WorldWideScience

Sample records for membrane traffic cooperate

  1. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  2. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  3. Cooperative Learning for Distributed In-Network Traffic Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S. B.; Loo, H. R.; Ismail, I.; Andromeda, T.; Marsono, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the concept of autonomic distributed/decentralized network management schemes, we consider the issue of information exchange among distributed network nodes to network performance and promote scalability for in-network monitoring. In this paper, we propose a cooperative learning algorithm for propagation and synchronization of network information among autonomic distributed network nodes for online traffic classification. The results show that network nodes with sharing capability perform better with a higher average accuracy of 89.21% (sharing data) and 88.37% (sharing clusters) compared to 88.06% for nodes without cooperative learning capability. The overall performance indicates that cooperative learning is promising for distributed in-network traffic classification.

  4. Cooperative tumour cell membrane targeted phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heegon; Lee, Junsung; Oh, Chanhee; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics. The SR-lipids are first delivered selectively to tumour cell membranes in the perivascular region using fusogenic liposomes. By hitchhiking with extracellular vesicles secreted by the cells, the SR-lipids are transferred to neighbouring cells and further spread throughout the tumour tissues where the molecular targets are limited. We show that this tumour cell membrane-targeted delivery of SR-lipids leads to uniform distribution and enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy of the targeted photosensitizer.

  5. Assessment of traffic impact on future cooperative driving systems: challenges and considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Pueboobpaphan, R.; van Arem, Bart; A. Vinel, B. Sokolov, V. Vishnevsky,; S. Balandin, G. Yanovsky, Y. Koucheryavy,

    2009-01-01

    Connect & Drive is a start-up project to develop a cooperative driving system and improve the traffic performance on Dutch highways. It consists of two interactive subsystems: cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) and connected cruise control (CCC). To assess the traffic performance, a traffic

  6. A Cooperative Human-Adaptive Traffic Simulation (CHATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charles T.; Ballin, Mark G.

    1999-01-01

    NASA is considering the development of a Cooperative Human-Adaptive Traffic Simulation (CHATS), to examine and evaluate performance of the National Airspace System (NAS) as the aviation community moves toward free flight. CHATS will be specifically oriented toward simulating strategic decision-making by airspace users and by the service provider s traffic management personnel, within the context of different airspace and rules assumptions. It will use human teams to represent these interests and make decisions, and will rely on computer modeling and simulation to calculate the impacts of these decisions. The simulation objectives will be to examine: 1. evolution of airspace users and the service provider s strategies, through adaptation to new operational environments; 2. air carriers competitive and cooperative behavior; 3. expected benefits to airspace users and the service provider as compared to the current NAS; 4. operational limitations of free flight concepts due to congestion and safety concerns. This paper describes an operational concept for CHATS, and presents a high-level functional design which would utilize a combination of existing and new models and simulation capabilities.

  7. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle–Intersection (CTCVI) for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjian; Dridi, Mahjoub; El-Moudni, Abdellah

    2016-01-01

    The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP) to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes. PMID:27999333

  8. Septins as modulators of endo-lysosomal membrane traffic

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    Kyungyeun Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Septins constitute a family of GTP-binding proteins, which assemble into non-polar filaments in a nucleotide-dependent manner. These filaments can be recruited to negatively charged membrane surfaces. When associated with membranes septin filaments can act as diffusion barriers, which confine subdomains of distinct biological functions. In addition, they serve scaffolding roles by recruiting cytosolic proteins and other cytoskeletal elements. Septins have been implicated in a large variety of membrane-dependent processes, including cytokinesis, signaling, cell migration, and membrane traffic, and several family members have been implicated in disease. However, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological functions. This review summarizes evidence in support of regulatory roles of septins during endo-lysosomal sorting, with a particular focus on phosphoinositides, which serve as spatial landmarks guiding septin recruitment to distinct subcellular localizations.

  9. A network traffic reduction method for cooperative positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kallol; Wymeersch, Henk

    Cooperative positioning is suitable for applications where conventional positioning fails due to lack of connectivity with a sufficient number of reference nodes. In a dense network, as the number of cooperating devices increases, the number of packet exchanges also increases proportionally. This

  10. Roads and traffic: Effects on ecology and wildlife habitat use; applications for cooperative adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The land of the United States in dissected by more than 4 million miles of roads that fragment wildlife habitat on both public and private lands. Traffic on these roads causes additional effects. On secondary roads, which provide access to the most natural habitat, the levels, timing, and types of traffic are seldom known. In order to understand the effects of traffic on wildlife, USGS is conducting research cooperatively with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and the Colorado Division of Wildlife.

  11. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  12. Information Exchange rather than Topology Awareness: Cooperation between P2P Overlay and Traffic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions to the routing strategic conflict between noncooperative P2P overlay and ISP underlay go separate ways: hyperselfishness and cooperation. Unpredictable (possibly adverse impact of the hyperselfish topology awareness, which is adopted in both overlay routing and traffic engineering, has not been sufficiently studied in the literature. Topology-related information exchange in a cooperatively efficient way should be highlighted to alleviate the cross-layer conflict. In this paper, we first illustrate the hyperselfish weakness with two dynamic noncooperative game models in which hyperselfish overlay or underlay has to accept a suboptimal profit. Then we build a synergistic cost-saving (SC game model to reduce the negative effects of noncooperation. In the SC model, through information exchange, that is, the classified path-delay metrics for P2P overlay and peer locations for underlay, P2P overlay selects proximity as well as saving traffic transit cost for underlay, and ISP underlay adjusts routing to optimize network cost as well as indicating short delay paths for P2P. Simulations based on the real and generated topologies validate cost improvement by SC model and find a proper remote threshold value to limit P2P traffic from remote area, cross-AS, or cross-ISP.

  13. Towards reducing traffic congestion using cooperative adaptive cruise control on a freeway with a ramp

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    Georges Arnaout

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, the impact of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC systems on traffic performance is examined using microscopic agent-based simulation. Using a developed traffic simulation model of a freeway with an on-ramp - created to induce perturbations and to trigger stop-and-go traffic, the CACC system’s effect on the traffic performance is studied. The previously proposed traffic simulation model is extended and validated. By embedding CACC vehicles in different penetration levels, the results show significance and indicate the potential of CACC systems to improve traffic characteristics and therefore can be used to reduce traffic congestion. The study shows that the impact of CACC is positive but is highly dependent on the CACC market penetration. The flow rate of the traffic using CACC is proportional to the market penetration rate of CACC equipped vehicles and the density of the traffic.Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses microscopic simulation experiments followed by a quantitative statistical analysis. Simulation enables researchers manipulating the system variables to straightforwardly predict the outcome on the overall system, giving researchers the unique opportunity to interfere and make improvements to performance. Thus with simulation, changes to variables that might require excessive time, or be unfeasible to carry on real systems, are often completed within seconds.Findings: The findings of this paper are summarized as follow:•\tProvide and validate a platform (agent-based microscopic traffic simulator in which any CACC algorithm (current or future may be evaluated.•\tProvide detailed analysis associated with implementation of CACC vehicles on freeways.•\tInvestigate whether embedding CACC vehicles on freeways has a significant positive impact or not.Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of this research is that it has been conducted solely in a computer laboratory. Laboratory

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF TRAFFIC SAFETY BY ROAD-VEHICLE COOPERATIVE SMART CRUISE SYSTEMS

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    Akio HOSAKA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopes have been pinned on the development of intelligent systems for road traffic as a way of solving road traffic safety and other such issues. To be sure, work is moving ahead with the incorporation of intelligent systems into automobiles but, with automobiles alone, there are limits in areas such as environment recognition. Compensation for the limits imposed by automobiles can be provided by the support given to environment recognition and related areas of road infrastructure. This paper examines the special features of vehicles and road infrastructure, and describes what role is played by roads and what role is played by vehicles. On the basis of the observations made, road-vehicle cooperative support systems called “smart cruise systems”, which are currently being developed, will be introduced and the expected effects of these systems will be outlined.

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphates-at the interface between cell signalling and membrane traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marat, Andrea L; Haucke, Volker

    2016-03-15

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) form a minor class of phospholipids with crucial functions in cell physiology, ranging from cell signalling and motility to a role as signposts of compartmental membrane identity. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphates are present at the plasma membrane and within the endolysosomal system, where they serve as key regulators of both cell signalling and of intracellular membrane traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the metabolic pathways that regulate cellular synthesis of PI 3-phosphates at distinct intracellular sites and discuss the mechanisms by which these lipids regulate cell signalling and membrane traffic. Finally, we provide a framework for how PI 3-phosphate metabolism is integrated into the cellular network. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Chemical Genetic Screening Identifies Sulfonamides That Raise Organellar pH and Interfere with Endocytic and Exocytic Membrane Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Nieland, Thomas J. F.; Feng, Yan; Brown, Jing Xu; Chuang, Tuan Daniel; Buckett, Peter D.; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xiao-Song; McGraw, Timothy E.; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    Chemical genetics seeks to identify small molecules that afford functional dissection of cell biological pathways. Previous screens for small molecule inhibitors of exocytic membrane traffic yielded the identification and characterization of several compounds that block traffic from the Golgi to the cell surface as well as transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi network. Here, we screened these inhibitors for potential effects on endocytic membrane traffic. Two structurally rela...

  17. Axon-glia interaction and membrane traffic in myelin formation

    OpenAIRE

    White, Robin; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrate nervous systems myelination of neuronal axons has evolved to increase conduction velocity of electrical impulses with minimal space and energy requirements. Myelin is formed by specialized glial cells which ensheath axons with a lipid-rich insulating membrane. Myelination is a multi-step process initiated by axon-glia recognition triggering glial polarization followed by targeted myelin membrane expansion and compaction. Thereby, a myelin sheath of complex subdomain structure is...

  18. Decentralized Cooperation Strategies in Two-Dimensional Traffic of Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jun; Qin Zheng; Xu Zhaohui; Chen Xiqun; Leng Biao; Jiang Zineng

    2012-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional traffic of cellular automata using computer simulation. We propose two type of decentralized cooperation strategies, which are called stepping aside (CS-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CS-CAR) respectively. We introduce them into an existing two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model. CS-SA is designed to prohibit a kind of ping-pong jump when two objects standing together try to move in opposite directions. CS-CAR is designed to change the solution of conflict in parallel update. CS-CAR encourages the objects involved in parallel conflicts choose their alternative routes instead of waiting. We also combine the two cooperation strategies (CS-SA-CAR) to test their combined effects. It is found that the system keeps on a partial jam phase with nonzero velocity and flow until the density reaches one. The ratios of the ping-pong jump and the waiting objects involved in conflict are decreased obviously, especially at the free phase. And the average flow is improved by the three cooperation strategies. Although the average travel time is lengthened a bit by CS-CAR, it is shorten by CS-SA and CS-SA-CAR. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized cooperation modeling.

  19. Axon-glia interaction and membrane traffic in myelin formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin eWhite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrate nervous systems myelination of neuronal axons has evolved to increase conduction velocity of electrical impulses with minimal space and energy requirements. Myelin is formed by specialised glial cells which ensheath axons with a lipid-rich insulating membrane. Myelination is a multi-step process initiated by axon-glia recognition triggering glial polarisation followed by targeted myelin membrane expansion and compaction. Thereby, a myelin sheath of complex subdomain structure is established. Continuous communication between neurons and glial cells is essential for myelin maintenance and axonal integrity. A diverse group of diseases, from multiple sclerosis to schizophrenia, have been linked to malfunction of myelinating cells reflecting the physiological importance of the axon-glial unit. This review describes the mechanisms of axonal signal integration by oligodendrocytes emphasising the central role of the Src-family kinase Fyn during CNS myelination. Furthermore, we discuss myelin membrane trafficking with particular focus on endocytic recycling and the control of PLP (proteolipid protein transport by SNARE proteins. Finally, PLP mistrafficking is considered in the context of myelin diseases.

  20. Chemical genetic screening identifies sulfonamides that raise organellar pH and interfere with membrane traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieland, Thomas J F; Feng, Yan; Brown, Jing Xu; Chuang, Tuan Daniel; Buckett, Peter D; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xiao-Song; McGraw, Timothy E; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2004-07-01

    Chemical genetics seeks to identify small molecules that afford functional dissection of cell biological pathways. Previous screens for small molecule inhibitors of exocytic membrane traffic yielded the identification and characterization of several compounds that block traffic from the Golgi to the cell surface as well as transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi network [Feng et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:6469-6474; Yarrow et al. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2003;6:279-286; Feng et al. EMBO Reports 2004: in press]. Here, we screened these inhibitors for potential effects on endocytic membrane traffic. Two structurally related sulfonamides were found to be potent and reversible inhibitors of transferrin-mediated iron uptake. These inhibitors do not block endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport, but do disrupt Golgi-to-cell surface traffic. The compounds are members of a novel class of sulfonamides that elevate endosomal and lysosomal pH, down-regulate cell surface receptors, and impair recycling of internalized transferrin receptors to the plasma membrane. In vitro experiments revealed that the sulfonamides directly inhibit adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis by the V-ATPase and that they also possess a potent proton ionophore activity. While maintenance of organellar pH is known to be a critical factor in both endocytosis and exocytosis, the precise role of acidification, beyond the uncoupling of ligands from their receptors, remains largely unknown. Identification of this novel class of sulfonamide inhibitors provides new chemical tools to better understand the function of organelle pH in membrane traffic and the activity of V-ATPases in particular.

  1. Bacteria-Containing Vacuoles: Subversion of Cellular Membrane Traffic and Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens drive the formation of host membrane-derived pseudo-organelles that facilitate their replication, survival, or dormancy. The formation and maintenance of these bacteria-containing vacuoles (BCVs) are dependent on the bacteria's ability to usurp the host's intracellular membrane system, in particular dynamic compartments involved in exo-/endocytic membrane traffic and autophagy. Bacteria are typically internalized by phagocytosis, and the compartment matures through endosomal fusion. The bacteria-containing phagosome/endosome often becomes the base for BCV formation. Diverse strategies used by different bacterial pathogens prevent the BCV from being destroyed via the endolysosomal pathway. Furthermore, bacterial survival or proliferation in BCVs could be augmented by host membrane transport processes subverted by secreted bacterial factors, which facilitate the acquisition of membrane sources and nutrients. BCVs may be targeted for destruction by autophagy, and various facultative and obligate intracellular bacteria have evolved ways to evade or even exploit autophagy. Here we review examples of bacterial subversion of host cellular membrane transport and autophagy machinery for a productive invasion.

  2. Electronic Toll And Traffic Management Systems, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION OR ETC AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT OR ETTM, AUTOMATIC VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION OR AVI : ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT (ETTM) SYSTEMS ARE NOT A FUTURISTIC DREAM, THEY ARE OPERATING OR ARE BEING TESTED TODAY I...

  3. Use of fluorescent probes to follow membrane traffic in nerve terminals

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    Guatimosim C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical tracers in conjunction with fluorescence microscopy have become widely used to follow the movement of synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals. The present review discusses the use of these optical methods to understand the regulation of exocytosis and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. The maintenance of neurotransmission depends on the constant recycling of synaptic vesicles and important insights have been gained by visualization of vesicles with the vital dye FM1-43. A number of questions related to the control of recycling of synaptic vesicles by prolonged stimulation and the role of calcium to control membrane internalization are now being addressed. It is expected that optical monitoring of presynaptic activity coupled to appropriate genetic models will contribute to the understanding of membrane traffic in synaptic terminals.

  4. Effect of current vehicle’s interruption on traffic stability in cooperative car-following theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Liu, Hui

    2017-12-01

    To reveal the impact of the current vehicle’s interruption information on traffic flow, a new car-following model with consideration of the current vehicle’s interruption is proposed and the influence of the current vehicle’s interruption on traffic stability is investigated through theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. By linear analysis, the linear stability condition of the new model is obtained and the negative influence of the current vehicle’s interruption on traffic stability is shown in the headway-sensitivity space. Through nonlinear analysis, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation of the new model near the critical point is derived and it can be used to describe the propagating behavior of the traffic density wave. Finally, numerical simulation confirms the analytical results, which shows that the current vehicle’s interruption information can destabilize traffic flow and should be considered in real traffic.

  5. Chemical Genetic Screening Identifies Sulfonamides That Raise Organellar pH and Interfere with Endocytic and Exocytic Membrane Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieland, Thomas J. F.; Feng, Yan; Brown, Jing Xu; Chuang, Tuan Daniel; Buckett, Peter D.; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xiao-Song; McGraw, Timothy E.; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Chemical genetics seeks to identify small molecules that afford functional dissection of cell biological pathways. Previous screens for small molecule inhibitors of exocytic membrane traffic yielded the identification and characterization of several compounds that block traffic from the Golgi to the cell surface as well as transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi network. Here, we screened these inhibitors for potential effects on endocytic membrane traffic. Two structurally related sulfonamides were found to be potent and reversible inhibitors of transferrin-mediated iron uptake. These inhibitors do not block endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport, but do disrupt Golgi-to-cell surface traffic. The compounds are members of a novel class of sulfonamides that elevate endosomal and lysosomal pH, down-regulate cell surface receptors, and impair recycling of internalized transferrin receptors to the plasma membrane. In vitro experiments revealed that the sulfonamides directly inhibit adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis by the V-ATPase and that they also possess a potent proton ionophore activity. While maintenance of organellar pH is known to be a critical factor in both endocytosis and exocytosis, the precise role of acidification, beyond the uncoupling of ligands from their receptors, remains largely unknown. Identification of this novel class of sulfonamide inhibitors provides new chemical tools to better understand the function of organelle pH in membrane traffic and the activity of V-ATPases in particular. PMID:15180825

  6. Domestic cooperation in combating illegal nuclear traffic - Experience of the Emergency Service Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.; Tanczyk, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Poland's experience in combating illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials dates from the end of 1990 when the government decided to expand detection capabilities at the border check-points and initiated a gradual deployment of the portal radiation devices to detect all attempts of imported commodities with raised radiation level. Although the country had already had well-developed regulations in place as well as accountability and control systems over nuclear material, radiation sources and devices, the need to enforce the control activities and to strengthen cooperation among the nuclear safety and radiological protection bodies and the law enforcement authorities appeared. Then, besides the importation of the post Chernobyl contamination transports, Poland experienced: the lost and vagabonding nuclear materials or radioactive sources from the former Soviet/Russian military bases deployed in Poland; the tourism trafficking in radioactive materials The task of combating illegal radioactive traffic has been entrusted to: the Border Guard and Customs services - at the borders; the Police and State Security services - mainly within the state Some contribution to that action have had also the recycling of metallurgical scrap plants, which decided to install fixed radiation control devices to protect their products from the presence of radioactive isotopes. The duty of the coordinator as well as providing an immediate assistance in case of a seizure or a suspicion about the seizure of unknown radioactive material, fulfils the Emergency Service Centre (ODSA) at the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLOR). ODSA has been established in the mid-60s and its fundamental responsibility is to collect notifications on radiological emergency events and to organize help to liquidate consequences of a radiation incident with involved sources. All users of radiation sources and the law enforcement officers are obliged to inform ODSA about

  7. Cooperative vehicles for robust traffic congestion reduction: An analysis based on algorithmic, environmental and agent behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prajakta; Loke, Seng W; Desai, Aniruddha

    2017-01-01

    Traffic congestion continues to be a persistent problem throughout the world. As vehicle-to-vehicle communication develops, there is an opportunity of using cooperation among close proximity vehicles to tackle the congestion problem. The intuition is that if vehicles could cooperate opportunistically when they come close enough to each other, they could, in effect, spread themselves out among alternative routes so that vehicles do not all jam up on the same roads. Our previous work proposed a decentralized multiagent based vehicular congestion management algorithm entitled Congestion Avoidance and Route Allocation using Virtual Agent Negotiation (CARAVAN), wherein the vehicles acting as intelligent agents perform cooperative route allocation using inter-vehicular communication. This paper focuses on evaluating the practical applicability of this approach by testing its robustness and performance (in terms of travel time reduction), across variations in: (a) environmental parameters such as road network topology and configuration; (b) algorithmic parameters such as vehicle agent preferences and route cost/preference multipliers; and (c) agent-related parameters such as equipped/non-equipped vehicles and compliant/non-compliant agents. Overall, the results demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of the decentralized cooperative vehicles approach to providing global travel time reduction using simple local coordination strategies.

  8. Cooperative vehicles for robust traffic congestion reduction: An analysis based on algorithmic, environmental and agent behavioral factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Desai

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion continues to be a persistent problem throughout the world. As vehicle-to-vehicle communication develops, there is an opportunity of using cooperation among close proximity vehicles to tackle the congestion problem. The intuition is that if vehicles could cooperate opportunistically when they come close enough to each other, they could, in effect, spread themselves out among alternative routes so that vehicles do not all jam up on the same roads. Our previous work proposed a decentralized multiagent based vehicular congestion management algorithm entitled Congestion Avoidance and Route Allocation using Virtual Agent Negotiation (CARAVAN, wherein the vehicles acting as intelligent agents perform cooperative route allocation using inter-vehicular communication. This paper focuses on evaluating the practical applicability of this approach by testing its robustness and performance (in terms of travel time reduction, across variations in: (a environmental parameters such as road network topology and configuration; (b algorithmic parameters such as vehicle agent preferences and route cost/preference multipliers; and (c agent-related parameters such as equipped/non-equipped vehicles and compliant/non-compliant agents. Overall, the results demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of the decentralized cooperative vehicles approach to providing global travel time reduction using simple local coordination strategies.

  9. Comprehensive analysis reveals dynamic and evolutionary plasticity of Rab GTPases and membrane traffic in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia J Bright

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular sophistication is not exclusive to multicellular organisms, and unicellular eukaryotes can resemble differentiated animal cells in their complex network of membrane-bound structures. These comparisons can be illuminated by genome-wide surveys of key gene families. We report a systematic analysis of Rabs in a complex unicellular Ciliate, including gene prediction and phylogenetic clustering, expression profiling based on public data, and Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP tagging. Rabs are monomeric GTPases that regulate membrane traffic. Because Rabs act as compartment-specific determinants, the number of Rabs in an organism reflects intracellular complexity. The Tetrahymena Rab family is similar in size to that in humans and includes both expansions in conserved Rab clades as well as many divergent Rabs. Importantly, more than 90% of Rabs are expressed concurrently in growing cells, while only a small subset appears specialized for other conditions. By localizing most Rabs in living cells, we could assign the majority to specific compartments. These results validated most phylogenetic assignments, but also indicated that some sequence-conserved Rabs were co-opted for novel functions. Our survey uncovered a rare example of a nuclear Rab and substantiated the existence of a previously unrecognized core Rab clade in eukaryotes. Strikingly, several functionally conserved pathways or structures were found to be associated entirely with divergent Rabs. These pathways may have permitted rapid evolution of the associated Rabs or may have arisen independently in diverse lineages and then converged. Thus, characterizing entire gene families can provide insight into the evolutionary flexibility of fundamental cellular pathways.

  10. An antibody toolkit for the study of membrane traffic in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Falko Riedel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism has been pivotal to understanding the developmental processes of metazoans. However, the use of flies for studying subcellular organization is hampered by a paucity of reliable reagents to label specific organelles. Here, we describe the generation of mouse monoclonal antibodies against a set of markers of the secretory and endocytic pathways, along with goat polyclonal antibodies against two Golgi proteins. We show that the monoclonal antibodies are highly specific and sufficiently sensitive to detect endogenous proteins in crude extracts by immunoblotting with little background staining. By immunofluorescence the major compartments of the membrane traffic system (including the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi, and early and late endosomes are labeled by at least one antibody. Moreover, the antibodies can be used to label organelles in fly tissues including salivary glands and wing imaginal discs. We anticipate that these antibodies will provide a useful tool kit to facilitate the investigation of how the endomembrane system functions and varies in the diverse tissue types of metazoans.

  11. Two-hybrid-based systems: powerful tools for investigation of membrane traffic machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Mariangela; De Luca, Maria; Bucci, Cecilia

    2015-05-20

    Protein-protein interactions regulate biological processes and are fundamental for cell functions. Recently, efforts have been made to define interactomes, which are maps of protein-protein interactions that are useful for understanding biological pathways and networks and for investigating how perturbations of these networks lead to diseases. Therefore, interactomes are becoming fundamental for establishing the molecular basis of human diseases and contributing to the discovery of effective therapies. Interactomes are constructed based on experimental data present in the literature and computational predictions of interactions. Several biochemical, genetic and biotechnological techniques have been used in the past to identify protein-protein interactions. The yeast two-hybrid system has beyond doubt represented a revolution in the field, being a versatile tool and allowing the immediate identification of the interacting proteins and isolation of the cDNA coding for the interacting peptide after in vivo screening. Recently, variants of the yeast two-hybrid assay have been developed, including high-throughput systems that promote the rapidly growing field of proteomics. In this review we will focus on the role of this technique in the discovery of Rab interacting proteins, highlighting the importance of high-throughput two-hybrid screening as a tool to study the complexity of membrane traffic machineries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influenza-virus membrane fusion by cooperative fold-back of stochastically induced hemagglutinin intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, Tijana; Choi, Jason L; Whelan, Sean P; van Oijen, Antoine M; Harrison, Stephen C

    2013-02-19

    Influenza virus penetrates cells by fusion of viral and endosomal membranes catalyzed by the viral hemagglutinin (HA). Structures of the initial and final states of the HA trimer define the fusion endpoints, but do not specify intermediates. We have characterized these transitions by analyzing low-pH-induced fusion kinetics of individual virions and validated the analysis by computer simulation. We detect initial engagement with the target membrane of fusion peptides from independently triggered HAs within the larger virus-target contact patch; fusion then requires engagement of three or four neighboring HA trimers. Effects of mutations in HA indicate that withdrawal of the fusion peptide from a pocket in the pre-fusion trimer is rate-limiting for both events, but the requirement for cooperative action of several HAs to bring the fusing membranes together leads to a long-lived intermediate state for single, extended HA trimers. This intermediate is thus a fundamental aspect of the fusion mechanism. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00333.001.

