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Sample records for membrane-bound cytochrome bc

  1. Isolation and purification of membrane-bound cytochrome c from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    ferrochrome and redox spectra showed the presence of heme-c. Key words: Cytochrome c, respiratory chain and Proteus mirabilis. INTRODUCTION. Proteus mirabilis is facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram negative bacterium.

  2. Structural features and dynamic investigations of the membrane-bound cytochrome P450 17A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying-Lu; Xue, Qiao; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Zhang, Ji-Long; Kong, Chui-Peng; Fan, Jing-Rong; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2015-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 17A1 is a dual-function monooxygenase with a critical role in the synthesis of many human steroid hormones. The enzyme is an important target for treatment of breast and prostate cancers that proliferate in response to estrogens and androgens. Despite the crystallographic structures available for CYP17A1, no membrane-bound structural features of this enzyme at atomic level are available. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the interactions between bounded CYPs and membrane could contribute to the recruitment of lipophilic substrates. To this end, we have investigated the effects on structural characteristics in the presence of the membrane for CYP17A1. The MD simulation results demonstrate a spontaneous insertion process of the enzyme to the lipid. Two predominant modes of CYP17A1 in the membrane are captured, characterized by the depths of insertion and orientations of the enzyme to the membrane surface. The measured heme tilt angles show good consistence with experimental data, thereby verifying the validity of the structural models. Moreover, conformational changes induced by the membrane might have impact on the accessibility of the active site to lipophilic substrates. The dynamics of internal aromatic gate formed by Trp220 and Phe224 are suggested to regulate tunnel opening motions. The knowledge of the membrane binding characteristics could guide future experimental and computational works on membrane-bound CYPs so that various investigations of CYPs in their natural, lipid environment rather than in artificially solubilized forms may be achieved. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The catalytic function of cytochrome P450 is entwined with its membrane-bound nature [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Barnaba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450, a family of monooxygenase enzymes, is organized as a catalytic metabolon, which requires enzymatic partners as well as environmental factors that tune its complex dynamic. P450 and its reducing counterparts—cytochrome P450-reductase and cytochrome b5—are membrane-bound proteins located in the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to dynamically associate to form functional complexes. Increasing experimental evidence signifies the role(s played by both protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in P450 catalytic function and efficiency. However, the biophysical challenges posed by their membrane-bound nature have severely limited high-resolution understanding of the molecular interfaces of these interactions. In this article, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on cytochrome P450, highlighting the environmental factors that are entwined with its metabolic function. Recent advances in structural biophysics are also discussed, setting up the bases for a new paradigm in the study of this important class of membrane-bound enzymes.

  4. Biogenesis of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Vincenzo; Conte, Laura; Trumpower, Bernard L

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain is composed of four different protein complexes that cooperate in electron transfer and proton pumping across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The cytochrome bc1 complex, or complex III, is a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This review will focus on the biogenesis of the bc1 complex in the mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In wild type yeast mitochondrial membranes the major part of the cytochrome bc1 complex was found in association with one or two copies of the cytochrome c oxidase complex. The analysis of several yeast mutant strains in which single genes or pairs of genes encoding bc1 subunits had been deleted revealed the presence of a common set of bc1 sub-complexes. These sub-complexes are represented by the central core of the bc1 complex, consisting of cytochrome b bound to subunit 7 and subunit 8, by the two core proteins associated with each other, by the Rieske protein associated with subunit 9, and by those deriving from the unexpected interaction of each of the two core proteins with cytochrome c1. Furthermore, a higher molecular mass sub-complex is that composed of cytochrome b, cytochrome c1, core protein 1 and 2, subunit 6, subunit 7 and subunit 8. The identification and characterization of all these sub-complexes may help in defining the steps and the molecular events leading to bc1 assembly in yeast mitochondria.

  5. In Situ Proteolysis for Crystallization of Membrane Bound Cytochrome P450 17A1 and 17A2 Proteins from Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li; Egli, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Fish and human cytochrome P450 (P450) 17A1 catalyze both steroid 17α-hydroxylation and 17α,20-lyase reactions. Fish P450 17A2 catalyzes only 17α-hydroxylation. Both enzymes are microsomal-type P450s, integral membrane proteins that bind to the membrane through their N-terminal hydrophobic segment, the signal anchor sequence. The presence of this N-terminal region renders expression of full-length proteins challenging or impossible. For some proteins, variable truncation of the signal anchor sequence precludes expression or results in poor expression levels. To crystallize P450 17A1 and 17A2 in order to gain insight into their different activities, we used an alternative N-terminal sequence to boost expression together with in situ proteolysis. Key features of our approach to identify crystallizable P450 fragments were the use of an N-terminal leader sequence, a screen composed of 12 proteases to establish optimal cleavage, variations of protease concentration in combination with an SDS-PAGE assay, and analysis of the resulting fragments using Edman sequencing. Described in this unit are protocols for vector preparation, expression, purification, and in situ proteolytic crystallization of two membrane-bound P450 proteins. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Lansoprazole is an antituberculous prodrug targeting cytochrome bc1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybniker, Jan; Vocat, Anthony; Sala, Claudia; Busso, Philippe; Pojer, Florence; Benjak, Andrej; Cole, Stewart T

    2015-07-09

    Better antibiotics capable of killing multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis are urgently needed. Despite extensive drug discovery efforts, only a few promising candidates are on the horizon and alternative screening protocols are required. Here, by testing a panel of FDA-approved drugs in a host cell-based assay, we show that the blockbuster drug lansoprazole (Prevacid), a gastric proton-pump inhibitor, has intracellular activity against M. tuberculosis. Ex vivo pharmacokinetics and target identification studies reveal that lansoprazole kills M. tuberculosis by targeting its cytochrome bc1 complex through intracellular sulfoxide reduction to lansoprazole sulfide. This novel class of cytochrome bc1 inhibitors is highly active against drug-resistant clinical isolates and spares the human H(+)K(+)-ATPase thus providing excellent opportunities for targeting the major pathogen M. tuberculosis. Our finding provides proof of concept for hit expansion by metabolic activation, a powerful tool for antibiotic screens.

  7. Removal of Bound Triton X-100 from Purified Bovine Heart Cytochrome bc1

    OpenAIRE

    Varhač, Rastislav; Robinson, Neal C.; Musatov, Andrej

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome bc1 isolated from Triton X-100 solubilized mitochondrial membranes contains up to 120 nmol of Triton X-100 bound per nmol of the enzyme. Purified cytochrome bc1 is fully active; however, protein bound Triton X-100 significantly interferes with structural studies of the enzyme. Removal of Triton X-100 bound to bovine cytochrome bc1 was accomplished by incubation with Bio-Beads SM-2 in presence of sodium cholate. Sodium cholate is critical since it does not interfere with the adsorpt...

  8. Membrane-bound human orphan cytochrome P450 2U1: Sequence singularities, construction of a full 3D model, and substrate docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducassou, Lionel; Dhers, Laura; Jonasson, Gabriella; Pietrancosta, Nicolas; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Mansuy, Daniel; André, François

    2017-09-01

    Human cytochrome P450 2U1 (CYP2U1) is an orphan CYP that exhibits several distinctive characteristics among the 57 human CYPs with a highly conserved sequence in almost all living organisms. We compared its protein sequence with those of the 57 human CYPs and constructed a 3D structure of a full-length CYP2U1 model bound to a POPC membrane. We also performed docking experiments of arachidonic acid (AA) and N-arachidonoylserotonin (AS) in this model. The protein sequence of CYP2U1 displayed two unique characteristics when compared to those of the human CYPs, the presence of a longer N-terminal region upstream of the putative trans-membrane helix (TMH) containing 8 proline residues, and of an insert of about 20 amino acids containing 5 arginine residues between helices A' and A. Its N-terminal part upstream of TMH involved an additional short terminal helix, in a manner similar to what was reported in the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYP51. Our model also showed a specific interaction between the charged residues of insert AA' and phosphate groups of lipid polar heads, suggesting a possible role of this insert in substrate recruitment. Docking of AA and AS in this model showed these substrates in channel 2ac, with the terminal alkyl chain of AA or the indole ring of AS close to the heme, in agreement with the reported CYP2U1-catalyzed AA and AS hydroxylation regioselectivities. This model should be useful to find new endogenous or exogenous CYP2U1 substrates and to interpret the regioselectivity of their hydroxylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  9. Requirement of histidine 217 for ubiquinone reductase activity (Qi site) in the cytochrome bc1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, K A; Dutton, P L; Daldal, F

    1994-01-25

    Folding models suggest that the highly conserved histidine 217 of the cytochrome b subunit from the cytochrome bc1 complex is close to the quinone reductase (Qi) site. This histidine (bH217) in the cytochrome b polypeptide of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been replaced with three other residues, aspartate (D), arginine (R), and leucine (L). bH217D and bH217R are able to grow photoheterotrophically and contain active cytochrome bc1 complexes (60% of wild-type activity), whereas the bH217L mutant is photosynthetically incompetent and contains a cytochrome bc1 complex that has only 10% of the wild-type activity. Single-turnover flash-activated electron transfer experiments show that cytochrome bH is reduced via the Qo site with near native rates in the mutant strains but that electron transfer between cytochrome bH and quinone bound at the Qi site is greatly slowed. These results are consistent with redox midpoint potential (Em) measurements of the cytochrome b subunit hemes and the Qi site quinone. The Em values of cyt bL and bH are approximately the same in the mutants and wild type, although the mutant strains have a larger relative concentration of what may be the high-potential form of cytochrome bH, called cytochrome b150. However, the redox properties of the semiquinone at the Qi site are altered significantly. The Qi site semiquinone stability constant of bH217R is 10 times higher than in the wild type, while in the other two strains (bH217D and bH217L) the stability constant is much lower than in the wild type. Thus H217 appears to have major effects on the redox properties of the quinone bound at the Qi site. These data are incorporated into a suggestion that H217 forms part of the binding pocket of the Qi site in a manner reminiscent of the interaction between quinone bound at the Qb site and H190 of the L subunit of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center.

  10. Subnanomolar Inhibitor of Cytochrome bc1 Complex Designed via Optimizing Interaction with Conformationally Flexible Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pei-Liang; Wang, Le; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Huang, Xiaoqin; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Wu, Jia-Wei; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome bc1 complex (EC 1.10.2.2, bc1), an essential component of the cellular respiratory chain and the photosynthetic apparatus in photosynthetic bacteria, has been identified as a promising target for new drugs and agricultural fungicides. X-ray diffraction structures of the free bc1 complex and its complexes with various inhibitors revealed that the phenyl group of Phe274 in the binding pocket exhibited significant conformational flexibility upon different inhibitors binding to optimize respective π-π interactions, whereas the side chains of other hydrophobic residues showed conformational stability. Therefore, in the present study, a strategy of optimizing the π-π interaction with conformationally flexible residues was proposed to design and discover new bc1 inhibitors with a higher potency. Eight new compounds were designed and synthesized, among which compound 5c with a Ki value of 570 pM was identified as the most promising drug or fungicide candidate, significantly more potent than the commercially available bc1 inhibitors including azoxystrobin (AZ), kresoxim-methyl (KM), and pyraclostrobin (PY). To our knowledge, this is the first bc1 inhibitor discovered from structure-based design with a potency of subnanomolar Ki value. For all of the compounds synthesized and assayed, the calculated binding free energies correlated reasonably well with the binding free energies derived from the experimental Ki values with a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.89. The further inhibitory kinetics studies revealed that compound 5c is a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to substrate cytochrome c, but is a competitive inhibitor with respect to substrate ubiquinol. Due to its subnanomolar Ki potency and slow dissociation rate constant (k−0 = 0.00358 s−1), compound 5c could be used as a specific probe for further elucidation of the mechanism of bc1 function and as a new lead compound for future drug discovery. PMID:19928849

  11. The dimerization of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex is an early event and is independent of Rip1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Annalea; Papa, Benedetta; Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the mature cytochrome bc1 complex exists as an obligate homo-dimer in which each monomer consists of ten distinct protein subunits inserted into or bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Among them, the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (Rip1), besides its catalytic role in electron transfer, may be implicated in the bc1 complex dimerization. Indeed, Rip1 has the globular domain containing the catalytic center in one monomer while the transmembrane helix interacts with the adjacent monomer. In addition, the lack of Rip1 leads to the accumulation of an immature bc1 intermediate, only loosely associated with cytochrome c oxidase. In this study we have investigated the biogenesis of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex using epitope tagged proteins to purify native assembly intermediates. We showed that the dimerization process is an early event during bc1 complex biogenesis and that the presence of Rip1, differently from previous proposals, is not essential for this process. We also investigated the multi-step model of bc1 assembly thereby lending further support to the existence of bona fide subcomplexes during bc1 maturation in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Finally, a new model of cytochrome bc1 complex assembly, in which distinct intermediates sequentially interact during bc1 maturation, has been proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Computational discovery of picomolar Q(o) site inhibitors of cytochrome bc1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Wang, Fu; Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Wen-Chao; Huang, Li-Shar; Wu, Jia-Wei; Berry, Edward A; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2012-07-11

    A critical challenge to the fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is its low-throughput nature due to the necessity of biophysical method-based fragment screening. Herein, a method of pharmacophore-linked fragment virtual screening (PFVS) was successfully developed. Its application yielded the first picomolar-range Q(o) site inhibitors of the cytochrome bc(1) complex, an important membrane protein for drug and fungicide discovery. Compared with the original hit compound 4 (K(i) = 881.80 nM, porcine bc(1)), the most potent compound 4f displayed 20 507-fold improved binding affinity (K(i) = 43.00 pM). Compound 4f was proved to be a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate cytochrome c, but a competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. Additionally, we determined the crystal structure of compound 4e (K(i) = 83.00 pM) bound to the chicken bc(1) at 2.70 Å resolution, providing a molecular basis for understanding its ultrapotency. To our knowledge, this study is the first application of the FBDD method in the discovery of picomolar inhibitors of a membrane protein. This work demonstrates that the novel PFVS approach is a high-throughput drug discovery method, independent of biophysical screening techniques.

  13. Rieske iron-sulfur protein of the cytochrome bc(1) complex: a potential target for fungicide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Chao; Li, Hui; Wang, Fu; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2012-07-23

    The cytochrome bc(1) complex (complex III, cyt bc(1)) is an essential component of cellular respiration. Cyt bc(1) has three core subunits that are required for its catalytic activity: cytochrome b, cytochrome c(1), and the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP). Although most fungicides inhibit this enzyme by binding to the cytochrome b subunit, resistance to these fungicides has developed rapidly due to their widespread application. Resistance is mainly associated with mutations in cytochrome b, the only subunit encoded by mitochondrial DNA. Recently, the flexibility and motion of the ISP and its essential role in electron transfer have received intense attention; this leads us to propose a new classification of cyt bc(1) inhibitors (three types of Q(o) inhibitors) that mobilize, restrict, or fix the rotation of the ISP. Importantly, the strengths of the ISP-inhibitor interactions correlate with inhibitor activity and the development of resistance to Q(o) inhibitors, thereby offering clues for designing novel cyt bc(1) inhibitors with high potency and a low risk of resistance. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein: Import and Assembly into the Cytochrome bc 1 Complex of Yeast Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Laura; Zara, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The Rieske iron-sulfur protein, one of the catalytic subunits of the cytochrome bc 1 complex, is involved in electron transfer at the level of the inner membrane of yeast mitochondria. The Rieske iron-sulfur protein is encoded by nuclear DNA and, after being synthesized in the cytosol, is imported into mitochondria with the help of a cleavable N-terminal presequence. The imported protein, besides incorporating the 2Fe-2S cluster, also interacts with other catalytic and non-catalytic subunits of the cytochrome bc 1 complex, thereby assembling into the mature and functional respiratory complex. In this paper, we summarize the most recent findings on the import and assembly of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria, also discussing a possible role of this protein both in the dimerization of the cytochrome bc 1 complex and in the interaction of this homodimer with other complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. PMID:21716720

  15. The Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein: Import and Assembly into the Cytochrome bc(1) Complex of Yeast Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Laura; Zara, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The Rieske iron-sulfur protein, one of the catalytic subunits of the cytochrome bc(1) complex, is involved in electron transfer at the level of the inner membrane of yeast mitochondria. The Rieske iron-sulfur protein is encoded by nuclear DNA and, after being synthesized in the cytosol, is imported into mitochondria with the help of a cleavable N-terminal presequence. The imported protein, besides incorporating the 2Fe-2S cluster, also interacts with other catalytic and non-catalytic subunits of the cytochrome bc(1) complex, thereby assembling into the mature and functional respiratory complex. In this paper, we summarize the most recent findings on the import and assembly of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria, also discussing a possible role of this protein both in the dimerization of the cytochrome bc(1) complex and in the interaction of this homodimer with other complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

  16. Plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopic evidence for differential binding of oxidized and reduced rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c(2) to the cytochrome bc(1) complex mediated by the conformation of the rieske iron-sulfur protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanathan, S.; Salamon, Z.; Tollin, G.; Fitch, J.C.; Meyer, T.E.; Berry, E.A.; Cusanovich, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The dissociation constants for the binding of Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c2 and its K93P mutant to the cytochrome bc1 complex embedded in a phospholipid bilayer were measured by plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy in the presence and absence of the inhibitor stigmatellin. The reduced form of cytochrome c2 strongly binds to reduced cytochrome bc1 (Kd = 0.02 M) but binds much more weakly to the oxidized form (Kd = 3.1 M). In contrast, oxidized cytochrome c2 binds to oxidized cytochrome bc1 in a biphasic fashion with Kd values of 0.11 and 0.58 M. Such a biphasic interaction is consistent with binding to two separate sites or conformations of oxidized cytochrome c2 and/or cytochrome bc1. However, in the presence of stigmatellin, we find that oxidized cytochrome c2 binds to oxidized cytochrome bc1 in a monophasic fashion with high affinity (Kd = 0.06 M) and reduced cytochrome c2 binds less strongly (Kd = 0.11 M) but ∼30-fold more tightly than in the absence of stigmatellin. Structural studies with cytochrome bc1, with and without the inhibitor stigmatellin, have led to the proposal that the Rieske protein is mobile, moving between the cytochrome b and cytochrome c1 components during turnover. In one conformation, the Rieske protein binds near the heme of cytochrome c1, while the cytochrome c2 binding site is also near the cytochrome c1 heme but on the opposite side from the Rieske site, where cytochrome c2 cannot directly interact with Rieske. However, the inhibitor, stigmatellin, freezes the Rieske protein iron-sulfur cluster in a conformation proximal to cytochrome b and distal to cytochrome c1. We conclude from this that the dual conformation of the Rieske protein is primarily responsible for biphasic binding of oxidized cytochrome c2 to cytochrome c1. This optimizes turnover by maximizing binding of the substrate, oxidized cytochrome c2, when the iron-sulfur cluster is proximal to cytochrome b and minimizing binding of the product, reduced cytochrome c

  17. Charge Transfer at the Qo-Site of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex Leads to Superoxide Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh Salo, Adrian; Husen, Peter; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2017-01-01

    The cytochrome bc1 complex is the third protein complex in the electron transport chain of mitochondria or photosynthetic bacteria, and it serves to create an electrochemical gradient across a cellular membrane, which is used to drive ATP synthesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate...... interactions involving an occasionally trapped oxygen molecule (O2) at the so-called Qo site of the bc1 complex, which is one of the central active sites of the protein complex, where redox reactions are expected to occur. The investigation focuses on revealing the possibility of the oxygen molecule...... to influence the normal operation of the bc1 complex and acquire an extra electron, thus becoming superoxide, a biologically toxic free radical. The process is modeled by applying quantum chemical calculations to previously performed classical molecular dynamics simulations. Investigations reveal several...

  18. Evidence that the assembly of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex involves the formation of a large core structure in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Vincenzo; Conte, Laura; Trumpower, Bernard L

    2009-04-01

    The assembly status of the cytochrome bc(1) complex has been analyzed in distinct yeast deletion strains in which genes for one or more of the bc(1) subunits were deleted. In all the yeast strains tested, a bc(1) sub-complex of approximately 500 kDa was found when the mitochondrial membranes were analyzed by blue native electrophoresis. The subsequent molecular characterization of this sub-complex, carried out in the second dimension by SDS/PAGE and immunodecoration, revealed the presence of the two catalytic subunits, cytochrome b and cytochrome c(1), associated with the noncatalytic subunits core protein 1, core protein 2, Qcr7p and Qcr8p. Together, these bc(1) subunits build up the core structure of the cytochrome bc(1) complex, which is then able to sequentially bind the remaining subunits, such as Qcr6p, Qcr9p, the Rieske iron-sulfur protein and Qcr10p. This bc(1) core structure may represent a true assembly intermediate during the maturation of the bc(1) complex; first, because of its wide distribution in distinct yeast deletion strains and, second, for its characteristics of stability, which resemble those of the intact homodimeric bc(1) complex. By contrast, the bc(1) core structure is unable to interact with the cytochrome c oxidase complex to form respiratory supercomplexes. The characterization of this novel core structure of the bc(1) complex provides a number of new elements clarifying the molecular events leading to the maturation of the yeast cytochrome bc(1) complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  19. Evidence that assembly of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex involves formation of a large core structure in the inner mitochondrial membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Vincenzo; Conte, Laura; Trumpower, Bernard L.

    2009-01-01

    The assembly status of the cytochrome bc1 complex has been analyzed in distinct yeast deletion strains in which genes for one or more of the bc1 subunits had been deleted. In all the yeast strains tested a bc1 sub-complex of about 500 kDa was found when the mitochondrial membranes were analyzed by blue native electrophoresis. The subsequent molecular characterization of this sub-complex, carried out in the second dimension by SDS-PAGE and immunodecoration, revealed the presence of the two catalytic subunits cytochrome b and cytochrome c1, associated with the non catalytic subunits core protein 1, core protein 2, Qcr7p and Qcr8p. Altogether these bc1 subunits build up the core structure of the cytochrome bc1 complex which is then able to sequentially bind the remaining subunits, such as Qcr6p, Qcr9p, the Rieske iron-sulfur protein and Qcr10p. This bc1 core structure may represent a true assembly intermediate during the maturation of the bc1 complex, first because of its wide distribution in distinct yeast deletion strains and second for its characteristics of stability which resemble those of the intact homodimeric bc1 complex. Differently from this latter, however, the bc1 core structure is not able to interact with the cytochrome c oxidase complex to form respiratory supercomplexes. The characterization of this novel core structure of the bc1 complex provides a number of new elements for clarification of the molecular events leading to the maturation of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane. PMID:19236481

  20. [Membrane-bound cytokine and feedforward regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-Fu; Zheng, Guo-Guang; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Song, Yu-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Feedback and feedforward widely exist in life system, both of them are the basic processes of control system. While the concept of feedback has been widely used in life science, feedforward regulation was systematically studied in neurophysiology, awaiting further evidence and mechanism in molecular biology and cell biology. The authors put forward a hypothesis about the feedforward regulation of membrane bound macrophage colony stimulation factor (mM-CSF) on the basis of their previous work. This hypothesis might provide a new direction for the study on the biological effects of mM-CSF on leukemia and solid tumors, and contribute to the study on other membrane bound cytokines.

  1. Identification of Ubiquinol Binding Motifs at the Qo-Site of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barragan, Angela M.; Crofts, Antony R.; Schulten, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    for the function of the bc1 complex is the initial redox process that involves a bifurcated electron transfer in which the two electrons from a quinol substrate are passed to different electron acceptors in the bc1 complex. The electron transfer is coupled to proton transfer. The overall mechanism of quinol...... all atom molecular dynamics and quantum chemical calculations to reveal the binding modes of quinol at the Qo-site of the bc1 complex from Rhodobacter capsulatus. The calculations suggest a novel configuration of amino acid residues responsible for quinol binding and support a mechanism for proton...

  2. Bcs1p can rescue a large and productive cytochrome bc(1) complex assembly intermediate in the inner membrane of yeast mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Laura; Trumpower, Bernard L; Zara, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cytochrome bc(1) complex, a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is composed of ten distinct protein subunits. In the assembly of the bc(1) complex, some ancillary proteins, such as the chaperone Bcs1p, are actively involved. The deletion of the nuclear gene encoding this chaperone caused the arrest of the bc(1) assembly and the formation of a functionally inactive bc(1) core structure of about 500-kDa. This immature bc(1) core structure could represent, on the one hand, a true assembly intermediate or, on the other hand, a degradation product and/or an incorrect product of assembly. The experiments here reported show that the gradual expression of Bcs1p in the yeast strain lacking this protein was progressively able to rescue the bc(1) core structure leading to the formation of the functional homodimeric bc(1) complex. Following Bcs1p expression, the mature bc(1) complex was also progressively converted into two supercomplexes with the cytochrome c oxidase complex. The capability of restoring the bc(1) complex and the supercomplexes was also possessed by the mutated yeast R81C Bcsp1. Notably, in the human ortholog BCS1L, the corresponding point mutation (R45C) was instead the cause of a severe bc(1) complex deficiency. Differently from the yeast R81C Bcs1p, two other mutated Bcs1p's (K192P and F401I) were unable to recover the bc(1) core structure in yeast. This study identifies for the first time a productive assembly intermediate of the yeast bc(1) complex and gives new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the last steps of bc(1) assembly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mutations at the Qo-Site of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex Strongly Affect Oxygen Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husen, Peter; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2017-01-01

    The homodimeric bc1 protein complex is embedded in membranes of mitochondria and photosynthetic bacteria, where it transports protons across the membrane to maintain an electrostatic potential used to drive ATP synthesis as part of the respiratory or photosynthetic pathways. The reaction cycle...... at the Qo-sites, and, moreover, different behavior of the two monomers of the bc1 complex is observed. The conformational differences at the Qo-sites of the two monomers are studied in detail and discussed. The anionic form of semiquinone was identified as leading to the greatest opportunity for side...

  4. Observations concerning the quinol oxidation site of the cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Edward A.; Huang, Li-Shar

    2003-09-07

    A direct hydrogen bond between ubiquinone/quinol bound at the QO site and a cluster-ligand histidine of the iron-sulfur protein (ISP) is described as a major determining factor explaining much experimental data on position of the ISP ectodomain, EPR lineshape and midpoint potential of the iron-sulfur cluster, and the mechanism of the bifurcated electron transfer from ubiquinol to the high and low potential chains of the bc1 complex.

  5. Similar Transition States Mediate the Q-cycle and Superoxide Production by the Cytochrome bc1 Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forquer, Isaac P.; Covian, Raul; Bowman, Michael K.; Trumpower, Bernard; Kramer, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The cytochrome bc complexes found in mitochondria, chloroplasts and many bacteria catalyze a critical reaction in their respective electron transport chains. The quinol oxidase (Qo) site in this complex oxidizes a hydroquinone (quinol), reducing two one-electron carriers, a low-potential cytochrome b heme and a ''Rieske'' iron-sulfur cluster. The overall electron transfer reactions are coupled to transmembrane translocation of protons via a ''Q-cycle'' mechanism, which generates proton motive force for ATP synthesis. Since semiquinone intermediates of quinol oxidation are generally highly reactive, one of the key questions in this field is: how does the Qo site oxidize quinol without the production of deleterious side reactions including superoxide production? We attempt to test three possible general models to account for this behavior: (1) The Qo site semiquinone (or quinol:imidazolate complex) is unstable and thus occurs at a very low steady-state concentration, limiting O2 reduction; (2) the Qo site semiquinone is highly stabilized making it unreactive towards oxygen; and (3) the Qo site catalyzes a quantum mechanically-coupled two-electron/two proton transfer without a semiquinone intermediate. Enthalpies of activation were found to be almost identical between the uninhibited Q-cycle and superoxide production in the presence of Antimycin A in wild type. This behavior was also preserved in a series of mutants with altered driving forces for quinol oxidation. Overall, the data supports models where the rate-limiting step for both Q-cycle and superoxide production are essentially identical, consistent with model 1 but requiring modifications to models 2 and 3

  6. Control of electron transfer in the cytochrome system of mitochondria by pH, transmembrane pH gradient and electrical potential. The cytochromes b-c segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, S; Lorusso, M; Izzo, G; Capuano, F

    1981-02-15

    1. A study is presented of the effects of pH, transmembrane pH gradient and electrical potential on oxidoreductions of b and c cytochromes in ox heart mitochondria and 'inside-out' submitochondrial particles. 2. Kinetic analysis shows that, in mitochondria at neutral pH, there is a restraint on the aerobic oxidation of cytochrome b566 with respect to cytochrome b562. Valinomycin plus K+ accelerates cytochrome b566 oxidation and retards net oxidation of cytochrome b562. At alkaline pH the rate of cytochrome b566 oxidation approaches that of cytochrome b562 and the effects of valinomycin on b cytochromes are impaired. 3. At slightly acidic pH, oxygenation of antimycin-supplemented mitochondria causes rapid reduction of cytochrome b566 and small delayed reduction of cytochrome b562. Valinomycin or a pH increase in the medium promote reduction of cytochrome b562 and decrease net reduction of cytochrome b566. 4. Addition of valinomycin to mitochondria and submitochondrial particles in the respiring steady state causes, at pH values around neutrality, preferential oxidation of cytochrome b566 with respect to cytochrome b562. The differential effect of valinomycin on oxidation of cytochromes b566 and b562 is enhanced by substitution of 1H2O of the medium with 2H2O and tends to disappear as the pH of the medium is raised to alkaline values. 5. Nigericin addition in the aerobic steady state causes, both in mitochondria and submitochondrial particles, preferential oxidation of cytochrome b562 with respect to cytochrome b566. This is accompanied by c cytochrome oxidation in mitochondria but c cytochrome reduction in submitochondrial particles. 6. In mitochondria as well as in submitochondrial particles, the aerobic transmembrane potential (delta psi) does not change by raising the pH of the external medium from neutrality to alkalinity. The transmembrane pH gradient (delta pH) on the other hand, decrease slightly. 7. The results presented provide evidence that the delta psi

  7. Structure Biology of Membrane Bound Enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dax [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). School of Medicine. Dept. of Physiology

    2016-11-30

    The overall goal of the proposed research is to understand the membrane-associated active processes catalyzed by an alkane $\\square$-hydroxylase (AlkB) from eubacterium Pseudomonase oleovorans. AlkB performs oxygenation of unactivated hydrocarbons found in crude oils. The enzymatic reaction involves energy-demanding steps in the membrane with the uses of structurally unknown metal active sites featuring a diiron [FeFe] center. At present, a critical barrier to understanding the membrane-associated reaction mechanism is the lack of structural information. The structural biology efforts have been challenged by technical difficulties commonly encountered in crystallization and structural determination of membrane proteins. The specific aims of the current budget cycle are to crystalize AlkB and initiate X-ray analysis to set the stage for structural determination. The long-term goals of our structural biology efforts are to provide an atomic description of AlkB structure, and to uncover the mechanisms of selective modification of hydrocarbons. The structural information will help elucidating how the unactivated C-H bonds of saturated hydrocarbons are oxidized to initiate biodegradation and biotransformation processes. The knowledge gained will be fundamental to biotechnological applications to biofuel transformation of non-edible oil feedstock. Renewable biodiesel is a promising energy carry that can be used to reduce fossil fuel dependency. The proposed research capitalizes on prior BES-supported efforts on over-expression and purification of AlkB to explore the inner workings of a bioenergy-relevant membrane-bound enzyme.

  8. Visualizing changes in electron distribution in coupled chains of cytochrome bc(1) by modifying barrier for electron transfer between the FeS cluster and heme c(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieluch, Ewelina; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2010-02-01

    Cytochrome c(1) of Rhodobacter (Rba.) species provides a series of mutants which change barriers for electron transfer through the cofactor chains of cytochrome bc(1) by modifying heme c(1) redox midpoint potential. Analysis of post-flash electron distribution in such systems can provide useful information about the contribution of individual reactions to the overall electron flow. In Rba. capsulatus, the non-functional low-potential forms of cytochrome c(1) which are devoid of the disulfide bond naturally present in this protein revert spontaneously by introducing a second-site suppression (mutation A181T) that brings the potential of heme c(1) back to the functionally high levels, yet maintains it some 100 mV lower from the native value. Here we report that the disulfide and the mutation A181T can coexist in one protein but the mutation exerts a dominant effect on the redox properties of heme c(1) and the potential remains at the same lower value as in the disulfide-free form. This establishes effective means to modify a barrier for electron transfer between the FeS cluster and heme c(1) without breaking disulfide. A comparison of the flash-induced electron transfers in native and mutated cytochrome bc(1) revealed significant differences in the post-flash equilibrium distribution of electrons only when the connection of the chains with the quinone pool was interrupted at the level of either of the catalytic sites by the use of specific inhibitors, antimycin or myxothiazol. In the non-inhibited system no such differences were observed. We explain the results using a kinetic model in which a shift in the equilibrium of one reaction influences the equilibrium of all remaining reactions in the cofactor chains. It follows a rather simple description in which the direction of electron flow through the coupled chains of cytochrome bc(1) exclusively depends on the rates of all reversible partial reactions, including the Q/QH2 exchange rate to/from the catalytic sites

  9. Parameterization of the prosthetic redox centers of the bacterial cytochrome bc(1) complex for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaszuba, K.; Postila, P. A.; Cramariuc, O.

    2013-01-01

    studied in large-scale classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In part, this is due to lack of suitable force field parameters, centered atomic point charges in particular, for the complex's prosthetic redox centers. Accurate redox center charges are needed to depict realistically the inter-molecular...... interactions at different redox stages of the cyt bc(1) complex. Accordingly, here we present high-precision atomic point charges for the metal centers of the cyt bc(1) complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus derived from extensive density functional theory calculations, fitted using the restrained electrostatic...

  10. Heterologous expression and purification of membrane-bound pyrophosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellosalo, J.; Kajander, T.; Palmgren, Michael Broberg

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (M-PPases) are enzymes that couple the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate to pumping of protons or sodium ions. In plants and bacteria they are important for relieving stress caused by low energy levels during anoxia, drought, nutrient deficiency, cold and low l...

  11. Atomistic simulations indicate cardiolipin to have an integral role in the structure of the cytochrome bc(1) complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poyry, S.; Cramariuc, O.; Postila, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    by both ensuring the structural integrity of the protein complex and also by taking part in the proton uptake. Yet, the atom-scale understanding of these highly charged four-tail lipids in the cyt bc(1) function has remained quite unclear. We consider this issue through atomistic molecular dynamics...... the description of the role of the surrounding lipid environment: in addition to the specific CL-protein interactions, we observe the protein domains on the positive side of the membrane to settle against the lipids. Altogether, the simulations discussed in this article provide novel views into the dynamics...... simulations that are applied to the entire cyt bc(1) dimer of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus embedded in a lipid bilayer. We find CLs to spontaneously diffuse to the dimer interface to the immediate vicinity of the higher potential heme b groups of the complex's catalytic Q...

  12. THE RESPIRATORY SUBSTRATE RHODOQUINOL INDUCES Q-CYCLE BYPASS REACTIONS IN THE YEAST CYTOCHROME bc1 COMPLEX - MECHANISTIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cape, Jonathan L.; Strahan, Jeff R.; Lenaeus, Michael J.; Yuknis, Brook A.; Le, Trieu T.; Shepherd, Jennifer; Bowman, Michael K.; Kramer, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cyt c, while generating a proton motive force for ATP synthesis, via the ''Qcycle'' mechanism. Under certain conditions, electron flow through the Q-cycle is blocked at the level of a reactive intermediate in the quinol oxidase site of the enzyme, resulting in ''bypass reactions'', some of which lead to superoxide production. Using analogs of the respiratory substrates, ubiquinol-3 and rhodoquinol-3, we show that the relative rates of Q-cycle bypass reactions in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyt bc1 complex are highly dependent, by a factor of up to one hundred-fold, on the properties of the substrate quinol. Our results suggest that the rate of Q-cycle bypass reactions is dependent on the steady state concentration of reactive intermediates produced at the quinol oxidase site of the enzyme. We conclude that normal operation of the Q-cycle requires a fairly narrow window of redox potentials, with respect to the quinol substrate, to allow normal turnover of the complex while preventing potentially damaging bypass reactions

  13. The soluble loop BC region guides, but not dictates, the assembly of the transmembrane cytochrome b6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Tome-Stangl

    Full Text Available Studying folding and assembly of naturally occurring α-helical transmembrane proteins can inspire the design of membrane proteins with defined functions. Thus far, most studies have focused on the role of membrane-integrated protein regions. However, to fully understand folding pathways and stabilization of α-helical membrane proteins, it is vital to also include the role of soluble loops. We have analyzed the impact of interhelical loops on folding, assembly and stability of the heme-containing four-helix bundle transmembrane protein cytochrome b6 that is involved in charge transfer across biomembranes. Cytochrome b6 consists of two transmembrane helical hairpins that sandwich two heme molecules. Our analyses strongly suggest that the loop connecting the helical hairpins is not crucial for positioning the two protein "halves" for proper folding and assembly of the holo-protein. Furthermore, proteolytic removal of any of the remaining two loops, which connect the two transmembrane helices of a hairpin structure, appears to also not crucially effect folding and assembly. Overall, the transmembrane four-helix bundle appears to be mainly stabilized via interhelical interactions in the transmembrane regions, while the soluble loop regions guide assembly and stabilize the holo-protein. The results of this study might steer future strategies aiming at designing heme-binding four-helix bundle structures, involved in transmembrane charge transfer reactions.

  14. Evidence from the structure and function of cytochromes c(2) that nonsulfur purple bacterial photosynthesis followed the evolution of oxygen respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Terry; Van Driessche, Gonzalez; Ambler, Richard; Kyndt, John; Devreese, Bart; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Cusanovich, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Cytochromes c(2) are the nearest bacterial homologs of mitochondrial cytochrome c. The sequences of the known cytochromes c(2) can be placed in two subfamilies based upon insertions and deletions, one subfamily is most like mitochondrial cytochrome c (the small C2s, without significant insertions and deletions), and the other, designated large C2, shares 3- and 8-residue insertions as well as a single-residue deletion. C2s generally function between cytochrome bc(1) and cytochrome oxidase in respiration (ca 80 examples known to date) and between cytochrome bc(1) and the reaction center in nonsulfur purple bacterial photosynthesis (ca 21 examples). However, members of the large C2 subfamily are almost always involved in photosynthesis (12 of 14 examples). In addition, the gene for the large C2 (cycA) is associated with those for the photosynthetic reaction center (pufBALM). We hypothesize that the insertions in the large C2s, which were already functioning in photosynthesis, allowed them to replace the membrane-bound tetraheme cytochrome, PufC, that otherwise mediates between the small C2 or other redox proteins and photosynthetic reaction centers. Based upon our analysis, we propose that the involvement of C2 in nonsulfur purple bacterial photosynthesis was a metabolic feature subsequent to the evolution of oxygen respiration.

  15. Tunable Tensor Voting Improves Grouping of Membrane-Bound Macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loss, Leandro A.; Bebis, George; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-04-15

    Membrane-bound macromolecules are responsible for structural support and mediation of cell-cell adhesion in tissues. Quantitative analysis of these macromolecules provides morphological indices for damage or loss of tissue, for example as a result of exogenous stimuli. From an optical point of view, a membrane signal may have nonuniform intensity around the cell boundary, be punctate or diffused, and may even be perceptual at certain locations along the boundary. In this paper, a method for the detection and grouping of punctate, diffuse curvilinear signals is proposed. Our work builds upon the tensor voting and the iterative voting frameworks to propose an efficient method to detect and refine perceptually interesting curvilinear structures in images. The novelty of our method lies on the idea of iteratively tuning the tensor voting fields, which allows the concentration of the votes only over areas of interest. We validate the utility of our system with synthetic and annotated real data. The effectiveness of the tunable tensor voting is demonstrated on complex phenotypic signals that are representative of membrane-bound macromolecular structures.

  16. NMR spectroscopic studies of membrane-bound biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlweg, W.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of this thesis, biological NMR spectroscopy was employed in studying membrane-bound peptides and proteins, for which structural information is still comparatively hard to obtain. Initial work focused on various model peptides bound to membrane-mimicking micelles, studying the protonation state of arginine in a membrane environment. Strong evidence for a cation-π complex was found in TM7, a peptide which forms the seventh transmembrane helix of subunit a of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). V-ATPase is a physiologically highly relevant proton pump, which is present in intracellular membranes of all eukaryotic organisms, as well as the plasma membrane of several specialized cells. Loss of functional V-ATPase is associated with human diseases such as osteopetrosis, distal renal tubular acidosis or the spreading of cancer. V-ATPase is considered a potential drug target in the treatment of osteoporosis and cancer, or in the development of novel contraceptives. Results from NMR solution structure determination, NMR titration experiments, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiments and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy confirm the existence of a buried cation-? complex formed between arginine residue R735, which is essential for proton transport, and neighbouring tryptophan and tyrosine residues. In vivo experiments in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using selective growth tests and fluorescence microscopy showed that formation of the cation-π complex is essential for V-ATPase function. Deletion of both aromatic residues, as well as only the one tryptophan residue leads to growth defects and inability to maintain vacuolar pH homeostasis. These findings shine new light on the still elusive mechanism of proton transport in V-ATPase, and show that arginine R735 may be directly involved in proton transfer across the membrane. (author) [de

  17. An expression tag toolbox for microbial production of membrane bound plant cytochromes P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Albacete, Dario; Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Christensen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    of the intermediate and the final product of the pathway. Finally, the effect of a robustly performing expression tag was explored with a library of 49 different P450s from medicinal plants and nearly half of these were improved in expression by more than 2-fold. The developed toolbox serves as platform to tune P450...... tag chimeras of the model plant P450 CYP79A1 in different Escherichia coli strains. Using a high-throughput screening platform based on C-terminal GFP fusions, we identify several highly expressing and robustly performing chimeric designs. Analysis of long-term cultures by flow cytometry showed...... homogeneous populations for some of the conditions. Three chimeric designs were chosen for a more complex combinatorial assembly of a multigene pathway consisting of two P450s and a redox partner. Cells expressing these recombinant enzymes catalysed the conversion of the substrate to highly different ratios...

  18. TUNABLE TENSOR VOTING FOR REGULARIZING PUNCTATE PATTERNS OF MEMBRANE-BOUND PROTEIN SIGNALS

    OpenAIRE

    Loss, Leandro

    2009-01-01

    Membrane-bound protein, expressed in the basal-lateral region, is heterogeneous and an important endpoint for understanding biological processes. At the optical resolution, membrane-bound protein can be visualized as being diffused (e.g., E-cadherin), punctate (e.g., connexin), or simultaneously diffused and punctate as a result of sample preparation or conditioning. Furthermore, there is a significant amount of heterogeneity as a result of technical and biological variations. This paper aims...

  19. Key role of water in proton transfer at the Q(o)-site of the cytochrome bc(1) complex predicted by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postila, P. A.; Kaszuba, K.; Sarewicz, M.

    2013-01-01

    of the cyt bc(1) function have remained unclear especially regarding the substrate binding at the Q(o)-site. In this work we address this issue by performing extensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulations with the cyt bc(1) complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus embedded in a lipid bilayer. Based...... on the simulations we are able to show the atom-level binding modes of two substrate forms: quinol (QH(2)) and quinone (Q). The QH(2) binding at the Q(o)-site involves a coordinated water arrangement that produces an exceptionally close and stable interaction between the cyt b and iron sulfur protein subunits...

  20. Role of the PufX protein in photosynthetic growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. 2. PufX is required for efficient ubiquinone/ubiquinol exchange between the reaction center QB site and the cytochrome bc1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, W P; Verméglio, A; Francia, F; Venturoli, G; Melandri, B A; Oesterhelt, D

    1995-11-21

    The PufX membrane protein is essential for photosynthetic growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides because it is required for multiple-turnover electron transfer under anaerobic conditions [see accompanying article; Barz, W. P., Francia, F., Venturoli, G., Melandri, B. A., Verméglio, A., & Oesterhelt, D. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 15235-15247]. In order to understand the molecular role of PufX, light-induced absorption spectroscopy was performed using a pufX- mutant, a pufX+ strain, and two suppressor mutants. We show that the reaction center (RC) requires PufX for its functionality under different redox conditions than the cytochrome bc1 complex: When the kinetics of flash-induced reduction of cytochrome b561 were monitored in chromatophores, we observed a requirement of PufX for turnover of the cytochrome bc1 complex only at high redox potential (Eh > 140 mV), suggesting a function of PufX in lateral ubiquinol transfer from the RC. In contrast, PufX is required for multiple turnover of the RC only under reducing conditions: When the Q pool was partially oxidized in vivo using oxygen or electron acceptors like dimethyl sulfoxide or trimethylamine N-oxide, the deletion of PufX had no effect on light-driven electron flow through the RC. Flash train experiments under anaerobic in vivo conditions revealed that RC photochemistry does not depend on PufX for the first two flash excitations. Following the third and subsequent flashes, however, efficient charge separation requires PufX, indicating an important role of PufX for fast Q/QH2 exchange at the QB site of the RC. We show that the Q/QH2 exchange rate is reduced approximately 500-fold by the deletion of PufX when the Q pool is nearly completely reduced, demonstrating an essential role of PufX for the access of ubiquinone to the QB site. The fast ubiquinone/ubiquinol exchange is partially restored by suppressor mutations altering the macromolecular antenna structure. These results suggest an indirect role of PufX in

  1. Membrane-bound ATPase contributes to hop resistance of Lactobacillus brevis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; van Veen, HW; Saito, H; Kobayashi, H; Konings, WN

    2002-01-01

    The activity of the membrane-bound H+-ATPase of the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45 increased upon adaptation to bacteriostatic hop compounds. The ATPase activity was optimal around pH 5.6 and increased up to fourfold when L. brevis was exposed to 666 muM hop compounds. The

  2. Study on the changes in the levels of membrane-bound ATPases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to determine the deleterious effects of λ cyhalothrin- induced in fresh water tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) with respect to changes in the activities of membrane-bound ATPases (Na+/K+, Mg+ and Ca2+ ATPase) and mineral status ...

  3. Effect of narcotics on membrane-bound mitochondrial processes in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Michiels, Ellen

    and endoplasmic reticulum membrane are known to closely interact with the cell membrane, we hypothesize that narcotics can be further partitioned into these organelle membranes where they can disrupt essential membrane-bound processes. The electron transport chain (ETC) is an example of a crucial mitochondrial...

  4. Dissociation and purification of the endogenous membrane-bound Vo complex from Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sumei; Hong, Tao; Wang, Kun; Lu, Yinghong; Zhou, Min

    2017-10-01

    Most proteins occur and function in complexes rather than as isolated entities in membranes. In most cases macromolecules with multiple subunits are purified from endogenous sources. In this study, an endogenous membrane-protein complex was obtained from Pichia pastoris, which can be grown at high densities to significantly improve the membrane protein yield. We successfully isolated the membrane-bound Vo complex of V-ATPase from P. pastoris using a fusion FLAG tag attached to the C-terminus of subunit a to generate the vph-tag strain, which was used for dissociation and purification. After FLAG affinity and size exclusion chromatography purification, the production quantity and purity of the membrane-bound Vo complex was 20 μg l -1 and >98%, respectively. The subunits of the endogenous membrane-bound Vo complex observed in P. pastoris were similar to those obtained from S. cerevisiae, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Therefore, successful dissociation and purification of the membrane-bound Vo complex at a high purity and sufficient quantity was achieved via a rapid and simple procedure that can be used to obtain the endogenous membrane-protein complexes from P. pastoris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tumor promoter induced membrane-bound protein kinase C - its influence on hematogenous metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishna, R.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A correlation between the amount of membrane-bound detergent-extractable protein kinase C activity in various B16 melanoma sublines (F10, F1, BL6) and their lung metastasizing abilities following intravenous injection was found. The F10 subline which exhibits higher metastasizing ability was found to have higher membrane-bound protein kinase C compared to the lower metastasizing subline, F1. Treatment of F1 cells with 100 nM 12-0 tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 1h resulted in 90% decrease in protein kinase C activity in the cytosol with a concommitent increase in membrane-bound activity. These TPA-treated cells when injected intravenously in C57BL/6 mice produced 6-fold increase in pulmonary metastases compared to untreated F1 cells. However, biologically inactive analogues 4 α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate and phorbol 13-acetate had no effect on either membrane-bound protein kinase C activity or pulmonary metastases. Treating F1 cells with the second-stage tumor promoter, mezerin, resulted in increase in both membrane association of protein kinase C and also lung metastases. Thus, these results strongly suggests that membrane associated protein kinase C activity influences hematogenous metastasis of these melanoma cells

  6. Steric Pressure among Membrane-Bound Polymers Opposes Lipid Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Zachary I; Kenyon, Laura E; Carrillo, Adelita; Espinoza, Isai; Nagib, Fatema; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2016-04-19

    Lipid rafts are thought to be key organizers of membrane-protein complexes in cells. Many proteins that interact with rafts have bulky polymeric components such as intrinsically disordered protein domains and polysaccharide chains. Therefore, understanding the interaction between membrane domains and membrane-bound polymers provides insights into the roles rafts play in cells. Multiple studies have demonstrated that high concentrations of membrane-bound polymeric domains create significant lateral steric pressure at membrane surfaces. Furthermore, our recent work has shown that lateral steric pressure at membrane surfaces opposes the assembly of membrane domains. Building on these findings, here we report that membrane-bound polymers are potent suppressors of membrane phase separation, which can destabilize lipid domains with substantially greater efficiency than globular domains such as membrane-bound proteins. Specifically, we created giant vesicles with a ternary lipid composition, which separated into coexisting liquid ordered and disordered phases. Lipids with saturated tails and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains conjugated to their head groups were included at increasing molar concentrations. When these lipids were sparse on the membrane surface they partitioned to the liquid ordered phase. However, as they became more concentrated, the fraction of GUVs that were phase-separated decreased dramatically, ultimately yielding a population of homogeneous membrane vesicles. Experiments and physical modeling using compositions of increasing PEG molecular weight and lipid miscibility phase transition temperature demonstrate that longer polymers are the most efficient suppressors of membrane phase separation when the energetic barrier to lipid mixing is low. In contrast, as the miscibility transition temperature increases, longer polymers are more readily driven out of domains by the increased steric pressure. Therefore, the concentration of shorter polymers required

  7. Response of membrane-bound ATPase of Micrococcus luteus to heat and ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volotovskij, J.; Risi, S.; Dose, K.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the properties of ATPase (EC 3.6.1.3) of Micrococcus luteus depend only to some extent on the state of the membrane to which it is attached. Its interaction with the membrane appears to be largely controlled by polar forces. It is shown, however, that the UV-sensitivity of the membrane-bound ATPase is also significantly influenced by the state of membrane lipids. (orig.) [de

  8. Response of membrane-bound ATPase of Micrococcus luteus to heat and ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volotovskii, J; Risi, S; Dose, K [Mainz Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie

    1976-03-01

    It is shown that the properties of ATPase (EC 3.6.1.3) of Micrococcus luteus depend only to some extent on the state of the membrane to which it is attached. Its interaction with the membrane appears to be largely controlled by polar forces. It is shown, however, that the UV-sensitivity of the membrane-bound ATPase is also significantly influenced by the state of membrane lipids.

  9. Monitoring orientation and dynamics of membrane-bound melittin utilizing dansyl fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Sourav; Raghuraman, H; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2008-11-06

    Melittin is a cationic hemolytic peptide isolated from the European honey bee, Apis mellifera. In spite of a number of studies, there is no consensus regarding the orientation of melittin in membranes. In this study, we used a melittin analogue that is covalently labeled at its amino terminal (Gly-1) with the environment-sensitive 1-dimethylamino-5-sulfonylnaphthalene (dansyl) group to obtain information regarding the orientation and dynamics of the amino terminal region of membrane-bound melittin. Our results show that the dansyl group in Dns-melittin exhibits red edge excitation shift in vesicles of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, implying its localization in a motionally restricted region of the membrane. This is further supported by wavelength-dependent anisotropy and lifetime changes and time-resolved emission spectra characterized by dynamic Stokes shift, which indicates relatively slow solvent relaxation in the excited state. Membrane penetration depth analysis using the parallax method shows that the dansyl group is localized at a depth of approximately 18 A from the center of the bilayer in membrane-bound Dns-melittin. Further analysis of dansyl and tryptophan depths in Dns-melittin shows that the tilt angle between the helix axis of membrane-bound melittin and the bilayer normal is approximately 70 degrees. Our results therefore suggest that melittin adopts a pseudoparallel orientation in DOPC membranes at low concentration.

  10. Fibronectin-synthesizing activity of free and membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts and chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, V.M.; Volodarskaya, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The fibronectin-synthesizing activity of membrane-bound and free polyribosomes in a cell-free system was studied using immunochemical methods. It was found that fibronectin biosynthesis on membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts accounts for 4.9% and those from 10-day-old chick embryos for 1.1% of the total amount of newly synthesized proteins, whereas on free polyribosomes it is 1.0 and 0.3%, respectively. Fibronectin monomers with a molecular weight of 220,000 were found only in the material of the cell-free system containing heavy fractions of membrane-bound polyribosomes newly synthesized in the presence of spermidine. Thus, it was shown that fibronectin is synthesized primarily on membrane-bound polyribosomes

  11. Characterization and expression patterns of a membrane-bound trehalase from Spodoptera exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Weihua

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chitin biosynthesis pathway starts with trehalose in insects and the main functions of trehalases are hydrolysis of trehalose to glucose. Although insects possess two types, soluble trehalase (Tre-1 and membrane-bound trehalase (Tre-2, very little is known about Tre-2 and the difference in function between Tre-1 and Tre-2. Results To gain an insight into trehalase functions in insects, we investigated a putative membrane-bound trehalase from Spodoptera exigua (SeTre-2 cloned from the fat body. The deduced amino acid sequence of SeTre-2 contains 645 residues and has a predicted molecular weight of ~74 kDa and pI of 6.01. Alignment of SeTre-2 with other insect trehalases showed that it contains two trehalase signature motifs and a putative transmembrane domain, which is an important characteristic of Tre-2. Comparison of the genomic DNA and cDNA sequences demonstrated that SeTre-2 comprises 13 exons and 12 introns. Southern blot analysis revealed that S. exigua has two trehalase genes and that SeTre-2 is a single-copy gene. Northern blot analyses showed that the SeTre-2 transcript is expressed not only in the midgut, as previously reported for Bombyx mori, but also in the fat body and Malpighian tubules, although expression patterns differed between the midgut and fat body. SeTre-2 transcripts were detected in the midgut of feeding stage larvae, but not in pupae, whereas SeTre-2 mRNA was detected in the fat body of fifth instar larvae and pupae. Conclusion These findings provide new data on the tissue distribution, expression patterns and potential function of membrane-bound trehalase. The results suggest that the SeTre-2 gene may have different functions in the midgut and fat body.

