WorldWideScience

Sample records for membrane skeleton organization

  1. Contribution of ankyrin-band 3 complexes to the organization and mechanical properties of the membrane skeleton of human erythrocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, B.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Biological and Medical Research Div.

    1995-02-01

    To understand the role of ankyrin-band 3 complexes in the organization of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton and its contribution to the mechanical properties of human erythrocytes, intact skeletons and single-layered skeleton leaflets were prepared from intact and physically sheared membrane ghosts, expanded in low salt buffer, and examined by transmission electron microscopy. While the structures of intact skeletons and single-layered skeleton leaflets shared many common features, including rigid junctional complexes of spectrin, actin, and band 4.1; short stretches ({approximately}50 {angstrom}) of flexible spectrin filaments; and globular masses of ankyrin-band 3 complexes situated close to the middle of the spectrin filaments, the definition of structural units in the intact skeleton is obscured by the superposition of the two layers. However, the spatial disposition of structural elements can be clearly defined in the images of the single-layered skeleton leaflets. Partially expanded skeletal leaflets contain conglomerates of ankyrin-band 3 complexes arranged in a circular or clove-leaf configuration that straddles multiple strands of thick spectrin cables, presumably reflecting the association of ankyrin-band 3 complexes on neighboring spectrin tetramers as well as the lateral association of the spectrin filaments. Hyperexpansion of the skeleton leaflets led to dissociation of the conglomerates of ankyrin-band 3 complexes, full-extension of the spectrin tetramers, and separation of the individual strands of spectrin tetramers. Clearly defined stands of spectrin tetramers in the hyperexpanded single-layered skeletal leaflets often contained two sets of globular protein masses that divided the spectrin tetramers into three segments of approximately equal length.

  2. Continuous Change in Membrane and Membrane-Skeleton Organization During Development From Proerythroblast to Senescent Red Blood Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Minetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of erythropoiesis and the possibility of producing artificial red blood cells (RBCs in vitro, a most critical step is the final differentiation of enucleated erythroblasts, or reticulocytes, to a fully mature biconcave discocyte, the RBC. Reviewed here is the current knowledge about this fundamental maturational process. By combining literature data with our own experimental evidence we propose that the early phase in the maturation of reticulocytes to RBCs is driven by a membrane raft-based mechanism for the sorting of disposable membrane proteins, mostly the no longer needed transferrin receptor (TfR, to the multivesicular endosome (MVE as cargo of intraluminal vesicles that are subsequently exocytosed as exosomes, consistently with the seminal and original observation of Johnstone and collaborators of more than 30 years ago (Pan BT, Johnstone RM. Cell. 1983;33:967-978. According to a strikingly selective sorting process, the TfR becomes cargo destined to exocytosis while other molecules, including the most abundant RBC transmembrane protein, band 3, are completely retained in the cell membrane. It is also proposed that while this process could be operating in the early maturational steps in the bone marrow, additional mechanism(s must be at play for the final removal of the excess reticulocyte membrane that is observed to occur in the circulation. This processing will most likely require the intervention of the spleen, whose function is also necessary for the continuous remodeling of the RBC membrane all along this cell's circulatory life.

  3. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  4. Modeling of the axon membrane skeleton structure and implications for its mechanical properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihao Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution microscopy recently revealed that, unlike the soma and dendrites, the axon membrane skeleton is structured as a series of actin rings connected by spectrin filaments that are held under tension. Currently, the structure-function relationship of the axonal structure is unclear. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM to show that the stiffness of the axon plasma membrane is significantly higher than the stiffnesses of dendrites and somata. To examine whether the structure of the axon plasma membrane determines its overall stiffness, we introduced a coarse-grain molecular dynamics model of the axon membrane skeleton that reproduces the structure identified by super-resolution microscopy. Our proposed computational model accurately simulates the median value of the Young's modulus of the axon plasma membrane determined by atomic force microscopy. It also predicts that because the spectrin filaments are under entropic tension, the thermal random motion of the voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav, which are bound to ankyrin particles, a critical axonal protein, is reduced compared to the thermal motion when spectrin filaments are held at equilibrium. Lastly, our model predicts that because spectrin filaments are under tension, any axonal injuries that lacerate spectrin filaments will likely lead to a permanent disruption of the membrane skeleton due to the inability of spectrin filaments to spontaneously form their initial under-tension configuration.