  13. Rupture of the aorta following road traffic accidents in the United Kingdom 1992-1999. The results of the co-operative crash injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, D; Kotidis, K; Neale, M; Oakley, C; Fails, A

    2003-02-01

    The true incidence and survivability of blunt traumatic aortic rupture following road traffic accidents in the UK is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in the UK after road traffic accidents and the conditions under which it occurs. Data for the study was obtained from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study database. Road traffic accidents that happened between 1992 and 1999 and included in the Co-operative Crash Injury Study database were retrospectively investigated. A total of 8285 vehicles carrying 14,435 occupants were involved in 7067 accidents. There were 132 cases of blunt traumatic aortic rupture, of which the scene survival was 9% and the overall mortality was 98%. Twenty-one percent of all fatalities had blunt traumatic aortic rupture (130/613). Twenty-nine percent were due to frontal impacts and 44% were due to side impacts. Twelve percent of the blunt traumatic aortic rupture cases in frontal vehicle impacts were wearing seat belts and had airbag protection and 19% had no restraint mechanism. The Equivalent Test Speed of the accident vehicles, (where equivalent test speed provides an estimate of the vehicle impact severity and not an estimate of the vehicle speed at the time of the accident), ranged from 30 to 110 km/h in frontal impacts and from 15 to 82 km/h in side impacts. Blunt traumatic aortic rupture carries a high mortality and occurred in 21% of car occupant deaths in this sample of road traffic accidents. Impact scenarios varied but were most common from the side. The use of an airbag or seat belt does not eliminate risk. The injury can occur at low severity impacts particularly in side impact. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Pannexin2 oligomers localize in the membranes of endosomal vesicles in mammalian cells while Pannexin1 channels traffic to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boassa, Daniela; Nguyen, Phuong; Hu, Junru; Ellisman, Mark H; Sosinsky, Gina E

    2014-01-01

    Pannexin2 (Panx2) is the largest of three members of the pannexin proteins. Pannexins are topologically related to connexins and innexins, but serve different functional roles than forming gap junctions. We previously showed that pannexins form oligomeric channels but unlike connexins and innexins, they form only single membrane channels. High levels of Panx2 mRNA and protein in the Central Nervous System (CNS) have been documented. Whereas Pannexin1 (Panx1) is fairly ubiquitous and Pannexin3 (Panx3) is found in skin and connective tissue, both are fully glycosylated, traffic to the plasma membrane and have functions correlated with extracellular ATP release. Here, we describe trafficking and subcellular localizations of exogenous Panx2 and Panx1 protein expression in MDCK, HeLa, and HEK 293T cells as well as endogenous Panx1 and Panx2 patterns in the CNS. Panx2 was found in intracellular localizations, was partially N-glycosylated, and localizations were non-overlapping with Panx1. Confocal images of hippocampal sections immunolabeled for the astrocytic protein GFAP, Panx1 and Panx2 demonstrated that the two isoforms, Panx1 and Panx2, localized at different subcellular compartments in both astrocytes and neurons. Using recombinant fusions of Panx2 with appended genetic tags developed for correlated light and electron microscopy and then expressed in different cell lines, we determined that Panx2 is localized in the membrane of intracellular vesicles and not in the endoplasmic reticulum as initially indicated by calnexin colocalization experiments. Dual immunofluorescence imaging with protein markers for specific vesicle compartments showed that Panx2 vesicles are early endosomal in origin. In electron tomographic volumes, cross-sections of these vesicles displayed fine structural details and close proximity to actin filaments. Thus, pannexins expressed at different subcellular compartments likely exert distinct functional roles, particularly in the nervous system.

  15. Pannexin2 oligomers localize into endosomal vesicles in mammalian cells while Pannexin1 channels traffic to the plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eBoassa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pannexin2 (Panx2 is the largest of three members of the pannexin proteins. Pannexins are topologically related to connexins and innexins, but serve different functional roles than forming gap junctions. We previously showed that pannexins form oligomeric channels but unlike connexins and innexins, they form only single membrane channels. High levels of Panx2 mRNA and protein in the Central Nervous System (CNS have been documented. Whereas Pannexin1 (Panx1 is fairly ubiquitous and Pannexin3 (Panx3 is found in skin and connective tissue, both are fully glycosylated, traffic to the plasma membrane and have functions correlated with extracellular ATP release. Here, we describe trafficking and subcellular localizations of exogenous Panx2 and Panx1 protein expression in MDCK, HeLa and HEK293T cells as well as endogenous Panx1 and Panx2 patterns in the CNS. Panx2 was found in intracellular localizations, was partially N-glycosylated, and localizations were non-overlapping with Panx1. Confocal images of hippocampal sections immunolabeled for the astrocytic protein GFAP, Panx1 and Panx2 demonstrated that the two isoforms, Panx1 and Panx2, localized at different subcellular compartments in both astrocytes and neurons. Using recombinant fusions of Panx2 with appended genetic tags developed for correlated light and electron microscopy and then expressed in different cell lines, we determined that Panx2 is localized in the membrane of intracellular vesicles and not in the endoplasmic reticulum as initially indicated by calnexin colocalization experiments. Dual immunofluorescence imaging with protein markers for specific vesicle compartments showed that Panx2 vesicles are early endosomal in origin. In electron tomographic volumes, cross-sections of these vesicles displayed fine structural details and close proximity to actin filaments. Thus, pannexins expressed at different subcellular compartments likely exert distinct functional roles, particularly in the

  16. Phagocytosis by neutrophils - studies on phagosome dynamics and membrane traffic modulation by Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Nordenfelt, Pontus

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophils are our most numerous and deadly white blood cells and without them we would succumb quickly to infections by pathogens. The main mechanism that the neutrophils employ for our protection is phagocytosis, where they eat and enclose their target inside a membrane-bound organelle, the phagosome. Neutrophil phagosomes are highly dynamic entities, and a large amount of antimicrobial substances are released to their interior within seconds of formation. In most cases this wi...

  17. A-RAF kinase functions in ARF6 regulated endocytic membrane traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nekhoroshkova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RAF kinases direct ERK MAPK signaling to distinct subcellular compartments in response to growth factor stimulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the three mammalian isoforms A-RAF is special in that one of its two lipid binding domains mediates a unique pattern of membrane localization. Specific membrane binding is retained by an N-terminal fragment (AR149 that corresponds to a naturally occurring splice variant termed DA-RAF2. AR149 colocalizes with ARF6 on tubular endosomes and has a dominant negative effect on endocytic trafficking. Moreover actin polymerization of yeast and mammalian cells is abolished. AR149/DA-RAF2 does not affect the internalization step of endocytosis, but trafficking to the recycling compartment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A-RAF induced ERK activation is required for this step by activating ARF6, as A-RAF depletion or inhibition of the A-RAF controlled MEK-ERK cascade blocks recycling. These data led to a new model for A-RAF function in endocytic trafficking.

  18. Redox-state dynamics of ubiquinone-10 imply cooperative regulation of photosynthetic membrane expression in Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Hartmut; Ghosh, Robin

    2008-07-01

    It is now well established that, for photosynthetic bacteria, the aerobic-to-microaerophilic transition activates the membrane-bound sensor kinase RegB, which subsequently phosphorylates the transcriptional activator RegA, thereby inducing elevated levels of intracellular photosynthetic membranes. The mechanism of RegB activation--in particular, the role of ubiquinone-10--is controversial at present. One problem here is that very limited quantitative in vivo data for the response of the ubiquinone redox state to different cultivation conditions exist. Here, we utilize Rhodospirillum rubrum to study the correlation of the quinone redox state to the expression level of photosynthetic membranes and determine an effective response function directly. Our results show that changes in the photosynthetic membrane levels between 50 and 95% of that maximally attainable are associated with only a twofold change in the ubiquinol/ubiquinone ratio and are not necessarily proportional to the total levels of either quinone or [NAD(+) + NADH]. There is no correlation between the redox potentials of the quinone and pyridine nucleotide pools. Hill function analysis of the photosynthetic membrane induction in response to the quinone redox state suggests that the induction process is highly cooperative. Our results are probably generally applicable to quinone redox regulation in bacteria.

  19. Redox-State Dynamics of Ubiquinone-10 Imply Cooperative Regulation of Photosynthetic Membrane Expression in Rhodospirillum rubrum▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Hartmut; Ghosh, Robin

    2008-01-01

    It is now well established that, for photosynthetic bacteria, the aerobic-to-microaerophilic transition activates the membrane-bound sensor kinase RegB, which subsequently phosphorylates the transcriptional activator RegA, thereby inducing elevated levels of intracellular photosynthetic membranes. The mechanism of RegB activation—in particular, the role of ubiquinone-10—is controversial at present. One problem here is that very limited quantitative in vivo data for the response of the ubiquinone redox state to different cultivation conditions exist. Here, we utilize Rhodospirillum rubrum to study the correlation of the quinone redox state to the expression level of photosynthetic membranes and determine an effective response function directly. Our results show that changes in the photosynthetic membrane levels between 50 and 95% of that maximally attainable are associated with only a twofold change in the ubiquinol/ubiquinone ratio and are not necessarily proportional to the total levels of either quinone or [NAD+ + NADH]. There is no correlation between the redox potentials of the quinone and pyridine nucleotide pools. Hill function analysis of the photosynthetic membrane induction in response to the quinone redox state suggests that the induction process is highly cooperative. Our results are probably generally applicable to quinone redox regulation in bacteria. PMID:18487324

  20. C9orf72’s interaction with Rab GTPases - modulation of membrane traffic and autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor Luen Tang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in an intron of Chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD. While functional haploinsufficiency of C9orf72 resulting from the mutation may play a role in ALS/FTD, the actual cellular role of the protein has been unclear. Recent findings have now shown that C9orf72 physically and functionally interacts with multiple members of the Rab small GTPases family, consequently exerting important influences on cellular membrane traffic and the process of autophagy. Loss of C9orf72 impairs endocytosis in neuronal cell lines, and attenuated autophagosome formation. Interestingly, C9orf72 could influence autophagy both as part of a Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF complex, or as a Rab effector that facilitates transport of the Unc-51-like Autophagy Activating Kinase 1 (Ulk1 autophagy initiation complex. The cellular function of C9orf72 is discussed in the light of these recent findings

  1. Influenza-virus membrane fusion by cooperative fold-back of stochastically induced hemagglutinin intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovic, Tijana; Choi, Jason L.; Whelan, Sean P.; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus penetrates cells by fusion of viral and endosomal membranes catalyzed by the viral hemagglutinin (HA). Structures of the initial and final states of the HA trimer define the fusion endpoints, but do not specify intermediates. We have characterized these transitions by analyzing

  2. Cooperative response and clustering: Consequences of membrane-mediated interactions among mechanosensitive channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lucas D.; Guseva, Ksenia; de Moura, Alessandro P. S.

    2017-08-01

    Mechanosensitive channels are ion channels which act as cells' safety valves, opening when the osmotic pressure becomes too high and making cells avoid damage by releasing ions. They are found on the cellular membrane of a large number of organisms. They interact with each other by means of deformations they induce in the membrane. We show that collective dynamics arising from the interchannel interactions lead to first- and second-order phase transitions in the fraction of open channels in equilibrium relating to the formation of channel clusters. We show that this results in a considerable delay of the response of cells to osmotic shocks, and to an extreme cell-to-cell stochastic variations in their response times, despite the large numbers of channels present in each cell. We discuss how our results are relevant for E. coli.

  3. Cooperation of decay-accelerating factor and membrane cofactor protein in regulating survival of human cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Ling-Juan; Guo, Shu-Yu; Cai, You-Qun; Gu, Ping-Qing; Su, Ya-Juan; Gong, Hui; Liu, Yun; Chen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) are the key molecules involved in cell protection against autologus complement, which restricts the action of complement at critical stages of the cascade reaction. The cooperative effect of DAF and MCP on the survival of human cervical cancer cell (ME180) has not been demonstrated. In this study we applied, for the first time, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down the expression of the DAF and MCP with the aim of exploiting complement more effectively for tumor cell damage. Meanwhile, we investigated the cooperative effects of DAF and MCP on the viability and migration, moreover the proliferation of ME180 cell. The results showed that shRNA inhibition of DAF and MCP expression enhanced complement-dependent cytolysis (CDC) up to 39% for MCP and up to 36% for DAF, and the combined inhibition of both regulators yielded further additive effects in ME180 cells. Thus, the activities of DAF and MCP, when present together, are greater than the sum of the two protein individually. These data indicated that combined DAF and MCP shRNA described in this study may offer an additional alternative to improve the efficacy of antibody-and complement-based cancer immunotherapy

  4. Cooperation of the ER-shaping proteins atlastin, lunapark, and reticulons to generate a tubular membrane network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songyu; Tukachinsky, Hanna; Romano, Fabian B; Rapoport, Tom A

    2016-09-13

    In higher eukaryotes, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contains a network of membrane tubules, which transitions into sheets during mitosis. Network formation involves curvature-stabilizing proteins, including the reticulons (Rtns), as well as the membrane-fusing GTPase atlastin (ATL) and the lunapark protein (Lnp). Here, we have analyzed how these proteins cooperate. ATL is needed to not only form, but also maintain, the ER network. Maintenance requires a balance between ATL and Rtn, as too little ATL activity or too high Rtn4a concentrations cause ER fragmentation. Lnp only affects the abundance of three-way junctions and tubules. We suggest a model in which ATL-mediated fusion counteracts the instability of free tubule ends. ATL tethers and fuses tubules stabilized by the Rtns, and transiently sits in newly formed three-way junctions. Lnp subsequently moves into the junctional sheets and forms oligomers. Lnp is inactivated by mitotic phosphorylation, which contributes to the tubule-to-sheet conversion of the ER.

  5. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell for cooperating households: A convenient combined heat and power solution for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, Francesco; Facci, Andrea Luigi; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare the technical and economical performances of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell with those of an internal combustion engine for a 10 kW combined heat and power residential application. In a view of social innovation, this solution will create new partnerships of cooperating families aiming to reduce the energy consumption and costs. The energy system is simulated through a lumped model. We compare, in the Italian context, the total daily operating cost and energy savings of each system with respect to the separate purchase of electricity from the grid and production of the thermal energy through a standard boiler. The analysis is carried out with the energy systems operating with both the standard thermal tracking and an optimized management. The latter is retrieved through an optimization methodology based on the graph theory. We show that the internal combustion engine is much more affected by the choice of the operating strategy with respect to the fuel cell, in terms long term profitability. Then we conduct a net present value analysis with the aim of evidencing the convenience of using a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell for cogeneration in residential applications. - Highlights: • Fuel cells are a feasible and economically convenient solution for residential CHP. • Control strategy is fundamental for the economical performance of a residential CHP. • Flexibility is a major strength of the fuel cell CHP.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation for statistical mechanics model of ion-channel cooperativity in cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Riza; Aydiner, Ekrem

    2009-03-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are key molecules for the generation and propagation of electrical signals in excitable cell membranes. The voltage-dependent switching of these channels between conducting and nonconducting states is a major factor in controlling the transmembrane voltage. In this study, a statistical mechanics model of these molecules has been discussed on the basis of a two-dimensional spin model. A new Hamiltonian and a new Monte Carlo simulation algorithm are introduced to simulate such a model. It was shown that the results well match the experimental data obtained from batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in the squid giant axon using the cut-open axon technique.

  7. The cooperative interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C in suppression of peroxidation of membrane phospholipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, H.W.; Vang, M.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The time course of peroxidation of rat liver microsomes by FeSO/sub 4/ in the presence of ascorbate showed a delay in the onset of peroxidation compared to the time course when NADPH replaced ascorbate as the electron donor. The delay was consistent with an antioxidant function of ascorbate, possibly mediated through endogenous vitamin E. In order to further investigate the cooperation between ascorbate and vitamin E in suppressing lipid peroxidation, a liposomal system containing polyunsaturated phospholipids was used. Peroxidation was initated by ferrous iron at pH 5, where spontaneous oxidation of Fe/sup 2 +/ did not occur and the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid could be characterized independently of its pro-oxidant properties as a reducer of Fe/sup 3 +/. Ascorbic acid alone at concentrations of 30-100 ..mu..M delayed peroxidation by 20 min and at higher concentrations prevented peroxidation for 60 min. Physiological levels of vitamin E decreased peroxidation at early time points but the vitamin was apparently consumed during the course of the incubation. The presence of both vitamin C and vitamin E produced suppression of peroxidation at early time points (0-20 min) which was approximately the sum of the individual inhibitions. At longer time points, however, the mixture of antioxidants was much more effective than the sum of both vitamins alone. This suggests that interaction between these antioxidants yields an enhanced delivery of antioxidant protection.

  8. Microaerophilic cooperation of reductive and oxidative pathways allows maximal photosynthetic membrane biosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Hartmut; Gilles, Ernst-Dieter; Ghosh, Robin

    2003-11-01

    The purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been employed to study physiological adaptation to limiting oxygen tensions (microaerophilic conditions). R. rubrum produces maximal levels of photosynthetic membranes when grown with both succinate and fructose as carbon sources under microaerophilic conditions in comparison to the level (only about 20% of the maximum) seen in the absence of fructose. Employing a unique partial O(2) pressure (pO(2)) control strategy to reliably adjust the oxygen tension to values below 0.5%, we have used bioreactor cultures to investigate the metabolic rationale for this effect. A metabolic profile of the central carbon metabolism of these cultures was obtained by determination of key enzyme activities under microaerophilic as well as aerobic and anaerobic phototrophic conditions. Under aerobic conditions succinate and fructose were consumed simultaneously, whereas oxygen-limiting conditions provoked the preferential breakdown of fructose. Fructose was utilized via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. High levels of pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase activity were found to be specific for oxygen-limited cultures. No glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was detected under any conditions. We demonstrate that NADPH is supplied mainly by the pyridine-nucleotide transhydrogenase under oxygen-limiting conditions. The tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes are present at significant levels during microaerophilic growth, albeit at lower levels than those seen under fully aerobic growth conditions. Levels of the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle marker enzyme fumarate reductase were also high under microaerophilic conditions. We propose a model by which the primary "switching" of oxidative and reductive metabolism is performed at the level of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and suggest how this might affect redox signaling and gene expression in R. rubrum.

  9. Nonproton ion release by purple membranes exhibits cooperativity as shown by determination of the optical cross-section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, T

    1988-08-01

    The amplitudes of the conductivity transients in photoexcited purple membranes were studied as a function of the energy of the actinic flash to determine the optical cross section of the process giving rise to the conductivity transient. Heating of the solution by the absorbed light causes an additional conductivity change and serves as an internal actinometer; the experiment directly yields the ratio of the cross section of ion release/uptake to that for light absorption. In effect, this counts the number of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) molecules involved in the conductivity transient per photon absorbed. At pH 7 in 0.4-0.5 M NaCl, where the conductivity signals are dominated by nonproton ions, the ratio is between 3 and 4, i.e., excitation of any one of several chromophores generates the same ion release signal. The simplest interpretation is that at pH 7 cooperative conformational changes cause a transient change in the surface charge distribution near all the affected bR molecules, resulting in the transient release of numerous counterions. As a comparison, at pH 4 where the signals are due to protons alone, the cross section data indicate that only a single bR molecule is involved in the proton movements. In this case, the results also show that the sum of the primary forward and reverse quantum yields (for the reactions: bR----K) is 0.88 +/- 0.09.

  10. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  11. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  12. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  13. Compliance with traffic laws by traffic police officers, non-traffic police officers, and civilian drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Pereg, Avihu; Perlman, Amotz

    2014-01-01

    The policy of a public organization, such as police, may shape the norms and the behavior of the citizens. In line with this, police officers are expected by the public to comply with traffic laws and serve as an example for the citizenry. This study used on-site observations of civilian and police driver, comparing police officers' compliance with traffic laws to that of civilians. We compared driver compliance with traffic laws for drivers in 3 groups of vehicles: traffic police cars, non-traffic police cars, and civilian cars. Four hundred sixty-six vehicles were observed and compared by vehicle type and whether a uniform was worn by the driver. We observed safety belt usage, signaling before turning, cellular phone usage, and giving way to traffic (measured by merging time). We found evidence that generally drivers in police cars use seat belts while driving more that drivers in civilian cars do. In particular, more traffic police car drivers used seat belts than non-traffic police car drivers do. In addition, drivers in civilian cars and non-traffic police cars waited longer periods of time before merging right into traffic compared to traffic police car drivers. Our findings supported the notion that on-duty police officers, and traffic police officers in particular, adhere more closely to traffic laws compared to civilian drivers. As the general public compliance with traffic laws is affected by the police perceived legitimacy, the publication of these results can both boost public cooperation with the police and encourage police officers to continue providing positive role models to the public.

  14. Accelerating cooperative systems' development through the Grand Cooperative Driving challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.; Malone, K.M.; Katwijk, R. van; Gerrits, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative driving systems comprise an important research area. They are considered a promising solution for reducing traffic congestion, reducing environmental impact and improving traffic safety and driver comfort. The key to these systems is the communication and interaction between vehicles and

  15. An information strategy for the traffic control-chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seignette, P.; Dijkman, J.J.; Grijpink, J.H.A.M.; Plomp, M.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of the chain analysis of the traffic control chain according to the method of Chain-computerisation. The traffic control chain co-operation aims at maintaining car mobility with minimal delay. Car mobility is threatened by disruptions of traffic flows that are

  16. Human Factors of Automated Driving : Predicting the Effects of Authority Transitions on Traffic Flow Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varotto, S.F.; Hoogendoorn, R.G.; Van Arem, B.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Automated driving potentially has a significant impact on traffic flow efficiency. Automated vehicles, which possess cooperative capabilities, are expected to reduce congestion levels for instance by increasing road capacity, by anticipating traffic conditions further downstream and also by

  17. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    2002). Description of a microscopic traffic model of an urban district and the analysis and problem solving traffic congestion based on actual data is its objective. There suggested models for a vehicular traffic flow based on partial ...

  18. Movements of molecular motors: Ratchets, random walks and traffic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Stefan; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2005-10-01

    Processive molecular motors which drive the traffic of organelles in cells move in a directed way along cytoskeletal filaments. On large time scales, they perform motor walks, i.e., peculiar random walks which arise from the repeated unbinding from and rebinding to filaments. Unbound motors perform Brownian motion in the surrounding fluid. In addition, the traffic of molecular motors exhibits many cooperative phenomena. In particular, it faces similar problems as the traffic on streets such as the occurrence of traffic jams and the coordination of (two-way) traffic. These issues are studied here theoretically using lattice models.

  19. Fixed Point Learning Based Intelligent Traffic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao

    2017-10-01

    Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.

  20. Imitation dynamics in a game of traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paissan, Gabriel; Abramson, Guillermo

    2013-04-01

    We study a model of traffic where drivers adopt different behavioral strategies. These can be cooperative or defective according to a driver abiding or not by a traffic rule. Drivers can change their strategy by imitating the majority, with a rule that depends on the strategies with which they have interacted. These interactions occur at intersections, where vehicles pay a temporal cost according to their strategy. We analyze the conditions under which different strategy compositions represent an advantage in the system velocity. We found that the cooperators' mean speed is higher than the defectors' even when the vehicle density is large. However, defectors can obtain benefits in their mean speed when they are a minority in an essentially cooperative population. The presence of a core of educated drivers, who persist firmly in a cooperative behavior, optimizes the speed in the system, especially for intermediate values of vehicular density and higher temporal costs.

  1. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  2. Fusion proteins and select lipids cooperate as membrane receptors for the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) Vam7p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Vidya; Wickner, William

    2013-10-04

    Vam7p, the vacuolar soluble Qc-SNARE, is essential for yeast vacuole fusion. The large tethering complex, homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting complex (HOPS), and phosphoinositides, which interact with the Vam7p PX domain, have each been proposed to serve as its membrane receptors. Studies with the isolated organelle cannot determine whether these receptor elements suffice and whether ligands or mutations act directly or indirectly on Vam7p binding to the membrane. Using pure components that are active in reconstituted vacuolar fusion, we now find that Vam7p binds to membranes through its combined affinities for several vacuolar membrane constituents: HOPS, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, SNAREs, and acidic phospholipids. Acidic lipids allow low concentrations of Vam7p to suffice for fusion; without acidic lipids, the block to fusion is partially bypassed by high concentrations of Vam7p.

  3. TrafficTurk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This report summarizes a project undertaken by the University of Illinois on behalf of the Illinois Department of : Transportation to evaluate a smartphone application called TrafficTurk for traffic safety and traffic monitoring : applications. Traff...