  12. Membrane-bound transcription factors: regulated release by RIP or RUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, T; Rape, M; Jentsch, S

    2001-06-01

    Regulated nuclear transport of transcription factors from cytoplasmic pools is a major route by which eukaryotes control gene expression. Exquisite examples are transcription factors that are kept in a dormant state in the cytosol by membrane anchors; such proteins are released from membranes by proteolytic cleavage, which enables these transcription factors to enter the nucleus. Cleavage can be mediated either by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) catalysed by specific membrane-bound proteases or by regulated ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent processing (RUP). In both cases processing can be controlled by cues that originate at or in the vicinity of the membrane.

  13. Hydrogen Production by a Hyperthermophilic Membrane-Bound Hydrogenase in Soluble Nanolipoprotein Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S E; Hopkins, R C; Blanchette, C; Walsworth, V; Sumbad, R; Fischer, N; Kuhn, E; Coleman, M; Chromy, B; Letant, S; Hoeprich, P; Adams, M W; Henderson, P T

    2008-10-22

    Hydrogenases constitute a promising class of enzymes for ex vivo hydrogen production. Implementation of such applications is currently hindered by oxygen sensitivity and, in the case of membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH), poor water solubility. Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs), formed from apolipoproteins and phospholipids, offer a novel means to incorporate MBH into in a well-defined water-soluble matrix that maintains the enzymatic activity and is amenable to incorporation into more complex architectures. We report the synthesis, hydrogen-evolving activity and physical characterization of the first MBH-NLP assembly. This may ultimately lead to the development of biomimetic hydrogen production devices.

  14. Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect analyses of membrane-bound enkephalin analogues by sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance: Correlation between activities and membrane-bound conformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milon, Alain; Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Higashijima, Tsutomu (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-01-09

    Leu-enkephalin, (D-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin, and (D-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalinamide (agonists) and (L-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin (inactive analogue) bind to lipid bilayer consisting of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine. The conformations that these compounds assume, once bound to perdeuterated phospholipid bilayer, have been shown to be unique, as shown by the transferred nuclear Overhauser effect (TRNOE) of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. In addition, their location in the bilayer was analyzed by TRNOE in the presence of spin-labeled phospholipids. These analyses showed a clear relationship between the activity and the peptide-membrane interaction. The three active peptides, when bound to membranes, adopt the same conformation, characterized by a type II{prime} {beta}-turn around Gly{sup 3}-Phe and a {gamma}-turn around Gly{sup 2} (or D-Ala{sup 2}). The inactive analogue, (L-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin, displayed a completely different TRNOE pattern corresponding to a different conformation in the membrane-bound state. The tyrosine residue of the active compounds is not inserted into the interior of membrane, but it is inserted into the bilayer for the L-Ala{sup 2} analogue. According to these results, (L-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin may be explained to be inactive because the mode of binding to the membranes is different from that of active compounds.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of membrane-bound pyrophosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellosalo, Juho; Kajander, Tommi; Honkanen, Riina; Goldman, Adrian

    2013-02-01

    Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (M-PPases) are enzymes that enhance the survival of plants, protozoans and prokaryotes in energy constraining stress conditions. These proteins use pyrophosphate, a waste product of cellular metabolism, as an energy source for sodium or proton pumping. To study the structure and function of these enzymes we have crystallized two membrane-bound pyrophosphatases recombinantly produced in Saccharomyces cerevisae: the sodium pumping enzyme of Thermotoga maritima (TmPPase) and the proton pumping enzyme of Pyrobaculum aerophilum (PaPPase). Extensive crystal optimization has allowed us to grow crystals of TmPPase that diffract to a resolution of 2.6 Å. The decisive step in this optimization was in-column detergent exchange during the two-step purification procedure. Dodecyl maltoside was used for high temperature solubilization of TmPPase and then exchanged to a series of different detergents. After extensive screening, the new detergent, octyl glucose neopentyl glycol, was found to be the optimal for TmPPase but not PaPPase.

  16. Optimisation of the Factor VIII yield in mammalian cell cultures by reducing the membrane bound fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Mille Petersen; Nørby, Peder Lisby; Berchtold, Martin Werner

    2011-01-01

    and forms the tenase complex together with clotting Factor IX. In vitro, during serum free production of recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), production cells also expose PS, and since vWF is not present to hinder interaction of secreted rFVIII with PS, rFVIII is partly associated with the cell membrane...... of active membrane bound rFVIII to the culture medium. Moreover, the attachment of rFVIII to cell membranes of un-transfected HEK293 cells was studied in the presence of compounds that competes for interactions between rFVIII and PS. Competitive assays between iodinated rFVIII (¹²5I-rFVIII) and annexin V...... or ortho-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) demonstrated that annexin V and OPLS were able to reduce the membrane bound fraction of rFVIII by 70% and 30%, respectively. Finally, adding OPLS to CHO cells stably expressing FVIII increased the yield by 50%. Using this new knowledge, the recovery of rFVIII could...

  17. Free and membrane-bound ribosomes and polysomes in hippocampal neurons during a learning experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, J; David, H; Pohle, W; Marx, I; Matthies, H

    1975-01-24

    The ribosomes of the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells of hipocampus were investigated by morphometric methods after the acquisition of a shock-motivated brightness discrimination in rats. A significant increase in the total number of ribosomes was observed in CA1 cells of trained animals and in CA3 cells of both active controls and trained rats. A significant increase in membrane-bound ribosomes was obtained in CA1 and CA3 cells after training only. The results confirm the suggestion of an increased protein synthesis in hippocampal neurons during and after the acquisition of a brightness discrimination, as we have concluded from out previous investigations on the incorporation of labeled amino acids under identical experimental conditions. The results lead to the assumption that the protein synthesis in some neuronal cells may probably differ not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively in trained and untrained animals.

  18. Membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase is essential for glyceric acid production in Acetobacter tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Sato, Shun; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470 can produce highly enantiomerically pure D-glyceric acid (D-GA; >99 % enantiomeric excess) from glycerol. To investigate whether membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH) is involved in GA production in A. tropicalis, we amplified part of the gene encoding mADH subunit I (adhA) using polymerase chain reaction and constructed an adhA-disrupted mutant of A. tropicalis (ΔadhA). Because ΔadhA did not produce GA, we confirmed that mADH is essential for the conversion of glycerol to GA. We also cloned and sequenced the entire region corresponding to adhA and adhB, which encodes mADH subunit II. The sequences showed high identities (84-86 %) with the equivalent mADH subunits from other Acetobacter spp.

  19. Membrane-bound 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase of human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, W; Neuvians, M

    1970-12-01

    Gradual osmotic hemolysis of human erythrocytes reduces the cell content of whole protein, hemoglobin, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and triosephosphate isomerase extensively, but not that of membrane protein and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase. After the refilling of the ghosts with 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and reconstitution of the membrane, the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase activity equals that of intact red cells. The membrane-bound 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase can be activated by sodium hyposulfite. The enzyme system of ghosts seems to differ from that of intact red cells with regard to the optima of pH and temperature. It remains to be elucidated if the membrane binding of the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase is related to the transfer of inorganic phosphate across the red cell membrane.

  20. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Functional Membrane-bound Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Seena S.; Eyles, Stephen J.; Weis, Robert M.; Thompson, Lynmarie K.

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane signaling mechanism of bacterial chemotaxis receptors is thought to involve changes in receptor conformation and dynamics. The receptors function in ternary complexes with two other proteins, CheA and CheW, that form extended membrane-bound arrays. Previous studies have shown that attractant binding induces a small (~2 Å) piston displacement of one helix of the periplasmic and transmembrane domains towards the cytoplasm, but it is not clear how this signal propagates through the cytoplasmic domain to control the kinase activity of the CheA bound at the membrane-distal tip, nearly 200 Å away. The cytoplasmic domain has been shown to be highly dynamic, which raises the question of how a small piston motion could propagate through a dynamic domain to control CheA kinase activity. To address this, we have developed a method for measuring dynamics of the receptor cytoplasmic fragment (CF) in functional complexes with CheA and CheW. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) measurements of global exchange of CF demonstrate that CF exhibits significantly slower exchange in functional complexes than in solution. Since the exchange rates in functional complexes are comparable to that of other proteins of similar structure, the CF appears to be a well-structured protein within these complexes, which is compatible with its role in propagating a signal that appears to be a tiny conformational change in the periplasmic and transmembrane domains of the receptor. We also demonstrate the feasibility of this protocol for local exchange measurements, by incorporating a pepsin digest step to produce peptides with 87% sequence coverage and only 20% back exchange. This method extends HDX-MS to membrane-bound functional complexes without detergents that may perturb the stability or structure of the system. PMID:24274333

  1. Soluble and Membrane-Bound β-Glucosidases Are Involved in Trimming the Xyloglucan Backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, Javier; Valdivia, Elene R; Fraga, Patricia; Iglesias, Natalia; Revilla, Gloria; Zarra, Ignacio

    2017-02-01

    In many flowering plants, xyloglucan is a major component of primary cell walls, where it plays an important role in growth regulation. Xyloglucan can be degraded by a suite of exoglycosidases that remove specific sugars. In this work, we show that the xyloglucan backbone, formed by (1→4)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl residues, can be attacked by two different Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) β-glucosidases from glycoside hydrolase family 3. While BGLC1 (At5g20950; for β-glucosidase active against xyloglucan 1) is responsible for all or most of the soluble activity, BGLC3 (At5g04885) is usually a membrane-anchored protein. Mutations in these two genes, whether on their own or combined with mutations in other exoglycosidase genes, resulted in the accumulation of partially digested xyloglucan subunits, such as GXXG, GXLG, or GXFG. While a mutation in BGLC1 had significant effects on its own, lack of BGLC3 had only minor effects. On the other hand, double bglc1 bglc3 mutants revealed a synergistic interaction that supports a role for membrane-bound BGLC3 in xyloglucan metabolism. In addition, bglc1 bglc3 was complemented by overexpression of either BGLC1 or BGLC3 In overexpression lines, BGLC3 activity was concentrated in a microsome-enriched fraction but also was present in soluble form. Finally, both genes were generally expressed in the same cell types, although, in some cases, BGLC3 was expressed at earlier stages than BGLC1 We propose that functional specialization could explain the separate localization of both enzymes, as a membrane-bound β-glucosidase could specifically digest soluble xyloglucan without affecting the wall-bound polymer. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Characterization of a membrane-bound C-glucosyltransferase responsible for carminic acid biosynthesis in Dactylopius coccus Costa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, Rubini; Siukstaite, Lina; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Carminic acid, a glucosylated anthraquinone found in scale insects like Dactylopius coccus, has since ancient times been used as a red colorant in various applications. Here we show that a membrane-bound C-glucosyltransferase, isolated from D. coccus and designated DcUGT2, catalyzes the glucosyla......Carminic acid, a glucosylated anthraquinone found in scale insects like Dactylopius coccus, has since ancient times been used as a red colorant in various applications. Here we show that a membrane-bound C-glucosyltransferase, isolated from D. coccus and designated DcUGT2, catalyzes...

  3. Membrane-bound organelles versus membrane-less compartments and their control of anabolic pathways in Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilera-Gomez, Angelica; Rabouille, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Classically, we think of cell compartmentalization as being achieved by membrane-bound organelles. It has nevertheless emerged that membrane-less assemblies also largely contribute to this compartmentalization. Here, we compare the characteristics of both types of compartmentalization in term of

  4. Electrostatic control by lipids upon the membrane-bound (Na+ + K+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, M L

    1981-04-06

    In this paper, the membrane-bound (Na+ + K+)-ATPase from bovine brain is shown to be controlled by electrostatic alterations of the charged lipids surrounding the enzyme. The properties under investigation are the enzymatic activity, activation energy and the response of the enzymatic system to temperature. Arrhenius plots of the ATPase activity are biphasic with a break at temperature Ti. The temperature Ti, the activation energies at temperatures above and below Ti, and the enzymatic activity at any constant temperature have been shown to depend upon the concentrations of alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions in the solution. These electrolyte dependencies are ascribed to changes of electrostatic conditions at the lipids surrounding the ATPase. If the higher electrostatic screening ability of divalent ions is taken into account, the results in the presence of mono- and divalent ions become virtually the same. As a result of this work, it is concluded that electrostatic alterations are transmitted to the ATPase from the lipids of the membrane in which the enzyme is embedded. Inhibition and activation of the enzyme by mono-and divalent metal ions may thus be explained without any auxiliary hypothesis, particularly without postulating specific binding sites for the different ionic species at the protein. In addition, the specific lipid requirement of the ATPase may be understood better in the light of this interpretation.

  5. Membrane-bound heat shock proteins facilitate the uptake of dying cells and cross-presentation of cellular antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Fang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Wu, Weicheng; Shao, Miaomiao; Wang, Lan; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were originally identified as stress-responsive proteins and serve as molecular chaperones in different intracellular compartments. Translocation of HSPs to the cell surface and release of HSPs into the extracellular space have been observed during the apoptotic process and in response to a variety of cellular stress. Here, we report that UV irradiation and cisplatin treatment rapidly induce the expression of membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 upstream the phosphatidylserine exposure. Membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the release of IL-6 and IL-1β as well as DC maturation by the evaluation of CD80 and CD86 expression. On the other hand, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 on cells could facilitate the uptake of dying cells by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), as a common receptor for Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90, is response for their recognition and mediates the uptake of dying cells. Furthermore, membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the cross-presentation of OVA antigen from E.G7 cells and inhibition of the uptake of dying cells by LOX-1 decreases the cross-presentation of cellular antigen. Therefore, the rapid exposure of HSPs on dying cells at the early stage allows for the recognition by and confers an activation signal to the immune system.

  6. Influence of kaempferol, a flavonoid compound, on membrane-bound ATPases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Numair, Khalid S; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Chandramohan, Govindasamy

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferol is a flavonoid found in many edible plants (e.g. tea, cabbage, beans, tomato, strawberries, and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that kaempferol have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. The present study investigates the effect of kaempferol on membrane-bound ATPases in erythrocytes and in liver, kidney, and heart of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced into adult male albino rats of the Wistar strain, by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Kaempferol (100 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) was administered orally once daily for 45 d to normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The effects of kaempferol on membrane-bound ATPases (total ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, and Mg(2+)-ATPase) activity in erythrocytes and in liver, kidney, and heart were determined. In our study, diabetic rats had significantly (p kaempferol (100 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) for a period of 45 d resulted in significant (p kaempferol has the potential to restore deranged activity of membrane-bound ATPases in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Further detailed investigation is necessary to discover kaempferol's action mechanism.

  7. Effect of irradiation on membrane-bound rabit liver mitochondrial enzymes in embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirakhmedov, A.K.; Muradillaev, A.; Khan, M.Z.; Khamidov, D. Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of irradiation on protein content of inner mitochondrial membrane and on activity of certain enzymes of respiratory chain of hepatic mitochondria has been studied. Within 24 and 48 hr after total irradiation (200 R) of pregnant rabbits, the protein content of the inner membranes of 25-30 day-old embryos and the mothers was broken with the increase in the thickness and densitometric height of the protein spots. Changes were seen in NADH-oxidase, succinate oxidase and in cytochrome-c-oxidase activities of mitochondria of 20 day-old embryos within 4 hr after irradiation and within 1 hr after irradiation in adult rabbits. The NADH-oxidase and the succinate oxidase activities of 30 day-old embryos were insensitive to the effect of irradiation. The cytochrome-c-oxidase activity increased in mitochondria of 25-30 day-old embryos upon 24 hr of irradiation. Substantial depression of the thermostability of the NADH-oxidase system was seen within 24 hr after irradiation while cytochrome-c-oxidase did not change its thermostability. The unequal disturbances of the emzyme activity and thermostability upon the total irradiation are connected with the different state of mitochondria and with the specificity of enzymes of the respiratory chain. (author)

  8. Structural and dynamical insights into the membrane-bound α-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Jain

    Full Text Available Membrane-induced disorder-to-helix transition of α-synuclein, a presynaptic protein, has been implicated in a number of important neuronal functions as well as in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. In order to obtain structural insights of membrane-bound α-synuclein at the residue-specific resolution, we took advantage of the fact that the protein is devoid of tryptophan and incorporated single tryptophan at various residue positions along the sequence. These tryptophans were used as site-specific markers to characterize the structural and dynamical aspects of α-synuclein on the negatively charged small unilamellar lipid vesicles. An array of site-specific fluorescence readouts, such as the spectral-shift, quenching efficiency and anisotropy, allowed us to discern various features of the conformational rearrangements occurring at different locations of α-synuclein on the lipid membrane. In order to define the spatial localization of various regions of the protein near the membrane surface, we utilized a unique and sensitive indicator, namely, red-edge excitation shift (REES, which originates when a fluorophore is located in a highly ordered micro-environment. The extent of REES observed at different residue positions allowed us to directly identify the residues that are localized at the membrane-water interface comprising a thin (∼ 15 Å layer of motionally restrained water molecules and enabled us to construct a dynamic hydration map of the protein. The combination of site-specific fluorescence readouts allowed us to unravel the intriguing molecular details of α-synuclein on the lipid membrane in a direct model-free fashion. Additionally, the combination of methodologies described here are capable of distinguishing subtle but important structural alterations of α-synuclein bound to different negatively charged lipids with varied head-group chemistry. We believe that the structural modulations of α-synuclein on the membrane could

  9. Contribution of liver mitochondrial membrane-bound glutathione transferase to mitochondrial permeability transition pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Ulziikhishig, Enkhbaatar; Lee, Kang Kwang; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Aniya, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported that the glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1) is activated by S-glutathionylation and the activated mtMGST1 contributes to the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore and cytochrome c release from mitochondria [Lee, K.K., Shimoji, M., Quazi, S.H., Sunakawa, H., Aniya, Y., 2008. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Toxcol. Appl. Pharmacol. 232, 109-118]. In the present study we investigated the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generator gallic acid (GA) and GST inhibitors on mtMGST1 and the MPT. When rat liver mitochondria were incubated with GA, mtMGST1 activity was increased to about 3 fold and the increase was inhibited with antioxidant enzymes and singlet oxygen quenchers including 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO). GA-mediated mtMGST1 activation was prevented by GST inhibitors such as tannic acid, hematin, and cibacron blue and also by cyclosporin A (CsA). In addition, GA induced the mitochondrial swelling which was also inhibited by GST inhibitors, but not by MPT inhibitors CsA, ADP, and bongkrekic acid. GA also released cytochrome c from the mitochondria which was inhibited completely by DABCO, moderately by GST inhibitors, and somewhat by CsA. Ca 2+ -mediated mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were inhibited by MPT inhibitors but not by GST inhibitors. When the outer mitochondrial membrane was isolated after treatment of mitochondria with GA, mtMGST1 activity was markedly increased and oligomer/aggregate of mtMGST1 was observed. These results indicate that mtMGST1 in the outer mitochondrial membrane is activated by GA through thiol oxidation leading to protein oligomerization/aggregation, which may contribute to the formation of ROS-mediated, CsA-insensitive MPT pore, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulation of the MPT by mtMGST1

  10. Pathogen-Specific Binding Soluble Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (Dscam Regulates Phagocytosis via Membrane-Bound Dscam in Crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Jie Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam gene is an extraordinary example of diversity that can produce thousands of isoforms and has so far been found only in insects and crustaceans. Cumulative evidence indicates that Dscam may contribute to the mechanistic foundations of specific immune responses in insects. However, the mechanism and functions of Dscam in relation to pathogens and immunity remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified the genome organization and alternative Dscam exons from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. These variants, designated EsDscam, potentially produce 30,600 isoforms due to three alternatively spliced immunoglobulin (Ig domains and a transmembrane domain. EsDscam was significantly upregulated after bacterial challenge at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, bacterial specific EsDscam isoforms were found to bind specifically with the original bacteria to facilitate efficient clearance. Furthermore, bacteria-specific binding of soluble EsDscam via the complete Ig1–Ig4 domain significantly enhanced elimination of the original bacteria via phagocytosis by hemocytes; this function was abolished by partial Ig1–Ig4 domain truncation. Further studies showed that knockdown of membrane-bound EsDscam inhibited the ability of EsDscam with the same extracellular region to promote bacterial phagocytosis. Immunocytochemistry indicated colocalization of the soluble and membrane-bound forms of EsDscam at the hemocyte surface. Far-Western and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated homotypic interactions between EsDscam isoforms. This study provides insights into a mechanism by which soluble Dscam regulates hemocyte phagocytosis via bacteria-specific binding and specific interactions with membrane-bound Dscam as a phagocytic receptor.

  11. Equilibration kinetics in isolated and membrane-bound photosynthetic reaction centers upon illumination: a method to determine the photoexcitation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Anthony J; Goushcha, Alexander O; Barabash, Yuri M; Kharkyanen, Valery N; Scott, Gary W

    2009-07-01

    Kinetics of electron transfer, following variation of actinic light intensity, for photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) of purple bacteria (isolated and membrane-bound) were analyzed by measuring absorbance changes in the primary photoelectron donor absorption band at 865 nm. The bleaching of the primary photoelectron donor absorption band in RCs, following a sudden increase of illumination from the dark to an actinic light intensity of I(exp), obeys a simple exponential law with the rate constant alphaI(exp) + k(rec), in which alpha is a parameter relating the light intensity, measured in mW/cm(2), to a corresponding theoretical rate in units of reciprocal seconds, and k(rec) is the effective rate constant of the charge recombination in the photosynthetic RCs. In this work, a method for determining the alpha parameter value is developed and experimentally verified for isolated and membrane-bound RCs, allowing for rigorous modeling of RC macromolecule dynamics under varied photoexcitation conditions. Such modeling is necessary for RCs due to alterations of the forward photoexcitation rates and relaxation rates caused by illumination history and intramolecular structural dynamics effects. It is demonstrated that the classical Bouguer-Lambert-Beer formalism can be applied for the samples with relatively low scattering, which is not necessarily the case with strongly scattering media or high light intensity excitation.

  12. A genetic screen for anchorage-independent proliferation in mammalian cells identifies a membrane-bound neuregulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Danovi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anchorage-independent proliferation is a hallmark of oncogenic transformation and is thought to be conducive to proliferation of cancer cells away from their site of origin. We have previously reported that primary Schwann cells expressing the SV40 Large T antigen (LT are not fully transformed in that they maintain a strict requirement for attachment, requiring a further genetic change, such as oncogenic Ras, to gain anchorage-independence. Using the LT-expressing cells, we performed a genetic screen for anchorage-independent proliferation and identified Sensory and Motor Neuron Derived Factor (SMDF, a transmembrane class III isoform of Neuregulin 1. In contrast to oncogenic Ras, SMDF induced enhanced proliferation in normal primary Schwann cells but did not trigger cellular senescence. In cooperation with LT, SMDF drove anchorage-independent proliferation, loss of contact inhibition and tumourigenicity. This transforming ability was shared with membrane-bound class III but not secreted class I isoforms of Neuregulin, indicating a distinct mechanism of action. Importantly, we show that despite being membrane-bound signalling molecules, class III neuregulins transform via a cell intrinsic mechanism, as a result of constitutive, elevated levels of ErbB signalling at high cell density and in anchorage-free conditions. This novel transforming mechanism may provide new targets for cancer therapy.

  13. Protective Effect of Prosopis cineraria Against N-Nitrosodiethylamine Induced Liver Tumor by Modulating Membrane Bound Enzymes and Glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naina Mohamed Pakkir Maideen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of methanol extract of Prosopis cineraria (MPC against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200mg/kg induced Phenobarbital promoted experimental liver tumors in male Wistar rats. Methods: The rats were divided into four groups, each group consisting of six animals. Group 1 served as control animals. Liver tumor was induced in group 2, 3, and 4 and Group 3 animals received MPC 200mg/kg and Group 4 animals received MPC 400mg/kg. Results: Administration of DEN has brought down the levels of membrane bound enzymes like Na+/ K+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase and Ca2+ATPase which were later found to be increased by the administration of Prosopis cineraria (200 and 400mg/kg in dose dependent manner. The MPC extract also suppressed the levels of glycoproteins like Hexose, Hexosamine and Sialic acid when compared to liver tumor bearing animals. Conclusions: Our study suggests that MPC may extend its protective role by modulating the levels of membrane bound enzymes and suppressing glycoprotein levels.

  14. Evaluation of the incidence of the G143A mutation and cytb intron presence in the cytochrome bc-1 gene conferring QoI resistance in Botrytis cinerea populations from several hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Stylianos; Papayiannis, Lambros C; Leroch, Michaela; Veloukas, Thomas; Hahn, Matthias; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that resistance of Botrytis cinerea to QoI fungicides has been attributed to the G143A mutation in the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, while, in a part of the fungal population, an intron has been detected at codon 143 of the gene, preventing QoI resistance. During 2005-2009, 304 grey mould isolates were collected from strawberry, tomato, grape, kiwifruit, cucumber and apple in Greece and screened for resistance to pyraclostrobin and for the presence of the cytb intron, using a novel real-time TaqMan PCR assay developed in the present study. QoI-resistant phenotypes existed only within the population collected from strawberries. All resistant isolates possessed the G143A mutation. Differences were observed in the genotypic structure of cytb. Individuals possessing the intron were found at high incidence in apple fruit and greenhouse-grown tomato and cucumber populations, whereas in the strawberry population the intron frequency was lower. Cultivation of QoI-resistant and QoI-sensitive isolates for ten culture cycles on artificial nutrient medium in the presence or absence of fungicide selection showed that QoI resistance was stable. The results of the study suggest that a high risk for selection of QoI-resistant strains exists in crops heavily treated with QoIs, in spite of the widespread occurrence of the cytb intron in B. cinerea populations. The developed real-time TaqMan PCR constitutes a powerful tool to streamline detection of the mutation by reducing pre- and post-amplification manipulations, and can be used for rapid screening and quantification of QoI resistance. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Evaluating BC and NO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Dupont, J.C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q.J.

    2015-01-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions, and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris, France, plume, developed in

  16. Growth of the obligate anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough under continuous low oxygen concentration sparging: impact of the membrane-bound oxygen reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, Fanny; Brasseur, Gael; Pieulle, Laetitia; Valette, Odile; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Fardeau, Marie Laure; Dolla, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Although obligate anaerobe, the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) exhibits high aerotolerance that involves several enzymatic systems, including two membrane-bound oxygen reductases, a bd-quinol oxidase and a cc(b/o)o3 cytochrome oxidase. Effect of constant low oxygen concentration on growth and morphology of the wild-type, single (Δbd, Δcox) and double deletion (Δcoxbd) mutant strains of the genes encoding these oxygen reductases was studied. When both wild-type and deletion mutant strains were cultured in lactate/sulfate medium under constant 0.02% O2 sparging, they were able to grow but the final biomasses and the growth yield were lower than that obtained under anaerobic conditions. At the end of the growth, lactate was not completely consumed and when conditions were then switched to anaerobic, growth resumed. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that a large majority of the cells were then able to divide (over 97%) but the time to recover a complete division event was longer for single deletion mutant Δbd than for the three other strains. Determination of the molar growth yields on lactate suggested that a part of the energy gained from lactate oxidation was derived toward cells protection/repairing against oxidative conditions rather than biosynthesis, and that this part was higher in the single deletion mutant Δbd and, to a lesser extent, Δcox strains. Our data show that when DvH encounters oxidative conditions, it is able to stop growing and to rapidly resume growing when conditions are switched to anaerobic, suggesting that it enters active dormancy sate under oxidative conditions. We propose that the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) plays a central role in this phenomenon by reversibly switching from an oxidative-sensitive fully active state to an oxidative-insensitive inactive state. The oxygen reductases, and especially the bd-quinol oxidase, would have a crucial function by maintaining reducing conditions

  17. Growth of the obligate anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough under continuous low oxygen concentration sparging: impact of the membrane-bound oxygen reductases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Ramel

    Full Text Available Although obligate anaerobe, the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH exhibits high aerotolerance that involves several enzymatic systems, including two membrane-bound oxygen reductases, a bd-quinol oxidase and a cc(b/oo3 cytochrome oxidase. Effect of constant low oxygen concentration on growth and morphology of the wild-type, single (Δbd, Δcox and double deletion (Δcoxbd mutant strains of the genes encoding these oxygen reductases was studied. When both wild-type and deletion mutant strains were cultured in lactate/sulfate medium under constant 0.02% O2 sparging, they were able to grow but the final biomasses and the growth yield were lower than that obtained under anaerobic conditions. At the end of the growth, lactate was not completely consumed and when conditions were then switched to anaerobic, growth resumed. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that a large majority of the cells were then able to divide (over 97% but the time to recover a complete division event was longer for single deletion mutant Δbd than for the three other strains. Determination of the molar growth yields on lactate suggested that a part of the energy gained from lactate oxidation was derived toward cells protection/repairing against oxidative conditions rather than biosynthesis, and that this part was higher in the single deletion mutant Δbd and, to a lesser extent, Δcox strains. Our data show that when DvH encounters oxidative conditions, it is able to stop growing and to rapidly resume growing when conditions are switched to anaerobic, suggesting that it enters active dormancy sate under oxidative conditions. We propose that the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR plays a central role in this phenomenon by reversibly switching from an oxidative-sensitive fully active state to an oxidative-insensitive inactive state. The oxygen reductases, and especially the bd-quinol oxidase, would have a crucial function by maintaining

  18. Targeting of a chimeric human histone fusion mRNA to membrane-bound polysomes in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambetti, G.; Stein, J.; Stein, G.

    1987-01-01

    The subcellular location of histone mRNA-containing polysomes may play a key role in the posttranscriptional events that mediate histone mRNA turnover following inhibition of DNA synthesis. Previously, it has been shown that histone mRNA is found primarily on free polysomes that are associated with the cytoskeleton. The authors report here the construction of an Escherichia coli pBR322 β-lactamase signal peptide-human H3 histone fusion gene. The fusion transcript is targeted to membrane-bound polysomes and remains stable following interruption of DNA replication. Relocating mRNA within the cell may provide a procedure for studying the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression

  19. Targeting membrane-bound viral RNA synthesis reveals potent inhibition of diverse coronaviruses including the middle East respiratory syndrome virus.

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    Anna Lundin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs, a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6, a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections.

  20. Generation and characterization of tabalumab, a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes both soluble and membrane-bound B-cell activating factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetta J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Manetta, Holly Bina, Paul Ryan, Niles Fox, Derrick R Witcher, Kristine Kikly Biotechnology Discovery Research, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: B-cell activating factor (BAFF is a B-cell survival factor with a key role in B-cell homeostasis and tolerance. Dysregulated BAFF expression may contribute to autoimmune diseases or B-cell malignancies via effects on abnormal B-lymphocyte activation, proliferation, survival, and immunoglobulin secretion. Monoclonal antibodies were generated against human BAFF, characterized for species specificity and affinity, and screened for the ability to neutralize both membrane-bound and soluble BAFF. In addition, studies were undertaken to determine the relative potency of membrane-bound and soluble BAFF. Tabalumab has a high affinity for human, cynomolgus monkey, and rabbit BAFF. No binding to mouse BAFF was detected. Tabalumab was able to neutralize soluble human, cynomolgus monkey, or rabbit BAFF with equal potency. Our data demonstrate that membrane-bound BAFF can be a more potent stimulus for B-cells than soluble BAFF, and tabalumab also neutralized membrane-bound BAFF. Tabalumab prevented BAFF from binding to BAFF receptors and demonstrated pharmacodynamic effects in human BAFF transgenic mice. Tabalumab is a high-affinity human antibody with neutralizing activity against membrane-bound and soluble BAFF. Given our findings that membrane-bound BAFF can have greater in vitro potency than soluble BAFF, neutralization of both forms of BAFF is likely to be important for optimal therapeutic effect. Keywords: autoimmunity, B-cell malignancies, B-cell survival factor, BAFF

  1. Different functions of the insect soluble and membrane-bound trehalase genes in chitin biosynthesis revealed by RNA interference.

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    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trehalase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes trehalose to yield two glucose molecules, plays a pivotal role in various physiological processes. In recent years, trehalase proteins have been purified from several insect species and are divided into soluble (Tre-1 and membrane-bound (Tre-2 trehalases. However, no functions of the two trehalases in chitin biosynthesis in insects have yet been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The membrane-bound trehalase of Spodoptera exigua (SeTre-2 was characterized in our laboratory previously. In this study, we cloned the soluble trehalase gene (SeTre-1 and investigated the tissue distribution and developmental expression pattern of the two trehalase genes. SeTre-1 was expressed highly in cuticle and Malpighian tubules, while SeTre-2 was expressed in tracheae and fat body. In the midgut, the two trehalase genes were expressed in different locations. Additionally, the expression profiles of both trehalase mRNAs and their enzyme activities suggest that they may play different roles in chitin biosynthesis. The RNA interference (RNAi of either SeTre-1 or SeTre-2 was gene-specific and effective, with efficiency rates up to 83% at 72 h post injection. After RNAi of SeTre-1 and SeTre-2, significant higher mortality rates were observed during the larva-pupa stage and pupa-adult stage, and the lethal phenotypes were classified and analyzed. Additionally, the change trends of concentration of trehalose and glucose appeared reciprocally in RNAi-mutants. Moreover, knockdown of SeTre-1 gene largely inhibited the expression of chitin synthase gene A (CHSA and reduced the chitin content in the cuticle to two-thirds relative to the control insects. The chitin synthase gene B (CHSB expression, however, was inhibited more by the injection of dsRNA for SeTre-2, and the chitin content in the midgut decreased by about 25%. CONCLUSIONS: SeTre-1 plays a major role in CHSA expression and chitin synthesis in the cuticle, and SeTre-2

  2. Differential expression of growth factor receptors and membrane-bound tumor markers for imaging in male and female breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Male breast cancer accounts for 0.5-1% of all breast cancers and is generally diagnosed at higher stage than female breast cancers and therefore might benefit from earlier detection and targeted therapy. Except for HER2 and EGFR, little is known about expression of growth factor receptors in male breast cancer. We therefore investigated expression profiles of growth factor receptors and membrane-bound tumor markers in male breast cancer and gynecomastia, in comparison with female breast cancer. METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing 133 male breast cancer and 32 gynecomastia cases were stained by immunohistochemistry for a panel of membrane-bound targets and compared with data on 266 female breast cancers. RESULTS: Growth factor receptors were variably expressed in 4.5% (MET up to 38.5% (IGF1-R of male breast cancers. Compared to female breast cancer, IGF1-R and carbonic anhydrase 12 (CAXII were more frequently and CD44v6, MET and FGFR2 less frequently expressed in male breast cancer. Expression of EGFR, HER2, CAIX, and GLUT1 was not significantly different between male and female breast cancer. Further, 48.1% of male breast cancers expressed at least one and 18.0% expressed multiple growth factor receptors. Since individual membrane receptors are expressed in only half of male breast cancers, a panel of membrane markers will be required for molecular imaging strategies to reach sensitivity. A potential panel of markers for molecular imaging, consisting of EGFR, IGF1-R, FGFR2, CD44v6, CAXII, GLUT1, and CD44v6 was positive in 77% of male breast cancers, comparable to female breast cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Expression patterns of growth factor receptors and hypoxia membrane proteins in male breast cancer are different from female breast cancer. For molecular imaging strategies, a putative panel consisting of markers for EGFR, IGF1-R, FGFR2, GLUT1, CAXII, CD44v6 was positive in 77% of cases and might be considered for development of

  3. Human Renal Normal, Tumoral, and Cancer Stem Cells Express Membrane-Bound Interleukin-15 Isoforms Displaying Different Functions

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    Sandy Azzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrarenal interleukin-15 (IL-15 participates to renal pathophysiology, but the role of its different membrane-bound isoforms remains to be elucidated. In this study, we reassess the biology of membrane-bound IL-15 (mb-IL-15 isoforms by comparing primary cultures of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC to peritumoral (ptumTEC, tumoral (RCC, and cancer stem cells (CSC/CD105+. RPTEC express a 14 to 16 kDa mb-IL-15, whose existence has been assumed but never formally demonstrated and likely represents the isoform anchored at the cell membrane through the IL-15 receptor α (IL-15Rα chain, because it is sensitive to acidic treatment and is not competent to deliver a reverse signal. By contrast, ptumTEC, RCC, and CSC express a novel N-hyperglycosylated, short-lived transmembrane mb-IL-15 (tmb-IL-15 isoform around 27 kDa, resistant to acidic shock, delivering a reverse signal in response to its soluble receptor (sIL-15Rα. This reverse signal triggers the down-regulation of the tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin in ptumTEC and RCC but not in CSC/CD105+, where it promotes survival. Indeed, through the AKT pathway, tmb-IL-15 protects CSC/CD105+ from non-programmed cell death induced by serum starvation. Finally, both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 are sensitive to metalloproteases, and the cleaved tmb-IL-15 (25 kDa displays a powerful anti-apoptotic effect on human hematopoietic cells. Overall, our data indicate that both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 isoforms play a complex role in renal pathophysiology downregulating E-cadherin and favoring cell survival. Moreover, “apparently normal” ptumTEC cells, sharing different properties with RCC, could contribute to organize an enlarged peritumoral “preneoplastic” environment committed to favor tumor progression.

  4. Reduced levels of membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase are common to lepidopteran strains resistant to Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

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    Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Development of insect resistance is one of the main concerns with the use of transgenic crops expressing Cry toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Identification of biomarkers would assist in the development of sensitive DNA-based methods to monitor evolution of resistance to Bt toxins in natural populations. We report on the proteomic and genomic detection of reduced levels of midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (mALP as a common feature in strains of Cry-resistant Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera frugiperda when compared to susceptible larvae. Reduced levels of H. virescens mALP protein (HvmALP were detected by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE analysis in Cry-resistant compared to susceptible larvae, further supported by alkaline phosphatase activity assays and Western blotting. Through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR we demonstrate that the reduction in HvmALP protein levels in resistant larvae are the result of reduced transcript amounts. Similar reductions in ALP activity and mALP transcript levels were also detected for a Cry1Ac-resistant strain of H. armigera and field-derived strains of S. frugiperda resistant to Cry1Fa. Considering the unique resistance and cross-resistance phenotypes of the insect strains used in this work, our data suggest that reduced mALP expression should be targeted for development of effective biomarkers for resistance to Cry toxins in lepidopteran pests.

  5. Blood Mixing Upregulates Platelet Membrane-Bound CD40 Ligand Expression in vitro Independent of Abo Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Go-Shine; Hu, Mei-Hua; Lin, Tso-Chou; Lin, Yi-Chang; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Ke, Hung-Yen; Zheng, Xu-Zhi; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2017-11-30

    Platelets play a central role in the inflammation response via CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression, which may lead to transfusion reactions. The precise role of platelet CD40L-mediated inflammation in transfusion reactions is unclear. Therefore, we assessed the effects of in vitro blood mixing on platelet CD40L expression. In addition, we examined the effect of ABO compatibility on CD40L expression. Donor packed red blood cells were acquired from a blood bank, and recipient blood was obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery and prepared as washed platelets. Donor blood was mixed with suspended, washed recipient platelets to obtain a final mixing ratio of 1%, 5%, or 10% (vol/vol). The blood mixtures were divided into three groups: Group M, cross-matched blood-type mixing (n = 20); Group S, ABO type-specific uncross-matched blood (n = 20); and Group I, ABO incompatibility (not ABO type-specific blood and not process cross-matched) mixing (n = 20). The blood mixtures were used to detect platelet membrane-bound CD40L expression by flow cytometry. Blood mixing resulted in an increase in CD40L expression in Group M (P role in the induction of CD40L expression.

  6. The effect of progesterone and 17-β estradiol on membrane-bound HLA-G in adipose derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Akram; Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Moslehi, Azam; Akbari, Maryam Ali; Adib, Minoo

    2016-07-01

    Membrane-bound HLA-G (mHLA-G) discovery on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) as a tolerogenic and immunosuppressive molecule was very important. Many documents have shown that HLA-G expression can be controlled via some hormones such as progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2). Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate progesterone and estradiol effects on mHLA-G in ADSCs at restricted and combination concentrations. Three independent cell lines were cultured in complete free phenol red DMEM and subcultured to achieve suffi cient cells. These cells were treated with P4, E2 and P4 plus E2 at physiologic and pregnancy concentrations for 3 days in cell culture conditions. The HLA-G positive ADSCs was measured via monoclonal anti HLA-G-FITC/MEMG-09 by means of flow cytometry in nine groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. There were no signifi cant values of the mean percentage of HLA-G positive cells in E2-treated and the combination of P4 plus E2-treated ADSCs compared to control cells (p value>0.05) but P4 had a signifi cant increase on mHLA-G in ADSCs (p value<0.05). High P4 concentration increased mHLA-G but E2 and the combination of P4 plus E2 could not change mHLA-G on ADSCs.

  7. Depression of membrane-bound Na+-K+-ATPase activity induced by free radicals and by ischemia of kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kako, K.; Kato, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Mustapha, A.

    1988-01-01

    A partially purified, membrane-bound Na + -K + -ATPase fraction, prepared from the outer medulla of porcine kidney, was incubated in the presence of 0.1-100 mM H 2 O 2 for either 15 or 30 min at 37 degree C. The activity of ouabain-sensitive Na + -K + -ATPase was reduced proportionally to the concentration of H 2 O 2 and the duration of incubation. There were decreases in SH contents and turnover rates of the Na + -K + -ATPase preparation, while malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes were generated from the membrane lipids in the course of the incubation. The concentrations of ethanolamine (E) plasmalogen and of arachidonic acid in the E glycerophospholipid molecules were reduced by the free radical reaction. Similarly, a reduction in Na + K + -ATPase activity and the formation of MDA and conjugated dienes, together with a decrease in E glycerophospholipids, were observed when the membrane fraction was exposed to ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm) for 30 min at 4 degree C. Microsomal fractions, prepared from the outer medulla of canine kidney after 1 h of unilateral ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion, showed a decreased Na + -K + -ATPase activity, a reduced amount of SH groups, and an increased MDA. These changes were normalized by the infusion of N-mercaptopropionylglycine. These results support the view (1) that free radical generation affects the enzyme protein as well as membrane lipids, and (2) that free radicals may be formed in the ischemic reperfused kidney

  8. Membrane-bound Dickkopf-1 in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells suppresses T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Wook-Jin; Park, Jong-Hyun; Henegariu, Octavian; Yilmaz, Saliha; Hao, Liming; Bothwell, Alfred L M

    2017-10-01

    Induction of tolerance is a key mechanism to maintain or to restore immunological homeostasis. Here we show that Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells use Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) to regulate T-cell-mediated tolerance in the T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis model. Treg cells from DKK-1 hypomorphic doubleridge mice failed to control CD4 + T-cell proliferation, resulting in CD4 T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. Thymus-derived Treg cells showed a robust expression of DKK-1 but not in naive or effector CD4 T cells. DKK-1 expression in Foxp3 + Treg cells was further increased upon T-cell receptor stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, Foxp3 + Treg cells expressed DKK-1 in the cell membrane and the functional inhibition of DKK-1 using DKK-1 monoclonal antibody abrogated the suppressor function of Foxp3 + Treg cells. DKK-1 expression was dependent on de novo protein synthesis and regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not by the canonical Wnt pathway. Taken together, our results highlight membrane-bound DKK-1 as a novel Treg-derived mediator to maintain immunological tolerance in T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. © 2017 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Aluminium and Acrylamide Disrupt Cerebellum Redox States, Cholinergic Function and Membrane-Bound ATPase in Adult Rats and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Amara, Ibtissem Ben; Ktari, Naourez; Elwej, Awatef; Boudawara, Ons; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-12-01

    Accumulation of aluminium and acrylamide in food is a major source of human exposure. Their adverse effects are well documented, but there is no information about the health problems arising from their combined exposure. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible neurotoxic effects after co-exposure of pregnant and lactating rats to aluminium and acrylamide in order to evaluate redox state, cholinergic function and membrane-bound ATPases in the cerebellum of adult rats and their progeny. Pregnant female rats have received aluminium (50 mg/kg body weight) via drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage, either individually or in combination from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Exposure to these toxicants provoked an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels and a decrease in SOD, CAT, GPx, Na + K + -ATPase, Mg 2+ -ATPase and AChE activities in the cerebellum of mothers and their suckling pups. A reduction in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels was also observed. These changes were confirmed by histological results. Interestingly, co-exposure to these toxicants exhibited synergism based on physical and biochemical variables in the cerebellum of mothers and their progeny.

  10. Conjugation of cytochrome c with hydrogen titanate nanotubes: novel conformational state with implications for apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Moumita; Mazumdar, Shyamalava [Department of Chemical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Chatterjee, Sriparna; Das, Tanmay; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Ayyub, Pushan, E-mail: somnath@tifr.res.in, E-mail: pushan@tifr.res.in, E-mail: shyamal@tifr.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2011-10-14

    We show that hydrogen titanate (H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}) nanotubes form strongly associated reversible nano-bio-conjugates with the vital respiratory protein, cytochrome c. Resonance Raman spectroscopy along with direct electrochemical studies indicate that in this nano-bio-conjugate, cytochrome c exists in an equilibrium of two conformational states with distinctly different formal redox potentials and coordination geometries of the heme center. The nanotube-conjugated cytochrome c also showed enhanced peroxidase activity similar to the membrane-bound protein that is believed to be an apoptosis initiator. This suggests that such a nanotube-cytochrome c conjugate may be a good candidate for cancer therapy applications.

  11. Structure of the Zymomonas mobilis respiratory chain: oxygen affinity of electron transport and the role of cytochrome c peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodite, Elina; Strazdina, Inese; Galinina, Nina; McLean, Samantha; Rutkis, Reinis; Poole, Robert K; Kalnenieks, Uldis

    2014-09-01

    The genome of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis encodes a bd-type terminal oxidase, cytochrome bc1 complex and several c-type cytochromes, yet lacks sequences homologous to any of the known bacterial cytochrome c oxidase genes. Recently, it was suggested that a putative respiratory cytochrome c peroxidase, receiving electrons from the cytochrome bc1 complex via cytochrome c552, might function as a peroxidase and/or an alternative oxidase. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis, by construction of a cytochrome c peroxidase mutant (Zm6-perC), and comparison of its properties with those of a mutant defective in the cytochrome b subunit of the bc1 complex (Zm6-cytB). Disruption of the cytochrome c peroxidase gene (ZZ60192) caused a decrease of the membrane NADH peroxidase activity, impaired the resistance of growing culture to exogenous hydrogen peroxide and hampered aerobic growth. However, this mutation did not affect the activity or oxygen affinity of the respiratory chain, or the kinetics of cytochrome d reduction. Furthermore, the peroxide resistance and membrane NADH peroxidase activity of strain Zm6-cytB had not decreased, but both the oxygen affinity of electron transport and the kinetics of cytochrome d reduction were affected. It is therefore concluded that the cytochrome c peroxidase does not terminate the cytochrome bc1 branch of Z. mobilis, and that it is functioning as a quinol peroxidase. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. The structure of Serratia marcescens Lip, a membrane-bound component of the type VI secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Vincenzo A.; Shepherd, Sharon M.; English, Grant; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of S. marcescens Lip reveals a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Lip, a core component of the type VI secretion apparatus, is localized to the outer membrane and is positioned to interact with other proteins forming this complex system. Lip is a membrane-bound lipoprotein and a core component of the type VI secretion system found in Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of a Lip construct (residues 29–176) from Serratia marcescens (SmLip) has been determined at 1.92 Å resolution. Experimental phases were derived using a single-wavelength anomalous dispersion approach on a sample cocrystallized with iodide. The membrane localization of the native protein was confirmed. The structure is that of the globular domain lacking only the lipoprotein signal peptide and the lipidated N-terminus of the mature protein. The protein fold is dominated by an eight-stranded β-sandwich and identifies SmLip as a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Transthyretin and the only other member of the family fold, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, form homotetramers important for their function. The asymmetric unit of SmLip is a tetramer with 222 symmetry, but the assembly is distinct from that previously noted for the transthyretin protein family. However, structural comparisons and bacterial two-hybrid data suggest that the SmLip tetramer is not relevant to its role as a core component of the type VI secretion system, but rather reflects a propensity for SmLip to participate in protein–protein interactions. A relatively low level of sequence conservation amongst Lip homologues is noted and is restricted to parts of the structure that might be involved in interactions with physiological partners.

  13. Defining the extreme substrate specificity of Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase, an unusual membrane-bound O-acyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) synthesizes the unusually structured 3-acetyl-1,2-diacylglycerols (acetyl-TAG) found in the seeds of a few plant species. A member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, EaDAcT transfers the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce acetyl-TAG. In vitro assays demonstrated that the enzyme is also able to utilize butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA as acyl donors, though with much less efficiency compared with acetyl-CoA. Acyl-CoAs longer than eight carbons were not used by EaDAcT. This extreme substrate specificity of EaDAcT distinguishes it from all other MBOATs which typically catalyze the transfer of much longer acyl groups. In vitro selectivity experiments revealed that EaDAcT preferentially acetylated DAG molecules containing more double bonds over those with less. However, the enzyme was also able to acetylate saturated DAG containing medium chain fatty acids, albeit with less efficiency. Interestingly, EaDAcT could only acetylate the free hydroxyl group of sn-1,2-DAG but not the available hydroxyl groups in sn-1,3-DAG or in monoacylglycerols (MAG). Consistent with its similarity to the jojoba wax synthase, EaDAcT could acetylate fatty alcohols in vitro to produce alkyl acetates. Likewise, when coexpressed in yeast with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase capable of producing fatty alcohols, EaDAcT synthesized alkyl acetates although the efficiency of production was low. This improved understanding of EaDAcT specificity confirms that the enzyme preferentially utilizes acetyl-CoA to acetylate sn-1,2-DAGs and will be helpful in engineering the production of acetyl-TAG with improved functionality in transgenic plants. PMID:27688773

  14. The structure of Serratia marcescens Lip, a membrane-bound component of the type VI secretion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Vincenzo A.; Shepherd, Sharon M.; English, Grant; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Hunter, William N.

    2011-01-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of S. marcescens Lip reveals a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Lip, a core component of the type VI secretion apparatus, is localized to the outer membrane and is positioned to interact with other proteins forming this complex system. Lip is a membrane-bound lipoprotein and a core component of the type VI secretion system found in Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of a Lip construct (residues 29–176) from Serratia marcescens (SmLip) has been determined at 1.92 Å resolution. Experimental phases were derived using a single-wavelength anomalous dispersion approach on a sample cocrystallized with iodide. The membrane localization of the native protein was confirmed. The structure is that of the globular domain lacking only the lipoprotein signal peptide and the lipidated N-terminus of the mature protein. The protein fold is dominated by an eight-stranded β-sandwich and identifies SmLip as a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Transthyretin and the only other member of the family fold, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, form homotetramers important for their function. The asymmetric unit of SmLip is a tetramer with 222 symmetry, but the assembly is distinct from that previously noted for the transthyretin protein family. However, structural comparisons and bacterial two-hybrid data suggest that the SmLip tetramer is not relevant to its role as a core component of the type VI secretion system, but rather reflects a propensity for SmLip to participate in protein–protein interactions. A relatively low level of sequence conservation amongst Lip homologues is noted and is restricted to parts of the structure that might be involved in interactions with physiological partners

  15. Survival, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities of freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, exposed to synthetic and natural surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are a major class of emerging pollutants widely used in large quantities in everyday life and commonly found in surface waters worldwide. Freshwater planarian was selected to examine the effects of different surfactants by measuring mortality, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities. Among the 10 surfactants tested, the acute toxicities of betaine and polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) to planarians were relatively low, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) greater than 10,000 mg/L. The toxicity to planarians of the other eight surfactants based on 48-h LC50 could be arranged in the descending order of cetylpyridinum chloride (CPC) > 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP) > ammonium lauryl sulfate > benzalkonium chloride > saponin > sodium lauroylsarcosinate > dioctyl sulfosuccinate > dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB). Both CPC and 4-tert-OP were very toxic to planarians, with 48-h LC50 values <1 mg/L. The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of planarian mobility were in the 0.1 to 50 mg/L range and were in the same range as the 24-h LC50 of planarians exposed to different surfactants, except for DTAB. In addition, significant inhibition of cholinesterase activity activities was found in planarians exposed to 4-tert-OP at 2.5 and 5 mg/L and to saponin at 10 mg/L after 2-h treatments. This result suggests that planarian mobility responses can be used as an alternative indicator for acute toxicity of surfactants after a very short exposure period. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  16. Depression of membrane-bound Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase activity induced by free radicals and by ischemia of kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kako, K.; Kato, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Mustapha, A. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1988-02-01

    A partially purified, membrane-bound Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase fraction, prepared from the outer medulla of porcine kidney, was incubated in the presence of 0.1-100 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for either 15 or 30 min at 37{degree}C. The activity of ouabain-sensitive Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase was reduced proportionally to the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the duration of incubation. There were decreases in SH contents and turnover rates of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase preparation, while malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes were generated from the membrane lipids in the course of the incubation. The concentrations of ethanolamine (E) plasmalogen and of arachidonic acid in the E glycerophospholipid molecules were reduced by the free radical reaction. Similarly, a reduction in Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase activity and the formation of MDA and conjugated dienes, together with a decrease in E glycerophospholipids, were observed when the membrane fraction was exposed to ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm) for 30 min at 4{degree}C. Microsomal fractions, prepared from the outer medulla of canine kidney after 1 h of unilateral ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion, showed a decreased Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity, a reduced amount of SH groups, and an increased MDA. These changes were normalized by the infusion of N-mercaptopropionylglycine. These results support the view (1) that free radical generation affects the enzyme protein as well as membrane lipids, and (2) that free radicals may be formed in the ischemic reperfused kidney.

