. Low self-esteem is a symptom of depressive disorders and is considered by some to be a predictor for relapse, whereas high self-esteem seems to buffer against depression. Recently, Competitive Memory Training (COMET) has shown to be effective for the enhancement of self-esteem in several psychopathological conditions. The current study assesses whether COMET is also an effective intervention for patients with depressive disorders. Sixty-one patients with depressive disorders who were already in therapy in an outpatient mental health institution were randomly assigned to either eight group sessions of COMET in addition to their regular therapy (COMET + therapy as usual [TAU]: the experimental group) or to 8 weeks of ongoing regular therapy (TAU only: the control group). These latter (control) patients received COMET after their TAU only period. All patients in both groups that completed COMET were contacted 3 and 6 months later to assess whether the effects of COMET had remained stable. Compared to the patients who received TAU only, patients in the COMET + TAU condition showed significant improvement with large effect sizes on indices of self-esteem, depression, and depressive rumination. The therapeutic effects of COMET + TAU remained stable after 3 and 6 months on all outcome measures or improved even further. COMET for low self-esteem seems to be an efficacious trans-diagnostic intervention that can relatively easily be added to the regular treatment of patients with depressive disorders. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Spatial-memory deficit in schizophrenia spectrum disorders under viewpoint-independent demands in the virtual courtyard task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Leanne K; Girard, Todd A; King, Jelena; King, Matthew J; Herdman, Katherine A; Christensen, Bruce K; King, John

    2013-01-01

    This study builds upon our previous work indicating that impaired hippocampal-dependent forms of memory are core to schizophrenia. Using a virtual-reality courtyard task, we presented participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD; n = 20) and a healthy community comparison group (n = 20) with objects to remember within a town square, followed by a recognition test of the location of objects from either the same viewpoint or a shifted viewpoint relative to initial presentation. The SSD group demonstrated a relative deficit under shifted- compared to same-view conditions. These findings provide further support for deficient hippocampal-dependent cognition in SSD.

  10. EEG markers of reduced visual short-term memory capacity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Kilian, Beate; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists frequently into adulthood. The disease is associated with difficulties in many cognitive tasks, which are assumed to be caused by neurobiologically-based basal dysfunctions. A reduction in visual working memory storage capacity has recently...... in individuals with higher compared to lower storage capacity. A later section of the CP was further overall increased in the group of ADHD patients relative to controls. Together, the findings indicate that ADHD patients show disease-specific changes in brain mechanisms underlying visual storage capacity...

  11. Attention-memory training yields behavioral and academic improvements in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid with a learning disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Antonio Carlos; Cordeiro, Mara L; Felden, Erico Pg; Bara, Tiago S; Benko, Cássia R; Coutinho, Daniele; Martins, Leandra F; Ferreira, Rosilda Tc; McCracken, James T

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may benefit from computerized cognitive training. Therapy implementation is especially complicated when ADHD is associated with learning disorders (LDs). This study tested the efficacy of a computer-based cognitive training program, namely, computerized cognitive training (CCT), in children with ADHD comorbid with an LD (ADHD-LD), with or without psychostimulant medication. After diagnostic evaluations, 27 children with ADHD-LD (8 unmedicated and 19 medicated) participated in CCT, which is intended to improve attention, memory, reasoning, visual processing, and executive functioning. The participants completed 24 1-hour sessions over 3 months. Neuropsychometric and standardized academic test results before and after training were compared to assess treatment efficacy. Shapiro-Wilk normality tests were applied, and subsequent Wilcoxon tests were used to identify significant differences in pre-versus post-training performance. After CAT, children diagnosed with ADHD-LD showed 1) improvements in trained skills, measured directly within the software and indirectly by external psychometric tests; 2) improvements in attention, memory, and some executive functioning; 3) improvements in academic performance, particularly in mathematics; and 4) reductions in maladaptive behavioral features. The present findings suggest that cognitive training programs should be explored further as potential adjunctive therapies to improve outcomes in children with ADHD-LD.

  12. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-01-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving.

  13. Bender Gestalt Recall as a measure of short-term visual memory in children and adolescents with psychotic and other severe disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, James; Rabinowitz, Dena; Habib, Mandy; Goldman, Heather; Miley, Diana; Stefanyshyn, Hanna Yim; Freeman, Shuamis; Murray, Tracey; Clauselle, Renee

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the short-term visual memory ability of children and adolescents with severe psychiatric disorders, 82 child and adolescent inpatients and day hospital patients in a state psychiatric hospital were administered the Bender Gestalt Test as part of a psychological assessment and then asked to reproduce the designs from memory. No significant differences were found between groups on either the Bender Gestalt Recall, or the WISC-III IQs and the Digit Span and Symbol Search subtests for Psychotic Disorders (Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Mood Disorders or Mood Disorders with co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Coding subtest scores of the Psychotic Disorders group were significantly lower than the ADHD group. Analyses showed that the Bender Gestalt Recall was significantly related to age. Performance IQ, and sex. The results were discussed in terms of both the poor cognitive functioning of children and adolescents with persistent, severe mental illness, and the importance of developmental level when using the Bender Gestalt Recall as a rough measure of short-term visual memory.

  14. The antioxidant activity of Beta vulgaris leaf extract in improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory disorders in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadie Hajihosseini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medicinal plants have attracted global attention due to their safety as well as their considerable antioxidant content that helps to prevent or ameliorate various disorders including memory impairments. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of beet root (Beta vulgaris leaf extract on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairments in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10: Control (C, scopolamine 1 mg/kg/day (S, scopolamine+50 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 50, scopolamine+100 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 100 and scopolamine+200 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 200. Morris water maze task was used to assess spatial memory. Serum antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde (MDA level were also measured. Results: Group S spent significantly less time in the target quadrant compared to the control group, and the administration of B. vulgaris leaf extract (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased this time (p

  15. Event- and time-triggered remembering: the impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on prospective memory performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Karley-Dale S; Kerns, Kimberly A

    2014-11-01

    The current study examined prospective memory (PM, both time-based and event-based) and time estimation (TR, a time reproduction task) in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study also investigated the influence of task performance and TR on time-based PM in children with ADHD relative to controls. A sample of 69 children, aged 8 to 13 years, completed the CyberCruiser-II time-based PM task, a TR task, and the Super Little Fisherman event-based PM task. PM performance was compared with children's TR abilities, parental reports of daily prospective memory disturbances (Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire for Children, PRMQC), and ADHD symptomatology (Conner's rating scales). Children with ADHD scored more poorly on event-based PM, time-based PM, and TR; interestingly, TR did not appear related to performance on time-based PM. In addition, it was found that PRMQC scores and ADHD symptom severity were related to performance on the time-based PM task but not to performance on the event-based PM task. These results provide some limited support for theories that propose a distinction between event-based PM and time-based PM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Anxiety on Attention, Working Memory, and Academic Achievement in Children and Adolescents: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Alexandra Noelle

    2013-01-01

    Attention and working memory, two constructs that affect youth who have ADHD and anxiety, are essential in establishing automaticity and success in academic achievement. Using data from a large study involving 502 children and adolescents (332 diagnosed with ADHD, 145 diagnosed with anxiety disorder, and 126 diagnosed with neither), ages 7 to 15 years, this paper applies structural equation modeling to test the sequential relationship between the latent constructs of attention, working memory...

  17. Inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning in autism spectrum disorders with and without comorbid ADHD-symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Martin H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have not paid a great deal of attention to comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms in autistic children even though it is well known that almost half of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD suffer from hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. The goal of this study was to evaluate and compare executive functioning (EF profiles in children with ADHD and in children with ASD with and without comorbid ADHD. Methods Children aged 6 to 18 years old with ADHD (n = 20 or ASD (High-Functioning autism or Asperger syndrome with (n = 20 and without (n = 20 comorbid ADHD and a typically developing group (n = 20 were compared on a battery of EF tasks comprising inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning tasks. A MANOVA, effect sizes as well as correlations between ADHD-symptomatology and EF performance were calculated. Age- and IQ-corrected z scores were used. Results There was a significant effect for the factor group (F = 1.55; dF = 42; p = .02. Post-hoc analysis revealed significant differences between the ADHD and the TD group on the inhibition task for false alarms (p = .01 and between the ADHD group, the ASD+ group (p = .03, the ASD- group (p = .02 and the TD group (p = .01 for omissions. Effect sizes showed clear deficits of ADHD children in inhibition and working memory tasks. Participants with ASD were impaired in planning and flexibility abilities. The ASD+ group showed compared to the ASD- group more problems in inhibitory performance but not in the working memory task. Conclusion Our findings replicate previous results reporting impairment of ADHD children in inhibition and working memory tasks and of ASD children in planning and flexibility abilities. The ASD + group showed similarities to the ADHD group with regard to inhibitory but not to working memory deficits. Nevertheless the heterogeneity of these and previous results shows that EF assessment is not useful for

  18. Correlations between event-related potentials with pictures recognition and WMS-RC scores in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zilong; Liu, Liang; Fan, Zebing; Chen, Xiaorui; Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lingli; Rao, Guangxun; Li, Haixia

    2008-12-01

    This study explored the possibility of using event-related potentials (ERP) for the measurement of picture-recognition memory and examined its correlation with the Chinese Wechsler Memory Scale-revised (WMS-RC) in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The subjects included 20 sTBI patients with memory disorder and 22 healthy individuals. Memory function was measured by using WMS-RC. Behavioral and ERP responses were recorded on-line during performance on a battery of picture recognition and the responses were analyzed off-line for recognition memory effects. Mean memory quotient (MQ) of patients with sTBI was significantly lower than that of the control group. Mean reaction time (RT) was significantly longer and the mean correctness rate (CR) of picture recognition was significantly lower in sTBI group than that of the controls. In controls, the main components of average ERP of picture recognition includes two positive-going waves, designated as P(170) and P(500), that appear 170 ms and 500 ms after stimulation when the subject could later successfully recall and recognize the pictures. P(500) amplitude of target stimulus was significantly higher than that of non-target stimulus. Compared to controls, P(500) responses of sTBI group were significantly delayed in latency (PWMS-RC. ERP of picture recognition provides a neurophysiological approach to directly assess memory impairment, and P(500) may serve as a helpful index for memory disorder caused by sTBI in forensic practice.

  19. Episodic Visual Learning/Memory and Attentional Flexibility in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder After Clinically Effective Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakou, Stamatina; Oulis, Panagiotis; Anyfandi, Eleni; Konstantakopoulos, George; Papakosta, Vasiliki-Maria; Kontis, Dimitrios; Theochari, Eirini; Angelopoulos, Elias; Zervas, Ioannis M; Mellon, Robert C; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2015-12-01

    This study is a follow-up of a previous one reporting that the neuropsychological profile of pharmacoresistant patients with major depressive disorder referred for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, ECT group) contrasted with that of their pharmacorespondent counterparts (NECT group). The NECT group exhibited severe visuospatial memory and minor executive deficits; the ECT group presented the reverse pattern. In that same ECT group, the current follow-up study examined the effects of clinically effective ECT on both cognitive domains 2 months later. Fifteen ECT patients were administered Hamilton Depression (HAMD-24), Hamilton Anxiety (HAMA), Mini-Mental State Examination Scales and 5 tests of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery at intake (pre-ECT), end of ECT course (post-ECT), and 2 months thereafter (follow-up). Electroconvulsive therapy was effective in relieving clinical depression. After a post-ECT decline, the patients exhibited significant improvement in both Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, paired associate learning, and Stockings of Cambridge. By contrast, their major pre-ECT deficit in intra/extradimensional set shifting remained virtually unaffected. Our findings suggest that attentional flexibility deficits may constitute a neuropsychological trait-like feature of pharmacoresistant, ECT-referred major depressive disorder patients. However, this deficit does not seem generalized, given patient improvement in episodic visual learning/memory and some indication of improvement in spatial planning after ECT.

  20. [Formula: see text]Differences in memory functioning between children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sylvia E; Kibby, Michelle Y; Cohen, Morris J; Stanford, Lisa; Park, Yong; Strickland, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy are frequently comorbid and that both disorders are associated with various attention and memory problems. Nonetheless, limited research has been conducted comparing the two disorders in one sample to determine unique versus shared deficits. Hence, we investigated differences in working memory (WM) and short-term and delayed recall between children with ADHD, focal epilepsy of mixed foci, comorbid ADHD/epilepsy and controls. Participants were compared on the Core subtests and the Picture Locations subtest of the Children's Memory Scale (CMS). Results indicated that children with ADHD displayed intact verbal WM and long-term memory (LTM), as well as intact performance on most aspects of short-term memory (STM). They performed worse than controls on Numbers Forward and Picture Locations, suggesting problems with focused attention and simple span for visual-spatial material. Conversely, children with epilepsy displayed poor focused attention and STM regardless of the modality assessed, which affected encoding into LTM. The only loss over time was found for passages (Stories). WM was intact. Children with comorbid ADHD/epilepsy displayed focused attention and STM/LTM problems consistent with both disorders, having the lowest scores across the four groups. Hence, focused attention and visual-spatial span appear to be affected in both disorders, whereas additional STM/encoding problems are specific to epilepsy. Children with comorbid ADHD/epilepsy have deficits consistent with both disorders, with slight additive effects. This study suggests that attention and memory testing should be a regular part of the evaluation of children with epilepsy and ADHD.

  1. Sleep-related declarative memory consolidation and verbal replay during sleep talking in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Dodet, Pauline; Herlin, Bastien; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    To determine if sleep talkers with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) would utter during REM sleep sentences learned before sleep, and to evaluate their verbal memory consolidation during sleep. Eighteen patients with RBD and 10 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16 words from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and a 220-263 word long modified Story Recall Test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video-polysomnography and morning recall (night-time consolidation). In 9 patients with RBD, daytime consolidation (morning learning/recall, evening recall) was also evaluated with the modified Story Recall Test in a cross-over order. Two RBD patients with dementia were studied separately. Sleep talking was recorded using video-polysomnography, and the utterances were compared to the studied texts by two external judges. Sleep-related verbal memory consolidation was maintained in patients with RBD (+24±36% words) as in controls (+9±18%, p=0.3). The two demented patients with RBD also exhibited excellent nighttime consolidation. The post-sleep performance was unrelated to the sleep measures (including continuity, stages, fragmentation and apnea-hypopnea index). Daytime consolidation (-9±19%) was worse than night-time consolidation (+29±45%, p=0.03) in the subgroup of 9 patients with RBD. Eleven patients with RBD spoke during REM sleep and pronounced a median of 20 words, which represented 0.0003% of sleep with spoken language. A single patient uttered a sentence that was judged to be semantically (but not literally) related to the text learned before sleep. Verbal declarative memory normally consolidates during sleep in patients with RBD. The incorporation of learned material within REM sleep-associated sleep talking in one patient (unbeknownst to himself) at the semantic level suggests a replay at a highly cognitive creative level.

  2. Determining the association of medical co-morbidity with subjective and objective cognitive performance in an inner city memory disorders clinic: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Depeng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical co-morbidity may be associated with impaired cognitive function based on prior studies. However, no studies to date have determined to what extent this association is linked to medical illness or other factors that may be linked to medical illness (such as education, income levels, depression or subjective memory loss. The present study examined how medical co-morbidity, socioeconomic status (defined as residential SES, education and depression are associated with subjective and objective memory function in a sample of patients recruited from a university affiliated Memory Disorders Clinic located in a large Canadian inner city teaching hospital. Methods Data was collected from 85 consecutive referrals to an Inner City Memory Disorders Clinic including socio-demographic characteristics, cognitive status and medical co-morbidity. Descriptive and correlational analyses were conducted. Results Impaired objective cognitive function correlated significantly with increased medical co-morbidity and partially with education but not with residential SES or depression. Elevated memory complaints correlated significantly with depression, inversely with residential SES and not at all with medical co-morbidity or education. Conclusions Increased medical co-morbidity is significantly associated with impaired cognitive performance but not with subjective memory complaints in an Inner City Memory Clinic sample.

  3. Effects of the D1 dopamine receptor agonist dihydrexidine (DAR-0100A) on working memory in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Zaluda, Lauren C; McClure, Margaret M; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Strike, K Sloan; Barch, Deanna M; Harvey, Philip D; Girgis, Ragy R; Hazlett, Erin A; Mailman, Richard B; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Siever, Larry J

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological enhancement of prefrontal D1 dopamine receptor function remains a promising therapeutic approach to ameliorate schizophrenia-spectrum working memory deficits, but has yet to be rigorously evaluated clinically. This proof-of-principle study sought to determine whether the active enantiomer of the selective and full D1 receptor agonist dihydrexidine (DAR-0100A) could attenuate working memory impairments in unmedicated patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DAR-0100A (15 mg/150 ml of normal saline administered intravenously over 30 min) in medication-free patients with SPD (n=16) who met the criteria for cognitive impairment (ie, scoring below the 25th percentile on tests of working memory). We employed two measures of verbal working memory that are salient to schizophrenia-spectrum cognitive deficits, and that clinical data implicate as being associated with prefrontal D1 availability: (1) the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT); and (2) the N-back test (ratio of 2-back:0-back scores). Study procedures occurred over four consecutive days, with working memory testing on Days 1 and 4, and DAR-0100A/placebo administration on Days 2-4. Treatment with DAR-0100A was associated with significantly improved PASAT performance relative to placebo, with a very large effect size (Cohen's d=1.14). Performance on the N-back ratio was also significantly improved; however, this effect rested on both a non-significant enhancement and diminution of 2-back and 0-back performance, respectively; therefore interpretation of this finding is more complicated. DAR-0100A was generally well tolerated, with no serious medical or psychiatric adverse events; common side effects were mild to moderate and transient, consisting mainly of sedation, lightheadedness, tachycardia, and hypotension; however, we were able to minimize these effects, without altering the dose, with supportive

  4. Will working memory training generalize to improve off-task behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chloe T; Long, Debra L; Green, David; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Dixon, J Faye; Miller, Meghan R; Fassbender, Catherine; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2012-07-01

    Computerized working memory and executive function training programs designed to target specific impairments in executive functioning are becoming increasingly available, yet how well these programs generalize to improve functional deficits in disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), beyond the training context is not well-established. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which working memory (WM) training in children with ADHD would diminish a core dysfunctional behavior associated with the disorder, "off-task" behavior during academic task performance. The effect of computerized WM training (adaptive) was compared to a placebo condition (nonadaptive) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in 26 children (18 males; age, 7 to 14 years old) diagnosed with ADHD. Participants completed the training in approximately 25 sessions. The Restricted Academic Situations Task (RAST) observational system was used to assess aspects of off-task behavior during the completion of an academic task. Traditional measures of ADHD symptoms (Conners' Parent Rating Scale) and WM ability (standardized WM tests) were also collected. WM training led to significant reductions in off-task ADHD-associated behavior on the RAST system and improvement on WM tests. There were no significant differences between groups in improvement on parent rating scales. Findings lend insight into the generalizability of the effects of WM training and the relation between deficits in WM and off-task behavioral components of ADHD. These preliminary data suggest WM training may provide a mechanism for indirectly altering academic performance in children with ADHD.

  5. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per N; Skogli, Erik W; Hovik, Kjell T; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically developing children (age 9-16 years) were included at baseline and followed up approximately 25 months later. The children were given a letter/number sequencing task to assess verbal working memory. The performance of children with high-functioning autism on verbal working memory did not improve after 2 years, while improvement was observed in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. The results indicate a different developmental trajectory for verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. More research is needed to construct a developmental framework more suitable for children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Intrusive memories and rumination in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: a phenomenological comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckens, A.E.M.; Ehlers, A.; Hackmann, A.; Ruths, F.A.; Clark, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the phenomenological differences between intrusive memories and rumination in PTSD. The study population consisted of 31 patients with PTSD referred for cognitive behavioural therapy to specialist services. A semi-structured interview was used to examine the

  7. A virtual week study of prospective memory function in autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, J.D.; Terrett, G.; Altgassen, A.M.; Raponi-Saunders, S.; Ballhausen, N.; Schnitzspahn, K.M.; Rendell, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to the implementation of delayed intentions, a cognitive ability that plays a critical role in daily life because of its involvement in goal-directed behavior and consequently the development and maintenance of independence. Emerging evidence indicates that PM may be

  8. The Effect of Humanin on Spatial Memory Disorder Induced by Intraventricular Injection of Streptozotocin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: Sporadic Alzheimer's is known as a new type of devastating disease that the impairment of the insulin signaling pathway may be one of factors causing it. The aim of study was to determine the impact of humanin on spatial memory impairment induced by intraventricular injection of streptozotocin in rats. Methods: In this experimental study 42 male rats weighing 250 to 300 g were selected and then cannule implanted bilaterally into their lateral ventricles. STZ or saline was injected in lateral ventricle every other day for the first and the third days. Humanin drug was injected at doses (0.01, 0.05, 0.1and 1 n/mol from days four until fourteenth. From day 14th to 17th the animal spatial memory was studied using water maze method. Data were analyzed by repeated measure and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Results: Groups treated with humanin at doses 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 1 n/mol could not significant improved spatial memory deficits induced by STZ. Conclusion: Humanin with its known neuroprotective effects could not improve spatial memory deficits induced by intra-cerebroventricular STZ.