  4. Formation and Propagation of Local Traffic Jam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-sheng Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale traffic congestion often stems from local traffic jam in single road or intersection. In this paper, macroscopic method was used to explore the formation and propagation of local traffic jam. It is found that (1 the propagation of traffic jam can be seen as the propagation of traffic signal parameters, that is, virtual split and virtual green time; (2 for a road with endogenous flow, entrance location influences the jam propagation. With the same demand (upstream links flow and entrance flow, the upstream got more influence; (3 when a one-lane road is thoroughly congested, virtual signal parameters everywhere are the same as that at stop line; for a basic road, the virtual signals work in a cooperative manner; (4 phase sequence is one important parameter that influences traffic performances during peak hour where spill back of channelization takes place. The same phase plan for left-turn flow and through flow would be preferred; (5 signal coordination plays an important role in traffic jam propagation and hence effective network signal parameters should be designed to prevent jam from propagation to the whole network. These findings would serve as a basis for future network traffic congestion control.

  5. Membrane anchors effectively traffic recombinant human glucocerebrosidase to the protein storage vacuole of Arabidopsis seeds but do not adequately control N-glycan maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu; Galpin, Jason D; Miao, Yansong; Jiang, Liwen; Grabowski, Gregory A; Kermode, Allison R

    2014-12-01

    Human glucocerebrosidase with vacuolar anchoring domains was targeted to protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) of Arabidopsis seeds, but unexpectedly via the Golgi complex. PSV-targeting to effectively avoid problematic N-glycans is protein dependent. Plant-specific N-glycosylation patterns elaborated within the Golgi complex are a major limitation of using plants to produce biopharmaceuticals as the presence of β1,2 xylose and/or α1,3 fucose residues on the recombinant glycoprotein can render the product immunogenic if administrated parenterally. A reporter protein fused to a vacuolar membrane targeting motif comprised of the BP-80 transmembrane domain (TMD), and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of α-tonoplast intrinsic protein (α-TIP) is delivered to protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) of tobacco seeds by ER-derived transport vesicles that bypass the Golgi complex. This prompted us to investigate whether a pharmaceutical glycoprotein is targeted to PSVs using the same targeting sequences, thus avoiding the unwanted plant-Golgi-specific complex N-glycan modifications. The human lysosomal acid β-glucosidase (glucocerebrosidase; GCase) (EC 3.2.1.45) fused to the BP-80 TMD and α-TIP CT was produced in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col-0) seeds. The chimeric GCase became localized in PSVs but transited through the Golgi complex, as indicated by biochemical analyses of the recombinant protein's N-glycans. Our findings suggest that use of this PSV-targeting strategy to avoid problematic N-glycan maturation on recombinant therapeutic proteins is not consistently effective, as it is likely protein- and/or species-specific.

  6. A decision support system for the maintenance of lights of traffic regulation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyn Schouten, F.A. van der; Klusener, A.S.; Vlijmen, S.F.M. van; Vos de Wael, S.L.E.

    From October 1994 to June 1995 the authors executed a project, the so called 'Lampremplace' project, in cooperation with Nederland Haarlem, a Dutch constructor and supplier of traffic regulation systems. 'Lampremplace', as it is called in traffic jargon, is the maintenance of lights of traffic

  7. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2.3c Data summary The summarization of the density data based on videotape obser- vations is in table 1 which shows average, 30-second, sampled densities. Using the non- homogeneous traffic continuity equation of (2), the resultant traffic concentrations appear in table 2. Comparing the traffic concentrations in table 1 to ...

  8. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  9. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  10. Virtual Induction Loops Based on Cooperative Vehicular Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramaglia, Marco; Bernardos, Carlos J.; Calderon, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Induction loop detectors have become the most utilized sensors in traffic management systems. The gathered traffic data is used to improve traffic efficiency (i.e., warning users about congested areas or planning new infrastructures). Despite their usefulness, their deployment and maintenance costs are expensive. Vehicular networks are an emerging technology that can support novel strategies for ubiquitous and more cost-effective traffic data gathering. In this article, we propose and evaluate VIL (Virtual Induction Loop), a simple and lightweight traffic monitoring system based on cooperative vehicular communications. The proposed solution has been experimentally evaluated through simulation using real vehicular traces. PMID:23348033

  11. Virtual Induction Loops Based on Cooperative Vehicular Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Calderon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Induction loop detectors have become the most utilized sensors in traffic management systems. The gathered traffic data is used to improve traffic efficiency (i.e., warning users about congested areas or planning new infrastructures. Despite their usefulness, their deployment and maintenance costs are expensive. Vehicular networks are an emerging technology that can support novel strategies for ubiquitous and more cost-effective traffic data gathering. In this article, we propose and evaluate VIL (Virtual Induction Loop, a simple and lightweight traffic monitoring system based on cooperative vehicular communications. The proposed solution has been experimentally evaluated through simulation using real vehicular traces.

  12. Censoring for Bayesian Cooperative Positioning in Dense Wireless Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kallol; Wymeersch, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative positioning is a promising solution for location-enabled technologies in GPS-challenged environments. However, it suffers from high computational complexity and increased network traffic, compared to traditional positioning approaches. The computational complexity is related to the

  13. 32 CFR 634.42 - Civil-military cooperative programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil-military cooperative programs. 634.42 Section 634.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.42 Civil...

  14. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  15. National guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schermers, G

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This document serves as a comprehensive national traffic calming guideline, compiled to assist traffic engineering practitioners and road authorities with the implementation of traffic calming. It outlines the different objectives of traffic calming...

  16. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  17. Traffic signal timing manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This report serves as a comprehensive guide to traffic signal timing and documents the tasks completed in association with its development. The focus of this document is on traffic signal control principles, practices, and procedures. It describes th...

  18. An intelligent traffic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Advances in computing sciences have not been applied to traffic control. This paper describes the development of an intelligent controller. A controller with advanced control logic can significantly improve traffic flows at intersections. In this vei...

  19. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  20. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...

  1. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  2. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  3. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on one ship or two ships but does not address the issues in marine traffic flow.

  4. World modeling for cooperative intelligent vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Brown, C.; Bartels, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative intelligent vehicle systems constitute a promising way to improving traffic throughput, safety and comfort. The state-of-the-art intelligent-vehicle applications usually can be described as a collection of interacting, highly autonomous, complex dynamical systems (the individual

  5. Coping with the worrying complexity of cooperative driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, F.C. den; Papp, Z.; Zoutendijk, A.M.; Netten, B.D.; Agovic, K.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years a clear trend became visible towards vehicles equipped with intelligent driver assistance systems based on cooperation between vehicle and infrastructure. The main reason for this is the high potential cooperative systems show to increase traffic throughput and safety and to decrease

  6. R+D project KEWA. Cooperative development of economically efficient applications for environment, traffic and neighbouring fields in new administrative structures - phase II 2006/07; F+E-Vorhaben KEWA. Kooperative Entwicklung wirtschafticher Anwendungen fuer Umwelt, Verkehr und benachbarte Bereiche in neuen Verwaltungsstrukturen - Phase II 2006/07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Foell, R.; Keitel, A.; Geiger, W. (eds.)

    2007-07-15

    The project aims at efficient use of resources and joint research on and development of new solutions in the provision of environmental and traffic information for administrations and the general public (E-Government). KEWA is thus a successor to the R+D projects Globale Umweltsachdaten (GLOBUS, 1994-1999) and Anwendung JAVA-basierter Loesungen in den Bereichen Umwelt, Verkehr und Verwaltung (AJA, 2000-2004). Phase I of the project covered the period between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2006. Central issues were the further development of portal technologies including metadata and document processing, the development of reporting systems and geodata processing, and applications for processing of measured data and dispersion calculations, in particular in the fields of water and radiation protection. Further issues were the combination of environmental and traffic information and elements of E-Government. Phase II of the project, from 1 July 2006 to 30 June 2007, is presented in this report. The work of the first phase was continued, and concepts and applications were developed for meeting the specifications made by IuK-Verbund Land/Kommkjnen, e.g. the 2006 outline concept of UIS BAden-Wuerttemberg, KONZEPTION RIPS 2006 for the Baden-Wuerttemberg regional information and planning system, the WIBAS 2006 concept for the Information system for water, nuisance control, soil, waste, and land pollution, suplporting activities, and E-services for the general public. Further subjects were, e.g., interstate cooperations, e.g. in the development of surface water information systems and environmental information networks, metadata catalogues and standardized service catalogues. An important issue for KEWA is the EU regulation on Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community - INSPIRE. (orig.)

  7. Radio resource management for mobile traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuan; Huang, Jianwei; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers two concrete design examples for traffic offloading. The first is an optimal resource allocation for small-cell based traffic offloading that aims at minimizing mobile users’ data cost. The second is an optimal resource allocation for device-to-device assisted traffic offloading that also minimizes the total energy consumption and cellular link usage (while providing an overview of the challenging issues). Both examples illustrate the importance of proper resource allocation to the success of traffic offloading, show the consequent performance advantages of executing optimal resource allocation, and present the methodologies to achieve the corresponding optimal offloading solution for traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks. The authors also include an overview of heterogeneous cellular networks and explain different traffic offloading paradigms ranging from uplink traffic offloading through small cells to downlink traffic offloading via mobile device-to-device cooper...

  8. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...... assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  9. Traffic Signs Inventory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ružbarský

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on practical application of Cambridge Correlator. The goal is to propose a traffic signs inventory system by using excellent characteristics of correlator in the rapid optical correlation. The proposal of this inventory system includes obtaining of traffic signs to create the database either collecting the GPS coordinates. It is necessary to know the traffic signs position and also to document the entire surface route for later evaluation in offline mode.

  10. Cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, D.J.; Jones, K.G.; Morrison, A.; Burdis, I.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing environmental constraints on the use of oil-based drilling fluids have prompted close cooperation between operators and service companies to maintain the technical performance of drilling fluids while reducing oil discharge. This paper describes how Amerada Hess Ltd. (AHL) and Intl. Drilling Fluids Ltd. (IDF) cooperated by extending laboratory developments into controlled field trials and how feedback from the field has allowed rapid progress toward performance and ecological goals. The authors developed a novel, oil-free, highly inhibitive water-based drilling fluid. The inhibition offered by this fluid approaches that offered by oil-based fluids. Second, the authors developed invert-emulsion and direct-emulsion fluids with low oil/water ratios for low oil-on-cuttings applications. The cooperative process improved the technical performance of these fluids demonstrably and reduced the oil on cuttings

  11. modified traffic s modified traffic signal phasing at traffic warden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    obtained as being adequate for the critical approach. A 5 tained as being adequate for the critical approach. A 5 tained as being adequate for the critical approach. A 5-phase scheme is proposed with the fifth phase being an phase scheme is .... Other examples include traffic light signalized crossing with or without ...

  12. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... each other, their dilemmas, and their previous experience. This meant that they had each their perspective on ongoing praxis. Three observations from the collaboration in the control room are presented, one on stabilizing the function of an object, another on standardizing a procedure, and one...

  13. Preprimary Traffic Safety Curriculum Demonstration Project, Evaluation Report, 1979-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Richard N.; Quimper, Barry E.

    The Preprimary Traffic Safety Curriculum (PTSC) Demonstration Project is a three year project to develop, pilot test, and disseminate a traffic safety curriculum for young children. The PTSC Project has two general goals: to develop appropriate safety habits and attitudes in children, and to establish cooperation between home and school so that…

  14. Cooperating Internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    A number of college and university consortia have embarked on international educational cooperation ventures, providing valuable experiences and benefits for faculty, students, alumni, and the community. For these programs to be effective, they must have high-level institutional support, equal opportunities to participate, effective marketing and…

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus Membrane Proteins gE/gI and US9 Act Cooperatively To Promote Transport of Capsids and Glycoproteins from Neuron Cell Bodies into Initial Axon Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Paul W.; Howard, Tiffani L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other alphaherpesviruses must move from sites of latency in ganglia to peripheral epithelial cells. How HSV navigates in neuronal axons is not well understood. Two HSV membrane proteins, gE/gI and US9, are key to understanding the processes by which viral glycoproteins, unenveloped capsids, and enveloped virions are transported toward axon tips. Whether gE/gI and US9 function to promote the loading of viral proteins onto microtubule motors in neuron cell bodies or to tether viral proteins onto microtubule motors within axons is not clear. One impediment to understanding how HSV gE/gI and US9 function in axonal transport relates to observations that gE−, gI−, or US9− mutants are not absolutely blocked in axonal transport. Mutants are significantly reduced in numbers of capsids and glycoproteins in distal axons, but there are less extensive effects in proximal axons. We constructed HSV recombinants lacking both gE and US9 that transported no detectable capsids and glycoproteins to distal axons and failed to spread from axon tips to adjacent cells. Live-cell imaging of a gE−/US9− double mutant that expressed fluorescent capsids and gB demonstrated >90% diminished capsids and gB in medial axons and no evidence for decreased rates of transport, stalling, or increased retrograde transport. Instead, capsids, gB, and enveloped virions failed to enter proximal axons. We concluded that gE/gI and US9 function in neuron cell bodies, in a cooperative fashion, to promote the loading of HSV capsids and vesicles containing glycoproteins and enveloped virions onto microtubule motors or their transport into proximal axons. PMID:23077321

  16. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  17. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  18. Solubilization of lipids and membrane proteins into nanodiscs : Mode of action and applications of SMA copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheidelaar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes separate the inside and outside of cells. Membrane proteins in the cell membrane control the traffic of molecules across the membrane and are therefore targets for a lot of drugs: about 50 % of all approved drugs target a membrane protein! Unfortunately, scientists only know little

  19. Modelling traffic flows with intelligent cars and intelligent roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Arem, Bart; Tampere, Chris M.J.; Malone, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the modeling of traffic flows with intelligent cars and intelligent roads. It will describe the modeling approach MIXIC and review the results for different ADA systems: Adaptive Cruise Control, a special lane for Intelligent Vehicles, cooperative following and external speed

  20. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport professionals can use these PCU values for accurate capacity, safety, and operational ... Most transportation engineering work depends on the use of continuity equations and pas- senger car units ...... of a service lane can serve slow and local traffic, as a capacity enhancement strategy would have higher benefit ...

  1. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...... if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...

  2. Cooperative Trust Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    evidence found in our experiences in automobile traffic jams to verify our understanding of the theoretical result. Drivers in traffic lanes...In fact, in the event a driver becomes stuck in a traffic jam , he likely will not feel betrayed by the driver directly in front. Instead, he will...unconsciously begin gauging the coalitional value of the traffic jam by considering his level of trust in the lead driver in the traffic jam , whether

  3. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  4. Comsat's TDMA traffic terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M. C.; Bogaert, W. M.

    1985-06-01

    Comsat has installed two traffic terminals in the Etam earth-station and is currently installing a third in the new Roaring Creek earth-station to access the Intelsat TDMA network. This paper describes the Comsat TDMA traffic terminal equipment from the supergroup interface to the antenna. Comsat's 1: N redundancy approach for terrestrial interface equipment and DSI unit back-up is described as well as electrical path length, amplitude and group delay equalization techniques, special on-line RF monitoring and failure reporting facilities and the operation and maintenance center which can operate and perform diagnostic testing on up to four traffic terminals from a central location.

  5. Tourism Traffic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cosmescu

    2001-01-01

    Tourism traffic must be quantified through four observing units’ categories: custom houses; quartering units; internal and external travel agencies on home teritory; familiy budgets. These observing units allow to quantify the statistical observation’s object and its cyclicity.

  6. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  7. Non-Traffic Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Non-traffic citations (NTCs, also known as "summary offenses") document low-level criminal offenses where a law enforcement officer or other authorized official...

  8. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  9. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  10. On the mechanism of intracellular membrane fusion : In search of the genuine fusion factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecheur, EI; Maier, O; Hoekstra, D

    2000-01-01

    Intracellular membrane Fusion events require a general protein machinery that functions in vesicular traffic and in assembly and maintenance of organelles. An array of cytosolic and integral membrane proteins are currently identified, and in conjunction with ongoing detailed structural studies,

  11. Cooperative networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on radio resource allocation in a heterogeneous wireless medium. It presents radio resource allocation algorithms with decentralized implementation, which support both single-network and multi-homing services. The brief provides a set of cooperative networking algorithms, which rely on the concepts of short-term call traffic load prediction, network cooperation, convex optimization, and decomposition theory. In the proposed solutions, mobile terminals play an active role in the resource allocation operation, instead of their traditional role as passive service recipients in the networking environment.

  12. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  13. Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and intracellular traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Cecilia; Bakke, Oddmund; Progida, Cinzia

    2012-01-01

    Mutations of genes whose primary function is the regulation of membrane traffic are increasingly being identified as the underlying causes of various important human disorders. Intriguingly, mutations in ubiquitously expressed membrane traffic genes often lead to cell type- or organ-specific disorders. This is particularly true for neuronal diseases, identifying the nervous system as the most sensitive tissue to alterations of membrane traffic. Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease is one of the most common inherited peripheral neuropathies. It is also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), which comprises a group of disorders specifically affecting peripheral nerves. This peripheral neuropathy, highly heterogeneous both clinically and genetically, is characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of the muscle of the foot, lower leg, hand and forearm, accompanied by sensory loss in the toes, fingers and limbs. More than 30 genes have been identified as targets of mutations that cause CMT neuropathy. A number of these genes encode proteins directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of intracellular traffic. Indeed, the list of genes linked to CMT disease includes genes important for vesicle formation, phosphoinositide metabolism, lysosomal degradation, mitochondrial fission and fusion, and also genes encoding endosomal and cytoskeletal proteins. This review focuses on the link between intracellular transport and CMT disease, highlighting the molecular mechanisms that underlie the different forms of this peripheral neuropathy and discussing the pathophysiological impact of membrane transport genetic defects as well as possible future ways to counteract these defects. PMID:22465036

  14. Traffic pollution and countermeasures of urban traffic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhong; Zheng, Chaocheng

    2018-01-01

    Background: Traffic environment has become a serious social problem in China currently, therefore, urban traffic environment governance is the requirement to solve this issue because as an important place in people's social life, urban traffic environment shows a strong city's energy. Objective: Based on analysis on social function of city traffic environment and its influence of traffic on urban environment in this paper, the goal to establish a healthy urban traffic environment must be included under the aim of sustainable development eternally and feasible measures were put forward afterwards. Method, result, conclusion and possible applications.

  15. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...

  16. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  17. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  18. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisich, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europe is certainly the part of the world where the largest number of international arrangements have been established for dealing with international cooperation in cases of major oil spills at sea. Let me list the most important of these multilateral arrangements: Bonn Agreement: covers the North Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC Barcelona Convention: (protocol for emergency situations) covers the Mediterranean Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC; Helsinki Convention: covers the Baltic Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and (soon) the EEC; Lisbon Agreement: covers the NE Atlantic Contracting Parties: France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the EEC; Community Action Plan: covers the whole community waters; EEC; Members States participate in this plan. It should be underlined that, in addition to these large multilateral agreements a number of bilateral or trilateral arrangements have been set up, such as the Copenhagen Agreement, Denger Plan, Manche Plan, etc. The Commission involvement in these international frameworks is very important: as an example, it is presently chairing the Bonn Agreement Contracting Parties meeting. In addition, being the only contracting party to all these agreements, it is able to play a unique role of coordination and information to avoid duplications and contradictions. Having given this overview, I would now focus on the Community Action Plan

  19. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and behaviors ...

  20. Texas traffic thermostat marketing package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  1. Texas traffic thermostat software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  2. Traffic Engineering in Metro Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Padmaraj Nair; Suku Nair; Girish Chiruvolu

    2010-01-01

    Traffic engineering is one of the major issues that has to be addressed in Metro Ethernet networks for quality of service and efficient resource utilization. This paper aims at understanding the relevant issues and outlines novel algorithms for multipoint traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet. We present an algorithmic solution for traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet using optimal multiple spanning trees. This iterative approach distributes traffic across the network uniformly without overl...

  3. Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2016-05-01

    In a mini-review Kerner (2013) it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown - a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters of automatic driving vehicles can either decrease or increase the probability of the breakdown. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown, i.e., the deterioration of the performance of the traffic system can occur already at a small percentage (about 5%) of automatic driving vehicles. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown through automatic driving vehicles can be realized, even if any platoon of automatic driving vehicles satisfies condition for string stability.

  4. Framework for Traffic Congestion Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaki, J.F.W.; Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Hussein, S.E.; Saraya, S.F.; Areed, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic Congestion is a complex dilemma facing most major cities. It has undergone a lot of research since the early 80s in an attempt to predict traffic in the short-term. Recently, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) became an integral part of traffic research which helped in modeling and

  5. Traffic light intensity meter, TIM®

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leden, N. van der; Varkevisser, J.; Vroom, J. de; Oijen, T van

    2005-01-01

    The intensity of traffic lights decreases over time as a result of pollution and ageing. The Dutch Traffic Research Centre of the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management is searching for a convenient method for measuring the luminous intensity of traffic lights on the road, in order

  6. Traffic Flow Visualization and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Vehicle count, flow speed, headway, queue length and occupancy are some of the information that can be collected. The processed traffic data is then sent to a control center for further analysis and used by traffic operators attempting to analyze traffic on the highway.

  7. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field and t...

  8. The Classroom Traffic Jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Arthur W.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of energy conservation is developed in this simulation. Children draw an automobile and then are asked to drive it through the classroom roadways. When a traffic jam results, students offer ways to eliminate it. The importance of mass transportation and car pools is stressed by the teacher. (MA)

  9. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    , the difference between actual and forecasted traffic is more than +-20%; for 25% of road projects, the difference is larger than +-40%. Forecasts for roads are more accurate and more balanced than for rail, with no significant difference between the frequency of inflated versus deflated forecasts. But for both...

  10. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  11. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  12. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  13. Biobased Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.A.B.; Zlopasa, J.; Picken, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of a composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane applicable to building material, such as concrete, cement, etc., to a meth od of applying said composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane, a biocompatible membrane, use of said membrane for various

  14. Cooperative inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activities by hexachlorophene in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, H; Matsuoka, M; Igisu, H; Ikeda, M

    1997-01-01

    Hexachlorophene (HCP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) all hemolyzed washed human erythrocytes and inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activities in erythrocyte membrane. HCP was much more potent in either effect than any other compound examined. The inhibition of AchE activities by HCP was reversed on adding albumin. The dose-response curves by HCP and PCP were sigmoidal, indicating cooperative inhibition, while those by 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-TCP were not. Furthermore, the cooperativity of the inhibition by HCP was greater than by PCP. Differing from that by PCP, the cooperativity of inhibition increased depending on the temperature (13, 25, 37 degrees C) and decreased when the membrane was treated with Triton X-100. The cooperativity was also decreased in the presence of albumin. On a Scatchard plot analysis, erythrocyte membranes appeared to have multiple binding sites of different affinities for HCP; binding of HCP to the low affinity site [dissociation constant (Kd) 4.7 x 10(-5) M] seemed to be responsible for the observed cooperative inhibition of AchE activities. Neither neostigmine nor fenitrothion altered the cooperativity. HCP seems to be the most potent cooperative inhibitor of AchE in human erythrocyte membranes known to date. HCP may be useful to examine AchE and milieu in human erythrocyte membranes.

  15. Stochastic Model of Traffic Jam and Traffic Signal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Cui, Cheng-You; Lee, Tae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    Traffic signal control is an effective method to solve the traffic jam. and forecasting traffic density has been known as an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The several methods of the traffic signal control are known such as random walk method, Neuron Network method, Bayesian Network method, and so on. In this paper, we propose a new method of a traffic signal control using a predicted distribution of traffic jam based on a Dynamic Bayesian Network model. First, a forecasting model to predict a probabilistic distribution of the traffic jam during each period of traffic lights is built. As the forecasting model, the Dynamic Bayesian Network is used to predict the probabilistic distribution of a density of the traffic jam. According to measurement of two crossing points for each cycle, the inflow and outflow of each direction and the number of standing vehicles at former cycle are obtained. The number of standing vehicle at k-th cycle will be calculated synchronously. Next, the probabilistic distribution of the density of standing vehicle in each cycle will be predicted using the Dynamic Bayesian Network constructed for the traffic jam. And then a control rule to adjust the split and the cycle to increase the probability between a lower limit and ceiling of the standing vehicles is deduced. As the results of the simulation using the actual traffic data of Kitakyushu city, the effectiveness of the method is shown.

  16. Interaction protocols for cooperative merging and lane reduction scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semsar Kazerooni, E.; Ploeg, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the interaction protocols developed for execution of two common scenarios in daily traffic using cooperative automated vehicles. The first proposed scenario addresses merging of a (semi-)automated car on a highway within a platoon of (semi-)automated vehicles. The second scenario

  17. The benefits of empathy: When empathy may sustain cooperation in social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumble, A.C.; van Lange, P.A.M.; Parks, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    Cooperation in social dilemmas is often challenged by negative noise, or unintended errors, such that the actual behavior is less cooperative than intended-for example, arriving later than intended for a meeting due to an unusual traffic jam. The present research was inspired by the notion that

  18. On a User-Centric Base Station Cooperation Scheme for Reliable Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong Min; Thomsen, Henning; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe CoMP2flex, a user-centric base station (BS) cooperation scheme that provides improvements in reliability of both uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) communications of wireless cellular networks. CoMP2flex supports not only cooperation of two BSs with same direction of traffic...