  17. Membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase: target size and radiation inactivation size of some of its enzymatic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.; Norby, J.G.

    1988-12-05

    Frozen samples of membrane-bound pig kidney Na,K-ATPase were subjected to target size analysis by radiation inactivation with 10-MeV electrons at -15 degrees C. The various properties investigated decreased monoexponentially with radiation dose, and the decay constants, gamma, were independent of the presence of other proteins and of sucrose concentrations above 0.25 M. The temperature factor was the same as described by others. Irradiation of four proteins of known molecular mass, m, showed that gamma for protein integrity was proportional to m with a proportionality factor about 20% higher than that conventionally used. By this standard curve, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity used as internal standard gave a radiation inactivation size of 110 +/- 5 kDa, very close to m = 104-108 kDa for the dimer, as expected. For Na+/K+-transporting ATPase the following target sizes and radiation inactivation size values were very close to m = 112 kDa for the alpha-peptide: peptide integrity of alpha, 115 kDa; unmodified binding sites for ATP and vanadate, 108 kDa; K+-activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity, 106 kDa. There was thus no sign of dimerization of the alpha-peptide or involvement of the beta-peptide. In contrast, optimal Na+/K+-transporting ATPase activity had a radiation inactivation size = 189 +/- 7 kDa, and total nucleotide binding capacity corresponded to 72 +/- 3 kDa. These latter results will be extended and discussed in a forthcoming paper.

  18. Membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase: target size and radiation inactivation size of some of its enzymatic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Norby, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Frozen samples of membrane-bound pig kidney Na,K-ATPase were subjected to target size analysis by radiation inactivation with 10-MeV electrons at -15 degrees C. The various properties investigated decreased monoexponentially with radiation dose, and the decay constants, gamma, were independent of the presence of other proteins and of sucrose concentrations above 0.25 M. The temperature factor was the same as described by others. Irradiation of four proteins of known molecular mass, m, showed that gamma for protein integrity was proportional to m with a proportionality factor about 20% higher than that conventionally used. By this standard curve, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity used as internal standard gave a radiation inactivation size of 110 +/- 5 kDa, very close to m = 104-108 kDa for the dimer, as expected. For Na+/K+-transporting ATPase the following target sizes and radiation inactivation size values were very close to m = 112 kDa for the alpha-peptide: peptide integrity of alpha, 115 kDa; unmodified binding sites for ATP and vanadate, 108 kDa; K+-activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity, 106 kDa. There was thus no sign of dimerization of the alpha-peptide or involvement of the beta-peptide. In contrast, optimal Na+/K+-transporting ATPase activity had a radiation inactivation size = 189 +/- 7 kDa, and total nucleotide binding capacity corresponded to 72 +/- 3 kDa. These latter results will be extended and discussed in a forthcoming paper

  19. Hierarchy of stroma-derived factors in supporting growth of stroma-dependent hemopoietic cells: membrane-bound SCF is sufficient to confer stroma competence to epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Jutta; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Bergholz, Ulla; Jücker, Manfred; Stocking, Carol; Harrison, Paul; Ostertag, Wolfram

    2002-03-01

    Hemopoiesis takes place in a microenvironment where hemopoietic cells are closely associated with stroma by various interactions. Stroma coregulates the proliferation and differentiation of hemopoietic cells. Stroma-hemopoietic-cell contact can be supported by locally produced membrane associated growth factors. The stroma derived growth factor, stem cell factor (SCF) is important in hemopoiesis. We examined the different biological interactions of membrane bound and soluble SCF with human hemopoietic cells expressing the SCF receptor, c-kit. To analyze the function of the SCF isoforms in inducing the proliferation of hemopoietic TF1 or Cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells we used stroma cell lines that differ in their presentation of no SCF, membrane SCF, or soluble SCF. We established a new coculture system using an epithelial cell line that excludes potential interfering effects with other known stroma encoded hemopoietic growth factors. We show that soluble SCF, in absence of membrane-bound SCF, inhibits long term clonal growth of primary or established CD34+ hemopoietic cells, whereas membrane-inserted SCF "dominantly" induces long term proliferation of these cells. We demonstrate a hierarchy of these SCF isoforms in the interaction of stroma with hemopoietic TF1 cells. Membrane-bound SCF is "dominant" over soluble SCF, whereas soluble SCF acts epistatically in interacting with hemopoietic cells compared with other stroma derived factors present in SCF deficient stroma. A hierarchy of stroma cell lines can be arranged according to their presentation of membrane SCF or soluble SCF. In our model system, membrane-bound SCF expression is sufficient to confer stroma properties to an epithelial cell line but soluble SCF does not.

  20. Characterization of soluble and membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase in Nilaparvata lugens and their potential relation to development and insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengxia; Liu, Shuhua; Yang, Baojun; Liu, Zewen

    2011-09-01

    Two forms (soluble and membrane-bound) of alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) were found in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. In order to further study ALPs in N. lugens, two putative ALP genes (Nl-ALP1 and Nl-ALP2) were identified in this pest. Both Nl-ALP1 and Nl-ALP2 show approximately the same degree of sequence identity (40-50%) to other insect soluble and membrane-bound forms of ALP. Correlation of ALP activity and mRNA levels at different developmental stages, or following application of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and insecticide fenvalerate, suggests that Nl-ALP1 and Nl-ALP2 might encode a soluble (sALP) and a membrane-bound ALP (mALP), respectively. Nl-ALP1-specific antibody Nl1-I detected only a specific band in soluble protein preparations and Nl-ALP2 specific antibody Nl2-I only detected a specific band in insoluble protein preparations, which provided conclusive linkages between Nl-ALP1 and a sALP and between Nl-ALP2 and a m ALP. Then, Nl-ALP1 was denoted as Nl-sALP for a sALP and Nl-ALP2 was denoted as Nl-mALP for a mALP. Only sALP activity and Nl-sALP mRNA level were induced by 20E and fenvalerate, which was confirmed by the density of specific band detected by Nl1-I in Sus strain with or without fenvalerate treatment. Additionally, the sALP activity, as well as Nl-sALP mRNA level, was significantly higher in a fenvalerate resistant population, compared with Sus strain. These results indicate that the sALP is more responsive to chemical stimulus, such as hormone and insecticide, and might play dual roles in development and insecticide tolerance. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Role of Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC1325 in membrane-bound transport ATPases system in Alzheimer’s disease-induced rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimgampalle Mallikarjuna

    2016-12-01

    Results: Chronic injection of D-Galactose caused lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the damage of neurons in the brain, finally bringing a significant decrease (-20% in the brain total membrane bound ATPases over the controls. Contrary to this, treatment of AD-induced rats with L. plantarum MTCC1325 reverted all the constituents of ATPase enzymes to near normal levels within 30 days. Conclusion: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC1325 exerted a beneficial action on the entire ATPases system in AD-induced rat brain by delaying neurodegeneration.

  2. The Membrane Modulates Internal Proton Transfer in Cytochrome c Oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öjemyr, Linda Nasvik; Ballmoos, Christoph von; Faxén, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    The functionality of membrane proteins is often modulated by the surrounding membrane. Here, we investigated the effect of membrane reconstitution of purified cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO) on the kinetics and thermodynamics of internal electron and proton-transfer reactions during O-2 reduction...... DOPC lipids. In conclusion, the data show that the membrane significantly modulates internal charge-transfer reactions and thereby the function of the membrane-bound enzyme.......-glycerol) (DOPG). In addition, a small Change in the internal Cu-A-heme a electron equilibrium constant was observed. This effect was lipid-dependent and explained in terms of a lower electrostatic potential within the membrane-spanning part of the protein with the anionic DOPG lipids than with the zwitterionic...

  3. An organelle-free assay for pea chloroplast Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane bound fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. (Clemson Univ, SC (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Mg-chelatase, which catalyzes the insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin, lies at the branchpoint of heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis in chloroplasts. Since magnesium chelation is the first step unique to chlorophyll synthesis, one would expect this step to be highly regulated. However, to date little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase due mostly to an inability to assay it's activity outside of the intact plastid. Here the authors report the first truly in vitro i.e. organelle-free, assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts which is 3 to 4 fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts, survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated, by centrifugation, into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity and both were inactivated by boiling; indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane bound protein(s). The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol Mg-Deuteroporphyrin/h/mg protein and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity. The soluble component could be fractionated with ammonium sulfate. The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. Crude separation of chloroplast membranes into thylakoids and envelopes, suggested that the membrane-bound component of Mg-chelatase is probably located in the envelope.

  4. Identification of a membrane-bound, glycol-stimulated phospholipase A2 located in the secretory granules of the adrenal medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, E.; Albanesi, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Chromaffin granule membranes prepared from bovine adrenal medullae showed Ca 2+ -stimulated phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity when assayed at pH 9.0 with phosphatidylcholine containing an [ 14 C]-arachidonyl group in the 2-position. However, the activity occurred in both soluble and particulate subcellular fractions, and did not codistribute with markers for the secretory granule. PLA 2 activity in the granule membrane preparation was stimulated dramatically by addition of glycerol, ethylene glycole, or poly(ethylene glycol). This glycol-stimulated PLA 2 activity codistributed with membrane-bound dopamine β-hydroxylase, a marker for the granule membranes, through the sequence of differential centrifugation steps employed to prepare the granule membrane fraction, as well as on a sucrose density gradient which resolved the granules from mitochondria, lysosomes, and plasma membrane. The glycol-stimulated PLA 2 of the chromaffin granule was membrane-bound, exhibited a pH optimum of 7.8, retained activity in the presence of EDTA, and was inactivated by p-bromophenacyl bromide. When different 14 C-labeled phospholipids were incorporated into diarachidonylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonylphosphatidylcholine was a better substrate for this enzyme than 1-palmitoyl-2-oleylphosphatidylcholine or 1-acyl-2-arachidonyl-phosphatidylethhanolamine, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine was not hydrolyzed

  5. Specific binding of [alpha-32P]GTP to cytosolic and membrane-bound proteins of human platelets correlates with the activation of phospholipase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapetina, E.G.; Reep, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    We have assessed the binding of [alpha- 32 P]GTP to platelet proteins from cytosolic and membrane fractions. Proteins were separated by NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose. Incubation of the nitrocellulose blots with [alpha- 32 P]GTP indicated the presence of specific and distinct GTP-binding proteins in cytosol and membranes. Binding was prevented by 10-100 nM GTP and by 100 nM guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma S]) or GDP; binding was unaffected by 1 nM-1 microM ATP. One main GTP-binding protein (29.5 kDa) was detected in the membrane fraction, while three others (29, 27, and 21 kDa) were detected in the soluble fraction. Two cytosolic GTP-binding proteins (29 and 27 kDa) were degraded by trypsin; another cytosolic protein (21 kDa) and the membrane-bound protein (29.5 kDa) were resistant to the action of trypsin. Treatment of intact platelets with trypsin or thrombin, followed by lysis and fractionation, did not affect the binding of [alpha- 32 P]GTP to the membrane-bound protein. GTP[gamma S] still stimulated phospholipase C in permeabilized platelets already preincubated with trypsin. This suggests that trypsin-resistant GTP-binding proteins might regulate phospholipase C stimulated by GTP[gamma S

  6. Magnetic circular dichroism studies on microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase: comparison with cytochrome b/sub 5/ and cytochrome P-450/sub cam/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickery, L; Salmon, A; Sauer, K

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic circular dichroism spectra are reported for the visible and near ultraviolet spectral regions of liver microsomes from dimethylbenzanthracene-treated rats. The sequential addition of NADH, dithionite, and carbon monoxide enables us to determine contributions to the magnetic circular dichroism by cytochromes b/sub 5/ and P-450, which dominate the spectra. The magnetic circular dichroism of the microsomal preparation is compared with that of purified oxidized and reduced cytochrome b/sub 5/ from pig liver and with the camphor-complexed and camphor-free oxidized, reduced, and reduced carbonmonoxy cytochrome P-450/sub cam/ from Pseudomonas putida. The magnetic circular dichroism spectra of the membrane bound cytochrome b/sub 5/ are similar to those of the purified protein, indicating that little or no alteration in the environment of the heme occurs during the isolation procedure. The soluble bacterial cytochrome P-450/sub cam/ also appears to be a suitable model for microsomal P-450, although differences in the magnetic circular dichroism intensity are observed for the two enzymes. No effect of dimethylbenzanthracene on the magnetic circular dichroism spectra of induced compared to control rat microsomes could be observed.

  7. Loss of covalently linked lipid as the mechanism for radiation-induced release of membrane-bound polysaccharide and exonuclease from Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of γ-radiation-induced release of polysaccharide and exonuclease from the midwall membrane of Micrococcus radiodurans has been examined. These two components appear to be released independently, but by very similar processes. Direct analysis of radiation-released polysaccharide indicated the absence of an alkali-labile neutral lipid normally present in the native material. Radiation-induced release therefore probably results from the radiolytic cleavage of a covalently linked lipid which normally serves to anchor these substances to the membrane. The absence of a natural membrane-bound carotenoid had no effect on the rate of release of these components. Likewise, the absence of exonuclease in an exonuclease minus mutant did not influence the release of polysaccharide. It is suggested that the major pathway of radical transfer from the initiating .OH and culminating in the cleavage of the neutral lipid anchor may not be via the membrane

  8. Tail-extension following the termination codon is critical for release of the nascent chain from membrane-bound ribosomes in a reticulocyte lysate cell-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Michiyo; Sakaue, Haruka; Onishi, Yukiko; Yamagishi, Marifu; Kida, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2013-01-11

    Nascent chain release from membrane-bound ribosomes by the termination codon was investigated using a cell-free translation system from rabbit supplemented with rough microsomal membrane vesicles. Chain release was extremely slow when mRNA ended with only the termination codon. Tail extension after the termination codon enhanced the release of the nascent chain. Release reached plateau levels with tail extension of 10 bases. This requirement was observed with all termination codons: TAA, TGA and TAG. Rapid release was also achieved by puromycin even in the absence of the extension. Efficient translation termination cannot be achieved in the presence of only a termination codon on the mRNA. Tail extension might be required for correct positioning of the termination codon in the ribosome and/or efficient recognition by release factors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Activation of the Arabidopsis membrane-bound transcription factor bZIP28 is mediated by site-2 protease, but not site-1 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yuji; Ashida, Makoto; Hasegawa, Chisa; Tabara, Kazuki; Mishiba, Kei-Ichiro; Koizumi, Nozomu

    2017-08-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic cellular response conserved in eukaryotic cells to alleviate the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Arabidopsis bZIP28 is a membrane-bound transcription factor activated by proteolytic cleavage in response to ER stress, thereby releasing its cytosolic portion containing the bZIP domain from the membrane to translocate into the nucleus where it induces the transcription of genes encoding ER-resident molecular chaperones and folding enzymes. It has been widely recognized that the proteolytic activation of bZIP28 is mediated by the sequential cleavage of site-1 protease (S1P) and site-2 protease (S2P). In the present study we provide evidence that bZIP28 protein is cleaved by S2P, but not by S1P. We demonstrated that wild-type and s1p mutant plants produce the active, nuclear form of bZIP28 in response to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin. In contrast, tunicamycin-treated s2p mutants do not accumulate the active, nuclear form of bZIP28. Consistent with these observations, s2p mutants, but not s1p mutants, exhibited a defective transcriptional response of ER stress-responsive genes and significantly higher sensitivity to tunicamycin. Interestingly, s2p mutants accumulate two membrane-bound bZIP28 fragments with a shorter ER lumen-facing C-terminal domain. Importantly, the predicted cleavage sites are located far from the canonical S1P recognition motif previously described. We propose that ER stress-induced proteolytic activation of bZIP28 is mediated by the sequential actions of as-yet-unidentified protease(s) and S2P, and does not require S1P. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Occlusion of 22Na+ and 86Rb+ in membrane-bound and soluble protomeric alpha beta-units of Na,K-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilsen, B.; Andersen, J.P.; Petersen, J.; Jorgensen, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    In this work, we examined occlusion of 22 Na+ and 86 Rb+ in membranous and detergent-solubilized Na,K-ATPase from outer renal medulla. Optimum conditions for occlusion of 22 Na+ were provided by formation of the phosphorylated complex from the beta,gamma-bidentate complex of chromium (III) with ATP (CrATP). Release of occluded cations occurred at equally slow rates in soluble and membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase. Values of 22 Na+ occlusion as high as 11 nmol/mg of protein were measured, corresponding to 1.8-2.7 mol of Na+/mol of phosphorylated Na,K-ATPase as determined by 32 P incorporation from [gamma- 32 P]CrATP. Maximum capacity for phosphorylation from [gamma- 32 P]CrATP was 6 nmol/mg of protein and equal to capacities for binding of [48V]vanadate and [ 3 H]ouabain. The stoichiometry for occlusion of Rb+ was close to 2 Rb+ ions/phosphorylation site. In an analytical ultracentrifuge, the soluble Na+- or Rb+-occluded complexes showed sedimentation velocities (S20,w = 6.8-7.4) consistent with monomeric alpha beta-units. The data show that soluble monomeric alpha beta-units of Na,K-ATPase can occlude Rb+ or Na+ with the same stoichiometry as the membrane-bound enzyme. The structural basis for occlusion of cations in Na,K-ATPase is suggested to be the formation of a cavity inside a monomeric alpha beta-unit constituting the minimum protein unit required for active Na,K-transport

  11. Incorporation of membrane-bound, mammalian-derived immunomodulatory proteins into influenza whole virus vaccines boosts immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Paul C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza epidemics continue to cause morbidity and mortality within the human population despite widespread vaccination efforts. This, along with the ominous threat of an avian influenza pandemic (H5N1, demonstrates the need for a much improved, more sophisticated influenza vaccine. We have developed an in vitro model system for producing a membrane-bound Cytokine-bearing Influenza Vaccine (CYT-IVAC. Numerous cytokines are involved in directing both innate and adaptive immunity and it is our goal to utilize the properties of individual cytokines and other immunomodulatory proteins to create a more immunogenic vaccine. Results We have evaluated the immunogenicity of inactivated cytokine-bearing influenza vaccines using a mouse model of lethal influenza virus challenge. CYT-IVACs were produced by stably transfecting MDCK cell lines with mouse-derived cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-2 and IL-4 fused to the membrane-anchoring domain of the viral hemagglutinin. Influenza virus replication in these cell lines resulted in the uptake of the bioactive membrane-bound cytokines during virus budding and release. In vivo efficacy studies revealed that a single low dose of IL-2 or IL-4-bearing CYT-IVAC is superior at providing protection against lethal influenza challenge in a mouse model and provides a more balanced Th1/Th2 humoral immune response, similar to live virus infections. Conclusion We have validated the protective efficacy of CYT-IVACs in a mammalian model of influenza virus infection. This technology has broad applications in current influenza virus vaccine development and may prove particularly useful in boosting immune responses in the elderly, where current vaccines are minimally effective.

  12. Relationship of membrane-bound sulfhydryl groups to vitamin D-stimulated uptake of [75Se]Selenite by the brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mykkanen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles isolated from duodena of rachitic or vitamin D-treated chicks was studied by using radioactive selenite and a rapid filtration technique. Cholecalciferol treatment (500 IU at 72 h) significantly enhanced selenite uptake, a response that decreased when the vesicles were stored at room temperature for 2.5 h prior to the uptake measurement. Preincubation of the vesicles in 1.0 mmol/L H2O2 reduced [75Se]selenite uptake, indicating the involvement of oxidizable groups in the uptake reaction. Iodoacetic acid (IAA), a sulfhydryl-blocking reagent, at 1-2 mmol/L concentration eliminated the difference in selenite uptake due to cholecalciferol and had no effect on vesicles from rachitic animals. A higher concentration of IAA (10 mmol/L) enhanced selenite uptake manyfold and increased the absolute difference due to cholecalciferol treatment. Single intravenous doses of 100 IU cholecalciferol, 100 IU ergocalciferol, or 0.1 micrograms 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol also stimulated selenite uptake, suggesting a general response to vitamin D compounds. Normal animals given a single dose of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol 12 h prior to killing also responded. Treatments that enhanced the uptake of [75Se]selenite also increased the amount of membrane-bound sulfhydryl groups, suggesting the involvement of membrane-bound sulfhydryl groups in the vitamin D response. A significant increase in selenite uptake by intravenous 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol occurred within 10 min. This rapid effect provides a new tool to probe early biochemical effects of vitamin D on intestinal epithelium

  13. Occlusion of /sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ in membrane-bound and soluble protomeric alpha beta-units of Na,K-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilsen, B.; Andersen, J.P.; Petersen, J.; Jorgensen, P.L.

    1987-08-05

    In this work, we examined occlusion of /sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ in membranous and detergent-solubilized Na,K-ATPase from outer renal medulla. Optimum conditions for occlusion of /sup 22/Na+ were provided by formation of the phosphorylated complex from the beta,gamma-bidentate complex of chromium (III) with ATP (CrATP). Release of occluded cations occurred at equally slow rates in soluble and membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase. Values of /sup 22/Na+ occlusion as high as 11 nmol/mg of protein were measured, corresponding to 1.8-2.7 mol of Na+/mol of phosphorylated Na,K-ATPase as determined by /sup 32/P incorporation from (gamma-/sup 32/P)CrATP. Maximum capacity for phosphorylation from (gamma-/sup 32/P)CrATP was 6 nmol/mg of protein and equal to capacities for binding of (48V)vanadate and (/sup 3/H)ouabain. The stoichiometry for occlusion of Rb+ was close to 2 Rb+ ions/phosphorylation site. In an analytical ultracentrifuge, the soluble Na+- or Rb+-occluded complexes showed sedimentation velocities (S20,w = 6.8-7.4) consistent with monomeric alpha beta-units. The data show that soluble monomeric alpha beta-units of Na,K-ATPase can occlude Rb+ or Na+ with the same stoichiometry as the membrane-bound enzyme. The structural basis for occlusion of cations in Na,K-ATPase is suggested to be the formation of a cavity inside a monomeric alpha beta-unit constituting the minimum protein unit required for active Na,K-transport.

  14. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) electrochemistry at multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelster, Lindsey N.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electron transport chain is important to the understanding of metabolism in the living cell. ► Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase is a membrane bound complex of the electron transport chain (Complex III). ► The paper details the first bioelectrochemical characterization of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase at an electrode. - Abstract: Electron transport chain complexes are critical to metabolism in living cells. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) is responsible for carrying electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c, but the complex has not been evaluated electrochemically. This work details the bioelectrochemistry of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase of the electron transport chain of tuber mitochondria. The characterization of the electrochemistry of this enzyme is investigated in carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube/tetrabutyl ammonium bromide-modified Nafion ® modified glassy carbon electrodes by cyclic voltammetry. Increasing concentrations of cytochrome c result in a catalytic response from the active enzyme in the nanotube sandwich. The experiments show that the enzyme followed Michaelis–Menten kinetics with a K m for the immobilized enzyme of 2.97 (±0.11) × 10 −6 M and a V max of 6.31 (±0.82) × 10 −3 μmol min −1 at the electrode, but the K m and V max values decreased compared to the free enzyme in solution, which is expected for immobilized redox proteins. This is the first evidence of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase bioelectrocatalysis.

  15. De-bugging and maximizing plant cytochrome P450 production in Escherichia coli with C-terminal GFP fusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Vazquez Albacete, Dario; Søgaard, Karina Marie

    2017-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP) are attractive enzyme targets in biotechnology as they catalyze stereospecific C-hydroxylations of complex core skeletons at positions that typically are difficult to access by chemical synthesis. Membrane bound CYPs are involved in nearly all plant pathways leading......-type E. coli strains using standard growth media. Furthermore, sequences encoding a small synthetic peptide and a small bacterial membrane anchor markedly enhance the expression of all six genes. For one of the CYPs, the length of the linker region between the predicted N-terminal transmembrane segment...

  16. Aggressive re-warming at 38.5 degrees C following deep hypothermia at 21 degrees C increases neutrophil membrane bound elastase activity and pro-inflammatory factor release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Min; Zhao, Xiao-gang; He, Yi; Gu, Yan; Mei, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is often performed under hypothermic condition. The effects of hypothermia and re-warming on neutrophil activity are unclear. This study aimed to compare the effects of different hypothermia and re-warming regimens on neutrophil membrane bound elastase (MBE)

  17. Pathogen-expanded CD11b+ invariant NKT cells feedback inhibit T cell proliferation via membrane-bound TGF-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanmei; Jiang, Zhengping; Chen, Zhubo; Gu, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiang; Cao, Xuetao

    2015-04-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are effector cells, but also regulator of immune response, which either promote or suppress immune response through production of different cytokines. However, the subsets of NKT cells with definite phenotype and regulatory function need to be further identified. Furthermore, the mechanisms for NKT cells to regulate immune response remain to be fully elucidated. Here we identified CD11b(+) invariant NKT (CD11b(+) iNKT) cells as a new subset of regulatory NKT cells in mouse models with infection. αGalCer:CD1d complex(+)TCRβ(+)NK1.1(+) NKT cells could be categorized to CD11b(+) and CD11b(-) subsets. NKT cells are enriched in liver. During Listeria monocytogenes infection, hepatic CD11b(+) iNKT cells were significantly induced and expanded, with peak expansion on day 8. CD11b(+) iNKT cells were also expanded significantly in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. As compared to CD11b(-) iNKT cells, CD11b(+) iNKT cells expressed higher levels of CD27, FasL, B7H1, CD69, and particularly higher level of membrane-bound TGF-β1 (mTGF-β1), but produced less IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1. Hepatic CD11b(+) iNKT cells suppressed antigen-nonspecific and OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation through mTGF-β1 both in vitro and in vivo, meanwhile, they did not interfere with activation of CD4 T cells and cytotoxicity of the activated CD8 T cells. Thus, we have identified a new subset of pathogen-expanded CD11b(+) invariant NKT cells which can feedback inhibit T cell response through cell-to-cell contact via cell surface (membrane-bound) TGF-β1, especially at the late stage of immune response against infection. CD11b(+) regulatory iNKT cells may contribute to protect host from pathological injure by preventing immune overactivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Hinge Segment of Human NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Conformational Switching: The Critical Role of Ionic Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Campelo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR is a redox partner of microsomal cytochromes P450 and is a prototype of the diflavin reductase family. CPR contains 3 distinct functional domains: a FMN-binding domain (acceptor reduction, a linker (hinge, and a connecting/FAD domain (NADPH oxidation. It has been demonstrated that the mechanism of CPR exhibits an important step in which it switches from a compact, closed conformation (locked state to an ensemble of open conformations (unlocked state, the latter enabling electron transfer to redox partners. The conformational equilibrium between the locked and unlocked states has been shown to be highly dependent on ionic strength, reinforcing the hypothesis of the presence of critical salt interactions at the interface between the FMN and connecting FAD domains. Here we show that specific residues of the hinge segment are important in the control of the conformational equilibrium of CPR. We constructed six single mutants and two double mutants of the human CPR, targeting residues G240, S243, I245 and R246 of the hinge segment, with the aim of modifying the flexibility or the potential ionic interactions of the hinge segment. We measured the reduction of cytochrome c at various salt concentrations of these 8 mutants, either in the soluble or membrane-bound form of human CPR. All mutants were found capable of reducing cytochrome c yet with different efficiency and their maximal rates of cytochrome c reduction were shifted to lower salt concentration. In particular, residue R246 seems to play a key role in a salt bridge network present at the interface of the hinge and the connecting domain. Interestingly, the effects of mutations, although similar, demonstrated specific differences when present in the soluble or membrane-bound context. Our results demonstrate that the electrostatic and flexibility properties of the hinge segment are critical for electron transfer from CPR to its redox partners.

  19. Kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response in relation to the H+-permeability of the membrane bound ATPase in spinach chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.L.; van Kooten, O.; Vredenberg, W.J.

    1985-08-01

    The effect of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) on the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response and on the activity of the ATPase was investigated in isolated spinach chloroplasts. It was found that after the addition of 5 X 10(-8)mol DCCD the rate of ATP hydrolysis induced by a period of 60 sec illumination was decreased to less than 5% of its original value. At this concentration, hardly any effect, if at all, could be detected on the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response, neither in dark-adapted nor in light-activated chloroplasts. It was concluded that the presence of concentrations of DCCD, sufficiently high to affect the ATPase activity, does not affect the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response. Since DCCD decreases the H+ permeability of the membrane-bound ATPase, it was concluded that this permeability coefficient for protons is not an important factor in the regulation of the flash-induced membrane potential and, therefore, does not affect the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response.

  20. Development of immobilized membrane-based affinity columns for use in the online characterization of membrane bound proteins and for targeted affinity isolations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moaddel, Ruin; Wainer, Irving W.

    2006-01-01

    Membranes obtained from cell lines that express or do not express a target membrane bound protein have been immobilized on a silica-based liquid chromatographic support or on the surface of an activated glass capillary. The resulting chromatographic columns have been placed in liquid chromatographic systems and used to characterize the target proteins and to identify small molecules that bind to the target. Membranes containing ligand gated ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and drug transporters have been prepared and characterized. If a marker ligand has been identified for the target protein, frontal or zonal displacement chromatographic techniques can be used to determine binding affinities (K d values) and non-linear chromatography can be used to assess the association (k on ) and dissociation (k off ) rate constants and the thermodynamics of the binding process. Membrane-based affinity columns have been created using membranes from a cell line that does not express the target protein (control) and the same cell line that expresses the target protein (experimental) after genomic transfection. The resulting columns can be placed in a parallel chromatography system and the differential retention between the control and experimental columns can be used to identify small molecules and protein that bind to the target protein. These applications will be illustrated using columns created using cellular membranes containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein

  1. Development of immobilized membrane-based affinity columns for use in the online characterization of membrane bound proteins and for targeted affinity isolations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moaddel, Ruin [Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224-6825 (United States); Wainer, Irving W. [Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224-6825 (United States)]. E-mail: Wainerir@grc.nia.nih.gov

    2006-03-30

    Membranes obtained from cell lines that express or do not express a target membrane bound protein have been immobilized on a silica-based liquid chromatographic support or on the surface of an activated glass capillary. The resulting chromatographic columns have been placed in liquid chromatographic systems and used to characterize the target proteins and to identify small molecules that bind to the target. Membranes containing ligand gated ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and drug transporters have been prepared and characterized. If a marker ligand has been identified for the target protein, frontal or zonal displacement chromatographic techniques can be used to determine binding affinities (K {sub d} values) and non-linear chromatography can be used to assess the association (k {sub on}) and dissociation (k {sub off}) rate constants and the thermodynamics of the binding process. Membrane-based affinity columns have been created using membranes from a cell line that does not express the target protein (control) and the same cell line that expresses the target protein (experimental) after genomic transfection. The resulting columns can be placed in a parallel chromatography system and the differential retention between the control and experimental columns can be used to identify small molecules and protein that bind to the target protein. These applications will be illustrated using columns created using cellular membranes containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein.

  2. Krypton Derivatization of an O2 -Tolerant Membrane-Bound [NiFe] Hydrogenase Reveals a Hydrophobic Tunnel Network for Gas Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalms, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Andrea; Frielingsdorf, Stefan; van der Linden, Peter; von Stetten, David; Lenz, Oliver; Carpentier, Philippe; Scheerer, Patrick

    2016-04-25

    [NiFe] hydrogenases are metalloenzymes catalyzing the reversible heterolytic cleavage of hydrogen into protons and electrons. Gas tunnels make the deeply buried active site accessible to substrates and inhibitors. Understanding the architecture and function of the tunnels is pivotal to modulating the feature of O2 tolerance in a subgroup of these [NiFe] hydrogenases, as they are interesting for developments in renewable energy technologies. Here we describe the crystal structure of the O2 -tolerant membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase of Ralstonia eutropha (ReMBH), using krypton-pressurized crystals. The positions of the krypton atoms allow a comprehensive description of the tunnel network within the enzyme. A detailed overview of tunnel sizes, lengths, and routes is presented from tunnel calculations. A comparison of the ReMBH tunnel characteristics with crystal structures of other O2 -tolerant and O2 -sensitive [NiFe] hydrogenases revealed considerable differences in tunnel size and quantity between the two groups, which might be related to the striking feature of O2 tolerance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Membrane-bound IL-12 and IL-23 serve as potent mucosal adjuvants when co-presented on whole inactivated influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tila; Heffron, Connie L; High, Kevin P; Roberts, Paul C

    2014-05-03

    Potent and safe adjuvants are needed to improve the efficacy of parenteral and mucosal vaccines. Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors have all proven to be effective immunomodulatory adjuvants when administered with a variety of antigens. We have previously evaluated the efficacy of membrane-anchored interleukins (IL) such as IL-2 and IL-4 co-presented as Cytokine-bearing Influenza Vaccines (CYT-IVACs) using a mouse model of influenza challenge. Here, we describe studies evaluating the parenteral and mucosal adjuvanticity of membrane-bound IL-12 and IL-23 CYT-IVACs in young adult mice. Mucosal immunization using IL-12 and IL-23 bearing whole influenza virus vaccine (WIV) was more effective at eliciting virus-specific nasal IgA and reducing viral lung burden following challenge compared to control WIV vaccinated animals. Both IL-12 and IL-23 bearing WIV elicited the highest anti-viral IgA levels in serum and nasal washes. This study highlights for the first time the mucosal adjuvant potential of IL-12 and IL-23 CYT-IVAC formulations in eliciting mucosal immune responses and reducing viral lung burden. The co-presentation of immunomodulators in direct context with viral antigen in whole inactivated viral vaccines may provide a means to significantly lower the dose of vaccine required for protection.

  4. Cytochrome P450s and molecular epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Frank J.; Gelboin, Harry V.

    1993-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) represent a superfamily of heme-containing monooxygenases that are found throughout the animal and plant kingdoms and in many microorganisms. A number of these enzymes are involved in biosynthetic pathways of steroid synthesis but in mammals the vast majority of P450s function to metabolize foreign chemicals or xenobiotics. In the classical phase I reactions on the latter, a membrane-bound P450 will hydroxylate a compound, usually hydrophobic in nature, and the hydroxyl group will serve as a substrate for the various transferases or phase II enzymes that attach hydrophilic substituents such as glutathione, sulfate or glucuronic acid. Some chemicals, however, are metabolically-activated by P450s to electrophiles capable of reacting with cellular macromolecules. The cellular concentrations of the chemical and P450, reactivity of the active metabolite with nucleic acid and the repairability of the resultant adducts, in addition to the nature of the cell type, likely determines whether a chemical will be toxic and kill the cell or will transform the cell. Immunocorrelative and cDNA-directed expression have been used to define the substrate specificities of numerous human P450s. Levels of expression of different human P450 forms have been measured by both in vivo and in vitro methodologies leading to the realization that a large degree of interindividual differences occur in P450 expression. Reliable procedures for measuring P450 expression in healthy and diseased subjects will lead to prospective and case- cohort studies to determine whether interindividual differences in levels of P450 are associated with susceptibility or resistance to environmentally-based disease.

  5. Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water affect electron transfer in a bacterial bc1 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2015-04-01

    Cross-membrane electron transport between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 μs of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc1 bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is affected by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ˜0.1-1.6 μs contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein electron transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins.

  6. Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water affect electron transfer in a bacterial bc1 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-membrane electron transport between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 μs of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc 1 bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is affected by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ∼0.1-1.6 μs contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein electron transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins

  7. Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water affect electron transfer in a bacterial bc{sub 1} complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V., E-mail: dmitrym@asu.edu [Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871504, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Cross-membrane electron transport between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 μs of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc{sub 1} bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is affected by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ∼0.1-1.6 μs contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein electron transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins.

  8. Engineering human cytochrome P450 enzymes into catalytically self-sufficient chimeras using molecular Lego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodhia, Vikash Rajnikant; Fantuzzi, Andrea; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2006-10-01

    The membrane-bound human cytochrome P450s have essential roles in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and drugs. Presented here are the results on the construction and characterization of three fusion proteins containing the N-terminally modified human cytochrome P450s CYP2C9, CY2C19 and CYP3A4 fused to the soluble NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase domain of CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium. The constructs, CYP2C9/BMR, CYP2C19/BMR and CYP3A4/BMR are well expressed in Escherichia coli as holo proteins. The chimeras can be purified in the absence of detergent and the purified enzymes are both active and correctly folded in the absence of detergent, as demonstrated by circular dichroism and functional studies. Additionally, in comparison with the parent P450 enzyme, these chimeras have greatly improved solubility properties. The chimeras are catalytically self-sufficient and present turnover rates similar to those reported for the native enzymes in reconstituted systems, unlike previously reported mammalian cytochrome P450 fusion proteins. Furthermore the specific activities of these chimeras are not dependent on the enzyme concentration present in the reaction buffer and they do not require the addition of accessory proteins, detergents or phospholipids to be fully active. The solubility, catalytic self-sufficiency and wild-type like activities of these chimeras would greatly simplify the studies of cytochrome P450 mediated drug metabolism in solution.

  9. IL-6 Inhibits Upregulation of Membrane-Bound TGF-β 1 on CD4+ T Cells and Blocking IL-6 Enhances Oral Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Chantal; Rezende, Rafael Machado; M'Hamdi, Hanane; da Cunha, Andre Pires; Weiner, Howard L

    2017-02-01

    Oral administration of Ag induces regulatory T cells that express latent membrane-bound TGF-β (latency-associated peptide [LAP]) and have been shown to play an important role in the induction of oral tolerance. We developed an in vitro model to study modulation of LAP + on CD4 + T cells. The combination of anti-CD3 mAb, anti-CD28 mAb, and recombinant IL-2 induced expression of LAP on naive CD4 + T cells, independent of Foxp3 or exogenous TGF-β. In vitro generated CD4 + LAP + Foxp3 - T cells were suppressive in vitro, inhibiting proliferation of naive CD4 + T cells and IL-17A secretion by Th17 cells. Assessing the impact of different cytokines and neutralizing Abs against cytokines, we found that LAP induction was decreased in the presence of IL-6 and IL-21, and to a lesser extent by IL-4 and TNF-α. IL-6 abrogated the in vitro induction of CD4 + LAP + T cells by STAT3-dependent inhibition of Lrrc32 (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant [GARP]), the adapter protein that tethers TGF-β to the membrane. Oral tolerance induction was enhanced in mice lacking expression of IL-6R by CD4 + T cells and by treatment of wild-type mice with neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAb. These results suggest that proinflammatory cytokines interfere with oral tolerance induction and that blocking the IL-6 pathway is a potential strategy for enhancing oral tolerance in the setting of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. IL-6 inhibits upregulation of membrane-bound TGF-beta 1 on CD4+ T cells and blocking IL-6 enhances oral tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Chantal; Rezende, Rafael Machado; M'Hamdi, Hanane; da Cunha, Andre Pires; Weiner, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    Oral administration of antigen induces regulatory T cells that express latent membrane-bound TGF-beta (LAP) and that have been shown to play an important role in the induction of oral tolerance. We developed an in vitro model to study modulation of LAP+ on CD4+ T cells. The combination of anti-CD3 mAb, anti-CD28 mAb and recombinant IL-2 induced expression of LAP on naïve CD4+ T cells, independent of FoxP3 or exogenous TGF-β. In vitro generated CD4+LAP+FoxP3− T cells were suppressive in vitro, inhibiting proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells and IL-17A secretion by Th17 cells. Assessing the impact of different cytokines and neutralizing antibodies against cytokines we found that LAP induction was decreased in the presence of IL-6 and IL-21, and to a lesser extent by IL-4 and TNFα. IL-6 abrogated the in vitro induction of CD4+LAP+ T cells by STAT3 dependent inhibition of Lrrc32 (GARP), the adapter protein that tethers TGF-beta to the membrane. Oral tolerance induction was enhanced in mice lacking expression of IL-6R by CD4+ T cells and by treatment of wild-type mice with neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAb. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines interfere with oral tolerance induction and that blocking the IL-6 pathway is a potential strategy for enhancing oral tolerance in the setting of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:28039301

  11. In vitro assay of the chlorophyll biosynthetic enzyme Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane-bound fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The first committed step in chlorophyll synthesis is the Mg-chelatase-catalyzed insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX. Since iron insertion into protoporphyrin leads to heme formation, Mg-chelatase lies at the branch point of heme and chlorophyll synthesis in chloroplasts. Little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase, as it has been assayed only in intact cucumber chloroplasts. In this report we describe an in vitro assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts was 3- to 4-fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts. This activity survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated by centrifugation into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity, and both were inactivated by boiling indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane-bound protein(s). The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol of Mg-deuteroporphyrin per h per mg of protein, and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity and the enzymen was sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide (I{sub 50}, 20 {mu}M). Broken and reconstituted cucumber chloroplasts were unable to maintain Mg-chelatase activity. However, the cucumber supernatant fraction was active when combined with the pellet fraction of peas; the converse was not true, which suggested that the cucumber pellet was the component that lost activity during lysis.

  12. Characterization and modelling of VanT: a novel, membrane-bound, serine racemase from vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, C A; Martín-Martinez, M; Blundell, T L; Arthur, M; Courvalin, P; Reynolds, P E

    1999-03-01

    Sequence determination of a region downstream from the vanXYc gene in Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174 revealed an open reading frame, designated vanT, that encodes a 698-amino-acid polypeptide with an amino-terminal domain containing 10 predicted transmembrane segments. The protein contained a highly conserved pyridoxal phosphate attachment site in the C-terminal domain, typical of alanine racemases. The protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and serine racemase activity was detected in the membrane but not in the cytoplasmic fraction after centrifugation of sonicated cells, whereas alanine racemase activity was located almost exclusively in the cytoplasm. When the protein was overexpressed as a polypeptide lacking the predicted transmembrane domain, serine racemase activity was detected in the cytoplasm. The serine racemase activity was partially (64%) inhibited by D-cycloserine, whereas host alanine racemase activity was almost totally inhibited (97%). Serine racemase activity was also detected in membrane preparations of constitutively vancomycin-resistant E. gallinarum BM4174 but not in BM4175, in which insertional inactivation of the vanC-1 D-Ala:D-Ser ligase gene probably had a polar effect on expression of the vanXYc and vanT genes. Comparative modelling of the deduced C-terminal domain was based on the alignment of VanT with the Air alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. The model revealed that almost all critical amino acids in the active site of Air were conserved in VanT, indicating that the C-terminal domain of VanT is likely to adopt a three-dimensional structure similar to that of Air and that the protein could exist as a dimer. These results indicate that the source of D-serine for peptidoglycan synthesis in vancomycin-resistant enterococci expressing the VanC phenotype involves racemization of L- to D-serine by a membrane-bound serine racemase.

  13. Resolving the contributions of the membrane-bound and periplasmic nitrate reductase systems to nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Gary; Hensen, Daniela; Felgate, Heather; Arkenberg, Anke; Appia-Ayme, Corinne; Prior, Karen; Harrington, Carl; Field, Sarah J; Butt, Julea N; Baggs, Elizabeth; Richardson, David J

    2012-01-15

    The production of cytotoxic nitric oxide (NO) and conversion into the neuropharmacological agent and potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N₂O) is linked with anoxic nitrate catabolism by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Salmonella can synthesize two types of nitrate reductase: a membrane-bound form (Nar) and a periplasmic form (Nap). Nitrate catabolism was studied under nitrate-rich and nitrate-limited conditions in chemostat cultures following transition from oxic to anoxic conditions. Intracellular NO production was reported qualitatively by assessing transcription of the NO-regulated genes encoding flavohaemoglobin (Hmp), flavorubredoxin (NorV) and hybrid cluster protein (Hcp). A more quantitative analysis of the extent of NO formation was gained by measuring production of N₂O, the end-product of anoxic NO-detoxification. Under nitrate-rich conditions, the nar, nap, hmp, norV and hcp genes were all induced following transition from the oxic to anoxic state, and 20% of nitrate consumed in steady-state was released as N₂O when nitrite had accumulated to millimolar levels. The kinetics of nitrate consumption, nitrite accumulation and N₂O production were similar to those of wild-type in nitrate-sufficient cultures of a nap mutant. In contrast, in a narG mutant, the steady-state rate of N₂O production was ~30-fold lower than that of the wild-type. Under nitrate-limited conditions, nap, but not nar, was up-regulated following transition from oxic to anoxic metabolism and very little N₂O production was observed. Thus a combination of nitrate-sufficiency, nitrite accumulation and an active Nar-type nitrate reductase leads to NO and thence N₂O production, and this can account for up to 20% of the nitrate catabolized.

  14. Heat death in the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes: thermal inactivation of muscle membrane-bound ATPases in warm and cold adapted animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladwell, R T

    1976-01-01

    The thermal sensitivity of the membrane-bound Mg/sup 2 +/ and Na/sup +/ + K/sup +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/ ATPases from the abdominal flexor muscles of 10 and 25/sup 0/C acclimated animals was investigated. The Mg/sup 2 +/ ATPase was inactivated by milder heat treatments than the Na/sup +/ + K/sup +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/ ATPase. The effect of high lethal temperatures on the Mg/sup 2 +/ ATPase was dependent on the previous thermal history of the animal, the enzyme preparations from 10/sup 0/C acclimated animals being more sensitive than those from 25/sup 0/C acclimated animals. The thermal sensitivity of the Na/sup +/ + K/sup +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/ ATPase was not altered by temperature acclimation. The change in the thermal sensitivity of the Mg/sup 2 +/ ATPase with the acclimation temperature of the whole animal was correlated with the survival times of 10 and 25/sup 0/C acclimated animals. The K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ of the ATPases was investigated and the K/sub m/ of both enzymes was found to decrease with acclimation of the whole animal to lower temperatures, so that enzyme/substrate affinity increased with cold acclimation. It was concluded that the inactivation of the muscle Mg/sup 2 +/ ATPase was the primary lesion of heat death in the crayfish, and that the changes in the kinetic properties of the ATPases were an important mechanism in the process of physiological temperature acclimation.

  15. Construction of a plasmid for co-expression of mouse membrane-bound form of IL-15 and RAE-1ε and its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li; Ji, Ming-Chun; Pan, Xin-Yuan; Gong, Wei-Juan; Tian, Fang; Duan, Qiu-Fang

    2011-05-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pivotal cytokine for the proliferation and activation of a specific group of immune cells such as natural killer (NK), IFN-producing killer dendritic cells (IKDC) and CD8 T cells. RAE-1ε, the ligand for the activating NKG2D receptor, which also play an important role in the proliferation and activation of NK cells and IKDCs. In this study, a membrane-bound form of IL-15 (termed mb15) encoding sequence and RAE-1ε gene were obtained by SOE-PCR or PCR amplification. The amplified mb15 and RAE-1ε gene were then digested and inserted into the multiple cloning site1 (MCS1) and MCS2 of pVITRO2-mcs vector, respectively. A recombinant eukaryotic expression vector for co-expression of mb15 and RAE-1ε was successfully constructed. After it was transfected to BaF3 cells, the expression of IL-15 and RAE-1ε in recombinant BaF3/mb15/RAE-1ε cells were verified by RT-PCR, western blot and FCM analysis. Furthermore, BaF3/mb15/RAE-1ε cells had the ability of promoting NK cells proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. In conclusion, BaF3/mb15/RAE-1ε cells were successfully constructed, which is very useful for further studies, especially for the expansion and activation of certain subsets of immune cells such as NK cells and IKDCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human CD34+ cells engineered to express membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand target both tumor cells and tumor vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavazza, Cristiana; Carlo-Stella, Carmelo; Giacomini, Arianna; Cleris, Loredana; Righi, Marco; Sia, Daniela; Di Nicola, Massimo; Magni, Michele; Longoni, Paolo; Milanesi, Marco; Francolini, Maura; Gloghini, Annunziata; Carbone, Antonino; Formelli, Franca; Gianni, Alessandro M

    2010-03-18

    Adenovirus-transduced CD34+ cells expressing membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (CD34-TRAIL+ cells) exert potent antitumor activity. To further investigate the mechanism(s) of action of CD34-TRAIL+ cells, we analyzed their homing properties as well as antitumor and antivascular effects using a subcutaneous myeloma model in immunodeficient mice. After intravenous injection, transduced cells homed in the tumor peaking at 48 hours when 188 plus or minus 25 CD45+ cells per 10(5) tumor cells were detected. Inhibition experiments showed that tumor homing of CD34-TRAIL+ cells was largely mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and stromal cell-derived factor-1. Both CD34-TRAIL+ cells and soluble (s)TRAIL significantly reduced tumor volume by 40% and 29%, respectively. Computer-aided analysis of TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling-stained tumor sections demonstrated significantly greater effectiveness for CD34-TRAIL+ cells in increasing tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis over sTRAIL. Proteome array analysis indicated that CD34-TRAIL+ cells and sTRAIL activate similar apoptotic machinery. In vivo staining of tumor vasculature with sulfosuccinimidyl-6-(biotinamido) hexanoate-biotin revealed that CD34-TRAIL+ cells but not sTRAIL significantly damaged tumor vasculature, as shown by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling+ endothelial cells, appearance of hemorrhagic areas, and marked reduction of endothelial area. These results demonstrate that tumor homing of CD34-TRAIL+ cells induces early vascular disruption, resulting in hemorrhagic necrosis and tumor destruction.

  17. The MUC4 membrane-bound mucin regulates esophageal cancer cell proliferation and migration properties: Implication for S100A4 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, Emilie; Jonckheere, Nicolas; Frenois, Frederic; Mariette, Christophe; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Loss of MUC4 reduces proliferation of esophageal cancer cells. → MUC4 inhibition impairs migration of esophageal cancer cells but not their invasion. → Loss of MUC4 significantly reduces in vivo tumor growth. → Decrease of S100A4 induced by MUC4 inhibition impairs proliferation and migration. -- Abstract: MUC4 is a membrane-bound mucin known to participate in tumor progression. It has been shown that MUC4 pattern of expression is modified during esophageal carcinogenesis, with a progressive increase from metaplastic lesions to adenocarcinoma. The principal cause of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is the gastro-esophageal reflux, and MUC4 was previously shown to be upregulated by several bile acids present in reflux. In this report, our aim was thus to determine whether MUC4 plays a role in biological properties of human esophageal cancer cells. For that stable MUC4-deficient cancer cell lines (shMUC4 cells) were established using a shRNA approach. In vitro (proliferation, migration and invasion) and in vivo (tumor growth following subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice) biological properties of shMUC4 cells were analyzed. Our results show that shMUC4 cells were less proliferative, had decreased migration properties and did not express S100A4 protein when compared with MUC4 expressing cells. Absence of MUC4 did not impair shMUC4 invasiveness. Subcutaneous xenografts showed a significant decrease in tumor size when cells did not express MUC4. Altogether, these data indicate that MUC4 plays a key role in proliferative and migrating properties of esophageal cancer cells as well as is a tumor growth promoter. MUC4 mucin appears thus as a good therapeutic target to slow-down esophageal tumor progression.

  18. The MUC4 membrane-bound mucin regulates esophageal cancer cell proliferation and migration properties: Implication for S100A4 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyere, Emilie; Jonckheere, Nicolas; Frenois, Frederic [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Mariette, Christophe [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Department of Digestive and Oncological Surgery, University Hospital Claude Huriez, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Van Seuningen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.vanseuningen@inserm.fr [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France)

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Loss of MUC4 reduces proliferation of esophageal cancer cells. {yields} MUC4 inhibition impairs migration of esophageal cancer cells but not their invasion. {yields} Loss of MUC4 significantly reduces in vivo tumor growth. {yields} Decrease of S100A4 induced by MUC4 inhibition impairs proliferation and migration. -- Abstract: MUC4 is a membrane-bound mucin known to participate in tumor progression. It has been shown that MUC4 pattern of expression is modified during esophageal carcinogenesis, with a progressive increase from metaplastic lesions to adenocarcinoma. The principal cause of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is the gastro-esophageal reflux, and MUC4 was previously shown to be upregulated by several bile acids present in reflux. In this report, our aim was thus to determine whether MUC4 plays a role in biological properties of human esophageal cancer cells. For that stable MUC4-deficient cancer cell lines (shMUC4 cells) were established using a shRNA approach. In vitro (proliferation, migration and invasion) and in vivo (tumor growth following subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice) biological properties of shMUC4 cells were analyzed. Our results show that shMUC4 cells were less proliferative, had decreased migration properties and did not express S100A4 protein when compared with MUC4 expressing cells. Absence of MUC4 did not impair shMUC4 invasiveness. Subcutaneous xenografts showed a significant decrease in tumor size when cells did not express MUC4. Altogether, these data indicate that MUC4 plays a key role in proliferative and migrating properties of esophageal cancer cells as well as is a tumor growth promoter. MUC4 mucin appears thus as a good therapeutic target to slow-down esophageal tumor progression.

  19. Regulatory BC1 RNA in Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoangeli, Anna; Dosunmu, Aderemi; Eom, Taesun; Stefanov, Dimitre G.; Tiedge, Henri

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic regulatory BC1 RNA is a non-protein-coding (npc) RNA that operates in the translational control of gene expression. The absence of BC1 RNA in BC1 knockout (KO) animals causes translational dysregulation that entails neuronal phenotypic alterations including prolonged epileptiform discharges, audiogenic seizure activity in vivo, and…

  20. AP calculus AB/BC

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Stu

    2013-01-01

    All Access for the AP® Calculus AB & BC Exams Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the free online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Cal

  1. The cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidase is important for survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis under peroxide and antibiotic-induced stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, P.; Heineke, M.H.; Koul, A.; Andries, K.; Cook, G.M.; Lill, H.; van Spanning, R.J.M.; Bald, D.