  9. Memory Bias for Threatening Information in Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitte, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    Although some theories suggest that anxious individuals selectively remember threatening stimuli, findings remain contradictory despite a considerable amount of research. A quantitative integration of 165 studies with 9,046 participants (clinical and nonclinical samples) examined whether a memory bias exists and which moderator variables influence…

  10. Memory disorders associated with consumption of drugs: updating through a case/noncase study in the French PharmacoVigilance Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavant, Francois; Favrelière, Sylvie; Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Plazanet, Caroline; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To investigate putative associations of reports of memory disorders and suspected drugs. METHODS We used the case/noncase method in the French PharmacoVigilance Database (FPVD). Cases were reports of memory loss in the FPVD between January 2000 and December 2009. Noncases were all other reports during the same period. To assess the association between memory impairment and drug intake, we calculated an odds ratio with its 95% confidence interval. RESULTS Among the 188 284 adverse drug reactions recorded, we identified 519 cases of memory loss. The sex ratio was 0.6 and the median age was 54 years (range 4–93). The maximal number of cases occurred between 40–49 and 50–59 years. Evolution was favourable in 63% of the cases. We found significant odds ratios for benzodiazepines (alprazolam, bromazepam, prazepam, clonazepam etc.), benzodiazepine-like hypnotics (zolpidem and zopiclone), antidepressants (fluoxetine, paroxetine and venlafaxine), analgesics (morphine, nefopam and tramadol), anticonvulsants (topiramate, pregabalin, levetiracetam etc.), antipsychotics (aripiprazole and lithium) and other drugs, such as trihexyphenidyl, ciclosporin and isotretinoin. CONCLUSIONS Our study confirmed an association between memory disorders and some drugs, such as benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants. However, other drugs, such as benzodiazepine-like hypnotics, newer anticonvulsants, serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, isotretinoin and ciclosporin were significantly associated with memory disorders, although this was not described or poorly described in the literature. Taking account of the limits of this study in the FPVD (under-reporting, notoriety bias etc.), the case/noncase method allows assessment and detection of associations between exposure to drugs and a specific adverse drug reaction, such as memory disorders, and could thus generate signals and orientate us to further prospective studies to confirm such associations. PMID:21557759

  11. Memory disorders associated with consumption of drugs: updating through a case/noncase study in the French PharmacoVigilance Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavant, Francois; Favrelière, Sylvie; Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Plazanet, Caroline; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine

    2011-12-01

    To investigate putative associations of reports of memory disorders and suspected drugs. We used the case/noncase method in the French PharmacoVigilance Database (FPVD). Cases were reports of memory loss in the FPVD between January 2000 and December 2009. Noncases were all other reports during the same period. To assess the association between memory impairment and drug intake, we calculated an odds ratio with its 95% confidence interval. Among the 188,284 adverse drug reactions recorded, we identified 519 cases of memory loss. The sex ratio was 0.6 and the median age was 54 years (range 4-93). The maximal number of cases occurred between 40-49 and 50-59 years. Evolution was favourable in 63% of the cases. We found significant odds ratios for benzodiazepines (alprazolam, bromazepam, prazepam, clonazepam etc.), benzodiazepine-like hypnotics (zolpidem and zopiclone), antidepressants (fluoxetine, paroxetine and venlafaxine), analgesics (morphine, nefopam and tramadol), anticonvulsants (topiramate, pregabalin, levetiracetam etc.), antipsychotics (aripiprazole and lithium) and other drugs, such as trihexyphenidyl, ciclosporin and isotretinoin. Our study confirmed an association between memory disorders and some drugs, such as benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants. However, other drugs, such as benzodiazepine-like hypnotics, newer anticonvulsants, serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, isotretinoin and ciclosporin were significantly associated with memory disorders, although this was not described or poorly described in the literature. Taking account of the limits of this study in the FPVD (under-reporting, notoriety bias etc.), the case/noncase method allows assessment and detection of associations between exposure to drugs and a specific adverse drug reaction, such as memory disorders, and could thus generate signals and orientate us to further prospective studies to confirm such associations. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011

  12. Selective processing of threatening information: effects of attachment representation and anxiety disorder on attention and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichhoven, I.A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; de Ruiter, C.; Brosschot, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the mental representation of attachment on information processing, 28 anxiety disorder outpatients, as diagnosed by the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule?Revised, were administered the Adult Attachment Interview and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. They also

  13. The effects of working memory load and attention refocusing on delay discounting rates in alcohol use disorder with comorbid antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Rachel L; Gerst, Kyle R; Lake, Allison J; Finn, Peter R

    2018-02-01

    Executive working memory capacity (eWMC) is central to adaptive decision-making. Research has revealed reduced eWMC and higher rates of impulsive decision making in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs: DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence of Alcohol Abuse) and antisocial psychopathology (AP). Recent work has shown that placing a load on working memory (WM) further increases impulsive decision making on the delay discounting (DD) task in those with AUDs and AP. The current study examined the effects of an attention refocusing manipulation to offset the effects of this WM-load on DD rates in control subjects, those with AUDs without AP, and AUDs with AP (AUD-AP). Results revealed that 1) the AUD-AP group had higher DD rates (i.e., more impulsive decision-making) than the AUD group, followed by controls, and 2) attention refocusing after a load is placed on WM was associated with lower DD rates compared to the load without refocusing in both AUD groups, but not controls. Results suggest that refocusing attention after a cognitive load may be an effective cognitive strategy for reducing the impulsivity-enhancing effects of cognitive load on decision making in individuals with AUDs and AP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of sleep disorders by sex and ethnicity among older adolescents and emerging adults: relations to daytime functioning, working memory and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Megan E; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Baldwin, Carol M

    2014-07-01

    The study determined the prevalence of sleep disorders by ethnicity and sex, and related daytime functioning, working memory, and mental health among older adolescent to emerging adult college students. Participants were U.S.A. undergraduates (N = 1684), aged 17-25, recruited from 2010 to 2011. Participants completed online questionnaires for all variables. Overall, 36.0% of the sample screened positive for sleep disorders with insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and periodic limb movement disorder being the most prevalent. Women reported more insomnia and daytime impairment. African-Americans reported more early morning awakenings and less daytime impairment. Students with insomnia symptoms or restless legs syndrome tended to have lower working memory capacities. Students with nightmares or parasomnias had greater odds for mental disorders. In an older adolescent to emerging adult college student sample, sleep disorders may be a common source of sleep disturbance and impairment. Certain sleep disorders may be associated with lower working memory capacity and poor mental health. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of β-arrestin-2 on Fear/anxious-related memory in a rat model of Post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinlan; Han, Fang; Wen, Lili; Xiao, Bing; Shi, Yuxiu

    2017-04-15

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be categorised as a disorder of dysregulated fear processing. In the formation and development of PTSD, whether fear/anxious-related memory is regulated by β-arrestin-2, and happened along the signal transduction pathways remains unknown. We used single prolonged stress (SPS) as the animal model of PTSD. Next, elevated plus maze tests (EPM) was performed to examine fear/anxious memory- related behaviors. Then, we detected β-arrestin-2, PDE-4, and signal transduction pathways with immunofluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry, Elisa, western blot, RT-PCR, and real-time PCR. Our data indicated that SPS caused fear/anxious memory-related behaviors enhancement. The low expression of β-arrestin-2, PDE-4 and their complex on SPS 7d, and high expression of signal transduction pathways on SPS7d in basolateral amygdala (BLA). That indicating that β-arrestin-2 is critical for the formation of abnormal fear/anxious memory in PTSD; and fear/anxious memory occured through signal transduction pathways. Finally, these results suggest that β-arrestin-2, PDE-4 and signal transduction pathways may be by influencing the fear/anxious memory thereby involved in the formation and development of PTSD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of Erythropoietin on Hippocampal Volume and Memory in Mood Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica; Vinberg, Maj; Macoveanu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    study assessed the neuroanatomical basis for these effects. METHODS: Patients with TRD who were moderately depressed or BD in partial remission were randomized to 8 weekly EPO (40,000 IU) or saline infusions in a double-blind, parallel-group design. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging, memory...... assessment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and mood ratings with the Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale at baseline and week 14. Hippocampus segmentation and analysis of hippocampal volume, shape, and gray matter density were conducted...... with FMRIB Software Library tools. Memory change was analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of covariance adjusted for depression symptoms, diagnosis, age, and gender. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients were randomized; 1 patient withdrew and data collection was incomplete for 14 patients; data were thus...

  17. A Meta-Analysis and Critical Review of Prospective Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsiedel, Julia; Williams, David M.; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out a planned intention at an appropriate moment in the future. Research on PM in ASD has produced mixed results. We aimed to establish the extent to which two types of PM (event-based/time-based) are impaired in ASD. In part 1, a meta-analysis of all existing studies indicates a large…

  18. Role of GABA(B) receptors in learning and memory and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Chelcie F; Kinney, Jefferson W

    2016-04-01

    Although it is evident from the literature that altered GABAB receptor function does affect behavior, these results often do not correspond well. These differences could be due to the task protocol, animal strain, ligand concentration, or timing of administration utilized. Because several clinical populations exhibit learning and memory deficits in addition to altered markers of GABA and the GABAB receptor, it is important to determine whether altered GABAB receptor function is capable of contributing to the deficits. The aim of this review is to examine the effect of altered GABAB receptor function on synaptic plasticity as demonstrated by in vitro data, as well as the effects on performance in learning and memory tasks. Finally, data regarding altered GABA and GABAB receptor markers within clinical populations will be reviewed. Together, the data agree that proper functioning of GABAB receptors is crucial for numerous learning and memory tasks and that targeting this system via pharmaceuticals may benefit several clinical populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nicotine Modulation of Fear Memories and Anxiety: Implications for Learning and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a group of crippling mental diseases affecting millions of Americans with a 30% lifetime prevalence and costs associated with healthcare of $42.3 billion. While anxiety disorders show high levels of co-morbidity with smoking (45.3% vs. 22.5% in healthy individuals), anxiety disorders are also more common among the smoking population (22% vs. 11.1% in the non-smoking population). Moreover, there is clear evidence that smoking modulates symptom severity in patients with anxiety disorders. In order to better understand this relationship, several animal paradigms are used to model several key symptoms of anxiety disorders; these include fear conditioning and measures of anxiety. Studies clearly demonstrate that nicotine mediates acquisition and extinction of fear as well as anxiety through the modulation of specific subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brain regions involved in emotion processing such as the hippocampus. However, the direction of nicotine’s effects on these behaviors is determined by several factors that include the length of administration, hippocampus-dependency of the fear learning task, and source of anxiety (novelty-driven vs. social anxiety). Overall, the studies reviewed here suggest that nicotine alters behaviors related to fear and anxiety and that nicotine contributes to the development, maintenance, and reoccurrence of anxiety disorders. PMID:26231942

  20. Effects of Wuling capsule on learning and memory disorder induced by post-stroke depression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-chun LI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effects of Wuling capsule on learning and memory disorder induced by post-troke depression(PSD in rats,and examine the relationship between the changes in cognitive function and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF in hippocampus.Methods Forty male adult SD rats were randomly divided into four groups(10 each: untreated control group,model group,escitalopram treatment group and Wuling treatment group.All rats,except those in the untreated control group,underwent a paradigm of 3-week consecutive chronic unpredictable mild stress(CMS followed by selective right middle cerebral artery embolism to induce PSD.The sucrose preference was introduced to evaluate the level of depression and the spatial learning,and memory functions were detected using Morris water maze test.The expression of BDNF was analyzed by Western blotting.Results The cognitive function and hippocampal BDNF expression were significantly lower in model rats than in the untreated control group and the two treatment groups(P < 0.05.When escitalopram was administered once daily to the model rats at a dose of 0.2mg/(kg·d for 21 days along with the procedure of CMS,the depressed behavior was improved with BDNF protein expression rose from 0.41±0.07 to 0.86±0.09.Similar effects were found after treatment with Wuling capsule [100mg/(kg·d],except that the lower BDNF expression was not changed.Conclusion Wuling capsule can improve the learning and memory function in PSD rats,bat this effect is not related to the changes in BDNF expression in hippocampus.

  1. Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

  2. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  3. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A. B. P.; van den Berg, D. P. G.; Cath, D. C.; Schoorl, M.; Engelhard, I. M.; Korrelboom, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  4. The Eye Gaze Direction of an Observed Person Can Bias Perception, Memory, and Attention in Adolescents with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeth, M.; Ropar, D.; Chapman, P.; Mitchell, P.

    2010-01-01

    The reported experiments aimed to investigate whether a person and his or her gaze direction presented in the context of a naturalistic scene cause perception, memory, and attention to be biased in typically developing adolescents and high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A novel computerized image manipulation program…

  5. Traumatic memories, post-traumatic stress disorder and serum cortisol levels in long-term survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, Daniela; Weis, Florian; Krauseneck, Till; Vogeser, Michael; Schelling, Gustav; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often report traumatic memories from the intensive care unit (ICU) and display a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As it is known that subjects with PTSD often show sustained reductions in circulating cortisol

  6. Working memory training in children with neuropsychiatric disorders and mild to borderline intellectual functioning, the role of coaching; a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roording-Ragetlie, S.; Klip, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working memory training (WMT) has been shown to offer therapeutic benefits to both patients with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and patients with mild to borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID; 60 < IQ < 85). However, robust evidence for transfer effects and

  7. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from a 2-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, P.N.; Skogli, E.W.; Hovik, K.T.; Geurts, H.; Egeland, J.; Øie, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with

  8. Improving Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Separate and Combined Effects of Incentives and Stimulant Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Michael T.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Bubnik, Michelle; Shiels, Keri; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Waxmonsky, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is considered a core deficit in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with numerous studies demonstrating impaired WM among children with ADHD. We tested the degree to which WM in children with ADHD was improved by performance-based incentives, an analog of behavioral intervention. In two studies, WM performance was…

  9. Can Motivation Normalize Working Memory and Task Persistence in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? The Effects of Money and Computer-Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W.; Prins, Pier J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual-spatial "Working Memory" (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with-…

  10. Can motivation normalize working memory and task persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? The effects of money and computer-gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovis, S.; van der Oord, S.; Wiers, R.W.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual-spatial Working Memory (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of

  11. Brain Activation Patterns Associated with the Effects of Emotional Distracters during Working Memory Maintenance in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Yang, Jong-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the neural mechanisms of the effects of emotion on cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. In this functional MRI (fMRI), we investigated the effects of emotional interference on working memory (WM) maintenance in GAD patients. Fifteen patients with GAD participated in this study. Event-related fMRI data were obtained while the participants performed a WM task (face recognition) with neutral and anxiety-provoking distracters. The GAD patients showed impaired performance in WM task during emotional distracters and showed greater activation on brain regions such as DLPFC, VLPFC, amygdala, hippocampus which are responsible for the active maintenance of goal relevant information in WM and emotional processing. Although our results are not conclusive, our finding cautiously suggests the cognitive-affective interaction in GAD patients which shown interfering effect of emotional distracters on WM maintenance.

  12. Neuroanatomical assessment of the impact of negative emotion on implicit memory in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Eui; Yang, Jong-Chul; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2016-08-01

    We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to discriminate the differential brain activation patterns in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls during implicit retrieval tasks with emotionally neutral and unpleasant words. Sixteen patients with OCD (mean age: 31.4±10.1 years) and 16 healthy controls (mean age: 32.6±5.8 years) with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness underwent 3-T fMRI. The stimulation paradigm consisted of the following cycle: rest, encoding of a string of two-syllable words, rest, and retrieval of the previously encoded words with the first consonant omitted. During the implicit retrieval task with emotionally neutral words, no distinct brain activity was observed in either the patients with OCD or healthy controls. On the other hand, during the retrieval task with unpleasant words, the patients with OCD showed predominant activity in the superior/middle temporal pole, medial superior frontal gyrus, and orbitofrontal cortex (uncorrected pmemory tasks with unpleasant words. Our results suggest that the impact of negative emotion on implicit memory task may be associated with the symptomatology of OCD. This finding may be helpful for understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie implicit memory retrieval, particularly the interaction between emotion and cognition, in patients with OCD.

  13. Word recognition memory in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as reflected by event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Prox-Vagedes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is increasingly diagnosed in adults. In this study we address the question whether there are impairments in recognition memory. Methods: In the present study 13 adults diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV and 13 healthy controls were examined with respect to event-related potentials (ERPs in a visual continuous word recognition paradigm to gain information about recognition memory effects in these patients. Results: The amplitude of one attention-related ERP-component, the N1, was significantly increased for the ADHD adults compared with the healthy controls in the occipital electrodes. The ERPs for the second presentation were significantly more positive than the ERPs for the first presentation. This effect did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusion: Neuronal activity related to an early attentional mechanism appears to be enhanced in ADHD patients. Concerning the early or the late part of the old/new effect ADHD patients show no difference which suggests that there are no differences with respect to recollection and familiarity based recognition processes.

  14. Effects of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol anesthesia on emotional memory consolidation in rats: Consequences for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morena, Maria; Berardi, Andrea; Peloso, Andrea; Valeri, Daniela; Palmery, Maura; Trezza, Viviana; Schelling, Gustav; Campolongo, Patrizia

    2017-06-30

    Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or emergency care patients, exposed to traumatic events, are at increased risk for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) development. Commonly used sedative/anesthetic agents can interfere with the mechanisms of memory formation, exacerbating or attenuating the memory for the traumatic event, and subsequently promote or reduce the risk of PTSD development. Here, we evaluated the effects of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol on fear memory consolidation and subsequent cognitive and emotional alterations related to traumatic stress exposure. Immediately following an inhibitory avoidance training, rats were intraperitoneally injected with ketamine (100-125mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (0.3-0.4mg/kg) or their vehicle and tested for 48h memory retention. Furthermore, the effects of ketamine (125mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (0.4mg/kg), propofol (300mg/kg) or their vehicle on long-term memory and social interaction were evaluated two weeks after drug injection in a rat PTSD model. Ketamine anesthesia increased memory retention without altering the traumatic memory strength in the PTSD model. However, ketamine induced a long-term reduction of social behavior. Conversely, dexmedetomidine markedly impaired memory retention, without affecting long-lasting cognitive or emotional behaviors in the PTSD model. We have previously shown that propofol anesthesia enhanced 48h memory retention. Here, we found that propofol induced an enduring traumatic memory enhancement and anxiogenic effects in the PTSD model. These findings provide new evidence for clinical studies showing that the use of ketamine or propofol anesthesia in emergency care and ICU might be more likely to promote the development of PTSD, while dexmedetomidine might have prophylactic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effects of Electroacupuncture Intervention on Oxygen Free Radicals and Expression of Apoptosis-related Proteins in Rats with Ischemic Learning and Memory Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhi-tao; Sun, Zhong-ren; Liu, Song-tao; Xiong, Sheng-biao; Liu, Yi-tian; Han, Xiao-xia; Sun, Hong-fang; Han, Yu-sheng; Yin, Hong-na; Xu, Jin-qiao; Li, Dong-dong

    2015-12-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) therapy on levels of oxygen free radicals (OFR) and hippocampal apoptosis-related protein expression in ischemic learning-memory disorder rats so as to investigate its mechanisms underlying improvement of ischemic learning-memory impairment. A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation (sham), model, medication, and EA groups, with 15 rats in each group. The learning-memory disorder model was made by occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries. EA (2- 3 Hz, 2 mA) was applied to "Zhi San Zhen" ["Shenting" (GV 24) and bilateral "Benshen" (GB 13)] for 30 min, once a day for 3 weeks. The rats of the medication group were treated by lavage of Aricept (0.03 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1)), once daily for 3 weeks. The rats' learning-memory ability was detected by Morris water maze tests and the state of hippocampal apoptosis cells was observed by light microscope after TUNEL staining and the expression of hippocampal Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry. Serum and hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were detected by chemical colorimetric analysis. Compared with the sham group, the escape latencies (place-navigation) after modeling were evidently prolonged, and the times of target-platform crossing in 90 sec (spatial probe test) considerably reduced in the model group (Plearning-memory ability. After the treatment for 21 d, the increased escape latency and the reduced target-platform crossing time in both EA and medication groups were reversed in comparison with the model group (Pmemory ability, and the effect of the EA group was significantly superior to that of the medication group (Plearning-memory ability in ischemic learning-memory disorder rats which may be associated with its effects in reducing blood and hippocampal OFR contents and hippocampal cellular apoptosis.