  19. Social dilemma structures hidden behind traffic flow with lane changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Kukida, Shinji; Hagishima, Aya

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to merge traffic flow analysis with evolutionary game theory, we investigated the question of whether such structures can be formed from frequent lane changes in usual traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C-agents (cooperative strategy) always remain in the lane they are initially assigned, whereas D-agents (defective strategy) try to change lanes to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person prisoner dilemma (n-PD) games or quasi-PD games. In these situations, lane changes by D-agents create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency. (paper)

  20. Linking molecular motors to membrane cargo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); J.A. Hammer (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThree types of motors, myosins, kinesins, and cytoplasmic dynein, cooperate to transport intracellular membrane organelles. Transport of each cargo is determined by recruitment of specific sets of motors and their regulation. Targeting of motors to membranes often depends on the

  1. Short paper: Distributed vehicular traffic congestion detection algorithm for urban environments

    OpenAIRE

    Milojevic, M.; Rakocevic, V.

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion is a well-known economic and social problem generating significant costs and safety challenges, and increasing pollution in the cities. Current intelligent transport systems and vehicular networking technologies rely heavily on the supporting network infrastructure which is still not widely available. This paper contributes towards the development of distributed and cooperative vehicular traffic congestion detection by proposing a new vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cong...

  2. Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaars, Marvin A.

    A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)…

  3. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort.......This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...

  4. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... have not yet been seen for the detection sub-problem of TLR, where detection is dominated by methods based on heuristic models. Evaluation of existing systems is currently limited primarily to small local datasets. In order to provide a common basis for comparing future TLR research an extensive public...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  5. Cooperative interval games

    OpenAIRE

    Bok, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we study cooperative interval games, a generalized model of cooperative games in which worth of every coalition corresponds with a closed interval representing all possible outcomes of their cooperation. We give a brief introduction into classical cooperative games, interval analysis and finally introduction to cooperative interval games with focus on selections, that is on all possible outcomes of interval game with no additional uncertainty. We introduce new selection-based ...

  6. Physics of Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Texas A&M Transportation Institute estimated that traffic congestion cost the United States 121 billion in 2011 (the latest data available). The cost is due to wasted time and fuel. In addition to accidents and road construction, factors contributing to congestion include large demand, instability of high-density free flow and selfish behavior of drivers, which produces self-organized traffic bottlenecks. Extensive data collected on instrumented highways in various countries have led to a better understanding of traffic dynamics. From these measurements, Boris Kerner and colleagues developed a new theory called three-phase theory. They identified three major phases of flow observed in the data: free flow, synchronous flow and wide moving jams. The intermediate phase is called synchronous because vehicles in different lanes tend to have similar velocities. This congested phase, characterized by lower velocities yet modestly high throughput, frequently occurs near on-ramps and lane reductions. At present there are only two widely used methods of congestion mitigation: ramp metering and the display of current travel-time information to drivers. To find more effective methods to reduce congestion, researchers perform large-scale simulations using models based on the new theories. An algorithm has been proposed to realize Wardrop equilibria with real-time route information. Such equilibria have equal travel time on alternative routes between a given origin and destination. An active area of current research is the dynamics of connected vehicles, which communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure. These systems show great promise for improving traffic flow and safety.

  7. Modeling of Spacewire Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebgott, Emmanuelle; Fourtier, Philippe; Jameux, David

    2011-08-01

    The Spacewire technology allows embarking high speed data networks on board spacecraft and become widely adopted by agencies and industries missions. Need for new tool to support conception, development and validation of such high speed data network has increased with Spacewire standard development. In that frame, MOST is a representative traffic spacewire simulator which presents great interests for both system engineers and spacewire experts:• It offers the possibility to build SpW network model, selecting and configuring SpW components, and to test defined design without waiting for HW,• It allows to keep control on traffic load and identify weak parts of the network topology,• It gives load margins and traffic performances,• It allows failures simulation and give the possibility to run various scenarios• MOST supports design risks decrease and secures planning thanks to early verification,• In addition, MOST is a progressive tool which allows testing of SpW standard evolutions.

  8. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  9. Effects of traffic noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlob, D.

    1986-02-01

    One of the main sources of noise is road traffic. In 1984 there were over 25 million cars, 1.2 million lorries, 1.3 million motor cycles and 1.6 million mopeds using our roads. Opinion polls showed that 21% of the population felt that they were affected by traffic noise as a nuisance factor. An outline of the effects of this noise on the affected population is given, illustrated by diagrams. Details about noise emissions (drive-past level) of the different types of vehicles in city traffic are stated and the effects of noise described. The author goes into the nuisance effect (noise is not a physical factor, but a psychosocial one), changes in behaviour (ways of speaking, reduction of stress on households in proportion to rising income and higher educational levels) and the consequences for health (the reaction of the body to noise is primarily a consequence of the psychosomatic organisation of ow bodies). In conclusion, the author deals with the subjective efficiency of noise protection measures. (HWJ).

  10. Linking molecular motors to membrane cargo

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmanova, Anna; Hammer, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Three types of motors, myosins, kinesins and cytoplasmic dynein, cooperate to transport intracellular membrane organelles. Transport of each cargo is determined by recruitment of specific sets of motors and their regulation. Targeting of motors to membranes often depends on the formation of large multiprotein assemblies and can be influenced by membrane lipid composition. Motor activity can be regulated by cargo-induced conformational changes such as unfolding or dimerization. The architectur...

  11. The Role of Incomplete Information andOthers’ Choice in Reducing Traffic: a PilotStudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo eRomano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the role of payoff information and conformity in improving networkperformance in a traffic dilemma known as the Braess paradox. Our goal is to understand whendecisions are guided by selfish motivations or otherwise by social ones. For this purpose, weconsider the manipulation of others’ choice, public and private monitoring and information ondistribution of choices. Data show that when social comparison was not salient, participantswere more cooperative. By contrast, cooperativeness of others’ choice made participants morecompetitive leading to traffic and collective performance decrease. The implications of these findingsto the literature on social dilemmas are discussed.

  12. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... check for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis Complement levels Cryoglobulin test Treatment The goal of treatment ... not as helpful for people with membranous nephropathy. Medicines used treat membranous nephropathy include: Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ...

  13. Compressive membrane action in concrete decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing the designers today is to investigate if the old bridges are still safe for modern traffic. The current research deals with this question by taking into account compressive membrane action (CMA) in determining the capacity of reinforced and transversely prestressed

  14. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  15. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber- sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website. Kata kunci : Optimasi, Bandwith, Traffic Shapping, MikroTik. 

  16. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  17. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    that forecasters generally do a poor job of estimating the demand for transportation infrastructure projects. The result is substantial downside financial and economic risk. Forecasts have not become more accurate over the 30-year period studied. If techniques and skills for arriving at accurate demand forecasts...... forecasting. Highly inaccurate traffic forecasts combined with large standard deviations translate into large financial and economic risks. But such risks are typically ignored or downplayed by planners and decision-makers, to the detriment of social and economic welfare. The paper presents the data...

  18. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  19. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  20. Real Time Traffic Models, Decision Support for Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  1. Traffic Infrastructure in the Development of the Croatian Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a long-term traffic policy and of the policyof financing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastructurefacilities, represents a synthesis of numerous unresolvedrelations whose negative effects are felt in the overalleconomic and traffic development and consequently theevaluation of national potentials in the field. Adverse aspectcaused by the lack of a clear and feasible policy of financing thetraffic infrastructure facilities, is also a result of not having definedan adequate traffic policy, programme and strategiccourses of development, nor financing models that would be inaccordance with the market and economy system.This indicates that it is necessary to determine a policy forfinancing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastntcture,which has to be based on scientific development,team work, availability of plans and programmes to scientistsand experts, determined methodology based on marketing andeconomic logic in defining the programme and strategic tasksand assignments so as to make them feasible.In the near future, intensive preparations for investments inthe overall traffic sysiem are necessary, especially regarding thetraffic infrastntcture facilities - the pivotal points in the processof evaluating the traffic in our national tenitory. Croatia needsto define clearly its strategy in constructing and maintaining thegeneral traffic infrastructure, appointing at the same time thosewho will carry out the given tasks.

  2. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  3. Organizational cooperation in teleradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2005-01-01

    Teleradiology requires cooperation between participating parties, but it cannot be assumed that such cooperation will work well. A survey was carried out of 12 radiology departments in Norway which used picture archiving and communication systems in connection with teleradiology. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 26 out of 29 resource persons (response rate 90%). The respondents identified 17 issues of importance for cooperation in teleradiology. None of the problems with cooperation seem large enough to prevent effective teleradiology cooperation in future. For organizations planning teleradiology of a larger volume, the cooperation issue is important. It is recommended that managers lead change processes in their organizations where the different issues of importance to cooperation are treated and the right measures are taken to realize the full potential of teleradiology. For telemedicine, it is important that future research includes investigations on cooperation for the different applications.

  4. Neuro-Fuzzy Prediction of Cooperation Interaction Profile of Flexible Road Train Based on Hybrid Automaton Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjanovic-Mehmedovic Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of traffic information is important in many applications in relation to Intelligent Transport systems (ITS, since it reduces the uncertainty of future traffic states and improves traffic mobility. There is a lot of research done in the field of traffic information predictions such as speed, flow and travel time. The most important research was done in the domain of cooperative intelligent transport system (C-ITS. The goal of this paper is to introduce the novel cooperation behaviour profile prediction through the example of flexible Road Trains useful road cooperation parameter, which contributes to the improvement of traffic mobility in Intelligent Transportation Systems. This paper presents an approach towards the control and cooperation behaviour modelling of vehicles in the flexible Road Train based on hybrid automaton and neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS prediction of cooperation profile of the flexible Road Train. Hybrid automaton takes into account complex dynamics of each vehicle as well as discrete cooperation approach. The ANFIS is a particular class of the ANN family with attractive estimation and learning potentials. In order to provide statistical analysis, RMSE (root mean square error, coefficient of determination (R2 and Pearson coefficient (r, were utilized. The study results suggest that ANFIS would be an efficient soft computing methodology, which could offer precise predictions of cooperative interactions between vehicles in Road Train, which is useful for prediction mobility in Intelligent Transport systems.

  5. European Traffic Connections and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vuković

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The overall traffic connections within Europe are particularlyimportant from the economic point of view of eve1y Europeancountry. Therefore, the development of traffic and trafficinfrastructure in the European Union are considered with specialattention. The main aim of traffic development in the EuropeanUnion is full possible freedom of movement both fromthe technical and organisational aspect, with continuous improvementin traffic safety and environmental protection.Traffic development and connections are one of the essentieddevelopment factors of eve1y modem counlly. Every COU/1-try tends to organise traffic system in the way that suits her best.The same holds for the European Union as well. The leadingbodies in the European Union agree that the EU traffic systemneeds to be set upon such fundamentals that it can follow furtherdevelopment of the community. EU connects 15 membercountries into a single community, and it also plans soon to expandonto new members.The aims set by the Maastricht Agreement have been realisedby announcing the traffic guidelines on infrastructure projectsthat should be realised. In the Commission's proposal tothe Council and the Parliament in 1994, on the development ofTrans-European traffic networks, a ve1y efficient plan was presentedof connecting national traffic networks into a singleTrans-European network, to be realised until 2010.Overall economic and political connections of the EuropeanUnion and the countries in transition are becoming strongereve1y day. Several countries in transition are already preparingfor joining the European Union. This brings to the fore theneed for better traffic connections of EU and the countries intransition.In some sections the adopted Crete corridors pass alsothrough Croatia. Moreover, Croatia is located on the main Europeantraffic routes from the North to the South, and from theEast to the West.

  6. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  7. The Use of Adaptive Traffic Signal Systems Based on Floating Car Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Astarita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple concept which has not been, up to now, thoroughly explored in scientific research: the use of information coming from the network of Internet connected mobile devices (on vehicles to regulate traffic light systems. Three large-scale changes are going to shape the future of transportation and could lead to the regulation of traffic signal system based on floating car data (FCD: (i the implementation of Internet connected cars with global navigation satellite (GNSS system receivers and the autonomous car revolution; (ii the spreading of mobile cooperative Web 2.0 and the extension to connected vehicles; (iii an increasing need for sustainability of transportation in terms of energy efficiency, traffic safety, and environmental issues. Up to now, the concept of floating car data (FCD has only been extensively used to obtain traffic information and estimate traffic parameters. Traffic lights regulation based on FCD technology has not been fully researched since the implementation requires new ideas and algorithms. This paper intends to provide a seminal insight into the important issue of adaptive traffic light based on FCD by presenting ideas that can be useful to researchers and engineers in the long-term task of developing new algorithms and systems that may revolutionize the way traffic lights are regulated.

  8. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics

  9. Probabilistic description of traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, R.; Kaupuzs, J.; Lubashevsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    A stochastic description of traffic flow, called probabilistic traffic flow theory, is developed. The general master equation is applied to relatively simple models to describe the formation and dissolution of traffic congestions. Our approach is mainly based on spatially homogeneous systems like periodically closed circular rings without on- and off-ramps. We consider a stochastic one-step process of growth or shrinkage of a car cluster (jam). As generalization we discuss the coexistence of several car clusters of different sizes. The basic problem is to find a physically motivated ansatz for the transition rates of the attachment and detachment of individual cars to a car cluster consistent with the empirical observations in real traffic. The emphasis is put on the analogy with first-order phase transitions and nucleation phenomena in physical systems like supersaturated vapour. The results are summarized in the flux-density relation, the so-called fundamental diagram of traffic flow, and compared with empirical data. Different regimes of traffic flow are discussed: free flow, congested mode as stop-and-go regime, and heavy viscous traffic. The traffic breakdown is studied based on the master equation as well as the Fokker-Planck approximation to calculate mean first passage times or escape rates. Generalizations are developed to allow for on-ramp effects. The calculated flux-density relation and characteristic breakdown times coincide with empirical data measured on highways. Finally, a brief summary of the stochastic cellular automata approach is given

  10. Steering Kids to Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PTA Today, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Guidelines to help parents explain traffic safety to children cover the following: school bus safety (e.g., remain seated, do not shout); walking (e.g., obey traffic signals, cross at crosswalks); driving (e.g., wear seatbelts, enter and exit from the curb side); and biking (e.g., wear helmets, do not ride at night). (SM)

  11. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  12. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    -traffic on firm performance in civil law countries, firms with concentrated ownership, and firms with more intangible assets. All of these groups are characterized by higher agency problems. Our results, therefore, indicate that web-traffic can play a substitute for traditional governance mechanisms in the MENA...

  13. Crowded orbits conflict and cooperation in space

    CERN Document Server

    James

    2014-01-01

    Written for all readers, this expert analysis details the basics of space technology, diplomacy, commerce, exploration, and military applications from the mid-twentieth century to today. Space has become increasingly crowded since the end of the Cold War, and this book pays particular attention to the politics and economics of space and recent debates over national security, focusing on the competing themes of international competition and cooperation and the effort to avoid dangerous conflicts. Unfortunately, the growth of human space activity and challenges to existing international tools of management, such as rules, laws, and treaties, have increased the likelihood of conflict over a diminishing pool of space resources close to Earth. Drawing on more than twenty years of experience in international space debates and policy, James Clay Moltz points to the logic of cooperation and collaboration among the expanding number of space actors, considering their shared challenges regarding space traffic, orbital d...

  14. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  15. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  16. Gas Kinetics of Traffic Jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    1997-04-01

    The kinetics of one-dimensional traffic flow is descibed in terms of Boltzmann-like gas kinetic equation. Paveri-Fontana's gas kinetic equation is modified to take into account the desired velocity depending on the car density. A discrete version of the gas kinetic equation is derived to numerically solve the equation. The velocity distributions are calculated by a numerical method. It is found that the traffic jam is formed in the congested traffic flow when the car density is higher than the critical value. The traffic jam propagates backward, its propagation velocity increases with the accerelation and the density within the jam decreases with increasing accerelation. It is shown that the velocity distributions change significantly before and after the traffic jam.

  17. Model for traffic emissions estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, A.; Assimacopoulos, D.; Mitsoulis, E.

    A model is developed for the spatial and temporal evaluation of traffic emissions in metropolitan areas based on sparse measurements. All traffic data available are fully employed and the pollutant emissions are determined with the highest precision possible. The main roads are regarded as line sources of constant traffic parameters in the time interval considered. The method is flexible and allows for the estimation of distributed small traffic sources (non-line/area sources). The emissions from the latter are assumed to be proportional to the local population density as well as to the traffic density leading to local main arteries. The contribution of moving vehicles to air pollution in the Greater Athens Area for the period 1986-1988 is analyzed using the proposed model. Emissions and other related parameters are evaluated. Emissions from area sources were found to have a noticeable share of the overall air pollution.

  18. Best response game of traffic on road network of non-signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wang; Jia, Ning; Zhong, Shiquan; Li, Liying

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the traffic flow in a grid road network with non-signalized intersections. The nature of the drivers in the network is simulated such that they play an iterative snowdrift game with other drivers. A cellular automata model is applied to study the characteristics of the traffic flow and the evolution of the behaviour of the drivers during the game. The drivers use best-response as their strategy to update rules. Three major findings are revealed. First, the cooperation rate in simulation experiences staircase-shaped drop as cost to benefit ratio r increases, and cooperation rate can be derived analytically as a function of cost to benefit ratio r. Second, we find that higher cooperation rate corresponds to higher average speed, lower density and higher flow. This reveals that defectors deteriorate the efficiency of traffic on non-signalized intersections. Third, the system experiences more randomness when the density is low because the drivers will not have much opportunity to update strategy when the density is low. These findings help to show how the strategy of drivers in a traffic network evolves and how their interactions influence the overall performance of the traffic system.

  19. The NASA Air Traffic Management Ontology (atmonto)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA ATM (Air Traffic Management) Ontology describes classes, properties, and relationships relevant to the domain of air traffic management, and represents...

  20. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  1. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  2. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  3. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... divers theoretical and conceptual frameworks to study collective action with a human ecosystem approach and develop one with a stronger anthropological reference....

  4. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  5. Membrane tethering complexes in the endosomal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSpang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the CORVET complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the HOPS complex. Recycling through the TGN and to the plasma membrane is facilitated by the GARP and EARP complexes, respectively. However, there are other tethering functions in the endosomal system as there are multiple pathways through which proteins can be delivered from endosomes to either the TGN or the plasma membrane. Furthermore, complexes that may be part of novel tethering complexes have been recently identified. Thus it is likely that more tethering factors exist. In this review, I will provide an overview of different tethering complexes of the endosomal system and discuss how they may provide specificity in membrane traffic.

  6. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  7. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  8. Spreading of Traffic Jam in a Traffic Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    1993-04-01

    A cellular automaton (CA) model is presented to simulate the traffic jam induced by a traffic accident. The spreading of jamming cars induced by a car crash is investigated by computer simulation. An analogy is proposed between the crystal growth and the traffic-jam spreading. The scaling behavior of the traffic-jam spreading is studied. It is shown that the number N of jamming cars scales as N≈t2.34± 0.03 for p above the dynamical jamming transition pc{=}0.35 and N≈t1.07 below pc where t is the time and p is the density of cars. The time constant ts, which is the time required for all cars to stop, scales as ts≈p-1.07± 0.03 for p

  9. Traffic jams: dynamics and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Wilson, R Eddie; Stépán, Gábor

    2010-10-13

    This introductory paper reviews the current state-of-the-art scientific methods used for modelling, analysing and controlling the dynamics of vehicular traffic. Possible mechanisms underlying traffic jam formation and propagation are presented from a dynamical viewpoint. Stable and unstable motions are described that may give the skeleton of traffic dynamics, and the effects of driver behaviour are emphasized in determining the emergent state in a vehicular system. At appropriate points, references are provided to the papers published in the corresponding Theme Issue.

  10. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber-sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website.

  11. Traffic Light Detection at Night

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Bahnsen, Chris

    2015-01-01

    of three detectors based on heuristic models and one learning-based detector. Evaluation is done on night-time data from the public LISA Traffic Light Dataset. The learning-based detector out- performs the model-based detectors in both precision and recall. The learning-based detector achieves an average......Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any in- telligent vehicle, it must function both at day and at night. However, the majority of TLR research is focused on day-time scenarios. In this paper we will focus on detection of traffic lights at night and evalu- ate the performance...

  12. [Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfadelli, H

    1989-01-01

    Traffic safety campaigns often are ineffective to change driving behavior because they don't reach the target group or are recognized only by people who are already interested or concerned. The evaluation of a traffic safety campaign called "Leo Lässig", addressed to young new drivers, shows that recognition and acceptance by the target group were stimulated by the age-conform means of comic-strips.

  13. 49 CFR 1139.2 - Traffic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... “base-calendar year—actual.” The study shall include a probability sampling of the actual traffic... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Traffic study. 1139.2 Section 1139.2... of General Commodities § 1139.2 Traffic study. (a) The respondents shall submit a traffic study for...

  14. Real-Time Traffic Signal Control for Optimization of Traffic Jam Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng-You; Shin, Ji-Sun; Miyazaki, Michio; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    Real-time traffic signal control is an integral part of urban traffic control system. It can control traffic signals online according to variation of traffic flow. In this paper, we propose a new method for the real-time traffic signal control system. The system uses a Cellular Automaton model and a Bayesian Network model to predict probabilistic distributions of standing vehicles, and uses a Particle Swarm Optimization method to calculate optimal traffic signals. A simulation based on real traffic data was carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real-time traffic signal control system CAPSOBN using a micro traffic simulator.

  15. Characterization and Modeling of Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Bergheim, Hans; Ragnarsson, Olafur

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to characterize and model backbone network traffic, using a small number of statistics. In order to reduce cost and processing power associated with traffic analysis. The parameters affecting the behaviour of network traffic are investigated and the choice is that inter......-arrival time, IP addresses, port numbers and transport protocol are the only necessary parameters to model network traffic behaviour. In order to recreate this behaviour, a complex model is needed which is able to recreate traffic behaviour based on a set of statistics calculated from the parameters values....... The model investigates the traffic generation mechanisms, and grouping traffic into flows and applications....

  16. Futures for energy cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  17. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  18. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  19. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  20. Traffic safety in the future

    OpenAIRE

    EKKEHARD, Brühning; OKAMURA, Kazuko; FLEURY, Dominique; BRILON, Werner; DINGES, David F.; ABE, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    This booklet is divided in 4 parts : Traffic Safety in Japan and Germany - Success, Deficiencies, Future Potentials. Research on the Territorial Approach to Safety. Reliability of Motorway Operation. Transportation Safety and Operator Sleepiness: Where Biology Needs Technology.

  1. Traffic fatalities and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    As countries develop death rates usually fall, especially for diseases that affect the young and result in substantial life-years lost. Deaths due to traffic accidents are a notable exception: the growth in motor vehicles that accompanies economic gr...

  2. Traffic behavior at freeway bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This study examines traffic behavior in the vicinity of a freeway bottleneck, revisiting commonly held : assumptions and uncovering systematic biases that likely have distorted empirical studies of bottleneck : formation, capacity drop, and the funda...

  3. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic intensities in most urban areas throughout the world has forced planners and politicians to seriously consider the resulting environmental impact, such as traffic noise, accidents and air pollution. The assessment of such negative factors is needed in order to reveal...... the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...... with respect to the decibel traffic noise. The model distinguishes between houses and apartments and shows that the ability to include refined accessibility variables have significant impact on estimated prices....

  4. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources illustr...

  5. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  6. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  7. Stochastic control of traffic patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri B.; Gorria, Carlos; Berkemer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic modulation of the safety distance can reduce traffic jams. It is found that the effect of random modulation on congestive flow formation depends on the spatial correlation of the noise. Jam creation is suppressed for highly correlated noise. The results demonstrate the advantage...... of heterogeneous performance of the drivers in time as well as individually. This opens the possibility for the construction of technical tools to control traffic jam formation....

  8. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  9. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  10. An analysis of the traffic safety phenomenon.

    OpenAIRE

    Asmussen, E. & Kranenburg, A.

    1982-01-01

    The lack of traffic safety is a combination of the critical coincidence of circumstances in the traffic of incidents (near-accidents) and accidents with unwanted (permanent) consequences, such as fatalities, injured and disabled persons and material damage. This definition covers the whole of the critical coincidence of circumstances in traffic. In order to elucidate the phenomenon of traffic safety or the lack of traffic safety, accidents and incidents can be analysed.

  11. Economic Efficacy of Road Traffic Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Ejaz

    2013-01-01

    The number of road traffic casualties is still very lofty and the trend shows a boost with each passing day. The road traffic accidents involve fatalities due to which economic resources are damaged and the productivity of the economy is correspondingly impaired. Costs resulting from traffic accidents represent the largest single part of the overall cost of traffic to the economy. Knowledge about the harm of these traffic accidents to the economy is essential if measures to reduce road traffi...

  12. Economic Evaluation of Road Traffic Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Ejaz

    2013-01-01

    The number of road traffic casualties is still very lofty and the trend shows a boost with each passing day. The road traffic accidents involve fatalities due to which economic resources are damaged and the productivity of the economy is correspondingly impaired. Costs resulting from traffic accidents represent the largest single part of the overall cost of traffic to the economy. Knowledge about the harm of these traffic accidents to the economy is essential if measures to reduce road traffi...