    2015-01-01

    Targeting respiration and ATP synthesis has received strong interest as a new strategy for combatting drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteria employ a respiratory chain terminating with two branches. One of the branches includes a cytochrome bc 1 complex and an aa 3 -type cytochrome

  2. {sup 13}C-Methyl isocyanide as an NMR probe for cytochrome P450 active sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullough, Christopher R.; Pullela, Phani Kumar [Marquette University, Chemical Proteomics Facility at Marquette, Department of Chemistry (United States); Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy [University of Michigan and VA Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology (United States); Sem, Daniel S. [Marquette University, Chemical Proteomics Facility at Marquette, Department of Chemistry (United States)], E-mail: Daniel.sem@marquette.edu

    2009-03-15

    The cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play a central role in many biologically important oxidation reactions, including the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotic compounds. Because they are often assayed as both drug targets and anti-targets, any tools that provide: (a) confirmation of active site binding and (b) structural data, would be of great utility, especially if data could be obtained in reasonably high throughput. To this end, we have developed an analog of the promiscuous heme ligand, cyanide, with a {sup 13}CH{sub 3}-reporter attached. This {sup 13}C-methyl isocyanide ligand binds to bacterial (P450cam) and membrane-bound mammalian (CYP2B4) CYPs. It can be used in a rapid 1D experiment to identify binders, and provides a qualitative measure of structural changes in the active site.

  3. Generation of a novel regulatory NK cell subset from peripheral blood CD34+ progenitors promoted by membrane-bound IL-15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giuliani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NK cells have been long time considered as cytotoxic lymphocytes competent in killing virus-infected cells and tumors. However, NK cells may also play essential immuno-regulatory functions. In this context, the real existence of a defined NK subset with negative regulatory properties has been hypothesized but never clearly demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we show the in vitro generation from human peripheral blood haematopoietic progenitors (PB-HP, of a novel subset of non-cytolytic NK cells displaying a mature phenotype and remarkable immuno-regulatory functions (NK-ireg. The main functional hallmark of these NK-ireg cells is represented by the surface expression/release of HLA-G, a major immunosuppressive molecule. In addition, NK-ireg cells secrete two powerful immuno-regulatory factors: IL-10 and IL-21. Through these factors, NK-ireg cells act as effectors of the down-regulation of the immune response: reconverting mature myeloid DC (mDC into immature/tolerogenic DC, blocking cytolytic functions on conventional NK cells and inducing HLA-G membrane expression on PB-derived monocytes. The generation of "NK-ireg" cells is obtained, by default, in culture conditions favouring cell-to-cell contacts, and it is strictly dependent on reciprocal trans-presentation of membrane-bound IL-15 forms constitutively and selectively expressed by human CD34(+ PB-HP. Finally, a small subset of NKp46(+ HLA-G(+ IL-10(+ is detected within freshly isolated decidual NK cells, suggesting that these cells could represent an in vivo counterpart of the NK-ireg cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, NK-ireg cells represent a novel truly differentiated non-cytolytic NK subset with a self-sustainable phenotype (CD56(+ CD16(+ NKp30(+ NKp44(+ NKp46(+ CD94(+ CD69(+ CCR7(+ generated from specific pSTAT6(+ GATA3(+ precursors. NK-ireg cells could be employed to develop new immuno-suppressive strategies in autoimmune diseases, transplant

  4. BC hydro: Annual report, 1991-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The third largest electric utility in Canada, B.C. Hydro services almost 1.3 million customers in an area containing over 92 per cent of British Columbia's population. B.C. Hydro's mission is to generate, transmit and distribute electricity. This annual report covers the business and financial performance of B.C. Hydro, and financial statistics.

  5. A complex of cardiac cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y L; Kaminsky, L S; King, T E

    1976-01-10

    The interactions of cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c from bovine cardiac mitochondria were investigated. Cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c formed a 1:1 molecular complex in aqueous solutions of low ionic strength. The complex was stable to Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The formation and stability of the complex were independent of the oxidation state of the cytochrome components as far as those reactions studied were concerned. The complex was dissociated in solutions of ionic strength higher than 0.07 or pH exceeding 10 and only partially dissociated in 8 M urea. No complexation occurred when cytochrome c was acetylated on 64% of its lysine residues or photooxidized on its 2 methionine residues. Complexes with molecular ratios of less than 1:1 (i.e. more cytochrome c) were obtained when polymerized cytochrome c, or cytochrome c with all lysine residues guanidinated, or a "1-65 heme peptide" from cyanogen bromide cleavage of cytochrome c was used. These results were interpreted to imply that the complex was predominantly maintained by ionic interactions probably involving some of the lysine residues of cytochrome c but with major stabilization dependent on the native conformations of both cytochromes. The reduced complex was autooxidizable with biphasic kinetics with first order rate constants of 6 X 10(-5) and 5 X U0(-5) s-1 but did not react with carbon monoxide. The complex reacted with cyanide and was reduced by ascorbate at about 32% and 40% respectively, of the rates of reaction with cytochrome c alone. The complex was less photoreducible than cytochrome c1 alone. The complex exhibited remarkably different circular dichroic behavior from that of the summation of cytochrome c1 plus cytochrome c. We concluded that when cytochromes c1 and c interacted they underwent dramatic conformational changes resulting in weakening of their heme crevices. All results available would indicate that in the complex cytochrome c1 was bound at the entrance to the heme crevice of

  6. Site-specific incorporation of 5-fluorotryptophan as a probe of the structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli: A 19F nuclear magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peersen, O.B.; Pratt, E.A.; Truong, H.T. N.; Ho, C.; Rule, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    The structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli have been investigated by fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 5-fluorotryptophan-labeled enzyme in conjunction with oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific mutagenesis. 5-Fluorotryptophan has been substituted for nine phenylalanine, tyrosine, and leucine residues in the enzyme molecule without loss of activity. The 19 F signals from these additional tryptophan residues have been used as markers for sensitivity to substrate, exposure to aqueous solvent, and proximity to a lipid-bound spin-label. The nuclear magnetic resonance data show that two mutational sites, at amino acid residues 340 and 361, are near the lipid environment used to stabilize the enzyme. There are a number of amino acid residues on the carboxyl side of this region that are strongly sensitive to the aqueous solvent. The environment of the wide-type tryptophan residue at position 469 changes as a result of two of the substitution mutations, suggesting some amino acid residue-residue interactions. Secondary structure prediction methods indicate a possible binding site for the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor in the carboxyl end of the enzyme molecule. These results suggest that the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase may have the two-domain structure of many cytoplasmic dehydrogenases but with the addition of a membrane-binding domain between the catalytic and cofactor-binding domains. This type of three-domain structure may be of general significance for understanding the structure of membrane-bound proteins which do not traverse the lipid bilayer of membranes

  7. [The Role of Membrane-Bound Heat Shock Proteins Hsp90 in Migration of Tumor Cells in vitro and Involvement of Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Protein Binding to Plasma Membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigireva, A V; Vrublevskaya, V V; Skarga, Y Y; Morenkov, O S

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein Hsp90, detected in the extracellular space and on the membrane of cells, plays an important role in cell motility, migration, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. At present, the functional role and molecular mechanisms of Hsp90 binding to plasma membrane are not elucidated. Using isoform-specific antibodies against Hsp90, Hsp9α and Hsp90β, we showed that membrane-bound Hsp90α and Hsp90β play a significant role in migration of human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) and glioblastoma (A-172) cells in vitro. Disorders of sulfonation of cell heparan sulfates, cleavage of cell heparan. sulfates by heparinase I/III as well as treatment of cells with heparin lead to an abrupt reduction in the expression level of Hsp90 isoforms. Furthermore, heparin significantly inhibits tumor cell migration. The results obtained demonstrate that two isoforms of membrane-bound Hsp90 are involved in migration of tumor cells in vitro and that cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans play a pivotal role in the "anchoring" of Hsp90α and Hsp90β to the plasma membrane.

  8. Cytochrome oxidase assembly does not require catalytically active cytochrome C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Antoni; Pierre, Danielle; Lee, Johnson; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2003-03-14

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the transfer of electrons from reduced cytochrome c to molecular oxygen. COX assembly requires the coming together of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded subunits and the assistance of a large number of nuclear gene products acting at different stages of maturation of the enzyme. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of cytochrome c, encoded by CYC1 and CYC7, is required not only for electron transfer but also for COX assembly through a still unknown mechanism. We have attempted to distinguish between a functional and structural requirement of cytochrome c in COX assembly. A cyc1/cyc7 double null mutant strain was transformed with the cyc1-166 mutant gene (Schweingruber, M. E., Stewart, J. W., and Sherman, F. (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4132-4143) that expresses stable but catalytically inactive iso-1-cytochrome c. The COX content of the cyc1/cyc7 double mutant strain harboring non-functional iso-1-cytochrome c has been characterized spectrally, functionally, and immunochemically. The results of these studies demonstrate that cytochrome c plays a structural rather than functional role in assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. In addition to its requirement for COX assembly, cytochrome c also affects turnover of the enzyme. Mutants containing wild type apocytochrome c in mitochondria lack COX, suggesting that only the folded and mature protein is able to promote COX assembly.

  9. AP calculus AB & BC crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Rosebush, J

    2012-01-01

    AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Calculus AB & BC course description outline and actual AP test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exams, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Written by experienced math teachers, our

  10. 75 FR 16513 - B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From B&C Services... occurred during the relevant time period at the B&C Distribution Center, Inc. of the B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Barberton, Ohio. The B&C Distribution Center provides distribution and logistical...

  11. The mechanism by which oxygen and cytochrome c increase the rate of electron transfer from cytochrome a to cytochrome a3 of cytochrome c oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickar, D; Turrens, J F; Lehninger, A L

    1986-11-05

    When cytochrome c oxidase is isolated from mitochondria, the purified enzyme requires both cytochrome c and O2 to achieve its maximum rate of internal electron transfer from cytochrome a to cytochrome a3. When reductants other than cytochrome c are used, the rate of internal electron transfer is very slow. In this paper we offer an explanation for the slow reduction of cytochrome a3 when reductants other than cytochrome c are used and for the apparent allosteric effects of cytochrome c and O2. Our model is based on the conventional understanding of cytochrome oxidase mechanism (i.e. electron transfer from cytochrome a/CuA to cytochrome a3/CuB), but assumes a relatively rapid two-electron transfer between cytochrome a/CuA and cytochrome a3/CuB and a thermodynamic equilibrium in the "resting" enzyme (the enzyme as isolated) which favors reduced cytochrome a and oxidized cytochrome a3. Using the kinetic constants that are known for this reaction, we find that the activating effects of O2 and cytochrome c on the rate of electron transfer from cytochrome a to cytochrome a3 conform to the predictions of the model and so provide no evidence of any allosteric effects or control of cytochrome c oxidase by O2 or cytochrome c.

  12. Protein and DNA technologies for functional expression of membrane-associated cytochromes P450 in bacterial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Albacete, Dario

    450 engineering guidelines and serves as platform to improve performance of microbial cells, thereby boosting recombinant production of complex plant P450-derived biochemicals. The knowledge generated, could guide future reconstruction of functional plant metabolic pathways leading to high valuable...... potential as medicines, fuels or food for humans. Plants conquered different environments thereby developing adaptation strategies based on the biosynthesis of a myriad of compounds. Unfortunately they are present in small amounts in plants and are too complex and to produce by organic chemical synthesis....... In most of biosynthetic pathways leading to these chemicals the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (P450s) is responsible for their final functionalization. However, the membrane-bound nature of P450s, makes their expression in microbial hosts a challenge. In order to meet the global demand for these natural...

  13. Observation of the decay Bc+/--->J/psipi+/- and measurement of the Bc+/- mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopolou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyria, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2008-05-09

    The Bc+/- meson is observed through the decay Bc+/--->J/psipi+/-, in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.4 fb(-1) recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A signal of 108+/-15 candidates is observed, with a significance that exceeds 8sigma. The mass of the Bc+/- meson is measured to be 6275.6+/-2.9(stat)+/-2.5(syst) MeV/c2.

  14. Mechanism of the Primary Charge Transfer Reaction in the Cytochrome bc1 Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barragan, Angela M; Schulten, Klaus; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2016-01-01

    , the quinol-protein interaction, which initiates the Q-cycle, has not yet been completely described. Furthermore, the initial charge transfer reactions of the Q-cycle lack a physical description. The present investigation utilizes classical molecular dynamics simulations in tandem with quantum density...

  15. First observation of a baryonic Bc+ decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, Rf; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Geraci, A; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani', S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-10-10

    A baryonic decay of the B(c)(+) meson, B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+), is observed for the first time, with a significance of 7.3 standard deviations, in pp collision data collected with the LHCb detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) taken at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. With the B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+) decay as the normalization channel, the ratio of branching fractions is measured to be B(B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+))/B(B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+)) = 0.143(-0.034)(+0.039)(stat) ± 0.013(syst). The mass of the B(c)(+) meson is determined as M(B(c)(+) = 6274.0 ± 1.8(stat) ± 0.4(syst) MeV/c(2), using the B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+) channel.

  16. Economic impacts of the BC recycling regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-31

    Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is an environmental approach used in British Columbia (BC) to consider the entire life cycle of a product from the selection and materials and design to the post-consumer stage. This paper discussed EPR strategies that are currently being used to help the BC government remove toxins from its waste stream and develop recycling programs that contribute to the sustainable use of BC's resources. BC's recycling regulation was designed to ensure that producers of designated materials take responsibility for managing products at end-of-life under approved product stewardship plans. The stewardship management recycling program has provided an estimated 1600 full-time equivalent jobs in the province. Overall employment rates are expected to reach over 2100. A waste reduction model (WARM) analysis showed that BC stewardships provide an estimated reduction of 73,000 metric tonnes of carbon equivalent (MTCE). Aluminum can and tire recycling programs account for 82 per cent of the reductions. Diverting the wastes from landfill has helped to avoid the costs of remedial clean-ups as well as avoid the costs of handling hazardous materials. It was concluded that total revenues of $109 million were earned in 2007 from fees, deposits, and the sale of recovered materials. Separate data were provided for stewardship programs for beverage containers; beer containers; tires; used oil; electronics; paint, flammables, and pesticides; tree paint; and pharmaceuticals. 28 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. BC Hydro shops for GHG offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    BC Hydro is reported to have offered to purchase one million tonnes of carbon dioxide reductions in Canada's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Trading program (GERT). The program uses a baseline and credit system, where emitters purchase measurable quantities of site-specific GHG reductions. Since mid-1998, the program registered five bilateral trades and seven offers to sell. BC Hydro's recent offer is the first offer to buy. BC Hydro has made the offer to buy in expectation of the introduction of the start of the Kyoto Protocol reductions, and expects to be in the game for some time to come if it is to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol. Preference will be given to projects located in Canada, but BC Hydro will consider reductions created anywhere in the world. The financial range of a single trade is between $50,000 and $1 million. (GHG offsets are currently trading in North America for between $.50 and $3.00 Cdn per metric tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent.) At present, offsets are selling at a heavily discounted price because of the uncertainty that investments made now will be credited against future regulations curbing emitters. Consequently, buying now while prices are low, may lead to sizable benefits later, depending on the actual regulations when they are promulgated. Trading now will also give BC Hydro greater credibility and assurance to have its voice heard when discussions about emissions trading and the implementation of emission trading rules reaches the serious stage

  18. B.C. Hydro : 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Operating and financial information from B.C. Hydro for 1997 is presented. B.C. Hydro is the third largest electric utility in Canada. The utility generates between 43,000 and 54,000 gigawatt-hours of electricity annually. More than 80 per cent of the electricity is produced by major hydroelectric generating stations on the Columbia and Peace rivers. This report presents a picture of improved financial performance, details of all revenues and expenditures and capsule summaries of the Utility's operations. The report also addresses issues regarding strategic direction, local and international competition, and consultation and regulatory activities. tabs. and figs

  19. Climate impact on BC Hydro's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Rodenhuis, D.

    2008-01-01

    BC Hydro like many other hydro utilities has used the historical record of weather and runoff as the standard description the variability and uncertainty of the key weather drivers for its operation and planning studies. It has been conveniently assumed that this historical record is or has been statistically stationary and therefore is assumed to represent the future characteristics of climatic drivers on our system. This assumption is obviously no longer justifiable. To address the characterisation of future weather, BC Hydro has a multi-year a directed research program with the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the water resources that BC Hydro manages for hydropower generation and other uses. The objective of this program is to derive climate change adjusted meteorologic and hydrologic sequences suitable for use in system operations and planning studies. These climate-adjusted sequences then can be used to test system sensitivity to climate change scenarios relative to the baseline of the historical record. This paper describes BC Hydro's research program and the results achieved so far. (author)

  20. B&C +Emerging Music+ Management+

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Velásquez, Leonardo Alfredo; Hernández Capdevilla, María Cristina; Torres Jiménez, Natalia Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    B&C tiene como idea de negocio representar a músicos emergentes ofreciendo un servicio de asesoría y acompañamiento integral para la construcción de un producto musical altamente competitivo en el mercado global.

  1. B.C. Hydro drops Duke Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The abandonment of the proposed natural gas-fired Duke Point Power Project on Vancouver Island was discussed. It was suggested that the continuing appeal process increases the risk that the plant will not be built in time. The news followed a decision by the British Columbia (BC) Court of Appeal to hear an appeal of the project by a number of intervenors. Over $170 million has been spent on the project to date. The decision will impact the BC treasury, as the amount is being deducted from the dividends that BC Hydro would have paid to the government. A coalition of individuals and environmental groups, as well as local industry, are opposed to the plant on the basis of increased greenhouse (GHG) emissions and higher natural gas prices. The project would have required a natural gas pipeline to be built under Georgia Strait. The project was thought necessary due to the deteriorating condition of high voltage direct current cables running under the strait. BC Hydro's fallback plan for the island is load reduction. A new transmission line is also planned

  2. The cytochrome p450 homepage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David R

    2009-10-01

    The Cytochrome P450 Homepage is a universal resource for nomenclature and sequence information on cytochrome P450 ( CYP ) genes. The site has been in continuous operation since February 1995. Currently, naming information for 11,512 CYPs are available on the web pages. The P450 sequences are manually curated by David Nelson, and the nomenclature system conforms to an evolutionary scheme such that members of CYP families and subfamilies share common ancestors. The organisation and content of the Homepage are described.

  3. Measurement of the Bc+ meson lifetime using the decay mode Bc+ --> J/Psie+nue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cresciolo, F; Cruz, A; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Naganoma, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-07-07

    We present a measurement of the Bc+ meson lifetime in the decay mode Bc+ --> J/Psie+nue using the Collider Detector at Fermilab II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. From a sample of about of 360 pb(-1) of pp collisions at square root of s = 1.96 TeV, we reconstruct J/Psie+ pairs with invariant mass in the kinematically allowed range 4< M(J/Psie) < 6 GeV/c2. A fit to the decay-length distribution of 238 signal events yields a measured Bc+ meson lifetime of 0.463(-0.065)(+0.073)(stat) +/- 0.036(syst) ps.

  4. BC Hydro triple bottom line report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-08-01

    British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro) published this document which measures the environmental, social and economic performance of the company. It is a complement to BC Hydro's 2002 Annual Report. The report was prepared to better understand the company's business in terms of its commitment to being an environmentally, socially, and economically responsible company (the three bottom lines). BC Hydro proved its ability to integrate the three bottom lines in decision making processes by carefully examining the environmental, social and economical impacts of programs such as Power Smart, Green and Alternative Energy, and Water Use Planning. All indicators point to BC Hydro achieving its commitment of providing a minimum of 10 per cent of new demand through 2010 with new green energy sources. Water Use Plans were developed for hydroelectric generating stations, and they should all be in place by 2003. Efficiencies realised through the Power Smart program offset the increases in greenhouse gas associated with increased energy demand. Juvenile sturgeon raised in a hatchery were released into the Columbia River in May 2002. The completion of a 40-kilometre trail on the Sunshine Coast was helped by a financial contribution from BC Hydro in the amount of 23,000 dollars. Safety improvements were implemented at eight facilities, such as dam remediation, dam surveillance and instrumentation updates. Scholarships were awarded across the province, along with additional donations to non-profit organizations. Co-op positions were provided for 150 students. Internal energy efficiency programs were successful. Planning is under way for significant maintenance work and equipment replacement projects as the transmission and distribution infrastructure ages. The number of reported indicators was expanded this year. In turn, they were aligned with the revised Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. tabs

  5. Identification and quantification of the halogenated natural product BC-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, J.; Olbrich, D.; Vetter, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelchemie; Marsh, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Gaus, C.; Mueller, J.F. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Halogenated natural products (HNPs) of marine origin are increasingly recognized as critical residues in foodstuff (e. g. fish) and environmental samples (e. g. marine mammals and birds). Some of these HNPs (Q1, MHC-1, BC-2, and HDBPs including BC-10) were detected in diverse fish and marine mammal samples at concentrations sometimes exceeding those of PCBs, DDT, and other anthropogenic pollutants. Recent studies with marine mammal samples from Australia led to the detection of six abundant HNPs (Q1, BC-1, BC-2, BC-3, BC-10, and BC-11). In the meantime, Q1 was identified as heptachloro-1{sup '}-methyl-1,2{sup '}-bipyrrole, BC-2 as 4,6-dibromo-2-(2{sup '},4{sup '}-dibromo)phenoxyanisole, BC- 10 as 1,1{sup '}-dimethyl-3,3{sup '},4,4{sup '}-tetrabromo-5,5{sup '}-dichloro-2,2{sup '}-bipyrrole, and BC-11 as 3,5-dibromo- 2-(3{sup '},5{sup '}-dibromo,2{sup '}-methoxy)phenoxyanisole. However the identity of BC-1 and BC-3 remained unclear. The goal of the present study was the identification of BC-3. The tetrabromo compound BC-3 has previously been detected in marine mammals from four continents. Furthermore, we attempted establishing quantitative concentrations in diverse marine biota samples.

  6. Utilizing Chemical Genomics to Identify Cytochrome b as a Novel Drug Target for Chagas Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Khare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unbiased phenotypic screens enable identification of small molecules that inhibit pathogen growth by unanticipated mechanisms. These small molecules can be used as starting points for drug discovery programs that target such mechanisms. A major challenge of the approach is the identification of the cellular targets. Here we report GNF7686, a small molecule inhibitor of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, and identification of cytochrome b as its target. Following discovery of GNF7686 in a parasite growth inhibition high throughput screen, we were able to evolve a GNF7686-resistant culture of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Clones from this culture bore a mutation coding for a substitution of leucine by phenylalanine at amino acid position 197 in cytochrome b. Cytochrome b is a component of complex III (cytochrome bc1 in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c by a mechanism that utilizes two distinct catalytic sites, QN and QP. The L197F mutation is located in the QN site and confers resistance to GNF7686 in both parasite cell growth and biochemical cytochrome b assays. Additionally, the mutant cytochrome b confers resistance to antimycin A, another QN site inhibitor, but not to strobilurin or myxothiazol, which target the QP site. GNF7686 represents a promising starting point for Chagas disease drug discovery as it potently inhibits growth of intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50 of 0.15 µM, and is highly specific for T. cruzi cytochrome b. No effect on the mammalian respiratory chain or mammalian cell proliferation was observed with up to 25 µM of GNF7686. Our approach, which combines T. cruzi chemical genetics with biochemical target validation, can be broadly applied to the discovery of additional novel drug targets and drug leads for Chagas disease.

  7. Isolation and expression of the genes coding for the membrane bound transglycosylase B (MltB and the transferrin binding protein B (TbpB of the salmon pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVIAN WILHELM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated and sequenced the genes encoding the membrane bound transglycosylase B (MltB and the transferring binding protein B (TbpB of the salmon pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. The results of the sequence revealed two open reading frames that encode proteins with calculated molecular weights of 38,830 and 85,140. The deduced aminoacid sequences of both proteins show a significant homology to the respective protein from phylogenetically related microorganisms. Partial sequences coding the amino and carboxyl regions of MltB and a sequence of 761 base pairs encoding the amino region of TbpB have been expressed in E. coli. The strong humoral response elicited by these proteins in mouse confirmed the immunogenic properties of the recombinant proteins. A similar response was elicited by both proteins when injected intraperitoneally in Atlantic salmon. The present data indicates that these proteins are good candidates to be used in formulations to study the protective immunity of salmon to infection by P. salmonis.

  8. Comparison of the oxime-induced reactivation of rhesus monkey, swine and guinea pig erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase following inhibition by sarin or paraoxon, using a perfusion model for the real-time determination of membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkert, Nadja M; Lallement, Guy; Clarençon, Didier; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2009-04-28

    Recently, a dynamically working in vitro model with real-time determination of membrane-bound human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was shown to be a versatile model to investigate oxime-induced reactivation kinetics of organophosphate- (OP) inhibited enzyme. In this assay, AChE was immobilized on particle filters which were perfused with acetylthiocholine, Ellman's reagent and phosphate buffer. Subsequently, AChE activity was continuously analyzed in a flow-through detector. Now, it was an intriguing question whether this model could be used with erythrocyte AChE from other species in order to investigate kinetic interactions in the absence of annoying side reactions. Rhesus monkey, swine and guinea pig erythrocytes were a stable and highly reproducible enzyme source. Then, the model was applied to the reactivation of sarin- and paraoxon-inhibited AChE by obidoxime or HI 6 and it could be shown that the derived reactivation rate constants were in good agreement to previous results obtained from experiments with a static model. Hence, this dynamic model offers the possibility to investigate highly reproducible interactions between AChE, OP and oximes with human and animal AChE.

  9. Submitochondrial distributions and stabilities of subunits 4, 5, and 6 of yeast cytochrome oxidase in assembly defective mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerum, D M; Tzagoloff, A

    1997-08-04

    The concentration and submitochondrial distribution of the subunit polypeptides of cytochrome oxidase have been studied in wild type yeast and in different mutants impaired in assembly of this respiratory complex. All the subunit polypeptides of the enzyme are associated with mitochondrial membranes of wild type cells, except for a small fraction of subunits 4 and 6 that is recovered in the soluble protein fraction of mitochondria. Cytochrome oxidase mutants consistently display a severe reduction in the steady-state concentration of subunit 1 due to its increased turnover. As a consequence, most of subunit 4, which normally is associated with subunit 1, is found in the soluble fraction. A similar shift from membrane-bound to soluble subunit 6 is seen in mutants blocked in expression of subunit 5a. In contrast, null mutations in COX6 coding for subunit 6 promote loss of subunit 5a. The absence of subunit 5a in the cox6 mutant is the result of proteolytic degradation rather than regulation of its expression by subunit 6. The possible role of the ATP-dependent proteases Rca1p and Afg3p in proteolysis of subunits 1 and 5a has been assessed in strains with combined mutations in COX6, RCA1, and/or AFG3. Immunochemical assays indicate that another protease(s) must be responsible for most of the proteolytic loss of these proteins.

  10. Elucidating cytochrome C release from mitochondria: insights from an in silico three-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Zhi Yang; Cai, Yi Hui; Gunawan, Rudiyanto

    2010-11-17

    Mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis depends on the programmed release of proapoptotic proteins such as cytochrome c (Cyt c) through the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Although a few key processes involved in this release have been identified, including the liberation of inner membrane-bound Cyt c and formation of diffusible pores on the OMM, other details like the transport of Cyt c within complex mitochondrial compartments, e.g., the cristae and crista junctions, are not yet fully understood (to our knowledge). In particular, a remodeling of the inner mitochondrial membrane accompanying apoptosis seen in a few studies, in which crista junctions widen, has been hypothesized to be a necessary step in the Cyt c release. Using a three-dimensional spatial modeling of mitochondrial crista and the crista junction, model simulations and analysis illustrated how the interplay among solubilization of Cyt c, fast diffusion of Cyt c, and OMM permeabilization gives rise to the observed experimental release profile. Importantly, the widening of the crista junction was found to have a negligible effect on the transport of free Cyt c from cristae. Finally, model simulations showed that increasing the fraction of free/loosely-bound Cyt c can sensitize the cell to apoptotic stimuli in a threshold manner, which may explain increased sensitivity to cell death associated with aging. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A membrane-bound vertebrate globin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Blank

    Full Text Available The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O(2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O(2 binding with a variable affinity (P(50∼1.3-12.5 torr, depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein.

  12. Characterization of plasma membrane bound inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... N-ethylmaliemide (NEM), phenylarsineoxide, ABC superfamily transport modulator verapamil and was also by F1Fo-ATPase inhibitor quercetin. Conclusion: We conclude that there are significant differences within promastigote, amastigote and mammalian host in cytosolic pH homeostasis to merit the inclusion of PPase ...

  13. BC-454 boron-loaded plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellian, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Prototype samples of plastic scintillators containing up to 10% by weight of natural boron have been produced. The maximum size scintillators made to date are 28 mm dia. x 100 mm long. Rods containing up to 2% boron are now made routinely and work is progressing on higher concentrations. The plastics are clear and emit the same blue fluorescence as other common plastic scintillators. It is expected that rods up to 3'' dia. containing 5% boron will be produced during the next few months. BC-454 is particularly useful in neutron research, materials studies, some types of neutron dosimetry, and monitoring of medium to high energy neutrons in the presence of other types radiation. It combines attractive features that enhance its usefulness to the physics community

  14. BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.C. [BC Sustainable Energy Association, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Although solar hot water heating is an environmentally responsible technology that reduces fossil fuel consumption and helps mitigate global climate change, there are many barriers to its widespread use. Each year, domestic water heating contributes nearly 6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide towards Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. The installation of solar water heaters can eliminate up to 2 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per household. The BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project was launched in an effort to demonstrate that the technology has the potential to be widely used in homes and businesses across British Columbia. One of the main barriers to the widespread use of solar hot water heating is the initial cost of the system. Lack of public awareness and understanding of the technology are other barriers. However, other jurisdictions around the world have demonstrated that the use of renewables are the product of conscious policy decisions, including low-cost financing and other subsidies that have created demand for these technologies. To this end, the BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project will test the potential for the rapid acceleration of solar water heating in pilot communities where barriers are removed. The objective of the project is to install 100 solar water systems in homes and 25 in businesses and institutions in communities in British Columbia by July 2007. The project will explore the financial barriers to the installation of solar hot water systems and produce an action plan to reduce these barriers. In addition to leading by example, the project will help the solar energy marketplace, mitigate climate change and improve energy efficiency.

  15. Search for Bc+ decays to two charm mesons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aaij

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A search for decays of Bc+ mesons to two charm mesons is performed for the first time using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0fb−1, collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The decays considered are Bc+→D(s(⁎+D‾(⁎0 and Bc+→D(s(⁎+D(⁎0, which are normalised to high-yield B+→D(s+D‾0 decays. No evidence for a signal is found and limits are set on twelve Bc+ decay modes.

  16. Symmetry Properties of Single-Walled BC2N Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jianyi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The symmetry properties of the single-walled BC2N nanotubes were investigated. All the BC2N nanotubes possess nonsymmorphic line groups. In contrast with the carbon and boron nitride nanotubes, armchair and zigzag BC2N nanotubes belong to different line groups, depending on the index n (even or odd and the vector chosen. The number of Raman- active phonon modes is almost twice that of the infrared-active phonon modes for all kinds of BC2N nanotubes.

  17. BC Hydro's business plan: a summary of BC Hydro's strategic business plan and performance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This document contains a summary of BC Hydro's Strategic Plan and performance measures. The plan has been prepared in response to the recommendations of the Budget Process Review Panel, convened by the BC Government, which recommended that each public body, crown corporation, and other agencies of government, prepare an annual three year business plan. The document reviews the utility's current situation, provides an outline of the company's vision of its role, its mission and values, its strategic objectives (effective governance, efficiency and productivity; service excellence and value-added solutions; market development ; strong and capable organization) and the tools to be utilized in measuring performance. Various strategic issues (financial resources, the need to protect and enhance the value of electricity trading; the impact of information technology; power technology development; environmental trends and 'green energy' initiatives; workforce training and development) are also highlighted

  18. Natively oxidized amino acid residues in the spinach cytochrome b 6 f complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan M; Sallans, Larry; Frankel, Laurie K; Bricker, Terry M

    2018-01-29

    The cytochrome b 6 f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis produces substantial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been observed that the ROS production rate by b 6 f is 10-20 fold higher than that observed for the analogous respiratory cytochrome bc 1 complex. The types of ROS produced (O 2 •-, 1 O 2 , and, possibly, H 2 O 2 ) and the site(s) of ROS production within the b 6 f complex have been the subject of some debate. Proposed sources of ROS have included the heme b p , PQ p •- (possible sources for O 2 •- ), the Rieske iron-sulfur cluster (possible source of O 2 •- and/or 1 O 2 ), Chl a (possible source of 1 O 2 ), and heme c n (possible source of O 2 •- and/or H 2 O 2 ). Our working hypothesis is that amino acid residues proximal to the ROS production sites will be more susceptible to oxidative modification than distant residues. In the current study, we have identified natively oxidized amino acid residues in the subunits of the spinach cytochrome b 6 f complex. The oxidized residues were identified by tandem mass spectrometry using the MassMatrix Program. Our results indicate that numerous residues, principally localized near p-side cofactors and Chl a, were oxidatively modified. We hypothesize that these sites are sources for ROS generation in the spinach cytochrome b 6 f complex.

  19. 100-B/C Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.W. Ovink

    2010-03-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-B/C remedial investigation/feasibility study addendum to DOE/RL-2008-46. This report also establishes the analyte exclusion criteria applicable for 100-B/C use and the analytical methods needed to analyze the target analytes.

  20. Electronic Connection Between the Quinone and Cytochrome c Redox Pools and Its Role in Regulation of Mitochondrial Electron Transport and Redox Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiration, an important bioenergetic process, relies on operation of four membranous enzymatic complexes linked functionally by mobile, freely diffusible elements: quinone molecules in the membrane and water-soluble cytochromes c in the intermembrane space. One of the mitochondrial complexes, complex III (cytochrome bc1 or ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase), provides an electronic connection between these two diffusible redox pools linking in a fully reversible manner two-electron quinone oxidation/reduction with one-electron cytochrome c reduction/oxidation. Several features of this homodimeric enzyme implicate that in addition to its well-defined function of contributing to generation of proton-motive force, cytochrome bc1 may be a physiologically important point of regulation of electron flow acting as a sensor of the redox state of mitochondria that actively responds to changes in bioenergetic conditions. These features include the following: the opposing redox reactions at quinone catalytic sites located on the opposite sides of the membrane, the inter-monomer electronic connection that functionally links four quinone binding sites of a dimer into an H-shaped electron transfer system, as well as the potential to generate superoxide and release it to the intermembrane space where it can be engaged in redox signaling pathways. Here we highlight recent advances in understanding how cytochrome bc1 may accomplish this regulatory physiological function, what is known and remains unknown about catalytic and side reactions within the quinone binding sites and electron transfers through the cofactor chains connecting those sites with the substrate redox pools. We also discuss the developed molecular mechanisms in the context of physiology of mitochondria. PMID:25540143

  1. Binding of the respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin to the mitochondrial bc1 complex: a new crystal structure reveals an altered intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y; Berry, Edward A

    2005-08-19

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Structure-activity relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28 A resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cytochrome b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density, the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alphaA helix.

  2. Dual Nature of Translational Control by Regulatory BC RNAs ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Taesun; Berardi, Valerio; Zhong, Jun; Risuleo, Gianfranco; Tiedge, Henri

    2011-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, increasing evidence suggests, gene expression is to a large degree controlled by RNA. Regulatory RNAs have been implicated in the management of neuronal function and plasticity in mammalian brains. However, much of the molecular-mechanistic framework that enables neuronal regulatory RNAs to control gene expression remains poorly understood. Here, we establish molecular mechanisms that underlie the regulatory capacity of neuronal BC RNAs in the translational control of gene expression. We report that regulatory BC RNAs employ a two-pronged approach in translational control. One of two distinct repression mechanisms is mediated by C-loop motifs in BC RNA 3′ stem-loop domains. These C-loops bind to eIF4B and prevent the factor's interaction with 18S rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit. In the second mechanism, the central A-rich domains of BC RNAs target eIF4A, specifically inhibiting its RNA helicase activity. Thus, BC RNAs repress translation initiation in a bimodal mechanistic approach. As BC RNA functionality has evolved independently in rodent and primate lineages, our data suggest that BC RNA translational control was necessitated and implemented during mammalian phylogenetic development of complex neural systems. PMID:21930783

  3. Global Significant Earthquake Database, 2150 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Earthquake Database is a global listing of over 5,700 earthquakes from 2150 BC to the present. A significant earthquake is classified as one that...

  4. Global Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database, 4360 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database is a global listing of over 600 eruptions from 4360 BC to the present. A significant eruption is classified as one that...

  5. Seismicity Catalog Collection, 2150 BC to 1996 AD

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Seismicity Catalog Collection is a compilation data on over four million earthquakes dating from 2150 BC to 1996 AD from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center...

  6. Atomic scale onset of Al adhesion on Mo2BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-01-01

    We have explored interfacial interactions between a Mo–C terminated Mo 2 BC(040) surface and an Al cluster using ab initio molecular dynamics. The Al cluster is disrupted and wets the Mo 2 BC(040) surface. This can be understood based on the electronic structure. Across the Al–MoC interface C s–Al s hybridized states are formed. These bonds are stronger than the Al–Al intra-cluster bonds. Hence, the onset of Al adhesion is caused by bond formation across the Al–MoC interface. - Highlights: • Interfacial interactions between Mo 2 BC and an Al cluster were explored. • Al forms bonds to C constituting the onset of Al adhesion on Mo 2 BC. • These data are relevant for other carbide coatings

  7. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  8. The BC-Alberta intertie : impact of regulatory change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.; Hughes, K.

    2004-01-01

    The interconnected electricity system between the provinces of British Columbia (BC) and Alberta was discussed with reference to the Cranbrook-Langdon 500 kV line and two 138 kV transmission lines. The lines in British Columbia are owned by BC Hydro and operated by the BC Transmission Corporation, while the lines in Alberta are owned by AltaLink and operated by the Alberta Electric Systems Operator (AESO). The operating terms and conditions are established by an Interconnection Agreement between all parties. The Alberta-BC Intertie was designed to operate at an operating transfer capacity of 1200 MW from BC to Alberta, and 1000 MW from Alberta to BC. The operational limits on Intertie capacity were imposed due to voltage constraints within Alberta during high load periods resulting from insufficient transmission support. It was noted that available capacity is often under-utilized because sometimes it is not economical to schedule into or out of Alberta due to better market conditions in the Pacific Northwest. Transmission users in BC have explicit transmission rights which must be purchased on an hourly basis. However, transmission rights in Alberta follow dispatch of generation through Power Pool bidding. The impact of an under-utilized transmission capacity is higher wholesale prices in both Alberta and in the Pacific Northwest because ratepayers end up paying for the under-used capacity. This presentation also outlined regulatory change in Alberta with reference to consolidation of Alberta's Transmission Administrator, Power Pool Administrator and system controller functions; Alberta's new transmission policy; and, the enhanced role of market surveillance administrator. It also outlined the regulatory change in British Columbia with reference to the creation of the BC Transmission Corporation; the Heritage Contract; and, stepped rates and retail access. The effect of changes on intertie usage in both Alberta and British Columbia were also outlined. 31 refs

  9. Inhibitors of the mitochondrial cytochrome b-c1 complex inhibit the cyanide-insensitive respiration of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrens, J F; Bickar, D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-01

    The cyanide-insensitive respiration of bloodstream trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma brucei (75 +/- 8 nmol O2 min-1(mg protein)-1) is completely inhibited by the mitochondrial ubiquinone-like inhibitors 2-hydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (UHNQ) and 5-n-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole (UHDBT). The Ki values for UHDBT (30 nM) and UHNQ (2 microM) are much lower than the reported Ki for salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) (5 microM), a widely used inhibitor of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase. UHNQ also stimulated the glycerol-3-phosphate-dependent reduction of phenazine methosulfate, demonstrating that the site of UHNQ inhibition is on the terminal oxidase of the cyanide-insensitive respiration of T. brucei. These results suggest that a ubiquinone-like compound may act as an electron carrier between the two enzymatic components of the cyanide-insensitive glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase.

  10. Architecture for the Secret-Key BC3 Cryptography Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sasongko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is a very important aspect in data security. The focus of research in this field is shifting from merely security aspect to consider as well the implementation aspect. This paper aims to introduce BC3 algorithm with focus on its hardware implementation. It proposes architecture for the hardware implementation for this algorithm. BC3 algorithm is a secret-key cryptography algorithm developed with two considerations: robustness and implementation efficiency. This algorithm has been implemented on software and has good performance compared to AES algorithm. BC3 is improvement of BC2 and AE cryptographic algorithm and it is expected to have the same level of robustness and to gain competitive advantages in the implementation aspect. The development of the architecture gives much attention on (1 resource sharing and (2 having single clock for each round. It exploits regularity of the algorithm. This architecture is then implemented on an FPGA. This implementation is three times smaller area than AES, but about five times faster. Furthermore, this BC3 hardware implementation has better performance compared to BC3 software both in key expansion stage and randomizing stage. For the future, the security of this implementation must be reviewed especially against side channel attack.

  11. Band gap engineering of BC2N for nanoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei Hong; Hamzah, Afiq; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Ismail, Razali

    2017-12-01

    The BC2N as an example of boron-carbon-nitride (BCN), has the analogous structure as the graphene and boron nitride. It is predicted to have controllable electronic properties. Therefore, the analytical study on the engineer-able band gap of the BC2N is carried out based on the schematic structure of BC2N. The Nearest Neighbour Tight Binding (NNTB) model is employed with the dispersion relation and the density of state (DOS) as the main band gap analysing parameter. The results show that the hopping integrals having the significant effect on the band gap, band structure and DOS of BC2N nanowire (BC2NNW) need to be taken into consideration. The presented model indicates consistent trends with the published computational results around the Dirac points with the extracted band gap of 0.12 eV. Also, it is distinguished that wide energy gap of boron nitride (BN) is successfully narrowed by this carbon doped material which assures the application of BC2N on the nanoelectronics and optoelectronics in the near future.

  12. Understanding the mechanism of atovaquone drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome b mutation Y268S using computational methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir A Akhoon

    Full Text Available The rapid appearance of resistant malarial parasites after introduction of atovaquone (ATQ drug has prompted the search for new drugs as even single point mutations in the active site of Cytochrome b protein can rapidly render ATQ ineffective. The presence of Y268 mutations in the Cytochrome b (Cyt b protein is previously suggested to be responsible for the ATQ resistance in Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum. In this study, we examined the resistance mechanism against ATQ in P. falciparum through computational methods. Here, we reported a reliable protein model of Cyt bc1 complex containing Cyt b and the Iron-Sulphur Protein (ISP of P. falciparum using composite modeling method by combining threading, ab initio modeling and atomic-level structure refinement approaches. The molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Y268S mutation causes ATQ resistance by reducing hydrophobic interactions between Cyt bc1 protein complex and ATQ. Moreover, the important histidine contact of ATQ with the ISP chain is also lost due to Y268S mutation. We noticed the induced mutation alters the arrangement of active site residues in a fashion that enforces ATQ to find its new stable binding site far away from the wild-type binding pocket. The MM-PBSA calculations also shows that the binding affinity of ATQ with Cyt bc1 complex is enough to hold it at this new site that ultimately leads to the ATQ resistance.

  13. BINDING OF THE RESPIRATORY CHAIN INHIBITOR ANTIMYCIN TO THE MITOCHONDRIAL bc1 COMPLEX: A NEW CRYSTAL STRUCTURE REVEALS AN ALTERED INTRAMOLECULAR HYDROGEN-BONDING PATTERN.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Tw...

  14. Structure and function of the tetraheme cytochrome associated to the reaction center of Roseobacter denitrificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, D; Richaud, P; Breton, J; Verméglio, A

    1994-01-01

    We have characterized the tetrahemic RC bound cytochrome isolated from the quasi-photosynthetic bacterium Roseobacter denitrificans in terms of absorption spectrum, redox property and orientation with respect to the membrane plane. The heme, designated H1, which possesses the highest redox midpoint potential (+290 mV), absorbs at 555 nm. Its plane makes an angle of 40 degrees with the membrane plane. The second high potential heme, H2 (+240 mV), peaks at 554 nm and makes a tilt of 55 degrees with the membrane. The two low potential hemes, L1 and L2, present a similar and rather high redox midpoint potential (+90 mV). They absorb at 553 nm and 550 nm. One of these hemes is oriented at 40 degrees while the other makes an angle of 90 degrees with the membrane plane. The soluble cytochrome c551 completes the cyclic electron transfer between the RC and the bc1 complex. Both the oxidation and the re-reduction of cytochrome c551 are diffusible processes. Under semi-aerobic conditions, one of the low potential hemes is photo-oxidized under illumination but only extremely slowly re-reduced. This explains the requirement of high aerobic conditions for growth of Roseobacter denitrificans cells in the light.

  15. Cytochrome P450 humanised mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Frank J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Humans are exposed to countless foreign compounds, typically referred to as xenobiotics. These can include clinically used drugs, environmental pollutants, food additives, pesticides, herbicides and even natural plant compounds. Xenobiotics are metabolised primarily in the liver, but also in the gut and other organs, to derivatives that are more easily eliminated from the body. In some cases, however, a compound is converted to an electrophile that can cause cell toxicity and transformation leading to cancer. Among the most important xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes are the cytochromes P450 (P450s. These enzymes represent a superfamily of multiple forms that exhibit marked species differences in their expression and catalytic activities. To predict how humans will metabolise xenobiotics, including drugs, human liver extracts and recombinant P450s have been used. New humanised mouse models are being developed which will be of great value in the study of drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in vivo, and in carrying out human risk assessment of xenobiotics. Humanised mice expressing CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, two major drug-metabolising P450s, have revealed the feasibility of this approach.

  16. Cytochrome P450 humanised mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Humans are exposed to countless foreign compounds, typically referred to as xenobiotics. These can include clinically used drugs, environmental pollutants, food additives, pesticides, herbicides and even natural plant compounds. Xenobiotics are metabolised primarily in the liver, but also in the gut and other organs, to derivatives that are more easily eliminated from the body. In some cases, however, a compound is converted to an electrophile that can cause cell toxicity and transformation leading to cancer. Among the most important xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes are the cytochromes P450 (P450s). These enzymes represent a superfamily of multiple forms that exhibit marked species differences in their expression and catalytic activities. To predict how humans will metabolise xenobiotics, including drugs, human liver extracts and recombinant P450s have been used. New humanised mouse models are being developed which will be of great value in the study of drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in vivo, and in carrying out human risk assessment of xenobiotics. Humanised mice expressing CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, two major drug-metabolising P450s, have revealed the feasibility of this approach. PMID:15588489

  17. Genome-wide identification of 31 cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and analysis of their benzo[α]pyrene-induced expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Su; Kim, Hee-Jin; Declerck, Steven A J; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2018-03-01

    While marine invertebrate cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and their roles in detoxification mechanisms have been studied, little information is available regarding freshwater rotifer CYPs and their functions. Here, we used genomic sequences and RNA-seq databases to identify 31 CYP genes in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. The 31 Bc-CYP genes with a few tandem duplications were clustered into CYP 2, 3, 4, mitochondrial, and 46 clans with two marine rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Brachionus koreanus. To understand the molecular responses of these 31 Bc-CYP genes, we also examined their expression patterns in response to benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P). Three Bc-CYP genes (Bc-CYP3044B3, Bc-CYP3049B4, Bc-CYP3049B6) were significantly upregulated (P<0.05) in response to B[α]P, suggesting that these CYP genes can be involved in detoxification in response to B[α]P exposure. These genes might be useful as biomarkers of B[α]P exposure in B. calyciflorus. Overall, our findings expand the repertoire of known CYPs and shed light on their potential roles in xenobiotic detoxification in rotifers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. BC's oil and gas industry : opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P.

    2003-01-01

    An update of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry was presented with reference to activity trends and major issues. The presentation also described opportunities and challenges facing the industry in British Columbia and reviewed the impact of federal policies on BC. In recent years the industry has moved to oil sands and unconventional gas, offshore sites, and coalbed methane development. Other changes are a result of technology which makes it possible to drill deeper and faster while having less environmental impact. Government issues have become increasingly complex, however. Industry capital spending from 2000 to 2003 was presented for Northern Canada, the east coast offshore, Alberta, the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, oil sand deposits, and international activities. The presentation included several graphs depicting: the changing natural gas production mix; North American natural gas demand; wells drilled by province; natural gas resources in BC; upstream capital spending in BC; wells drilled by type and depth in BC; top natural gas wells in 2000 and 2002; natural gas production in BC; finding and development costs for Canadian natural gas; and, the widening gap of the federal income tax rate between oil and natural gas and other industries. British Columbia is in the strategic position of having significant untapped gas potential in the northeastern part of the province. For now, there is sufficient pipeline capacity to bring the gas to markets in the United States where there is a strong demand for electric power generation. 16 figs

  19. Cytochrome c1 exhibits two binding sites for cytochrome c in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; González-Arzola, Katiuska; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2014-10-01

    In plants, channeling of cytochrome c molecules between complexes III and IV has been purported to shuttle electrons within the supercomplexes instead of carrying electrons by random diffusion across the intermembrane bulk phase. However, the mode plant cytochrome c behaves inside a supercomplex such as the respirasome, formed by complexes I, III and IV, remains obscure from a structural point of view. Here, we report ab-initio Brownian dynamics calculations and nuclear magnetic resonance-driven docking computations showing two binding sites for plant cytochrome c at the head soluble domain of plant cytochrome c1, namely a non-productive (or distal) site with a long heme-to-heme distance and a functional (or proximal) site with the two heme groups close enough as to allow electron transfer. As inferred from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments, the two binding sites exhibit different equilibrium dissociation constants, for both reduced and oxidized species, that are all within the micromolar range, thus revealing the transient nature of such a respiratory complex. Although the docking of cytochrome c at the distal site occurs at the interface between cytochrome c1 and the Rieske subunit, it is fully compatible with the complex III structure. In our model, the extra distal site in complex III could indeed facilitate the functional cytochrome c channeling towards complex IV by building a "floating boat bridge" of cytochrome c molecules (between complexes III and IV) in plant respirasome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytochrome cbb3 of Thioalkalivibrio is a Na+-pumping cytochrome oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntyan, M.S.; Cherepanov, D.A.; Malinen, A.M.; Bloch, D.A.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Severina, I.I.; Ivashina, T.V.; Lahti, R.; Muyzer, G.; Skulachev, V.P.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidases (Coxs) are the basic energy transducers in the respiratory chain of the majority of aerobic organisms. Coxs studied to date are redox-driven proton-pumping enzymes belonging to one of three subfamilies: A-, B-, and C-type oxidases. The C-type oxidases (cbb3 cytochromes), which

  1. Measurements of $B_c^+$ production and mass with the $B_c^+ \\to J/\\psi \\pi^+$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Voß, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of $B_c^+$ production and mass are performed with the decay mode $B_c^+ \\to J/\\psi \\pi^+$ using 0.37 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV by the LHCb experiment. The ratio of the production cross-section times branching fraction between the $B_c^+ \\to J/\\psi \\pi^+$ and the $B^+ \\to J/\\psi K^+$ decays is measured to be $(0.68 \\pm 0.10\\,({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.03\\,({\\rm syst.}) \\pm 0.05\\,({\\rm lifetime}) )\\%$ for $B_c^+$ and $B^+$ mesons with transverse momenta $p_{\\rm T}>4~$GeV/$c$ and pseudorapidities $2.5<\\eta<4.5$. The $B_c^+$ mass is directly measured to be $6273.7 \\pm 1.3\\,({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 1.6 \\,({\\rm syst.})$~MeV/$c^2$, and the measured mass difference with respect to the $B^+$ meson is $M(B_c^+)-M(B^+) = 994.6 \\pm 1.3\\,({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.6\\,({\\rm syst.})$~MeV/$c^2$.

  2. Deconstructing hydro: the BC electricity sector in this decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccard, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provided speculation regarding the world-wide trend to deregulate electric utilities with particular focus on power deregulation in British Columbia. The four main issues facing electricity reform in British Columbia are to determine if publicly-owned assets should be privatised, how to achieve competitive electricity commodity prices in a de-regulated generation market, to determine the extent to which customers will be allowed direct access to sellers of electricity, and to determine which changes in industry structure are needed to ensure that control over the common carrier does not hinder fair competition. BC Hydro recently issued a plan for the next decade entitled the Integrated Electricity Plan which suggests that almost all growth in supply on the Hydro system will be limited to a few large projects totalling 900 megawatts, to be owned and operated by either BC Hydro or by the Columbia Power Corporation, another Crown entity. This plan is in complete contrast to the evolution of the electricity industry nearly everywhere else in the world where demand growth is being met almost entirely by small- and medium-scale non-utility resources issuing from competitive markets with minimal public funding. This article looks at why BC Hydro will probably be transformed significantly, even dismantled, in the coming decade. The article begins with a section explaining the cause and effects of major changes in the world-wide electricity industry. This is followed by a section reviewing what BC Hydro did in the 1990s while reform was taking place. The article also describes what BC Hydro intends to do in the next decade and explores reasons why this outcome is unlikely. The final section of the article provides an alternative vision of BC Hydro's future over the next decade. 1 tab., 3 figs

  3. Architecture for the Secret-Key BC3 Cryptography Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sasongko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is a very important aspect in data security. The focus of research in this field is shifting from merely security aspect to consider as well the  implementation  aspect.  This  paper  aims  to  introduce  BC3  algorithm  with focus  on  its  hardware  implementation.  It  proposes  an  architecture  for  the hardware  implementation  for  this  algorithm.  BC3  algorithm  is  a  secret-key cryptography  algorithm  developed  with  two  considerations:  robustness  and implementation  efficiency.  This  algorithm  has  been  implemented  on  software and has good performance compared to AES algorithm. BC3 is improvement of BC2 and AE cryptographic algorithm and it is expected to have the same level of robustness and to gain competitive advantages in the implementation aspect. The development of the architecture gives much attention on (1 resource sharing and (2  having  single  clock  for  each  round.  It  exploits  regularity  of  the  algorithm. This architecture is then implemented on an FPGA. This implementation is three times smaller area than AES, but about five times faster. Furthermore, this BC3 hardware  implementation  has  better  performance  compared  to  BC3  software both in key expansion stage and randomizing stage. For the future, the security of this implementation must be reviewed especially against side channel attack.