  16. Attention–memory training yields behavioral and academic improvements in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid with a learning disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias AC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Carlos Farias,1–4 Mara L Cordeiro,1,2,5 Erico PG Felden,6 Tiago S Bara,1,2 Cássia R Benko,1,2 Daniele Coutinho,1,2 Leandra F Martins,2 Rosilda TC Ferreira,1,2 James T McCracken5 1Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, 2Neurosciences Core, Pelé Pequeno Príncipe Research Institute, Curitiba, 3Department of Neuropediatrics, Children’s Hospital, Pequeno Príncipe, 4School of Medicine, University Positivo, Curitiba, Brazil; 5Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, US; 6Center for Health Science Research, Santa Catarina State University, Florianópolis, Brazil Background: Recent studies have suggested that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD may benefit from computerized cognitive training. Therapy implementation is especially complicated when ADHD is associated with learning disorders (LDs. This study tested the efficacy of a computer-based cognitive training program, namely, computerized cognitive training (CCT, in children with ADHD comorbid with an LD (ADHD-LD, with or without psychostimulant medication. Materials and methods: After diagnostic evaluations, 27 children with ADHD-LD (8 unmedicated and 19 medicated participated in CCT, which is intended to improve attention, memory, reasoning, visual processing, and executive functioning. The participants completed 24 1-hour sessions over 3 months. Neuropsychometric and standardized academic test results before and after training were compared to assess treatment efficacy. Shapiro–Wilk normality tests were applied, and subsequent Wilcoxon tests were used to identify significant differences in pre- versus post-training performance. Results: After CAT, children diagnosed with ADHD-LD showed 1 improvements in trained skills, measured directly within the software and indirectly by external psychometric tests; 2 improvements in

  17. Prefrontal responses to digit span memory phases in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a functional near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fenghua; Yennu, Amarnath; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Gonzalez-Lima, F; North, Carol S; Liu, Hanli

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related memory impairments have consistently implicated abnormal activities in the frontal and parietal lobes. However, most studies have used block designs and could not dissociate the multiple phases of working memory. In this study, the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in working memory phases was assessed among veterans with PTSD and age-/gender-matched healthy controls. Multichannel functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was utilized to measure prefrontal cortex hemodynamic activations during memory of neutral (i.e., not trauma-related) forward and backward digit span tasks. An event-related experimental design was utilized to dissociate the different phases (i.e., encoding, maintenance and retrieval) of working memory. The healthy controls showed robust hemodynamic activations during the encoding and retrieval processes. In contrast, the veterans with PTSD were found to have activations during the encoding process, but followed by distinct deactivations during the retrieval process. The PTSD participants, but not the controls, appeared to suppress prefrontal activity during memory retrieval. This deactivation was more pronounced in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the retrieval phase. These deactivations in PTSD patients might implicate an active inhibition of dorsolateral prefrontal neural activity during retrieval of working memory.

  18. Altered strategy in short-term memory for pictures in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanefuji, Masafumi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Takada, Yui; Imanaga, Hisako; Matsunaga, Mayumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sakai, Yasunari; Yoshida, Keiko; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-07-30

    Strategy in short-term memory for serially presented pictures shifts gradually from a non-phonological to a phonological method as memory ability increases during typical childhood development. However, little is known about the development of this strategic change in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To understand the neural basis of ADHD, we investigated short-term memory strategies using near-infrared spectroscopy. ADHD children aged from 6 to 12 years and age- and sex-matched control children were assessed in this study. Regional activity was monitored in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex to assess strategies used during short-term memory for visual or phonological objects. We examined the hypothesis that the strategic methods used would be correlated with memory ability. Higher memory ability and the phonological strategy were significantly correlated in the control group but not in the ADHD group. Intriguingly, ADHD children receiving methylphenidate treatment exhibited increased use of phonological strategy compared with those without. In conclusion, we found evidence of an altered strategy in short-term memory in ADHD children. The modulatory effect of methylphenidate indicates its therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prefrontal responses to digit span memory phases in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD: A functional near infrared spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-related memory impairments have consistently implicated abnormal activities in the frontal and parietal lobes. However, most studies have used block designs and could not dissociate the multiple phases of working memory. In this study, the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in working memory phases was assessed among veterans with PTSD and age-/gender-matched healthy controls. Multichannel functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS was utilized to measure prefrontal cortex hemodynamic activations during memory of neutral (i.e., not trauma-related forward and backward digit span tasks. An event-related experimental design was utilized to dissociate the different phases (i.e., encoding, maintenance and retrieval of working memory. The healthy controls showed robust hemodynamic activations during the encoding and retrieval processes. In contrast, the veterans with PTSD were found to have activations during the encoding process, but followed by distinct deactivations during the retrieval process. The PTSD participants, but not the controls, appeared to suppress prefrontal activity during memory retrieval. This deactivation was more pronounced in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the retrieval phase. These deactivations in PTSD patients might implicate an active inhibition of dorsolateral prefrontal neural activity during retrieval of working memory.

  20. A haplotype of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) is associated with visual memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chi-Yung; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-03

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common heritable childhood-onset psychiatric disorder with impaired visual memory. Based on the evidence from treatment effect of atomoxetine, which interacts directly with the norepinephrine transporter, on visual memory in children with ADHD, this study examined the linkage disequilibrium structure of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) and the association between SLC6A2 and ADHD and visual memory, a promising endophenotype for ADHD. This family-based association sample consisted of 382 probands with DSM-IV ADHD and their family members (n=1298 in total) of Han Chinese in Taiwan. Visual memory was assessed by the Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM) and Spatial Recognition Memory (SRM) tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). We screened 21 polymorphisms across SLC6A2 and used the Family-Based Association Test (FBAT) to test the associations of SLC6A2 polymorphisms with ADHD and the PRM and SRM measures. In haplotype analyses, a haplotype rs36011 (T)/rs1566652 (G) was significantly associated with ADHD (minimal p=0.045) after adjustment for multiple testing. In quantitative analyses, this TG haplotype also demonstrated significant associations with visual memory measures, including mean latency of correct responses in PRM (minimal p=0.019), total correct responses in PRM (minimal p=0.018), and total correct responses in SRM (minimal p=0.015). Our novel finding of the haplotype rs36011 (T)/rs1566652 (G) as a novel genetic marker involved in both ADHD disease susceptibility and visual memory suggests that allelic variations in SLC6A2 could provide insight into the pathways leading from genotype to phenotype of ADHD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Memory bias for emotional and illness-related words in patients with depression, anxiety and somatization disorders: an investigation with the directed forgetting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Terfehr, Kirsten; Meyer, Björn; Löwe, Bernd; Spitzer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Memory bias to emotion- and illness-related information plays a prominent role in many mental disorders, particularly major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders and somatoform disorder. The current study aimed to investigate memory bias in different mental disorders by using neutral, emotionally valenced and illness-related word stimuli in a directed forgetting task. Seventy-eight inpatients from a university-based psychosomatic hospital participated in the study. The item method of the directed forgetting task was used, in which participants are instructed to either forget or remember each item immediately after it has been presented. Memory performance was tested with a free recall test. Overall, 36 words were presented - 6 from each of 6 categories: neutral, negative, positive, illness related ('somatoform'), depression related, and anxiety related. Three words of each category were to be remembered and 3 were to be forgotten. Independently of the patients' diagnoses, we found that most patients had relative difficulties remembering anxiety- and depression-related words, compared to neutral words, when they were instructed to remember them. By contrast, in the 'instructed forgetting' condition, patients showed deficits in the ability to forget illness-related stimuli relative to neutral material. These effects were unspecific with regard to diagnosis. The results in the 'instructed remembering' condition might be interpreted in the context of cognitive avoidance instead of a memory bias. In the 'instructed forgetting' condition, it appeared that illness-related words were more difficult to suppress compared to the other word types, which could explain the observed memory bias. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Brief Report: Memory for Self-Performed Actions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Why Does Memory of Self Decline in ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Masumoto, Kouhei

    2018-04-05

    The decline in self-related memory in ASD was investigated by using encoding, forgetting, and source monitoring. Participants memorized action sentences verbally, observationally, or by enacted encoding. Then, they underwent recall, recognition, and source monitoring memory tests immediately and 1 week later. If the information were properly encoded, memory performance in the enacted encoding would be the highest (enactment effect). The result of memory tests in ASD and TD people showed that enacted encoding was superior. However, recall and source monitoring in ASD was significantly lower than in TD, which was not the case for recognition and forgetting. These results suggest that the decline in memory of self in ASD is associated with a deficit in memory reconstruction and source monitoring.

  3. Estimation of working memory in macaques for studying drugs for the treatment of cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccafusco, Jerry J

    2008-12-01

    Non-human primates have served as subjects for studies of the cognition-enhancing potential of novel pharmacological agents for over 25 years. Only recently has a greater appreciation of the translational applicability of this model been realized. Though most Old-World monkeys do not appear to acquire an Alzheimer's-like syndrome in old age, their value resides in the brain physiology they have in common with humans. Paradigms like the delayed matching-to-sample task engender behavior that models aspects of working memory that are substrates for the actions of cognition-enhancing drugs. Our studies have provided information relevant to factors that limit the effectiveness of clinical trial design for compounds that potentially improve cognition. For example, cognition-enhancing compounds from different pharmacological classes, when administered to monkeys, can exhibit remarkable pharmacodynamic effects that outlast the presence of the drug in the body. Studies with non-human primates also can provide information regarding dose ranges and individual subject sensitivity experienced in the clinic. Components of working memory are differentially sensitive to drug effects and may be characterized by different dose ranges for certain compounds, even within the same task. Examples are provided that underscore the possible idiosyncrasies of drug action in the pharmacology of cognition--which could be of critical importance in the design of clinical trials.

  4. Verbal and musical short-term memory: Variety of auditory disorders after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirel, Catherine; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Lévêque, Yohana; Hannoun, Salem; Fornoni, Lesly; Daligault, Sébastien; Bouchet, Patrick; Jung, Julien; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks. All participants then performed verbal and musical auditory short-term memory (STM) tasks that were implemented in the same way for both materials. Participants had to indicate whether series of four words or four tones presented in pairs, were the same or different. To detect domain-general STM deficits, they also had to perform a visual STM task. Behavioral results showed that patients had lower performance for the STM tasks in comparison with control participants, regardless of the material (words, tones, visual) and the lesion side. The individual patient data showed a double dissociation between some patients exhibiting verbal deficits without musical deficits or the reverse. Exploratory VLSM analyses suggested that dorsal pathways are involved in verbal (phonetic), musical (melodic), and visual STM, while the ventral auditory pathway is involved in musical STM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Encoding Deficits Impede Word Learning and Memory in Adults with Developmental Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Karla K.; Gordon, Katherine; Eden, Nichole; Arbisi-Kelm, Tim; Oleson, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether the word-learning challenges associated with developmental language disorder (DLD) result from encoding or retention deficits. Method In Study 1, 59 postsecondary students with DLD and 60 with normal development (ND) took the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition, Adult Version…

  6. Eating disorder symptoms and autobiographical memory bias in an analogue sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Huntjens, Rafaële

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive theories hold that dysfunctional cognitive schemas and associated information-processing biases are involved in the maintenance of psychopathology. In eating disorders (ED), these schemas would consist of self-evaluative representations, in which the importance of controlling eating, shape

  7. Memory traces of trauma: Neurocognitive aspects of and therapeutic approaches for posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, 81% of the general population experiences at least one potentially traumatic event in their life, such as a traffic accident, assault, rape, or disaster. Around 7% of people fulfill the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder at some point during their life. Certain details of

  8. Emotional memory and perception of emotional faces in patients suffering from depersonalization disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, B.; Sierra, M.; Medford, N.; Hunter, E.; Baker, D.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Haan, E.H.F. de; David, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has shown that patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) have reduced physiological responses to emotional stimuli, which may be related to subjective emotional numbing. This study investigated two aspects of affective processing in 13 patients with DPD according to the DSM-IV

  9. Memory transfer for emotionally valenced words between identities in dissociative identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; Peters, Madelon L.; Woertman, Liesbeth; van der Hart, Onno; Postma, Albert

    The present study aimed to determine interidentity retrieval of emotionally valenced words in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Twenty-two DID patients participated together with 25 normal controls and 25 controls instructed to simulate DID. Two wordlists A and B were constructed including

  10. Short-Term Memory and Auditory Processing Disorders: Concurrent Validity and Clinical Diagnostic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerlender, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are of interest to educators and clinicians, as they impact school functioning. Little work has been completed to demonstrate how children with APDs perform on clinical tests. In a series of studies, standard clinical (psychometric) tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition…

  11. Amnestic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.; Cautin, R.L.; Lilienfeld, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished:

  12. The impact of glucose disorders on cognition and brain volumes in the elderly: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Katherine; Lutgers, Helen L; Kochan, Nicole A; Crawford, John D; Campbell, Lesley V; Wen, Wei; Slavin, Melissa J; Baune, Bernard T; Lipnicki, Darren M; Brodaty, Henry; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes predicts accelerated cognitive decline and brain atrophy. We hypothesized that impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and incident glucose disorders have detrimental effects on global cognition and brain volume. We further hypothesized that metabolic and inflammatory derangements accompanying hyperglycaemia contribute to change in brain structure and function. This was a longitudinal study of a community-dwelling elderly cohort with neuropsychological testing (n = 880) and brain volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 312) measured at baseline and 2 years. Primary outcomes were global cognition and total brain volume. Secondary outcomes were cognitive domains (processing speed, memory, language, visuospatial and executive function) and brain volumes (hippocampal, parahippocampal, precuneus and frontal lobe). Participants were categorised as normal, impaired fasting glucose at both assessments (stable IFG), baseline diabetes or incident glucose disorders (incident diabetes or IFG at 2 years). Measures included inflammatory cytokines and oxidative metabolites. Covariates were age, sex, education, non-English speaking background, smoking, blood pressure, lipid-lowering or antihypertensive medications, mood score, apolipoprotein E genotype and baseline cognition or brain volume. Participants with incident glucose disorders had greater decline in global cognition and visuospatial function compared to normal, similar to that observed in baseline diabetes. Homocysteine was independently associated with the observed effect of diabetes on executive function. Apolipoprotein E genotype did not influence the observed effects of diabetes on cognition. Incident glucose disorders and diabetes were also associated with greater 2-year decline in total brain volume, compared to normal (40.0 ± 4.2 vs. 46.7 ± 5.7 mm(3) vs. 18.1 ± 6.2, respectively, p cognition or brain volumes compared to normal. Incident glucose disorders, like diabetes, are

  13. Preventive Effect of Liothyronine on Electroconvulsive Therapy-Induced Memory Deficit in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mohagheghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective. Despite the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in treating major depressive disorder (MDD, its cognitive side effects make it less popular. This study investigated the impact of liothyronine on ECT-induced memory deficit in patients with MDD. Methodology. This is a double-blind clinical trial, in which 60 patients with MDD who were referred for ECT were selected. The diagnosis was based on the criteria of DSM-IV-TR. Patients were divided randomly into two groups to receive either liothyronine (50 mcg every morning or placebo. After the assessment with Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R before first session of ECT, posttests were repeated again, two months after the completion of ECT. Findings. By controlling the pretest scores, the mean scores of the experimental group were higher than the control group in delayed recall, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, and attention/concentration scales (P<0.05. Conclusion. Liothyronine may prevent ECT-induced memory impairment in patients with MDD. This study has been registered in IRCT under IRCT201401122660N2.

  14. Epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene is linked to traumatic memory and post-traumatic stress disorder risk in genocide survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukojevic, Vanja; Kolassa, Iris-T; Fastenrath, Matthias; Gschwind, Leo; Spalek, Klara; Milnik, Annette; Heck, Angela; Vogler, Christian; Wilker, Sarah; Demougin, Philippe; Peter, Fabian; Atucha, Erika; Stetak, Attila; Roozendaal, Benno; Elbert, Thomas; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2014-07-30

    Recent evidence suggests that altered expression and epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) are related to the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unknown. Because glucocorticoid receptor signaling is known to regulate emotional memory processes, particularly in men, epigenetic modifications of NR3C1 might affect the strength of traumatic memories. Here, we found that increased DNA methylation at the NGFI-A (nerve growth factor-induced protein A) binding site of the NR3C1 promoter was associated with less intrusive memory of the traumatic event and reduced PTSD risk in male, but not female survivors of the Rwandan genocide. NR3C1 methylation was not significantly related to hyperarousal or avoidance symptoms. We further investigated the relationship between NR3C1 methylation and memory functions in a neuroimaging study in healthy subjects. Increased NR3C1 methylation-which was associated with lower NR3C1 expression-was related to reduced picture recognition in male, but not female subjects. Furthermore, we found methylation-dependent differences in recognition memory-related brain activity in men. Together, these findings indicate that an epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter is linked to interindividual and gender-specific differences in memory functions and PTSD risk. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3310274-11$15.00/0.

  15. A potential link among biogenic amines-based pesticides, learning and memory, and colony collapse disorder: a unique hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Tahira

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are substances that have been widely used throughout the world to kill, repel, or control organisms such as certain forms of plants or animals considered as pests. Depending on their type, dose, and persistence in the environment, they can have impact even on non-target species such as beneficial insects (honeybees) in different ways, including reduction in their survival rate and interference with their reproduction process. Honeybee Apis mellifera is a major pollinator and has substantial economical and ecological values. Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is a mysterious phenomenon in which adult honeybee workers suddenly abandon from their hives, leaving behind food, brood, and queen. It is lately drawing a lot of attention due to pollination crisis as well as global agriculture and medical demands. If the problem of CCD is not resolved soon enough, this could have a major impact on food industry affecting world's economy a big time. Causes of CCD are not known. In this overview, I discuss CCD, biogenic amines-based-pesticides (neonicotinoids and formamidines), and their disruptive effects on biogenic amine signaling causing olfactory dysfunction in honeybees. According to my hypothesis, chronic exposure of biogenic amines-based-pesticides to honeybee foragers in hives and agricultural fields can disrupt neural cholinergic and octopaminergic signaling. Abnormality in biogenic amines-mediated neuronal signaling impairs their olfactory learning and memory, therefore foragers do not return to their hive - a possible cause of CCD. This overview is an attempt to discuss a hypothetical link among biogenic amines-based pesticides, olfactory learning and memory, and CCD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves short-term memory in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Douglas Teixeira; de Souza, Andressa; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Oliveira, Carla; Grevet, Eugenio Horacio; Caumo, Wolnei; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Torres, Iraci L S

    2016-02-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impairing levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. However, different meta-analyses have reported disruptions in short and long-term memory in ADHD patients. Previous studies indicate that mnemonic dysfunctions might be the result of deficits in attentional circuits, probably due to ineffective dopaminergic modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In this study we aimed to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of a neuromodulatory technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in short-term memory (STM) deficits presented by the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), the most widely used animal model of ADHD. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were subjected to a constant electrical current of 0.5 mA intensity applied on the frontal cortex for 20 min/day during 8 days. STM was evaluated with an object recognition test conducted in an open field. Exploration time and locomotion were recorded, and brain regions were dissected to determine dopamine and BDNF levels. SHR spent less time exploring the new object when compared to WKY, and tDCS improved object recognition deficits in SHR without affecting WKY performance. Locomotor activity was higher in SHR and it was not affected by tDCS. After stimulation, dopamine levels were increased in the hippocampus and striatum of both strains, while BDNF levels were increased only in the striatum of WKY. These findings suggest that tDCS on the frontal cortex might be able to improve STM deficits present in SHR, which is potentially related to dopaminergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus and striatum of those animals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Early-onset alcoholism with conduct disorder: go/no go learning deficits, working memory capacity, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter R; Mazas, Carlos A; Justus, Alicia N; Steinmetz, Joseph

    2002-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the disinhibitory mechanisms that (1) discriminate early-onset alcoholism (EOA) with conduct disorder (CD; antisocial EOA) from a non-antisocial subtype of EOA and (2) are associated with novelty-seeking and low harm avoidance. Young adults with antisocial EOA (n = 96), with non-antisocial EOA (without CD; n = 80), with CD alone (n = 50), and controls (n = 125) were given two go/no go tasks (one with monetary loss and the other with shock punishment), the Digit Span test (working memory capacity), and personality measures of harm avoidance, novelty-seeking/impulsivity, excitement-seeking, and negative affectivity. Study 1 revealed that antisocial EOA subjects had poor behavioral inhibition compared with non-antisocial EOAs and controls on both go/no go tasks and with the CD-alone group on the monetary-loss task. Low Digit Span scores accentuated poor inhibition in antisocial EOAs on the monetary loss, but not the shock task. EOA with low Digit Span was associated with higher hit rates on the shock task. Study 2 revealed that antisocial EOAs had high novelty-seeking/impulsivity and low harm avoidance compared with both non-antisocial EOAs and controls. Low harm avoidance was associated with poor inhibition with shock punishment, and this association was mediated by CD. For subjects with low Digit Span scores, novelty-seeking/impulsivity was associated with poor inhibition to monetary-loss punishment and higher hit rates to shock punishment. The results suggest two disinhibitory mechanisms that distinguish antisocial from non-antisocial EOA: an increased sensitivity to reward in nonaversive contexts associated with novelty-seeking/impulsivity and a decreased sensitivity to punishment in aversive contexts associated with low harm avoidance. Results also suggest that EOA and novelty-seeking/impulsivity are associated with a greater response to rewards in those with low working memory capacity.