  5. Hematopoietic protein-1 regulates the actin membrane skeleton and membrane stability in murine erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia M Chan

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic protein-1 (Hem-1 is a hematopoietic cell specific member of the WAVE (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome verprolin-homologous protein complex, which regulates filamentous actin (F-actin polymerization in many cell types including immune cells. However, the roles of Hem-1 and the WAVE complex in erythrocyte biology are not known. In this study, we utilized mice lacking Hem-1 expression due to a non-coding point mutation in the Hem1 gene to show that absence of Hem-1 results in microcytic, hypochromic anemia characterized by abnormally shaped erythrocytes with aberrant F-actin foci and decreased lifespan. We find that Hem-1 and members of the associated WAVE complex are normally expressed in wildtype erythrocyte progenitors and mature erythrocytes. Using mass spectrometry and global proteomics, Coomassie staining, and immunoblotting, we find that the absence of Hem-1 results in decreased representation of essential erythrocyte membrane skeletal proteins including α- and β- spectrin, dematin, p55, adducin, ankyrin, tropomodulin 1, band 3, and band 4.1. Hem1⁻/⁻ erythrocytes exhibit increased protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of adducin at Ser724, which targets adducin family members for dissociation from spectrin and actin, and subsequent proteolysis. Increased adducin Ser724 phosphorylation in Hem1⁻/⁻ erythrocytes correlates with decreased protein expression of the regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, which is required for PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation of PKC targets. These results reveal a novel, critical role for Hem-1 in the homeostasis of structural proteins required for formation and stability of the actin membrane skeleton in erythrocytes.

  6. A new Python library to analyse skeleton images confirms malaria parasite remodelling of the red blood cell membrane skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Blanch, Adam J; Looker, Oliver; Dixon, Matthew W; Tilley, Leann

    2018-01-01

    We present Skan (Skeleton analysis), a Python library for the analysis of the skeleton structures of objects. It was inspired by the "analyse skeletons" plugin for the Fiji image analysis software, but its extensive Application Programming Interface (API) allows users to examine and manipulate any intermediate data structures produced during the analysis. Further, its use of common Python data structures such as SciPy sparse matrices and pandas data frames opens the results to analysis within the extensive ecosystem of scientific libraries available in Python. We demonstrate the validity of Skan's measurements by comparing its output to the established Analyze Skeletons Fiji plugin, and, with a new scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based method, we confirm that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remodels the host red blood cell cytoskeleton, increasing the average distance between spectrin-actin junctions.

  7. The spectrin-based membrane skeleton stabilizes mouse megakaryocyte membrane systems and is essential for proplatelet and platelet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Hett, Sunita; Wang, Hongbei; Begonja, Antonija J.; Thon, Jonathan N.; Alden, Eva C.; Wandersee, Nancy J.; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla; Hartwig, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Megakaryocytes generate platelets by remodeling their cytoplasm first into proplatelets and then into preplatelets, which undergo fission to generate platelets. Although the functions of microtubules and actin during platelet biogenesis have been defined, the role of the spectrin cytoskeleton is unknown. We investigated the function of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton in proplatelet and platelet production in murine megakaryocytes. Electron microscopy revealed that, like circulating platelets, proplatelets have a dense membrane skeleton, the main fibrous component of which is spectrin. Unlike other cells, megakaryocytes and their progeny express both erythroid and nonerythroid spectrins. Assembly of spectrin into tetramers is required for invaginated membrane system maturation and proplatelet extension, because expression of a spectrin tetramer–disrupting construct in megakaryocytes inhibits both processes. Incorporation of this spectrin-disrupting fragment into a novel permeabilized proplatelet system rapidly destabilizes proplatelets, causing blebbing and swelling. Spectrin tetramers also stabilize the “barbell shapes” of the penultimate stage in platelet production, because addition of the tetramer-disrupting construct converts these barbell shapes to spheres, demonstrating that membrane skeletal continuity maintains the elongated, pre-fission shape. The results of this study provide evidence for a role for spectrin in different steps of megakaryocyte development through its participation in the formation of invaginated membranes and in the maintenance of proplatelet structure. PMID:21566095

  8. A new Python library to analyse skeleton images confirms malaria parasite remodelling of the red blood cell membrane skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nunez-Iglesias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present Skan (Skeleton analysis, a Python library for the analysis of the skeleton structures of objects. It was inspired by the “analyse skeletons” plugin for the Fiji image analysis software, but its extensive Application Programming Interface (API allows users to examine and manipulate any intermediate data structures produced during the analysis. Further, its use of common Python data structures such as SciPy sparse matrices and pandas data frames opens the results to analysis within the extensive ecosystem of scientific libraries available in Python. We demonstrate the validity of Skan’s measurements by comparing its output to the established Analyze Skeletons Fiji plugin, and, with a new scanning electron microscopy (SEM-based method, we confirm that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remodels the host red blood cell cytoskeleton, increasing the average distance between spectrin-actin junctions.