  4. Understanding Free Radicals: Isolating Active Thylakoid Membranes and Purifying the Cytochrome b6f Complex for Superoxide Generation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Stofleth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All life persists in an environment that is rich in molecular oxygen. The production of oxygen free radicals, or superoxide, is a necessary consequence of the biogenesis of energy in cells. Both mitochondrial and photosynthetic electron transport chains have been found to produce superoxide associated with cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death, thereby contributing to the effects of aging. Aerobic respiration in mitochondria consumes oxygen, whereas photosynthesis in chloroplasts or cyanobacteria produces oxygen. The increased concentration of molecular oxygen may serve to allow greater availability for the production of superoxide by cytochrome bc complexes in photosynthetic membranes compared to those of mitochondrial membranes. The isolation of well-coupled chloroplasts, containing the cytochrome b6f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis, is a vital initial step in the process of comparing the rate of production of superoxide to those of the homologous cytochrome bc1 complex of aerobic respiration. It is necessary to determine if the isolated chloroplasts have retained their oxygengenerating capability after isolation by an oxygen evolution assay with a Clark-type electrode. A necessary second step, which is the isolation of cytochrome b6f from spinach, has yet to be successfully performed. Oxygen measurements taken from chloroplasts in the presence of the uncoupler, NH4Cl, exhibited a rate of oxygen evolution over three times greater at 344 +/- 18 μmol O2/mg Chlorophyll a/hr than the rate of oxygen evolution without uncoupler at 109 +/- 29 μmol O2/mg Chlorophyll a/hr. These data demonstrate that the technique used to isolate spinach chloroplasts preserves their light-driven electron-transport activity, making them reliable for future superoxide assays.

  5. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  6. Search for the Bc meson in hadronic Z decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Becker, U.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Sau, Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zobernig, G.

    1997-02-01

    A search for the Bc meson decaying into the channels J/ψπ+ and J/ψl+vl (l = e or μ) is performed in a sample of 3.9 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH detector. This search results in the observation of 0 and 2 candidates in each of these channels, respectively, while 0.44 and 0.81 background events are expected. The following 90% confidence level upper limits are derived: Another B+c -> J/ψ(e+e-)μ+vμ candidate with very low background probability, found in an independent analysis, is also described in detail.

  7. BC Hydro's transmission business : transition to a competitive marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threlkeld, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Progress made by BC Hydro to facilitate the use of the transmission system for wholesale electricity transactions, including the separation of the system operation function from generation and merchant functions, was discussed. BC Hydro, Canada's third largest electric utility, was the first Canadian utility to offer open access to its transmission system for wholesale transactions. The utility has an installed generating capacity of about 10.8 gigawatts, 90 per cent of which is hydroelectric. The remainder is thermal, gas turbine and stationary and mobile diesel generation. The key element in establishing wholesale transmission transactions was the FERC-mandated open access same-time information system (OASIS) on which BC Hydro posts available transmission capacity, planned outages and pricing. The system operates on BC Hydro's internet node and interfaces to a Transmission Scheduling System (TSS). The TSS was developed in-house to handle the increased complexity of scheduling multiple energy and capacity transactions for users of the transmission system. Operation of the system and the challenge to constantly improve it were discussed

  8. B.C. Indians Living Off Reserve: Some Economic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, W. T.

    The study examined the economic development of British Columbia (B.C.) Indians who have moved off-reserve. The discussion included: (1) obtaining the sample, (2) sample description, (3) reasons for living off-reserve, (4) employment opportunities, (5) income and poverty line, and (6) academic achievement. A total of 1,095 persons interviewed…

  9. Marketing strategy for the BC oil and gas service sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-29

    The British Columbia (BC) oil and gas service sector is collaborating with the BC Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) to enhance the competitiveness of oil and gas service providers in Northeast BC. The MEM agreed to provide one-time funding to develop this marketing strategy for the oil and gas sector, particularly for small to medium-sized companies with limited resources. This document is also a resource tool for suppliers in the sector that have developed and are implementing their own marketing plans and wish to enhance elements of their own plans. The strategy also outlines the potential role of associations in Northeast BC that represent the service sector. It links their marketing activities with the activities of individual service providers. Local service providers (LSP) include companies in a wide range of businesses such as drilling support, transportation, health and safety services, and construction. Six issues that directly impact the competitiveness of LSPs were also presented along with recommendations for participants in the service sector, associations and individual companies. tabs., figs., 11 appendices.

  10. Marketing strategy for the BC oil and gas service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) oil and gas service sector is collaborating with the BC Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) to enhance the competitiveness of oil and gas service providers in Northeast BC. The MEM agreed to provide one-time funding to develop this marketing strategy for the oil and gas sector, particularly for small to medium-sized companies with limited resources. This document is also a resource tool for suppliers in the sector that have developed and are implementing their own marketing plans and wish to enhance elements of their own plans. The strategy also outlines the potential role of associations in Northeast BC that represent the service sector. It links their marketing activities with the activities of individual service providers. Local service providers (LSP) include companies in a wide range of businesses such as drilling support, transportation, health and safety services, and construction. Six issues that directly impact the competitiveness of LSPs were also presented along with recommendations for participants in the service sector, associations and individual companies. tabs., figs., 11 appendices

  11. Report of the special prosecutor: BC Hydro 'Raiwind' project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, P. D. K.

    1999-10-01

    A special prosecutor has been appointed by the British Columbia Government to assist the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) in its investigation, and to render appropriate charging decisions in the matter of the circumstances surrounding the creation of IPC International Power Corporation (IPC) owned by a Mr. John N. Laxton, former Chairman of BC Hydro and his two children, and its joint venture with BC Hydro for the development of an international power project in Pakistan known as the Raiwind project. Of particular concerns were the conflict of interest breached by Mr. Laxton in loaning a substantial sum of money to a principal member of the Pakistani side of the joint venture, and by the former President and CEO of BC Hydro, Mr. John Sheehan, by his purchase of shares of IPC by a company owned by members of his family. In 1996 Mr. Sheehan's employment as President and CEO was terminated by BC Hydro for breaching internal conflict of interest guidelines and for failing to get approval from BC Hydro for the acquisition of IPC shares. Subsequently, Mr. Sheehan commenced an action against BC Hydro for wrongful dismissal, a claim which was upheld by the Supreme Court of British Columbia. The focus of the special prosecutor's criminal investigation ultimately became the conduct of Mr. Laxton and whether a charge could or should be laid under Section 122 of the Criminal Code. The outcome of his investigation, which is discussed in this report, was that there was no substantial likelihood of conviction under the breach or trust provisions of Section 122 with respect to the indirect purchases by Mr. Laxton of shares in IPC. Nor was there any reason to believe that a personal loan made in high-risk circumstances could be a benefit or advantage to the lender. Furthermore, the loan cannot be causally related to any loss or financial harm to BC Hydro. In fact, it could be argued that Mr. Laxton's private decision to make the loan was of real assistance in ensuring that the

  12. Bacterial Cellulose (BC) as a Functional Nanocomposite Biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandgaonkar, Avinav Ghanashyam

    Cellulosic is the most abundant biopolymer in the landscape and can be found in many different organisms. It has been already seen use in the medical field, for example cotton for wound dressings and sutures. Although cellulose is naturally occurring and has found a number of applications inside and outside of the medical field, it is not typically produced in its pure state. A lengthy process is required to separate the lignin, hemicelluloses and other molecules from the cellulose in most renewables (wood, agricultural fibers such as cotton, monocots, grasses, etc.). Although bacterial cellulose has a similar chemical structure to plant cellulose, it is easier to process because of the absence of lignin and hemicelluloses which require a lot of energy and chemicals for removal. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is produced from various species of bacteria such as Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Due to its high water uptake, it has the tendency to form gels. It displays high tensile strength, biocompatibility, and purity compared to wood cellulose. It has found applications in fields such as paper, paper products, audio components (e.g., speaker diaphragms), flexible electronics, supercapacitors, electronics, and soft tissue engineering. In my dissertation, we have functionalized and studied BC-based materials for three specific applications: cartilage tissue engineering, bioelectronics, and dye degradation. In our first study, we prepared a highly organized porous material based on BC by unidirectional freezing followed by a freeze-drying process. Chitosan was added to impart additional properties to the resulting BC-based scaffolds that were evaluated in terms of their morphological, chemical, and physical properties for cartilage tissue engineering. The properties of the resulting scaffold were tailored by adjusting the concentration of chitosan over 1, 1.5, and 2 % (by wt-%). The scaffolds containing chitosan showed excellent shape recovery and structural stability after

  13. DYNAMICAL MASS OF THE SUBSTELLAR BENCHMARK BINARY HD 130948BC , ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.; Ireland, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    We present Keck adaptive optics imaging of the L4+L4 binary HD 130948BC along with archival Hubble Space Telescope and Gemini North observations, which together span ∼ 70% of the binary's orbital period. From the relative orbit, we determine a total dynamical mass of 0.109 ± 0.003 M sun (114 ± 3 M Jup ). The flux ratio of HD 130948BC is near unity, so both components are unambiguously substellar for any plausible mass ratio. An independent constraint on the age of the system is available from the primary HD 130948A (G2V, [M/H] = 0.0). The ensemble of available indicators suggests an age comparable to Hyades, with the most precise age being 0.79 +0.22 -0.15 Gyr based on gyrochronology. Therefore, HD 130948BC is now a unique benchmark among field L and T dwarfs, with a well-determined mass, luminosity, and age. We find that substellar theoretical models disagree with our observations. (1) Both components of HD 130948BC appear to be overluminous by a factor of ∼ 2-3 times compared to evolutionary models. The age of the system would have to be notably younger than the gyro age to ameliorate the luminosity disagreement. (2) Effective temperatures derived from evolutionary models for HD 130948B and C are inconsistent with temperatures determined from spectral synthesis for objects of similar spectral type. Overall, regardless of the adopted age, evolutionary and atmospheric models give inconsistent results, which indicate systematic errors in at least one class of models, possibly both. The masses of HD 130948BC happen to be very near the theoretical mass limit for lithium burning, and thus measuring the differential lithium depletion between B and C will provide a uniquely discriminating test of theoretical models. The potential underestimate of luminosities by evolutionary models would have wide-ranging implications; therefore, a more refined estimate age for HD 130948A is critically needed.

  14. Wood ethanol: a BC value-added opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloy, B. W.; O' Connor, D. V.

    1998-12-01

    The environmental, economic and social benefits to be derived from the conversion of woodwaste to ethanol are reviewed as part of the justification by the Greenhouse Gas Forum, a multi-stakeholder environmental advisory group, to recommend to the BC government to support the development and commercialization of technologies to produce ethanol fuel using waste from British Columbia's sawmills. The Greenhouse Gas Forum also recommended government support for the construction of a demonstration ethanol plant by the private sector. The principal arguments underlying the Greenhouse Gas Forum's recommendations are: (1) reduction in BC's greenhouse gas emissions by one mega tonne, or two per cent of BC's 1990 emissions, (2) reducing carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and other toxic emissions that contribute to urban smog, and (3) accelerating the elimination of sawmill waste burners and providing a substitute for MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a fuel additive) and MTBE ( methyl tertiary butyl ether, a component used in gasoline), thus helping to reduce health hazards from fine particulate inhalation. Economic and social benefits envisaged include creation of leading edge technology at the University of British Columbia, a substantial number of new jobs, and the potential for the development of various co-products from wood ethanol conversion. The report examines five different technologies to produce ethanol (the processes developed by Iogen, BC International, and Arkenol Inc., the Paszner ACOS process and a gasification-fermentation process), the market demand for ethanol blended gasoline and concludes that there are strong environmental, health and economic reasons for BC to increase the use of wood-ethanol as a transportation fuel and to support the establishment of an ethanol plant using wood residue. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs., 1 glossary.

  15. Wood ethanol: a BC value-added opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B. W.; O'Connor, D. V.

    1998-12-01

    The environmental, economic and social benefits to be derived from the conversion of woodwaste to ethanol are reviewed as part of the justification by the Greenhouse Gas Forum, a multi-stakeholder environmental advisory group, to recommend to the BC government to support the development and commercialization of technologies to produce ethanol fuel using waste from British Columbia's sawmills. The Greenhouse Gas Forum also recommended government support for the construction of a demonstration ethanol plant by the private sector. The principal arguments underlying the Greenhouse Gas Forum's recommendations are: (1) reduction in BC's greenhouse gas emissions by one mega tonne, or two per cent of BC's 1990 emissions, (2) reducing carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and other toxic emissions that contribute to urban smog, and (3) accelerating the elimination of sawmill waste burners and providing a substitute for MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a fuel additive) and MTBE ( methyl tertiary butyl ether, a component used in gasoline), thus helping to reduce health hazards from fine particulate inhalation. Economic and social benefits envisaged include creation of leading edge technology at the University of British Columbia, a substantial number of new jobs, and the potential for the development of various co-products from wood ethanol conversion. The report examines five different technologies to produce ethanol (the processes developed by Iogen, BC International, and Arkenol Inc., the Paszner ACOS process and a gasification-fermentation process), the market demand for ethanol blended gasoline and concludes that there are strong environmental, health and economic reasons for BC to increase the use of wood-ethanol as a transportation fuel and to support the establishment of an ethanol plant using wood residue. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs., 1 glossary

  16. Overview of Hydrometeorologic Forecasting Procedures at BC Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollor, D.

    2004-12-01

    Energy utility companies must balance production from limited sources with increasing demand from industrial, business, and residential consumers. The utility planning process requires a balanced, efficient, and effective distribution of energy from source to consumer. Therefore utility planners must consider the impact of weather on energy production and consumption. Hydro-electric companies should be particularly tuned to weather because their source of energy is water, and water supply depends on precipitation. BC Hydro operates as the largest hydro-electric company in western Canada, managing over 30 reservoirs within the province of British Columbia, and generating electricity for 1.6 million people. BC Hydro relies on weather forecasts of watershed precipitation and temperature to drive hydrologic reservoir inflow models and of urban temperatures to meet energy demand requirements. Operations and planning specialists in the company rely on current, value-added weather forecasts for extreme high-inflow events, daily reservoir operations planning, and long-term water resource management. Weather plays a dominant role for BC Hydro financial planners in terms of sensitive economic responses. For example, a two percent change in hydropower generation, due in large part to annual precipitation patterns, results in an annual net change of \\50 million in earnings. A five percent change in temperature produces a \\5 million change in yearly earnings. On a daily basis, significant precipitation events or temperature extremes involve potential profit/loss decisions in the tens of thousands of dollars worth of power generation. These factors are in addition to environmental and societal costs that must be considered equally as part of a triple bottom line reporting structure. BC Hydro water resource managers require improved meteorological information from recent advancements in numerical weather prediction. At BC Hydro, methods of providing meteorological forecast data

  17. Transfer of the cytochrome P450-dependent dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts for light-driven synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Karcher, Daniel; Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo

    2016-01-01

    . For this purpose, we stably engineered the dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into the chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glucoside and its synthesis from the amino acid tyrosine is catalysed by two membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a soluble...... glucosyltransferase (UGT85B1), and is dependent on electron transfer from a P450 oxidoreductase. The entire pathway was introduced into the chloroplast by integrating CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and UGT85B1 into a neutral site of the N. tabacum chloroplast genome. The two P450s and the UGT85B1 were functional when expressed...... compared to 6% in sorghum. The results obtained pave the way for plant P450s involved in the synthesis of economically important compounds to be engineered into the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, and demonstrate that their full catalytic cycle can be driven directly by photosynthesis-derived electrons....

  18. Involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases BcPtpA and BcPtpB in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and multi-stress tolerance in Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Yang

    Full Text Available Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation have emerged as fundamentally important mechanisms of signal transduction and regulation in eukaryotic cells, governing many processes, but little has been known about their functions in filamentous fungi. In this study, we deleted two putative protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP genes (BcPTPA and BcPTPB in Botrytis cinerea, encoding the orthologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ptp2 and Ptp3, respectively. Although BcPtpA and BcPtpB have opposite functions in conidiation, they are essential for sclerotial formation in B. cinerea. BcPTPA and BcPTPB deletion mutants ΔBcPtpA-10 and ΔBcPtpB-4 showed significantly increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to cell wall damaging agents. Inoculation tests showed that both mutants exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on tomato leaves, apples and grapes. In S. cerevisiae, it has been shown that Ptp2 and Ptp3 negatively regulate the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG pathway and the cell wall integrity (CWI pathway. Although both BcPtpA and BcPtpB were able to inactive Hog1 and Mpk1 in S. cerevisiae, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, they positively regulate phosphorylation of BcSak1 (the homologue of Hog1 and BcBmp3 (the homologue of Mpk1 in B. cinerea under stress conditions. These results demonstrated that functions of PTPs in B. cinerea are different from those in S. cerevisiae, and BcPtpA and BcPtpB play important roles in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and in adaptation to oxidative, osmotic and cell-wall damage stresses in B. cinerea.

  19. Binding of the Respiratory Chain Inhibitor Antimycin to theMitochondrial bc1 Complex: A New Crystal Structure Reveals an AlteredIntramolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.

    2005-05-10

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28Angstrom resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cyt b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alpha-A helix.

  20. Recessive resistance to Bean common mosaic virus conferred by the bc-1 and bc-2 genes in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects long distance movement of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Orellana, Gardenia; Myers, James; Karasev, Alexander V

    2018-04-12

    Recessive resistance to Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is governed by four genes that include one strain-nonspecific helper gene bc-u, and three strain-specific genes bc-1, bc-2, and bc-3. The bc-3 gene was identified as an eIF4E translation initiation factor gene mediating resistance through disruption of the interaction between this protein and the VPg protein of the virus. The mode of action of bc-1 and bc-2 in expression of BCMV resistance is unknown, although bc-1 gene was found to affect systemic spread of a related potyvirus, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus. To investigate the possible role of both bc-1 and bc-2 genes in replication, cell-to-cell, and long distance movement of BCMV in P. vulgaris, we tested virus spread of eight BCMV isolates representing pathogroups I, IV, VI, VII, and VIII, in a set of bean differentials expressing different combinations of six resistance alleles including bc-u, bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, bc-2 2 , and bc-3. All studied BCMV isolates were able to replicate and spread in inoculated leaves of bean cultivars harboring bc-u, bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, and bc-2 2 alleles and their combinations, while no BCMV replication was found in inoculated leaves of 'IVT7214' carrying the bc-u, bc-2 and bc-3 genes, except for isolate 1755a capable of overcoming the resistance conferred by bc-2 and bc-3. In contrast, the systemic spread of all BCMV isolates from pathogroups I, IV,VI, VII, and VIII was impaired in common bean cultivars carrying bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, and bc-2 2 alleles. The data suggest that bc-1 and bc-2 recessive resistance genes have no effect on the replication and cell-to-cell movement of BCMV, but affect systemic spread of BCMV in common bean. The BCMV resistance conferred by bc-1 and bc-2 and affecting systemic spread was found only partially effective when these two genes were expressed singly. The efficiency of the restriction of the systemic spread of the virus was greatly enhanced when

  1. Genetic defects of cytochrome c oxidase assembly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecina, Petr; Houšťková, H.; Hansíková, H.; Zeman, J.; Houštěk, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, Suppl. 1 (2004), s. S213-S223 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/03/0749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cytochrome c oxidase * mitochondrial disorders Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  2. Interaction of Al with O2 exposed Mo2BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Al adheres to many surfaces. • Solid–solid interactions challenging for real (oxidized) surfaces. • Dissociative O 2 adsorption on Mo 2 BC(0 4 0). • Al nonamer is disrupted on oxidized Mo 2 BC(0 4 0). • Adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide. - Abstract: A Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface was exposed to O 2 . The gas interaction was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air exposed surfaces. The calculations suggest that the most dominating physical mechanism is dissociative O 2 adsorption whereby Mo−O, O−Mo−O and Mo 2 −C−O bond formation is observed. To validate these results, Mo 2 BC thin films were synthesized utilizing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and air exposed surfaces were probed by XPS. MoO 2 and MoO 3 bond formation is observed and is consistent with here obtained ab initio data. Additionally, the interfacial interactions of O 2 exposed Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface with an Al nonamer is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics to describe on the atomic scale the interaction between this surface and Al to mimic the interface present during cold forming processes of Al based alloys. The Al nonamer was disrupted and Al forms chemical bonds with oxygen contained in the O 2 exposed Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface. Based on the comparison of here calculated adsorption energy with literature data, Al−Al bonds are shown to be significantly weaker than the Al−O bonds formed across the interface. Hence, Al−Al bond rupture is expected for a mechanically loaded interface. Therefore the adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide layer is predicted. This is consistent with experimental observations. The data presented here may also be relevant for other oxygen containing surfaces in a contact with Al or Al based alloys for example during forming operations

  3. Search for $B_c^+$ decays to two charm mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Berninghoff, Daniel; Bertholet, Emilie; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørn, Mikkel; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Byczynski, Wiktor; Cadeddu, Sandro; Cai, Hao; Calabrese, Roberto; Calladine, Ryan; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Chapman, Matthew George; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu Faye; Chitic, Stefan-Gabriel; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Colombo, Tommaso; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Da Silva, Cesar Luiz; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Del Buono, Luigi; Dembinski, Hans Peter; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Douglas, Lauren; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Durham, John Matthew; Dutta, Deepanwita; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziewiecki, Michal; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fazzini, Davide; Federici, Luca; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez, Gerard; Fernandez Declara, Placido; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Lopes, Lino; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gabriel, Emmy; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Grabowski, Jascha Peter; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruber, Lukas; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hancock, Thomas Henry; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Hasse, Christoph; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Hecker, Malte; Heinicke, Kevin; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Hu, Wenhua; Huang, Wenqian; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Ibis, Philipp; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kazeev, Nikita; Kecke, Matthieu; Keizer, Floris; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Kress, Felix Johannes; Krokovny, Pavel; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Li, Zhuoming; Liang, Xixin; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Mead, James Vincent; Meadows, Brian; Meaux, Cedric; Meier, Frank; Meinert, Nis; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Millard, Edward James; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Minzoni, Luca; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Mombächer, Titus; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Ossowska, Anna; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Pereima, Dmitrii; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pietrzyk, Guillaume; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pisani, Flavio; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Pullen, Hannah Louise; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Qin, Jia-Jia; Quagliani, Renato; Quintana, Boris; Rachwal, Bartlomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Ravonel Salzgeber, Melody; Reboud, Meril; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Robbe, Patrick; Robert, Arnaud; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Ruiz Vidal, Joan; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarpis, Gediminas; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepulveda, Eduardo Enrique; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stepanova, Margarita; Stevens, Holger; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Jiayin; Sun, Liang; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szumlak, Tomasz; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Usachov, Andrii; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagner, Alexander; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Wang, Yilong; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Weisser, Constantin; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Qingnian; Xu, Zehua; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    A search for decays of $B_c^+$ mesons to two charm mesons is performed for the first time using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The decays considered are $B_c^+\\to D^{(*)+}_{(s)} \\overline{D}^{(*)0}$ and $B_c^+\\to D^{(*)+}_{(s)} D^{(*)0}$, which are normalised to high-yield $B^+\\to D^+_{(s)} \\overline{D}^0$ decays. No evidence for a signal is found and limits are set on twelve $B_c^+$ decay modes

  4. Neutron detection and applications using a BC454/BGO array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.C.; Biddle, R.S.; Bourret, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron detection and multiplicity counting has been investigated using a boron-loaded plastic scintillator (BC454)/bismuth germanate (BGO) phoswich detector array. Boron-loaded plastic combines neutron moderation (H) and detection ( 10 B) at the molecular level, thereby physically coupling increasing detection efficiency and decreasing die-away time with detector volume. Separation of the phoswich response into its plastic scintillator and bismuth germanate components was accomplished on an event-by-event basis using custom integrator and timing circuits, enabling a prompt coincidence requirement between the BC454 and BGO to be used to identify neutron captures. In addition, a custom time-tag module was used to provide a time for each detector event. Time-correlation analysis was subsequently performed on the filtered event stream to obtain shift-register-type singles and doubles count rates

  5. BC Hydro best practices : energy efficiency and integrated planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, D.

    2004-01-01

    The key elements to success in energy efficiency include integrated energy planning, a review of conservation potential, pursuing a target, risk sharing between all parties, and long term planning when making investments in demand side management (DSM). The barriers to cost effective energy efficiency investment were also outlined along with the scope of the conservation potential review which included 95 per cent of electricity end use applications in all market sectors including residential, commercial, institutional and industrial. BC Hydro's Power Smart program focuses on energy efficiency and load displacement to meet 35 per cent of the utility's forecasted growth by 2012. The sources of savings within each of the market sectors were identified. Key recommendations regarding energy efficiency and conservation were also presented with reference to financial incentives offered by BC Hydro to consumers to encourage a switch to more efficient lighting systems. 10 figs

  6. Observation of Bc+ →d0K+ Decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Everse, LA; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Coco, V.; David, P. N Y; De Bruyn, K.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Ketel, T.; Koopman, R. F.; Van Leerdam, J.; Merk, M.; Onderwater, C. J G; Raven, G.; Schiller, M.; Serra, N.; Snoek, H.; Storaci, B.; Syropoulos, V.; Van Tilburg, J.; Tolk, S.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1, recorded by the LHCb detector at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, the Bc+→D0K+ decay is observed with a statistical significance of 5.1 standard deviations. By normalizing to B+→D0π+ decays, a

  7. An organization structure analysis for BC Hydro, Power Smart

    OpenAIRE

    Lellis, Leandro Bianchi

    2006-01-01

    Power Smart is BC Hydro’s demand-side management (DMS) initiative to encourage energy efficiency by its customers. Currently, they are in the midst of a very significant program redesign to influence their largest transmission voltage customers to use energy efficiently without the capability to award a capital incentive. From their internal operating model perspective, Power Smart is considering moving from an audit based function to a more consultative role. This project aims to provide and...

  8. Findings of negligence followed communication lapses in BC aneurysm case

    OpenAIRE

    Capen, K

    1997-01-01

    Negligence is sometimes established on the basis of lapses in communication and patient care management that, in hindsight, could have been avoided. A recent BC court case concerned a patient who died because of a ruptured aneurysm. A Supreme Court judge found that some of the physicians involved had failed in their duty to diagnose the patient's condition properly, or failed to communicate to one another significant signs of the patient's illness, and failed to refer him in time to the medic...

  9. The BC energy plan : a vision for clean energy leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    Global warming is a pertinent environmental issue. This report presented a vision and plan for clean energy leadership in British Columbia (BC). The intent of the plan is make the province energy self-sufficient while taking responsibility for the natural environment and climate. The BC energy plan set out targets as well as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The plan outlines the steps that industry, environmental agencies, communities and citizens must take to reach goals for conservation, energy efficiency and clean energy. This report provided highlights of the BC energy plan and discussed energy conservation and efficiency targets. It also discussed electricity security and public ownership of electricity in addition to strategies and policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from electricity. The report presented several policy options for alternative energy including an innovative clean energy fund; generating electricity from mountain pine beatlewood to turn wood waste into energy; and transportation strategies. The report also discussed electricity options such as bioenergy; coal thermal power; geothermal; hydrogen and fuel cell technology; large hydroelectric dams; natural gas; small hydro; solar; tidal energy; and wind. Other topics that were addressed in the report included skills, training and labour; and, oil and gas policy actions. A summary of policy actions was also presented. tabs., figs.

  10. BC Hydro experiences the power of engineering document management software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, A.

    2000-01-01

    The recent popularity of electronic document management software (EDMS), specifically designed for engineering CAD/CAM drawings that holds the promise of reducing paper-pushing and freeing up organizational resources for more productive purposes, is discussed. To illustrate how such systems function, a document management system installed at BC Hydro, with over 2,500 users in two main engineering groups is described. The new system - FileNET - replaces several older systems that have been used as stand-alone systems in various divisions of BC Hydro for some time. Instead of integrating the entire file of some 750,000 documents, the new system has complete records of some 70,000 of the most recent CAD drawings and an on-line index to the older file that is used less frequently. Access to the entire storehouse of drawings is said to be fast, efficient and secure. Automated document control procedures during work-in-progress, viewing, redlining capabilities, seamless integration with CAD tools and Web access to drawings from anywhere within the two engineering divisions, are some of the most noteworthy characteristics of the new system. It does not completely replace paper, but it does promise significant streamlining of the paper handling function. It also ensures that BC Hydro's central computer is the prime repository of all documents and drawings, and that this valuable record of environmental. legal, regulatory and other public policy importance is instantly available, without the need to handle paper

  11. The BC energy plan : a vision for clean energy leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    Global warming is a pertinent environmental issue. This report presented a vision and plan for clean energy leadership in British Columbia (BC). The intent of the plan is make the province energy self-sufficient while taking responsibility for the natural environment and climate. The BC energy plan set out targets as well as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The plan outlines the steps that industry, environmental agencies, communities and citizens must take to reach goals for conservation, energy efficiency and clean energy. This report provided highlights of the BC energy plan and discussed energy conservation and efficiency targets. It also discussed electricity security and public ownership of electricity in addition to strategies and policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from electricity. The report presented several policy options for alternative energy including an innovative clean energy fund; generating electricity from mountain pine beatlewood to turn wood waste into energy; and transportation strategies. The report also discussed electricity options such as bioenergy; coal thermal power; geothermal; hydrogen and fuel cell technology; large hydroelectric dams; natural gas; small hydro; solar; tidal energy; and wind. Other topics that were addressed in the report included skills, training and labour; and, oil and gas policy actions. A summary of policy actions was also presented. tabs., figs

  12. $B^+_c$ meson production, decays and properties at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Lusiani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We report the first study of the $B_c^+ \\to K^+K^-\\pi^+$ decay and an update of the measurement of the ratio of branching fractions $R_{K/\\pi} \\equiv {\\cal B}(B_c^+\\to J/\\psi K^+)/{\\cal B}(B_c^+\\to J/\\psi\\pi^+)$. Both results use an integrated luminosity of $3.0fb^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. We measure $B_c^+ \\to \\chi_{c0}(\\to K^+ K^-)\\pi^+$ with $4.0\\sigma$ significance and $\\frac {\\sigma(B_c^+)} {\\sigma(B^+)}$ X ${\\cal B}(B_c^+ \\to \\chi_{c0}\\pi^+)$ to be $(9.8^{+3.4}_{-3.0}(stat) \\pm 0.8(syst))$ X $10^{-6}$. The contribution of $B_c^+ \\to K^+K^-\\pi^+$ via $\\overline{b}c$ weak annihilation for $m(K^-\\pi^+) < 1.834 GeV$ is measured with $2.4\\sigma$ significance. The ratio of branching fractions $R_{K/\\pi} \\equiv {\\cal B}(B_c^+ \\to J/\\psi K^+) / {\\cal B}(B_c^+ \\to J/\\psi \\pi^+)$ is measured to be $R_{K/\\pi} = 0.079 \\pm 0.007(stat) \\pm 0.003(syst)$. This result significantly improves the previous LHCb measurement.

  13. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  14. Rice cytochrome P450 MAX1 homologs catalyze distinct steps in strigolactone biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yanxia

    2014-10-26

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones and rhizosphere signaling compounds with high structural diversity. Three enzymes, carotenoid isomerase DWARF27 and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases CCD7 and CCD8, were previously shown to convert all-trans-β-carotene to carlactone (CL), the SL precursor. However, how CL is metabolized to SLs has remained elusive. Here, by reconstituting the SL biosynthetic pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana, we show that a rice homolog of Arabidopsis More Axillary Growth 1 (MAX1), encodes a cytochrome P450 CYP711 subfamily member that acts as a CL oxidase to stereoselectively convert CL into ent-2\\'-epi-5-deoxystrigol (B-C lactone ring formation), the presumed precursor of rice SLs. A protein encoded by a second rice MAX1 homolog then catalyzes the conversion of ent-2\\'-epi-5-deoxystrigol to orobanchol. We therefore report that two members of CYP711 enzymes can catalyze two distinct steps in SL biosynthesis, identifying the first enzymes involved in B-C ring closure and a subsequent structural diversification step of SLs.

  15. Rice cytochrome P450 MAX1 homologs catalyze distinct steps in strigolactone biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yanxia; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Scaffidi, Adrian; Flematti, Gavin R.; Hofmann, Manuel; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Verstappen, Francel; Hepworth, Jo; van der Krol, Sander; Leyser, Ottoline; Smith, Steven M.; Zwanenburg, Binne; Al-Babili, Salim; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2014-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones and rhizosphere signaling compounds with high structural diversity. Three enzymes, carotenoid isomerase DWARF27 and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases CCD7 and CCD8, were previously shown to convert all-trans-β-carotene to carlactone (CL), the SL precursor. However, how CL is metabolized to SLs has remained elusive. Here, by reconstituting the SL biosynthetic pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana, we show that a rice homolog of Arabidopsis More Axillary Growth 1 (MAX1), encodes a cytochrome P450 CYP711 subfamily member that acts as a CL oxidase to stereoselectively convert CL into ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol (B-C lactone ring formation), the presumed precursor of rice SLs. A protein encoded by a second rice MAX1 homolog then catalyzes the conversion of ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol to orobanchol. We therefore report that two members of CYP711 enzymes can catalyze two distinct steps in SL biosynthesis, identifying the first enzymes involved in B-C ring closure and a subsequent structural diversification step of SLs.

  16. Measurements of B(c)+ production and mass with the B(c)+ → J/ψπ+ decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Voss, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-12-07

    Measurements of B(c)(+) production and mass are performed with the decay mode B(c)(+)→J/ψπ(+) using 0.37 fb(-1) of data collected in pp collisions at √[s]=7 TeV by the LHCb experiment. The ratio of the production cross section times branching fraction between the B(c)(+)→J/ψπ(+) and the B(+)→J/ψK(+) decays is measured to be (0.68±0.10(stat)±0.03(syst)±0.05(lifetime))% for B(c)(+) and B(+) mesons with transverse momenta p(T)>4 GeV/c and pseudorapidities 2.5M(B(c)(+))-M(B(+))=994.6±1.3(stat)±0.6(syst) MeV/c(2).

  17. Environmentally persistent free radical-containing particulate matter competitively inhibits metabolism by cytochrome P450 1A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, James R., E-mail: rreed@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 533 Bolivar St., New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Cruz, Albert Leo N. dela, E-mail: adelac2@tigers.lsu.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and LSU Superfund Research Center, Louisiana State University A& M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Lomnicki, Slawo M., E-mail: slomni1@lsu.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and LSU Superfund Research Center, Louisiana State University A& M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Backes, Wayne L., E-mail: wbacke@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 533 Bolivar St., New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Combustion processes generate different types of particulate matter (PM) that can have deleterious effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) represent a type of particulate matter that is generated after combustion of environmental wastes in the presence of redox-active metals and aromatic hydrocarbons. Cytochromes P450 (P450/CYP) are membrane-bound enzymes that are essential for the phase I metabolism of most lipophilic xenobiotics. The EPFR formed by chemisorption of 2-monochlorophenol to silica containing 5% copper oxide (MCP230) has been shown to generally inhibit the activities of different forms of P450s without affecting those of cytochrome P450 reductase and heme oxygenase-1. The mechanism of inhibition of rat liver microsomal CYP2D2 and purified rabbit CYP2B4 by MCP230 has been shown previously to be noncompetitive with respect to substrate. In this study, MCP230 was shown to competitively inhibit metabolism of 7-benzyl-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin and 7-ethoxyresorufin by the purified, reconstituted rabbit CYP1A2. MCP230 is at least 5- and 50-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CYP1A2 than silica containing 5% copper oxide and silica, respectively. Thus, even though PM generally inhibit multiple forms of P450, PM interacts differently with the forms of P450 resulting in different mechanisms of inhibition. P450s function as oligomeric complexes within the membrane. We also determined the mechanism by which PM inhibited metabolism by the mixed CYP1A2–CYP2B4 complex and found that the mechanism was purely competitive suggesting that the CYP2B4 is dramatically inhibited when bound to CYP1A2. - Highlights: • Combustion of organic pollutants generates long-lived particulate radicals (EPFRs). • Particulate matter (PM) competitively inhibited CYP1A2 activity. • EPFRs were much more potent CYP1A2 inhibitors than other types of PM. • PM interacts differently with different forms of P450. • PM

  18. Concept of BuBc in neonatal jaundice – needs a change

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kalpana; Borrison, Auxilia; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-01-01

    Orthoclinical diagnostics Vitros microslide came with a method by which Bu and Bc can be estimated directly. The advantage of this microslide technology is that conjugated bilirubin (Bc) does not contain delta bilirubin and the fractions i.e BuBc are actually estimated. TBil estimation is also available based on traditional diazo method on the same instrument

  19. Okounkov's BC-Type Interpolation Macdonald Polynomials and Their q=1 Limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornwinder, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys eight classes of polynomials associated with A-type and BC-type root systems: Jack, Jacobi, Macdonald and Koornwinder polynomials and interpolation (or shifted) Jack and Macdonald polynomials and their BC-type extensions. Among these the BC-type interpolation Jack polynomials were

  20. Is a liquid and competitive wholesale market feasible in BC?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ramly, A.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation outlined the principle market movements that helped build the electric power industry in British Columbia, from 1860 to the present. Today, British Columbia is a major player in interconnected and disconnected western markets that include Alberta, the gateway to California, California and the southwest. A profile of these markets was presented with reference to programs, regulations and services that have been launched since 1988. The impetus for change was discussed with reference to load resource balance in British Columbia; the drive for private investment; an improved provincial economy; and price stability, reduced volatility and low prices which are allowing market participants to focus on new developments. It was noted that the momentum is in place to take progressive measures in opening the regulatory process regarding power transmission and opening new markets to the east and south. The bad market powers at play were also described with reference to policy that dilutes innovation, heritage contracts, and the lack of interest by industrial customers in an open access market. This presentation also included a mid-term Alberta Power Pool price forecast and BC transmission activity. It was noted that in dollar terms, British Columbia has been a net importer from the United States since the third quarter in 2004 because of its supply shortage and unexpectedly high demand growth. BC has maintained a surplus with respect to Alberta, by arbitraging between the on-peak and off-peak hours. This trend presents opportunities for independent power producers (IPP). It was concluded that the BC power industry is in much better shape than any of the deregulated markets. Its heritage contract protects rate payers and the market is opening up cautiously. tabs., figs

  1. BcII RFLP for the human vimentin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, E M; Smith, B A; Telenius, H; Ponder, B A.J.; Mathew, C G.P. [Haddow Laboratories, Surrey (England); Landsvater, R M; Buys, C H.C.M. [State Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands); Ferrari, S [Temple University Medical School, Philadelphia, PA (USA)

    1988-09-26

    A 1.1 kb cDNA clone (hp4F1) encoding the human vimentin gene was identified in a human library by screening with 4F1, a hamster vimentin cDNA. BcII (TGATCA) recognizes a two allele polymorphism: bands A1 at 8.1 kb, and A2 at 3.6 kb. The allele frequency was determined in 47 unrelated Caucasian individuals. The RFLP was mapped to chromosome 10pter-10q23 using somatic cell hybrids and to 10p13 by in situ hybridization. Co-dominant segregation was observed in 2 informative families.

  2. Hippocrates (ca 460-370 BC) on nasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Sgantzos, Markos

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cancer in antiquity is rather an unknown scientific field. Nevertheless, During the 5th century BC, Hippocrates and his followers, studied thoroughly this fatal disease and proposed surgical techniques and palliative drugs to confront and treat the malignant tumors caused by the black bile (the 4 humors theory). Inside Corpus Hippocraticum, nasal cancer was mentioned, alongside with its treatment. Local surgical excision, cautherization, drugs to relief the pain and face possible metastases combined with a possible pessary technique and endotracheal intubation, have been employed by the physicians of the era.

  3. BC Hydro's integrated resource planning : the 2004 IEP and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulsby, R.

    2004-01-01

    An outline of BC Hydro Integrated Electricity Plan (IEP) was presented in this paper, along with details of its environmental, social and business performance and statistics of its net income and revenue for 2003-2004. The IEP was created to match long term load to supply in the most cost-effective way and is also the basis for resource acquisition plans. In addition, the IEP models performance of portfolios of resources on a system-wide basis, considers uncertainties through sensitivity analysis and measures and evaluates multiple attributes from various portfolios. A flow chart of processes informed by the IEP was presented. Guiding principles behind the creation of the plan include low electricity rates and public ownership; secure, reliable supply; private sector development; environmental responsibility, with no nuclear power sources; ensuring energy self-sufficiency; and maintaining a balanced portfolio of resources. A pie chart of BC Hydro's current portfolio mix was presented as well as a supply and demand outlook and details of plans and new capacity resources required before 2013. Various resource options were presented. Key outcomes of First Nations and stakeholder engagement include the acceptance of BC Hydro as a sustainable energy company; a desire for higher priority on reliability and low cost; an agreement over the Power Smart 10 year plan; a general agreement that the current, balanced approach to resource acquisition was appropriate; and a desire for more rate options. There was an assurance that BC Hydro would continue to engage First Nations and stakeholders in integrated electricity planning. Other outcomes included requests for more information about outage and outage planning and process improvements; support to maintain low rates; a preference for maximizing use of existing facilities; support for wood waste cogeneration. A broad range of options were reviewed, but no superior portfolio was identified within the parameters of this paper

  4. Data quality objectives summary report for the 100-BC-1, 100-BC-2, and 100-DR-1, and 100-DR-2 group 3 waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The 100-BC-1, 100-BC-2, 100-DR-1, and 100-DR-2 Group 3 waste sites contain 22 past-practice liquid waste disposal sites and process effluent piping associated with four plutonium-production nuclear reactors that operated from 1944 to 1967. The 100-BC-1, 100-BC-2, 100-DR-1, and 100-DR-2 Group 3 waste sites are the third set of Hanford 100 Area sites to undergo remediation to the extent practicable. Like the sites listed in Groups 1 and 2, the Group 3 sites are considered high-priority because of the contaminants present and their proximity to the Columbia River. Remediation of the 100-BC-1, 100-HR-1 and 100-DR-1 radioactive liquid waste sites is planned to occur in two phases: The first phase, which has been completed, was a demonstration project in the 100-B/C Area to test field techniques and acquire contamination data. The second phase is full-scale remediation of all the reactor areas, starting in the 10-B/C Area, using the field experience gained in the first phase and each subsequent reactor area remediation. This document provides the DQO in support of remediation sampling and analysis at selected sites in the 100-B/C and 100-D Areas

  5. Observation of $B^+_c \\rightarrow J/\\psi D_s^+$ and $B^+_c \\rightarrow J/\\psi D_s^{*+}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The decays $B^+_c \\rightarrow J/\\psi D_s^+$ and $B^+_c \\rightarrow J/\\psi D_s^{*+}$ are observed for the first time using a dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3$fb^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}$=7 and 8 TeV. The statistical significance for both signals is in excess of 9 standard deviations. The following ratios of branching fractions are measured to be \\begin{equation*}BR( B^+_c \\rightarrow J/\\psi D_s^+)/BR( B^+_c \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\pi+ ) = 2.90 \\pm 0.57 \\pm 0.24$,\\end{equation*} \\begin{equation*}BR( B^+_c \\rightarrow J/\\psi D_s^{*+} ) / BR ( B^+_c \\rightarrow J/\\psi D_s^+ ) = 2.37 \\pm 0.56 \\pm 0.10, \\end{equation*} where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. The mass of the $B^+_c$ meson is measured to be \\begin{equation*}m_{B^+_c} = 6276.28 \\pm 1.44 (stat) \\pm 0.36(syst) MeV/c^2,\\end{equation*} using the $B^+_c \\rightarrow J/\\psi D_...

  6. The reaction of neuroglobin with potential redox protein partners cytochrome b5  and cytochrome c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; Mathews, A.J.; Moens, L.

    2006-01-01

    Previously identified, potentially neuroprotective reactions of neuroglobin require the existence of yet unknown redox partners. We show here that the reduction of ferric neuroglobin by cytochrome b5 is relatively slow (k=6×102M-1s-1 at pH 7.0) and thus is unlikely to be of physiological...... significance. In contrast, the reaction between ferrous neuroglobin and ferric cytochrome c is very rapid (k=2×107M-1s-1) with an apparent overall equilibrium constant of 1μM. Based on this data we propose that ferrous neuroglobin may well play a role in preventing apoptosis...

  7. Home-grown creativity; Northern BC inventor makes a name

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, T.

    2001-01-01

    The GRAMUS pump is a gas-recovery and minimal usage mechanism designed to recover waste gases, thereby reducing emission to the atmosphere. The pump, invented by Dan Vezina in Fort St. John, requires no oil to lubricate it, is virtually maintenance-free and low enough in price to rapidly recover its cost when used to replace old style diaphragm pumps which are widely use in the petroleum industry for venting gas to the atmosphere. The GRAMUS pump recovers the drive gas, and rather than venting it into the atmosphere it injects it back into the system through its double-acting cylinder which pumps without the need for oil around its switching mechanism. The prototype was tested by Talisman Energy at their Inga Lake location, and found that the GRAMUS recovery system saved them $840 per month in propane costs (the gas that is commonly used to power the old style diaphragm pumps). The pumps are now manufactured and distributed commercially by Crown West Steel Fabricators in Kelowna, BC (in partnership with Vezina). They are doing brisk business with virtually every company in BC and Alberta whose operations formerly used the old diaphragm pumps

  8. First observation of a baryonic $B_c^+$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A baryonic decay of the $B_c^+$ meson, $B_c^+\\to J/\\psi p\\overline{p}\\pi^+$, is observed for the first time, with a significance of $7.3$ standard deviations, in $pp$ collision data collected with the LHCb detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0$ fb$^{-1}$ taken at center-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8$ $\\mathrm{TeV}$. With the $B_c^+\\to J/\\psi \\pi^+$ decay as normalization channel, the ratio of branching fractions is measured to be \\begin{equation*} \\frac{\\mathcal{B}(B_c^+\\to J/\\psi p\\overline{p}\\pi^+)}{\\mathcal{B}(B_c^+\\to J/\\psi \\pi^+)} = 0.143^{\\,+\\,0.039}_{\\,-\\,0.034}\\,(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.013\\,(\\mathrm{syst}). \\end{equation*} The mass of the $B_c^+$ meson is determined as $M(B_c^+)=6274.0\\pm1.8\\,(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.4\\,(\\mathrm{syst})\\,\\mathrm{MeV}/c^2$, using the $B_c^+\\to J/\\psi p\\overline{p}\\pi^+$ channel.

  9. Theban victory at Haliartos (395 B.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual, José

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the battle of Haliartos (395 B.C. analyzing the strategy of the contendings, both sides contingents and the routes followed by the armies in their way to the battlefield, especially Lysander, who used an inland boiotian route, the route of Koutomoulia and Evangelistria, and camped in the surroundings of modern Mazi about one kilometre to the south of Haliartos, and drew up in battle to a great extent as a Theban ambush.

    Este trabajo examina la batalla de Haliarto (395 B.C. analizando la estrategia de los contendientes, los contingentes que concurrieron en ambos bandos y las rutas que siguieron los diferentes ejércitos hasta el campo de batalla, especialmente Lisandro, que empleó una ruta por el interior de Beocia, la ruta de Koutoumoulia y Evangelistria, y acampó en torno a la actual Mazi, aproximadamente a un kilómetro al sur de Haliarto, y presenta la batalla en gran medida como una emboscada tebana.

  10. Probing the P -wave charmonium decays of Bc meson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the large number of Bc meson decay modes observed recently by several detectors at the LHC, we present a detailed analysis of the Bc meson decaying to the P -wave charmonium states and a light pseudoscalar (P ) or vector (V ) meson within the framework of perturbative QCD factorization. The P -wave charmonium distribution amplitudes are extracted from the n =2 , l =1 Schrödinger states for a Coulomb potential, which can be taken as the universal nonperturbative objects to analyze the hard exclusive processes with P -wave charmonium production. It is found that these decays have large branching ratios of the order of 10-5˜10-2 , which seem to be in the reach of future experiments. We also provide predictions for the polarization fractions and relative phases of Bc→(χc 1,χc 2,hc)V decays. It is expected that the longitudinal polarization amplitudes dominate the branching ratios according to the quark helicity analysis, and the magnitudes and phases of parallel polarization amplitude are approximately equal to the perpendicular ones. The obtained results are compared with available experimental data, our previous studies, and numbers from other approaches.

  11. Measurement of the $B_c^+$ meson lifetime using $B_c^+ \\to J/\\psi\\mu^+ \

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bonis, Isabelle; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dorosz, Piotr; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Hafkenscheid, Tom; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Huse, Torkjell; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Iakovenko, Viktor; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Wallaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luisier, Johan; Luo, Haofei; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marconi, Umberto; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mountain, Raymond; Mous, Ivan; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muryn, Bogdan; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pavel-Nicorescu, Carmen; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Polok, Grzegorz; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redford, Sophie; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Roberts, Douglas; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Oksana; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teodorescu, Eliza; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Webber, Adam Dane; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiechczynski, Jaroslaw; Wiedner, Dirk; Wiggers, Leo; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The lifetime of the $B_c^+$ meson is measured using semileptonic decays having a $J/\\psi$ meson and a muon in the final state. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $2\\mathrm{~fb^{-1}}$, are collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $8\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$. The measured lifetime is $$\\tau = 509 \\pm 8 \\pm 12 \\mathrm{~fs},$$ where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  12. New insight into the mechanism of mitochondrial cytochrome c function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chertkova, Rita V; Brazhe, Nadezda A; Bryantseva, Tatiana V

    2017-01-01

    We investigate functional role of the P76GTKMIFA83 fragment of the primary structure of cytochrome c. Based on the data obtained by the analysis of informational structure (ANIS), we propose a model of functioning of cytochrome c. According to this model, conformational rearrangements of the P76...... with conformational changes and reduced mobility of heme porphyrin. This points to a significant role of the P76GTKMIFA83 fragment in the electron transport function of cytochrome c....

  13. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects.

    OpenAIRE

    Bergé, J B; Feyereisen, R; Amichot, M

    1998-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the seque...

  14. A Study on BC Emission from Vehicles using Different Types of Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Son, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Park, G.; Sung, K.; Kim, I.; Chung, T.; Park, T.; Kang, S.; Ban, J.; Kim, J.; Hong, Y. D.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, T.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is an anthropogenic aerosol from fossil fuels, and biomass burning. It absorbs solar radiation, and heats the atmosphere leading 0.4W m-2 radiative forcing. BC is a particle that can cause serious effects on human body as well. Toxicological studies of black carbon suggests that BC may be an important carrier of toxic chemicals to human body. The recent researches show that one of the main precursor of BC is vehicle emission, but the inventory of BC emission rate from vehicle is inadequate in South Korea. This study tries to find differences of BC emission from different sizes of vehicles using different types of fuels. Fuels used in vehicles are gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and diesel. BC was directly measured from the tail pipe of vehicles using Aethalometer (AE33, Magee Scientific Corporation). This study was conducted in Transport Pollutant Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, South Korea. Measurement was progressed with the five different test modes of speeds. Speed modes includes 4.7, 17.3, 34.1, 65.4, and 97.3 km h-1. Emission rate of BC was high in the slowest speed mode, and showed decrease with increase of the speed of vehicles. Gasoline vehicles had the relatively higher emission rate of BC than the LPG vehicle, while the emission rate of BC for Diesel with DPF (Diesel Particle Filter) was observed to be the lowest.

  15. Preparation and characterization of BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposites for antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Caixia; Hong, Feng; Yang, Xuexia; Cao, Zhangjun

    2015-01-22

    In this work, a bacterial cellulose/polyacrylamide (BC/PAM) double network composite was prepared to act as the template for in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Effects of reaction conditions of the BC/PAM composite were investigated on its microstructure, mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Both the BC/PAM composite and pure BC were utilized to prepare the corresponding silver impregnated nanocomposites, i.e., BC/PAM-AgNPs and BC-AgNPs, by an environmental friendly method, UV irradiation. The influences of the templates were investigated on the AgNPs formation and the antibacterial activities of the nanocomposites by both the zone of inhibition and dynamic shake flask methods. It was shown that the BC/PAM composite displayed a denser microstructure and higher thermal stabilities than pure BC. The BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposite exhibited a bigger particle size and lower mass content of AgNPs than the BC-AgNPs one. For the antibacterial test, two nanocomposites exhibited a close antibacterial effect, with a high log reduction above 3 and killing ratio above 99.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction of cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars; Oostenbrink, Chris; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) form one of the most important enzyme families involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. CYPs comprise many isoforms, which catalyze a wide variety of reactions, and potentially, a large number of different metabolites can be formed. However, it is often hard...... to rationalize what metabolites these enzymes generate. In recent years, many different in silico approaches have been developed to predict binding or regioselective product formation for the different CYP isoforms. These comprise ligand-based methods that are trained on experimental CYP data and structure...