  18. Spatial navigation, episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind in children with autism spectrum disorder: evidence for impairments in mental simulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This study explored spatial navigation alongside several other cognitive abilities that are thought to share common underlying neurocognitive mechanisms (e.g., the capacity for self-projection, scene construction, or mental simulation), and which we hypothesized may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty intellectually high-functioning children with ASD (with a mean age of ~8 years) were compared to 20 sex, age, IQ, and language ability matched typically developing children on a series of tasks to assess spatial navigation, episodic memory, episodic future thinking (also known as episodic foresight or prospection), theory of mind (ToM), relational memory, and central coherence. This is the first study to explore these abilities concurrently within the same sample. Spatial navigation was assessed using the “memory island” task, which involves finding objects within a realistic, computer simulated, three-dimensional environment. Episodic memory and episodic future thinking were assessed using a past and future event description task. ToM was assessed using the “animations” task, in which children were asked to describe the interactions between two animated triangles. Relational memory was assessed using a recognition task involving memory for items (line drawings), patterned backgrounds, or combinations of items and backgrounds. Central coherence was assessed by exploring differences in performance across segmented and unsegmented versions of block design. Children with ASD were found to show impairments in spatial navigation, episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and central coherence, but not ToM or relational memory. Among children with ASD, spatial navigation was found to be significantly negatively related to the number of repetitive behaviors. In other words, children who showed more repetitive behaviors showed poorer spatial navigation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:25538661

  19. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype modulates working memory-related dorsolateral prefrontal response and performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, K W; Kjaerstad, H L; Støttrup, M M; Svendsen, A M; Demant, K M; Hoeffding, L K; Werge, T M; Burdick, K E; Domschke, K; Carvalho, A F; Vieta, E; Vinberg, M; Kessing, L V; Siebner, H R; Macoveanu, J

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working memory in BD. Sixty-four outpatients with BD in full or partial remission were stratified according to COMT Val158Met genotype (ValVal [n=13], ValMet [n=34], and MetMet [n=17]). The patients completed a spatial n-back working memory task during fMRI and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) Spatial Working Memory test outside the scanner. During high working memory load (2-back vs 1-back), Val homozygotes displayed decreased activity relative to ValMet individuals, with Met homozygotes displaying intermediate levels of activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) (P=.016). Exploratory whole-brain analysis revealed a bilateral decrease in working memory-related dlPFC activity in the ValVal group vs the ValMet group which was not associated with differences in working memory performance during fMRI. Outside the MRI scanner, Val carriers performed worse in the CANTAB Spatial Working Memory task than Met homozygotes (P≤.006), with deficits being most pronounced in Val homozygotes. The association between Val allelic load, dlPFC activity and WM impairment points to a putative role of aberrant PFC dopamine tonus in the cognitive impairments in BD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. How high level of anxiety in Panic Disorder can interfere in working memory? A computer simulation and electrophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio Silva, Luiza Wanick; Aprigio, Danielle; Di Giacomo, Jesse; Gongora, Mariana; Budde, Henning; Bittencourt, Juliana; Cagy, Mauricio; Teixeira, Silmar; Ribeiro, Pedro; de Carvalho, Marcele Regine; Freire, Rafael; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Basile, Luis Fernando; Velasques, Bruna

    2017-12-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by repeated and unexpected attacks of intense anxiety, which are not restricted to a determined situation or circumstance. The coherence function has been used to investigate the communication among brain structures through the quantitative EEG (qEEG). The objective of this study is to analyze if there is a difference in frontoparietal gamma coherence (GC) between panic disorder patients (PDP) and healthy controls (HC) during the Visual oddball paradigm; and verify if high levels of anxiety (produced by a computer simulation) affect PDP's working memory. Nine PDP (9 female with average age of 48.8, SD: 11.16) and ten HC (1 male and 9 female with average age of 38.2, SD: 13.69) were enrolled in this study. The subjects performed the visual oddball paradigm simultaneously to the EEG record before and after the presentation of computer simulation (CS). A two-way ANOVA was applied to analyze the factors Group and the Moment for each pair of electrodes separately, and another one to analyze the reaction time variable. We verified a F3-P3 GC increased after the CS movie, demonstrating the left hemisphere participation during the anxiety processing. The greater GC in HC observed in the frontal and parietal areas (P3-Pz, F4-F8 and Fp2-F4) points to the participation of these areas with the expected behavior. The greater GC in PDP for F7-F3 and F4-P4 pairs of electrodes assumes that it produces a prejudicial "noise" during information processing, and can be associated to interference on the communication between frontal and parietal areas. This "noise" during information processing is related to PD symptoms, which should be better known in order to develop effective treatment strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the protective effect of etazolate on memory impairment, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by post traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Al Subeh, Zeinab Y; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that develops after an individual experiences severe life-threatening traumatic stress. Etazolate is a selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor that is specific for cAMP. Etazolate showed anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and could be useful in managing PTSD co-morbidities. The current study was done to evaluate the role of etazolate in preventing PTSD induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression-like symptoms. PTSD was induced in rats using single prolonged stress model. Etazolate was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 1mg/kg/day. The radial arm water maze was used to assess learning and memory. The elevated plus maze, open field, and tail suspension tests were conducted to test anxiety- and depression-like symptoms. The PTSD was associated with short- and long-term memory impairment, which was prevented by etazolate administration. Moreover, PTSD was associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Etazolate administration prevented these symptoms. In conclusion, our data suggests that memory impairment, anxiety, and depression symptoms that are induced by PTSD can be prevented using etazolate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A meta-analytic review of overgeneral memory: The role of trauma history, mood, and the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Miyuki; Devilly, Grant J; Shum, David H K

    2016-03-01

    A number of studies suggest that a history of trauma, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with autobiographical memory deficits, notably overgeneral memory (OGM). However, whether there are any group differences in the nature and magnitude of OGM has not been evaluated. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify group differences in OGM. The effect sizes were pooled from studies examining the effect on OGM from a history of trauma (e.g., childhood sexual abuse), and the presence of PTSD or current depression (e.g., major depressive disorder). Using multiple search engines, 13 trauma studies and 12 depression studies were included in this review. A depression effect was observed on OGM with a large effect size, and was more evident by the lack of specific memories, especially to positive cues. An effect of trauma history on OGM was observed with a medium effect size, and this was most evident by the presence of overgeneral responses to negative cues. The results also suggested an amplified memory deficit in the presence of PTSD. That is, the effect sizes of OGM among individuals with PTSD were very large and relatively equal across different types of OGM. Future studies that directly compare the differences of OGM among 4 samples (i.e., controls, current depression without trauma history, trauma history without depression, and trauma history and depression) would be warranted to verify the current findings. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Dizziness and progressively poor memory for one year, combined with epilepsy, mental and behavior disorder for 19 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun JIANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that neurosyphilis has various brain MRI manifestations. In this report, we present a rare case with DWI lace-like high signal in cerebral cortex, which is usually seen in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. A 50-year-old male developed dizziness, poor memory, seizures, mental and behavioral disorders, and was admitted to our Emergency Department, where he experienced sudden left hemiplegia. Rapid plasma regain (RPR and treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA was positive in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. CSF: 14-3-3 protein (+. Brain MRI showed high FLAIR signals in the right frontal lobe, temporal lobe, insular lobe, occipital lobe and thalamus before the treatment. As for this patient, it was difficult to differentiate CJD from neurosyphilis at first. He was given penicillin treatment and responded well. Those lesions in brain MRI decreased after treatment. This case was reported to raise the awareness of early treatment of neruosyphilis and showed a special DWI lace-like image of this disease. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.016

  4. Abnormal self-schema in semantic memory in major depressive disorder: Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Michael; Farzan, Faranak; Blumberger, Daniel M; Kutas, Marta; McKinnon, Margaret C; Kansal, Vinay; Rajji, Tarek K; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2017-05-01

    An overly negative self-schema is a proposed cognitive mechanism of major depressive disorder (MDD). Self-schema - one's core conception of self, including how strongly one believes one possesses various characteristics - is part of semantic memory (SM), our knowledge about concepts and their relationships. We used the N400 event-related potential (ERP) - elicited by meaningful stimuli, and reduced by greater association of the stimulus with preceding context - to measure association strength between self-concept and positive, negative, and neutral characteristics in SM. ERPs were recorded from MDD patients (n=16) and controls (n=16) who viewed trials comprising a self-referential phrase followed by a positive, negative, or neutral adjective. Participants' task was to indicate via button-press whether or not they felt each adjective described themselves. Controls endorsed more positive adjectives than did MDD patients, but the opposite was true for negative adjectives. Patients had smaller N400s than controls specifically for negative adjectives, suggesting that MDD is associated with stronger than normal functional neural links between self-concept and negative characteristics in SM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-Predictions of Prospective Memory in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders: Evidence of a Metamemory Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaletto, Kaitlin Blackstone; Doyle, Katie L.; Weber, Erica; Woods, Steven Paul; Heaton, Robert K.; Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; Sherman, Melanie; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; McCutchan, J. Allen; Best, Brookie; Schrier, Rachel; Rosario, Debra; Heaton, Robert K.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Woods, Steven Paul; D, Psy; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Cherner, Mariana; Moore, David J.; Dawson, Matthew; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Hesselink, John; Archibald, Sarah L.; Brown, Gregory; Buxton, Richard; Dale, Anders; Liu, Thomas; Masliah, Eliezer; Achim, Cristian; Smith, David M.; Richman, Douglas; McCutchan, J. Allen; Cherner, Mariana; Achim, Cristian; Lipton, Stuart; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; Gamst, Anthony C.; Cushman, Clint; Abramson, Ian; Vaida, Florin; Deutsch, Reena; Umlauf, Anya

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are associated with deficits in prospective memory (PM; “remembering to remember”), conferring risk of daily functioning declines. However, self-perceptions of PM functioning are not reliably associated with PM performance in HIV, suggesting a possible deficit in awareness of PM abilities (meta-PM). Our study examined meta-PM in HAND and its correlates using self-predictions of laboratory-based PM performance. Performance-based PM abilities, self-reported prediction of PM performance, and PM complaints in everyday life were assessed in 49 individuals with HAND, 93 HIV+ without HAND (HIV+ noHAND), and 121 seronegative adults (HIV−). After controlling for group-level differences, HAND was associated with a greater number of PM symptoms in everyday life and worse PM performance when compared with both HIV+ noHAND and HIV− samples. Although HAND individuals reported somewhat lower predictions regarding their laboratory PM performance relative to the other study groups, they nevertheless exhibited significantly greater inaccurate overconfidence in time-based PM abilities. Within the HAND group, overconfidence in time-based meta-PM was associated with executive dysfunction and antiretroviral (ARV) nonadherence. HAND individuals evidenced a moderate deficit in awareness of PM functioning characterized by overconfidence in time-based PM abilities. Overconfidence in PM may result in absence of compensatory strategy use, and lead to increased errors in daily functioning (e.g., ARV nonadherence). PMID:25404005

  6. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate context memory and hyperarousal in a mouse model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Vogt, Miriam A; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta; Gass, Peter

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running as model for intervention on the development of contextual fear and hyperarousal in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Physical exercise in general has been associated with improved hippocampus-dependent memory performance both in animals and humans. However, studies that have tried to link physical exercise and contextual conditioning in an animal model of PTSD, revealed mixed findings. Here we tested contextual fear conditioning, generalized fear response, acoustic startle response and emotionality in C57BL/6NCrl mice which had free access to a running wheel for 28 days, compared with control animals which did not run and mice which did not receive a shock during the conditioning phase. We found no significant effects of voluntary running on the above-mentioned variables, except for enhanced anxiety levels in the Dark-Light-Box and O-Maze tests of running mice. Our results suggest that running as a model for intervention does not ameliorate contextual aversive learning but has the potency to change emotional behaviours.

  7. Selective deficit in spatial memory strategies contrast to intact response strategies in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders tested in a virtual navigation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Leanne K; Girard, Todd A; Konishi, Kyoko; King, Matthew; Herdman, Katherine A; King, Jelena; Christensen, Bruce; Bohbot, Veronique D

    2013-11-01

    Spatial memory is impaired among persons with schizophrenia (SCZ). However, different strategies may be used to solve most spatial memory and navigation tasks. This study investigated the hypothesis that participants with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) would demonstrate differential impairment during acquisition and retrieval of target locations when using a hippocampal-dependent spatial strategy, but not a response strategy, which is more associated with caudate function. Healthy control (CON) and SSD participants were tested using the 4-on-8 virtual maze (4/8VM), a virtual navigation task designed to differentiate between participants' use of spatial and response strategies. Consistent with our predictions, SSD participants demonstrated a differential deficit such that those who navigated using a spatial strategy made more errors and took longer to locate targets. In contrast, SSD participants who spontaneously used a response strategy performed as well as CON participants. The differential pattern of spatial-memory impairment in SSD provides only indirect support for underlying hippocampal dysfunction. These findings emphasize the importance of considering individual strategies when investigating SSD-related memory and navigation performance. Future cognitive intervention protocols may harness SSD participants' intact ability to navigate using a response strategy and/or train the deficient ability to navigate using a spatial strategy to improve navigation and memory abilities in participants with SSD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. How music training enhances working memory: a cerebrocerebellar blending mechanism that can lead equally to scientific discovery and therapeutic efficacy in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervert, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Following in the vein of studies that concluded that music training resulted in plastic changes in Einstein's cerebral cortex, controlled research has shown that music training (1) enhances central executive attentional processes in working memory, and (2) has also been shown to be of significant therapeutic value in neurological disorders. Within this framework of music training-induced enhancement of central executive attentional processes, the purpose of this article is to argue that: (1) The foundational basis of the central executive begins in infancy as attentional control during the establishment of working memory, (2) In accordance with Akshoomoff, Courchesne and Townsend's and Leggio and Molinari's cerebellar sequence detection and prediction models, the rigors of volitional control demands of music training can enhance voluntary manipulation of information in thought and movement, (3) The music training-enhanced blending of cerebellar internal models in working memory as can be experienced as intuition in scientific discovery (as Einstein often indicated) or, equally, as moments of therapeutic advancement toward goals in the development of voluntary control in neurological disorders, and (4) The blending of internal models as in (3) thus provides a mechanism by which music training enhances central executive processes in working memory that can lead to scientific discovery and improved therapeutic outcomes in neurological disorders. Within the framework of Leggio and Molinari's cerebellar sequence detection model, it is determined that intuitive steps forward that occur in both scientific discovery and during therapy in those with neurological disorders operate according to the same mechanism of adaptive error-driven blending of cerebellar internal models. It is concluded that the entire framework of the central executive structure of working memory is a product of the cerebrocerebellar system which can, through the learning of internal models

  9. Emotional memory expression is misleading : delineating transitions between memory processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faliagkas, L.; Rao-Ruiz, P.; Kindt, M.

    The hypothesis that fear memory is not necessarily permanent but can change when retrieved opens avenues to develop revolutionary treatments for emotional memory disorders. Memory reconsolidation is however only one of several mnemonic processes that may be triggered by memory reactivation and

  10. Confinement-Higgs transition in a disordered gauge theory and the accuracy threshold for quantum memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chenyang; Harrington, Jim; Preskill, John

    2003-01-01

    disorder

  11. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype modulates working memory-related dorsolateral prefrontal response and performance in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K. W.; Kjærstad, H. L.; Støttrup, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyl......OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol......-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working...... memory in BD. METHODS: Sixty-four outpatients with BD in full or partial remission were stratified according to COMT Val158Met genotype (ValVal [n=13], ValMet [n=34], and MetMet [n=17]). The patients completed a spatial n-back working memory task during fMRI and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test...

  12. The impact of early shame memories in Binge Eating Disorder: The mediator effect of current body image shame and cognitive fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the phenomenology of shame experiences from childhood and adolescence in a sample of women with Binge Eating Disorder. Moreover, a path analysis was investigated testing whether the association between shame-related memories which are traumatic and central to identity, and binge eating symptoms' severity, is mediated by current external shame, body image shame and body image cognitive fusion. Participants in this study were 114 patients, who were assessed through the Eating Disorder Examination and the Shame Experiences Interview, and through self-report measures of external shame, body image shame, body image cognitive fusion and binge eating symptoms. Shame experiences where physical appearance was negatively commented or criticized by others were the most frequently recalled. A path analysis showed a good fit between the hypothesised mediational model and the data. The traumatic and centrality qualities of shame-related memories predicted current external shame, especially body image shame. Current shame feelings were associated with body image cognitive fusion, which, in turn, predicted levels of binge eating symptomatology. Findings support the relevance of addressing early shame-related memories and negative affective and self-evaluative experiences, namely related to body image, in the understanding and management of binge eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Cross-Syndrome Study of the Differential Effects of Sleep on Declarative Memory Consolidation in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays an active role in memory consolidation. Because children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) experience significant problems with sleep and also with learning, we predicted that sleep-dependent memory consolidation would be impaired in these children when compared to typically developing (TD) children. This is the first…

  14. Working Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Contribution of Central Executive and Subsystem Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Mark D.; Alderson, R. Matt; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sims, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated contradictory findings from recent experimental and meta-analytic studies concerning working memory deficits in ADHD. Working memory refers to the cognitive ability to temporarily store and mentally manipulate limited amounts of information for use in guiding behavior. Phonological (verbal) and visuospatial…

  15. Neuroepigenetic regulation of pathogenic memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Sillivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain’s emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on 2 neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  16. Working memory training in children with neuropsychiatric disorders and mild to borderline intellectual functioning, the role of coaching; a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roording-Ragetlie, Sammy; Klip, Helen; Buitelaar, Jan; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2017-03-28

    Working memory training (WMT) has been shown to offer therapeutic benefits to both patients with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and patients with mild to borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID; 60 effects and treatment benefits of WMT over placebo training are lacking. Owing to the nature of double-blind research designs in RCTs, children have received non-specific coaching not based on their actual training performance. Active coaching based on individual training results (such as in clinical practice) might enhance the efficacy of Cogmed WMT. Furthermore, clinical experience and the general treatment approach to these vulnerable children has shown that the intensity and duration of WMT is often too stressful. This study therefore investigated the efficacy of a less intensive, but more prolonged Cogmed WMT (including active personalized coaching and feedback) in reducing behavioral symptoms and improving neurocognitive functioning and academic achievements in children with MBID and neuropsychiatric disorders. A double-blind RCT with children (age 10.0-13.11) with neuropsychiatric disorders (ADHD and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD)) and MBID (IQ: 60 working memory, executive functioning, academic achievements) before and after training and complete several questionnaires (behavioral problems, parenting style) with a 6 months follow-up. This study will add to the literature since the role of coaching in Cogmed WMT has not been studied before. It will also provide opportunities to investigate an alternative version of WMT in a large group of vulnerable children, for whom few evidence-based treatments are available. Ultimately, this will allow us to advise mental health care professionals and special education schools about the use of this type of intervention for children with MBID and neuropsychiatric disorders. Dutch Trial Register. NTR5223 . Registration date 06-09-2015.

  17. In search of the trauma memory: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sartory

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients' attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being

  18. The effects of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on the emotion-induced memory trade-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R. Mickley Steinmetz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of memory changes in individuals with PTSD have focused on memory for trauma. However, it is unclear if these mnemonic differences extend beyond trauma memory to memory for other positive and negative information and if they are specific to individuals with PTSD or extend to other individuals who have experienced trauma. The present study examined the influences of trauma exposure and PTSD on an effect that may parallel tunnel memory in PTSD: the emotion-induced memory trade-off, whereby emotional aspects of an experience are remembered at the expense of the nonemotional context. Three groups (25 with current PTSD, 27 who had experienced trauma but did not have current PTSD, and 25 controls who had neither experienced significant trauma nor met criteria for current PTSD were shown complex visual scenes that included an item (positive, negative, or neutral placed on a neutral background. 45 minutes later, participants underwent a recognition memory test for the items and backgrounds separately. An emotion-induced memory trade-off was said to occur when there was a significant difference in item and background memory for emotional scenes, but not for neutral scenes. People with PTSD, like the other groups, were more likely to remember positive and negative items than neutral items. People with PTSD exhibited a memory trade-off, but this trade-off was no larger than for the non-trauma control group. Trauma-exposed people without a current diagnosis of PTSD did not show a trade-off, because they remembered the items within scenes better than their contexts even for neutral scenes. These results suggest that i the effect of emotion on memory for visual scenes is similar in people with PTSD and control participants, and ii people who have experienced trauma, but do not have PTSD, may have a different way of attending to and remembering visual scenes, exhibiting less of a memory trade-off than either control participants or people with

  19. [Sleep, memory, and learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallinen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between sleep and memory and learning has proved multifilament. Besides supporting cognitive functions needed to encode, storage and retrieve materials while awake, sleep is a state during which some of the memory traces are reactivated and consolidated. Also, sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea and insufficient sleep in children and adolescents are accompanied with impairments of memory and learning as well as work and school performance. There are treatments for these disorders such as congnitive-behavioural therapy and continuous positive airway pressure, which, at least to some extent, mitigate cognitive impairments and consequently support memory and learning.