  13. Simulation Model of Traffic Jam at Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Kalajžić; Katica Miloš; Mirela Muić

    2002-01-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the major problems in most cities.It is the consequence of unavoidable motorization, butalso, in many cases, of improper solutions considering constructionof roads or organisation of traffic.This paper deals with one problematic crossroad in thetown of Zadar in which traffic jams occur due to poor organisationof traffic. Using mathematical simulation, the first partproves that traffic jams will certainly occur, and in the secondpart, crossroads signalling is consi...

  14. Regulatory measures for traffic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerapur, R.D.; Bharambe, S.D.; Patnaik, S.K.; Tandle, A.K.; Sonawane, K.A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Venkat Subramanian, K.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic safety is an issue related to occupational safety not restricted alone to the transportation but extends beyond. BARC has many facilities spread across large area in Mumbai and outside Mumbai. BARC deploys large number of buses, mini buses, jeeps and cars for commuting its employees to reach BARC and for commuting within BARC premises. Additionally, trucks, fire tenders, trailers etc. are also deployed for transportation of materials. No moving vehicle is ever free of the possibility of involvement in an accident. Vehicular accidents and the fatalities on road are the result of inter-play of a number of factors. The vehicle population has been steadily increasing with the pace picking up significantly in recent past. Increase in vehicle population in the face of limited road space used by a large variety of traffic has heightened the need and urgency for a well-thought-out road safety. Therefore, existence of regulatory authority to regulate traffic and vehicles to ensure safety of its employees and vehicles is very essential. BARC Traffic Safety Committee (BTSC), which is the regulating body for traffic safety is responsible for ensuring overall traffic safety. (author)

  15. Learning to cooperate for cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Sharan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning to learn cooperatively requires several changes for teachers and students: in their perception of learning, in their attitudes towards teaching and learning, and in their social and cognitive behaviors in class. This article presents some of the ways that decades of research and practice have developed to enable teachers and students to acquire and adjust to these changes. In the process of change teachers and students are interconnected and interdependent, and together carry out the steps needed to create an authentic cooperative classroom.

  16. Myosins 1 and 6, myosin light chain kinase, actin and microtubules cooperate during antibody-mediated internalisation and trafficking of membrane-expressed viral antigens in feline infectious peritonitis virus infected monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewerchin, Hannah L; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Noppe, Ytse; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-02-12

    Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. Upon binding of antibodies, these proteins are quickly internalised through a new clathrin- and caveolae-independent internalisation pathway. By doing so, the infected monocytes can escape antibody-dependent cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated which kinases and cytoskeletal proteins are of importance during internalisation and subsequent intracellular transport. The experiments showed that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin 1 are crucial for the initiation of the internalisation. With co-localisation stainings, it was found that MLCK and myosin 1 co-localise with antigens even before internalisation started. Myosin 6 co-localised with the internalising complexes during passage through the cortical actin, were it might play a role in moving or disintegrating actin filaments, to overcome the actin barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30 min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV.

  17. Reducing Traffic Congestions by Introducing CACC-Vehicles on a Multi-Lane Highway Using Agent-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an ongoing problem of great interest to researchers from different areas in academia. With the emerging technology for inter-vehicle communication, vehicles have the ability to exchange information with predecessors by wireless communication. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of traffic congestion and examine the impact of having CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) embedded vehicle(s) on a highway system consisting of 4 traffic lanes without overtaking. In our model, CACC vehicles adapt their acceleration/deceleration according to vehicle-to-vehicle inter-communication. We analyze the average speed of the cars, the shockwaves, and the evolution of traffic congestion throughout the lifecycle of the model. The study identifies how CACC vehicles affect the dynamics of traffic flow on a complex network and reduce the oscillatory behavior (stop and go) resulting from the acceleration/deceleration of the vehicles.

  18. Cooperative Wideband OFDM Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, major attention is paid to cooperative diversity as an alternative way to achieve spatial diversity when the multiple antenna structure is not an option. By adopting the cooperative relay nodes to forward information, we can mitigate the fading effects, increase the capacity, lower

  19. Non-cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models

  20. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  1. Predisposed to cooperate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination system and other immigration procedures, and that the design of alternatives to detention can create, foster and support this cooperative predisposition – or can undermine or even demolish it.

  2. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    A common interest in developing a reliable, sustainable and affordable energy system was the main driver for the Nordic energy policy cooperation since the creation of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The diversity of the energy systems in the Nordic countries facilitated this cooperation, not le...

  3. Cooperating with machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Jacob W; Oudah, Mayada; Tennom; Ishowo-Oloko, Fatimah; Abdallah, Sherief; Bonnefon, Jean-François; Cebrian, Manuel; Shariff, Azim; Goodrich, Michael A; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-16

    Since Alan Turing envisioned artificial intelligence, technical progress has often been measured by the ability to defeat humans in zero-sum encounters (e.g., Chess, Poker, or Go). Less attention has been given to scenarios in which human-machine cooperation is beneficial but non-trivial, such as scenarios in which human and machine preferences are neither fully aligned nor fully in conflict. Cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but instead is facilitated by intuition, cultural norms, emotions, signals, and pre-evolved dispositions. Here, we develop an algorithm that combines a state-of-the-art reinforcement-learning algorithm with mechanisms for signaling. We show that this algorithm can cooperate with people and other algorithms at levels that rival human cooperation in a variety of two-player repeated stochastic games. These results indicate that general human-machine cooperation is achievable using a non-trivial, but ultimately simple, set of algorithmic mechanisms.

  4. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  5. Real-Time Microscopic Traffic Simulation and Optimization at Intersections with Video Traffic Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zijun; Flötteröd, Yun-Pang; Chen, Hong; Sohr, Alexander; Bei, Xiaoxu; Bottazzi, Maximiliano; Trumpold, Jan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, real-time vehicular data from video traffic detection (VTD) are used for minimizing the travel delay at intersections and a real-time traffic optimization model, based on the SUMO traffic simulation software, is established accordingly. The proposed model is implemented in a small industrial control computer which serves as the communication interface between the traffic signal control system, the traffic simulation and optimization model and the real-time video traffic detecti...

  6. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  7. Traffic analysis and control using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.

  8. The physics of traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2002-09-01

    Traffic flow is a kind of many-body system of strongly interacting vehicles. Traffic jams are a typical signature of the complex behaviour of vehicular traffic. Various models are presented to understand the rich variety of physical phenomena exhibited by traffic. Analytical and numerical techniques are applied to study these models. Particularly, we present detailed results obtained mainly from the microscopic car-following models. A typical phenomenon is the dynamical jamming transition from the free traffic (FT) at low density to the congested traffic at high density. The jamming transition exhibits the phase diagram similar to a conventional gas-liquid phase transition: the FT and congested traffic correspond to the gas and liquid phases, respectively. The dynamical transition is described by the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the phase transition. The jamming transition curve is given by the spinodal line. The metastability exists in the region between the spinodal and phase separation lines. The jams in the congested traffic reveal various density waves. Some of these density waves show typical nonlinear waves such as soliton, triangular shock and kink. The density waves are described by the nonlinear wave equations: the Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) equation, the Burgers equation and the Modified KdV equation. Subjects like the traffic flow such as bus-route system and pedestrian flow are touched as well. The bus-route system with many buses exhibits the bunching transition where buses bunch together with proceeding ahead. Such dynamic models as the car-following model are proposed to investigate the bunching transition and bus delay. A recurrent bus exhibits the dynamical transition between the delay and schedule-time phases. The delay transition is described in terms of the nonlinear map. The pedestrian flow also reveals the jamming transition from the free flow at low density to the clogging at high density. Some models are presented to study the

  9. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority.

  10. Structuring of Road Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planko Rožić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic traffic count on the Croatian road network hasbeen carried out for more than three decades in different ways.During this period a large number of automatic traffic countershave been installed, and they operate on different principles.The traffic count has been analyzed from the aspect of vehicleclassification. The count results can be only partly comparedsince they yield different structures of traffic flows. Special analysisrefers to the classification of vehicles by automatic trafficcounters.During the research, a database has been formed with physicalelements of vehicles of over five thousand vehicle types. Theresearch results prove that the vehicle length only is not sufficientfor the classification of vehicles, the way it is used in thepresent automatic traffic counts, but rather the number of axles,the wheelbase as well as the front and rear overhangs needto be considered as well. Therefore, the detector system shouldapply also the detector of axles.The results have been presented that were obtained as partof the program TEST- Technological, research, developmentproject supported by the Minist1y of Science, Education andSport.

  11. Globalization and human cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “globalized” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  12. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  13. Simulation Model of Traffic Jam at Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Kalajžić

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the major problems in most cities.It is the consequence of unavoidable motorization, butalso, in many cases, of improper solutions considering constructionof roads or organisation of traffic.This paper deals with one problematic crossroad in thetown of Zadar in which traffic jams occur due to poor organisationof traffic. Using mathematical simulation, the first partproves that traffic jams will certainly occur, and in the secondpart, crossroads signalling is considered as a possible solutionwhich, if combined with intelligent control could significantlyimprove the organisation of traffic at this crossroads.

  14. Scaffolding proteins in membrane trafficking : the role of ELKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular membrane trafficking is an essential cellular process that involves cooperation of many factors such as scaffolding proteins, GTPases and SNAREs. These proteins work together to ensure proper delivery of different membrane-enclosed cargoes to specific cellular destinations. In this

  15. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  16. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  17. Air traffic security act unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the interest of more effective protective measures against terrorist attacks, the German federal parliament inter alia added a clause to the Air Traffic Security Act (Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act) empowering the armed forces to shoot down aircraft to be used as a weapon against human lives. In Germany, this defense possibility has been discussed also in connection with deliberate crashes of hijacked aircraft on nuclear power plants. The 1 st Division of the German Federal Constitutional Court, in its decision of February 15, 2006, ruled that Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act was incompatible with the Basic Law and thus was null and void (file No. 1 BvR 357/05) for two reasons: - There was no legislative authority on the part of the federal government. - The provision was incompatible with the basic right of life and the guarantee of human dignity as enshrined in the Basic Law. (orig.)

  18. On vehicular traffic data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brics, Martins; Mahnke, Reinhard [Institute of Physics, Rostock University (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This contribution consists of analysis of empirical vehicular traffic flow data. The main focus lies on the Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM) data. The first findings show that there are artificial structures within the data due to errors of monitoring as well as smoothing position measurement data. As a result speed data show discretisation in 5 feet per second. The aim of this investigation is to construct microscopic traffic flow models which are in agreement to the analysed empirical data. The ongoing work follows the subject of research summarized by Christof Liebe in his PhD thesis entitled ''Physics of traffic flow: Empirical data and dynamical models'' (Rostock, 2010).

  19. Impact of Base Station Cooperation on Cell Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dexter Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation (BSC has been identified as a key radio access technology for next-generation cellular networks such as LTE-Advanced. BSC impacts cell planning, which is the methodical selection of base station (BS sites, and BS equipment configuration for cost-effective cellular networks. In this paper, the impact of BSC on cell plan parameters (coverage, traffic, handover, and cost, as well as additional cell planning steps required for BSC are discussed. Results show that BSC maximizes its gains over noncooperation (NC in a network wherein interference from cooperating BSs is the main limitation. Locations exist where NC may produce higher throughputs, therefore dynamic or semistatic switching between BSC and NC, called fractional BSC, is recommended. Because of interference from noncooperating BSs, the gains of BSC over NC are upper bounded, and diminishes at greater intersite distances because of noise. This encourages smaller cell sizes, higher transmit powers, and dynamic clustering of cooperative BSs.

  20. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    can be obtained through cellular phone tracking or GPS systems. This information can then be used to provide individual traffic guidance as opposed to the mass information systems of today -- dynamic roadsigns and trafficradio. The goal is to achieve better usage of road and time. The main topic......When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...

  1. Intelligent Ambulance Traffic Assistance System

    OpenAIRE

    RONOJOY GHOSH; VIVEK SHAH; HITESH AGARWAL; ASHUTOSH BHUSHAN; PRASUN KANTI GHOSH

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in traffic road density, several causalities occur due to delay in taking a patient to the hospital in an ambulance. In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to find the shortest path to reach the required destination. As required the software will identify the present location of the vehicle and ask the user for the destination. Then it will show all the available paths, highlighting the shortest one or in several cases the most optimum one. Further we made the traffic...

  2. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  3. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  4. On Cooper's Nonparametric Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James

    1978-01-01

    The basic assumption of Cooper's nonparametric test for trend (EJ 125 069) is questioned. It is contended that the proper assumption alters the distribution of the statistic and reduces its usefulness. (JKS)

  5. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  6. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  7. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  8. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  9. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  10. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  11. Black Sea Traffic and European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Urucu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea is a major component of the MeditetmneanSea. It is a bridge between two continents and a factor of cohesionamong ancient neighbouring spaces of civilisation. Someof its geographical peculiatities make of it a half-closed sea betweenEurope and Asia. Its link with the Mediterranean is securedby the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles Straits and thencewith the planetaty ocean. So, the Black Sea ports represent actualgateways to the world for its tiverain countries. These portsboomed or waned in terms of the riverain regions' hist01y. After1990, and moreover after the Soviet Union fell apatt and newsovereign states came into being, the Pontic space has been undergoingmajor geopolitical changes. Traffic suffered radicalchanges, being governed by fresh criteria and directions. Thereis growing competition among the city-ports and, under the1992 Black Sea Economic Co-operation Treaty, new regionaldevelopment opportunities have been cropping up for the individualstates. Viewed at global scale, the Black Sea might play,if integrated into an adequate programme, an essential role ofcohesion and stability in a complex European zone with a histOtyfull of turmoil.

  12. Combating illegal nuclear traffic - Poland's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1998-01-01

    International non-proliferation efforts have been taken to reduce the risk related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources. The physical security of nuclear facilities to prevent acts of sabotage or terrorism and to protect nuclear materials against loss or seizure is an essential element of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Iraq case and the end of the Cold War have influenced the development of co-operation and openness in many countries. Poland due to: - its geolocation, - a growing number of post Chernobyl contamination transports and - high risk to become a transit country in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, initiated deployment of the fixed installation instruments at the border check-points. Since the end of 1990 to now 103 such devices have been installed. Broader involvement in combating illicit nuclear trafficking of Border Guards, Customs Services, Police and Intelligence Security has been noticed. Paper presents Poland's experience in implementing national prevention measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risk and in detecting capabilities against illicit nuclear traffic. (author)

  13. From cooperation to globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-01-01

    Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to suc...

  14. Can War Foster Cooperation?

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, Christopher J.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, Joseph; Miguel, Edward; Mitts, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, nearly 20 studies have found a strong, persistent pattern in surveys and behavioral experiments from over 40 countries: individual exposure to war violence tends to increase social cooperation at the local level, including community participation and prosocial behavior. Thus while war has many negative legacies for individuals and societies, it appears to leave a positive legacy in terms of local cooperation and civic engagement. We discuss, synthesize and reanalyze the em...

  15. Attraction and cooperative behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz

    2012-01-01

    Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...

  16. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    , Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  17. Cartalk 2000: development of a co-operative ADAS based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P.L.J.; Hallouzi, R.; Dagli, I.; Cseh, C.; Schäfers, L.; Nelisse, M.W.; Bruin, D. de

    2003-01-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) benefit from using vehicle-to-vehicle communication. In the 5th framework EC project CarTALK2000 co-operative ADAS are designed, tested and evaluated with respect to increasing traffic safety, efficiency and driving comfort. Communication based longitudinal

  18. A Rapid Prototyping Environment for Cooperative Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Massow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS were strong innovation drivers in recent years, towards the enhancement of traffic safety and efficiency. Today’s ADAS adopt an autonomous approach with all instrumentation and intelligence on board of one vehicle. However, to further enhance their benefit, ADAS need to cooperate in the future, using communication technologies. The resulting combination of vehicle automation and cooperation, for instance, enables solving hazardous situations by a coordinated safety intervention on multiple vehicles at the same point in time. Since the complexity of such cooperative ADAS grows with each vehicle involved, very large parameter spaces need to be regarded during their development, which necessitate novel development approaches. In this paper, we present an environment for rapidly prototyping cooperative ADAS based on vehicle simulation. Its underlying approach is either to bring ideas for cooperative ADAS through the prototyping stage towards plausible candidates for further development or to discard them as quickly as possible. This is enabled by an iterative process of refining and assessment. We reconcile the aspects of automation and cooperation in simulation by a tradeoff between precision and scalability. Reducing precise mapping of vehicle dynamics below the limits of driving dynamics enables simulating multiple vehicles at the same time. In order to validate this precision, we also present a method to validate the vehicle dynamics in simulation against real world vehicles.

  19. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  20. Highway and traffic engineering in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O

    1996-01-01

    Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries......Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries...

  1. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  2. Genetic algorithms for air traffic assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Delahaye , Daniel; Alliot , Jean-Marc; Schoenauer , Marc; Farges , Jean-Loup

    1994-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we show how genetic algorithms can be used to compute automatically a traffic assignment of aircraft on the air network to increase Air Traffic Control capacity in high density areas.

  3. The influence of continuous historical velocity difference information on micro-cooperative driving stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang-Yi; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Cheng, Sen-Lin; Zhang, Geng; Liu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new micro-cooperative driving car-following model is proposed to investigate the effect of continuous historical velocity difference information on traffic stability. The linear stability criterion of the new model is derived with linear stability theory and the results show that the unstable region in the headway-sensitivity space will be shrunk by taking the continuous historical velocity difference information into account. Through nonlinear analysis, the mKdV equation is derived to describe the traffic evolution behavior of the new model near the critical point. Via numerical simulations, the theoretical analysis results are verified and the results indicate that the continuous historical velocity difference information can enhance the stability of traffic flow in the micro-cooperative driving process.

  4. Evolution as a molecular cooperative phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1991-06-01

    We discuss an hypothesis according to which microscopic mechanisms due to cooperation, at the molecular level, may have been key factors in the evolution of life on Earth. We view our hypothesis as a natural extension to the molecular level of viewing cooperation (symbiosis) as an evolutionary driving force; this does not restrict the interpretation of the evolutionary process to be the result of slow accumulation of mutations in the DNA. Some evidence supporting this hypothesis is discussed: (a) The Salam enhancement factor. This molecular phenomenon was recently introduced in order to understand the bases of the first unifying principle of biochemistry, namely that transcription of all known genes in prokaryotes, protists, metazoan, and metaphytes are translated into L-amino acids, except for some bacterial membrane proteins. (b) The role that cooperative phenomena may have played in the origin of evolution itself, i.e., in the resolution of Sagan's ultraviolet paradox. (c) The relationship between evolution and the constraints imposed by embryonic development. This is considered from the point of view of molecular cooperative phenomena. (author). Refs

  5. Theoretical Considerations of Interdisciplinary Expertise in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Peran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jnterdisciplinwy traffic expertise is being increasingly appliedin road traffic. It is not possible to determine whether anaccident had been intentionally set up without such expertise.The interdisciplinary expertise is the result of mutual work ofseveral different interdisciplinary experts. The paper analysesthe basic characteristics of interdisciplinary investigation ofset-up traffic accidents. Special attention has been paid to interdisciplinwyexpertise of set-up traffic accidents involving injuredpersons or fatalities.

  6. Holonic Models for Traffic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufudean, Calin; Filote, Constantin

    This paper proposes a new time-placed net model for traffic control systems, respectively railway control traffic systems. This model can be interpreted as a holonic one, and contains three modules: Transport Planning Module, Transport Control Module and Priority Control Module. For railway traffic systems we introduce a strategy in a timed-place Petri net model to solve collision and traffic jam problems.

  7. Some random models in traffic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorth, U.

    1996-06-01

    We give an overview of stochastic models for the following traffic phenomena. Models for traffic flow including gaps and capacities for lanes, crossings and roundabouts. Models for wanted and achieved speed distributions. Mode selection models including dispersed equilibrium models and traffic accident models. Also some statistical questions are discussed. 60 refs, 1 tab

  8. Predicting Information Flows in Network Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinich, Melvin J.; Molyneux, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses information flow in networks and predicting network traffic and describes a study that uses time series analysis on a day's worth of Internet log data. Examines nonlinearity and traffic invariants, and suggests that prediction of network traffic may not be possible with current techniques. (Author/LRW)

  9. Empirical analysis of heterogeneous traffic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambarwati, L.; Pel, A.J.; Verhaeghe, R.J.; Van Arem, B.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic flow in many developing countries is strongly mixed comprising vehicle types, such as motorcycles, cars, (mini) buses, and trucks; furthermore, traffic flow typically exhibits free inter-lane exchanges. This phenomenon causes a complex vehicle interaction, rendering most existing traffic

  10. Models for Predictive Railway Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kecman, P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential growth in transport demand in the next decade and beyond requires a change from reactive to proactive traffic control to maintain and improve the reliability of railway traffic. In order to enable an anticipative approach to traffic management, it is necessary to develop the tools for

  11. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  12. Light signals for road traffic control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the

  13. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of self-propelled...

  14. ReFlow: Reports on Internet Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the traffic, technologies and main characteristics of today’s networks. For many years Internet2 maintained a public website with statistics about the traffic in the Abilene network. This site was

  15. TRAFFIC SIGN RECOGNATION WITH VIDEO PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa AYDIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, traffic signs are aimed to be recognized and identified from a video image which is taken through a video camera. To accomplish our aim, a traffic sign recognition program has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The target traffic sign are recognized in the video image with the developed program.

  16. Phase diagram distortion from traffic parameter averaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. Toorenburg, J. van & Postema, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motorway traffic congestion is a major bottleneck for economic growth. Therefore, research of traffic behaviour is carried out in many countries. Although well describing the undersaturated free flow phase as an almost straight line in a (k,q)-phase diagram, congested traffic observations and

  17. Capturing Internet Traffic Dynamics through Graph Distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Fu, B.; Jamakovic, A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the Internet have typically focused either on the routing system, i.e. the paths chosen to reach a given destination, or on the evolution of traffic on a physical link. In this paper, we combine routing and traffic, and study for the first time the evolution of the traffic on the Internet

  18. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...

  19. Next generation traffic management centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Traffic management centers (TMCs) are critical to providing mobility to millions of people travelling on high-volume roadways. In Virginia, as with most regions of the United States, TMCs were aggressively deployed in the late 1990s and early 2000s. ...

  20. Traffic at risk in Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilardo, U.; Mureddu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea represents only about 0.7% of the planet's total water surface area, yet it is host to as much as one-quarter of the world's total maritime oil traffic. Statistics indicate that from 47 to 77,000 tonnes of crude oil are now being released annually into the Sea through accidental spills; and over the last decade, its tourism dependent coastlines have been fouled by the highest levels of tar contamination in the world. Oil carrier traffic, routed within the Sea's already overcrowded shipping lanes, is intense and this traffic is expected to increase, as a result of rises in world energy demand, to levels of from 7 to 8 million barrels a day. It has been estimated that, at the end of 1992, 90% of all large tankers operating in this area, will have reached a service life of 15-16 years which is very close to the average recommended life cycle limit of 15-20 years. Only 20% of the world's 3,000 tankers are currently equipped with double bottomed hulls. This paper uses these and other facts and figures to argue that the risks of future severe oil tanker accidents in the Mediterranean Sea are high, and that these must be countered with the development of a new set of stricter marine traffic safety regulations at the Italian, national, as well as, European level

  1. Statistical variances in traffic data

    OpenAIRE

    Krbalek, Milan; Seba, Petr

    2006-01-01

    We perform statistical analysis of the single-vehicle data measured on the Dutch freeway A9 and discussed in Ref. [2]. Using tools originating from the Random Matrix Theory we show that the significant changes in the statistics of the traffic data can be explained applying equilibrium statistical physics of interacting particles.

  2. Learning to Detect Traffic Signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the performance of sign detection based on synthetic training data to the performance of detection based on real-world training images. Viola-Jones detectors are created for 4 different traffic signs with both synthetic and real data, and varying numbers of training samples. T...

  3. 2008 Michigan traffic crash facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    In keeping with recent trends, traffic fatalities in 2008 were down to 980, a 9.6 : percent decrease from last year. The total number of persons injured also declined : 7.5 percent to 74,568 and total crashes dropped 2.5 percent to 316,057. Most : no...

  4. 2009 Michigan traffic crash facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In keeping with recent trends, traffic fatalities in 2009 were down to 871, a 11.1 : percent decrease from last year. The total number of persons injured also declined : 4.9 percent to 70,931 and total crashes dropped 7.9 percent to 290,978. Most : n...

  5. Variations in urban traffic volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Tom; Weijermars, Wendy; van Berkum, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few decades passenger transport has grown rapidly resulting in a multitude of problems including severe traffic congestion and pollution. It is expected that passenger transport will continue to grow rapidly in the future, which will worsen the situation even further. The traditional

  6. Cooperative games and network structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis covers various research topics involving cooperative game theory, a mathematical tool to analyze the cooperative behavior within a group of players. The focus is mainly on interrelations between operations research and cooperative game theory by analyzing specific types of cooperative

  7. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Ciprian ANDRUSEAC; Iulian HERTUG

    2016-01-01

    Economic cooperation, the engine of relations of international economic cooperation, is an insufficiently defined, dynamic concept. The transformations of the international environment, globalization and the intensification of economic interdependencies render economic cooperation a must, and not just an option within international relations. Similar to the international environment, economic cooperation undergoes a process of redefinition, of adjustment to the new realities. This article aim...