  17. Isolation and characterization of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC, which grows on benzene with chlorate as the electron acceptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, H. ten; Kieboom, C. van den; Doesburg, W. van; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Junca, H.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A bacterium, strain BC, was isolated from a benzene-degrading chlorate-reducing enrichment culture. Strain BC degrades benzene in conjunction with chlorate reduction. Cells of strain BC are short rods that are 0.6 μm wide and 1 to 2 μm long, are motile, and stain gram negative. Strain BC grows on

  18. Dicty_cDB: FC-BC16 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-BC16 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15105-1 FC-BC16Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-BC16Z 620 - - - - Show FC-BC16 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-BC16 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15105-1 Original site URL http://dict...4 2e-66 AY961522_1( AY961522 |pid:none) Lysiphlebus testaceipes ribosomal ... 254 2e-66 AF402813_1( AF402813 |pid:none) Ict...hondrial 4.0 %: nuclear >> prediction for FC-BC16 is cyt 5' end seq. ID - 5' end seq. - Length of 5' end seq

  19. Lactate Biosensor Based on Cellulose Acetate Membrane Bound Lactate Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactate biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing lactate oxidase in cellulose acetate membrane and by mounting over the sensing part of Pt electrode (working and connected to Ag/AgCl electrode (reference along with auxillary electrode through potentiostat. The enzyme electrode was anodically polarized at +400 mV to generate electrons from H2O2, which was formed from oxidation of serum lactate by immobilized lactate oxidase. The minimum detection limit of the electrode was 0.1mmoles/L and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.008 mA/mM/L lactate. Assay coefficients of variation were < 2% .A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between lactate values obtained by colorimetric method and lactate biosensor. The self-life of the biosensor was 18 days at 4ºC and enzyme electrode can be re-used 150 times without any significant loss in enzyme activity.

  20. Investigating membrane-bound Argonaute functions in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barghetti, Andrea

    and how AGO1 membrane recruitment is mediated as well as its functional importance remain poorly characterized. Isoprenoid biogenesis was previously found to be required for both AGO1 activity and membrane association, but the mechanistic connection between the two pathways was not discovered. Since....... The key effectors of sRNA-guided gene regulation are ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins. A group of Heat Shock Proteins of the HSP70/HSP90 chaperone machinery mediates the process, termed loading, that allow the functional association of sRNA with AGOs. Upon loading, Argonautes regulate complementary mRNA targets...... with the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Membranelocalized argonaute functions include translational repression, production of secondary phased small interfering RNA (siRNA) and autophagy-mediated turnover. However proteins interacting with AGO1 specifically on membrane fractions have not been identified...

  1. Scaling the State: Egypt in the Third Millennium BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bussmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of the early Egyptian state suffer from a weak consideration of scale. Egyptian archaeologists derive their arguments primarily from evidence of court cemeteries, elite tombs, and monuments of royal display. The material informs the analysis of kingship, early writing, and administration but it remains obscure how the core of the early Pharaonic state was embedded in the territory it claimed to administer. This paper suggests that the relationship between centre and hinterland is key for scaling the Egyptian state of the Old Kingdom (ca. 2,700-2,200 BC. Initially, central administration imagines Egypt using models at variance with provincial practice. The end of the Old Kingdom demarcates not the collapse, but the beginning of a large-scale state characterized by the coalescence of central and local models.

  2. General characteristics of Bc-mesons. Production mechanisms and decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtein, S.S.; Likhoded, A.K.; Slabospitsky, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Using Martin potential, independent of b- and c-quark flavour, the mass spectrum of B c (bc-bar)-mesons and widths of electromagnetic transition between them are calculated. The estimations of the production cross section at e + e - colliders, in hadronic and neutrino interactions are obtained. A real possibility to observed B c mesons at LEP and also at hadron colliders (σ(B c )/σ(bb-bar)∼10 -3 ) has been pointed out. The importance of observing the annihilation decay channels of B c -mesons: B c →τν τ (Br(B c →τν τ )=1.5-2%), and B c →ΦD s , B C →DK etc, has been emphasized. 25 refs.; 16 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Sinkhole investigated at B.C. Hydro's Bennett Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The cause of a sinkhole which appeared in a roadway crossing an earth filled dam in B. C., was discussed. The hole measured 6 ft. across and 20 ft. deep, and occurred in B.C. Hydro's W.A.C. Bennett Dam which measures 600 ft. high, 2,600 ft. wide at the base and 35 ft. wide at the crest. The cause of the sinkhole is not known, but it is believed that a weakness in the dam may have found its way to the surface via a pipe connected to a bedrock settlement gauge buried within the dam. Sonar and ground penetrating radar were used to examine the area. The hole has been filled with gravel and monitoring continues. Experts do not anticipate immediate risk of dam failure. 1 fig

  4. Neutron detection and applications using a BC454/BGO array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.C.; Biddle, R.S.; Bourret, S.C.; Byrd, R.C.; Ensslin, N.; Feldman, W.C.; Kuropatwinski, J.J.; Longmire, J.L.; Krick, M.S.; Mayo, D.R.; Russo, P.A.; Sweet, M.R

    1999-02-11

    Neutron detection and multiplicity counting has been investigated using a boron-loaded plastic scintillator/bismuth germanate phoswich detector array. The boron-loaded plastic combines neutron moderation (H) and detection ({sup 10}B) at the molecular level, thereby physically coupling increasing detection efficiency and decreasing die-away time with detector volume. Separation of the phoswich response into its plastic scintillator and bismuth germanate components was accomplished on an event-by-event basis using custom integrator and timing circuits, enabling a prompt coincidence requirement between the BC454 and BGO to be used to identify neutron captures. In addition, a custom time-tag module was used to provide a time for each detector event. Time-correlation analysis was subsequently performed on the filtered event stream to obtain shift-register-type singles and doubles count rates.

  5. Neutron detection and applications using a BC454/BGO array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.C.; Biddle, R.S.; Bourret, S.C.; Byrd, R.C.; Ensslin, N.; Feldman, W.C.; Kuropatwinski, J.J.; Longmire, J.L.; Krick, M.S.; Mayo, D.R.; Russo, P.A.; Sweet, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron detection and multiplicity counting has been investigated using a boron-loaded plastic scintillator/bismuth germanate phoswich detector array. The boron-loaded plastic combines neutron moderation (H) and detection ( 10 B) at the molecular level, thereby physically coupling increasing detection efficiency and decreasing die-away time with detector volume. Separation of the phoswich response into its plastic scintillator and bismuth germanate components was accomplished on an event-by-event basis using custom integrator and timing circuits, enabling a prompt coincidence requirement between the BC454 and BGO to be used to identify neutron captures. In addition, a custom time-tag module was used to provide a time for each detector event. Time-correlation analysis was subsequently performed on the filtered event stream to obtain shift-register-type singles and doubles count rates

  6. Gamma radiation effects on the cuban antimeningococcic BC vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron Soler, E.; Romay Penabad, Z.; Le Riveran Morales, E.; Campa Huergo, C.; Sierra Gonzalez, G.; Alfalla Valdes, L.; Prieto Miranda, E.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of gamma rays on the Cuban antimeningococcic BC vaccine properties were studied. These were performanced by simulation with different bio burden of microbial pollutants. The isolated spores of the pollutants of non- aseptic areas were used. Its D10 was determined as 2.045 Gy. On that basis, the sterilization dose setting was performed. The quality of the irradiated vaccine was performed according to the Cuban standards: sterility, protein and polysaccharide concentration, immunogenicity, per cent of protein adsorption, nonspecific innocuousness. There were observed non negative effects on the vaccine of the radiation process in the dose range of 0-25 Gy. It was also studied the preservation of the properties of the irradiated vaccine, by storing it during one year at four celsius grade. The results were satisfactory

  7. Alternative surfacing materials for weed control at BC Hydro substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, T.C.; Shrimpton, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    A two year study was conducted by BC Hydro in which a variety of surfacing materials were tested for their suitability for use in substations. Ideally, surfacing materials should have the following characteristics: high electrical resistivity in both dry and wet conditions, resistance to invasion by weeds, good driveability, good drainage, non-flammable, reasonably priced, no dust to foul conductors, and be aesthetically pleasing. Trials at Vernon Koksilah, and Ingledow substations were conducted to test the materials. A qualitative estimate of the amount of weed control provided by each material was recorded. The trials were meant to provide operational recommendations and screening information to allow for future testing of promising materials or combination of materials. Results showed that no single material meets all the desired criteria. The surfaces that best combined good weed control, electrical resistance and surface stability was a 15 cm deep layer of crushed gravel, especially if underlain by a layer of geotextile. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  9. Feedback-Capacity of Degraded Gaussian Vector BC using Directed Information and Concave Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    It is known that the capacity region of a two user physically degraded discrete memoryless (DM) broadcastchannel (BC) is not enlarged by feedback. An identical result holds true for a physically degraded Gaussian BC,established later using a variant of the Entropy Power Inequality (EPI). In this paper, we extend the latter resultto a physically degraded Gaussian Vector BC (PD-GVBC). However, the extension is not EPI based, but employs arecent result on the factorization of concave envelopes. ...

  10. Effects of Regulatory BC1 RNA Deletion on Synaptic Plasticity, Learning, and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ain; Dahan, Nessy; Alarcon, Juan Marcos; Fenton, André A.

    2017-01-01

    Nonprotein coding dendritic BC1 RNA regulates translation of mRNAs in neurons. We examined two lines of BC1 knockout mice and report that loss of BC1 RNA exaggerates group I mGluR-stimulated LTD of the Schaffer collateral synapse, with one of the lines showing a much more enhanced DHPG-induced LTD than the other. When the animals were given the…

  11. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Floral Repressor, BcMAF1, From Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feiyi; Liu, Tongkun; Hou, Xilin

    2018-01-01

    MADS-box genes form a large gene family in plants and are involved in multiple biological processes, such as flowering. However, the regulation mechanism of MADS-box genes in flowering remains unresolved, especially under short-term cold conditions. In the present study, we isolated BcMAF1 , a Pak-choi ( Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis ) MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING ( MAF ), as a floral repressor and functionally characterized BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis and Pak-choi. Subcellular localization and sequence analysis indicated that BcMAF1 was a nuclear protein and contained a conserved MADS-box domain. Expression analysis revealed that BcMAF1 had higher expression levels in leaves, stems, and petals, and could be induced by short-term cold conditions in Pak-choi. Overexpressing BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis showed that BcMAF1 had a negative function in regulating flowering, which was further confirmed by silencing endogenous BcMAF1 in Pak-choi. In addition, qPCR results showed that AtAP3 expression was reduced and AtMAF2 expression was induced in BcMAF1 -overexpressing Arabidopsis . Meanwhile, BcAP3 transcript was up-regulated and BcMAF2 transcript was down-regulated in BcMAF1 -silencing Pak-choi. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase transient assays showed that BcMAF1 could bind to the promoters of BcAP3 and BcMAF2 . These results indicated that BcAP3 and BcMAF2 might be the targets of BcMAF1. Taken together, our results suggested that BcMAF1 could negatively regulate flowering by directly activating BcMAF2 and repressing BcAP3 .

  12. The SMARTCyp cytochrome P450 metabolism prediction server

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydberg, Patrik; Gloriam, David Erik Immanuel; Olsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The SMARTCyp server is the first web application for site of metabolism prediction of cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism.......The SMARTCyp server is the first web application for site of metabolism prediction of cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism....

  13. Study of Bc+ decays to the K+K-π+ final state and evidence for the decay Bc+ →χc0π+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Everse, LA; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Coco, V.; David, P. N Y; De Bruyn, K.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Ketel, T.; Koopman, R. F.; Van Leerdam, J.; Merk, M.; Onderwater, C. J G; Raven, G.; Schiller, M.; Serra, N.; Snoek, H.; Storaci, B.; Syropoulos, V.; Van Tilburg, J.; Tolk, S.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.

    2016-01-01

    A study of Bc+→K+K-π+ decays is performed for the first time using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Evidence for the decay Bc+→χc0(→K+K-)π+ is reported with a significance of 4.0

  14. Scattering theory of the hyperbolic BC{sub n} Sutherland and the rational BC{sub n} Ruijsenaars–Schneider–van Diejen models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusztai, B.G., E-mail: gpusztai@math.u-szeged.hu

    2013-09-11

    In this paper, we investigate the scattering properties of the hyperbolic BC{sub n} Sutherland and the rational BC{sub n} Ruijsenaars–Schneider–van Diejen many-particle systems with three independent coupling constants. Utilizing the recently established action-angle duality between these classical integrable models, we construct their wave and scattering maps. In particular, we prove that for both particle systems the scattering map has a factorized form.

  15. Morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition of black carbon (BC) in urban topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yutong; Xiao, Qing; Lu, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Urban soils contain significant amounts of black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion and regard to be a pool of BC. BC in urban soils has multiple effects on environmental processes in urban system, such as global climate change, air quality, and public health. Urban topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected from Anshan, Liaoning Province, northeast China, which is one of the most important old steel industrial bases in China. The BC in urban topsoils was extracted using the density method. Their chemical composition, morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition were examined using elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C). Elemental analysis shows that carbon content in the BC of studied soils ranged from 64.5 to 78.4%, with the average more than 70%. The O/C atomic ratio of BC is on average 0.18. The BC particle displays different morphology, including porous spherical, irregular porous fragmentary, and blocky shapes. The porous spherical BC particles has atomic molar O/C ratio determined by SEM-EDS ranging from 0.04 to 0.37. XRD indicates that BC exists in mainly combining with mineral phases hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), kaolinite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ), quartz (SiO 2 ), and calcite (CaCO 3 ). The FTIR spectra of BC particles show major bands at approximately 3400 cm -1 (O-H), 2920 cm -1 (C = H), 1600 cm -1 (C = C), 1230 cm -1 (C = O), and 1070 cm -1 (C = O). The stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C) of BC ranges from -24.48 to -23.18‰ with the average of -23.79 ± 0.39‰. The concentration of BC in the industrial area is significantly (p fuel combustion. Results indicated that a combination of atomic O/C ratio, porous structure, and stable carbon isotopic (δ 13 C) of BC could reflect effectively the origin of BC

  16. Cytochrome P450-Mediated Phytoremediation using Transgenic Plants: A Need for Engineered Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santosh; Jin, Mengyao; Weemhoff, James L

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for versatile and ubiquitous Cytochrome P450 (CYP) biocatalysts for biotechnology, medicine, and bioremediation. In the last decade there has been an increase in realization of the power of CYP biocatalysts for detoxification of soil and water contaminants using transgenic plants. However, the major limitations of mammalian CYP enzymes are that they require CYP reductase (CPR) for their activity, and they show relatively low activity, stability, and expression. O...

  17. The Bernades herbarium in the Botanic Institute of Barcelona (BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibáñez, N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The BC-Bernades herbarium is one of the oldest collections conserved in the Botanical Institute of Barcelona. It contains part of the field collections of Miquel Bernades i Mainader and Miquel Bernades i Clarís, doctors of medicine and botanists of Catalonian origin living in Madrid in the 18th century. The collection consists of 817 sheets, the complete list provided in the annexe. We also present information concerning the localities of certain specific recollections, the taxonomic groups and families, as well as a list of sheets of special interest. This list contains witness of cornfield weed now very rare or extinct in Iberian lands, such as Hymenocarpos circinatus (L. Savi or Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dörfl , and also some of the first witness known from Spain of introduced plants, such as Aster cordifolius L. or Bidens bipinnata L.

    [es] El herbario BC-Bernades es una de las colecciones más antiguas conservadas en el Instituto Botánico de Barcelona. Contiene parte de las recolecciones de Miquel Bernades y Mainader y Miquel Bernades y Clarís, médicos y botánicos catalanes del siglo XVIII establecidos en Madrid. Consta de 817 pliegos, la relación de los cuales presentamos en un anexo. También mostramos datos sobre las localidades de recolección, grupos taxonómicos y familias presentes, y una relación de pliegos de interés. Entre estos aparecen testimonios de plantas arvenses extinguidas o muy raras en tierras ibéricas como Hymenocarpos circinatus (L. Savi o Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dörfl , y también algunos de los primeros testimonios conocidos en España de plantas introducidas como Aster cordifolius L. o Bidens bipinnata L. [ct] L’herbari BC-Bernades és una de les col·leccions més antigues de les conservades a l’Institut Botànic de Barcelona. Conté part de les recol·leccions de Miquel Bernades i Mainader i Miquel Bernades

  18. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  19. [Inheritance of bc1 gene in intersubspecific hybrids of rice (Oryza sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chuan-Gen; Zong, Shou-Yu; Zhao, Ling; Qi, Qing-Ming; Zou, Jiang-Shi; Ikehashi, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    Distorted segregation of the brittle culm-1 gene (bc1) on rice chromosome 3 was found with greatly increased or decreased frequency of bc1 bc1 genotype in inter-subspecific hybrids, although the gene normally transmitted to its offspring following the Mendelian Law in intra-subspecific hybrids. In a combination of Kamairazu//Ketan Nangka/Kamairazu,an increased frequency of bc1 bc1 in F1, normal segregation in F2, and increased and decreased frequency in a few F3 and F4 lines were observed. In a cross of IR36/Kamairazu, decreased frequency in F2, both normal and decreased segregations in F3 and F4, and a few lines of increased ratio in F4 were found. In F2 of Ketan Nangka/IR36//Kamairazu, increased and decreased and normal segregations were all observed. There was no significant correlation between the frequency of bc1 bc1 and pollen fertility. It implied that distorted segregation of bc1 was caused by selective fertilization of male gametes, which were governed by gametophyte genes of ga2, ga3 and ga14 on chromosome 3.

  20. Search for the $B_c$ meson in hadronic $Z^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, A.N.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bloomer, J.E.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Edwards, J.E.G.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ingram, M.R.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, G.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Muller, U.; Mihara, S.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rembser, C.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Rylko, R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilkens, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1998-01-01

    A search for decays of the B_c meson was performed using data collected from 1990-1995 with the OPAL detector on or near the Z peak at LEP. The decay channels B_c^+ -> J/psi pi^+, B_c^+ -> J/psi a_1^+ and B_c^+ -> J/psi ell^+ nu were investigated, where ell denotes an electron or a muon. Two candidates are observed in the mode B_c^+ -> J/psi pi^+, with an estimated background of (0.63 +/- 0.20) events. The weighted mean of the masses of the two candidates is (6.32 +/- 0.06) GeV/c^2, which is consistent with the predicted mass of the B_c meson. One candidate event is observed in the mode B_c^+ -> J/psi ell^+ nu with an estimated background of (0.82 +/- 0.19) events. No candidate events are observed in the B_c^+ -> J/psi a_1^+ decay mode, with an estimated background of (1.10 +/- 0.22) events. Upper bounds at the 90% confidence level are set on the production rates for these processes.

  1. Music in the Syrian city of Ebla in the late third millennium B.C.*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.

    2012-01-01

    Musicians and musical instruments in the (bilingual Sumero-Akkadian) lexical and administrative texts from the Syrian city of Ebla (± 2300 B.C.) with occasional reference to the musical instruments of the city of Mari (±1750 B.C.)

  2. Proteomic analysis of nitrate-dependent acetone degradation by Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterkamp, M.J.; Boeren, S.; Atashgahi, S.; Plugge, C.M.; Schaap, P.J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC grows anaerobically on acetone with nitrate as electron acceptor. Comparative proteomics of cultures of A. denitrificans strain BC grown on either acetone or acetate with nitrate was performed to study the enzymes involved in the acetone degradation pathway. In

  3. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2015-09-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions, and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris, France, plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows for several error sources (e.g., representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion) to be minimized in the model used. The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g., boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g., BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably through sensitivity tests. Large uncertainty values are determined in our results, which limits the usefulness of the method to rather strongly erroneous emission inventories. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained for the TNO BC emissions and the EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as for the BC / NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC / NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests a spatially heterogeneous error in BC emissions over the agglomeration.

  4. NMR comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytochromes c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Meihing; Cai, Meng Li; Timkovich, R.

    1990-01-01

    1 H NMR spectroscopy has been used to examine ferrocytochrome c-551 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 19429) over the pH range 3.5-10.6 and the temperature range 4-60 degree C. Resonance assignments are proposed for main-chain and side-chain protons. Comparison of results for cytochrome c-551 to recently assigned spectra for horse cytochrome c and mutants of yeast iso-1 cytochrome reveals some unique resonances with unusual chemical shifts in all cytochromes that may serve as markers for the heme region. Results for cytochrome c-551 indicate that in the smaller prokaryotic cytochrome, all benzoid side chains are rapidly flipping on the NMR time scale. In contrast, in eukaryotic cytochromes there are some rings flipping slowly on the NMR time scale. The ferrocytochrome c-551 undergoes a transition linked to pH with a pK around 7. The pH behavior of assigned resonances provides evidence that the site of protonation is the inner or buried 17-propionic acid heme substituent (IUPAC-IUB porphyrin nomenclature). Conformational heterogeneity has been observed for segments near the inner heme propionate substituent

  5. Calcium transport in vesicles energized by cytochrome oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosier, Randy N. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Experiments on the reconstitution of cytochrome oxidase into phospholipid vesicles were carried out using techniques of selectivity energizing the suspensions with ascorbate and cytochrome c or ascorbate, PMS, and internally trapped cytochrome c. It was found that the K+ selective ionophore valinomycin stimulated the rate of respiration of cytochrome oxidase vesicles regardless of the direction of the K+ flux across the vesicle membranes. The stimulation occurred in the presence of protonophoric uncouplers and in the complete absence of potassium or in detergent-lysed suspensions. Gramicidin had similar effects and it was determined that the ionophores acted by specific interaction with cytochrome oxidase rather than by the previously assumed collapse of membrane potentials. When hydrophobic proteins and appropriate coupling factors were incorporated into the cytochrome oxidase, vesicles phosphorylation of ADP could be coupled to the oxidation reaction of cytochrome oxidase. Relatively low P:O, representing poor coupling of the system, were problematical and precluded measurements of protonmotive force. However the system was used to study ion translocation.

  6. Introducing the CEFR in BC: Questions and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Wernicke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2010, the British Columbia Ministry of Education introduced an updated version of its international languages curricula titled Additional Languages (AL draft curriculum which set out a clear articulation of the province's language education as conceived and developed over the past 15 years. The strength of the draft curriculum lies in its emphasis on plurilingualism as a guiding pedagogical principle, a response to recent recommendations of the Council of Ministers of Canada to adopt the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR in a Canadian context. The CEFR framing has been retained in the latest revision of the AL draft curriculum, the 2011 French curriculum, which has recently replaced the original 2010 draft document. Despite this latest revision, the original AL draft curriculum maintains historical relevance for language education in BC by highlighting the province’s linguistic diversity and the choice to value more than one language in different ways. In its original conception, the AL draft curriculum operationalized the recognition of linguistic plurality within an officially bilingual context and thus represented a concrete attempt to acknowledge the very dynamic language practices of British Columbians. In this paper we examine how the draft curriculum sought to negotiate historical, political, cultural, and linguistic questions with regard to language education in BC, by first considering the historical development of BC language education within the context of official bilingualism, followed by a thematic discourse analysis of the document text to highlight the clearest yet also most challenging articulation of plurilingual language education in BC to date. Résumé En 2010, le ministère de l’Éducation de Colombie-Britannique a introduit une version révisée de ses programmes de langues internationales, sous la forme d'un projet de curriculum pour les langues additionnelles qui définissait une

  7. Rare radiative decay of the $B_{c}$ meson

    CERN Document Server

    Barik, N; Kar, S; Dash, P C

    2001-01-01

    We study the decays B/sub c/ to D* gamma and B/sub c/ to D/sub s/* gamma in the relativistic independent quark model based on the confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. Out of the two competing mechanisms contributing to these decays, we find that the weak annihilation contribution dominates the electromagnetic penguin one. Considering contributions from both mechanisms, total decay widths and branching ratios are predicted as Gamma (B/sub c/ to D* gamma )=5.22*10/sup -18/ GeV, Gamma (B/sub c/ to D/sub s/* gamma ) =1.98*10/sup -16/ GeV and Br(B/sub c/ to D* gamma ) approximately =3.64*10/sup -6/, Br(B/sub c/ to D/sub s/* gamma ) approximately =1.39*10/sup -4/ with tau /sub Bc/=0.46 ps. The decays B/sub c/ to D /sub s/* gamma can well be studied at CERN LHC in the near future. (33 refs).

  8. Power system data communication architecture at BC Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struyk, E.

    2001-07-01

    Development of a power system data communication architecture (PSDCA) at British Columbia Hydro that enables authorized corporate users to access station-intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) for power system data in non real-time, without compromising the reliability and availability of the real-time SCADA systems, is described. Also discussed is the development of major upgrade initiatives for expanding the use of intelligent electronic devices and remote terminal units (RTUs) which report to the main System Control Centre at Burnaby, BC, and to the four Area Control Centres located throughout the province. The network architecture that incorporates industry standards for PSDCA also provides an opportunity to existing network security systems against electronic threats such as hackers and saboteurs, beyond the simple methods of single or two-level passwords of existing protection control and monitoring equipment systems. The virtual private network (VPN) technology built into the PSDCA will allow secure access to station IED data by corporate users to access their own power data in a secure and reliable fashion. 4 figs.

  9. Guidance document to the BC emission offsets regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    British Columbia's (BC) emission offset regulations were established under the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets Act passed in 2007. Targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions included a 6 percent reduction by 2012; an 18 percent reduction by 2016; a 33 percent reduction by 2020; and an 80 percent reduction by 2050. Carbon neutral agreements began in 2008, and covered emissions produced from government business travel and by provincial government ministries and agencies. This report presented a list of key recommendations developed by the Pacific Carbon Trust for use in future carbon offset projects. Recommendations included the use of correct emission factors when quantifying projected emission reductions from an offset project; the use of a robust data management system; and the use of evidence in supporting additionality arguments. The document outlined planning procedures for project baseline selection processes, protocol selections, and the identification of sources sinks and reservoirs. Issues related to quantification and measurements, emissions factors, and accuracy and uncertainty were also addressed. Validation, verification, and contracting options were also presented. 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Distribution automation at BC Hydro : a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siew, C. [BC Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Smart Grid Development Program

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed a distribution automation study conducted by BC Hydro to determine methods of improving grid performance by supporting intelligent transmission and distribution systems. The utility's smart grid program includes a number of utility-side and customer-side applications, including enabled demand response, microgrid, and operational efficiency applications. The smart grid program will improve reliability and power quality by 40 per cent, improve conservation and energy efficiency throughout the province, and provide enhanced customer service. Programs and initiatives currently underway at the utility include distribution management, smart metering, distribution automation, and substation automation programs. The utility's automation functionality will include fault interruption and locating, restoration capability, and restoration success. A decision support system has also been established to assist control room and field operating personnel with monitoring and control of the electric distribution system. Protection, control and monitoring (PCM) and volt VAR optimization upgrades are also planned. Reclosers are also being automated, and an automation guide has been developed for switches. tabs., figs.

  11. 100-BC-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study includes development and screening of alternatives (Phases 1 and 2) and the detailed analysis of alternatives (Phase 3). This focused feasibility study constitutes the Phase 3 portion of the feasibility study process for the remedial alternatives initially developed and screened in the 100 Area Feasibility Study Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1993a). The focused feasibility study process is conducted in two stages, a Process Document (DOE-RL 1994a) and an operable unit-specific focused feasibility study document, such as this one. The focused feasibility study process is performed by implementing a ''plug-in'' style approach; as defined in greater detail in the Process Document, which is a companion to this document. The objective of this focused feasibility study is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures for candidate waste sites associated with the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit which is located in the north-central part of the Hanford Site. The interim remedial measure candidate waste sites are determined in the Limited Field Investigation (DOE-RL 1993b). Site profiles are developed for each of these waste sites. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  12. Search for the $B_{c}$ meson in hadronic Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Becker, U; Bazarko, A O; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Turnbull, R M; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G

    1997-01-01

    A search for the Bc meson decaying into the channels J/psi pi+ and J/psi l nu (l = e or mu) is performed in a sample of 3.9 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH detector. This search results in the observation of 0 and 2 candidates in each of these channels, respectively, while 0.44 and 0.81 background events are expected. The following 90\\% confidence level upper limits are derived: Br(Z->Bc X)/Br(Z->q q )*Br(Bc->J/psi pi+) Bc X)/Br(Z->q q )*Br(Bc->J/psi l nu) J/psi(e+e-) mu nu candidate with very low background probability, found in an independent analysis, is also described in detail.

  13. Plastocyanin/cytochrome c6 interchange in Scenedesmus vacuolatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramar, M Dolores; Inda, Luis A; Saraiva, Lígia M; Peleato, M Luisa

    2003-12-01

    Plastocyanin and cytochrome c6 from the green alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus were immunoquantified in cells grown under different concentrations of copper and iron. Plastocyanin expression was constitutive, its synthesis was not significantly affected by iron availability, and increases with copper availability. On the contrary, cytochrome c6 synthesis is repressed by copper, and only residual amounts of the protein were detected at 0.1 micromol/L copper. Under copper deficiency, cytochrome c6 is slightly dependent on iron. In natural environments, plastocyanin seems to be the predominant electron donor to P700.

  14. MicroRNA-661 Enhances TRAIL or STS Induced Osteosarcoma Cell Apoptosis by Modulating the Expression of Cytochrome c1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteosarcoma (OS is an aggressive bone malignancy that affects rapidly growing bones and is associated with a poor prognosis. Our previous study showed that cytochrome c1 (CYC1, a subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III of the mitochondrial electron chain, is overexpressed in human OS tissues and cell lines and its silencing induces apoptosis in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the modulation of CYC1 expression in OS and its role in the resistance of OS to apoptosis. Methods: qRT-PCR, luciferase reporter assay, western blotting, fow cytometry, and animal experiments were performed in this study. Results: MicroRNA (miR-661 was identified as a downregulated miRNA in OS tissues and cells and shown to directly target CYC1. Ectopically expressed miR-661 inhibited OS cell growth, promoted apoptosis, and reduced the activity of mitochondrial complex III. miR-661 overexpression enhanced TRAIL or STS induced apoptosis and promoted the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, which induced caspase-9 activation, and these effects were abolished by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Overexpression of CYC1 rescued the effects of miR-661 on sensitizing OS cells to TRAIL or STS induced apoptosis, indicating that the antitumor effect of miR-661 is mediated by the downregulation of CYC1. In vivo, miR-661 overexpression sensitized tumors to TRAIL or STS induced apoptosis in a xenograft mouse model, and these effects were attenuated by co-expression of CYC1. Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicate that miR-661 plays a tumor suppressor role in OS mediated by the downregulation of CYC1, suggesting a potential mechanism underlying cell death resistance in OS.

  15. THE STORY OF THE BC FAMILY JUSTICE INNOVATION LAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Morley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many in the justice system know that fundamental change is needed but few know the best way to do it.  Previous attempts using strategic planning approaches have not achieved meaningful change.  Something different is needed.  The BC Family Justice Innovation Lab (the Lab is experimenting with a different approach drawing on complexity science, the experience of other jurisdictions and disciplines and incorporating human-centred design as a way of focusing on the well-being of families going through the transition of separation and divorce.  This article is the story of the first few years of the Lab’s life.  It has been a fascinating and challenging path so far, and it remains to be seen whether it will ultimately succeed. The story is offered so that others with similar ambitions can learn from the Lab’s experience – its successes and its failures.  It is the nature and strength of stories that the reader will take from them what they will. For the authors, one overriding theme that emerges from this story is that transforming a complex social system, such as the family justice system in British Columbia, requires embracing the complexity of paradox and refusing to be defeated by the tension of opposites and a multitude of wicked, unanswerable questions.    Bon nombre d’intervenants du système de justice savent qu’un changement fondamental s’impose, mais peu connaissent la meilleure façon de le réaliser. Dans le passé, l’utilisation d’approches de planification stratégique n’a pas donné les résultats escomptés. Une approche différente est nécessaire. S’inspirant de l’expérience vécue dans d’autres ressorts et d’autres disciplines, le BC Family Justice Innovation Lab (le Lab expérimente actuellement une approche différente fondée sur la science de la complexité, et s’efforce d’intégrer une conception axée sur la personne afin de mettre de l’avant le bien-être des familles

  16. The human genome project and novel aspects of cytochrome P450 research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    Currently, 57 active cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and 58 pseudogenes are known to be present in the human genome. Among the genes discovered by initiatives in the human genome project are CYP2R1, CYP2W1, CYP2S1, CYP2U1 and CYP3A43, the latter apparently encoding a pseudoenzyme. The function, polymorphism and regulation of these genes are still to be discovered to a great extent. The polymorphism of drug metabolizing CYPs is extensive and influences the outcome of drug therapy causing lack of response or adverse drug reactions. The basis for the differences in the global distribution of the polymorphic variants is inactivating gene mutations and subsequent genetic drift. However, polymorphic alleles carrying multiple active gene copies also exist and are suggested in case of CYP2D6 to be caused by positive selection due to development of alkaloid resistance in North East Africa about 10,000-5000 BC. The knowledge about the CYP genes and their polymorphisms is of fundamental importance for effective drug therapy and for drug development as well as for understanding metabolic activation of carcinogens and other xenobiotics. Here, a short review of the current knowledge is given

  17. Aspirin Induces Apoptosis through Release of Cytochrome c from Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja C. Zimmermann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID reduce the risk for cancer, due to their anti proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects. A critical pathway for apoptosis involves the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, which then interacts with Apaf-1 to activate caspase proteases that orchestrate cell death. In this study we found that treatment of a human cancer cell line with aspirin induced caspase activation and the apoptotic cell morphology, which was blocked by the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Further analysis of the mechanism underlying this apoptotic event showed that aspirin induces translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and triggers release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria was inhibited by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cells that lack Apaf-1 were resistant to aspirin-induced apoptosis. These data provide evidence that the release of cytochrome c is an important part of the apoptotic mechanism of aspirin.

  18. Cytochrome c Is Tyrosine 97 Phosphorylated by Neuroprotective Insulin Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanderson, T. H.; Mahapatra, G.; Pecina, Petr; Ji, Q.; Yu, K.; Sinkler, Ch.; Varughese, A.; Kumar, R.; Bukowski, M. J.; Tousignant, R. N.; Salomon, A. R.; Lee, I.; Hüttemann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013), e78627 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cytochrome c * tyrosine phosphorylation * brain ischemia * insulin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  19. North African genetic variation of cytochrome and sulfotransferase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in these genes have shown relevant ethnic differences among Sub-Saharan .... This cytochrome catalyzes a big amount of oxidative reactions of substances like ... with samples of European and African origin (because of the scarce data ...

  20. Oxygen and xenobiotic reductase activities of cytochrome P450.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeptar, A.R.; Scheerens, H.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen reductase and xenobiotic reductase activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) are reviewed. During the oxygen reductase activity of P450, molecular oxygen is reduced to superoxide anion radicals (O

  1. Structural and electronic properties of hydrogen adsorptions on BC3 sheet and graphene: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Lin, Wen-Huan; Albao, Marvin A; Su, Wan-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the effect of hydrogen adsorption on a single BC 3 sheet as well as graphene using first-principles calculations. Specifically, a comparative study of the energetically favorable atomic configurations for both H-adsorbed BC 3 sheets and graphene at different hydrogen concentrations ranging from 1/32 to 4/32 ML and 1/8 to 1 ML was undertaken. The preferred hydrogen arrangement on the single BC 3 sheet and graphene was found to have the same property as that of the adsorbed H atoms on the neighboring C atoms on the opposite sides of the sheet. Moreover, at low coverage of H, the pattern of hydrogen adsorption on the BC 3 shows a proclivity toward formation on the same ring, contrasting their behavior on graphene where they tend to form the elongated zigzag chains instead. Lastly, both the hydrogenated BC 3 sheet and graphene exhibit alternation of semiconducting and metallic properties as the H concentration is increased. These results suggest the possibility of manipulating the bandgaps in a single BC 3 sheet and graphene by controlling the H concentrations on the BC 3 sheet and graphene.

  2. Electronic, elastic, and optical properties of monolayer BC{sub 2}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Lina; Hu, Meng; Peng, Yusi; Luo, Yanting; Li, Chunmei; Chen, Zhiqian, E-mail: chen_zq@swu.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    The structural stability, electronic structure, elasticity, and optical properties of four types of monolayer BC{sub 2}N have been investigated from first principles using calculation based on density functional theory. The results show that the structural stability of BC{sub 2}N increases with the number of C–C and B–N bonds. By calculating the two-dimensional Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear anisotropic factors in different directions, four structures present various anisotropies and the most stable structure is almost isotropic. For C-type BC{sub 2}N, the values of two-dimensional Young's modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus (309, 128, 195 GPa m{sup −1}), are smaller than those of graphene (343, 151, 208) but bigger than those of h-BN (286, 185, 116). Furthermore, the dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity, absorption coefficient, and energy loss spectrum are also calculated to investigate the mechanism underpinning the optical transitions in BC{sub 2}N, revealing monolayer BC{sub 2}N as a candidate window material. - Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of BC{sub 2}N under the biaxial tensile strain. Changes in the valence-band top and the conduction-band bottom of BC{sub 2}N with increasing strain.

  3. The biodiversity of microbial cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Steven L; Lamb, David C; Jackson, Colin J; Warrilow, Andrew G; Kelly, Diane E

    2003-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of genes and proteins are well known for their involvement in pharmacology and toxicology, but also increasingly for their importance and diversity in microbes. The extent of diversity has only recently become apparent with the emergence of data from whole genome sequencing projects and the coming years will reveal even more information on the diversity in microbial eukaryotes. This review seeks to describe the historical development of these studies and to highlight the importance of the genes and proteins. CYPs are deeply involved in the development of strategies for deterrence and attraction as well as detoxification. As such, there is intense interest in pathways of secondary metabolism that include CYPs in oxidative tailoring of antibiotics, sometimes influencing potency as bioactive compounds. Further to this is interest in CYPs in metabolism of xenobiotics for use as carbon sources for microbial growth and as biotransformation agents or in bioremediation. CYPs are also current and potential drug targets; compounds inhibiting CYP are antifungal and anti-protozoan agents, and potentially similar compounds may be useful against some bacterial diseases such as tuberculosis. Of note is the diversity of CYP requirements within an organism, ranging from Escherichia coli that has no CYPs as in many bacteria, to Mycobacterium smegmatis that has 40 representing 1% of coding genes. The basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium surprised all when it was found to contain a hundred or more CYPs. The functional genomic investigation of these orphan CYPs is a major challenge for the future.

  4. Geometrical analysis of cytochrome c unfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, Kristopher G.; Pletneva, Ekaterina; Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.; Kozak, John J.

    2011-01-01

    A geometrical model has been developed to study the unfolding of iso-1 cytochrome c. The model draws on the crystallographic data reported for this protein. These data were used to calculate the distance between specific residues in the folded state, and in a sequence of extended states defined by n = 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 residue units. Exact calculations carried out for each of the 103 residues in the polypeptide chain demonstrate that different regions of the chain have different unfolding histories. Regions where there is a persistence of compact structures can be identified, and this geometrical characterization is fully consistent with analyses of time-resolved fluorescence energy-transfer (TrFET) data using dansyl-derivatized cysteine side-chain probes at positions 39, 50, 66, 85, and 99. The calculations were carried out assuming that different regions of the polypeptide chain unfold synchronously. To test this assumption, lattice Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study systematically the possible importance of asynchronicity. Calculations show that small departures from synchronous dynamics can arise if displacements of residues in the main body of the chain are much more sluggish than near-terminal residues.

  5. Epidermal CYP2 family cytochromes P450

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Liping; Hoffman, Susan M.G.; Keeney, Diane S.

    2004-01-01

    Skin is the largest and most accessible drug-metabolizing organ. In mammals, it is the competent barrier that protects against exposure to harmful stimuli in the environment and in the systemic circulation. Skin expresses many cytochromes P450 that have critical roles in exogenous and endogenous substrate metabolism. Here, we review evidence for epidermal expression of genes from the large CYP2 gene family, many of which are expressed preferentially in extrahepatic tissues or specifically in epithelia at the environmental interface. At least 13 CYP2 genes (CYP2A6, 2A7, 2B6, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1) are expressed in skin from at least some human individuals, and the majority of these genes are expressed in epidermis or cultured keratinocytes. Where epidermal expression has been localized in situ by hybridization or immunocytochemistry, CYP2 transcripts and proteins are most often expressed in differentiated keratinocytes comprising the outer (suprabasal) cell layers of the epidermis and skin appendages. The tissue-specific transcriptional regulation of CYP2 genes in the epidermis, and in other epithelia that interface with the environment, suggests important roles for at least some CYP2 gene products in the production and disposition of molecules affecting competency of the epidermal barrier

  6. Novel extrahepatic cytochrome P450s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlgren, Maria; Miura, Shin-ichi; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly expressed in the liver and are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Because of the initiatives associated with the Human Genome Project, a great progress has recently been seen in the identification and characterization of novel extrahepatic P450s, including CYP2S1, CYP2R1, CYP2U1 and CYP2W1. Like the hepatic enzymes, these P450s may play a role in the tissue-specific metabolism of foreign compounds, but they may also have important endogenous functions. CYP2S1 has been shown to metabolize all-trans retinoic acid and CYP2R1 is a major vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. Regarding their metabolism of xenobiotics, much remains to be established, but CYP2S1 metabolizes naphthalene and it is likely that these P450s are responsible for metabolic activation of several different kinds of xenobiotic chemicals and contribute to extrahepatic toxicity and carcinogenesis

  7. Polyethylene glycol promotes autoxidation of cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Uchida, Takeshi; Saio, Tomohide; Ishimori, Koichiro

    2018-06-01

    Cytochrome c (Cyt c) was rapidly oxidized by molecular oxygen in the presence, but not absence of PEG. The redox potential of heme c was determined by the potentiometric titration to be +236 ± 3 mV in the absence of PEG, which was negatively shifted to +200 ± 4 mV in the presence of PEG. The underlying the rapid oxidation was explored by examining the structural changes in Cyt c in the presence of PEG using UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, resonance Raman, and fluorescence spectroscopies. These spectroscopic analyses suggested that heme oxidation was induced by a modest tertiary structural change accompanied by a slight shift in the heme position (c, which triggered heme displacement. The primary dehydration site was estimated to be around surface-exposed hydrophobic residues near the heme center: Ile81 and Val83. These findings and our previous studies, which showed that hydrated water molecules around Ile81 and Val83 are expelled when Cyt c forms a complex with CcO, proposed that dehydration of these residues is functionally significant to electron transfer from Cyt c to CcO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Atomistic determinants of co-enzyme Q reduction at the Qi-site of the cytochrome bc1 complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postila, Pekka A.; Kaszuba, Karol; Kuleta, Patryk

    2016-01-01

    into the Q i-site to facilitate binding of half-protonated semiquinone-a reaction intermediate that is potentially formed during substrate reduction. At this bent pose, the Lys251 forms a salt bridge with the Asp252, thus making direct proton transfer possible. In the neutral state, the lysine side chain...... stays close to the conserved binding location of cardiolipin (CL). This back-and-forth motion between the CL and Asp252 indicates that Lys251 functions as a proton shuttle controlled by pH-dependent negative feedback. The CL/K/D switching, which represents a refinement to the previously described CL...

  9. Evidence for the exclusive decay B(c)+- --> J/psi pi+- and measurement of the mass of the B(c)+- meson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachocou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cijliak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cranshaw, J; Cruz, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nicolas, L; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Papikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-03-03

    We report the first evidence for a fully reconstructed decay mode of the B(c)+- meson in the channel B(c)+- --> J/psi pi+-, with J/psi --> mu+ mu-. The analysis is based on an integrated luminosity of 360 pb(-1) in pp collisions at 1.96 TeV center of mass energy collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We observe 14.6 +/- 4.6 signal events with a background of 7.1 +/- 0.9 events, and a fit to the J/psi pi+-mass spectrum yields a B(c)+- mass of 6285.7 +/- 5.3(stat) +/- 1.2(syst) MeV/c2. The probability of a peak of this magnitude occurring by random fluctuation in the search region is estimated as 0.012%.

  10. Measurement of the lifetime of the $B_c^+$ meson using the $B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi\\pi^+$ decay mode

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew Christopher; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Domenico, Antonio; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The difference in total widths between the $B_c^+$ and $B^+$ mesons is measured using 3.0fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb experiment in 7 and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energy proton-proton collisions at the LHC. Through the study of the time evolution of $B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\pi^+$ and $B^+\\rightarrow J/\\psi K^+$ decays, the width difference is measured to be $ \\Delta\\Gamma \\equiv \\Gamma_{B_c^+} - \\Gamma_{B^+} = 4.46 \\pm 0.14 \\pm 0.07mm^{-1}c,$ where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The known lifetime of the $B^+$ meson is used to convert this to a precise measurement of the $B_c^+$ lifetime, $\\tau_{B_c^+} = 513.4 \\pm 11.0 \\pm 5.7fs,$ where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.

  11. HIV-1 CRF_BC recombinants infection in China: molecular epidemic and characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yabo; Shao, Yiming; Ma, Liying

    2012-03-01

    CRF_BC recombinant strains were first identified in China and are one of the most prevalent and characteristically unique HIV-1 subtypes across China. Here we aim to review the published data about HIV-1 CRF_BC recombinant strains epidemic in China and to characterize the genetics, biology and drug resistance of this virus. This study may help to better understand the current situation of HIV-1 CRF_BC prevalence and facilitate the development of vaccines and more efficient anti-HIV-1 regimens in China.

  12. Observation of the decay $B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi K^+ K^- \\pi^+$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Cheung, S -F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The decay $B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi K^+ K^- \\pi^+$ is observed for the first time, using proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$. A signal yield of 78$\\pm$14 decays is reported with a significance of 6.2 standard deviations. The ratio of the branching fraction of $B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi K^+ K^- \\pi^+$ decays to that of $B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\pi^+$ decays is measured to be $0.53\\pm 0.10\\pm0.05$, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  13. The most important key-performance indicators at BC Timişoara management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the management of objectives at BC Timisoara, motivation and performance analysis. The aim of this paper is to analyze the most important key factors involved in a basketball team performance. The basketball team analyzed is BC Timisoara, a well established club in this city of Western Romania. The article combines information gathered from BC Timisoara’s manager and management theories relevant to the topic. Goal setting is affected by financial and human resource factors as well control and regulation functions. Finally motivation plays a key role in players performance.

  14. Investigation of sputtered Mo2BC hard coatings : correlation of nanostructure and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Gleich, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of Mo2BC coatings on silicon substrates. According to reported ab initio calculations in literature, which predicted a high stiffness and a moderate ductile behavior for the material, Mo2BC is a predestinated candidate to act as hard coating layer. The focus in this thesis is set on the nanostructure of Mo2BC hard coatings explored by transmission electron microscopy as a function of the used substrate temperature, applied during the deposition process us...

  15. Volume of Courses Students Carry among Central Data Warehouse (CDW) Institutions: Implications for Recalibration of the BC Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has undertaken, in the last couple of years, a review of the BC Transfer System. Preliminary findings indicate that the current structure of the BC Transfer Guide (BCTG), which designates institutions as either "sending" institutions or "receiving"…

  16. Cytochrome b5 and NADH cytochrome b5 reductase: genotype-phenotype correlations for hydroxylamine reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, James C; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2010-01-01

    NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (b5) catalyze the reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-HA), which can contribute to sulfonamide hypersensitivity, to the parent drug sulfamethoxazole. Variability in hydroxylamine reduction could thus play a role in adverse drug reactions. The aim of this study was to characterize variability in SMX-HA reduction in 111 human livers, and investigate its association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in b5 and b5R cDNA. Liver microsomes were assayed for SMX-HA reduction activity, and b5 and b5R expression was semiquantified by immunoblotting. The coding regions of the b5 (CYB5A) and b5R (CYB5R3) genes were resequenced. Hepatic SMX-HA reduction displayed a 19-fold range of individual variability (0.06-1.11 nmol/min/mg protein), and a 17-fold range in efficiency (Vmax/Km) among outliers. SMX-HA reduction was positively correlated with b5 and b5R protein content (Phydroxylamine reduction activities, these low-frequency cSNPs seem to only minimally impact overall observed phenotypic variability. Work is underway to characterize polymorphisms in other regions of these genes to further account for individual variability in hydroxylamine reduction.

  17. Solution NMR study of the yeast cytochrome c peroxidase: cytochrome c interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, Alexander N., E-mail: ovolkov@vub.ac.be; Nuland, Nico A. J. van [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Jean Jeener NMR Centre, Structural Biology Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-07-15

    Here we present a solution NMR study of the complex between yeast cytochrome c (Cc) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP), a paradigm for understanding the biological electron transfer. Performed for the first time, the CcP-observed heteronuclear NMR experiments were used to probe the Cc binding in solution. Combining the Cc- and CcP-detected experiments, the binding interface on both proteins was mapped out, confirming that the X-ray structure of the complex is maintained in solution. Using NMR titrations and chemical shift perturbation analysis, we show that the interaction is independent of the CcP spin-state and is only weakly affected by the Cc redox state. Based on these findings, we argue that the complex of the ferrous Cc and the cyanide-bound CcP is a good mimic of the catalytically-active Cc-CcP compound I species. Finally, no chemical shift perturbations due to the Cc binding at the low-affinity CcP site were observed at low ionic strength. We discuss possible reasons for the absence of the effects and outline future research directions.

  18. Production and characterization of yeast cytochrome c antibodies; immunological studies of mutants with altered cytochrome c synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matner, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Mutations at the structural gene, CYC1, for iso-1-cytochrome c and at the structural gene, CYC7, for iso-2-cytochrome c can reduce the levels of the respective proteins by varying degrees in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutations at two other loci, cyc2 and cyc3, that are unlinked to either of the structural genes, specifically reduced the levels of both iso-cytochromes c. The cyc2 mutations can cause as low as 10 to 20% of the normal level and cyc3 mutations can cause complete deficiencies. We have explored the possiblity that the CYC2 and CYC3 loci code for maturation functions in the biosynthesis of cytochrome c. The approach used to characterize the nature of the cyc2 and cyc3 induced deficiencies of cytochrome c involved four steps. The results were used to propose possible roles for the CYC2 and CYC3 encoded functions. The CYC3 encoded function is hypothesized to be enzymatic heme attachment. CYC2 may code for a protein that binds and transports apo-cytochrome c through the outer mitochondrial membrane and/or enhances the activity of the heme attachment enzyme

  19. Cytochrome b5 reductase is the component from neuronal synaptic plasma membrane vesicles that generates superoxide anion upon stimulation by cytochrome c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro K. Samhan-Arias

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we measured the effect of cytochrome c on the NADH-dependent superoxide anion production by synaptic plasma membrane vesicles from rat brain. In these membranes, the cytochrome c stimulated NADH-dependent superoxide anion production was inhibited by antibodies against cytochrome b5 reductase linking the production to this enzyme. Measurement of the superoxide anion radical generated by purified recombinant soluble and membrane cytochrome b5 reductase corroborates the production of the radical by different enzyme isoforms. In the presence of cytochrome c, a burst of superoxide anion as well as the reduction of cytochrome c by cytochrome b5 reductase was measured. Complex formation between both proteins suggests that cytochrome b5 reductase is one of the major partners of cytochrome c upon its release from mitochondria to the cytosol during apoptosis. Superoxide anion production and cytochrome c reduction are the consequences of the stimulated NADH consumption by cytochrome b5 reductase upon complex formation with cytochrome c and suggest a major role of this enzyme as an anti-apoptotic protein during cell death.

  20. Atomic scale onset of Al adhesion on Mo{sub 2}BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis, E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-08-31

    We have explored interfacial interactions between a Mo–C terminated Mo{sub 2}BC(040) surface and an Al cluster using ab initio molecular dynamics. The Al cluster is disrupted and wets the Mo{sub 2}BC(040) surface. This can be understood based on the electronic structure. Across the Al–MoC interface C s–Al s hybridized states are formed. These bonds are stronger than the Al–Al intra-cluster bonds. Hence, the onset of Al adhesion is caused by bond formation across the Al–MoC interface. - Highlights: • Interfacial interactions between Mo{sub 2}BC and an Al cluster were explored. • Al forms bonds to C constituting the onset of Al adhesion on Mo{sub 2}BC. • These data are relevant for other carbide coatings.

  1. Relativistic corrections to the form factors of Bc into P-wave orbitally excited charmonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruilin

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the form factors of the Bc meson into P-wave orbitally excited charmonium using the nonrelativistic QCD effective theory. Through the analytic computation, the next-to-leading order relativistic corrections to the form factors were obtained, and the asymptotic expressions were studied in the infinite bottom quark mass limit. Employing the general form factors, we discussed the exclusive decays of the Bc meson into P-wave orbitally excited charmonium and a light meson. We found that the relativistic corrections lead to a large correction for the form factors, which makes the branching ratios of the decay channels B (Bc ± →χcJ (hc) +π± (K±)) larger. These results are useful for the phenomenological analysis of the Bc meson decays into P-wave charmonium, which shall be tested in the LHCb experiments.

  2. A Search for fully hadronic decay modes of the B(c) meson at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reher, Douglas Corey [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    I present a search for the fully hadronic decays of the bottom-charm meson $B_c$ in the mass range 5.6 to 6.8 GeV. The decays $B_c \\to J/\\psi \\pi^+$ and $B_c \\to J/\\psi \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+$ are reconstructed using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 109 pb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.8$ TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab. Upper limits on the cross section times branching ratio for each decay mode relative to $B^+ \\to J\\psi K^+$ are presented as a function of the $B_c$ mass.

  3. 47 CFR 52.12 - North American Numbering Plan Administrator and B&C Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with any particular telecommunication industry segment. Accordingly, while conducting their respective... will not preclude telecommunications industry participants from identifying performance problems to the... problems are identified by a telecommunications industry participant, the NANC, B&C Agent or NANPA shall...

  4. NGDC/WDS Global Historical Tsunami Database, 2100 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Tsunami Database provides information on over 2,400 tsunamis from 2100 BC to the present in the the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans; and...