  20. Compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium Extract Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Disorders in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Liu, Cong; Jing, Shu; Wang, Mengyang; Wang, Han; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Jianguang; Li, He

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a da...

  1. CompoundSchisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-LyciumExtract Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Disorders in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Liu, Cong; Jing, Shu; Wang, Mengyang; Wang, Han; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Jianguang; Li, He

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra , Ginseng , Notoginseng , and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a day for 30 days and then mouse learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze and step-through tests. The mechanisms of CSGNL improving learning and memory were investigated by assaying acetylcholine (ACh) levels and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the brain tissues of treated mice. The results showed that CSGNL significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment, at least in part, by modulating ACh levels and ChAT and AChE activities in the mouse brain. Our data support the use of CSGNL as a functional food for learning and memory enhancement.

  2. Compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium Extract Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Disorders in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a day for 30 days and then mouse learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze and step-through tests. The mechanisms of CSGNL improving learning and memory were investigated by assaying acetylcholine (ACh levels and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities in the brain tissues of treated mice. The results showed that CSGNL significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment, at least in part, by modulating ACh levels and ChAT and AChE activities in the mouse brain. Our data support the use of CSGNL as a functional food for learning and memory enhancement.

  3. Verbal memory and Performance IQ predict theory of mind and emotion recognition ability in children with autistic spectrum disorders and in psychiatric control children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, J K; van der Wees, M; Swaab-Barneveld, H; van der Gaag, R J

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the developmental and cognitive correlates of theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition ability in children with autism (N = 20), with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 20), and in psychiatric control children (N = 20). The diagnostic groups were person-to-person matched on age and verbal IQ. The age of the children was between 8 and 18 years; their Full Scale IQ was at least 65. The test battery included tasks for the matching and the context recognition of emotional expressions, and a set of first- and second-order ToM tasks. The relationships between composite domain scores and the subjects' age, Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, verbal memory, visual memory, and gender were examined in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Further, the subjects who reliably and consistently passed the tasks of a domain and those who could not were compared on developmental and cognitive characteristics. Overall, the results of the various analyses converged and indicated that verbal memory, Performance IQ, age and gender were the best predictors of social cognitive ability.

  4. Shift work sleep disorder is associated with an attenuated brain response of sensory memory and an increased brain response to novelty: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Jefferson, Catherine; Kick, Ashley; Spear, Laura; Tepley, Norman; Drake, Christopher L

    2010-05-01

    To study the neurophysiological changes in attention and memory functions in shift work sleep disorder (SWSD), using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). 9 healthy night workers (NW) (mean age = 40 y; SD +/- 8.9 y); 8 night workers meeting diagnostic criteria for SWSD (mean age = 37 y +/- 9.4 y) and 9 healthy day workers (DW) (mean age = 35 y +/- 7.3 y). Using standard PSG the sleep related measures (TIB, TST, SOL, SE, and sleep stage distribution) were obtained prior to EEG/ERP study. Measures of habitual sleep were obtained from 2 week sleep logs and sleepiness was assessed with standardized measures. Using 32-EEG leads the ERPs to 3 types of sounds (novel, duration deviant, and simple tone) were obtained. The mismatch negativity (MMN) reflecting memory processing and P3a-reflecting the shift of involuntary attention were obtained. The statistical comparisons of ERPs and sleep related parameters were performed using repeated measured ANOVAs and t-tests where appropriate. Patients with SWSD had reduced TST and increased WASO relative to healthy workers. ERP results demonstrated significant attenuation of MMN amplitude over frontal regions in SWSD patients relative to NW and DW. In the SWSD patients, the P3a was increased to novelty across frontocentral brain regions with respect to the same locations in healthy controls. The ERP evidence of sensory memory reduction and attentional hyper-reaction to novel sound in conjunction with disturbed sleep suggests the need for more neurophysiological studies in SWSD workers.

  5. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy with respect to psychological symptoms and recovering autobiographical memory in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarian F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatemehsadat Akbarian,1 Hafez Bajoghli,2,3 Mohammad Haghighi,4 Nadeem Kalak,5 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,5 Serge Brand5,6 1Psychology and Counseling Organization of Iran, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 2Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand; 4Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 5Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Objectives: Given the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and its major impact on everyday life, it is important to identify effective treatments. In additional to pharmacological treatments, psychotherapeutic treatments are also highly effective. The aim of the present study was to investigate, among a sample of patients suffering from PTSD, the influence of an additional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT intervention on their symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety, and on autobiographical memory. Methods: A total of 40 patients suffering from PTSD (mean age: 31.64 years; 78.6% female patients and under psychopharmacological treatment were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition. The intervention consisted of ten group sessions (one 60–90 minute session per week of CBT. At baseline and 10 weeks later, a series of self-rating and experts’-rating questionnaires were completed. Results: Over time, symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety decreased; however, greater improvement was observed in the experimental than the control condition. Likewise, as a general pattern of results, memory

  6. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety: A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to maintain low self-esteem; and (2) Competitive Memory Training (COMET), which aims to activate positive representations for enhancing self-esteem. A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was used with a crossover design. Group 1 received six sessions EMDR first and then six sessions COMET; group 2 vice versa. Assessments were made at baseline (T0), end of first treatment (T1), and end of second treatment (T2). Main outcome was self-esteem. We included 47 patients and performed Linear Mixed Models. COMET showed more improvements in self-esteem than EMDR: effect-sizes 1.25 versus 0.46 post-treatment. Unexpectedly, when EMDR was given first, subsequent effects of COMET were significantly reduced in comparison to COMET as the first intervention. For EMDR, sequence made no difference. Reductions in anxiety and depression were mediated by better self-esteem. COMET was associated with significantly greater improvements in self-esteem than EMDR in patients with anxiety disorders. EMDR treatment reduced the effectiveness of subsequent COMET. Improved self-esteem mediated reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. To do or not to do? Prospective memory versus response inhibition in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandimonte, M.A.; Filippello, P.; Coluccia, E.; Altgassen, A.M.; Kliegel, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, event-based prospective memory and response inhibition (RI) abilities were investigated in children with ASD (Study 1), with ADHD (Study 2), and their matched neurotypical controls. Children engaged in a categorisation (ongoing) task and, concurrently, in either an

  8. Impairment of Working Memory, Decision-making, and Executive Function in the First-Degree Relatives of People with Panic Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPanic disorder (PD patients present impairments of working memory, decision-making, and executive function. However, whether the first-degree relatives (FDRs of people with PD present abnormal characteristics, including clinical and neuropsychological aspects, in comparison to the general population, has not been studied. Investigation and understanding of the abnormal neuropsychological characteristics of the FDRs of people with PD will contribute to the prevention and treatment of PD.ObjectiveThe purpose of this paper is to compare the working memory, decision-making, and executive function among people with PD, their FDRs, and controls.Materials and methodsNeuropsychological functions of 30 people with PD, 30 FDRs of people with PD, and 30 controls were measured with a digit span task, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST.ResultsPerseverative errors, failure to maintain set scores, and number of cards chosen from decks A, B, C, and D were higher for People with PD and their FDRs than those of controls. Furthermore, error rates for these tests were higher for people with PD than their FDRs. Forward scores and backward scores, percentage of conceptual level responses, the number of categories completed, choices from advantageous minus disadvantageous decks, and mean amount of money earned of people with PD and their FDRs were all lower than those of controls. Scores for these tests were also lower for people with PD than for their FDRs.ConclusionPeople with PD as well as their FDRs present different degrees of impairments of working memory, decision-making, and executive function. Impaired performance on three tasks appears to be associated with the diathesis for PD and may be a valuable indicator of susceptibility for this disorder.

  9. Autobiographical episodic memory-based training for the treatment of mood, anxiety and stress-related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Caitlin; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Blackwell, Simon E; Dalgleish, Tim

    2017-03-01

    We review evidence for training programmes that manipulate autobiographical processing in order to treat mood, anxiety, and stress-related disorders, using the GRADE criteria to judge evidence quality. We also position the current status of this research within the UK Medical Research Council's (2000, 2008) framework for the development of novel interventions. A literature search according to PRISMA guidelines identified 15 studies that compared an autobiographical episodic memory-based training (AET) programme to a control condition, in samples with a clinician-derived diagnosis. Identified AET programmes included Memory Specificity Training (Raes, Williams, & Hermans, 2009), concreteness training (Watkins, Baeyens, & Read, 2009), Competitive Memory Training (Korrelboom, van der Weele, Gjaltema, & Hoogstraten, 2009), imagery-based training of future autobiographical episodes (Blackwell & Holmes, 2010), and life review/reminiscence therapy (Arean et al., 1993). Cohen's d was calculated for between-group differences in symptom change from pre- to post-intervention and to follow-up. We also completed meta-analyses for programmes evaluated across multiple studies, and for the overall effect of AET as a treatment approach. Results demonstrated promising evidence for AET in the treatment of depression (d=0.32), however effect sizes varied substantially (from -0.18 to 1.91) across the different training protocols. Currently, research on AET for the treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders is not yet at a stage to draw firm conclusions regarding efficacy as there were only a very small number of studies which met inclusion criteria. AET offers a potential avenue through which low-intensity treatment for affective disturbance might be offered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-lasting effects of maternal separation on an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: effects on memory and hippocampal oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Luisa A; Alvares, Lucas O; Noschang, Cristie; Engelke, Douglas; Andreazza, Ana C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-04-01

    Adverse early life events, such as periodic maternal separation, may alter the normal pattern of brain development and subsequently the vulnerability to a variety of mental disorders in adulthood. Patients with a history of early adversities show higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation of pups from dams would affect memory and oxidative stress parameters after exposure to an animal model of PTSD. Nests of Wistar rats were divided into intact and subjected to maternal separation (incubator at 32°C, 3 h/day) during post-natal days 1-10. When adults, the animals were subdivided into exposed or not to a PTSD model consisting of exposure to inescapable footshock, followed by situational reminders. One month after exposure to the shock, the animals were exposed to a memory task (Morris water maze) and another month later animals were sacrificed and DNA breaks and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured in the hippocampus. Rats exposed to shock or maternal separation plus shock showed long-lasting effects on spatial memory, spending more time in the opposite quadrant of the water maze. This effect was higher in animals subjected to both maternal separation and shock. Both shock and maternal separation induced a higher score of DNA breaks in the hippocampus. No differences were observed on antioxidant enzymes activities. In conclusion, periodic maternal separation may increase the susceptibility to the effects of a stressor applied in adulthood on performance in the water maze. Increased DNA breaks in hippocampus was induced by both, maternal separation and exposure to shock.

  11. Effects of Internal Clock and Memory Disorders on Duration Reproductions and Duration Productions in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbal, S.; Deweer, B.; Pillon, B.; Vidailhet, M.; Dubois, B.; Pouthas, V.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit deficits in perceptual and motor timing as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes that are related to dysfunction of dopaminergic systems in the basal ganglia. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationships existing between impaired duration judgments and defective…

  12. Neuropsychological variables and clinical status in anorexia nervosa: relationship between visuospatial memory and central coherence and eating disorder symptom severity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zuchova, S.; Kuběna, Aleš Antonín; Erler, Theodore; Papežová, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2013), s. 421-428 ISSN 1124-4909 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : visuospatial memory, * central coherence * Rey Complex Figure Test, * Anorexia nervosa, * neuropsychology Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology Impact factor: 0.680, year: 2013

  13. Emotion, working memory, and cognitive control in patients with first-onset and previously untreated minor depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Lu, Shengfu; Wang, Gang; Feng, Lei; Fu, Bingbing; Zhong, Ning

    2016-06-01

    To explore working memory and the ability to process different emotional stimuli in patients with first-onset and untreated minor (mild or moderate) depression. Patients with first-onset and previously untreated minor depression, and healthy controls, were enrolled. Using a modified Sternberg working memory paradigm to investigate the combined effects of emotional stimuli with working memory, participants were exposed to experimental stimuli comprising pictures that represented positive, neutral and negative emotions. Working memory ability was measured using reaction time and accuracy, and emotion-processing ability was measured using pupil diameter. Out of 36 participants (18 patients with minor depression and 18 controls), there were no statistically significant between-group differences in response time and accuracy. Positive stimuli evoked changes in pupil diameter that were significantly smaller in patients with minor depression versus controls, but changes in pupil diameter evoked by negative stimuli were not significantly different between the two groups. Healthy subjects showed a stronger emotional response to positive emotional stimuli than patients with first onset and previously untreated minor depression, but there were no differences in response to negative emotions. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in terms of speed of cognitive response, but this may have been due to the relatively small samples sizes assessed. Studies with larger sample populations are required to further investigate these results. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Clinical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autobiographical memory plays a key role in psychological well-being, and the field has been investigated from multiple perspectives for more than thirty years. One large body of research has examined the basic mechanisms and characteristics of autobiographical memory during general cognition, an...... stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and autism, and how they affect autobiographical memory. It will be of interest to students of psychology, clinicians, and therapists alike......Autobiographical memory plays a key role in psychological well-being, and the field has been investigated from multiple perspectives for more than thirty years. One large body of research has examined the basic mechanisms and characteristics of autobiographical memory during general cognition......, and another body has studied what happens to it during psychological disorders, and how psychological therapies targeting memory disturbances can improve psychological well-being. This edited collection reviews and integrates current theories on autobiographical memory when viewed in a clinical perspective...

  15. Memory for speech and speech for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J L; Kutz, K J

    1975-03-01

    Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation, received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. Although both groups had nearly perfect perception of the experimenter's productions of /w/ and /r/, misarticulating subjects perceived their own tape-recorded w/r productions as /w/. In the memory task these same misarticulating subjects committed significantly more /w/-/r/ confusions in unspoken recall. The discussion considers why people subvocally rehearse; a developmental period in which children do not rehearse; ways subvocalization may aid recall, including motor and acoustic encoding; an echoic store that provides additional recall support if subjects rehearse vocally, and perception of self- and other- produced phonemes by misarticulating children-including its relevance to a motor theory of perception. Evidence is presented that speech for memory can be sufficiently impaired to cause memory disorder. Conceptions that restrict speech disorder to an impairment of communication are challenged.

  16. Stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve memory of emotional stimuli in ADHD-diagnosed college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, J; Advokat, C

    2013-04-01

    Stimulant medications do not improve the academic achievement of ADHD diagnosed undergraduates. One reason may be that stimulant-induced sympathetic arousal might impair memory. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study between September 2011 and March 2012, to compare medicated (n=12) and non-medicated (n=11) ADHD diagnosed undergraduates, with non-ADHD students (n=12). All participants were presented with an audiovisual narrative that included an emotional segment, and answered questions about the story one week later. All groups remembered the emotional segment significantly better than the neutral segments. Non-medicated ADHD students recalled less of both segments than the medicated ADHD or non-ADHD groups, which did not differ from each other. Stimulants improved memory in ADHD students, and did not impair the relative retention of emotional, as opposed to neutral information. Stimulant-induced arousal cannot explain the academic deficit of ADHD undergraduates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risperidone Added to Psychostimulant in Children with Severe Aggression and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Lack of Effect on Attention and Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Findling, Robert L; Gadow, Kenneth D; Arnold, L Eugene; Kipp, Heidi; Kolko, David J; Butter, Eric; Schneider, Jayne; Bukstein, Oscar G; McNamara, Nora K; Molina, Brooke S G; Aman, Michael G

    2017-03-01

    Professionals have periodically expressed concern that atypical antipsychotics may cause cognitive blunting in treated patients. In this study, we report data from a double-blind, randomized, controlled study of stimulant plus placebo versus combined stimulant and risperidone to evaluate the effects of the atypical antipsychotic on attention and short-term memory. A total of 165 (n = 83 combined treatment; n = 82 stimulant plus placebo) children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and severe physical aggression, aged 6-12 years, were evaluated with Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC) Digit Span subscale at baseline, after 3 weeks of stimulant-only treatment, and after six additional weeks of randomized treatment (stimulant+placebo vs. stimulant+risperidone). At 3 weeks, improvement on CPT-II performance (Commissions and Reaction Time Standard Error; p risperidone. NCT00796302.

  18. The effects of distraction and a brief intervention on auditory and visual-spatial working memory in college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Kercood, Suneeta; O'Keeffe, Nicole B; O'Brien, Kathleen M; Massey, Eric J; Campbell, Samantha J; Pierce, Jenna N

    2012-01-01

    Two studies addressed how young adult college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 44) compare to their nonaffected peers (n = 42) on tests of auditory and visual-spatial working memory (WM), are vulnerable to auditory and visual distractions, and are affected by a simple intervention. Students with ADHD demonstrated worse auditory WM than did controls. A near significant trend indicated that auditory distractions interfered with the visual WM of both groups and that, whereas controls were also vulnerable to visual distractions, visual distractions improved visual WM in the ADHD group. The intervention was ineffective. Limited correlations emerged between self-reported ADHD symptoms and objective test performances; students with ADHD who perceived themselves as more symptomatic often had better WM and were less vulnerable to distractions than their ADHD peers.

  19. Fear extinction and memory reconsolidation as critical components in behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and potential augmentation of these processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Noelle B; Doran, Jennifer M; Sippel, Lauren M; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan

    2017-05-10

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with alterations in critical brain regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. This brief review has two objectives: (1) to discuss research examining extinction and reconsolidation processes as mechanisms in PTSD psychotherapy, and (2) present possibilities for augmenting extinction and reconsolidation within treatment through alterations to therapeutic interventions and novel approaches. A key component of many effective PTSD therapies is exposure, which involves intentional confrontation and processing of the traumatic memory. Our review suggests that extinction and reconsolidation processes underlie effective exposure-based treatment, but the neurobiological mechanisms of these processes in behavioral treatments for PTSD remains unclear. We argue that enhancing extinction and/or disrupting reconsolidation of a feared memory may improve the efficacy of existing treatments (e.g., increased change for limited/non-responders, faster/greater changes for responders), which can be done through multiple channels. Potential avenues for augmentation of the processes of extinction and reconsolidation in PTSD psychotherapies are reviewed, including behavioral modifications, pharmacotherapy agents, and the use of devices during therapy. We further suggest that investigations towards understanding the extent to which extinction and reconsolidation processes are necessary in effective PTSD psychotherapy is an important future direction for enhancing clinical care among PTSD populations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Resting state electroencephalographic correlates with red cell long-chain fatty acids, memory performance and age in adolescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumich, Alexander; Matsudaira, Toshiko; Gow, Rachel V; Ibrahimovic, Almira; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Crawford, Michael; Taylor, Eric

    2009-12-01

    Abnormal fatty acid status has been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Delayed maturation in ADHD may result in raised frontal low frequency (theta) electroencephalographic activity (EEG) and a reduction in posterior high frequency (beta, alpha) activity. The current study used sequential linear regression to investigate the association between age, resting-state EEG and levels of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in red blood cells in 46 adolescent boys with ADHD symptoms. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were positively associated with fast frequency activity: alpha during eyes-open and beta during eyes-closed conditions. Frontal theta activity during both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions was inversely associated with age and positively associated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels. Alpha activity correlated positively with performance on fluency for categories (semantic memory). Theta activity correlated inversely with performance on delayed (25 min) verbal memory (recall + recognition/2). No associations were observed between long-chain omega-6 and EEG measures. Results support differential associations for DHA and EPA with fast and slow EEG activity respectively. Results support EEG activity as an objective biomarker of neural function associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD.

  1. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory

    OpenAIRE

    ??men, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson-Shiffrin "modal model" forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. Wh...

  2. Memory performance predicts response to psychotherapy for depression in bipolar disorder: A pilot randomized controlled trial with exploratory functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Peters, Amy T; Shea, Conor; Gosai, Aishwarya; Stange, Jonathan P; Peckham, Andrew D; Ellard, Kristen K; Otto, Michael W; Rauch, Scott L; Dougherty, Darin D; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2018-03-15

    This pilot randomized controlled trial compared Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Psychotherapy (SP) for the treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder. We also examined whether exploratory verbal memory, executive functioning, and neural correlates of verbal memory during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicted change in depression severity. Thirty-two adults (ages 18-65) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder meeting current criteria for a major depressive episode were randomized to 18 weeks of CBT or SP. Symptom severity was assessed before, at the mid-point, and after the 18-week intervention. All participants completed a brief pre-treatment neuropsychological testing battery (including the California Verbal Learning Test-2nd Edition, Delis Kaplan Executive Functioning System [DKEFS] Trail-making Test, and DKEFS Sorting Test), and a sub-set of 17 participants provided usable fMRI data while completing a verbal learning paradigm that consisted of encoding word lists. CBT and SP yielded comparable improvement in depressive symptoms from pre- to post-treatment. Better retention of learned information (CVLT-II long delay free recall vs. Trial 5) and recognition (CVLT-II hits) were associated with greater improvement in depression in both treatments. Increased activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right hippocampus during encoding was also related to depressive symptom improvement. Sample size precluded tests of clinical factors that may interact with cognitive/neural function to predict treatment outcome. Neuropsychological assessment and fMRI offer additive information regarding who is most likely to benefit from psychotherapy for bipolar depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. To do or not to do? Prospective memory versus response inhibition in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandimonte, Maria A; Filippello, Pina; Coluccia, Emanuele; Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, event-based prospective memory and response inhibition (RI) abilities were investigated in children with ASD (Study 1), with ADHD (Study 2), and their matched neurotypical controls. Children engaged in a categorisation (ongoing) task and, concurrently, in either an event-based prospective memory (PM) or a Go/No-Go secondary task. Results showed that, as compared to their matched controls, ASD children's performance was more impaired in the PM task than in the Go/No-Go task, while the performance pattern of ADHD children was reversed. In the ongoing task, ASD children were as accurate as, but significantly slower than, controls, independently of conditions. ADHD children did not differ from controls in the presence of a concurrent PM task, while they were less accurate than controls in the presence of the go/no-go task. Overall, the two patterns of findings suggest important differences in the way ASD and ADHD children remember and realise intentions requiring opposite behaviours (acting vs stopping).