  8. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  9. An Intelligent Cooperative Visual Sensor Network for Urban Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Giuseppe Riccardo; Petracca, Matteo; Salvetti, Ovidio; Azzarà, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities are demanding solutions for improved traffic efficiency, in order to guarantee optimal access to mobility resources available in urban areas. Intelligent video analytics deployed directly on board embedded sensors offers great opportunities to gather highly informative data about traffic and transport, allowing reconstruction of a real-time neat picture of urban mobility patterns. In this paper, we present a visual sensor network in which each node embeds computer vision logics for analyzing in real time urban traffic. The nodes in the network share their perceptions and build a global and comprehensive interpretation of the analyzed scenes in a cooperative and adaptive fashion. This is possible thanks to an especially designed Internet of Things (IoT) compliant middleware which encompasses in-network event composition as well as full support of Machine-2-Machine (M2M) communication mechanism. The potential of the proposed cooperative visual sensor network is shown with two sample applications in urban mobility connected to the estimation of vehicular flows and parking management. Besides providing detailed results of each key component of the proposed solution, the validity of the approach is demonstrated by extensive field tests that proved the suitability of the system in providing a scalable, adaptable and extensible data collection layer for managing and understanding mobility in smart cities. PMID:29125535

  10. An Intelligent Cooperative Visual Sensor Network for Urban Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Riccardo Leone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities are demanding solutions for improved traffic efficiency, in order to guarantee optimal access to mobility resources available in urban areas. Intelligent video analytics deployed directly on board embedded sensors offers great opportunities to gather highly informative data about traffic and transport, allowing reconstruction of a real-time neat picture of urban mobility patterns. In this paper, we present a visual sensor network in which each node embeds computer vision logics for analyzing in real time urban traffic. The nodes in the network share their perceptions and build a global and comprehensive interpretation of the analyzed scenes in a cooperative and adaptive fashion. This is possible thanks to an especially designed Internet of Things (IoT compliant middleware which encompasses in-network event composition as well as full support of Machine-2-Machine (M2M communication mechanism. The potential of the proposed cooperative visual sensor network is shown with two sample applications in urban mobility connected to the estimation of vehicular flows and parking management. Besides providing detailed results of each key component of the proposed solution, the validity of the approach is demonstrated by extensive field tests that proved the suitability of the system in providing a scalable, adaptable and extensible data collection layer for managing and understanding mobility in smart cities.

  11. An Intelligent Cooperative Visual Sensor Network for Urban Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Giuseppe Riccardo; Moroni, Davide; Pieri, Gabriele; Petracca, Matteo; Salvetti, Ovidio; Azzarà, Andrea; Marino, Francesco

    2017-11-10

    Smart cities are demanding solutions for improved traffic efficiency, in order to guarantee optimal access to mobility resources available in urban areas. Intelligent video analytics deployed directly on board embedded sensors offers great opportunities to gather highly informative data about traffic and transport, allowing reconstruction of a real-time neat picture of urban mobility patterns. In this paper, we present a visual sensor network in which each node embeds computer vision logics for analyzing in real time urban traffic. The nodes in the network share their perceptions and build a global and comprehensive interpretation of the analyzed scenes in a cooperative and adaptive fashion. This is possible thanks to an especially designed Internet of Things (IoT) compliant middleware which encompasses in-network event composition as well as full support of Machine-2-Machine (M2M) communication mechanism. The potential of the proposed cooperative visual sensor network is shown with two sample applications in urban mobility connected to the estimation of vehicular flows and parking management. Besides providing detailed results of each key component of the proposed solution, the validity of the approach is demonstrated by extensive field tests that proved the suitability of the system in providing a scalable, adaptable and extensible data collection layer for managing and understanding mobility in smart cities.

  12. Road traffic injuries among middle school students in a rural area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaung, Michael S; Yu, Songlin; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2009-06-01

    Injuries resulting from road traffic crashes are a major and growing public health problem worldwide, disproportionately affecting vulnerable road users in developing countries. However, research on road traffic injuries in developing countries has been limited. We studied road traffic injuries among middle school students in a rural area of China. We surveyed 1551 students in Hunan province using a hard-copy survey questionnaire. The survey was conducted at two middle schools with the cooperation of teachers and school officials. The questionnaire gathered data including sociodemographics, school activities, and sleep patterns along with road traffic injuries among middle students during a 3-month recall period in 2006. Road traffic injuries were defined as injuries incurred as a result of a road traffic collision involving at least one vehicle in motion on a public or private road that resulted in at least one person being injured. There were 56 road traffic injuries reported by the surveyed students yielding a rate of 3.6 percent over the 3-month period. The greatest percentage of those injuries involved a motorcycle (80%). Nearly two fifths of injuries resulted in a period of activity restriction lasting one day or more (39%). The multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that there were statistically significant associations between the assignment of extra homework by parents (odds ratio [OR] = 3.78, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.49-9.60, p-value academic performance (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.18-4.02, p-value sleep disturbance were identified as possible risk factors for road traffic injuries among students in a rural area of China. Further research is warranted in order to develop prevention strategies to address these preventable injuries.

  13. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  14. Modeling and performance analysis of cooperative communications in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khabazian, Mehdi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of a network comprised of a primary user and a secondary user with the latter having cognitive radio capabilities. The secondary node uses the empty slots of the primary user to transmit its own traffic as well as to relay the primary\\'s traffic in a cooperative fashion. Taking a queuing theory approach, we find the probability generating functions of the numbers of packets in the queues of the primary and secondary users. Subsequently, we determine a number of performance measures such as the average queues\\' lengths, average packet transmission delays and secondary user\\'s queue surcharge due to cooperation. The numerical results along with the simulations show the importance of controlling the number of primary user packets admitted by the secondary user for cooperation and its impacts on the other performance measures. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Evolution of Traffic Jam in Traffic Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Minoru; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro

    1993-11-01

    Traffic flow is simulated in a three-state cellular automaton model. In a two-dimensional cell without a crashed car, the ensemble average of the velocity of the cars is enhanced by the self-organization in the low-density phase of cars. In the high-density phase above p{=}0.5 of car density, the velocity is decreased and the system then degenerates into a global jamming phase in which all cars are stopped. A crashed car provides the seed of a jamming cluster, which grows into a global traffic jam even in the low-density phase. The growth of the jamming cluster is studied, and the time dependence of the number of jamming cars and the scaling law for the cell sizes are discussed.

  16. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    . The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management.......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process...

  17. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  18. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members.

  19. The car following model considering traffic jerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Zheng, Peng-jun; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Rong-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Based on optimal velocity car following model, a new model considering traffic jerk is proposed to describe the jamming transition in traffic flow on a highway. Traffic jerk means the sudden braking and acceleration of vehicles, which has a significant impact on traffic movement. The nature of the model is researched by using linear and nonlinear analysis method. A thermodynamic theory is formulated to describe the phase transition and critical phenomenon in traffic flow. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are derived to describe the traffic flow near the critical point and the traffic jam. In addition, the connection between the TDGL and the mKdV equations are also given.

  20. Plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) from Jurkat cells contain STIM1 protein is PAM involved in the capacitative calcium entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Katarzyna; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Onopiuk, Marta; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Wierzbicka, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Grzegorz; Pinton, Paolo; Duszyński, Jerzy; Zabłocki, Krzysztof; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2009-12-01

    A proper cooperation between the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria seems to be essential for numerous cellular processes involved in Ca(2+) signalling and maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis. A presence of microsomal and mitochondrial proteins together with those characteristic for the plasma membrane in the fraction of the plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) indicates a formation of stabile interactions between these three structures. We isolated the plasma membrane associated membranes from Jurkat cells and found its significant enrichment in the plasma membrane markers including plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and CD3 as well as sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. In addition, two proteins involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, Orai1 located in the plasma membrane and an endoplasmic reticulum protein STIM1 were found in this fraction. Furthermore, we observed a rearrangement of STIM1-containing protein complexes isolated from Jurkat cells undergoing stimulation by thapsigargin. We suggest that the inter-membrane compartment composed of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum, and isolated as a stabile plasma membrane associated membranes fraction, might be involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and their formation and rebuilding have an important regulatory role in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  1. Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of visa liberalisation between Russia and the European Union, which constitutes a key aspect of the parties’ diplomatic cooperation. This work sets out to identify the main results of Russia/EU cooperation. The authors have conducted a brief historical analysis of this area of relations. The visa “regionalisation” is considered in the context of identifying the key actors of the EU — Russia negotiations: the Kaliningrad region, Germany, Poland, and Lithuania. In their analysis, the authors rely mostly on primary sources: intergovernmental agreements on simplified border traffic, border-crossing statistics for the Kaliningrad region in the framework of the local border traffic, expert interviews, and related analytic reports. Specifically, local border traffic is viewed as the most effective form of interaction in the field of visa regime simplification and border territory development. An assessment of the positions of key negotiators shows that local border traffic between the Kaliningrad region of Russia and the Polish border voivodeships is a success, which stresses the need for a prompt transition to a visa-free regime with the EU.

  2. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  3. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  4. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  5. Traffic pathways of Plasmodium vivax antigens during intraerythrocytic parasite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Carmen; Dunia, Irene; De, La Rosa Mercedes; Benedetti, Ennio-Lucio; Perez, Hilda A

    2002-03-01

    We investigated the secretory traffic of a Plasmodium vivax antigen (Pv-148) synthesised by the parasite during the blood cycle, exported into the host cell cytosol and then transported to the surface membrane of the infected erythrocyte. Studies of the ultrastructure of erythrocytes infected with P. vivax showed that intracellular schizogony is accompanied by the generation of parasite-induced membrane profiles in the erythrocyte cytoplasm. These structures are detectable soon after the parasite invades the erythrocyte and develop an elaborate organisation, leading to a tubovesicular membrane (TVM) network, in erythrocytes infected with mature trophozoites. Interestingly, the clefts formed stacked, flattened cisternae resembling a classical Golgi apparatus. The TVM network stained with the fluorescent Golgi marker Bodipy-ceramide. Specific immunolabelling showed that Pv-148 was transferred from the parasite to the erythrocyte surface membrane via the clefts and the TVM network. These findings suggest that the TVM network is part of the secretory pathways involved in parasite protein transport across the Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte and that Pv- 148 may represent a marker that links the parasite with the host cell cytoplasm and, in turn, with the extracellular milieu.

  6. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  7. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... that the system can be divided into two separate constituents. The immediate dispersion, which is used for small areas and quick response, and the individual alleviation, which considers the longer distance decision support. Both of these require intrinsicate models and cost functions which at the beginning...

  8. Modelling traffic pollution in streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Larsen, S.E.; Soerensen, N.N.; Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns mainly the subject related to modelling air pollution from traffic in urban streets. A short overview is presented over the theoretical aspects and examples of most commonly used methods and models are given. Flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons are discussed and the presentation is substantiated with the analysis of the experimental data. The main emphasis is on the modelling methods that are suitable for routine applications and a more detailed presentation is given of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), which was developed by the National Environmental Research Institute. The model is used for surveillance of air pollution from traffic in Danish cities and also for special air pollution studies. (au) 76 refs.

  9. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  10. Crowding effects in vehicular traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Samuel L Combinido

    Full Text Available While the impact of crowding on the diffusive transport of molecules within a cell is widely studied in biology, it has thus far been neglected in traffic systems where bulk behavior is the main concern. Here, we study the effects of crowding due to car density and driving fluctuations on the transport of vehicles. Using a microscopic model for traffic, we found that crowding can push car movement from a superballistic down to a subdiffusive state. The transition is also associated with a change in the shape of the probability distribution of positions from a negatively-skewed normal to an exponential distribution. Moreover, crowding broadens the distribution of cars' trap times and cluster sizes. At steady state, the subdiffusive state persists only when there is a large variability in car speeds. We further relate our work to prior findings from random walk models of transport in cellular systems.

  11. Sintesis Membran Silika Kitosan Dari Abu Ampas Tebu (Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsiah Sjamsiah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane is a polymer layer that can be used in the process adsorbsi metal ions. Membrane can be synthesized from silica dust bagasse that termodifikasi kitosan. The purpose of this research is to know the impact of the addition of a variety of silicate on the characteristics of the membrane silika-kitosan the bagasse to the adsorpsi metal ions Pb. The content of silica in the bagasse to 73, 80 %. Membrane kitosan-silika be made with different variations of the composition of which is 1 : 1 ; 1 : 1, 5 ; 1 : 2 ; 1 : 2, 5 and 1 : 3 and the ability of the adsorpsi the metal Pb in a row of 41 %, 43, 76 %, 54, 88 %, 38, 36 % and 39, 6 %.. The application of membrane to the process adsorpsi metal ions Pb by membrane said with a ratio of 1 : 2 to concentrate Pb the beginning of the 50 parts per million. The use of membrane to the process readsorpsi to do with how to choose a membrane that has the adsorpsi of the membrane with a ratio of 1:2 be able to absorb metal Pb of 1 ppm. Membrane that has been used can be used with traffic readsorpsi, 2 % in the membrane of every 1 : 2.

  12. Multipath TCP for user cooperation in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Dizhi

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents several enhancement modules to Multipath Transmission Control Protocol (MPTCP) in order to support stable and efficient multipath transmission with user cooperation in the Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. The text explains how these enhancements provide a stable aggregate throughput to the upper-layer applications; guarantee a steady goodput, which is the real application-layer perceived throughput; and ensure that the local traffic of the relays is not adversely affected when the relays are forwarding data for the destination. The performance of the proposed solutions is extensively evaluated using various scenarios. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed modules can achieve a stable aggregate throughput and significantly improve the goodput by 1.5 times on average. The brief also shows that these extensions can well respect the local traffic of the relays and motivate the relay users to provide the relaying service.

  13. Traffic control: nursing practice calendar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Linda; Cheesebro, Kathy; Nagra, Erica; Neff, Alaina

    2013-01-01

    Educating nurses on the multitude of new and updated best practices, changes in regulatory standards, new equipment, and enhanced technology creates an "information traffic jam." Multiple practice changes occurring simultaneously pose challenges for nurses to retain information to practice safely and effectively. An absence of coordination between various nursing and allied health teaching initiatives compounds this problem. A nursing practice calendar was developed to facilitate the prioritization, communication, and education of hospital-wide initiatives affecting nursing practice.

  14. Active Traffic Management in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Pat

    2018-01-01

    The US 23 Flex Route is the first active traffic management (ATM) project in the state of Michigan. This route utilizes overhead lane control gantries equipped with various intelligent transportation system (ITS) equipment to facilitate the following ATM strategies: dynamic shoulder use, dynamic lane control, variable speed advisories, and queue warning. The focus of this presentation is how the project team overcame several challenges during the planning, design, and system management phases...

  15. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  16. Innovation, Translation, and Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    The 9th Wound Healing and Tissue Repair and Regeneration Annual Meeting of Chinese Tissue Repair Society was hold in Wuhan, China. This meeting was focused on the innovation, translation application, and cooperation in wound care both in China and other countries. More than 400 delegates took part in this meeting and communicated successfully. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Combat or Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    The best intentioned efforts of adults are often sabotaged by coercive climates of bullying among peers and conflict with adults. The solution is to create cultures where youth cooperate with authority and treat one another with respect. In this article, the authors stress the task of the staff to create a condition in which students see more…

  18. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  19. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  20. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  1. Designs for Cooperative Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Robin

    Educators are moving toward models of instruction that contain a myriad of interaction patterns among teachers and students. This shift from didactic teaching models to intensely involving designs is difficult for teachers, but is made easier if seen as a gradual change. This book provides an overview of 12 cooperative interaction designs for the…

  2. Non-Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe non-cooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as

  3. Robust Dynamic Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauso, D.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2006-01-01

    Classical cooperative game theory is no longer a suitable tool for those situations where the values of coalitions are not known with certainty. Recent works address situations where the values of coalitions are modelled by random variables. In this work we still consider the values of coalitions as

  4. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  5. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Keywords. Cooperation; epigenetics; evolution; levels of selection ... The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or ...

  6. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  7. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  8. Traffic Conflict Detection and Resolution (CDR) in ERTMS System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Taomei

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses the conflict problem in railway traffic. Although the railway traffic management nowadays can partly be carried out by a traffic control system (or a traffic management system), the control system is insufficient to make operational decisions once the occurrence of disturbance gets frequent, particularly at the junctions with dense traffic. Traffic conflicts may arise along with the disturbances. The traffic controllers (and dispatchers) are often required to handle thes...

  9. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  10. The Study of Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Self-Adaptive Control under Multiagent Markov Game Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Hui Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban traffic self-adaptive control problem is dynamic and uncertain, so the states of traffic environment are hard to be observed. Efficient agent which controls a single intersection can be discovered automatically via multiagent reinforcement learning. However, in the majority of the previous works on this approach, each agent needed perfect observed information when interacting with the environment and learned individually with less efficient coordination. This study casts traffic self-adaptive control as a multiagent Markov game problem. The design employs traffic signal control agent (TSCA for each signalized intersection that coordinates with neighboring TSCAs. A mathematical model for TSCAs’ interaction is built based on nonzero-sum markov game which has been applied to let TSCAs learn how to cooperate. A multiagent Markov game reinforcement learning approach is constructed on the basis of single-agent Q-learning. This method lets each TSCA learn to update its Q-values under the joint actions and imperfect information. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is analyzed theoretically. The simulation results show that the proposed method is convergent and effective in realistic traffic self-adaptive control setting.

  11. Engineering Social Justice into Traffic Control for Self-Driving Vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovic, Milos N; McPherson, Tristram

    2016-08-01

    The convergence of computing, sensing, and communication technology will soon permit large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. This will in turn permit a radical transformation of traffic control technology. This paper makes a case for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation, and sketches a preliminary framework for doing so. We explain how new forms of traffic control technology have potential implications for several dimensions of social justice, including safety, sustainability, privacy, efficiency, and equal access. Our central focus is on efficiency and equal access as desiderata for traffic control design. We explain the limitations of conventional traffic control in meeting these desiderata, and sketch a preliminary vision for a next-generation traffic control tailored to address better the demands of social justice. One component of this vision is cooperative, hierarchically distributed self-organization among vehicles. Another component of this vision is a priority system enabling selection of priority levels by the user for each vehicle trip in the network, based on the supporting structure of non-monetary credits.

  12. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow in the major areas of Kuala Lumpur utilizing open-traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Saargunawathy; Ali, Muhammad; Yusof, Kamaludin Mohamad; Suhaili, Ramdhan

    2017-09-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion occurs when a large number of drivers are overcrowded on the road and the traffic flow does not run smoothly. Traffic congestion causes chaos on the road and interruption to daily activities of users. Time consumed on road give lots of negative effects on productivity, social behavior, environmental and cost to economy. Congestion is worsens and leads to havoc during the emergency such as flood, accidents, road maintenance and etc., where behavior of traffic flow is always unpredictable and uncontrollable. Real-time and historical traffic data are critical inputs for most traffic flow analysis applications. Researcher attempt to predict traffic using simulations as there is no exact model of traffic flow exists due to its high complexity. Open Traffic is an open source platform available for traffic data analysis linked to Open Street Map (OSM). This research is aimed to study and understand the Open Traffic platform. The real-time traffic flow pattern in Kuala Lumpur area was successfully been extracted and analyzed using Open Traffic. It was observed that the congestion occurs on every major road in Kuala Lumpur and most of it owes to the offices and the economic and commercial centers during rush hours. At some roads the congestion occurs at night due to the tourism activities.

  13. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  14. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezillon, P.; Cases, E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  15. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  16. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  17. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourdine Aliane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations.

  18. Traffic Flow Management Wrap-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon

    2011-01-01

    Traffic Flow Management involves the scheduling and routing of air traffic subject to airport and airspace capacity constraints, and the efficient use of available airspace. Significant challenges in this area include: (1) weather integration and forecasting, (2) accounting for user preferences in the Traffic Flow Management decision making process, and (3) understanding and mitigating the environmental impacts of air traffic on the environment. To address these challenges, researchers in the Traffic Flow Management area are developing modeling, simulation and optimization techniques to route and schedule air traffic flights and flows while accommodating user preferences, accounting for system uncertainties and considering the environmental impacts of aviation. This presentation will highlight some of the major challenges facing researchers in this domain, while also showcasing recent innovations designed to address these challenges.

  19. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    for traffic classification, which can be used for nearly real-time processing of big amounts of data using affordable CPU and memory resources. Other questions are related to methods for real-time estimation of the application Quality of Service (QoS) level based on the results obtained by the traffic...... to create realistic traffic profiles of the selected applications, which can server as the training data for MLAs. We assessed the usefulness of C5.0 Machine Learning Algorithm (MLA) in the classification of computer network traffic. We showed that the application-layer payload is not needed to train the C5......Traffic monitoring and analysis can be done for multiple different reasons: to investigate the usage of network resources, assess the performance of network applications, adjust Quality of Service (QoS) policies in the network, log the traffic to comply with the law, or create realistic models...

  20. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  1. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  2. Finnish air traffic until 2025. Four scenarios; Suomen lentoliikenne vuoteen 2025 - neljae skenaariota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, E.; Pollanen, M.; Mantynen, J.; Makela, T.; Rauhamaki, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Transport Research Centre Verne

    2012-07-01

    Air traffic is a very dynamic field of business. Its operating environment features multiple factors of change, which affect air traffic and its operators both in the short and in the long run. This study charts the significant factors in Finnish air traffic and creates four distinct scenarios for the future. These scenarios were produced on the basis of the currently available facts and are attempts to provide several alternatives for the future. The study's goal has been to produce a visionary depiction that helps one to visualise and understand the whole picture. The perspective chosen for consideration of the future is the year 2025. The study describes four scenarios differing clearly from each other. In the first, entitled Globaalista maailmasta blokkeihin (From a global world to blocs), states form clusters and regional co-operation takes precedence over the current global direction of development. The second, Eurooppa omalla reitillaeaen (Europe on its own way), depicts Europe ahead of the rest of the world in terms of environmental regulation for air traffic. Uudistuksilla talouskukoistukseen (Economic boom through reforms) is based on an optimistic economic outlook. In contrast, Oeljykriisistae taloustaantumaan (From oil crisis to recession), describes a world where economic growth has been forestalled by rising oil prices due to increasing scarcity. The study investigates passenger numbers, air traffic within Finland, the international route network, and the changes these display in the various scenarios. The estimates are designed to highlight the development trends affecting air traffic in different operating environments. Since Finland is a small country and set apart from the rest of Europe in a fashion similar to island states, air traffic is of major importance and cannot be efficiently replaced by other forms of traffic. In particular, the individual scenarios stress the impact of international interaction and economic development with regard

  3. Traffic analysis toolbox volume XI : weather and traffic analysis, modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a weather module for the traffic analysis tools program. It provides traffic engineers, transportation modelers and decisions makers with a guide that can incorporate weather impacts into transportation system analysis and mode...

  4. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic big data, a dynamic part is added to traffic correlation model. Real-time correction algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network is presented to overcome the nonlinear mapping problems. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling methods.

  5. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The rapidly changing racial and ethnic composition of the : U.S. population is important to traffic safety specialists : because involvement in fatal traffic crashes varies across : racial and ethnic groups. Some research suggests that certain : mino...

  6. Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rohit; Jain, Raj; Fahmy, Sonia; Vandalore, Bobby; Goyal, Mukul

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Traffic management issues for TCP/IP based data services over satellite-ATM networks; 2) Design issues for TCP/IP over ATM; 3) Optimization of the performance of TCP/IP over ATM for long delay networks; and 4) Evaluation of ATM service categories for TCP/IP traffic.

  7. The Technical Issues Of Traffic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Vladimirovich Yegorov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in the analysis of Internet traffic associated with a large number of network applications, complex patterns of communication and a significant amounts of information. The definition of the category of traffic using the analysis of the number of port is irrelevant for P2P applications, streaming data and many other types of network applications. The article describes some of technical issues related to the analysis of Internet traffic.

  8. Cooperative arbitration under Spanish law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Martí Miravalls

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the cooperative arbitration as an alternative means of conflict resolution. The research could be divided into two blocks: the first controversial issues related to the figure of the cooperative arbitration are analyzed. In the second block the current legal regime of the cooperative arbitration, which is basically develops regional.

  9. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  10. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  11. Forestry Cooperatives: Organization and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Donald M.; Scoville, Orlin J.

    1982-01-01

    This study describes organizational structure, functions, and facilities of forestry cooperatives in the United States. It evaluates their economic performance and explores current problem areas and potentials for future development. Cooperative organization provides woodland owners professional forestry assistance, in terms of forest management, marketing, and educational activities. Some cooperatives consistently provide these services at less than prevailing rates and obtain higher than av...

  12. Cooperative competition for future mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunen, E. van; Kwakkernaat, M.R.J.A.E.; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) was held, providing the possibility for teams to develop and compare their cooperative driving solutions in a competitive setting. The challenge was organized to further accelerate developments in the area of cooperative driving. Nine

  13. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  14. Cooperative functions: meeting members' needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Cooperatives are effective when they meet the needs of the members. In past and current offerings by cooperatives as a whole and forestry cooperatives in particular, four functional categories cover the typical services a forest landowner might gain access to through joining (Cobia 1989). The four categories - marketing, supply, service, and social - are defined and...

  15. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von

    2014-01-01

    between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average....