  5. P-wave excited {B}_{c}^{* * } meson photoproduction at the LHeC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, He; Huan-Yu, Bi; Ren-You, Zhang; Xiao-Zhou, Li; Wen-Gan, Ma

    2018-05-01

    As an important sequential work of the S-wave {B}c(* ) ({}1{S}0({}3{S}1) ) meson production at the large hadron electron collider (LHeC), we investigate the production of the P-wave excited {B}c* * states (1 P 1 and 3 P J with J = 0, 1, 2) via photoproduction mechanism within the framework of nonrelativistic QCD at the LHeC. Generally, the {e}-+P\\to γ +g\\to {B}c* * +b+\\bar{c} process is considered as the main production mechanism at an electron–proton collider due to the large luminosity of the gluon. However, according to our experience on the S-wave {B}c(* ) meson production at the LHeC, the extrinsic production mechanism, i.e., {e}-+P\\to γ +c\\to {B}c* * +b and {e}-+P\\to γ +\\bar{b} \\to {B}c* * +\\bar{c}, could also provide dominating contributions at low p T region. A careful treatment between these channels is performed and the results on total and differential cross sections, together with main uncertainties are discussed. Taking the quark masses m b = 4.90 ± 0.40 GeV and m c = 1.50 ± 0.20 GeV into account and summing up all the production channels, we expect to accumulate ({2.48}-1.75+3.55)× {10}4 {B}c* * ({}1{P}1), ({1.14}-0.82+1.49)× {10}4 {B}c* * ({}3{P}0),({2.38}-1.74+3.39)× {10}4 {B}c* * ({}3{P}1) and ({5.59}-3.93+7.84)× {10}4 {B}c* * ({}3{P}2) events at the \\sqrt{S}=1.30 {{T}}{{e}}{{V}} LHeC in one operation year with luminosity { \\mathcal L }={10}33 cm‑2 s‑1. With such sizable events, it is worth studying the properties of excited P-wave {B}c* * states at the LHeC.

  6. Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30 (BC30 improves indices of Clostridium difficile-Induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Leo R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics have beneficial effects in rodent models of Clostridium difficile (C. diffiicle-induced colitis. The spore forming probiotic strain Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30 has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in vitro. Our goal was to determine if BC30 improved C. difficile-induced colitis in mice. Starting on study day 0, female C57BL/6 mice were dosed by oro-gastric gavage for 15 days with vehicle (saline or BC30 (2 × 109 CFU per day. Mice in the C. difficile groups received an antibiotic mixture (study days 5 to 8 in the drinking water, and clindamycin (10 mg/kg, i.p., on study day 10. The C. difficile strain VPI 10463 was given by gavage at 104 CFU to induce colitis on day 11. On day 16, stools and colons were collected for further analyses. Results All mice treated with BC30 survived on study day 13, while two mice treated with vehicle did not survive. On day 12, a significant difference (p = 0.0002 in the percentage of mice with normal stools (66.7% was found in the BC30/C. difficile group, as compared to the vehicle/C. diffcile group (13.0%. On study day 16, 23.8% of mice treated with BC30 had normal stools, while this value was 0% with vehicle treatment (p value = 0.0187. On this day, the stool consistency score for the BC30/C. difficile group (1.1 ± 0.2 was significantly lower (p C. difficile cohort (1.9 ± 0.2. BC30 modestly attenuated the colonic pathology (crypt damage, edema, leukocyte influx that was present following C. difficile infection. Colonic MIP-2 chemokine contents (pg/2 cm colon were: 10.2 ± 0.5 (vehicle/no C. difficile, 24.6 ± 9.5 (vehicle/C. difficile and 16.3 ± 4.3 (BC30/C. difficle. Conclusion The probiotic BC30 improved some parameters of C. difficile-induced colitis in mice. BC30 prolonged the survival of C. diffiicle infected mice. Particularly, this probiotic improved the stool consistency of mice, in this infectious colitis model.

  7. Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30 (BC30) improves indices of Clostridium difficile-Induced colitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Probiotics have beneficial effects in rodent models of Clostridium difficile (C. diffiicle)-induced colitis. The spore forming probiotic strain Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in vitro. Our goal was to determine if BC30 improved C. difficile-induced colitis in mice. Starting on study day 0, female C57BL/6 mice were dosed by oro-gastric gavage for 15 days with vehicle (saline) or BC30 (2 × 109 CFU per day). Mice in the C. difficile groups received an antibiotic mixture (study days 5 to 8 in the drinking water), and clindamycin (10 mg/kg, i.p., on study day 10). The C. difficile strain VPI 10463 was given by gavage at 104 CFU to induce colitis on day 11. On day 16, stools and colons were collected for further analyses. Results All mice treated with BC30 survived on study day 13, while two mice treated with vehicle did not survive. On day 12, a significant difference (p = 0.0002) in the percentage of mice with normal stools (66.7%) was found in the BC30/C. difficile group, as compared to the vehicle/C. diffcile group (13.0%). On study day 16, 23.8% of mice treated with BC30 had normal stools, while this value was 0% with vehicle treatment (p value = 0.0187). On this day, the stool consistency score for the BC30/C. difficile group (1.1 ± 0.2) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for the vehicle/C. difficile cohort (1.9 ± 0.2). BC30 modestly attenuated the colonic pathology (crypt damage, edema, leukocyte influx) that was present following C. difficile infection. Colonic MIP-2 chemokine contents (pg/2 cm colon) were: 10.2 ± 0.5 (vehicle/no C. difficile), 24.6 ± 9.5 (vehicle/C. difficile) and 16.3 ± 4.3 (BC30/C. difficle). Conclusion The probiotic BC30 improved some parameters of C. difficile-induced colitis in mice. BC30 prolonged the survival of C. diffiicle infected mice. Particularly, this probiotic improved the stool consistency of mice, in this infectious colitis model. PMID

  8. Remedial action and waste disposal project: 100-B/C remedial action readiness evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Bryant, D.L.; Cislo, G.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Readiness Evaluation Plan presents the methodology used to assess the readiness of the 100-B/C Remedial Action Project. The 100 Areas Remedial Action Project will remediate the 100 Areas liquid waste site identified in the Interim Action Record of Decision for the 100- BC-1, 100-DR-1, and 100-HR-1 Operable Units. These sites are located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  9. Genetic concepts in Greek literature from the eighth to the fourth century B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, E

    1992-03-01

    A review of the concepts of genetics found in epic, historical and dramatic ancient Greek writings from the eighth to the fourth centuries B.C., is presented. The derived data suggest that the development of genetical concepts and ideas started with the praise of the heroes' divine or noble origin in Homer's epic poems (eighth century B.C.). It continued in the tracing of the descent and vicissitudes of the families of the Greek gods and the common ancestry of the Greek tribes as described in Hesiod's genealogical poems (around 700 B.C.), in the statement of descent and dual parenthood of leaders and kings in the books of Herodotus and Xenophon (fifth and fourth centuries B.C.), and in the concern about the lineage of the tragic figures in Greek drama (fifth century B.C.). The genetical concepts expressed in these writings most probably reflected popular notions of that time. They must, therefore, have been the basis of the perceptions and theories on heredity and procreation expressed by the ancient physicians and philosophers in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., which in turn influenced the development of genetics for many centuries.

  10. BC Citizen's Advisory Committee on oil spill prevention 1995-1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A committee comprised of BC citizens with some experience in oil spill issues was established in 1990 to give advise to the BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. The committee was responsible for conducting discussions with government, industry and public representatives on the state and progress of oil spill matters, particularly on the attempts to prevent and respond to spills. Within the context of a brief report about the accomplishments of the past year, this report focused on issues raised by the BC public during three public forums. These issues were: (1) update of government activities, (2) general response capability on the BC coast and BC waters, (3) support for BC Citizen's Advisory Committee, (4) wildlife response, (5) spill prevention plans, (6) escort tugs, (7) waste oil disposal and prevention of land based sources of marine pollution, and (8) fishing and tourism concerns. The report described the discussions on the issues and summarized the recommendations for action in each of these areas of concern. 2 tabs

  11. Measurement of the lifetime of the B-c(+) cmeson using the B-c(+) -> J/psi pi(+) decay mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Akiba, K. Carvalho; Casanova Mohr, R. C. M.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A. C.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; De Camp, D.; De Ckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Rodrigues, F. Ferreira; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lowdon, P.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Maerki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Santos, D. Martinez; Vidal, F. Martinez; Tostes, D. Martins; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. -N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. -B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Orlandea, M.; OtaloraGoicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Casasus, M. Plo; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Vidal, A. Romero; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Silva, J. J. Saborido; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Guimaraes, V. Salustino; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. -H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; De Paula, B. Souza; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M. Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Barbosa, J. V. Viana; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilschut, H. W.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-01-01

    The difference in total widths between the B-c(+) and B+ mesons is measured using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) collected by the LHCb experiment in 7 and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energy proton-proton collisions at the LHC. Through the study of the time evolution

  12. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human liver cytochrome(s) P450

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Mindaye, Samuel T.; Getie-Kebtie, Melkamu; Alterman, Michail A., E-mail: Michail.Alterman@fda.hhs.gov

    2013-02-15

    The major objective of personalized medicine is to select optimized drug therapies and to a large degree such mission is determined by the expression profiles of cytochrome(s) P450 (CYP). Accordingly, a proteomic case study in personalized medicine is provided by the superfamily of cytochromes P450. Our knowledge about CYP isozyme expression on a protein level is very limited and based exclusively on DNA/mRNA derived data. Such information is not sufficient because transcription and translation events do not lead to correlated levels of expressed proteins. Here we report expression profiles of CYPs in human liver obtained by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach. We analyzed 32 samples of human liver microsomes (HLM) of different sexes, ages and ethnicity along with samples of recombinant human CYPs. We have experimentally confirmed that each CYP isozyme can be effectively differentiated by their unique isozyme-specific tryptic peptide(s). Trypsin digestion patterns for almost 30 human CYP isozymes were established. Those findings should assist in selecting tryptic peptides suitable for MS-based quantitation. The data obtained demonstrate remarkable differences in CYP expression profiles. CYP2E1, CYP2C8 and CYP4A11 were the only isozymes found in all HLM samples. Female and pediatric HLM samples revealed much more diverse spectrum of expressed CYPs isozymes compared to male HLM. We have confirmed expression of a number of “rare” CYP (CYP2J2, CYP4B1, CYP4V2, CYP4F3, CYP4F11, CYP8B1, CYP19A1, CYP24A1 and CYP27A1) and obtained first direct experimental data showing expression of such CYPs as CYP2F1, CYP2S1, CYP2W1, CYP4A22, CYP4X1, and CYP26A1 on a protein level. - Highlights: ► First detailed proteomic analysis of CYP isozymes expression in human liver ► Trypsin digestion patterns for almost 30 human CYP isozymes established ► The data obtained demonstrate remarkable differences in CYP expression profiles. ► Female HLM samples revealed more

  13. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human liver cytochrome(s) P450

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Mindaye, Samuel T.; Getie-Kebtie, Melkamu; Alterman, Michail A.

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of personalized medicine is to select optimized drug therapies and to a large degree such mission is determined by the expression profiles of cytochrome(s) P450 (CYP). Accordingly, a proteomic case study in personalized medicine is provided by the superfamily of cytochromes P450. Our knowledge about CYP isozyme expression on a protein level is very limited and based exclusively on DNA/mRNA derived data. Such information is not sufficient because transcription and translation events do not lead to correlated levels of expressed proteins. Here we report expression profiles of CYPs in human liver obtained by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach. We analyzed 32 samples of human liver microsomes (HLM) of different sexes, ages and ethnicity along with samples of recombinant human CYPs. We have experimentally confirmed that each CYP isozyme can be effectively differentiated by their unique isozyme-specific tryptic peptide(s). Trypsin digestion patterns for almost 30 human CYP isozymes were established. Those findings should assist in selecting tryptic peptides suitable for MS-based quantitation. The data obtained demonstrate remarkable differences in CYP expression profiles. CYP2E1, CYP2C8 and CYP4A11 were the only isozymes found in all HLM samples. Female and pediatric HLM samples revealed much more diverse spectrum of expressed CYPs isozymes compared to male HLM. We have confirmed expression of a number of “rare” CYP (CYP2J2, CYP4B1, CYP4V2, CYP4F3, CYP4F11, CYP8B1, CYP19A1, CYP24A1 and CYP27A1) and obtained first direct experimental data showing expression of such CYPs as CYP2F1, CYP2S1, CYP2W1, CYP4A22, CYP4X1, and CYP26A1 on a protein level. - Highlights: ► First detailed proteomic analysis of CYP isozymes expression in human liver ► Trypsin digestion patterns for almost 30 human CYP isozymes established ► The data obtained demonstrate remarkable differences in CYP expression profiles. ► Female HLM samples revealed more

  14. Influence of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons on the induction, activity, and stabilization of cytochrome P450

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorman, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the course of experiments evaluating the metabolism of polybrominated biphenyls by cytochrome P450 isozymes induced by 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), it was discovered that the inducer remained closely associated with cytochrome P450d. Subsequent purification of cytochromes from HBB treated rates revealed a 0.5:1 association of HBB to cytochrome P450d but virtually none with cytochrome P450c or cytochrome b5. Immunochemical quantitation of cytochrome P450d in the same microsomes yielded a ratio of P450d:HBB that approached unity. Measurement of cytochrome P450d estradiol 2-hydroxylase indicated non-competitive or mixed type inhibition caused by HBB at a concentration of 10-1000 nM. Inhibition was specific to cytochrome P450d since estradiol 2-hydroxylase catalyzed by cytochrome P450h was unaffected by HBB. The ability of HCB and isosafrole to stabilize cytochrome P450d, and thus indirectly influence regulation of the enzyme, was evaluated by treating rats with a dose of TCDD sufficient to produce maximum induction of cytochromes P450c and P450d via the Ah receptor, yet insufficient to bind to the enzyme. Subsequent treatment of these animals with HCB or isosafrole and a radiolabeled amino acid, revealed a significant increase in cytochrome P450d specific content relative to cytochrome P450c and significant retention of the radiolabel in P450d relative to rats treated only with TCDD

  15. Purification of a membrane-bound trypsin-like enzyme from the gut of the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner =Purificação de uma enzima “tipo tripsina” não-solúvel do intestino da lagarta da soja (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Matos Santoro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of protein digestion in insects by specific endoprotease inhibitors is being regarded as an alternative to conventional insecticides for pest control. To optimize the effectiveness of this strategy, the understanding of the endoprotease diversity of the target insect is crucial. In this sense, a membrane-bound trypsin-like enzyme from the gut of Anticarsia gemmatalis fifth-instar larvae was purified. Non-soluble fraction of the gut extract was solubilized with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyldimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS and subjected to a p-aminobenzamidine affinity chromatography followed by anion-exchange chromatography. The yield of the purified enzyme was 11% with a purification factor of 143 and a final specific activity of 18.6 µM min.-1 mg-1 protein using N-α-benzoyl-L- Arg-p-nitroanilide (L-BApNA as substrate. The purified sample showed a single band with proteolytic activity active and apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Molecular mass determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was 28,632 ± 26 Da. Although the low recovery and the difficulties in purifying large enzyme amounts limited its further characterization, the results contribute for the understanding of the proteases present on A. gemmatalis gut, which are potential targets for natural or specifically designed protease inhibitors.Comprometer a digestão de proteínas dos insetos pelo uso de inibidores específicos de endoproteases tem sido amplamente estudado como um método de controle de pragas alternativo ao uso dos inseticidas convencionais. No processo de otimização desta estratégia, o conhecimento da diversidade das endoproteases do inseto alvo torna-se crucial. Neste sentido, uma enzima “tipo-tripsina” ligada à membrana obtida do intestino de larvas do 5° instar de A. gemmatalis foi purificada. A fração insolúvel do extrato do intestino foi solubilizada com 3-[(3-cholamidopropyldimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS e submetida

  16. Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe-, Co-, and Ni-decorated BC3: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingzhong; Zhao, Yinchang; Zulfiqar, Muhammad; Zeng, Shuming; Ni, Jun

    2018-05-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of Fe-, Co-, and Ni-decorated two dimensional (2D) BC3 are systematically investigated by first-principles calculations. We find that the Fe, Co, and Ni atoms can be strongly adsorbed on the hollow sites of 2D BC3. Fe and Co adatoms are more stable when adsorbed on the hollow sites of the carbon rings in the 2D BC3, while the hollow sites of boron-carbon rings in the 2D BC3 are the most stable sites for the adsorption of Ni adatoms. These proposed metal-BC3 complexes exhibit interesting electronic and magnetic behaviors. In particular, the Fe-BC3 and Co-BC3 complexes are metals with magnetic ground states , while the Ni-BC3 complex behaves as a nonmagnetic semiconductor with a direct bandgap. Furthermore, our magnetic analysis reveals that induced magnetism in the Fe-BC3 and Co-BC3 complexes arises from their local magnetic moments. Functionalization of 2D BC3 through these metal-adatom adsorption appears to be a promising way to extend its applications.

  17. Sources of variance in BC mass measurements from a small marine engine: Influence of the instruments, fuels and loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Yang, Jiacheng; Gagné, Stéphanie; Chan, Tak W.; Thomson, Kevin; Fofie, Emmanuel; Cary, Robert A.; Rutherford, Dan; Comer, Bryan; Swanson, Jacob; Lin, Yue; Van Rooy, Paul; Asa-Awuku, Akua; Jung, Heejung; Barsanti, Kelley; Karavalakis, Georgios; Cocker, David; Durbin, Thomas D.; Miller, J. Wayne; Johnson, Kent C.

    2018-06-01

    Knowledge of black carbon (BC) emission factors from ships is important from human health and environmental perspectives. A study of instruments measuring BC and fuels typically used in marine operation was carried out on a small marine engine. Six analytical methods measured the BC emissions in the exhaust of the marine engine operated at two load points (25% and 75%) while burning one of three fuels: a distillate marine (DMA), a low sulfur, residual marine (RMB-30) and a high-sulfur residual marine (RMG-380). The average emission factors with all instruments increased from 0.08 to 1.88 gBC/kg fuel in going from 25 to 75% load. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested BC emissions against instrument, load, and combined fuel properties and showed that both engine load and fuels had a statistically significant impact on BC emission factors. While BC emissions were impacted by the fuels used, none of the fuel properties investigated (sulfur content, viscosity, carbon residue and CCAI) was a primary driver for BC emissions. Of the two residual fuels, RMB-30 with the lower sulfur content, lower viscosity and lower residual carbon, had the highest BC emission factors. BC emission factors determined with the different instruments showed a good correlation with the PAS values with correlation coefficients R2 >0.95. A key finding of this research is the relative BC measured values were mostly independent of load and fuel, except for some instruments in certain fuel and load combinations.

  18. Calorimetric studies of the thermal denaturation of cytochrome c peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresheck, G.C.; Erman, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Two endotherms are observed by differential scanning calorimetry during the thermal denaturation of cytochrome c peroxidase at pH 7.0. The transition midpoint temperatures (t/sub m/) were 43.9 +- 1.4 and 63.3 +- 1.6 0 C, independent of concentration. The two endotherms were observed at all pH values between 4 and 8, with the transition temperatures varying with pH. Precipitation was observed between pH 4 and 6, and only qualitative data are presented for this region. The thermal unfolding of cytochrome c peroxidase was sensitive to the presence and ligation state of the heme. Only a single endotherm was observed for the unfolding of the apoprotein, and this transition was similar to the high-temperature transition in the holoenzyme. Addition of KCN to the holoenzyme increases the midpoint of the high-temperature transition whereas the low-temperature transition was increased upon addition of KF. Binding of the natural substrate ferricytochrome c to the enzyme increases the low-temperature transition by 4.8 +- 1.3 0 C but has no effect on the high-temperature transition at pH 7. The presence of cytochrome c peroxidase decreases the stability of cytochrome c, and both proteins appear to unfold simultaneously. The results are discussed in terms of the two domains evident in the X-ray crystallographic structure of cytochrome c peroxidase

  19. Oleamide synthesizing activity from rat kidney: identification as cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, William J; Chaturvedi, Shalini; Mueller, Gregory P

    2007-08-03

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is the prototype member of an emerging class of lipid signaling molecules collectively known as the primary fatty acid amides. Current evidence suggests that oleamide participates in the biochemical mechanisms underlying the drive to sleep, thermoregulation, and antinociception. Despite the potential importance of oleamide in these physiologic processes, the biochemical pathway for its synthesis in vivo has not been established. We report here the discovery of an oleamide synthetase found in rat tissues using [(14)C]oleoyl-CoA and ammonium ion. Hydrogen peroxide was subsequently found to be a required cofactor. The enzyme displayed temperature and pH optima in the physiologic range, a remarkable resistance to proteolysis, and specificity for long-chain acyl-CoA substrates. The reaction demonstrated Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K(m) for oleoyl-CoA of 21 microm. Proteomic, biochemical, and immunologic analyses were used to identify the source of the oleamide synthesizing activity as cytochrome c. This identification was based upon peptide mass fingerprinting of isolated synthase protein, a tight correlation between enzymatic activity and immunoreactivity for cytochrome c, and identical functional properties shared by the tissue-derived synthetase and commercially obtained cytochrome c. The ability of cytochrome c to catalyze the formation of oleamide experimentally raises the possibility that cytochrome c may mediate oleamide biosynthesis in vivo.

  20. Cardiolipin modulates allosterically peroxynitrite detoxification by horse heart cytochrome c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Department of Biology and Interdepartmental Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, University Roma Tre, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ciaccio, Chiara [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Roma (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium for the Research on the Chemistry of Metals in Biological Systems, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Sinibaldi, Federica; Santucci, Roberto [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Roma (Italy); Coletta, Massimo [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Roma (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium for the Research on the Chemistry of Metals in Biological Systems, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Cardiolipin binding to cytochrome c. {yields} Cardiolipin-dependent peroxynitrite isomerization by cytochrome c. {yields} Cardiolipin-cytochrome c complex plays pro-apoptotic effects. {yields} Cardiolipin-cytochrome c complex plays anti-apoptotic effects. -- Abstract: Upon interaction with bovine heart cardiolipin (CL), horse heart cytochrome c (cytc) changes its tertiary structure disrupting the heme-Fe-Met80 distal bond, reduces drastically the midpoint potential out of the range required for its physiological role, binds CO and NO with high affinity, and displays peroxidase activity. Here, the effect of CL on peroxynitrite isomerization by ferric cytc (cytc-Fe(III)) is reported. In the absence of CL, hexa-coordinated cytc does not catalyze peroxynitrite isomerization. In contrast, CL facilitates cytc-Fe(III)-mediated isomerization of peroxynitrite in a dose-dependent fashion inducing the penta-coordination of the heme-Fe(III)-atom. The value of the second order rate constant for CL-cytc-Fe(III)-mediated isomerization of peroxynitrite (k{sub on}) is (3.2 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The apparent dissociation equilibrium constant for CL binding to cytc-Fe(III) is (5.1 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -5} M. These results suggest that CL-cytc could play either pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic effects facilitating lipid peroxidation and scavenging of reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite, respectively.

  1. Preparation of ZnO/CdS/BC Photocatalyst Hybrid Fiber and Research of Its Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An environment-friendly biomaterial bacterial cellulose (BC is introduced to substitute general organic polymers to assist the preparation of ZnO/CdS/BC photocatalyst hybrid nanofiber through coprecipitation method under the low-temperature condition. The XRD, XPS, and SEM results show that high load of ZnO/CdS/BC ternary hybrid fiber can be produced. TGA curves scan shows that ZnO/CdS/BC hybrid fiber has better thermal properties than bacterial cellulose. The UV-Vis spectra of the ZnO/CdS/BC hybrid nanofiber (0, 10, 20, and 50 wt%, resp. show that photocatalytic activities of ZnO/CdS/BC are influenced by the added amount of CdS. The degradation curve of methyl shows that ZnO/CdS/BC nanohybrid fibers exhibit excellent photocatalytic efficiency.

  2. HiPIP oxido-reductase activity in membranes from aerobically grown cells of the facultative phototroph Rhodoferax fermentans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Kofod, Pauli; Zannoni, Davide

    1995-01-01

    The role of the periplasmically located, water-soluble, HiPIP (high-potential iron-sulfur protein) in the respiratory chain of the facultative phototroph Rhodoferax fermentans has been examined. The oxidized HiPIP is reduced by succinate-dependent respiration via the bc 1 complex, this reaction...... being inhibited by myxothiazol and/or stigmatellin. The reduced HiPIP can be oxidized by the membrane-bound cytochrome oxidase, this reaction being inhibited by 0.1 mM cyanide. We conclude that aerobically grown Rf. fermentans contains a redox chain in which HiPIP mediates electron transfer between...... the bc 1 complex and the cb-type cytochrome oxidase....

  3. Mitochondrial cytochrome c biogenesis: no longer an enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Shalon E; Sutherland, Molly C; San Francisco, Brian; Mendez, Deanna L; Kranz, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Cytochromes c (cyt c) and c1 are heme proteins that are essential for aerobic respiration. Release of cyt c from mitochondria is an important signal in apoptosis initiation. Biogenesis of c-type cytochromes involves covalent attachment of heme to two cysteines (at a conserved CXXCH sequence) in the apocytochrome. Heme attachment is catalyzed in most mitochondria by holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS), which is also necessary for the import of apocytochrome c (apocyt c). Thus, HCCS affects cellular levels of cyt c, impacting mitochondrial physiology and cell death. Here, we review the mechanisms of HCCS function and the roles of heme and residues in the CXXCH motif. Additionally, we consider concepts emerging within the two prokaryotic cytochrome c biogenesis pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytochrome c catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of arachidonoyl glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCue, Jeffrey M.; Driscoll, William J.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2008-01-01

    Long chain fatty acyl glycines are an emerging class of biologically active molecules that occur naturally and produce a wide array of physiological effects. Their biosynthetic pathway, however, remains unknown. Here we report that cytochrome c catalyzes the synthesis of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) from arachidonoyl coenzyme A and glycine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the NAGly product was verified by isotope labeling and mass analysis. Other heme-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, were considerably less effective in generating arachidonoyl glycine as compared to cytochrome c. The reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c in vitro points to its potential role in the formation of NAGly and other long chain fatty acyl glycines in vivo

  5. miR-34b/c Regulates Wnt1 and Enhances Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neuron Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Gregorio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The differentiation of dopaminergic neurons requires concerted action of morphogens and transcription factors acting in a precise and well-defined time window. Very little is known about the potential role of microRNA in these events. By performing a microRNA-mRNA paired microarray screening, we identified miR-34b/c among the most upregulated microRNAs during dopaminergic differentiation. Interestingly, miR-34b/c modulates Wnt1 expression, promotes cell cycle exit, and induces dopaminergic differentiation. When combined with transcription factors ASCL1 and NURR1, miR-34b/c doubled the yield of transdifferentiated fibroblasts into dopaminergic neurons. Induced dopaminergic (iDA cells synthesize dopamine and show spontaneous electrical activity, reversibly blocked by tetrodotoxin, consistent with the electrophysiological properties featured by brain dopaminergic neurons. Our findings point to a role for miR-34b/c in neuronal commitment and highlight the potential of exploiting its synergy with key transcription factors in enhancing in vitro generation of dopaminergic neurons. : In this article, Bellenchi and colleagues show that the microRNA miR-34b/c is expressed in FACS-purified Pitx3-GFP+ neurons and promotes dopaminergic differentiation by negative modulating Wnt1 and the downstream WNT signaling pathway. Induced dopaminergic cells, expressing miR-34b/c, synthesize dopamine and show the electrophysiological properties featured by brain dopaminergic neurons. Keywords: microRNA, dopamine, mESC, miR34b/c, epiSC, transdifferentiation, Wnt1, Wnt pathway, reprogramming

  6. Fast prediction of cytochrome P450 mediated drug metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydberg, Patrik Åke Anders; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism of drugs is one of the major determinants of their kinetic profile, and prediction of this metabolism is therefore highly relevant during the drug discovery and development process. A new rule-based method, based on results from density functional theory...... calculations, for predicting activation energies for aliphatic and aromatic oxidations by cytochromes P450 is developed and compared with several other methods. Although the applicability of the method is currently limited to a subset of P450 reactions, these reactions describe more than 90...

  7. Evaluation of cytochrome P-450 concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cristina Sakuragui Matuo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used in mutagenicity tests due to the presence of a cytochrome P-450 system, capable of metabolizing promutagens to active mutagens. There are a large number of S. cerevisiae strains with varying abilities to produce cytochrome P-450. However, strain selection and ideal cultivation conditions are not well defined. We compared cytochrome P-450 levels in four different S. cerevisiae strains and evaluated the cultivation conditions necessary to obtain the highest levels. The amount of cytochrome P-450 produced by each strain varied, as did the incubation time needed to reach the maximum level. The highest cytochrome P-450 concentrations were found in media containing fermentable sugars. The NCYC 240 strain produced the highest level of cytochrome P-450 when grown in the presence of 20 % (w/v glucose. The addition of ethanol to the media also increased cytochrome P-450 synthesis in this strain. These results indicate cultivation conditions must be specific and well-established for the strain selected in order to assure high cytochrome P-450 levels and reliable mutagenicity results.Linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae tem sido amplamente empregadas em testes de mutagenicidade devido à presença de um sistema citocromo P-450 capaz de metabolizar substâncias pró-mutagênicas à sua forma ativa. Devido à grande variedade de linhagens de S. cerevisiae com diferentes capacidades de produção de citocromo P-450, torna-se necessária a seleção de cepas, bem como a definição das condições ideais de cultivo. Neste trabalho, foram comparados os níveis de citocromo P-450 em quatro diferentes linhagens de S. cerevisiae e avaliadas as condições de cultivo necessárias para obtenção de altas concentrações deste sistema enzimático. O maior nível enzimático foi encontrado na linhagem NCYC 240 em presença de 20 % de glicose (p/v. A adição de etanol ao meio de cultura também produziu um aumento na s

  8. Remote community electrification program - small wind integration in BC's offgrid communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafaille, Julien [BC Hydro (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the Remote Community Electrification (RCE) program and wind integration in BC's off grid communities. The program offers electric utility service to eligible remote communities in BC. Most of them are offered off-grid services although it is cheaper to connect a community to a grid. BC hydro serves some communities that are not connected to the main grid. Local diesel or small hydro-generating stations are used to serve remote communities. The renewable energy program target is to reach 50% of remote communities. The reason that wind is a small part of the renewables is that hydro and biomass are abundant in BC. Some other barriers include high installation costs, durability concerns, and lack of in-house technical expertise. Some small Wind initiatives that have been taken were relatively few and fairly small. It can be concluded that due to a poor wind resource and the relatively low cost of diesel, there is limited potential for wind in BC remote communities.

  9. Effect of diameter and chirality on the structure and electronic properties of BC2N nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan, Mojdeh; Jalili, Seifollah; Schofield, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BC 2 N nanotubes with different diameters and four chirality types are studied. • Two lowest-diameter zigzag BC 2 N tubes are metallic and others are semiconducting. • Band gap of zigzag tubes is more sensitive to diameter compared to armchair tubes. • Even–odd oscillation is observed for the band gap of one kind of zigzag tubes. • The energy and band gap for large-diameter tubes converge to BC 2 N sheet values. - Abstract: Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate a series of BC 2 N nanotubes with a wide range of diameters. Two types of zigzag and two types of armchair nanotubes are studied to survey the effect of diameter and chirality on energetics and electronic properties of nanotubes. Two nanotubes are found to be metallic and others show semiconducting behavior. The diameter is shown to have a greater impact on the band gap of zigzag nanotubes than those of armchair tubes. (n, 0) zigzag nanotubes show an even–odd band gap oscillation, which can be explained by the electron density distribution of the lowest unoccupied crystalline orbital. The stability of the nanotubes is also assessed using strain energies and it is shown that the strain energy does not depend on nanotube type and chirality. In the limit of large diameters, the geometry and band gap of all nanotubes converge to BC 2 N sheet data

  10. HBV Genotype B/C and Response to Lamivudine Therapy: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Li Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of nucleoside analogues such as lamivudine (LAM, actually used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, can suppress HBV DNA replication, improve transaminase level and liver histology, and enhance the rate of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg clearance. The responses to LAM therapy involve HBeAg clearance and HBV DNA conversion of negative. However, the associations between HBV genotype B/C and response to LAM therapy remain ambiguous. The aim of this meta-analysis is to determine more precise estimations of the relationship. All the publications on the associations between HBV genotype B/C and response to LAM (HBeAg clearance and HBV DNA conversion of negative through June 2013 were collected. Relative risk (RR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI was calculated in fixed or random model, was calculated to examine heterogeneity, and funnel plots were plotted to examine small study effects with Stata 11 software. Overall, for HBeAg clearance and genotype B/C, the RR (95% CI was 1.27 (0.94–1.71, while for HBV DNA conversion of negative and genotype B/C, the RR (95% CI was 1.07 (0.98–1.17. HBV genotype B/C shows no significance associations with response to lamivudine therapy (HBeAg clearance and HBV DNA conversion of negative.

  11. Determination of the proton and alpha-particle light-response functions for the KamLAND, BC-501A and BC-517H liquid scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braizinha, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Esterline, J.H. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Karwowski, H.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Tornow, W., E-mail: tornow@tunl.duke.ed [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2010-11-21

    A cylindrical 5.1 cmx5.1 cm scintillator cell filled with the KamLAND liquid scintillator has been exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams produced via the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction to measure the proton light-response function for energies up to 10 MeV. Using Birks' recipe, the {alpha}-particle light-response function was derived from these data. The same method was applied to the BC-501A and BC-517H liquid scintillators to check on the systematic accuracy of the present data. The proton and {alpha}-particle light-response functions are needed to correct the KamLAND antineutrino prompt energy spectrum for background effects caused by the reaction {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O. Especially, the geo-antineutrino energy regime measured in the KamLAND experiment is contaminated by background events from this reaction.

  12. Determination of the proton and alpha-particle light-response functions for the KamLAND, BC-501A and BC-517H liquid scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braizinha, B.; Esterline, J.H.; Karwowski, H.J.; Tornow, W.

    2010-01-01

    A cylindrical 5.1 cmx5.1 cm scintillator cell filled with the KamLAND liquid scintillator has been exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams produced via the 2 H(d,n) 3 He reaction to measure the proton light-response function for energies up to 10 MeV. Using Birks' recipe, the α-particle light-response function was derived from these data. The same method was applied to the BC-501A and BC-517H liquid scintillators to check on the systematic accuracy of the present data. The proton and α-particle light-response functions are needed to correct the KamLAND antineutrino prompt energy spectrum for background effects caused by the reaction 13 C(α,n) 16 O. Especially, the geo-antineutrino energy regime measured in the KamLAND experiment is contaminated by background events from this reaction.

  13. Effect of carbon source on the accumulation of cytochrome P-450 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kärenlampi, S O; Marin, E; Hänninen, O O

    1981-01-01

    The appearance of cytochrome P-450 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae depended on the substrate supporting growth. Cytochrome P-450 was apparent in yeast cells grown on a strongly fermentable sugar such as D-glucose, D-fructose or sucrose. When yeast was grown on D-galactose, D-mannose or maltose, where fermentation and respiration occurred concomitantly, cytochrome P-450 was also formed. The cytochrome P-450 concentration was maximal at the beginning of the stationary phase of the culture...

  14. Flux, Budget and Sources of Black Carbon (BC) in the Continental Shelf of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) derived from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has received increasing attention due to their potential importance in a wide range of biogeochemical processes. China has been generally considered as the world's largest BC emitter. Due to a combination of the prevailing East Asia monsoon and large amounts of riverine outflow, BC released from China can be transported to the adjacent continental shelf seas, the Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS). Based on measurements of BC in 191 surface sediments, 36 riverine water, and 2 seawater samples, as well as the reported BC data set of the aerosol samples in the Bohai Rim, the concentration, flux, and budget of BC in the BS and YS were investigated. The spatial distribution of the BC concentration in surface sediments was largely influenced by the regional hydrodynamic conditions, with high values mainly occurring in the central mud areas. The BC burial flux in the BS and YS ranged from 4 to 1100 μg/cm2/yr, and averaged 166 ± 200 μg/cm2/yr. The area-integrated sedimentary BC sink flux in the entire BS and YS was ~325 Gg/yr. The BC budget calculated in the BS showed that atmospheric deposition and riverine discharge played comparable importance in delivering BC to the BS, and sequestration to bottom sediments was the major BC output pattern, accounting for ~88% of the total input BC. Besides, we attempted to apportion the BC sources in the BS and YS surface sediments using PAHs (organic molecular proxies cogenerated with BC) and BC as an input data to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Results showed that ~83% of the sediment BC was attributed to the combustion of fossil fuels, and the remaining ~17% was from biomass burning. Due to the differences in their production mechanisms and therefore physicochemical properties, the above distinction and quantification would help us better understand their different environmental behaviors in the complex continental shelf

  15. Structure-Function, Stability, and Chemical Modification of the Cyanobacterial Cytochrome b6f Complex from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniulis, Danas; Yamashita, Eiki; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Zatsman, Anna I.; Hendrich, Michael P.; Hasan, S. Saif; Ryan, Christopher M.; Cramer, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the cyanobacterial cytochrome b6f complex has previously been solved to 3.0-Å resolution using the thermophilic Mastigocladus laminosus whose genome has not been sequenced. Several unicellular cyanobacteria, whose genomes have been sequenced and are tractable for mutagenesis, do not yield b6f complex in an intact dimeric state with significant electron transport activity. The genome of Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 has been sequenced and is closer phylogenetically to M. laminosus than are unicellular cyanobacteria. The amino acid sequences of the large core subunits and four small peripheral subunits of Nostoc are 88 and 80% identical to those in the M. laminosus b6f complex. Purified b6f complex from Nostoc has a stable dimeric structure, eight subunits with masses similar to those of M. laminosus, and comparable electron transport activity. The crystal structure of the native b6f complex, determined to a resolution of 3.0Å (PDB id: 2ZT9), is almost identical to that of M. laminosus. Two unique aspects of the Nostoc complex are: (i) a dominant conformation of heme bp that is rotated 180° about the α- and γ-meso carbon axis relative to the orientation in the M. laminosus complex and (ii) acetylation of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (PetC) at the N terminus, a post-translational modification unprecedented in cyanobacterial membrane and electron transport proteins, and in polypeptides of cytochrome bc complexes from any source. The high spin electronic character of the unique heme cn is similar to that previously found in the b6f complex from other sources. PMID:19189962

  16. Computational identification of putative cytochrome P450 genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chattha

    Economically, legumes represent the second most important family of crop plants after Poacea (grass family), accounting for ... further characterization of P450 genes with both known and unknown functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... Cytochrome P450. In: Somerville CR, Meyerowitz EM (eds) .The Arabidopsis book,.

  17. Interplay between cytochrome c and gibberellins during Arabidopsis vegetative development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Racca, S.; Welchen, E.; Gras, D. E.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Turečková, Veronika; Maurino, V. G.; Gonzalez, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2018), s. 105-121 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * cytochrome c * DELLA protein * gibberellin * mitochondrion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  18. The Role of Cytochromes P450 in Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet Stavropoulou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes are expressed in many different tissues of the human body. They are found mostly in intestinal and hepatic tissues. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs are enzymes that oxidize substances using iron and are able to metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. CYP enzymes are linked to a wide array of reactions including and O-dealkylation, S-oxidation, epoxidation, and hydroxylation. The activity of the typical P450 cytochrome is influenced by a variety of factors, such as genus, environment, disease state, herbicide, alcohol, and herbal medications. However, diet seems to play a major role. The mechanisms of action of dietary chemicals, macro- and micronutrients on specific CYP isoenzymes have been extensively studied. Dietary modulation has effects upon the metabolism of xenobiotics. Cytochromes harbor intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic genetic polymorphisms. Bacteria were shown to express CYP-like genes. The tremendous metabolic activity of the microbiota is associated to its abundant pool of CYP enzymes, which catalyze phase I and II reactions in drug metabolism. Disease states, intestinal disturbances, aging, environmental toxic effects, chemical exposures or nutrition modulate the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. A plethora of effects exhibited by most of CYP enzymes can resemble those of proinflammatory cytokines and IFNs. Moreover, they are involved in the initiation and persistence of pathologic pain by directly activating sensory neurons and inflammatory cytokines.

  19. Redox Thermodynamics of Cytochromes c Subjected to Urea Induced Unfolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monari, S.; Ranieri, A.; Di Rocco, G.; van der Zwan, G.; Peressini, S.; Tavagnacco, C.; Millo, D.; Borsari, M.

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the electron transfer (ET) process for beef heart and yeast cytochromes c and the Lys72Ala/Lys73Ala/Lys79Ala mutant of the latter species subjected to progressive urea-induced unfolding was determined electrochemically. The results indicate the presence of at least three

  20. Multivariate Modeling of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes for 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Apart from insights into important molecular properties for CYP inhibition, the findings may also guide further investigations of novel drug candidates that are unlikely to inhibit multiple CYP sub-types. Keywords: Antimalarial, Chloroquine, Cytochrome P450, Genetic algorithm-based multiple linear regression, ...

  1. Evidence for the decay $B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+ 2\\pi^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Caponio, Francesco; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Esen, Sevda; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Hafkenscheid, Tom; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jezabek, Marek; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Roberts, Douglas; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Oksana; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Sidorov, Fedor; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the decay $B_c+\\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+2\\pi^-$ using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3fb$^{-1}$, collected with the LHCb detector. A signal yield of $32\\pm8$ decays is found with a significance of 4.5 standard deviations. The ratio of the branching fraction of the $B_c^+\\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+ 2\\pi^-$ decay to that of the $B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\pi^+$ decay is measured to be $$ \\frac{Br (B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+2\\pi^)}{Br (B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\pi^+)} = 1.74\\pm0.44\\pm0.24, $$ where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  2. Search for Bc+ decays to the pp‾π+ final state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aaij

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A search for the decays of the Bc+ meson to pp¯π+ is performed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb−1 collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. No signal is found and an upper limit, at 95% confidence level, is set, fcfu×B(Bc+→pp‾π+<3.6×10−8 in the kinematic region m(pp‾<2.85 GeV/c2, pT(B<20 GeV/c and 2.0Bc+ (B+ meson.

  3. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombigit, L., E-mail: lojius@nm.gov.my; Yussup, N., E-mail: nolida@nm.gov.my; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M. [Instrumentation Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    A digital n/γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/γ PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume.

  4. Observation of the decay $B_c^+ \\to \\psi(2S)\\pi^+$

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Oyanguren Campos, M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lohn, S; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Mcnab, A; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The decay $B_c^+ \\to \\psi(2S)\\pi^+$ with $\\psi(2S) \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ is observed with a significance of $5.2\\,\\sigma$ using $pp$ collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 $fb^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment. The branching fraction of $B_c^+ \\to \\psi(2S)\\pi^+$ decays relative to that of the $B_c^+ \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+$ mode is measured to be \\begin{equation*} \\frac{\\mathcal{B}(B_c^+ \\to \\psi(2S)\\pi^+)}{\\mathcal{B}(B_c^+ \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+)} = 0.250 \\pm 0.068 \\,\\text{stat} \\pm 0.014 \\,\\text{\\syst} \\pm 0.006 \\,(\\mathcal{B}). \\end{equation*} The last term is the uncertainty on the ratio $\\mathcal{B}(\\psi(2S) \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-)/\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-)$.

  5. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombigit, L.; Yussup, N.; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M.

    2015-01-01

    A digital n/γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/γ PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume

  6. Public safety for BC Hydro's dams and powerhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattanach, D. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada). Emergency Preparedness Security and Public Safety

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed public safety and historical practices at British Columbia (BC) Hydro. Historically, visitors were guided to safe locations at their facilities by visitor centres and public use management areas. Fences and booms were used to protect visitors from the more dangerous areas around the facility. This presentation also described the features of the safety management plans that BC Hydro has in place for each of its 41 facilities. The safety management plans are approved by the plant managers; they have common controls such as fences and signs; and there are excellent maps defining the danger areas. New risks that were identified were also presented. The next steps for BC Hydro include test driving the draft Canadian Dam Association guidelines for the Aberfeldie Dam; a new powerhouse to reduce overtopping of the dam during the spring; and continuing with public safety hazards and controls such as bow-ties. figs.

  7. Lost in transmission : a comprehensive critique of the BC energy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, M.; Hove, J.; Yamashita, J.

    2007-06-01

    This document presented an independent critique and review of the British Columbia (BC) 2007 energy plan. The critique focused on BC hydro-related policies in the energy plan, and was presented in three policy papers. The first paper addressed self-sufficiency and insurance issues. It examined the need for new sources of electricity supply in terms of imports and other market purchases that are currently used to meet BC Hydro's requirements. The second paper addressed BC Hydro electricity rates and the impacts and costs of buying high and selling low. It identified the impacts and costs of the low electricity rate policy in the energy plan, a policy that would inflate the demand for electricity and exaggerate the need for new sources of power caused by the self-sufficiency and insurance policies in the energy plan. Specifically, the second paper discussed BC Hydro rates under the energy plan, the limitations of power smart programs, distributional issues and alternative strategy. The third paper addressed supply issues in the energy plan, with particular reference to targeting low value/high cost resources. It focused on the types of resources BC Hydro had to acquire. It specifically addressed the pressure to acquire run-of-river and wind energy which, despite their superficial appeal, are low in value and high in cost, and could have significant environmental impact. It was concluded that despite the attempt to address environmental concerns, the province's energy plan is designed to artificially increase the market for new independent power producer supply. 76 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Capacity region of the 3 receiver state dependent multilevel BC with noncausal state information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Ramachandran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider a three receiver state dependent multilevel broadcast channel (BC, where the state information is known non-causally at the encoder as well as all the decoders. This is an extension of Nair and El Gamal’s three receiver multilevel BC (Nair and El Gamal, 2009, wherein two of the receivers decode only a common message while a third receiver decodes a private message as well. The objective is to characterize the rate tuples that are simultaneously achievable while ensuring negligible probability of error at each of the receivers. We characterize the capacity region of this setup in the paper.

  9. The role of utilities in enabling technology innovation: The BC hydro alternative & emerging energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Alex; Leclair, Donna; Morrison, Allison

    2010-09-15

    In order for renewable energy to play a dominant role in the global electricity supply mix, emerging renewable energy technologies - such as wave, tidal, enhanced geothermal, and 3rd generation photovoltaic technologies - must prove their technical merits and achieve cost parity with conventional sources of supply. BC Hydro, a government-owned electric utility, launched an Alternative and Emerging Energy Strategy that describes its role as an enabler of technology innovation. This paper describes BC Hydro's goal, objectives and actions to accelerate the commercialization that will yield a diversity of supply options and a growing, local clean-tech cluster.

  10. Remedial action and waste disposal project: 100-B/C remedial action readiness report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Bryant, D.L.; Cislo, G.B.

    1996-07-01

    This Readiness Evaluation Report presents the results of the project readiness evaluation to assess the readiness of the 100-B/C source sites remediation. The 100-B/C Area is located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The evaluation was conducted at the conclusion of a series of readiness activities that began in May 1996. These activities included confirming the completion of project specific procedures, training of staff, obtaining support equipment, receipt of subcontractor submittals, approval of subcontractor submittals, and mobilization and construction of site support systems

  11. The role of cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells: association with migration, invasion and prediction of distant metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen-Liang; Kuo, Kuang-Tai; Chou, Teh-Ying; Chen, Chien-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hao; Wei, Yau-Huei; Wang, Liang-Shun

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide, but useful biomarkers of lung cancer are still insufficient. The aim of this study is to identify some membrane-bound protein(s) associated with migration and invasion in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We classified four NSCLC cell lines into high and low migration/invasion groups by Transwell and Matrigel assays. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), we identified 10 membrane-associated proteins being significantly overexpressed in the high migration/invasion group. The expression of the target protein in the four NSCLC cell lines was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunostaining. RNA interference technique was applied to observe the influence of the target protein on migration and invasion. Gelatin zymography was also performed to evaluate the activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Expression condition of the target protein on surgical specimens was further examined by immunohistochemical staining and the clinicopathologic data were analyzed. We identified a mitochondria-bound protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va (COX Va) because of its abundant presence found exclusively in tumorous areas. We also demonstrated that migration and invasion of NSCLC cells decreased substantially after knocking down COX Va by siRNA. Meanwhile, we found a positive correlation between COX Va expression, Bcl-2 expression and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in NSCLC cells. Immunohistochemical staining of surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas in 250 consecutive patients revealed that strong COX Va expression was found in 54.8% (137/250) of patients and correlated positively with the status of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.032). Furthermore, strong COX Va expression was associated with the presence of distant metastasis (P = 0

  12. Tuning hydrogen storage in lithium-functionalized BC2N sheets by doping with boron and carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Nian-xiang; Zhang, Cheng-hua; Xue, Ying

    2014-10-06

    First-principles calculations are used to explore the strong binding of lithium to boron- and carbon-doped BC2N monolayers (BC2NBC and BC2NCN, respectively) without the formation of lithium clusters. In comparison to BC2N and BC2NCB, lithium-decorated BC2NBC and BC2NCN systems possess stronger s-p and p-p hybridization and, hence, the binding energy is higher. Lithium becomes partially positively charged by donating electron density to the more electronegative atoms of the sheet. Attractive van der Waals interactions are responsible for binding hydrogen molecules around the lithium atoms. Each lithium atom can adsorb three hydrogen molecules on both sides of the sheet, with an average hydrogen binding energy of approximately 0.2 eV, which is in the range required for practical applications. The BC2NBC-Li and BC2NCN-Li complexes can serve as high-capacity hydrogen-storage media with gravimetric hydrogen capacities of 9.88 and 9.94 wt %, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Mechanistic Scrutiny Identifies a Kinetic Role for Cytochrome b5 Regulation of Human Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1, P450 17A1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr N Simonov

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450c17 (P450 17A1, CYP17A1 is a critical enzyme in the synthesis of androgens and is now a target enzyme for the treatment of prostate cancer. Cytochrome P450c17 can exhibit either one or two physiological enzymatic activities differentially regulated by cytochrome b5. How this is achieved remains unknown. Here, comprehensive in silico, in vivo and in vitro analyses were undertaken. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer analysis showed close interactions within living cells between cytochrome P450c17 and cytochrome b5. In silico modeling identified the sites of interaction and confirmed that E48 and E49 residues in cytochrome b5 are essential for activity. Quartz crystal microbalance studies identified specific protein-protein interactions in a lipid membrane. Voltammetric analysis revealed that the wild type cytochrome b5, but not a mutated, E48G/E49G cyt b5, altered the kinetics of electron transfer between the electrode and the P450c17. We conclude that cytochrome b5 can influence the electronic conductivity of cytochrome P450c17 via allosteric, protein-protein interactions.

  14. Respiration control of multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis by a complex of the cytochrome chain with a membrane-embedded histidine kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodkin-Gal, I; Elsholz, AKW; Muth, C; Girguis, PR; Kolter, R; Losick, R

    2013-04-29

    Bacillus subtilis forms organized multicellular communities known as biofilms wherein the individual cells are held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The environmental signals that promote matrix synthesis remain largely unknown. We discovered that one such signal is impaired respiration. Specifically, high oxygen levels suppressed synthesis of the extracellular matrix. In contrast, low oxygen levels, in the absence of an alternative electron acceptor, led to increased matrix production. The response to impaired respiration was blocked in a mutant lacking cytochromes caa(3) and bc and markedly reduced in a mutant lacking kinase KinB. Mass spectrometry of proteins associated with KinB showed that the kinase was in a complex with multiple components of the aerobic respiratory chain. We propose that KinB is activated via a redox switch involving interaction of its second transmembrane segment with one or more cytochromes under conditions of reduced electron transport. In addition, a second kinase (KinA) contributes to the response to impaired respiration. Evidence suggests that KinA is activated by a decrease in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))/NADH ratio via binding of NAD(+) to the kinase in a PAS domain A-dependent manner. Thus, B. subtilis switches from a unicellular to a multicellular state by two pathways that independently respond to conditions of impaired respiration.