  4. Associations between sedation, delirium and post-traumatic stress disorder and their impact on quality of life and memories following discharge from an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Helle

    2013-04-01

    In the intensive care units (ICUs) sedation strategies have changed in the past decade towards less sedation and daily wake-up calls. Recent studies indicate that no sedation (after intubation) is most beneficial for patients. A smaller number of these patients have been assessed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after ICU discharge, but none of them were assessed for delirium while in the ICU. In other studies, delirium in the ICU is described as distressing for the patients and increasing morbidity, i.e. dementia after discharge and mortality. The associations between sedation, delirium, and PTSD have not previous been described. The aim of this PhD study was to investigate: 1) how sedation is associated with delirium in the ICU, 2) the consequences of delirium in relation to PTSD, anxiety, and depression, 3) the consequences of delirium for the patients' memories from ICU and the health-related quality of life after discharge. In a prospective observation study with patients admitted a minimum of 48 hours to the ICUs in Aarhus or Hillerød, we included all patients aged > 17 years. Non-Danish-speaking, patients transferred from other ICUs and patients with brain injury that made delirium-assessment impossible were excluded. Patients were interviewed face-to-face after 1 week, and at 2 months and 6 months by telephone using six different questionnaires. Among 3,066 patients admitted to the ICUs, 942 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Primarily due to the inability to test for delirium, 302 patients were later excluded. Of the remaining 640 patients, 65% were delirious on 1 or more days. Fluctuations in sedation levels increased the risk of delirium statistically significantly with or without adjustments for age, gender, severity of illness, surgical/medical patient, or ICU site. After 2 months vs. 6 months, 297 patients vs. 248 patients were interviewed. PTSD was found in 7% vs. 5%, anxiety in 6% vs. 4%, and depression in 10% at both interviews. Delirium

  5. Untreated sleep-disordered breathing: links to aging-related decline in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Djonlagic

    Full Text Available Increasing age is associated with a decline in cognition and motor skills, while at the same time exacerbating one's risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. OSA-related cognitive deficits are highly prevalent and can affect various memory systems including overnight memory consolidation on a motor sequence task. Thus, the aim of our study was to examine the effect of aging on sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in patients with and without OSA.We studied 44 patients (19-68 years who had been referred by a physician for a baseline polysomnography (PSG evaluation. Based on their PSG, patients were assigned either to the OSA group (AHI>5/h, or control (Non-OSA group (AHI<5/h. All subjects performed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT and the Motor Sequence Learning Task (MST in the evening and again in the morning after their PSG.Despite similar learning in the evening, OSA subjects showed significantly less overnight improvement on the MST, both for immediate (OSA -2.7% ± 2.8% vs. controls 12.2% ± 3.5%; p = 0.002 and plateau improvement (OSA 4.9% ± 2.3% vs. controls 21.1%± 4.0%; p = 0.001. Within the OSA group, there was a significant negative correlation between overnight MST improvement and age (r(2 = 0.3; p = 0.01, an effect that was not observed in the Non-OSA group (r(2 = 0.08; p = 0.23.Consistent with previous research, healthy sleepers demonstrated a higher degree of sleep-dependent overnight improvement on the MST, an effect not mitigated by increasing age. However, the presence of untreated obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an aging-related cognitive deficit, otherwise not present in individuals without OSA. As other research has linked the presence of OSA to a higher likelihood of developing dementia, future studies are necessary to examine if the inhibition of memory consolidation is tied to the onset of neurodegenerative disease.

  6. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Sarp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Self and mind are constituted with the cumulative effects of significant life events. This description is regarded as a given explicitly or implicitly in vari-ous theories of personality. Such an acknowledgment inevitably brings together these theories on two basic concepts. The first one is the emotions that give meaning to experiences and the second one is the memory which is related to the storage of these experiences. The part of the memory which is responsible for the storage and retrieval of life events is the autobiographical memory. Besides the development of personality, emotions and autobiographical memory are important in the development of and maintenance of psychopathology. Therefore, these two concepts have both longitudinal and cross-sectional functions in understanding human beings. In case of psychopathology, understanding emotions and autobiographical memory developmentally, aids in understanding the internal susceptibility factors. In addition, understanding how these two structures work and influence each other in an acute event would help to understand the etiological mechanisms of mental disorders. In the literature, theories that include both of these structures and that have clinical implications, are inconclusive. Theories on memory generally focus on cognitive and semantic structures while neglecting emotions, whereas theories on emotions generally neglect memory and its organization. There are only a few theories that cover both of these two concepts. In the present article, these theories that include both emotions and autobiographical memory in the same framework (i.e. Self Memory System, Associative Network Theory, Structural and Contextual theories and Affect Regulation Theory were discussed to see the full picture. Taken together, these theories seem to have the potential to suggest data-driven models in understanding and explaining symptoms such as flashbacks, dissociation, amnesia, over general memory seen in

  7. No evidence for differential dose effects of hydrocortisone on intrusive memories in female patients with complex post-traumatic stress disorder--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludäscher, Petra; Schmahl, Christian; Feldmann, Robert E; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schneider, Miriam; Bohus, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by intrusive traumatic memories. Presently, a controversial debate is ongoing regarding whether reduced cortisol secretion in post-traumatic stress disorder promotes an automatic retrieval of trauma-associated memories. Hence, a pharmacological elevation of cortisol was proposed to decrease post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, particularly intrusions. The present study investigated the impact of two different doses of hydrocortisone on automatic memory retrieval using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 inpatients with post-traumatic stress disorder. All participants were female and received various psychotropic medications. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups within a crossover design: they received either 1 week placebo followed by 1 week hydrocortisone 10/d, followed by 1 week placebo, followed by hydrocortisone 30 mg/d (15 participants) or 1 week hydrocortisone 30 mg/d, followed by 1 week placebo, followed by 1 week hydrocortisone 10 mg/d, followed by 1 week placebo (15 participants). The outcome measures were the frequency and the intensity of intrusions, the overall symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder and the general psychopathology. We did not find any differences in the frequency and the intensity of post-traumatic stress disorder-related intrusions between the 10 mg hydrocortisone, the 30 mg hydrocortisone and the placebo condition. All effect sizes for the hydrocortisone condition vs. placebo were very small. Additionally, the overall symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder and the general psychopathology did not differ between the hydrocortisone therapies and placebo. Our results do not show any effect of the hydrocortisone administration on intrusions in complex post-traumatic stress disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Working memory and cognitive flexibility-training for children with an autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M.; Prins, P.J.M.; Schmand, B.A.; Geurts, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) experience executive function (EF) deficits. There is an urgent need for effective interventions, but in spite of the increasing research focus on computerized cognitive training, this has not been studied in ASD. Hence, we investigated two EF

  9. Working memory and cognitive flexibility-training for children with an autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Marieke; Prins, Pier J. M.; Schmand, Ben A.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) experience executive function (EF) deficits. There is an urgent need for effective interventions, but in spite of the increasing research focus on computerized cognitive training, this has not been studied in ASD. Hence, we investigated two EF training

  10. Would transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhance the effects of working memory training in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer's disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin P W; Chan, Sandra S M; Mak, Arthur D P; Chan, Wai Chi; Cheng, Sheung Tak; Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng; Lam, Linda Chiu-Wa

    2015-10-24

    There has been longstanding interesting in cognitive training for older adults with cognitive impairment. In this study, we will investigate the effects of working memory training, and explore augmentation strategies that could possibly consolidate the effects in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been demonstrated to affect the neuronal excitability and reported to enhance memory performance. As tDCS may also modulate cognitive function through changes in neuroplastic response, it would be adopted as an augmentation strategy for working memory training in the present study. This is a 4-week intervention double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tDCS. Chinese older adults (aged 60 to 90 years) with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer's disease (DSM-5 criteria) would be randomized into a 4-week intervention of either tDCS-working memory (DCS-WM), tDCS-control cognitive training (DCS-CC), and sham tDCS-working memory (WM-CD) groups. The primary outcome would be working memory test - the n-back task performance and the Chinese version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog). Secondary outcomes would be test performance of specific cognitive domains and mood. Intention-to-treat analysis would be carried out. Changes of efficacy indicators with time and intervention would be tested with mixed effect models. This study adopts the theory of neuroplasticity to evaluate the potential cognitive benefits of non-invasive electrical brain stimulation, working memory training and dual stimulation in older adults at risk of cognitive decline. It would also examine the tolerability, program adherence and adverse effects of this novel intervention. Information would be helpful for further research of dementia prevention studies. ChiCTR-TRC- 14005036 Date of registration: 31 July 2014.

  11. Brownian motion under dynamic disorder: effects of memory on the decay of the non-Gaussianity parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Neha; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2018-03-01

    The increasingly widespread occurrence in complex fluids of particle motion that is both Brownian and non-Gaussian has recently been found to be successfully modeled by a process (frequently referred to as ‘diffusing diffusivity’) in which the white noise that governs Brownian diffusion is itself stochastically modulated by either Ornstein–Uhlenbeck dynamics or by two-state noise. But the model has so far not been able to account for an aspect of non-Gaussian Brownian motion that is also commonly observed: a non-monotonic decay of the parameter that quantifies the extent of deviation from Gaussian behavior. In this paper, we show that the inclusion of memory effects in the model—via a generalized Langevin equation—can rationalise this phenomenon.

  12. Emotional Reactivity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Behavioural and Neurobiological Correlates of Underlying Mechanisms and the Role of Emotional Memory Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Thome, Janine

    2017-01-01

    The symptom pattern of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comprises four clusters: “involuntary distressing memories”, “persistent avoidance of stimuli related to the traumatic event”, “negative alterations in cognition and mood”, and “in arousal and reactivity” (DSM 5, American Psychological Association). Increasing evidence points towards enhanced emotional reactivity as an underlying mechanism of the latter mentioned symptom pattern in individuals with PTSD. From a process oriented persp...

  13. A specific deficit in spatial memory acquisition in post-traumatic stress disorder and the role of sleep in its consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesta, D; Mazza, M; Iaria, G; De Gennaro, L; Ferrara, M

    2012-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by the presence of anatomo-functional hippocampal alterations. To date, the ability to orient within the environment, which relies on hippocampal integrity, has never been investigated in PTSD. We hypothesized that the ability to form a cognitive map of the environment would be impaired in PTSD. Moreover, spatial memory consolidation benefits from postlearning sleep. Because PTSD individuals often complain about sleep disturbances, we hypothesized that any sleep effect on memory performance would be hampered in these subjects. Twenty-two subjects, all survivors of the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake, were divided into a PTSD and a control group, based on clinical evaluation. After an acquisition phase, they were tested twice ("test" and "retest") on a virtual navigation task. In addition, participants were administered the Digit Span and Task Switching. Subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances were also assessed. The two testing sessions were on consecutive mornings, interspersed with a night of sleep. During the acquisition phase, the PTSD group took more than twice as long to form a cognitive map of the environment compared to the control group. However, once this phase was successfully completed, the two groups did not differ at test, but they tendentially differed at postsleep retest. Additional analyses comparing performances between groups on test-retest difference scores confirm that sleep-dependent consolidation may be differentially affected in the two groups. Our findings are strictly confined to the navigation performance, excluding a generalized cognitive deficit. PTSD also reported more subjective sleep disturbances and shorter sleep time than controls, which were correlated to worse performance at retest. The specific deficit in the formation of a cognitive map reported in PTSD may be related to hippocampal dysfunctions as well as to the sleep disturbances experienced by these patients. The

  14. Stress, memory, and the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-01-01

    Stress hormones, i.e. cortisol in human and cortisone in rodents, influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including hippocampus-based declarative memory performance. Cortisol enhances memory consolidation, but impairs memory retrieval. In this context glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and hippocampal integrity play an important role. This review integrates findings on the relationships between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main coordinators of the stress response, hippocampus, and memory. Findings obtained in healthy participants will be compared with selected mental disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). These disorders are characterized by alterations of the HPA axis and hippocampal dysfunctions. Interestingly, the acute effects of stress hormones on memory in psychiatric patients are different from those found in healthy humans. While cortisol administration has failed to affect memory retrieval in patients with MDD, patients with PTSD and BPD have been found to show enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after hydrocortisone. This indicates an altered sensitivity to stress hormones in these mental disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Order-disorder transitions in time-discrete mean field systems with memory: a novel approach via nonlinear autoregressive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T D; Mongkolsakulvong, S

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study strongly nonlinear autoregressive (SNAR) models have been introduced as a generalization of the widely-used time-discrete autoregressive models that are known to apply both to Markov and non-Markovian systems. In contrast to conventional autoregressive models, SNAR models depend on process mean values. So far, only linear dependences have been studied. We consider the case in which process mean values can have a nonlinear impact on the processes under consideration. It is shown that such models describe Markov and non-Markovian many-body systems with mean field forces that exhibit a nonlinear impact on single subsystems. We exemplify that such nonlinear dependences can describe order-disorder phase transitions of time-discrete Markovian and non-Markovian many-body systems. The relevant order parameter equations are derived and issues of stability and stationarity are studied. (paper)

  17. The Impact of Stress Hormones on Post-traumatic Stress Disorders Symptoms and Memory in Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porhomayon, Jahan; Kolesnikov, Sergei; Nader, Nader D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship and interactions between stress hormones and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well established from both animal and human research studies. This interaction is especially important in the post-operative phase of cardiac surgery where the development of PTSD symptoms will result in increased morbidity and mortality and prolong length of stay for critically ill cardiac surgery patients. Cardiopulmonary bypass itself will independently result in massive inflammation response and release of stress hormones in the perioperative period. Glucocorticoid may reduce this response and result in reduction of PTSD symptom clusters and therefore improve health outcome. In this review, we plan to conduct a systemic review and analysis of the literatures on this topic.

  18. The role of negative mood induction on working memory capacity in individuals putatively at risk for bipolar disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Isabelle E; Jordan, Gabriele; Soares, Jair C; Meyer, Thomas D

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by cognitive deficits. Usually individuals at risk for BD do not exhibit such deficits but they might be evident under cognitive or emotionally stressful conditions. To our knowledge this is the first study examining working memory capacity under mood induction in individuals at risk for BD. Using the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) 68 participants out of an initial pool of 148 students were divided into groups at high and low risk for BD. They completed twice a Dual Task Paradigm (DTP) task assessed under high and low cognitive load prior to and following a negative mood induction. As expected stimuli incongruency, high cognitive load and mood induction increased response times. Contrary to our hypothesis the mood induction did not differentially affect at-risk individuals. However, they generally reacted faster to neutral stimuli compared to those at low risk. While we replicated former results related to the DTP, we did not find evidence for the hypothesis that individuals putatively at risk for BD will be more affected by negative mood when doing such a cognitive task. Replication using a larger sample is needed which should also examine whether changes in positive mood might more relevant in the context of risk for mania. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prefronto–cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation improves visuospatial memory, executive functions, and neurological soft signs in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minichino A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Amedeo Minichino, Francesco Saverio Bersani, Laura Bernabei, Francesco Spagnoli, Lucilla Vergnani, Alessandra Corrado, Ines Taddei, Massimo Biondi, Roberto Delle Chiaie Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Objective: The aim of the study was to improve neuropsychological functioning of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applied to cerebellar and prefrontal cortices.Methods: Twenty-five BD outpatients underwent prefrontal (anodal and cerebellar (cathodal tDCS for 3 consecutive weeks. All participants were assessed through the Rey Complex Figure Test delay and copy and the Neurological Examination Scale at baseline and after therapy with tDCS.Results: After tDCS treatment, patients showed significant improvements in visuospatial memory tasks. Patients with worse baseline cognitive performances also showed a significant improvement in executive functioning tasks. Neurological Examination Scale total score and motor coordination subscale significantly improved.Conclusion: Prefrontal-excitatory and cerebellar-inhibitory stimulations in euthymic BD patients may lead to better neurocognitive performances. This improvement could result from the modulation of prefronto–thalamic–cerebellar circuit activity pattern, which can be disrupted in BD. Keywords: cerebellum, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, neuropsychology, cognition 

  20. Pragmatic competence of children with autism spectrum disorder. Impact of theory of mind, verbal working memory, ADHD symptoms, and structural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixauli-Fortea, Inmaculada; Miranda Casas, Ana; Berenguer-Forner, Carmen; Colomer-Diago, Carla; Roselló-Miranda, Belén

    2017-11-21

    The primary aim of this study is to increase the existing knowledge about the pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specifically, the study has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of characteristics based on The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) pragmatics scales (inappropriate initiation, stereotyped language, use of context, nonverbal communication, and general pragmatics) and narrative task indicators. To this end, children with ASD will be compared to children with typical development (TD), controlling the effects of sex and structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, coherence). The second objective is to analyze whether theory of mind (ToM), verbal working memory, ADHD symptoms, and structural language can predict pragmatic competence in children with ASD without intellectual disability (ID). The results showed worse performance in the group with ASD on the majority of the pragmatic aspects evaluated. In addition, the application of ToM skills and structural language were significant predictors of the pragmatic skills of the children with ASD. These findings reinforce the importance of focusing intervention programs on mentalist abilities through experiences in real social scenarios, along with strengthening structural language components.