  16. The negative effects of homogeneous traffic on merging sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Bart; van Berkum, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    Homogeneous traffic flows are believed to be better in absorbing disturbances, raise capacity and stimulate traffic safety. Measures to make traffic more homogeneous are therefore often taken to increase capacity. This paper shows that the ability of a traffic flow to deal with traffic coming from

  17. Traffic light control by multiagent reinforcement learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.; Groen, F.C.A.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  18. Traffic Light Control by Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  19. Desipramine induces disorder in cholesterol-rich membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkanen, Kirsi; Salonen, Emppu; Mäkelä, Anna R

    2009-01-01

    S(CD) as well as an increase in the membrane area. Disordering of the membrane suggested DMI to destabilize cholesterol-rich membrane domains (rafts) in cellular conditions. To relate the raft disrupting ability of DMI with novel biological relevance, we studied the intracellular effect of DMI using...... canine parvovirus (CPV), a virus known to interact with endosomal membranes and sphingomyelin, as an intracellular probe. DMI was found to cause retention of the virus in intracellular vesicular structures leading to the inhibition of viral proliferation. This implies that DMI has a deleterious effect...... on the viral traffic. As recycling endosomes and the internal vesicles of multivesicular bodies are known to contain raft components, the effect of desipramine beyond the plasma membrane step could be caused by raft disruption leading to impaired endosomal function and possibly have direct influence...

  20. Strategies of inducing cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the four experiments described in this paper are very consistent, and they can be summarized as follows: (1) The ''nonpunitive'' strategy was most effective in eliciting cooperative behavior from the subjects and, overall, resulted in the highest joint outcomes as well as the highest outcomes for the accomplice. (2) The effectiveness of the turn-the-other-cheek strategy was very much influenced by the competitiveness of the situation; the more competitive the incentives of the subjects, the more massively they exploited the accomplice who employed this strategy. (3) The punitive deterrent strategy elicited more agressive and self-protective, as well as less cooperative, behavior from the subjects than did the other strategies

  1. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  2. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  3. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  4. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...... in the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour...... of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....

  5. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  6. On traffic modelling in GPRS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Prasad, Ramjee

    2005-01-01

    Optimal design and dimensioning of wireless data networks, such as GPRS, requires the knowledge of traffic characteristics of different data services. This paper presents an in-detail analysis of an IP-level traffic measurements taken in an operational GPRS network. The data measurements reported...... here are done at the Gi interface. The aim of this paper is to reveal some key statistics of GPRS data applications and to validate if the existing traffic models can adequately describe traffic volume and inter-arrival time distribution for different services. Additionally, we present a method of user...

  7. A queuing model for road traffic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrouahane, N.; Aissani, D.; Bouallouche-Medjkoune, L.; Farhi, N.

    2015-01-01

    We present in this article a stochastic queuing model for the raod traffic. The model is based on the M/G/c/c state dependent queuing model, and is inspired from the deterministic Godunov scheme for the road traffic simulation. We first propose a variant of M/G/c/c state dependent model that works with density-flow fundamental diagrams rather than density-speed relationships. We then extend this model in order to consider upstream traffic demand as well as downstream traffic supply. Finally, we show how to model a whole raod by concatenating raod sections as in the deterministic Godunov scheme

  8. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  9. Predicting Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investiga...

  10. From biological membranes to biomimetic model membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes play an essential role in the cellular protection as well as in the control and the transport of nutrients. Many mechanisms such as molecular recognition, enzymatic catalysis, cellular adhesion and membrane fusion take place into the biological membranes. In 1972, Singer et al. provided a membrane model, called fluid mosaic model, in which each leaflet of the bilayer is formed by a homogeneous environment of lipids in a fluid state including globular assembling of proteins and glycoproteins. Since its conception in 1972, many developments were brought to this model in terms of composition and molecular organization. The main development of the fluid mosaic model was made by Simons et al. (1997 and Brown et al. (1997 who suggested that membrane lipids are organized into lateral microdomains (or lipid rafts with a specific composition and a molecular dynamic that are different to the composition and the dynamic of the surrounding liquid crystalline phase. The discovery of a phase separation in the plane of the membrane has induced an explosion in the research efforts related to the biology of cell membranes but also in the development of new technologies for the study of these biological systems. Due to the high complexity of biological membranes and in order to investigate the biological processes that occur on the membrane surface or within the membrane lipid bilayer, a large number of studies are performed using biomimicking model membranes. This paper aims at revisiting the fundamental properties of biological membranes in terms of membrane composition, membrane dynamic and molecular organization, as well as at describing the most common biomimicking models that are frequently used for investigating biological processes such as membrane fusion, membrane trafficking, pore formation as well as membrane interactions at a molecular level.

  11. Air traffic management evaluation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil S. (Inventor); Chatterji, Gano Broto (Inventor); Bilimoria, Karl D. (Inventor); Grabbe, Shon (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods for evaluating and implementing air traffic management tools and approaches for managing and avoiding an air traffic incident before the incident occurs. A first system receives parameters for flight plan configurations (e.g., initial fuel carried, flight route, flight route segments followed, flight altitude for a given flight route segment, aircraft velocity for each flight route segment, flight route ascent rate, flight route descent route, flight departure site, flight departure time, flight arrival time, flight destination site and/or alternate flight destination site), flight plan schedule, expected weather along each flight route segment, aircraft specifics, airspace (altitude) bounds for each flight route segment, navigational aids available. The invention provides flight plan routing and direct routing or wind optimal routing, using great circle navigation and spherical Earth geometry. The invention provides for aircraft dynamics effects, such as wind effects at each altitude, altitude changes, airspeed changes and aircraft turns to provide predictions of aircraft trajectory (and, optionally, aircraft fuel use). A second system provides several aviation applications using the first system. Several classes of potential incidents are analyzed and averted, by appropriate change en route of one or more parameters in the flight plan configuration, as provided by a conflict detection and resolution module and/or traffic flow management modules. These applications include conflict detection and resolution, miles-in trail or minutes-in-trail aircraft separation, flight arrival management, flight re-routing, weather prediction and analysis and interpolation of weather variables based upon sparse measurements. The invention combines these features to provide an aircraft monitoring system and an aircraft user system that interact and negotiate changes with each other.

  12. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Shigeoki; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Hara, Isao; Matsui, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  13. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  14. Forecasting Multivariate Road Traffic Flows Using Bayesian Dynamic Graphical Models, Splines and Other Traffic Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Queen, Catriona; Albers, Casper J.

    Traffic flow data are routinely collected for many networks worldwide. These invariably large data sets can be used as part of a traffic management system, for which good traffic flow forecasting models are crucial. The linear multiregression dynamic model (LMDM) has been shown to be promising for

  15. Travelers ability to observe changes in traffic intensities and traffic light settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Do, Michael; Middag, Wilco; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart; ITSC,

    2011-01-01

    Travel choice behavior is an important determinant in traffic and subject to human imperfection and bounded rationality. In decision-making processes travelers seldom act perfectly rational. Traffic models and traffic network management measure could become more realistic and effective, if

  16. Remark on the Causes of Traffic Accidents and Traffic Awareness: Examples of Usak Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan ÖZEN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents cause important losses on the social and economics structure of countries. While economic losses are able to be compensated in a short time, it isn’t possible to compensate social and communal losses. This study tackles with not the economic aspect of traffic accidents but the social dimension, evaluates the causes of the traffic accidents with respect to views of individuals on traffic and aims to measure the levels of awareness of individuals about traffic. To achieve these goals, a group of 506 people were surveyed in Uşak province and the acquired data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA test in SPSS 16 program. According to the analysis results, drivers and pedestrians are considered to have significant flaws in traffic accidents. But alongside this thought, the idea that traffic accidents are caused by the road having technical and physical problems has come to the fore. This results present a valid motive for the established approach “Vision Zero” , being practised in Sweden, to be adopted in Turkey. When the level of awareness about traffic is examined, it is seen that individuals generally have got inadequate information related traffic rules and traffic authorities. Besides, the fact that individuals are inadequate in terms of courtesy and respect in traffic and that more serious efforts on traffic education is needed to be spent come out as the important findings of this study. The findings of this study can be thought as a directive tool to the policy makers.

  17. Scaling in Computer Network Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-07

    behaviour, measurement .... 29 The Self-Similar Traffic Model Fractional Gaussian Noise (fGn) and Fractional Brownian Motion (fBm) The unique...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADM001750, Wavelets and Multifractal Analysis... Multifractality Wavelet qth order moments: IE|dX(j, k)|q ∼ C 2αqj, j → 0. Estimating the LHS from data using Sq(j) = 1 nj ∑ k |dX(j, k)|q, and measure the slopes

  18. Enhancing lean supply chain through traffic light quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mazharul Islam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lean is a continuous journey to grow and excel the company. Any company want to develop and cope with the world pace must adopt lean. However, in most of the organizations the management culture or people’s mentality is not so good to embrace change. They have predestined mind set where no change is normally allowed. Lean is a cooperative way of working that involves all departments and all personnel to work together in a team for the betterment of the entire company. Without providing fixed solution of any problem it suggests the best way that people willingly accept to do. Lean normally deals with highest quality, shorter lead time and lowest cost. In Bangladesh, most of the garment manufacturing companies are experiencing a massive quality problem. We describe a case where traffic light, a tool of lean quality system was adopted to a garment manufacturing company in Bangladesh. We also provide the charts to contrast the before and after scenario in detail, in order to illustrate the company benefits. After the traffic light system being implemented, the quality status was improved, production capacity was increased; significant days were saved that enhanced the lead time and thus strengthen the supply chain.

  19. Children's accidents, accident causation, and remedy : examples from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD-countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper children's accident data are presented. These data were drawn from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD), completed with data on separate countries drawn from other sources. Gender differences in

  20. 75 FR 25294 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Venture To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Production Act of 1993--Joint Venture To Perform Project Entitled Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Joint Venture to..., Trilion Quality Systems, Plymouth Meeting, PA, has been added as a party to this venture. Also, Witten...

  1. Nitrogen deposition and traffic. State-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeuwisse, S.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition is caused, among other things, by road traffic. This article addresses the relation between traffic and nitrogen deposition and the manner in which the contribution of traffic to nitrogen deposition can be quantified. [nl

  2. Symbols and warrants for major traffic generator guide signing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The Texas Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (TMUTCD) provides the definition of regular traffic generators based on four population types but not for major traffic generators (MTGs). MTG signs have been considered to supplement the overall si...

  3. Traffic flow characteristic and capacity in intelligent work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Intellgent transportation system (ITS) technologies are utilized to manage traffic flow and safety in : highway work zones. Traffic management plans for work zones require queuing analyses to determine : the anticipated traffic backups, but the predi...

  4. Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) research analysis database system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    The ATMS Research Analysis Database Systems (ARADS) consists of a Traffic Software Data Dictionary (TSDD) and a Traffic Software Object Model (TSOM) for application to microscopic traffic simulation and signal optimization domains. The purpose of thi...

  5. An analysis of the traffic safety phenomenon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E. & Kranenburg, A.

    1982-01-01

    The lack of traffic safety is a combination of the critical coincidence of circumstances in the traffic of incidents (near-accidents) and accidents with unwanted (permanent) consequences, such as fatalities, injured and disabled persons and material damage. This definition covers the whole of the

  6. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objectives: We aimed to prospectively study distraction-related road traffic collision injuries, their contributory factors, severity, and outcome. Methods: Data were prospectively collected on all hospitalized road traffic collision trauma patients in Al-Ain City who were drivers at the collision time over one and half years ...

  7. Symbols for cockpit displays of traffic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-25

    A web-based study assessed pilots ability to learn and remember traffic symbols that may be shown on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). These displays convey data obtained from Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS B) and rela...

  8. GPS queues with heterogeneous traffic classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Sem; Mandjes, M.R.H.; van Uitert, Miranda

    2002-01-01

    We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic classes are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing (WFQ), have emerged as an important mechanism for

  9. 36 CFR 1004.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... road, except as authorized by the Executive Director, or in the event of an accident or other condition... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 1004.13 Section 1004.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.13...

  10. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or parking a vehicle upon a park road, except as authorized by the superintendent, or in the event of an accident or other condition beyond the control of the operator. (b) Operating a vehicle so slowly as to...

  11. Environmental protection and traffic regulation in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaš Plevnik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises the proposed chapter on traffic in the National programme for environmental protection. The main theme focuses on the suggested goals and measures to reach sustainable development in Slovenia. The goals and measures are derived from the current situation and traffic development trends and their influence on the environment, from international guidelines and the current Slovene policies.

  12. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  13. Visual Analysis in Traffic & Re-identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas

    Automated analysis of traffic situations - be it cars, signs, or pedestrians - is becoming increasingly relevant and feasible with the advent of powerful sensors, computers, and algorithms. This PhD thesis tackles three themes within this realm: Traffic sign detection, pedestrian detection...

  14. Gaussian queues in light and heavy traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dębicki, K.; Kosiński, K.M.; Mandjes, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate Gaussian queues in the light-traffic and in the heavy-traffic regime. Let $Q^{(c)}_{X}\\equiv\\{Q^{(c)}_{X}(t):t\\ge0\\}$ denote a stationary buffer content process for a fluid queue fed by the centered Gaussian process X≡{X(t):t∈ℝ} with stationary increments, X(0)=0,

  15. 7110.65H Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-16

    these functions, it is rec. 2-75a2 Example.- ommended combining them on local control. The ATIS may be "Attention all aircraft. False air traffic...all aircraft. False air traffic control instructions used to specify the desired frequency. have been received in the area of Long Beach Airport

  16. Proportional green time scheduling for traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kovacs; Le, T. (Tung); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo); Vu, H. (Hai); N. Walton

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the decentralized scheduling of a large number of urban traffic lights. We investigate factors determining system performance, in particular, the length of the traffic light cycle and the proportion of green time allocated to each junction. We study the effect of the length

  17. Stochastic models for road traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovács, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation we make use of the theories of stochastic processes and operations research to develop models and methods to be applied for the analysis and control of road traffic networks. Within this field three subjects are considered: individual routing, urban traffic light networks and

  18. Traffic calming schemes : opportunities and implementation strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van (ed.)

    2003-01-01

    Commissioned by the Swedish National Road Authority, this report aims to provide a concise overview of knowledge of and experiences with traffic calming schemes in urban areas, both on a technical level and on a policy level. Traffic calming refers to a combination of network planning and

  19. Dynamic traffic assignment on parallel computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K.; Frye, R.; Jakob, R.; Rickert, M.; Stretz, P.

    1998-12-01

    The authors describe part of the current framework of the TRANSIMS traffic research project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It includes parallel implementations of a route planner and a microscopic traffic simulation model. They present performance figures and results of an offline load-balancing scheme used in one of the iterative re-planning runs required for dynamic route assignment.

  20. resource allocation methodology for internet heterogeneous traffic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    buffer capacity in switches - that are required for heterogeneous internet traffic which guarantees a given QoS, even under high network loading conditions. This paper, therefore, presents a method for determining the optimum internet resources required for heterogeneous (data and voice only) traffic services to guarantee ...

  1. Will Automated Vehicles Negatively Impact Traffic Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Calvert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With low-level vehicle automation already available, there is a necessity to estimate its effects on traffic flow, especially if these could be negative. A long gradual transition will occur from manual driving to automated driving, in which many yet unknown traffic flow dynamics will be present. These effects have the potential to increasingly aid or cripple current road networks. In this contribution, we investigate these effects using an empirically calibrated and validated simulation experiment, backed up with findings from literature. We found that low-level automated vehicles in mixed traffic will initially have a small negative effect on traffic flow and road capacities. The experiment further showed that any improvement in traffic flow will only be seen at penetration rates above 70%. Also, the capacity drop appeared to be slightly higher with the presence of low-level automated vehicles. The experiment further investigated the effect of bottleneck severity and truck shares on traffic flow. Improvements to current traffic models are recommended and should include a greater detail and understanding of driver-vehicle interaction, both in conventional and in mixed traffic flow. Further research into behavioural shifts in driving is also recommended due to limited data and knowledge of these dynamics.

  2. Traffic load effects in prestrssed concrete bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Allaix, D.L.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The traffic load effect of a two-span prestressed concrete bridge with two traffic lanes is analyzed in this paper. The design value of the result-ing bending moment in some prescribed sections is estimated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The model for the vehicular loads is derived from a set

  3. Evaluating Performances of Traffic Noise Models | Oyedepo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic noise in decibel dB(A) were measured at six locations using 407780A Integrating Sound Level Meter, while spot speed and traffic volume were collected with cine-camera. The predicted sound exposure level (SEL) was evaluated using Burgess, British and FWHA model. The average noise level obtained are 77.64 ...

  4. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  5. Survivable Impairment-Aware Traffic Grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshir, A.; Nuijts, R.; Malhotra, R.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic grooming allows efficient utilization of network capacity by aggregating several independent traffic streams into a wavelength. In addition, survivability and impairment-awareness (i.e., taking into account the effect of physical impairments) are two important issues that have gained a lot

  6. Calculating Traffic based on Road Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob; Gao, Fengnan; Hafkenscheid, Patrick; Idema, Reijer; Jetka, Tomasz; Guerra Ones, Valia; Rata, Debanshu; Sikora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Road sensors gather a lot of statistical data about traffic. In this paper, we discuss how a measure for the amount of traffic on the roads can be derived from this data, such that the measure is independent of the number and placement of sensors, and the calculations can be performed quickly for

  7. Epidemiology o.f· Traffic Accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidents. An analysis of some 2 100 fatal traffic accidents gave the following results: males-79%; females-21%; a ratio of 4: 1. The high proportion of males to females killed in traffic accidents may be due to the fact that (a) more males commute daily in private and commercial vehicles;. (b) more females commute daily in ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease: A Traffic Jam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, Michael J; Rochin, Leila

    2016-04-25

    Recent large-scale proteomic analyses of two protein kinases that are linked to Parkinson's disease have identified a remarkable convergence between their respective impacts on the phosphoproteome: activation of both LRRK2 and PINK1 leads to phosphorylation of several members of the Rab family of small GTPases, which regulate membrane trafficking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    Biological membranes are essential and complex structures in every living cell consisting of a fluid lipid bilayer sheet and membrane proteins. Its significance makes biological membranes not only interesting for medical research, but also has made it a target for toxins in the course of evolution....... Today, we know more than ever before about the properties of biological membranes. Advanced biophysical techniques and sophisticated membrane models allow us to answer specific questions about the structure of the components within membranes and their interactions. However, many detailed structural...... mechanisms of membrane compounds, including compounds associated with membranes, are still unknown due to the challenges that arise when probing the hydrophobic nature of the membrane's interior. For integral membrane proteins that span through the entire membrane, the amphiphilic environment is essential...

  10. Modeling Network Traffic in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discovers that although network traffic has the complicated short- and long-range temporal dependence, the corresponding wavelet coefficients are no longer long-range dependent. Therefore, a "short-range" dependent process can be used to model network traffic in the wavelet domain. Both independent and Markov models are investigated. Theoretical analysis shows that the independent wavelet model is sufficiently accurate in terms of the buffer overflow probability for Fractional Gaussian Noise traffic. Any model, which captures additional correlations in the wavelet domain, only improves the performance marginally. The independent wavelet model is then used as a unified approach to model network traffic including VBR MPEG video and Ethernet data. The computational complexity is O(N for developing such wavelet models and generating synthesized traffic of length N, which is among the lowest attained.

  11. Traffic and Granular Flow ’03

    CERN Document Server

    Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...

  12. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  13. Review on Driverless Traffic from Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The move towards automated driving is gaining ground. This paper reviews the development process of self-driving technology and discusses the safety and efficiency advantages of autonomous vehicles. The discussion shows that the existing traffic management system, including transport infrastructures and regulations, should be changed accordingly to maximize the advantages of autonomous driving. Thus, this paper subsequently gives an insight of the traffic management from three aspects: fully self-driving traffic infrastructures, mixed traffic infrastructures and regulations. First, it is summarized in detail what should be adjusted in intersections, parking lots, pedestrian crossings, ramps, signs and markings. With the transformation of traffic infrastructures, the advantages of driverless car will be more pronounced on account of increased capacity, reduced delay and land use. Also, this paper indicates that the implementations of strict product liability for self-driving car manufacturers and no-fault tort liability for users are applicable to automated vehicle accidents.

  14. Traffic flow dynamics data, models and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This textbook provides a comprehensive and instructive coverage of vehicular traffic flow dynamics and modeling. It makes this fascinating interdisciplinary topic, which to date was only documented in parts by specialized monographs, accessible to a broad readership. Numerous figures and problems with solutions help the reader to quickly understand and practice the presented concepts. This book is targeted at students of physics and traffic engineering and, more generally, also at students and professionals in computer science, mathematics, and interdisciplinary topics. It also offers material for project work in programming and simulation at college and university level. The main part, after presenting different categories of traffic data, is devoted to a mathematical description of the dynamics of traffic flow, covering macroscopic models which describe traffic in terms of density, as well as microscopic many-particle models in which each particle corresponds to a vehicle and its driver. Focus chapters on ...

  15. Study of air traffic over KLFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusyirwan, I. F.; Rohani, J. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper shares the overview of the work currently being conducted with the Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia related to the air traffic. The aim is to study air traffic performance over KL and KK FIR, and the area of interest in this paper is the Kuala Lumpur Flight Information Region (KLFIR). The air traffic performance parameters includes general air traffic movement such as level allocation, number of movements, sector load analysis and also more specific parameters such as airborne delays, effects of weather to the air movements as well as ground delays. To achieve this, a huge effort has been undertaken that includes live data collection algorithm development and real time statistical analysis algorithm development. The main outcome from this multi-disciplinary work is the long-term analysis on the air traffic performance in Malaysia, which will put the country at par in the aviation community, namely the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  16. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  17. From waste to traffic fuel (W-fuel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kask, Ue.; Andrijevskaja, J.; Kask, L. [and others

    2012-11-01

    The EU directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (Directive 2009/28/EC) sets a mandatory minimum target for the use of fuels produced using renewable energy sources of 10% of total petrol and diesel consumption in the transport sector by the year 2020. In addition, it states that production of renewable fuels should be consistent with sustainable development and must not endanger biodiversity. In the INTERREG IVA Southern Finland - Estonia Sub-programme, efforts towards finding solutions to the tasks set by the EU were undertaken in co-operation with Finnish and Estonian researchers. The purpose of the 'From Waste to Traffic Fuel' (W-Fuel) project was to promote the sustainable production and use of biogas using locally-sourced biodegradable waste materials from the food and beverage industry and the agricultural and municipal sectors. The ultimate aim of the project was to upgrade the biogas (produced based on anaerobic digestion of biodegradable wastes, sludge, manure, slurry and energy crops) to biomethane with a methane content similar to natural gas, to be further used as transport fuel with the aim of reducing traffic-borne emissions, in particular CO{sub 2}. The project combined waste, energy and traffic solutions in order to decrease emissions, costs and the use of materials. Six case areas in southern Finland and northern Estonia were selected. The two case areas in Estonia were the counties of Harju and Laeaene-Viru in northern Estonia. The project aimed to promote waste and sludge prevention and to commence biogas production and its subsequent upgrading to biomethane for use as a renewable fuel. The project promoted regional businesses and employment in waste treatment and 'green energy' production. On basis of the gathered data, the biogas potentials and prerequisites of each case county were analysed. Furthermore, the environmental, economic and other regional effects of the different options were

  18. Distributed Iterative Multiuser Detection through Base Station Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Khattak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with multiuser detection through base station cooperation in an uplink, interference-limited, high frequency reuse scenario. Distributed iterative detection (DID is an interference mitigation technique in which the base stations at different geographical locations exchange detected data iteratively while performing separate detection and decoding of their received data streams. This paper explores possible DID receive strategies and proposes to exchange between base stations only the processed information for their associated mobile terminals. The resulting backhaul traffic is considerably lower than that of existing cooperative multiuser detection strategies. Single-antenna interference cancellation techniques are employed to generate local estimates of the dominant interferers at each base station, which are then combined with their independent received copies from other base stations, resulting in more effective interference suppression. Since hard information bits or quantized log-likelihood ratios (LLRs are transferred, we investigate the effect of quantization of the LLR values with the objective of further reducing the backhaul traffic. Our findings show that schemes based on nonuniform quantization of the “soft bits” allow for reducing the backhaul to 1–2 exchanged bits/coded bit.

  19. Distributed Iterative Multiuser Detection through Base Station Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattak Shahid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with multiuser detection through base station cooperation in an uplink, interference-limited, high frequency reuse scenario. Distributed iterative detection (DID is an interference mitigation technique in which the base stations at different geographical locations exchange detected data iteratively while performing separate detection and decoding of their received data streams. This paper explores possible DID receive strategies and proposes to exchange between base stations only the processed information for their associated mobile terminals. The resulting backhaul traffic is considerably lower than that of existing cooperative multiuser detection strategies. Single-antenna interference cancellation techniques are employed to generate local estimates of the dominant interferers at each base station, which are then combined with their independent received copies from other base stations, resulting in more effective interference suppression. Since hard information bits or quantized log-likelihood ratios (LLRs are transferred, we investigate the effect of quantization of the LLR values with the objective of further reducing the backhaul traffic. Our findings show that schemes based on nonuniform quantization of the "soft bits" allow for reducing the backhaul to 1–2 exchanged bits/coded bit.