  15. Respiration control of multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis by a complex of the cytochrome chain with a membrane-embedded histidine kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Elsholz, Alexander K.W.; Muth, Christine; Girguis, Peter R.; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis forms organized multicellular communities known as biofilms wherein the individual cells are held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The environmental signals that promote matrix synthesis remain largely unknown. We discovered that one such signal is impaired respiration. Specifically, high oxygen levels suppressed synthesis of the extracellular matrix. In contrast, low oxygen levels, in the absence of an alternative electron acceptor, led to increased matrix production. The response to impaired respiration was blocked in a mutant lacking cytochromes caa3 and bc and markedly reduced in a mutant lacking kinase KinB. Mass spectrometry of proteins associated with KinB showed that the kinase was in a complex with multiple components of the aerobic respiratory chain. We propose that KinB is activated via a redox switch involving interaction of its second transmembrane segment with one or more cytochromes under conditions of reduced electron transport. In addition, a second kinase (KinA) contributes to the response to impaired respiration. Evidence suggests that KinA is activated by a decrease in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)/NADH ratio via binding of NAD+ to the kinase in a PAS domain A-dependent manner. Thus, B. subtilis switches from a unicellular to a multicellular state by two pathways that independently respond to conditions of impaired respiration. PMID:23599347

  16. Elevated expression of esterase and cytochrome P450 are related with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and lead to cross resistance in Aphis glycines Matsumura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinghui; Pan, Yiou; Bi, Rui; Gao, Xiwu; Chen, Xuewei; Peng, Tianfei; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Xiaoyue; Shang, Qingli

    2015-02-01

    A resistant strain of the Aphis glycines Matsumura (CRR) has developed 76.67-fold resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin compared with the susceptible (CSS) strain. Synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-Tributyltrithiophosphate (DEF) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to the resistant strain. Bioassay results indicated that the CRR strain had developed high levels of cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos (11.66-fold), acephate (8.20-fold), cypermethrin (53.24-fold), esfenvalerate (13.83-fold), cyfluthrin (9.64-fold), carbofuran (14.60-fold), methomyl (9.32-fold) and bifenthrin (4.81-fold), but did not have cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, diafenthiuron, abamectin. The transcriptional levels of CYP6A2-like, CYP6A14-like and cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 9-like increased significantly in the resistant strain than that in the susceptible. Similar trend were observed in the transcripts and DNA copy number of CarE and E4 esterase. Overall, these results demonstrate that increased esterase hydrolysis activity, combined with elevated cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxicatication, plays an important role in the high levels of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and can cause cross-resistance to other insecticides in the CRR strain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Black Carbon Aging from SOA Coatings and Coagulation with Diesel BC Emissions during SAAS at the PNNL Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Dubey, M. K.; Zaveri, R. A.; Shilling, J. E.; Gourihar, K.; Pekour, M. S.; Subramanian, R.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Sharma, N.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is considered to be potentially the 2nd most important global warming factor behind CO2 (Bond et al., 2013). Uncertainties exist due to BC morphology and mixing state on the extent of the warming that it causes, e.g. Cappa et al., 2012. Core-shell BC is expected to enhance absorption by up to a factor of 2, but has yet to be observed to this extent from ambient data. Experiments were conducted during the Soot Aerosol Aging Study (SAAS) Laboratory Campaign at Pactific Northwest National Laboratory's Environmental Chamber in the winter of 2013-2014 to investigate the relationship between coatings and enhancements from diesel emissions. Direct on-line measurements were made with the single particle soot photometer (SP2) from fresh and aged BC from coating and coagulation experiments with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the chamber. BC measurements are coupled with photoactoustic measurements spanning the visible region to probe BC enhancements when mixed with SOA. Here we focus on the enhancements at 781 nm, that are tracked throughout SOA growth on BC, as determined from SP2 coating thicknesses. Thermal denuder (TD) experiments are conducted and enhancements are calculated from two different methods that agree well with each other, confirming the observed results. BC measurements are also compared with co-located measurements from SPLAT-II and filter analysis using SEM and TEM. BC coagulated with SOA produces minimal absorption enhancement values, whereas coatings are observed to have significant enhancement values at 300 degrees C, e.g. 1.3 for thickly coated BC. BC particles were coagulated with SOA in the chamber since this morphology has been observed in wildfire emissions (Sedlacek et al., 2012). Since we did not observe appreciable enhancements for the coagulated BC, we expect that ambient emissions dominated by this particle type to have enhancements due to other sources, such as brown carbon (BrC) that is often co-emitted (Saleh et

  18. Mycobacterium smegmatis PafBC is involved in regulation of DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudrini Olivencia, Begonia; Müller, Andreas U; Roschitzki, Bernd; Burger, Sibylle; Weber-Ban, Eilika; Imkamp, Frank

    2017-10-25

    Two genes, pafB and pafC, are organized in an operon with the Pup-ligase gene pafA, which is part of the Pup-proteasome system (PPS) present in mycobacteria and other actinobacteria. The PPS is crucial for Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance towards reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). However, pafB and pafC apparently play only a minor role in RNI resistance. To characterize their function, we generated a pafBC deletion in Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm). Proteome analysis of the mutant strain revealed decreased cellular levels of various proteins involved in DNA damage repair, including recombinase A (RecA). In agreement with this finding, Msm ΔpafBC displayed increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. In mycobacteria two pathways regulate DNA repair genes: the LexA/RecA-dependent SOS response and a predominant pathway that controls gene expression via a LexA/RecA-independent promoter, termed P1. PafB and PafC feature winged helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs and we demonstrate that together they form a stable heterodimer in vitro, implying a function as a heterodimeric transcriptional regulator. Indeed, P1-driven transcription of recA was decreased in Msm ΔpafBC under standard conditions and induction of recA expression upon DNA damage was strongly impaired. Taken together, our data indicate an important regulatory function of PafBC in the mycobacterial DNA damage response.

  19. Weighted Sum-Rate Maximization Using Weighted MMSE for MIMO-BC Beamforming Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies linear transmit filter design for weighted sum-rate (WSR) maximization in the multiple input multiple output broadcast channel (MIMO-BC). The problem of finding the optimal transmit filter is non-convex and intractable to solve using low complexity methods. Motivated by recent ...

  20. Observation of the decay Bc + → J/ψK +K-π+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, P.R.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M-O.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.D.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; Van Den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P.; Cheung, S-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca-Pelaz, A.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, C.R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; de Miranda, J. M.; Paula, L.E.; da-Silva, W.S.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, Mark; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Carvalho-Gaspar, M.; Gauld, Rhorry; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T. J.; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.Q.; Gorbounov, P.; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, G.E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, J.T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.M.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T. E.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; Van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Di Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, S.C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marconi, U.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli-Boneschi, F.; Martinez-Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Martynov, A.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; McCarthy, J.; Mcnab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B. T.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran-Zenteno, D.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, Karl; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, R.P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G. N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, D.A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, C.A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, Y.W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, Al.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, L.E.T.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, van Hapere; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, R. H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J; Smith, M.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; de Souza, D.K.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; Van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M. N.; Tolk, S.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, N.T.M.T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, M.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Webber, A. D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, James F; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.J.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2013-01-01

    The decay Bc + → J/ψK+K -π+ is observed for the first time, using proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1. A signal yield of 78 ± 14 decays is reported with a significance of 6.2 standard deviations. The ratio of the branching

  1. A DFT study of adsorption of glycine onto the surface of BC_2N nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, Alireza; Azmoodeh, Zivar; Javan, Masoud Bezi; Lemeski, E. Tazikeh; Karami, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Glycine adsorption over the pristine BC_2N nanotubes is investigated by DFT calculations. • Adsorption of glycine in its zwitterionic form is stronger in comparison with the radical form. • Adsorption of glycine from its amine head on adsorbent leads to a significant decrease in the electronic properties. - Abstract: A theoretical study of structure and the energy interaction of amino acid glycine (NH_2CH_2COOH) with BC_2N nanotube is crucial for apperception behavior occurring at the nanobiointerface. Herein, we studied the adsorption of glycine in their radical and zwitterionic forms upon the surface of BC_2N nanotube using M06 functional and 6-311G** standard basis set. We also considered the different orientations of the glycine amino acid on the surface of adsorbent. Further, we found out that the stability of glycine from its carbonyl group is higher than hydroxyl and amine groups. Our results also indicated that the electronic structure of BC_2N nanotube on the adsorption of glycine from its amine group is more altered than the other groups. Our study exhibits that opto-electronic property of adsorbent is changed after the glycine adsorption.

  2. 13C NMR spectra and bonding situation of the B-C bond in alkynylboranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Moritani, Ichiro

    1975-01-01

    13 C NMR spectra of boron substituted alkynes reveal that the β-carbon is deshielded by ca. 21 ppm by a B(O-n-C 4 H 9 ) 2 group. This clearly indicates the presence of a B-C π-bonding in alkynylboranes. (auth.)

  3. Binding of the respiratory chain inhibitor ametoctradin to the mitochondrial bc1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Marcus; Wolf, Antje; Stammler, Gerd

    2016-03-01

    Ametoctradin is an agricultural fungicide that inhibits the mitochondrial bc1 complex of oomycetes. The bc1 complex has two quinone binding sites that can be addressed by inhibitors. Depending on their binding sites and binding modes, the inhibitors show different degrees of cross-resistance that need to be considered when designing spray programmes for agricultural fungicides. The binding site of ametoctradin was unknown. Cross-resistance analyses, the reduction of isolated Pythium sp. bc1 complex in the presence of different inhibitors and molecular modelling studies were used to analyse the binding site and binding mode of ametoctradin. All three approaches provide data supporting the argument that ametoctradin binds to the Pythium bc1 complex similarly to stigmatellin. The binding mode of ametoctradin differs from other agricultural fungicides such as cyazofamid and the strobilurins. This explains the lack of cross-resistance with strobilurins and related inhibitors, where resistance is mainly caused by G143A amino acid exchange. Accordingly, mixtures or alternating applications of these fungicides and ametoctradin can help to minimise the risk of the emergence of new resistant isolates. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Apiano de Alejandría, traductor (BC IV 45 y V 191

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Torres

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper defends that Appian regards as translations two passages in his work (cfr. BC IV 45 and V 191. Both translations show different features which may be explained from the point of view of ancient theories concerning translation.

  5. A vertex including emission of spin fields for an arbitrary bc system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, P.; Madsen, R.A.; Roland, K.

    1990-01-01

    We construct the (N+2M) Point Vertex involving the emission of N Neveu-Schwarz and 2M Ramond states for a bosonic and fermionic bc system with a bockground charge Q. From it one can compute correlation functions on the sphere involving any number of spin fields. We show in detail that the vertex satisfies overlap conditions. (orig.)

  6. Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Weller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous black carbon (BC observations were conducted from 1999 through 2009 by an Aethalometer (AE10 and from 2006 through 2011 by a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP at Neumayer Station (NM under stringent contamination control. Considering the respective observation period, BC concentrations measured by the MAAP were somewhat higher (median ± standard deviation: 2.1 ± 2.0 ng m−3 compared to the AE10 results (1.6 ± 2.1 ng m−3. Neither for the AE10 nor for the MAAP data set a significant long-term trend could be detected. Consistently a pronounced seasonality was observed with both instruments showing a primary annual maximum between October and November and a minimum in April with a maximum/minimum ratio of 4.5/1.6 = 3.8 and 2.7/0.64 = 4.2 for the MAAP and AE10 data, respectively. Occasionally a secondary summer maximum in January/February was visible. With the aim to assess the impact of BC on optical properties of the aerosol at NM, we evaluated the BC data along with particle scattering coefficients measured by an integrating nephelometer. We found the mean single scattering albedo of ω550 = 0.992 ± 0.0090 (median: 0.994 at a wavelength of 550 nm with a range of values from 0.95 to 1.0.

  7. Exceptional longevity and exceptionally high metabolic rates in anthropoid primates are linked to a major modification of the ubiquinone reduction site of cytochrome b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Hagai

    2014-10-01

    The maximal lifespan of Anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes and humans) exceed the lifespan of most other mammals of equal body mass. Unexpectedly, their exceptional longevity is associated with exceptionally high metabolic rates, in apparent contradiction to the Free Radical Theory of Aging. It was therefore suggested that in anthropoid primates (and several other taxa of mammals and birds) the mitochondrial electron transport complexes evolved to modify the relationship between basal electron transport and superoxide generation to allow for the evolution of exceptional longevity. Cytochrome b, the core protein of the bc1 complex is a major source of superoxide. The amino-acid sequence of cytochrome b evolved much faster in anthropoid than in prosimian primates, and most other mammals, resulting in a large change in the amino-acids composition of the protein. As a result of these changes cytochrome b in anthropoid primates is significantly less hydrophobic and contains more polar residues than other primates and most other mammals. Most of these changes are clustered around the reduction site of uboiquinone. In particular a key positively charged residue, arginine 313, that interacts with propionate D of heme bH, and thus raises its redox potential, is substituted in anthropoid primates with the neutral residue glutamine, most likely resulting in a lower redox potential of heme bH and faster reduction of ubiquinone at high proton motive force. It is suggested that these changes contribute to the observed increased rates of basal metabolism and reduce the rates of superoxide production, thus allowing for increased lifespan.

  8. Molecular dynamics analysis reveals structural insights into mechanism of nicotine N-demethylation catalyzed by tobacco cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wang

    Full Text Available CYP82E4, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, has nicotine N-demethylase (NND activity, which mediates the bioconversion of nicotine into nornicotine in senescing tobacco leaves. Nornicotine is a precursor of the carcinogen, tobacco-specific nitrosamine. CYP82E3 is an ortholog of CYP82E4 with 95% sequence identity, but it lacks NND activity. A recent site-directed mutagenesis study revealed that a single amino acid substitution, i.e., cysteine to tryptophan at the 330 position in the middle of protein, restores the NND activity of CYP82E3 entirely. However, the same amino acid change caused the loss of the NND activity of CYP82E4. To determine the mechanism of the functional turnover of the two molecules, four 3D structures, i.e., the two molecules and their corresponding cys-trp mutants were modeled. The resulting structures exhibited that the mutation site is far from the active site, which suggests that no direct interaction occurs between the two sites. Simulation studies in different biological scenarios revealed that the mutation introduces a conformation drift with the largest change at the F-G loop. The dynamics trajectories analysis using principal component analysis and covariance analysis suggests that the single amino acid change causes the opening and closing of the transfer channels of the substrates, products, and water by altering the motion of the F-G and B-C loops. The motion of helix I is also correlated with the motion of both the F-G loop and the B-C loop and; the single amino acid mutation resulted in the curvature of helix I. These results suggest that the single amino acid mutation outside the active site region may have indirectly mediated the flexibility of the F-G and B-C loops through helix I, causing a functional turnover of the P450 monooxygenase.

  9. The effects of protein crowding in bacterial photosynthetic membranes on the flow of quinone redox species between the photochemical reaction center and the ubiquinol-cytochrome c2 oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Kamil; Sha, Daniel; Frese, Raoul N; Sturgis, James N; Nanda, Vikas; Niederman, Robert A

    2011-08-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the native architecture of the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) of a variety of species of purple photosynthetic bacteria, obtained at submolecular resolution, shows a tightly packed arrangement of light harvesting (LH) and reaction center (RC) complexes. Since there are no unattributed structures or gaps with space sufficient for the cytochrome bc(1) or ATPase complexes, they are localized in membrane domains distinct from the flat regions imaged by AFM. This has generated a renewed interest in possible long-range pathways for lateral diffusion of UQ redox species that functionally link the RC and the bc(1) complexes. Recent proposals to account for UQ flow in the membrane bilayer are reviewed, along with new experimental evidence provided from an analysis of intrinsic near-IR fluorescence emission that has served to test these hypotheses. The results suggest that different mechanism of UQ flow exist between species such as Rhodobacter sphaeroides, with a highly organized arrangement of LH and RC complexes and fast RC electron transfer turnover, and Phaeospirillum molischianum with a more random organization and slower RC turnover. It is concluded that packing density of the peripheral LH2 antenna in the Rba. sphaeroides ICM imposes constraints that significantly slow the diffusion of UQ redox species between the RC and cytochrome bc(1) complex, while in Phs. molischianum, the crowding of the ICM with LH3 has little effect upon UQ diffusion. This supports the proposal that in this type of ICM, a network of RC-LH1 core complexes observed in AFM provides a pathway for long-range quinone diffusion that is unaffected by differences in LH complex composition or organization.

  10. Cadmium Accumulation and Its Toxicity in Brittle Culm 1 (bc1, a Fragile Rice Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-sheng SHAO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd accumulation and toxicity in rice plants were characterized and identified by using brittle culm 1 (bc1, a fragile rice mutant and its wild type (Shuangkezao, an indica rice as materials by hydroponics. The low Cd level didn't obviously affect the growth parameters in both rice genotypes, but under high Cd levels (1.0 and 5.0 μmol/L, the growth of both rice plants were substantially inhibited. Moreover, bc1 tended to suffer more seriously from Cd toxicity than Shuangkezao. Cd accumulation in both rice plants increased with the increase of Cd levels. There was a significant difference in Cd accumulation between the two rice genotypes with constantly higher Cd concentration in bc1, which also accumulated more Cd at 0, 0.1, and 1.0 μmol/L Cd levels. The same case was found in the two rice plants grown on Cd-contaminated soil. This suggested that cell wall might play an important role in Cd accumulation in rice plants by the physiological mechanisms. The malondialdehyde (MDA content, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities in rice plants were affected differently under Cd treatments, and which implied that POD might play the main role in detoxifying active oxygen free radical. A significant difference in antioxidative system between the two rice genotypes was found with constantly higher MDA content, SOD and POD activities in bc1. In summary, bc1 accumulated more Cd and appeared to be more sensitive to Cd stress compared with its wild type.

  11. Demystifying the hydrogen and fuel cell industry: Where are the investment opportunities in B.C.?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettlewell, D. [Hydrogen Media, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    It is forecast that accessible supplies of oil will decline by 2020; a similar fate is forecast for natural gas occurring 20 years later in 2040. Taking into account finite supply sources and environmental concerns, planners are forced to consider alternative energy sources. In considering energy alternatives, hydrogen is commonly identified as the potential energy elixir, given its ability to generate highly concentrated forms of energy with clean water being the only 'waste product'. British Columbia has been the locus of major hydrogen and fuel cell research in Canada and is, therefore, in an exceptionally good position to play a leading role in the development of this abundant and clean energy source. This paper examines the history and future investments in BC's hydrogen and fuel cell sectors from a macro financial point of view, and with a critical eye towards global developments. The report recommends development of a Hydrogen Energy Research Centre of Excellence in BC; increased collaboration between private firms, academic researchers and technology partners; development of quantifiable and measurable revenue goals for the fuel cell sector; and additional tax benefit policies to attract and retain hydrogen specialists and entrepreneurs in BC. With regard to investments specifically, the report recommends building appropriate industry and academic relationships; concentration of clients, partners and revenues in geographic clusters closer to home before expanding around the world; development of local media interest in the sector; increased public awareness; focus on standards and opportunities for 'angel' investors; and creating increased awareness of the most promising areas of the industry for venture capital to focus on. Based on the high concentration of fuel cell intellectual capital in BC, the report forecasts substantial growth in BC's hydrogen economy in 2006 and beyond.

  12. Premature deaths attributed to source-specific BC emissions in six urban US regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Matthew D; Henze, Daven K; Capps, Shannon L; Hakami, Amir; Zhao, Shunliu; Resler, Jaroslav; Carmichael, Gregory R; Stanier, Charles O; Baek, Jaemeen; Sandu, Adrian; Russell, Armistead G; Nenes, Athanasios; Pinder, Rob W; Napelenok, Sergey L; Bash, Jesse O; Percell, Peter B; Chai, Tianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to particulate black carbon (BC) has significant adverse health effects and may be more detrimental to human health than exposure to PM 2.5 as a whole. Mobile source BC emission controls, mostly on diesel-burning vehicles, have successfully decreased mobile source BC emissions to less than half of what they were 30 years ago. Quantification of the benefits of previous emissions controls conveys the value of these regulatory actions and provides a method by which future control alternatives could be evaluated. In this study we use the adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to estimate highly-resolved spatial distributions of benefits related to emission reductions for six urban regions within the continental US. Emissions from outside each of the six chosen regions account for between 7% and 27% of the premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC within the region. While we estimate that nonroad mobile and onroad diesel emissions account for the largest number of premature deaths attributable to exposure to BC, onroad gasoline is shown to have more than double the benefit per unit emission relative to that of nonroad mobile and onroad diesel. Within the region encompassing New York City and Philadelphia, reductions in emissions from large industrial combustion sources that are not classified as EGUs (i.e., non-EGU) are estimated to have up to triple the benefits per unit emission relative to reductions to onroad diesel sectors, and provide similar benefits per unit emission to that of onroad gasoline emissions in the region. While onroad mobile emissions have been decreasing in the past 30 years and a majority of vehicle emission controls that regulate PM focus on diesel emissions, our analysis shows the most efficient target for stricter controls is actually onroad gasoline emissions. (letter)

  13. Visceral leishmaniasis-hepatitis B/C coinfections: a rising necessity to triage patients for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Abubakr O; M, Mohamed M; A, Hatim A; Elamin, Mohamed Y; Younis, Brima M; E, Mona E; Musa, Ahmed M; Elhassan, Ahmed M; G, Eltahir A

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening infection caused by Leishmania species. In Sudan, VL is caused by L donovani. Most drugs used to treat VL, especially pentavalent antimony compounds (sodium stibogluconate, SSG), are potentially hepatotoxic. A number of fatal catastrophes happened because patients with VL-hepatitis B/C coinfection were indiscriminately treated with SSG in settings where VL and viral hepatitis coexist. This study aimed to study biochemical and hematological parameters of patients with VL-hepatitis B/C coinfections with the aim to modify treatment protocols to reduce coinfection.added morbidity and mortality. This was a prospective analytical, hospital-based, and case-controlled study. The study was done at Kassab Hospital and Professor Elhassan Centre for tropical medicine during the period of February 2008 to April 2013. Following informed consent by the participants, 78 parasitologically confirmed VL patients with either hepatitis B or C or both and 528 sex- and age-unmatched VL patients without hepatitis B/C coinfection (control group) were enrolled sequentially. Diagnosis of hepatitis B or C was made using immunochromatographic test kits and confirmed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. VL patients with hepatitis B/C coinfections had significantly increased levels of AST, ALT, and total bilirubin compared to the control group (P=.0001 for all), with significantly decreased levels of albumin and platelets counts (P=.0029 for both). VL-hepatitis B/C coinfections are an emerging entity that needs anti-leishmanial treatment modification. Alternative treatments like paromomycin and amphotericin B (AmBisome) could be reserved for these patients.

  14. XANES investigation of Chinese faience excavated from Peng State Cemetery site in Western Zhou Period (BC1046–BC771)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Wentao; Yang, Yimin [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Jian, E-mail: jzhu@ucas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gu, Zhou [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Yaoting [Institute of Archaeology of Shanxi Province, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Zhang, Jing [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Lihua [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed faience of Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty (BC1046–BC771). • We investigated the chemical composition and oxidation state by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), respectively. • The coloring element in both beads is copper in +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu{sup 2+}. • Chinese faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant. - Abstract: As a special kind of glazed ceramic, faience has an important role to play in the technological trajectory that eventually leads to the development of ancient glass. In China, faience products first emerged in early Western Zhou Dynasty (1046BC–771BC), and their great significance as well as brilliant colors varying between blue and green attracted a lot of scholars. However, scientific researches on the color source of Chinese faience in view of microstructure characterization are quite few. In the present work, analyses by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) were carried out on two faience beads with relatively blue and green color, respectively, both of which were excavated from Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty. The results show that the coloring element in both beads is copper with +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu{sup 2+}. It is suggested that the faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant in China.

  15. XANES investigation of Chinese faience excavated from Peng State Cemetery site in Western Zhou Period (BC1046–BC771)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Wentao; Yang, Yimin; Zhu, Jian; Gu, Zhou; Xie, Yaoting; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed faience of Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty (BC1046–BC771). • We investigated the chemical composition and oxidation state by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), respectively. • The coloring element in both beads is copper in +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu 2+ . • Chinese faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant. - Abstract: As a special kind of glazed ceramic, faience has an important role to play in the technological trajectory that eventually leads to the development of ancient glass. In China, faience products first emerged in early Western Zhou Dynasty (1046BC–771BC), and their great significance as well as brilliant colors varying between blue and green attracted a lot of scholars. However, scientific researches on the color source of Chinese faience in view of microstructure characterization are quite few. In the present work, analyses by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) were carried out on two faience beads with relatively blue and green color, respectively, both of which were excavated from Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty. The results show that the coloring element in both beads is copper with +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu 2+ . It is suggested that the faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant in China

  16. Variations in epidermal cytochrome oxidase activity after local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoiz, M.E.; Rey, B.M. de; Cabrini, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Cytochrome oxidase activity was evaluated histochemically as an index of mitochondrial damage after local irradiation with X-rays. It was determined by microphotometry on the tail skin of newly born Wistar rats four days after irradiation with doses ranging from 2 to 16krad. The enzyme activity of the whole epidermis increased after irradiation, the increases being related to the increase in thickness of the epithelium which was observed as a response to irradiation injury. Within the dose range tested, the enzyme concentration (expressed per unit volume of tissue) decreased in relation to the dose applied. At the electron microscopy level, the cytochemical demonstration of cytochrome oxidase revealed an irregular reaction over the cristae, intramitochondrial vacuolization and partial homogenization of the matrix. Positive membrane fragments were seen around lipid droplets. This reaction confirms the mitochondrial origin of these previously observed radiation-induced vacuoles. (author)

  17. 2008 Key Student Outcomes Indicators for BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Programs: Survey Results by Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to former…

  18. Interaction of rocuronium with human liver cytochromes P450

    OpenAIRE

    Anzenbacherova, Eva; Spicakova, Alena; Jourova, Lenka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Adamus, Milan; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Rocuronium is a neuromuscular blocking agent acting as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. Results of an inhibition of eight individual liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) are presented. As the patients are routinely premedicated with diazepam, possible interaction of diazepam with rocuronium has been also studied. Results indicated that rocuronium interacts with human liver microsomal CYPs by binding to the substrate site. Next, concentration dependent inhibition of liver micro...

  19. Coordinate regulation of cytochrome and alternative pathway respiration in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlerberghe, G C; McIntosh, L

    1992-12-01

    In suspension cells of NT1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv bright yellow), inhibition of the cytochrome pathway of respiration with antimycin A induced a large increase in the capacity of the alternative pathway over a period of approximately 12 h, as confirmed in both whole cells and isolated mitochondria. The increase in alternative pathway capacity required de novo RNA and protein synthesis and correlated closely with the increase of a 35-kD alternative oxidase protein. When the cytochrome pathway of intact cells was inhibited by antimycin A, respiration proceeded exclusively through the alternative pathway, reached rates significantly higher than before antimycin A addition, and was not stimulated by p-trifluoromethoxycarbonylcyanide (FCCP). When inhibition of the cytochrome pathway was relieved, alternative pathway capacity and the level of the 35-kD alternative oxidase protein declined. Respiration rate also declined and could once again be stimulated by FCCP. These observations show that the capacities of the mitochondrial electron transport pathways can be regulated in a coordinate fashion.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to drosophila cytochrome P-450's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundseth, S.S.; Kennel, S.J.; Waters, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies were prepared by the fusion of SP2/0 myeloma cells and spleen cells from a female BALB/c mouse immunized by cytochrome P-450-A and P-450-B purified from Drosophila Hikone-R (BG) microsomes. P-450-A and P-450-B are electrophoretically distinct subsets of Drosophila P-450. P-450-A is ubiquitous among strains tested, while P-450-B is present in only a few strains displaying unique enzyme activities and increased insecticide resistance. The Oregon-R strain contains only cytochromes P-450-A and is susceptible to insecticides. The authors Hikone-R (BG) strain expresses both cytochromes P-450-A and P-450-B and is insecticide resistant. Antibody producing hybridomas were detected in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) by binding to Hikone-R (BG) or Oregon-R microsomes. Four independent hybridomas were identified as producing monoclonal antibodies that recognized proteins in the P-450 complex by immunoblot experiments. Three monoclonal antibodies recognized P-450-A proteins, while one monoclonal antibody bound predominantly P-450-B. This monoclonal antibody also recognized southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania, Cramer) microsomal proteins

  1. Covalent modification of cytochrome c by reactive metabolites of furan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martin B; Sullivan, Mathilde M; Villalta, Peter W; Peterson, Lisa A

    2014-01-21

    Metabolism of the hepatotoxicant furan leads to protein adduct formation in the target organ. The initial bioactivation step involves cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of furan, generating cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA). BDA reacts with lysine to form pyrrolin-2-one adducts. Metabolic studies indicate that BDA also reacts with glutathione (GSH) to generate 2-(S-glutathionyl)butanedial (GSH-BDA), which then reacts with lysine to form GSH-BDA-lysine cross-links. To explore the relative reactivity of these two reactive intermediates, cytochrome c was reacted with BDA in the presence and absence of GSH. As judged by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, BDA reacts extensively with cytochrome c to form adducts that add 66 Da to the protein, consistent with the formation of pyrrolinone adducts. Addition of GSH to the reaction mixture reduced the overall extent of adduct formation. The mass of the adducted protein was shifted by 355 Da as expected for GSH-BDA-protein cross-link formation. LC-MS/MS analysis of the tryptic digests of the alkylated protein indicated that the majority of adducts occurred on lysine residues, with BDA reacting less selectively than GSH-BDA. Both types of adducts may contribute to the toxic effects of furan.

  2. Tributyltin interacts with mitochondria and induces cytochrome c release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikimi, A; Kira, Y; Kasahara, E; Sato, E F; Kanno, T; Utsumi, K; Inoue, M

    2001-01-01

    Although triorganotins are potent inducers of apoptosis in various cell types, the critical targets of these compounds and the mechanisms by which they lead to cell death remain to be elucidated. There are two major pathways by which apoptotic cell death occurs: one is triggered by a cytokine mediator and the other is by a mitochondrion-dependent mechanism. To elucidate the mechanism of triorganotin-induced apoptosis, we studied the effect of tributyltin on mitochondrial function. We found that moderately low doses of tributyltin decrease mitochondrial membrane potential and induce cytochrome c release by a mechanism inhibited by cyclosporine A and bongkrekic acid. Tributyltin-induced cytochrome c release is also prevented by dithiols such as dithiothreitol and 2,3-dimercaptopropanol but not by monothiols such as GSH, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, L-cysteine and 2-mercaptoethanol. Further studies with phenylarsine oxide agarose revealed that tributyltin interacts with the adenine nucleotide translocator, a functional constituent of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which is selectively inhibited by dithiothreitol. These results suggest that, at low doses, tributyltin interacts selectively with critical thiol residues in the adenine nucleotide translocator and opens the permeability transition pore, thereby decreasing membrane potential and releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria, a series of events consistent with established mechanistic models of apoptosis. PMID:11368793

  3. Rational redesign of the biodegradative enzyme cytochrome P450 cam:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornstein, R.; Paulsen, M.; Bass, M.; Arnold, G.

    1991-03-01

    Cytochromes P450, a superfamily of monooxygenase enzymes present in all kingdoms of living organisms, are very versatile with respect to substrate range and catalytic functionality. Many recalcitrant halogenated hydrocarbons, on DOE sites and throughout the nation, result in serious environmental impact. Cytochromes P450 have been shown to be catalytically capable of, at least partial, dehalogenation of some such compounds. Clearly, however, their active site stereochemistry and related functional components are not well suited for this role because the rates of dehalogenation are generally rather modest. The evolution of modified active site and access channel structures may proceed very slowly if multiple genetic changes are simultaneously required for enzyme adaptation. Since each mutational event is by itself a rare event, a basic premise of our research is that designing multiple changes into an enzyme may be more timely than waiting for them to occur biologically either via natural selection or under laboratory-controlled conditions. Starting with available high-resolution x-ray crystal structures, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the basic structure/function principles and conformational fluctuations of the biodegradative enzyme, cytochrome P450cam (camphor hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida) and active site mutants, to provide the fundamental understanding necessary for rational engineering of the enzyme for modified substrate specificity. In the present paper, we review our progress to data, in the area of molecular dynamics simulations and active site redesign of P450cam. 36 refs., 2 figs

  4. Identification of human cytochrome P450s as autoantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, M P; Johnson, E F

    1991-01-01

    Antimicrosomal antibodies in inflammatory liver diseases all seem to be directed against members of the cytochrome P450 family of proteins. These autoantigens seem to be genetically polymorphic, the autoantibodies are inhibitory, and the autoepitopes are generally conserved among species. Anti-P450 autoantibodies share these characteristics with other autoantibodies, for example, antinuclear antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. The identification of P450s as human autoantigens is clinically important. Diagnostic tests will be developed on the basis of cloned antigen, facilitating a better diagnosis of drug-induced and idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis. It is unknown what triggers autoantibody production against cytochrome P450 proteins. Furthermore, their pathogenetic role and thus their involvement in tissue destruction is unclear. In this context LKM1 autoantibodies may serve as a model. Although LKM1 antibodies are inhibitory, all LKM1 antibody-positive patients tested so far are extensive metabolizers for drug metabolism mediated by P450IID6 and express this protein in their livers. Thus, the inhibitory LKM1 autoantibody does not sufficiently penetrate through the intact liver cell membrane to inhibit enzyme function in vivo. Presumably, tissue destruction in autoimmune hepatitis is mediated by liver-infiltrating T lymphocytes. T lymphocytes have been cloned from liver tissue that specifically proliferate in the presence of recombinant cytochrome P450IID6. The construction of overlapping cDNA subclones is also valuable to identify immunodominant B cell as well as relevant T cell epitopes.

  5. Formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes in isolated developing pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaver, S.S.; Bhava, D.; Castelfranco, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to chlorophyll-protein complexes, other proteins were labeled when isolated developing pea chloroplasts were incubated with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid [ 14 C]-ALA. The major labeled band (M/sub r/ = 43 kDa by LDS-PAGE) was labeled even in the presence of chloramphenicol. Heme-dependent peroxidase activity (as detected by the tetramethyl benzidine-H 2 O 2 stain) was not visibly associated with this band. The radioactive band was stable to heat, 5% HCl in acetone, and was absent if the incubation with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid was carried out in the presence of N-methyl protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (a specific inhibitor of ferrochelatase). Organic solvent extraction procedures for the enrichment of cytochrome f from chloroplast membranes also extracted this unknown labeled product. It was concluded that this labeled product was probably a c-type cytochrome. The effect of exogenous iron, iron chelators, gabaculine (an inhibitor of ALA synthesis) and other incubation conditions upon the in vitro formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes will be discussed

  6. Conformational changes of the NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase in the course of electron transfer to cytochromes P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Tomas; Jensen, Kenneth; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2011-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is a key electron donor to eucaryotic cytochromes P450 (CYPs). CPR shuttles electrons from NADPH through the FAD and FMN-coenzymes into the iron of the prosthetic heme-group of the CYP. In the course of these electron transfer reactions, CPR und...... to serve as an effective electron transferring "nano-machine"....

  7. One-electron reduction of mitomycin c by rat liver : role of cytochrome P-450 and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, R M; Van de Straat, R; Groeneveld, M.; Vermeulen, N P

    1. The role of cytochrome P-450 in the one-electron reduction of mitomycin c was studied in rat hepatic microsomal systems and in reconstituted systems of purified cytochrome P-450. Formation of H2O2 from redox cycling of the reduced mitomycin c in the presence of O2 and the alkylation of

  8. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-2 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This work plan and attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-2 operable unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The 100 Area is one of four areas at the Hanford Site that are on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List under CERCLA. The 100-BC-2 operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-B/C Area (Figure ES-1). Source operable units are those that contain facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The 100-BC-2 source operable unit contains waste sites that were formerly in the 100-BC-2, 100-BC-3, and 100-BC-4 operable units. Because of their size and geographic location, the waste sites from these two operable units were added to 100-BC-2. This allows for a more efficient and effective investigation of the remaining 100-B/C Reactor area waste sites. The investigative approach to waste sites associated with the 100-BC-2 operable unit are listed in Table ES-1. The waste sites fall into three general categories: high priority liquid waste disposal sites, low priority liquid waste disposal sites, and solid waste burial grounds. Several sites have been identified as candidates for conducting an IRM. Two sites have been identified as warranting additional limited field sampling. The two sites are the 116-C-2A pluto crib, and the 116-C-2C sand filter

  9. In-silico assessment of protein-protein electron transfer. a case study: cytochrome c peroxidase--cytochrome c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank H Wallrapp

    Full Text Available The fast development of software and hardware is notably helping in closing the gap between macroscopic and microscopic data. Using a novel theoretical strategy combining molecular dynamics simulations, conformational clustering, ab-initio quantum mechanics and electronic coupling calculations, we show how computational methodologies are mature enough to provide accurate atomistic details into the mechanism of electron transfer (ET processes in complex protein systems, known to be a significant challenge. We performed a quantitative study of the ET between Cytochrome c Peroxidase and its redox partner Cytochrome c. Our results confirm the ET mechanism as hole transfer (HT through residues Ala194, Ala193, Gly192 and Trp191 of CcP. Furthermore, our findings indicate the fine evolution of the enzyme to approach an elevated turnover rate of 5.47 × 10(6 s(-1 for the ET between Cytc and CcP through establishment of a localized bridge state in Trp191.

  10. Structure and expression of cytochrome f in an Oenothera plastome mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E M; Sears, B B

    1990-06-01

    The chloroplast mutant pm7 is one of a number of mutants derived from the plastome mutator (pm) line of Oenothera hookeri, strain Johansen. Immunoblotting showed that this mutant accumulates a protein that is cross-antigenic with cytochrome f, but five kilodaltons larger than the mature wild-type protein. Since cytochrome f is known to be translated on plastid ribosomes as a precursor with an amino-terminal extension, it is proposed that the unprocessed cytochrome f precursor accumulates in pm7. In addition to this precursor-sized cytochrome f protein, some mature-sized cytochrome f was also found in the mutant plastids. The pm7 mutation is inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion; but no alterations in chloroplast DNA restriction patterns, or differences in DNA sequence in the region encoding cytochrome f, were found in a comparison of the wild-type and pm7 chloroplast DNAs. Although the mutant was capable of synthesizing heme, no covalently-bound heme, normally found associated with mature, functional, cytochrome f was detected in the mutant at sizes expected for the presumed precursor, or for mature cytochrome f. These results indicate that the aberrant accumulation of a precursor-sized cytochrome f in pm7 is not due to a lesion directly in the plastid gene encoding cytochrome f, petA, or to a deficiency in the ability of the mutant plastids to synthesize or accumulate heme.

  11. The Relationship Between Emissions and Economic Growth for SO2, CO2, and BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, M.; Shindell, D. T.; Tao, S.; Zhong, Q.; Seltzer, K.

    2017-12-01

    We characterize the relationship between per person emissions of SO2, CO2, and black carbon (BC) and income using a global country-level emission inventory. Pollutant emissions of SO2 and BC from the power, industry, and transportation sectors largely follow an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) pattern with peak emissions at income levels between 10,000 and 100,000 USD per capita. However, for CO2, any estimated turnover income is extremely high and unlikely to be reached in the near future in power, industry, and transportation. Residential emissions show a negatively sloped linear relationship for BC, a small positive slope for CO2, and a fairly flat trajectory for SO2. For the EKC-like trajectories, "turning point" incomes for each sector and pollutant are related to technological advances and the effectiveness of emission controls. These results suggest that policy targeting technological advances and emission controls could change future pathways by affecting the "turning point" incomes. For the linear trajectories in the residential sector, we show that transitions from biomass fuel to coal in low-income countries and from coal to natural gas in middle and high-income countries, in concert with electrification levels, are the main factors governing slopes. Thus, the three pollutants show different income-emission trajectories based on the sum of the four major sectors, and the residential sector in particular has a unique relationship with income growth. As one of the first studies to analyze historical emission trajectories of BC, we find that BC differs from SO2 and CO2 because of its significantly earlier turnover in the power and industry sectors due to control policies. Total BC emissions trajectories follow a unique shape due to the combination of linearly decreasing residential emissions with EKC-like patterns in industry and transportation. We compare these trajectories to those in three Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs), GCAM, AIM, and MESSAGE

  12. Interaction of Al with O{sub 2} exposed Mo{sub 2}BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis, E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Al adheres to many surfaces. • Solid–solid interactions challenging for real (oxidized) surfaces. • Dissociative O{sub 2} adsorption on Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0). • Al nonamer is disrupted on oxidized Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0). • Adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide. - Abstract: A Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0) surface was exposed to O{sub 2}. The gas interaction was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air exposed surfaces. The calculations suggest that the most dominating physical mechanism is dissociative O{sub 2} adsorption whereby Mo−O, O−Mo−O and Mo{sub 2}−C−O bond formation is observed. To validate these results, Mo{sub 2}BC thin films were synthesized utilizing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and air exposed surfaces were probed by XPS. MoO{sub 2} and MoO{sub 3} bond formation is observed and is consistent with here obtained ab initio data. Additionally, the interfacial interactions of O{sub 2} exposed Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0) surface with an Al nonamer is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics to describe on the atomic scale the interaction between this surface and Al to mimic the interface present during cold forming processes of Al based alloys. The Al nonamer was disrupted and Al forms chemical bonds with oxygen contained in the O{sub 2} exposed Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0) surface. Based on the comparison of here calculated adsorption energy with literature data, Al−Al bonds are shown to be significantly weaker than the Al−O bonds formed across the interface. Hence, Al−Al bond rupture is expected for a mechanically loaded interface. Therefore the adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide layer is predicted. This is consistent with experimental observations. The data presented here may also be relevant for other oxygen containing surfaces in a contact with Al or Al based alloys for example during forming operations.

  13. In vitro effects of myricetin, morin, apigenin, (+)-taxifolin, (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, naringenin and naringin on cytochrome b5 reduction by purified NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelik, Haydar; Koşar, Müberra; Arinç, Emel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed inhibitory effects of 8 dietary flavonoids on cytochrome b5 reduction by purified NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. • The flavonol myricetin was the most potent in inhibiting cytochrome b5 reduction with an IC 50 value of 0.35 μM. • We investigated kinetics of myricetin-induced inhibition in detail. • We explored the structure–inhibitory activity relationship of compounds. • Modulation of cytochrome b5 reduction indicates a potential for myricetin to lead to some food–drug/xenobiotic interactions. - Abstract: The microsomal NADH-dependent electron transport system consisting of cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5 participates in a number of physiologically important processes including lipid metabolism as well as is involved in the metabolism of various drug and xenobiotics. In the present study, we assessed the inhibitory effects of eight dietary flavonoids representing five distinct chemical classes on cytochrome b5 reduction by purified cytochrome b5 reductase. From the flavonoids tested, myricetin was the most potent in inhibiting cytochrome b5 reduction with an IC 50 value of 0.35 μM. Myricetin inhibited b5 reductase noncompetitively with a K i of 0.21 μM with respect to cofactor NADH, and exhibited a non-linear relationship indicating non-Michaelis–Menten kinetic binding with respect to cytochrome b5. In contrast to the potent inhibitory activity of myricetin, (+)-taxifolin was found to be a weak inhibitor (IC 50 = 9.8 μM). The remaining flavonoids were inactive within the concentration range tested (1–50 μM). Analysis of structure–activity data suggested that simultaneous presence of three OH groups in ring B is a primary structural determinant for a potent enzyme inhibition. Our results suggest that inhibition of the activity of this system by myricetin or myricetin containing diets may influence the metabolism of therapeutic drugs as well as detoxification of xenobiotics

  14. Bc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusignoli, M.; Masetti, M.; Petrarca, S.

    1991-01-01

    The pseudoscalar meson B c is the simplest particle containing more than one heavy quark of different flavours. Its production cross sections at accelerators presently running or in project are estimated using the HERWIG parton shower Monte Carlo code. (orig.)

  15. Exotic open-flavor $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ tetraquark states

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Steele, T. G.; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    We study the exotic $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ systems by constructing the corresponding tetraquark currents with $J^P=0^+$ and $1^+$. After investigating the two-point correlation functions and the spectral densities, we perform QCD sum rule analysis and extract the masses of these open-flavor tetraquark states. Our results indicate that the masses of both the scalar and axial vector tetraquark states are about $7.1-7.2$ GeV for the $bc\\...

  16. A new era of prosperity through power : maintaining BC's competitive advantage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, D. [BC Council of Forest Industries, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-08-17

    The availability of abundant low cost electric power has been a driving force behind British Columbia's economic growth. BC's low cost power resources can create a natural competitive economic advantage for the province. Electricity, as a publicly owned resource can offer many competitive advantages for business in British Columbia, if managed correctly. However, it was noted that meaningful economic advantages can only be realized if the existing power resources in the province are operated efficiently and priced at or close to cost. In the 1980s, the Joint Industry Electricity Steering Committee (JIESC) was formed following the regulation of BC Hydro by BC Utilities Commission. It became clear that maintaining low rates for electricity was a public issue that needed input from other governmental forums if JIESC was to be successful. The major sectors represented by JIESC include pulp and paper, mining, and electrochemicals. This paper listed each member company. In order to turn BC's economy around and re-establish the province as a leading economy in Canada, the following recommendations have been proposed for the short term: (1) maintain an ample supply of low cost power for the future, (2) remove the provincial sales tax on the purchase of electric power used for manufacturing and processing, (3) extend the current rate freeze, (4) initiate a long-term resource acquisition and transmission expansion strategy to assure the availability of ample supplies of low cost power. Recommendations for the long term include: (1) maintain regulated cost based rates, (2) develop ample low cost power, (3) utilize downstream benefits, (4) provide a role for the private sector, (5) maintain adequate transmission facilities, (6) reduce government revenues, and (7) instill customer driven management. 3 figs.

  17. Production of inositol trisphosphates upon α-adrenergic stimulation in BC3H-1 muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambler, S.K.; Thompson, B.; Brown, J.H.; Taylor, P.

    1986-01-01

    Activation of α 1 -adrenergic receptors in BC3H-1 muscle cells rapidly mobilizes intracellular and results in a paradoxically slower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate. A possible explanation for this discrepancy may be provided by the recent findings of Irvine et al. of additional Ins P3 isomers besides the Ca ++ -mobilizing isomer, Ins 1,4,5-P3. They have eluted and separated the inositol phosphates of BC3H-1 cells with an NH 4 + x HCO 2 - /H 3 PO 4 gradient on a Whatman Partisil 10SAX column using Hewlett-Packard HPLC. Commercial [ 3 H]Ins 1,4,5-P3 and [ 3 H]inositol phosphates from carbachol-stimulated parotid glands were used as standards. Little or no Ins 1,3,4-P3 could be detected in control or phenylephrine-treated BC3H-1 cells. Ins 1,4,5-P3 followed the pattern of agonist stimulation observed previously. As a positive control, Ins P3 isomers were also measured in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Muscarinic stimulation of 1321N1 cells results in both the rapid accumulation of Ins P3 and Ca ++ mobilization. There is no detectable basal Ins 1,3,4-P3, but carbachol stimulates a rapid production of this compound in 1321N1 cells. Agonist activation also results in a rapid increase in Ins 1,4,5-P3 above basal values. These studies indicate that Ins 1,3,4-P3 does not contribute to the InsP3 signal in BC3H-1 cells and multiple mechanisms may exist for the coupling of receptors to PI turnover

  18. Evaluating the role of collaborative planning in BC's Parks and Protected Areas Management Planning process

    OpenAIRE

    Ronmark, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    BC's protected areas system has recently doubled in size as a result of land use planning across the province. Managing protected areas to meet many goals requires thoughtful planning that involves stakeholder participation and dispute resolution through the plan development and implementation stages. This research identifies the best practices for planning and evaluates protected areas management planning processes based on those criteria. Evaluative criteria were developed from a literature...

  19. A new era of prosperity through power : maintaining BC's competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, D.

    2001-01-01

    The availability of abundant low cost electric power has been a driving force behind British Columbia's economic growth. BC's low cost power resources can create a natural competitive economic advantage for the province. Electricity, as a publicly owned resource can offer many competitive advantages for business in British Columbia, if managed correctly. However, it was noted that meaningful economic advantages can only be realized if the existing power resources in the province are operated efficiently and priced at or close to cost. In the 1980s, the Joint Industry Electricity Steering Committee (JIESC) was formed following the regulation of BC Hydro by BC Utilities Commission. It became clear that maintaining low rates for electricity was a public issue that needed input from other governmental forums if JIESC was to be successful. The major sectors represented by JIESC include pulp and paper, mining, and electrochemicals. This paper listed each member company. In order to turn BC's economy around and re-establish the province as a leading economy in Canada, the following recommendations have been proposed for the short term: (1) maintain an ample supply of low cost power for the future, (2) remove the provincial sales tax on the purchase of electric power used for manufacturing and processing, (3) extend the current rate freeze, (4) initiate a long-term resource acquisition and transmission expansion strategy to assure the availability of ample supplies of low cost power. Recommendations for the long term include: (1) maintain regulated cost based rates, (2) develop ample low cost power, (3) utilize downstream benefits, (4) provide a role for the private sector, (5) maintain adequate transmission facilities, (6) reduce government revenues, and (7) instill customer driven management. 3 figs

  20. Data validation summary report for the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 8 Groundwater Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, A.T.

    1996-03-01

    The information provided in this validation summary report includes data from the chemical analyses of samples from the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 8 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. All of the data from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that the reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. Sample analyses included metals, general chemistry and radiochemistry

  1. A controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effect of GanedenBC(30) on immunological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, M; Keller, D; Farmer, S; Warrino, D E

    2010-03-01

    GanedenBC(30), a probiotic, has been shown to significantly increase T-cell production of TNF-alpha after ex vivo exposure to a strain of adenovirus (AdenoVI) or influenza A (H3N2 Texas strain [FluTex]). The current controlled study was designed to further evaluate the effect of GanedenBC(30) on immunological marker levels following viral exposure. Ten healthy subjects' baseline immunological marker levels were analyzed. Subjects consumed 1 capsule/day of GanedenBC(30) for 28 days and returned for post-treatment immunological marker evaluation. Subjects' baseline measurements served as their own control. All subjects completed the study with no adverse events; however, one subject was excluded from the final analysis based on a reasonable consideration as an outlier. CD3+CD69+ cells, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and TNF-alpha levels were increased after exposure to AdenoVI and FluTex. IL-1beta levels also increased after exposure to AdenoVI but were decreased after ex vivo exposure to FluTex. CD3+CD69+ cells increased significantly (P = 0.023) after exposure to both viral strains. Differences in IL-8 levels after FluTex exposure achieved statistical significance (P = 0.039) as did IFN-gamma levels after AdenoVI exposure (P = 0.039). A regimen of one capsule per day containing 500 million CFU of GanedenBC30 may be a safe and effective option for enhancing the immunological response to common viral respiratory tract infections. 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  2. Social complexity in the third millennium cal BC in southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Joaquina

    2016-01-01

    The starting point of this paper is the extensive archaeological fieldwork developed at the Chalcolithic fortification of Porto das Carretas on the left bank of the Middle Guadiana River (Soares, 2013). The well-preserved stratigraphy and correlated radiocarbon dates of Porto das Carretas enabled a new and deep insight into the third millennium cal BC, displaying environmental, economic and social transformations from the first to the second half of the millenium. Furhermore, the integration ...

  3. BC-Box Motif-Mediated Neuronal Differentiation of Somatic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kanno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL functions to induce neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs and skin-derived precursors (SKPs. Here we identified a neuronal differentiation domain (NDD in pVHL. Neuronal differentiation of SKPs was induced by intracellular delivery of a peptide composed of the amino-acid sequences encoded by the NDD. Neuronal differentiation mediated by the NDD was caused by the binding between it and elongin C followed by Janus kinase-2 (JAK2 ubiquitination of JAK2 and inhibition of the JAK2/the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3(STAT3 pathway. The NDD in pVHL contained the BC-box motif ((A,P,S,TLXXX (A,C XXX(A,I,L,V corresponding to the binding site of elongin C. Therefore, we proposed that other BC-box proteins might also contain an NDD; and subsequently also identified in them an NDD containing the amino-acid sequence encoded by the BC-box motif in BC-box proteins. Furthermore, we showed that different NDD peptide-delivered cells differentiated into different kinds of neuron-like cells. That is, dopaminergic neuron-like cells, cholinergic neuron-like cells, GABAnergic neuron-like cells or rhodopsin-positive neuron-like cells were induced by different NDD peptides. These novel findings might contribute to the development of a new method for promoting neuronal differentiation and shed further light on the mechanism of neuronal differentiation of somatic stem cells.

  4. Observation of an excited Bc+/- meson state with the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 21 (2014), "2120041"-"212004-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : error * statistical * p p * scattering * B/c+ * ATLAS * meson * mass difference * CERN LHC Coll * excited state * ground state * J/psi(3100) * pi+ pi- Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.512, year: 2014

  5. Causes of death among the Caesars (27 BC-AD 476) | Retief | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Roman Empire was ruled by 77 emperors between 27 BC and AD 476 (503 years); 18 (23,4%) of them held sway during the Early Empire (27 BC–AD 193, 220 years), and 59 (76,6%) during the Late Empire (193-476, 283 years). On the average emperors in the Early Empire ruled for a longer period (12,7 years as ...

  6. Glycerol as a Cheaper Carbon Source in Bacterial Cellulose (BC) Production by Gluconacetobacter Xylinus DSM46604 in Batch Fermentation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azila Adnan; Nair, G.R.; Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a polymer of glucose monomers, which has unique properties including high crystallinity and high strength. It has potential to be used in biomedical applications such as making artificial blood vessel, wound dressings, and in the paper making industry. Extensive study on BC aimed to improve BC production such as by using glycerol as a cheaper carbon source. BC was produced in shake flask culture using five different concentrations of glycerol (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/ L). Using concentration of glycerol above 20 g/ L inhibited culture growth and BC production. Further experiments were performed in batch culture (3-L bioreactor) using 20 g/ L glycerol. It produced yield and productivity of 0.15 g/ g and 0.29 g/ L/ day BC, respectively. This is compared with the control medium, 50 g/ L glucose, which only gave yield and productivity of 0.05 g/ g and 0.23 g/ L/ day, respectively. Twenty g/ L of glycerol enhanced BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 in batch fermentation system. (author)

  7. Seasonal and Interannual Variations in BC Emissions From Open Biomass Burning in Southern Africa From 1998 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.; Akimoto, H.

    2006-12-01

    We estimate the emissions of black carbon (BC) from open vegetation fires in southern hemisphere Africa from 1998 to 2005 using satellite information in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Monthly burned areas at a 0.5-degree resolution are estimated from the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) fire count product and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data set associated with the MODIS tree cover imagery in grasslands and woodlands. The monthly fuel load distribution is derived from a 0.5- degree terrestrial carbon cycle model in conjunction with satellite data. The monthly maps of combustion factor and emission factor are estimated using empirical models that predict the effects of fuel conditions on these factors in grasslands and woodlands. Our annual averaged BC emitted per unit area burned is 0.17 g BC m-2 which is consistent with the product of fuel consumption and emission factor typically measured in southern Africa. The BC emissions from open vegetation burning in southern Africa ranged from 0.26 Tg BC yr-1 for 2002 to 0.42 Tg BC yr-1 for 1998. The peak in BC emissions is identical to that from previous top-down estimate using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) data. The sum of monthly emissions during the burning season in 2000 is in good agreement between our estimate (0.38 Tg) and previous estimate constrained by numerical model and measurements (0.47 Tg).

  8. Fracture toughness and sliding properties of magnetron sputtered CrBC and CrBCN coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianzhi; Zhou, Fei; Ma, Qiang; Callisti, Mauro; Polcar, Tomas; Yan, Jiwang

    2018-06-01

    CrBC and CrBCN coatings with low and high B contents were deposited on 316L steel and Si wafers using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. Mechanical properties including hardness (H), elastic modulus (E) and fracture toughness (KIc) as well as residual stresses (σ) were quantified. A clear correlation between structural, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings was found. In particular, structural analyses indicated that N incorporation in CrBC coatings with high B content caused a significant structural evolution of the nanocomposite structure (crystalline grains embedded into an amorphous matrix) from nc-CrB2/(a-CrBx, a-BCx) to nc-CrN/(a-BCx, a-BN). As a result, the hardness of CrBC coating with high B content decreased from 23.4 to 16.3 GPa but the fracture toughness was enhanced. Consequently, less cracks initiated on CrBCN coatings during tribological tests, which combined with the shielding effect of a-BN on wear debris, led to a low friction coefficient and wear rate.

  9. Observation of the decay $B_c^+ \\to B_s^0 \\pi^+$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Bal