  1. [Magneto-encephalographic (MEG) brain recordings during traumatic memory recall in women with post-traumatic stress disorder: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottraux, J; Lecaignard, F; Yao, S-N; De Mey-Guillard, C; Haour, F; Delpuech, C; Servan-Schreiber, D

    2015-06-01

    The experiment studied the effects of a short duration exposure to traumatic memories using magneto-encephalography (MEG). Nine right-handed DSM-4 PTSD patients were recruited from a unit for anxiety disorders and an organisation supporting victims of violence. In order to have a homogeneous sample, we included only women who suffered from civilian PTSD. Exclusion criteria were co-morbid major medical illness, metallic dental prostheses that would interfere in the magnetic measurement, and current drug treatment. All participants were free from neurological disease and had normal hearing. They signed a written informed consent form. An ethics committee accepted the study. A tape-recorded voice administered a script-driven imagery. The patients had to imagine, successively, a neutral image, a traumatic memory and rest, while MEG measured brain activities across delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. Each condition lasted three minutes. Heart rate (HR), anxiety and the vividness of mental images were recorded at the end of each phase. MEG power analysis was carried out with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) 8. The signals were averaged for each of the three conditions of threeminutes duration. The dependent variable was a subtracted value: (trauma - rest) - (neutral - rest). The significance threshold was set at Psecondary visual cortex (BA 18-19) in the delta band, the insula (BA13) in the beta band, the insula (BA13), premotor cortex (BA 6), Broca area (BA 44), and BA 43, in the alpha band. The symptom provocation protocol was successful in eliciting subjective anxiety and HR response in relation to traumatic memories. Our MEG results are in keeping with previous neuro-imagery studies showing decreased activities in the insula and Broca area during PTSD symptom provocation. However, we did not replicate the activation in the amygdala and the cingulate and prefrontal cortex found in some studies. Moreover, the within-group design, the small sample, and the inclusion

  2. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  3. Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A; Loveday, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The Self-Memory System encompasses the working self, autobiographical memory and episodic memory. Specific autobiographical memories are patterns of activation over knowledge structures in autobiographical and episodic memory brought about by the activating effect of cues. The working self can elaborate cues based on the knowledge they initially activate and so control the construction of memories of the past and the future. It is proposed that such construction takes place in the remembering-imagining system - a window of highly accessible recent memories and simulations of near future events. How this malfunctions in various disorders is considered as are the implication of what we term the modern view of human memory for notions of memory accuracy. We show how all memories are to some degree false and that the main role of memories lies in generating personal meanings. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. False memories and memory confidence in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Nagel, Matthias; Moritz, Steffen

    2013-12-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding memory in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Prior reports and anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with BPD are prone to false memories but this assumption has to been put to firm empirical test, yet. Memory accuracy and confidence was assessed in 20 BPD patients and 22 healthy controls using a visual variant of the false memory (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) paradigm which involved a negative and a positive-valenced picture. Groups did not differ regarding veridical item recognition. Importantly, patients did not display more false memories than controls. At trend level, borderline patients rated more items as new with high confidence compared to healthy controls. The results tentatively suggest that borderline patients show uncompromised visual memory functions and display no increased susceptibility for distorted memories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Glutamate mechanisms underlying opiate memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.; de Vries, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    As the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, glutamate plays an undisputable integral role in opiate addiction. This relates, in part, to the fact that addiction is a disorder of learning and memory, and glutamate is required for most types of memory formation. As opiate addiction

  6. Memory Palaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  7. New DSM-V neurocognitive disorders criteria and their impact on diagnostic classifications of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in a memory clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Laura; Lim, Wee Shiong; Chan, Mark; Ali, Noorhazlina; Mahanum, Shariffah; Chew, Pamela; Lim, June; Chong, Mei Sian

    2015-08-01

    To examine diagnostic agreement between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) Neurocognitive Disorders (NCDs) criteria and DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for dementia and International Working Group (IWG) criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and DSM-V's impact on diagnostic classifications of NCDs. The authors further examined clinical factors for discrepancy in diagnostic classifications between the different operational definitions. Using a cross-sectional study in tertiary memory clinic, the authors studied consecutive new patients aged 55 years or older who presented with cognitive symptoms. Dementia severity was scored based on the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). All patients completed neuropsychological evaluation. Agreement in diagnostic classifications between DSM-IV/IWG and DSM-V was examined using the kappa test and AC1 statistic, with multinomial logistic regression for factors contributing to MCI reclassification as major NCDs as opposed to diagnostically concordant MCI and dementia groups. Of 234 patients studied, 166 patients achieved concordant diagnostic classifications, with overall kappa of 0.41. Eighty-six patients (36.7%) were diagnosed with MCI and 131 (56.0%) with DSM-IV-defined dementia. With DSM-V, 40 patients (17.1%) were classified as mild NCDs and 183 (78.2%) as major NCDs, representing a 39.7% increase in frequency of dementia diagnoses. CDR sum-of-boxes score contributed independently to differentiation of MCI patients reclassified as mild versus major NCDs (OR: 0.01; 95% CI: 0-0.09). CDR sum-of-boxes score (OR: 5.18; 95% CI: 2.04-13.15), performance in amnestic (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.06-0.34) and language (Boston naming: OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94) tests, were independent determinants of diagnostically concordant dementia diagnosis. The authors observed moderate agreement between the different operational definitions and a 40% increase in dementia diagnoses with

  8. Good Holders, Bad Shufflers: An Examination of Working Memory Processes and Modalities in Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Ashley N; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine working memory (WM) modalities (visual-spatial and auditory-verbal) and processes (maintenance and manipulation) in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 63 8-year-old children with ADHD and an age- and sex-matched non-ADHD comparison group (N=51). Auditory-verbal and visual-spatial WM were assessed using the Digit Span and Spatial Span subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Integrated - Fourth Edition. WM maintenance and manipulation were assessed via forward and backward span indices, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 3-way Group (ADHD vs. non-ADHD)×Modality (Auditory-Verbal vs. Visual-Spatial)×Condition (Forward vs. Backward) Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Secondary analyses examined differences between Combined and Predominantly Inattentive ADHD presentations. Significant Group×Condition (p=.02) and Group×Modality (p=.03) interactions indicated differentially poorer performance by those with ADHD on backward relative to forward and visual-spatial relative to auditory-verbal tasks, respectively. The 3-way interaction was not significant. Analyses targeting ADHD presentations yielded a significant Group×Condition interaction (p=.009) such that children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive Presentation performed differentially poorer on backward relative to forward tasks compared to the children with ADHD-Combined Presentation. Findings indicate a specific pattern of WM weaknesses (i.e., WM manipulation and visual-spatial tasks) for children with ADHD. Furthermore, differential patterns of WM performance were found for children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive versus Combined Presentations. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1-11).

  9. Can motivation normalize working memory and task persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? The effects of money and computer-gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2012-07-01

    Visual-spatial Working Memory (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with- and without ADHD. Studies examining this in executive functions other than WM, show inconsistent results. These inconsistencies may be related to differences in the reinforcement used. The effects of different reinforcers on WM performance were investigated in 30 children with ADHD and 31 non-ADHD controls. A visual-spatial WM task was administered in four reinforcement conditions: Feedback-only, 1 euro, 10 euros, and a computer-game version of the task. In the Feedback-only condition, children with ADHD performed worse on the WM measure than controls. Although incentives significantly improved the WM performance of children with ADHD, even the strongest incentives (10 euros and Gaming) were unable to normalize their performance. Feedback-only provided sufficient reinforcement for controls to reach optimal performance, while children with ADHD required extra reinforcement. Only children with ADHD showed a decrease in performance over time. Importantly, the strongest incentives (10 euros and Gaming) normalized persistence of performance in these children, whereas 1 euro had no such effect. Both executive and motivational deficits give rise to visual-spatial WM deficits in ADHD. Problems with task-persistence in ADHD result from motivational deficits. In ADHD-reinforcement studies and clinical practice (e.g., assessment), reinforcement intensity can be a confounding factor and should be taken into account. Gaming can be a cost-effective way to maximize performance in ADHD.

  10. Amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate connectivity during an emotional working memory task in borderline personality disorder patients with interpersonal trauma history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret eKrause-Utz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion dysregulation and stress-related cognitive disturbances including dissociation are key features of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD. Previous research suggests that amygdala hyperreactivity along with a failure to activate frontal brain areas implicated in inhibitory control (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex, ACC may underlie core symptoms of BPD. However, studies investigating interactions of fronto-limbic brain areas during cognitive inhibition of interfering emotional stimuli in BPD patients are still needed. Moreover, very little is known about how dissociation modulates fronto-limbic connectivity during emotional distraction in BPD. We used Psychophysiological Interaction (PPI to analyse amygdala and dorsal ACC (dACC connectivity in 22 un-medicated BPD patients with interpersonal trauma history and 22 healthy controls (HC, who performed a working memory task, while either no distractors or neutral vs. negative interpersonal pictures were presented. A measure of state dissociation was used to predict amygdala as well as dACC connectivity in the BPD group. During emotional distraction, both groups showed disrupted amygdala connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which was more pronounced in the BPD group. Patients further showed stronger amygdala-hippocampus and dACC-insula connectivity during emotional interference and demonstrated a stronger coupling of the dACC with nodes of the default mode network (e.g. posterior cingulate. Dissociation positively predicted amygdala-dACC connectivity and negatively predicted dACC connectivity with insula and posterior cingulate. Our results suggest aberrant connectivity patterns involving brain regions associated with emotion processing, salience detection, and self-referential processes, which may be modulated by dissociation, in BPD. Findings might be related to difficulties in shifting attention away from external (distracting emotional stimuli as well as internal emotional states

  11. The cognitive neuroscience of human memory since H.M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Larry R; Wixted, John T

    2011-01-01

    Work with patient H.M., beginning in the 1950s, established key principles about the organization of memory that inspired decades of experimental work. Since H.M., the study of human memory and its disorders has continued to yield new insights and to improve understanding of the structure and organization of memory. Here we review this work with emphasis on the neuroanatomy of medial temporal lobe and diencephalic structures important for memory, multiple memory systems, visual perception, immediate memory, memory consolidation, the locus of long-term memory storage, the concepts of recollection and familiarity, and the question of how different medial temporal lobe structures may contribute differently to memory functions.

  12. Screening of plants used in the European traditional medicine to treat memory disorders for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and anti amyloidogenic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobbens, Eva S B; Vissing, Karina J.; Jorgensen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Plants used in the traditional medicine of Europe to treat memory dysfunction and/or to enhance memory were investigated for activity against the underlying mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. Aim of the study To investigate 35 ethanolic extracts of plants, selected...

  13. Time-based and event-based prospective memory in autism spectrum disorder: the roles of executive function and theory of mind, and time-estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Boucher, Jill; Lind, Sophie; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    Prospective memory (remembering to carry out an action in the future) has been studied relatively little in ASD. We explored time-based (carry out an action at a pre-specified time) and event-based (carry out an action upon the occurrence of a pre-specified event) prospective memory, as well as possible cognitive correlates, among 21 intellectually high-functioning children with ASD, and 21 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison children. We found impaired time-based, but undiminished event-based, prospective memory among children with ASD. In the ASD group, time-based prospective memory performance was associated significantly with diminished theory of mind, but not with diminished cognitive flexibility. There was no evidence that time-estimation ability contributed to time-based prospective memory impairment in ASD.

  14. A Developmental Psychopathology Model of Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) is a phenomenon that refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall has been commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared to those without emotional disorders. Despite significant advances in identifying…

  15. The Importance of Memory Specificity and Memory Coherence for the Self: Linking Two Characteristics of Autobiographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elien Vanderveren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory forms a network of memories about personal experiences that defines and supports well-being and effective functioning of the self in various ways. During the last three decades, there have been two characteristics of autobiographical memory that have received special interest regarding their role in psychological well-being and psychopathology, namely memory specificity and memory coherence. Memory specificity refers to the extent to which retrieved autobiographical memories are specific (i.e., memories about a particular experience that happened on a particular day. Difficulty retrieving specific memories interferes with effective functioning of the self and is related to depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Memory coherence refers to the narrative expression of the overall structure of autobiographical memories. It has likewise been related to psychological well-being and the occurrence of psychopathology. Research on memory specificity and memory coherence has developed as two largely independent research domains, even though they show much overlap. This raises some important theoretical questions. How do these two characteristics of autobiographical memory relate to each other, both theoretically and empirically? Additionally, how can the integration of these two facilitate our understanding of the importance of autobiographical memory for the self? In this article, we give a critical overview of memory specificity and memory coherence and their relation to the self. We link both features of autobiographical memory by describing some important similarities and by formulating hypotheses about how they might relate to each other. By situating both memory specificity and memory coherence within Conway and Pleydell-Pearce’s Self-Memory System, we make a first attempt at a theoretical integration. Finally, we suggest some new and exciting research possibilities and explain how both research fields could benefit

  16. The effects of cannabis on memory function in users with and without a psychotic disorder: findings from a combined meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeler, T; Kambeitz, J; Behlke, I; Murray, R; Bhattacharyya, S

    2016-01-01

    Effect of cannabis use on memory function is a contentious issue, with effects being different in healthy individuals and patients with psychosis. Employing a meta-analytic approach we investigated the effects of cannabis use on memory function in patients with psychosis and healthy individuals, and the effect of diagnosis, memory dimension and moderating factors. A total of 88 studies were identified through a systematic literature search, investigating healthy (n = 7697) and psychotic (n = 3261) individuals. Standardized mean differences between the cannabis user and non-user groups on memory tasks were estimated using random-effects models and the effect-size statistic Cohen's d. Effects of potential moderating factors were tested using mixed-effects models and subgroup analyses. We found that cannabis use was associated with significantly (p ⩽ 0.05) impaired global (d = 0.27) and prospective memory (d = 0.61), verbal immediate (d = 0.40) and delayed (d = 0.36) recall as well as visual recognition (d = 0.41) in healthy individuals, but a better global memory (d = -0.11), visual immediate recall (d = -0.73) and recognition (d = -0.42) in patients. Lower depression scores and younger age appeared to attenuate the effects of cannabis on memory. Cannabis-using patients had lower levels of depression and were younger compared with non-using patients, whilst healthy cannabis-users had higher depression scores than age-matched non-users. Longer duration of abstinence from cannabis reduced the effects on memory in healthy and patient users. These results suggest that cannabis use is associated with a significant domain-specific impairment in memory in healthy individuals but not in cannabis-using patients, suggesting that they may represent a less developmentally impaired subgroup of psychotic patients.

  17. Sharing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Nielsen, Emil Byskov; Nielsen, Jonathan Bernstorff

    2018-01-01

    For people suffering from aphasia, everyday verbal and bodily interpersonal communication is challenging. To increase aphasics' ability to share memories, an assistive technology (the MemoryBook) was conceptualized based on explicit, observable and tacit knowledge gathered from the practices...

  18. Cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  19. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  20. Early memories: Clinical relevance and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Watt, Gillian; Coall, David; Sng, Adelln; Janca, Aleksandar

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine earliest memories in patients with a mental disorder and their clinical relevance to diagnosis and treatment. A semi-structured early memory questionnaire was developed and 50 patients with anxiety, depression or a psychotic disorder were interviewed. A thematic analysis was conducted to extract dominant themes from the qualitative data. Family events, play, and receiving attention were dominant themes of pleasant memories, while unpleasant memories consisted of fear-provoking situations, abuse/violence, and death-related themes. Participants were able to recall the feelings they had experienced at the time of their earliest memories and most participants stated that their first memories had significant impact in their lives. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that earliest memories may be of clinical significance for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in psychiatry. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Emerging memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  2. Memory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  3. Randomized Clinical Trial of Real-Time fMRI Amygdala Neurofeedback for Major Depressive Disorder: Effects on Symptoms and Autobiographical Memory Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Siegle, Greg J; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Misaki, Masaya; Yuan, Han; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2017-08-01

    Patients with depression show blunted amygdala hemodynamic activity to positive stimuli, including autobiographical memories. The authors examined the therapeutic efficacy of real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training aimed at increasing the amygdala's hemodynamic response to positive memories in patients with depression. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, unmedicated adults with depression (N=36) were randomly assigned to receive two sessions of rtfMRI-nf either from the amygdala (N=19) or from a parietal control region not involved in emotional processing (N=17). Clinical scores and autobiographical memory performance were assessed at baseline and 1 week after the final rtfMRI-nf session. The primary outcome measure was change in score on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the main analytic approach consisted of a linear mixed-model analysis. In participants in the experimental group, the hemodynamic response in the amygdala increased relative to their own baseline and to the control group. Twelve participants in the amygdala rtfMRI-nf group, compared with only two in the control group, had a >50% decrease in MADRS score. Six participants in the experimental group, compared with one in the control group, met conventional criteria for remission at study end, resulting in a number needed to treat of 4. In participants receiving amygdala rtfMRI-nf, the percent of positive specific memories recalled increased relative to baseline and to the control group. rtfMRI-nf training to increase the amygdala hemodynamic response to positive memories significantly decreased depressive symptoms and increased the percent of specific memories recalled on an autobiographical memory test. These data support a role of the amygdala in recovery from depression.

  4. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  5. Declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  6. Neural correlates of working memory deficits in schizophrenic patients. Ways to establish neurocognitive endophenotypes of psychiatric disorders; Neuronale Korrelate gestoerter Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen bei schizophrenen Patienten. Ansaetze zur Etablierung neurokognitiver Endophaenotypen psychiatrischer Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, O. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Homburg (Saar) (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften, Leipzig (Germany); Gruber, E.; Falkai, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Homburg (Saar) (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    This article briefly reviews some methodological limitations of functional neuroimaging studies in psychiatric patients. We argue that the investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders requires a combination of functional neuroimaging studies in healthy subjects with corresponding behavioral experiments in patients. In order to exemplify this methodological approach we review recent findings regarding the functional neuroanatomy of distinct components of human working memory and provide evidence for selective dysfunctions of cortical networks that underlie specific working memory deficits in schizophrenia. This identification of subgroups of schizophrenic patients according to neurocognitive parameters may facilitate the establishment of behavioral and neurophysiological endophenotypes and the development of a neurobiological classification of psychiatric disorders. (orig.) [German] Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit einigen methodischen Problemen funktionell-bildgebender Studien mit psychiatrischen Patienten, aufgrund derer die Untersuchung der neuronalen Korrelate kognitiver Defizite bei psychiatrischen Erkrankungen einer Kombination funktionell-bildgebender Studien bei gesunden Normalprobanden mit Verhaltensuntersuchungen bei Patienten bedarf. Dieser methodische Ansatz wird am Beispiel von Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen erlaeutert, wobei zunaechst neuere Erkenntnisse zur funktionellen Neuroanatomie verschiedener Komponenten des menschlichen Arbeitsgedaechtnisses referiert werden. Anschliessend werden bei schizophrenen Patienten erhobene Befunde vorgestellt, die auf spezifische Stoerungen der funktionellen Integritaet neuronaler Netzwerke mit Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen hinweisen. Die damit verbundene Identifikation von Subgruppen schizophrener Patienten koennte zur Etablierung verhaltensneurophysiologisch definierter Endophaenotypen psychiatrischer Stoerungsbilder fuehren und die Entwicklung einer neurowissenschaftlich

  7. Measuring memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1988-01-01

    Three broad approaches to the measurement of memory functioning will be described. The first of these involves using memory as a general indicator of any dysfunction in the central nervous system. This approach will be illustrated using Sternberg's short-term memory scanning paradigm. Its strengths are that such tests are often very sensitive, but they are often very difficult to interpret both theoretically and in practical terms. A second approach is to use a range of tasks selected so as to tap different aspects of human memory. Such an approach is of considerably more theoretical interest, and is discussed in more detail by Eysenck (this volume). Its weaknesses are that theories of memory are still changing relatively quickly, and that mapping such results onto memory outside the laboratory is often complex. A third approach is to attempt a more direct measure of everyday memory. The use of questionnaires for this purpose will be critically discussed, and a new test of everyday memory will be described. This test, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, correlates well with observations of memory lapses in patients, and appears to offer a promising new line of development.

  8. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Memory Since H.M

    OpenAIRE

    Squire, Larry R.; Wixted, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Work with patient H.M., beginning in the 1950s, established key principles about the organization of memory that inspired decades of experimental work. Since H.M., the study of human memory and its disorders has continued to yield new insights and to improve understanding of the structure and organization of memory. Here we review this work with emphasis on the neuroanatomy of medial temporal lobe and diencephalic structures important for memory, multiple memory systems, visual perception, im...

  9. Time-based and event-based prospective memory in autism spectrum disorder: The roles of executive function and theory of mind, and time estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D.; Boucher, J.; Lind, S. E.; Jarrold, C.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory (remembering to carry out an action in the future) has been studied relatively little in\\ud ASD. We explored time-based (carry out an action at a pre-specified time) and event-based (carry out an\\ud action upon the occurrence of a pre-specified event) prospective memory, as well as possible cognitive\\ud correlates, among 21 intellectually high-functioning children with ASD, and 21 age- and IQ-matched\\ud neurotypical comparison children. We found impaired time-based, but und...

  10. Memory-Focused Cognitive Therapy for Cocaine Use Disorder: Theory, Procedures and Preliminary Evidence From an External Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Marsden

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cocaine use disorder (CUD is a debilitating condition with no NICE-recommended medication or specific psychosocial interventions. In the United Kingdom (UK, general counselling (treatment-as-usual; TAU is widely delivered, but has limited effectiveness. We tested the feasibility, safety and preliminary efficacy of a novel, adjunctive psychosocial intervention for CUD, called ‘memory-focused cognitive therapy’ (MFCT. Methods: We did a two-arm, external pilot randomised controlled trial at a specialist community National Health Service addictions clinic in London, UK. 30 adults (≥18 years, voluntarily seeking treatment for CUD (enrolled ≥14 days; all with moderate-to-severe DSM5 CUD, were individually randomised (1:1 to a control group (ongoing TAU; 3 × 90 min CUD cognitive conceptualisation assessments; 2 × 30 min cocaine-related cue-induction procedures; and 3 × 30 min research follow-ups; or to an intervention group (ongoing TAU; 3 × 90 min cognitive conceptualisation assessments; 2 × 30 min cocaine-related cue-induction procedures; 5 × 120 min, one-to-one, MFCT sessions [in 1 week]; and 3 × 60 min research follow-ups and MFCT-relapse prevention.The primary outcome was the total percentage score on the frequency version of the Craving Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ-F at 1-month follow-up after the intensive intervention week (clinical endpoint; recall period past 2 weeks; higher score indicating greater craving. Secondary outcomes at the 1-month follow-up were percentage days abstinent (PDA from cocaine, and longest period (days of continuous abstinence (LPA in the prior 28 days.Outcomes were analysed as an unadjusted group mean difference (with Hedge's g effect size [ES] and a 95% Confidence Interval [CI] for the primary outcome and a 90% CI for the secondary outcomes. Exploratory, multivariable linear (primary outcome and Poisson regression models (secondary outcomes, with sex, age, months

  11. Disputed Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The world wars, genocides and extremist ideologies of the 20th century are remembered very differently across Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, resulting sometimes in fierce memory disputes. This book investigates the complexity and contention of the layers of memory of the troubled 20th...... century in the region. Written by an international group of scholars from a diversity of disciplines, the chapters approach memory disputes in methodologically innovative ways, studying representations and negotiations of disputed pasts in different media, including monuments, museum exhibitions......, individual and political discourse and electronic social media. Analyzing memory disputes in various local, national and transnational contexts, the chapters demonstrate the political power and social impact of painful and disputed memories. The book brings new insights into current memory disputes...