  20. The Stability of Multi-modal Traffic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Zhu Chengjuan; Jia Bin; Wu Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    There is an explicit and implicit assumption in multimodal traffic equilibrium models, that is, if the equilibrium exists, then it will also occur. The assumption is very idealized; in fact, it may be shown that the quite contrary could happen, because in multimodal traffic network, especially in mixed traffic conditions the interaction among traffic modes is asymmetric and the asymmetric interaction may result in the instability of traffic system. In this paper, to study the stability of multimodal traffic system, we respectively present the travel cost function in mixed traffic conditions and in traffic network with dedicated bus lanes. Based on a day-to-day dynamical model, we study the evolution of daily route choice of travelers in multimodal traffic network using 10000 random initial values for different cases. From the results of simulation, it can be concluded that the asymmetric interaction between the cars and buses in mixed traffic conditions can lead the traffic system to instability when traffic demand is larger. We also study the effect of travelers' perception error on the stability of multimodal traffic network. Although the larger perception error can alleviate the effect of interaction between cars and buses and improve the stability of traffic system in mixed traffic conditions, the traffic system also become instable when the traffic demand is larger than a number. For all cases simulated in this study, with the same parameters, traffic system with dedicated bus lane has better stability for traffic demand than that in mixed traffic conditions. We also find that the network with dedicated bus lane has higher portion of travelers by bus than it of mixed traffic network. So it can be concluded that building dedicated bus lane can improve the stability of traffic system and attract more travelers to choose bus reducing the traffic congestion. (general)

  1. Precompetitive cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry, and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompetitive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that enables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils, has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MIP workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly $400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well- being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi- tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emerging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new products, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U.S. government cooperation, must respond

  2. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  3. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  4. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  5. The international traffic in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    How the international traffic in uranium, contrary to the spirit of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), is being carried out by the very nations who are signatories to the NPT is described. The US did not supply enriched uranium for commissioning Koeberg nuclear power plant of South Africa, because South Africa refused to accept full scope safeguards. However, South Africa could procure necessary supplies of enriched uranium, probably from the surplus stocks of enriched uranium of European countries. In contravention of UN sanctions, many European nations are also collaborating with South Africa in illegal mining of uranium in Namibia. All these goings on indicate that the NPT's main objective is not to prevent or reduce proliferation, but to deny nuclear technology to those brown and black nations which do not sign the NPT or do not accept the full scope safeguards. (M.G.B.)

  6. Traffic Dynamics of Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Attila

    2008-10-01

    Two important aspects of the Internet, namely the properties of its topology and the characteristics of its data traffic, have attracted growing attention of the physics community. My thesis has considered problems of both aspects. First I studied the stochastic behavior of TCP, the primary algorithm governing traffic in the current Internet, in an elementary network scenario consisting of a standalone infinite-sized buffer and an access link. The effect of the fast recovery and fast retransmission (FR/FR) algorithms is also considered. I showed that my model can be extended further to involve the effect of link propagation delay, characteristic of WAN. I continued my thesis with the investigation of finite-sized semi-bottleneck buffers, where packets can be dropped not only at the link, but also at the buffer. I demonstrated that the behavior of the system depends only on a certain combination of the parameters. Moreover, an analytic formula was derived that gives the ratio of packet loss rate at the buffer to the total packet loss rate. This formula makes it possible to treat buffer-losses as if they were link-losses. Finally, I studied computer networks from a structural perspective. I demonstrated through fluid simulations that the distribution of resources, specifically the link bandwidth, has a serious impact on the global performance of the network. Then I analyzed the distribution of edge betweenness in a growing scale-free tree under the condition that a local property, the in-degree of the "younger" node of an arbitrary edge, is known in order to find an optimum distribution of link capacity. The derived formula is exact even for finite-sized networks. I also calculated the conditional expectation of edge betweenness, rescaled for infinite networks.

  7. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  8. MOBILIDADE URBANA E TRAFFIC CALMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é o de analisar e compreender, a partir de uma discussão teórica, o conceito e aplicação das medidas moderadoras de tráfego, conhecidas como traffic calming e sua relação com a mobilidade urbana sustentável. Buscou-se conhecer a aplicação da técnica no cenário mundial assim como algumas medidas adotadas no Brasil. Os procedimentos metodológicos aqui utilizados envolvem uma pesquisa exploratória, através da literatura atual e disponível, acerca dos temas mobilidade urbana sustentável e aplicação das medidas traffic calming. Conclui-se que as medidas de moderação atuam em conformidade com os princípios da mobilidade urbana sustentável na medida em que prioriza ações para redução do tráfego motorizado, e incentiva o uso e a segurança nos deslocamentos não motorizados. Contudo, a aplicação das técnicas sem estudos prévios e um planejamento estratégico não reduz os conflitos de mobilidade existentes nas localidades. No caso do Brasil para que se tenha sucesso com implantação da técnica é preciso uma análise mais abrangente, articulada e ser passível de aplicação de forma completa, assim como ocorre nos países desenvolvidos.

  9. Linking molecular motors to membrane cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmanova, Anna; Hammer, John A

    2010-08-01

    Three types of motors, myosins, kinesins, and cytoplasmic dynein, cooperate to transport intracellular membrane organelles. Transport of each cargo is determined by recruitment of specific sets of motors and their regulation. Targeting of motors to membranes often depends on the formation of large multiprotein assemblies and can be influenced by membrane lipid composition. Motor activity can be regulated by cargo-induced conformational changes such as unfolding or dimerization. The architecture and function of motor: cargo complexes can also be controlled by phosphorylation, calcium signaling, and proteolysis. The complexity of transport systems is further increased by mechanical and functional cross-talk between different types of motors on the same cargo and by participation of the same motor in the movement of different organelles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  11. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  12. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  13. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  14. Successful Industry/Academia Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The control literature is rich on impressive applications of advanced control, and within almost any industrial sector there are numerous examples of successful advanced control applications. Nevertheless, there is a widespread belief that there is still a wide potential for increased cooperation...... between academia and industry within this area. In this position paper, it is advocated that one of the enablers for successful cooperation between industry and academia within the control area is a proper framework for cooperation projects between companies and universities. Some suggestions...... by less complex but industrially feasible solutions. The proposed approach is illustrated by three case studies of successful industrial/academic cooperation....

  15. Research on the Method of Traffic Organization and Optimization Based on Dynamic Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern transportation system is becoming sluggish by traffic jams, so much so that it can harm the economic and society in our country. One of the reasons is the surging vehicles day by day. Another reason is the shortage of the traffic supply seriously. But the most important reason is that the traffic organization and optimization hardly met the conditions of modern transport development. In this paper, the practical method of the traffic organization and optimization used in regional area is explored by the dynamic traffic network analysis method. Firstly, the operational states of the regional traffic network are obtained by simulation method based on the self-developed traffic simulation software DynaCHINA, in which the improved traffic flow simulation model was proposed in order to be more suitable for actual domestic urban transport situation. Then the appropriated optimization model and algorithm were proposed according to different optimized content and organization goals, and the traffic simulation processes more suitable to regional optimization were designed exactly. Finally, a regional network in Tai’an city was selected as an example. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible. It can provide strong scientific and technological support for the traffic management department.

  16. Polymeric Membrane Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Sousa; Luís M. Madeira; João C. Santos; Adélio Mendes

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is the study of membrane reactors with polymeric membranes, particularly catalytic polymeric membranes. After an introduction where the main advantages and disadvantages of the use of polymeric membranes are summarised, a review of the main areas where they have been applied, integrated in chemical reactors, is presented. This excludes the field of bio-membranes processes, which is analysed in a specific chapter of this book. Particular attention is then given to model...

  17. Cooperative advanced Driver assistance Systems - Technological measures for data privacy compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Hubert; Schnieder, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) will contribute to road traffic safety: Critical situations will be detected, the driver alerted and control of the vehicle interfered with automatically. However, the introduction of such driver assistance systems presupposes that data privacy issues have already been solved in advance. A necessary condition for the driver to accept and trust new Driver assistance systems is that his/her personal and personally identifiable data will be t...

  18. Using human-compatible reference values in design of cooperative dynamic human-machine systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsch, Johann; Heesen, Matthias; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This is a conceptual paper about design of cognitive systems. The design of cooperative dynamic human-machine systems, such as driver assistance systems within a vehicle being part of the traffic, is a challenging task. The result has to be easily comprehensible for the user, although the overall system complexity might be rather high. Firstly, the driver assistance systems are able to perform a complex but partially hidden behavior. An Adaptive Cruise Control system (ACC), for example, can p...

  19. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  20. Remotely Accessed Vehicle Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Raida

    2010-06-01

    The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. The system is based on utilizing Embedded Web Servers (EWS) technology to design a web-based TMS. The EWS located at each intersection uses IP technology for communicating remotely with a Central Traffic Management Unit (CTMU) located at the traffic department authority. Friendly GUI software installed at the CTMU will be able to monitor the sequence of operation of the traffic lights and the presence of traffic at each intersection as well as remotely controlling the operation of the signals. The system has been validated by constructing a prototype that resembles the real application.

  1. A First Look at Modern Enterprise Traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Ruoming; Mark Allman, Mark; Bennett, Mike; Lee, Jason; Paxson, Vern; Tierney, Brian

    2005-06-01

    While wide-area Internet traffic has been heavily studied for many years, the characteristics of traffic inside Internet enterprises remain almost wholly unexplored. Nearly all of the studies of enterprise traffic available in the literature are well over a decade old and focus on individual LANs rather than whole sites. In this paper we present a broad overview of internal enterprise traffic recorded at a medium-sized site. The packet traces span more than 100 hours, over which activity from a total of several thousand internal hosts appears. This wealth of data--which we are publicly releasing in anonymized form--spans a wide range of dimensions. While we cannot form general conclusions using data from a single site, and clearly this sort of data merits additional in-depth study in a number of ways, in this work we endeavor to characterize a number of the most salient aspects of the traffic. Our goal is to provide a first sense of ways in which modern enterprise traffic is similar to wide-area Internet traffic, and ways in which it is quite different.

  2. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  3. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  4. Cooperation--not confrontation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-06

    A brief summary is provided of several presentations at the Fifth Congress of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), held 28 June to 1 July 1985 in Budapest. Former West German Chancellor Willy Brandt opened the meeting by reminding delegates that world peace is a fundamental human right, and that preserving it is the responsibility of all nations, not just the superpowers. The co-presidents of IPPNW, Dr. Eugene Chazov and Dr. Bernard Lown, outlined the dangers of nuclear warfare today and the role their organization is playing in alerting people to the realities of nuclear destruction and in encouraging dialogue between East and West. Dr. Halfdan Mahler, director-general of the World Health Organization, called for international cooperation in solving world health problems.

  5. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...... matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade...

  6. Modelling Traffic Flows Using Graph Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Musyt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An intensive increase in road transport, particularly individual, in recent years has led to such consequences as increased time spent on travel, the number of forced stops, traffic accidents, the occurrence of traffic jams on the road network, reducing traffic speed and a deteriorated urban road network in cities. The most effective method for solving these problems is the use of graph theory, the main characteristics of which is reliability, durability and accessibility of a free as well as loaded network. Based on their analysis the methods for network optimization are proposed.Article in Russian

  7. Stationarity Testing of Accumulated Ethernet Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stationarity property of the accumulated Ethernet traffic series. We applied several widely used stationarity and unit root tests, such as Dickey-Fuller test and its augmented version, Phillips-Perron test, as well as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test and some of its generalizations, to the assessment of the stationarity of the traffic traces at the different time scales. The quantitative results in this research provide evidence that when the time scale increases, the accumulated traffic series are more stationary.

  8. Elevator traffic handbook theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Barney, Gina

    2015-01-01

    This second edition of this well-respected book covers all aspects of the traffic design and control of vertical transportation systems in buildings, making it an essential reference for vertical transportation engineers, other members of the design team, and researchers. The book introduces the basic principles of circulation, outlines traffic design methods and examines and analyses traffic control using worked examples and case studies to illustrate key points. The latest analysis techniques are set out, and the book is up-to-date with current technology. A unique and well-established book, this much-needed new edition features extensive updates to technology and practice, drawing on the latest international research.

  9. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  10. Strategic Framework of Air Traffic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Steiner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates the past development of air traffic inEurope from the aspect of its economic benefits and ecologicallack of sustainability of conventional technology. The mainguidelines of the strategic development are related to the implementationof the global ecological standard and actual reformationprocesses of the air traffic management system postulatedby A TM 2000+ Strategy and the "Single European Sky"standard. The paper studies the wider aspects of integrated trafficdevelopment at the regional level and the factors influencingfurther development of the European air traffic.

  11. Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, A

    2011-01-01

    Although web standards-based websites can scale effectively - and basic CSS will give you basic results - there are considerations and obstacles that high traffic websites must face to keep your development and hosting costs to a minimum. There are many tips and tricks, as well as down-to-earth best practice information, to make sure that everything runs quickly and efficiently with the minimum amount of fuss or developer intervention. Targeted at "high traffic" websites - those receiving over 10,000 unique visitors a day - Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites gives you inside informati

  12. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  13. Graph Wavelets for Spatial Traffic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-15

    Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM ’95, 1995, pp. 100–113. [5] J. Levy-Vehel and R. Riedi, “Fractional Brownian motion and data traffic modeling: the other end of...similarity and long-range dependence, [3, 4]; and multifractality and local scaling [5, 6]. Many of the key results in traffic time scaling analysis have...as cascades: Investigating the multifractal nature of Internet WAN traffic,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM ’98, October 1998, pp. 42–55. [7] P. Abry and

  14. Green Wave Traffic Optimization - A Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warberg, Andreas; Larsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    The objective of this survey is to cover the research in the area of adaptive traffic control with emphasis on the applied optimization methods. The problem of optimizing traffic signals can be viewed in various ways, depending on political, economic and ecological goals. The survey highlights some...... important conflicts, which support the notion that traffic signal optimization is a multi-objective problem, and relates this to the most common measures of effectiveness. A distinction can be made between classical systems, which operate with a common cycle time, and the more flexible, phase...

  15. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  16. Dilemma game structure observed in traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Atsuo; Tanimoto, Jun; Hagishima, Aya; Sagara, Hiroki

    2009-03-01

    Using a cellular automaton traffic model based on the stochastic optimal velocity model with appropriate assumptions for both incoming and outgoing vehicle boundaries, the so-called bottleneck issue on a lane-closing section was investigated in terms of game theory. In the system, two classified driver agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always driving in the first lane and D agents (defective strategy) trying to drive in a lower-density lane whether the first or the second lane. In high-density flow, D agents' interruption into the first lane from the second just before the lane-closing section creates a heavier traffic jam, which reduces social efficiency. This particular event can be described with a prisoner's dilemma game structure.

  17. Traffic jam induced by a crosscut road in a traffic-flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Seno, Tadachika

    1994-06-01

    A deterministic cellular automaton model is presented to simulate the traffic jam induced by a crosscut road in a two-dimensional traffic flow. The effect of a crosscut road on the traffic flow is investigated by the use of a computer simulation. The traffic jam appears when a shock (discontinuous interface of different car densities) is formed. The condition for shock formation is derived for car densities p y and p x of the crosscut road and its crossing streets. The phase diagram and the dependence of the traffic flow on the car densities are shown. Also, we study the shock structure and the scaling of its width. The width Δ w of the shock scales with the system size L as Δ w ≈ L{1}/{2}. We present a self-consistent mean-field theory for the traffic flow.

  18. Calculating Distribution and Intensity of Agricultural Traffic for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, A.; Louwsma, M.A.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Kuiper, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Land from many holdings is dispersed, which compels farmers to use public roads to access distant parcels. Agricultural traffic is different from other traffic with its large and heavy vehicles. When agricultural traffic mixes with other traffic, safety issues may arise. Another issue of

  19. Design and Development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was about the design and development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS) that would ease storage and retrieval of traffic offence cases in the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) and the Traffic department of Nigeria Police force. The method used to manage traffic cases is manual; information ...

  20. Traffic Driven Analysis of Cellular and WiFi Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Utpal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Since the days Internet traffic proliferated, measurement, monitoring and analysis of network traffic have been critical to not only the basic understanding of large networks, but also to seek improvements in resource management, traffic engineering and security. At the current times traffic in wireless local and wide area networks are facing…

  1. Linking network usage patterns to traffic Gaussianity fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sadre, R.; Melnikov, Nikolay; Schönwälder, Jürgen; Pras, Aiko

    Gaussian traffic models are widely used in the domain of network traffic modeling. The central assumption is that traffic aggregates are Gaussian distributed. Due to its importance, the Gaussian character of network traffic has been extensively assessed by researchers in the past years. In 2001,

  2. 32 CFR 634.32 - Traffic violation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic violation reports. 634.32 Section 634.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.32 Traffic violation...

  3. 32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 634.28 Section 634.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic...

  4. 32 CFR 634.25 - Installation traffic codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Installation traffic codes. 634.25 Section 634.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.25 Installation traffic...

  5. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 634.29 Section 634.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.29 Traffic...

  6. Marketing Cooperatives and Financial Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Veerman, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the financial structure of marketing cooperatives and the requirement of the domination of control by the members of the cooperative is analysed with an emphasis on incomplete contracts and system complementarities. It is argued that the disappearance of shortage markets in

  7. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  8. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  9. Interinstitutional Cooperation Among Educational Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, J. Patrick

    1973-01-01

    Educational institutions deciding whether to carry on a cooperative venture with another educational institution (to reduce costs) must consider the tax consequences. This article discusses the tax considerations involved in such cooperative arrangements for the various organizational forms: principal-agent, co-ownership, partnership or joint…

  10. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  11. Making Cooperative Learning Groups Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James; De Jong, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of cooperative-learning groups with middle school students. Describes cooperative-learning techniques, including group roles, peer evaluation, and observation and monitoring. Considers grouping options, including group size and configuration, dyads, the think-pair-share lecture, student teams achievement divisions, jigsaw groups,…

  12. Market Competition and Efficient Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    We find that in market-partners, market experience has adverse effects on the efficiency of cooperation on both market-winner and market-loser pairs. In market-strangers, pairs of market-winners manage to cooperate more efficiently. These results indicate that it is not market experience per se that

  13. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  14. Traffic Measurement and Timestamp Accuracy Evaluation of Java ME Traffic Generator on Smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Huq, Mohammed Azizul

    2011-01-01

    Research on network traffic measurement is becoming popular because it could find the reason and valuable information regarding the occurrence of timestamp accuracy error. In this thesis the performance of UDP traffic between application level and link level has been investigated on three different Smartphone operating systems. One Java ME traffic generator and sink was developed for this thesis work. Distributed Passive Measurement Infrastructure with Measurement Point was used for the exper...

  15. The early evolution of cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters-individuals who profit without cooperating themselves-have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making

  16. Free-energy calculation methods for collective phenomena in membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Yuliya G.; Fuhrmans, Marc; Barragan Vidal, Israel A.; Müller, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    Collective phenomena in membranes are those which involve the co-operative reorganization of many molecules. Examples of these are membrane fusion, pore formation, bending, adhesion or fission. The time and length scales, on which these processes occur, pose a challenge for atomistic simulations. Therefore, in order to solve the length scale problem it is popular to introduce a coarse-grained representation. To facilitate sampling of the relevant states additional computational techniques, which encourage the system to explore the free-energy landscape far from equilibrium and visit transition states, are needed. These computational techniques provide insights about the free-energy changes involved in collective transformations of membranes, yielding information about the rate limiting states, the transformation mechanism and the influence of architectural, compositional and interaction parameters. A common approach is to identify an order parameter (or reaction coordinate), which characterizes the pathway of membrane reorganization. However, no general strategy exists to define such an order parameter that can properly describe cooperative reorganizations in membranes. Recently developed methods can overcome this problem of the order-parameter choice and allow us to study collective phenomena in membranes. We will discuss such methods as thermodynamic integration, umbrella sampling, and the string method and results provided by their applications to particle-based simulations, particularly focusing on membrane fusion and pore formation.

  17. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  18. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  19. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  20. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic......Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...

  1. Japanese efforts in international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, M.; Uchida, T.; Yoshikawa, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Science and Technology Agency of the Japanese Governmentreviews the present status of cooperative activities. The International Atomic Energy Meetings are discussed, as well as the INTOR workshop, atomic and molecular data activities, and progress in international cooperation. Other functions of the International Energy Agency include the promotion of cooperation programs which involve transfer or joint utilization of hardware contributed by the participating organizations. Meetings and ducting magnets for fusion power, RandD on plasma-wall interactions in the TEXTOR, and RandD on radiation damage in fusion materials. A section on Japanese-U.S. cooperation is highlighted, and includes the personnel exchange program, the Japanese research project using Doublet-III, joint research for plasma physics, and promotion of joint planning. Cooperation with the USSR and other countries is discussed

  2. Integrated corridor traffic management : final evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In 1993, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) forged a partnership with Hennepin County and the cities of Bloomington Richfield, and Edina to test the concept of integrated corridor traffic management (ICTM) across jurisdictional bound...

  3. Integrated Corridor Traffic Management Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In 1993, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) forged a partnership with Hennepin County and the cities of Bloomington Richfield, and Edina to test the concept of integrated corridor traffic management (ICTM) across jurisdictional bound...

  4. Training for healthy older drivers : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The research described in this edition of "Traffic Tech" examined the effectiveness of four types of : training techniques designed to improve the driving performance : of normally aging adults. Each technique is suitable : for a broad cross-section ...

  5. Beyond traffic : the smart city challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) Beyond Traffic 2045: Trends and Choices : study indicates that many communities will experience rapid population increases and : rapidly growing demands on their transportation infrastructure in the next ...

  6. Pittsburgh International Airport - Scheduled Passenger Traffic

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Attached is Pittsburgh International Airport’s Monthly Scheduled Traffic Report. This report contains a year-over-year (YOY) analysis of scheduled flights and...

  7. Transverse speed bars for rural traffic calming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Small rural communities often lack the expertise and resources necessary to address speeding and the persistent challenge of slowing high-speed through traffic. The entrances to communities are especially problematic given that drivers must transitio...

  8. Traffic Predictive Control: Case Study and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    This project developed a quantile regression method for predicting future traffic flow at a signalized intersection by combining both historical and real-time data. The algorithm exploits nonlinear correlations in historical measurements and efficien...

  9. Developments in weather responsive traffic management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of weather-responsive traffic management practices. It focuses on what WRTM : strategies exist, where they have been used, the benefits realized, what improvements are needed, and how to implement and : e...

  10. ROAD TRAFFIC ESTIMATION USING BLUETOOTH SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika N. BUGDOL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bluetooth standard is a low-cost, very popular communication protocol offering a wide range of applications in many fields. In this paper, a novel system for road traffic estimation using Bluetooth sensors has been presented. The system consists of three main modules: filtration, statistical analysis of historical, and traffic estimation and prediction. The filtration module is responsible for the classification of road users and detecting measurements that should be removed. Traffic estimation has been performed on the basis of the data collected by Bluetooth measuring devices and information on external conditions (e.g., temperature, all of which have been gathered in the city of Bielsko-Biala (Poland. The obtained results are very promising. The smallest average relative error between the number of cars estimated by the model and the actual traffic was less than 10%.

  11. 2004 road traffic crashes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland during : 2004 in the context of the previous five years based on data contained in the Queensland : Road Crash Information System maintained by the Department of Transpor...

  12. Louisiana traffic sign inventory and management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD), like many state highway agencies in the United States, lacks a comprehensive system for inventorying and maintaining records of traffic signs. To address this problem, state highway d...

  13. Video Traffic Analysis for Abnormal Event Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for new road guidelines; for rapid deploymen...

  14. LED traffic signal management system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This research originated from the opportunity to develop a methodology to assess when LED (Light Emitting Diode) traffic signal modules begin to fail to meet the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) performance specification for luminous inten...

  15. Fuzzy logic controller for a traffic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, J. J.; Zargham, Mehdi R.

    1995-08-01

    Automatic control of traffic signals in many cities are often based on a constant green-to-red cycle. The time period for green light (or red light) to be on is fixed, and is determined based on a stochastic model. In some situations, a human operator, or a fixed timer, may change the time period dyring time intervals where there is heavy traffic--typically during commuting times. Although in today's traffic controllers, the time period for green light can be changed in certain circumstances, in general they are not able to adjust dynamically to traffic changes. This paper presents the design of a controller that considers the intersection of two two-way streets and is able to adjust to environmental changes. Simulation of the proposed controller has produced results more in line with what we expected. In many cases, the proposed system has produced better results than systems that are based on a constant green-to-red cycle.

  16. U18 : Traffic signal safety (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Efficiently scheduling traffic, particularly heavy vehicles, remains a key challenge in transportation engineering. This project has focused on the development of a novel trafficsignal-control methodology to improve the safety of heavy vehicles on...

  17. Traffic control device evaluation program : FY 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report presents findings on three different activities conducted in the Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program during the 2016 fiscal year. The first two activities are evaluations of full-matrix color light-emitting diode changeable message ...

  18. Caltrans Average Annual Daily Traffic Volumes (2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — [ from http://www.ehib.org/cma/topic.jsp?topic_key=79 ] Traffic exhaust pollutants include compounds such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates (fine...

  19. Railway Network Timetabling and Dynamic Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the current state of research concerning railway network timetabling and traffic management. Timetable effectiveness is governed by frequency, regularity, accurate running, recovery and layover times, as well as minimal headway, buffer times and waiting times. Analytic (queuing)

  20. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...