  12. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  13. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    over time. Memory is bonded with story telling. Both in the way the designer tells a story through his design and in the way the user recognizes the story in his perception of design. Memory design first requires recognition and then cognition. AIM The purpose of my research is to investigate the use......Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds...

  14. Memory consolidation reconfigures neural pathways involved in the suppression of emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Liu, Chao; Luo, Yuejia; Wu, Jianhui; Bayley, Peter J; Qin, Shaozheng

    2016-11-29

    The ability to suppress unwanted emotional memories is crucial for human mental health. Through consolidation over time, emotional memories often become resistant to change. However, how consolidation impacts the effectiveness of emotional memory suppression is still unknown. Using event-related fMRI while concurrently recording skin conductance, we investigated the neurobiological processes underlying the suppression of aversive memories before and after overnight consolidation. Here we report that consolidated aversive memories retain their emotional reactivity and become more resistant to suppression. Suppression of consolidated memories involves higher prefrontal engagement, and less concomitant hippocampal and amygdala disengagement. In parallel, we show a shift away from hippocampal-dependent representational patterns to distributed neocortical representational patterns in the suppression of aversive memories after consolidation. These findings demonstrate rapid changes in emotional memory organization with overnight consolidation, and suggest possible neurobiological bases underlying the resistance to suppression of emotional memories in affective disorders.

  15. Do memory aids help everyday memory? A controlled trial of a Memory Aids Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Bonnie-Kate; Kapur, Narinder; Kopelman, Michael

    2018-06-01

    There is a growing body of knowledge about the use of compensatory memory aids in memory rehabilitation, but relatively few controlled trials on how to train the use of such aids. This study investigated the effects of systematic training in the use of compensatory memory aids on everyday memory functioning within a Memory Aids Service. In a controlled clinical trial, a comparison was made between treatment participants and waiting list controls. Participants had everyday memory problems secondary to progressive or non-progressive neurological conditions. Following baseline assessment and goal setting, treatment participants underwent three training sessions, in which memory aids were matched to goals, across a six week period, with a follow-up assessment 12 weeks later. Outcome was measured by a goal attainment diary, neuropsychological test performance, psychosocial questionnaires and a problem solving inventory. There was a significant treatment effect of training on the goal attainment diary but only at 12 weeks follow-up. A post-hoc analysis indicated that treatment was effective for participants with a non-progressive condition but not for participants with a progressive condition. We conclude that a Memory Aids Service can be beneficial for patients with a non-progressive neurological condition, and make suggestions that might inform future applications of memory aids with those who have a progressive neurological disorder.

  16. Consolidação da memória e estresse pós-traumático Memory consolidation and posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Quevedo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos em humanos e animais têm demonstrado que a formação da memória é facilitada por um sistema modulatório endógeno, mediado pela liberação de hormônios de estresse e pela ativação da amígdala cerebral. Esse sistema é adaptativo em termos evolutivos, permitindo o reforço de memórias importantes para a sobrevivência. Em condições de estresse emocional, esse mesmo sistema pode levar à formação de memórias vívidas e duradouras, características do TEPT. O entendimento dos mecanismos da consolidação da memória pode contribuir para o tratamento do TEPT.Extensive evidence from animal and human studies has shown that memory formation is enhanced by an endogenous modulatory system mediated by stress hormones and activation of the amygdala. This system is an evolutionarily adaptive method of enhancing important memories. Under emotional stress, this system is activated promoting the formation of vivid, long lasting traumatic memories, which are the hallmark of PTSD. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying memory modulation might lead to an improved ability to assess and treat PTSD.

  17. Assessment of Olfactory Memory in Olfactory Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Reichert, Johanna; Braunsteiner, Josephine; Schöpf, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    To assess all clinically relevant components of olfactory perception, examinations for olfactory sensitivity, discrimination, and identification are performed. Besides the standard perceptual test battery, episodic olfactory memory might offer additional information about olfactory abilities relative to these standard clinical tests. As both olfactory deficits and memory deficits are early symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders, olfactory memory may be of particular interest. However, to date little is known about episodic olfactory memory performance in patients with decreased olfactory function. This study includes the investigation of olfactory memory performance in 14 hyposmic patients (8 female, mean age 52.6 years) completing two episodic odor memory tests (Sniffin' Test of Odor Memory and Odor Memory Test). To control for a general impairment in memory function, a verbal and a figural memory test were carried out. A regression model with multiple predictors was calculated for both odor memory tests separately. Odor identification was identified as the only significant predictor for both odor memory tasks. From our results, we conclude that currently available olfactory memory tests are highly influenced by odor identification abilities, implying the need for the development and validation of additional tests in this field which could serve as additional olfactory perception variables for clinical assessment.

  18. Addiction memory as a specific, individually learned memory imprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, J

    2009-05-01

    The construct of "addiction memory" (AM) and its importance for relapse occurrence has been the subject of discussion for the past 30 years. Neurobiological findings from "social neuroscience" and biopsychological learning theory, in conjunction with construct-valid behavioral pharmacological animal models, can now also provide general confirmation of addiction memory as a pathomorphological correlate of addiction disorders. Under multifactorial influences, experience-driven neuronal learning and memory processes of emotional and cognitive processing patterns in the specific individual "set" and "setting" play an especially pivotal role in this connection. From a neuropsychological perspective, the episodic (biographical) memory, located at the highest hierarchical level, is of central importance for the formation of the AM in certain structural and functional areas of the brain and neuronal networks. Within this context, neuronal learning and conditioning processes take place more or less unconsciously and automatically in the preceding long-term-memory systems (in particular priming and perceptual memory). They then regulate the individually programmed addiction behavior implicitly and thus subsequently stand for facilitated recollection of corresponding, previously stored cues or context situations. This explains why it is so difficult to treat an addiction memory, which is embedded above all in the episodic memory, from the molecular carrier level via the neuronal pattern level through to the psychological meaning level, and has thus meanwhile become a component of personality.

  19. Personality disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... personality disorder Borderline personality disorder Dependent personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorder Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Paranoid ...

  20. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  1. Random Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Martos Forniés, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Desarrollo de una nueva versión del juego Memory para dispositivos móviles Android. Desenvolupament d'una nova versió del joc Memory per a dispositius mòbils Android. Bachelor thesis for the Computer Science program on Educational video games.

  2. Shared Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question of restit...... identifies what seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right; and it shows that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory.......This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question...... of restitution universalised the memory of the Holocaust and made it present. The 2004 enlargement brought the memory of Soviet Communism into the Union and made it a central task to construct a community of memory that includes both the memory of the Holocaust and of Soviet Communism. The analysis also...

  3. Memory Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  4. Episodic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  5. Collaging Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  6. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ...

  7. Collective memory: a perspective from (experimental) clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Ineke; Moulds, Michelle L

    2008-04-01

    This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these memories as a property of individuals who are, to a greater or lesser extent, an integral part of their social environment (social memory). First, we argue that the understanding of collectivistic memory phenomena may benefit from drawing parallels with current psychological models such as the self-memory system theory of individualistic autobiographical memory. Second, we suggest that the social memory literature may inform the study of trauma-related disorders. We argue that a factual focus induced by collaborative remembering may be beneficial to natural recovery in the immediate aftermath of trauma, and propose that shared remembering techniques may provide a useful addition to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  8. Accessing memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  9. Post-Retrieval Extinction Attenuates Cocaine Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Sartor, Gregory C; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that post-retrieval extinction training attenuates fear and reward-related memories in both humans and rodents. This noninvasive, behavioral approach has the potential to be used in clinical settings to treat maladaptive memories that underlie several psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. However, few studies to date have used a post-retrieval extinction approach to attenuate addiction-related memories. In the current study, we attempted to disrupt cocaine...

  10. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  11. Understanding phonological memory deficits in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dissociation of short-term storage and articulatory rehearsal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D; Raiker, Joseph S; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by children following a brief (3 s) interval to assess their phonological short-term storage capacity. Children's ability to utilize the articulatory rehearsal mechanism to actively maintain information in the phonological short-term store was assessed using word lists at their established memory span but with extended rehearsal times (12 s and 21 s delays). Results indicate that both phonological shortterm storage capacity and articulatory rehearsal are impaired or underdeveloped to a significant extent in boys with ADHD relative to typically developing boys, even after controlling for age, SES, IQ, and reading speed. Larger magnitude deficits, however, were apparent in short-term storage capacity (ES = 1.15 to 1.98) relative to articulatory rehearsal (ES = 0.47 to 1.02). These findings are consistent with previous reports of deficient phonological short-term memory in boys with ADHD, and suggest that future attempts to develop remedial cognitive interventions for children with ADHD will need to include active components that require children to hold increasingly more information over longer time intervals.

  12. Cognitive impairment in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised with the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juichi Fujimori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 55% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD show cognitive impairment as evaluated using the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery (BRBN, but this frequency appears to be higher than the frequency of specific brain lesions in NMOSD. Objective: We studied whether cognitive impairment could be observed in NMOSD patients with no or minor non-specific brain lesions. Methods: We evaluated cognitive function in 12 NMOSD and 14 MS patients using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III, the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R, and the BRBN. We judged as cognitively impaired patients whose scores were below the average by 2 standard deviations or greater in 2 or more cognitive domains. Results: Cognitive impairment was observed in 5 MS patients (35.7% and in the only NMOSD patient (8.3% with symptomatic brain lesions, but not in the other NMOSD patients who had no or minor non-specific brain lesions. Meanwhile, 5 NMOSD (41.7% and 4 MS (28.6% patients who had normal cognition according to the WAIS-III and WMS-R were assessed as cognitively impaired by the BRBN (which is not standardized for age. Conclusions: Cognitive function in NMOSD patients with no or mild non-specific brain lesions was preserved according to the WAIS-III and WMS-R. Keywords: Neuromyelitis Optica, Cognitive impairment, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery, Multiple sclerosis

  13. Regional homogeneity associated with overgeneral autobiographical memory of first-episode treatment-naive patients with major depressive disorder in the orbitofrontal cortex: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yansong; Zhao, Xudong; Cheng, Zaohuo; Zhang, Fuquan; Chang, Jun; Wang, Haosen; Xie, Rukui; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Guoqiang

    2017-02-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is involved in the onset and maintenance of depression. Recent studies have shown correlations between OGM and alterations of some brain regions by using task-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the correlation between OGM and spontaneous brain activity in depression remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) show abnormal regional homogeneity (ReHo) and, if so, whether the brain areas with abnormal ReHo are associated with OGM. Twenty five patients with MDD and 25 age-matched, sex-matched, and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI. All participants were also assessed by 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and autobiographical memory test. The ReHo method was used to analyze regional synchronization of spontaneous neuronal activity. Patients with MDD, compared to healthy controls, exhibited extensive ReHo abnormalities in some brain regions, including the frontal, temporal, and occipital cortex. Moreover, ReHo value of the orbitofrontal cortex was negatively correlated with OGM scores in patients with MDD. The sample size of this study was relatively small, and the influence of physiological noise was not completely excluded. These results suggest that abnormal ReHo of spontaneous brain activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may be involved in the pathophysiology of OGM in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Foord, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  15. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  16. [Mechanisms for regulation of fear conditioning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a model of fear learning and memory. The mechanisms regulating fear conditioning and memory have been investigated in humans and rodents. In this paradigm, animals learn and memorize an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS), such as context, and an unconditioned stimulus (US), such as an electrical footshock that induces fear. Fear memory generated though fear conditioning is stabilized via a memory consolidation process. Moreover, recent studies have shown the existence of memory processes that control fear memory following the retrieval of consolidated memory. Indeed, when fear memory is retrieved by re-exposure to the CS, the retrieved memory is re-stabilized via the reconsolidation process. On the other hand, the retrieval of fear memory by prolonged re-exposure to the CS also leads to fear memory extinction, new inhibitory learning against the fear memory, in which animals learn that they do not need to respond to the CS. Importantly, the reinforcement of fear memory after retrieval (i.e., re-experience such as flashbacks or nightmares) has been thought to be associated with the development of emotional disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this review, I summarize recent progress in studies on the mechanism of fear conditioning and memory consolidation, reconsolidation and extinction, and furthermore, introduce our recent establishment of a mouse PTSD model that shows enhancement of fear memory after retrieval.

  17. Losing memories during sleep after targeted memory reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Katharine C N S; Gómez, Rebecca L; Nadel, Lynn

    2018-03-17

    Targeting memories during sleep opens powerful and innovative ways to influence the mind. We used targeted memory reactivation (TMR), which to date has been shown to strengthen learned episodes, to instead induce forgetting (TMR-Forget). Participants were first trained to associate the act of forgetting with an auditory forget tone. In a second, separate, task they learned object-sound-location pairings. Shortly thereafter, some of the object sounds were played during slow wave sleep, paired with the forget tone to induce forgetting. One week later, participants demonstrated lower recall of reactivated versus non-reactivated objects and impaired recognition memory and lowered confidence for the spatial location of the reactivated objects they failed to spontaneously recall. The ability to target specific episodic memories for forgetting during sleep has implications for developing novel therapeutic techniques for psychological disorders such as PTSD and phobias. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Sleep, learning and memory: relevance for psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göder, R; Nissen, C; Rasch, B

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has been identified as a state that optimizes the consolidation of newly acquired information in the memory. Sleep disturbances might essentially contribute to memory impairment in relevant psychiatric disorders, such as major depression and schizophrenia. This article provides a brief review of the latest research results on sleep and its association with memory consolidation. Specific disturbances of sleep structure are associated with particular memory deficits in psychiatric patients. Effective treatment of sleep disorders should not only improve signs of sleep but should also heal associated memory impairments.

  19. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person with memory loss needs a lot of support. It helps to show the person familiar objects, music, or and photos or play familiar music. Write down when the person should take any medicine or do other ...

  20. Multiferroic Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritendu Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroism implies simultaneous presence of more than one ferroic characteristics such as coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. This phenomenon has led to the development of various kinds of materials and conceptions of many novel applications such as development of a memory device utilizing the multifunctionality of the multiferroic materials leading to a multistate memory device with electrical writing and nondestructive magnetic reading operations. Though, interdependence of electrical- and magnetic-order parameters makes it difficult to accomplish the above and thus rendering the device to only two switchable states, recent research has shown that such problems can be circumvented by novel device designs such as formation of tunnel junction or by use of exchange bias. In this paper, we review the operational aspects of multiferroic memories as well as the materials used for these applications along with the designs that hold promise for the future memory devices.

  1. Concrete Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the presence of Atlantikwall bunkers in amateur holiday snapshots and discusses the ambiguous role of the bunker site in visual cultural memory. Departing from my family’s private photo collection from twenty years of vacationing at the Danish West coast, the different mundane...... the bunkers’ changing visuality and the cultural topography they both actively transform and are being transformed by through juxtaposing different acts and objects of memory over time and in different visual articulations....

  2. Contributions of language and memory demands to verbal memory performance in language-learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaki, Emi; Spaulding, Tammie J; Plante, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of adults with language-based learning disorders (L/LD) and normal language controls on verbal short-term and verbal working memory tasks. Eighteen adults with L/LD and 18 normal language controls were compared on verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks under low, moderate, and high linguistic processing loads. Results indicate no significant group differences on all verbal short-term memory tasks and verbal working memory tasks with low and moderate language loads. Statistically significant group differences were found on the most taxing condition, the verbal working memory task involving high language processing load. The L/LD group performed significantly worse than the control group on both the processing and storage components of this task. These results support the limited capacity hypothesis for adults with L/LD. Rather than presenting with a uniform impairment in verbal memory, they exhibit verbal memory deficits only when their capacity limitations are exceeded under relatively high combined memory and language processing demands. The reader will (1) understand the relationship between increased linguistic demands and working memory, and (2) learn about working memory skills in adults with language learning disorders.

  3. A prospective cohort study on posttraumatic stress disorder in liver transplantation recipients before and after transplantation : Prevalence, symptom occurrence, and intrusive memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Coby; Drent, Gerda; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Metselaar, Herold J.; Van Hoek, Bart; Porte, Robert J.; Schroevers, Maya J.; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed at increasing the understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in liver transplant patients by describing the course of PTSD, symptom occurrence, psychological co-morbidity, and the nature of re-experiencing symptoms. Methods: A prospective cohort study was

  4. Epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene is linked to traumatic memory and post-traumatic stress disorder risk in genocide survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vukojevic, V.; Kolassa, I.T.; Fastenrath, M.; Gschwind, L.; Spalek, K.; Milnik, A.; Heck, A.; Vogler, C.; Wilker, S.; Demougin, P.; Peter, F.; Atucha Trevino, E.; Stetak, A.; Roozendaal, B.; Elbert, T.; Papassotiropoulos, A.; Quervain, D.J. de

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that altered expression and epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) are related to the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unknown. Because glucocorticoid receptor signaling is known to

  5. The relationship between hyperactivity dyslexia disorder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF.MIREKU

    and memory disorder, learning disabilities in some subjects ( reading, writting, spelling and mathematics ), hearing disorder, neurological findings, brain electroencephalography (EEG). He categorized these characteristics in four groups; learning disability, hyperactivity, social and emotional problems, insufficiency of.

  6. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Memory reconsolidation in aversive and appetitive settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Claire Reichelt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Memory reconsolidation has been observed across species and in a number of behavioural paradigms. The majority of memory reconsolidation studies have been carried out in pavlovian fear conditioning and other aversive memory settings, with potential implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, there is a growing literature on memory reconsolidation in appetitive reward-related memory paradigms, including translational models of drug addiction. While there appears to be substantial similarity in the basic phenomenon and underlying mechanisms of memory reconsolidation across unconditioned stimulus valence, there are also notable discrepancies. These arise both when comparing aversive to appetitive paradigms and also across different paradigms within the same valence of memory. We review the demonstration of memory reconsolidation across different aversive and appetitive memory paradigms, the commonalities and differences in underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which each memory undergoes reconsolidation. We focus particularly on whether principles derived from the aversive literature are applicable to appetitive settings, and also whether the expanding literature in appetitive paradigms is informative for fear memory reconsolidation.

  8. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we

  9. The AIP Model of EMDR Therapy and Pathogenic Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hase

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR therapy has been widely recognized as an efficacious treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In the last years more insight has been gained regarding the efficacy of EMDR therapy in a broad field of mental disorders beyond PTSD. The cornerstone of EMDR therapy is its unique model of pathogenesis and change: the adaptive information processing (AIP model. The AIP model developed by F. Shapiro has found support and differentiation in recent studies on the importance of memories in the pathogenesis of a range of mental disorders beside PTSD. However, theoretical publications or research on the application of the AIP model are still rare. The increasing acceptance of ideas that relate the origin of many mental disorders to the formation and consolidation of implicit dysfunctional memory lead to formation of the theory of pathogenic memories. Within the theory of pathogenic memories these implicit dysfunctional memories are considered to form basis of a variety of mental disorders. The theory of pathogenic memories seems compatible to the AIP model of EMDR therapy, which offers strategies to effectively access and transmute these memories leading to amelioration or resolution of symptoms. Merging the AIP model with the theory of pathogenic memories may initiate research. In consequence, patients suffering from such memory-based disorders may be earlier diagnosed and treated more effectively.

  10. The AIP Model of EMDR Therapy and Pathogenic Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Michael; Balmaceda, Ute M; Ostacoli, Luca; Liebermann, Peter; Hofmann, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been widely recognized as an efficacious treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the last years more insight has been gained regarding the efficacy of EMDR therapy in a broad field of mental disorders beyond PTSD. The cornerstone of EMDR therapy is its unique model of pathogenesis and change: the adaptive information processing (AIP) model. The AIP model developed by F. Shapiro has found support and differentiation in recent studies on the importance of memories in the pathogenesis of a range of mental disorders beside PTSD. However, theoretical publications or research on the application of the AIP model are still rare. The increasing acceptance of ideas that relate the origin of many mental disorders to the formation and consolidation of implicit dysfunctional memory lead to formation of the theory of pathogenic memories. Within the theory of pathogenic memories these implicit dysfunctional memories are considered to form basis of a variety of mental disorders. The theory of pathogenic memories seems compatible to the AIP model of EMDR therapy, which offers strategies to effectively access and transmute these memories leading to amelioration or resolution of symptoms. Merging the AIP model with the theory of pathogenic memories may initiate research. In consequence, patients suffering from such memory-based disorders may be earlier diagnosed and treated more effectively.

  11. Working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1992-01-31

    The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be divided into the following three subcomponents: (i) the central executive, which is assumed to be an attentional-controlling system, is important in skills such as chess playing and is particularly susceptible to the effects of Alzheimer's disease; and two slave systems, namely (ii) the visuospatial sketch pad, which manipulates visual images and (iii) the phonological loop, which stores and rehearses speech-based information and is necessary for the acquisition of both native and second-language vocabulary.

  12. Vial Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Vial Memory is the final part in the Collected trilogy. Following Still Life and Future Nature, the work marks a return to the medical archive and the body on display. The project is an art and science collaboration with the Mütte