  9. Organic separations with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of present and emerging applications of membrane technology for the separation and purification of organic materials. This technology is highly relevant for programs aimed at minimizing waste in processing and in the treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents. Application of membranes for organic separation is growing rapidly in the petrochemical industry to simplify processing and in the treatment of effluents, and it is expected that this technology will be useful in numerous other industries including the processing of nuclear waste materials

  10. Effect of Radiographic Contrast Media on the Spectrin/Band3-Network of the Membrane Skeleton of Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Ralf-Peter; Scharnweber, Tim; Fuhrmann, Rosemarie; Wenzel, Folker; Krüger, Anne; Mrowietz, Christof; Jung, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    The membrane of red blood cells consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded membrane proteins and is associated on the cytoplasmatic side with a network of proteins, the membrane skeleton. Band3 has an important role as centre of the functional complexes e.g. gas exchange complex and as element of attachment for the membrane skeleton maintaining membrane stability and flexibility. Up to now it is unclear if band3 is involved in the morphology change of red blood cells after contact with radiographic contrast media. The study revealed for the first time that Iopromide induced markedly more severe alterations of the membrane skeleton compared to Iodixanol whose effects were similar to erythrocytes suspended in autologous plasma. A remarkable clustering of band3 was found associated with an accumulation of band3 in spicules and also a sequestration of band3 to the extracellular space. This was evidently accompanied by a gross reduction of functional band3 complexes combined with a dissociation of spectrin from band3 leading to a loss of homogeneity of the spectrin network. It could be demonstrated for the first time that RCM not only induced echinocyte formation but also exocytosis of particles at least coated with band3. PMID:24586837

  11. Effect of radiographic contrast media on the spectrin/band3-network of the membrane skeleton of erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf-Peter Franke

    Full Text Available The membrane of red blood cells consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded membrane proteins and is associated on the cytoplasmatic side with a network of proteins, the membrane skeleton. Band3 has an important role as centre of the functional complexes e.g. gas exchange complex and as element of attachment for the membrane skeleton maintaining membrane stability and flexibility. Up to now it is unclear if band3 is involved in the morphology change of red blood cells after contact with radiographic contrast media. The study revealed for the first time that Iopromide induced markedly more severe alterations of the membrane skeleton compared to Iodixanol whose effects were similar to erythrocytes suspended in autologous plasma. A remarkable clustering of band3 was found associated with an accumulation of band3 in spicules and also a sequestration of band3 to the extracellular space. This was evidently accompanied by a gross reduction of functional band3 complexes combined with a dissociation of spectrin from band3 leading to a loss of homogeneity of the spectrin network. It could be demonstrated for the first time that RCM not only induced echinocyte formation but also exocytosis of particles at least coated with band3.

  12. An aqueous route to organically functionalized silica diatom skeletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Christabel E.; Buchber, Catherine; Lebeau, Benedicte; Patarin, Joel; Delacote, Cyril; Walcarius, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth was functionalized by grafting organotrialkoxysilane precursors onto the surface of the porous silica cell walls of this biomineral. Vinyl- and mercapto-containing structures were prepared in aqueous media without disruption of the diatomic architecture. Successful grafting of the organic moieties was confirmed using solid state 29 Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, and the presence of the intact diatom framework by scanning electron microscopy. The sorption properties of mercaptopropyl-functionalized diatoms towards heavy metals was studied by measuring the accessibility and diffusion rates of mercury(II) species to the binding sites (-SH) by the means of electrochemical methods

  13. Hollow silica-copper-carbon anodes using copper metal-organic frameworks as skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zixu; Xin, Fengxia; Cao, Can; Zhao, Chongchong; Shen, Cai; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-12-28

    Hollow silica-copper-carbon (H-SCC) nanocomposites are first synthesized using copper metal-organic frameworks as skeletons to form Cu-MOF@SiO(2) and then subjected to heat treatment. In the composites, the hollow structure and the void space from the collapse of the MOF skeleton can accommodate the huge volume change, buffer the mechanical stress caused by lithium ion insertion/extraction and maintain the structural integrity of the electrode and a long cycling stability. The ultrafine copper with a uniform size of around 5 nm and carbon with homogeneous distribution from the decomposition of the MOF skeleton can not only enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite and preserve the structural and interfacial stabilization, but also suppress the aggregation of silica nanoparticles and cushion the volume change. In consequence, the resulting material as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) delivers a reversible capacity of 495 mA h g(-1) after 400 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g(-1). The synthetic method presented in this paper provides a facile and low-cost strategy for the large-scale production of hollow silica/copper/carbon nanocomposites as an anode in LIBs.

  14. A 39-kD plasma membrane protein (IP39) is an anchor for the unusual membrane skeleton of Euglena gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiere, T.K.; Marrs, J.A.; Bouck, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    The major integral plasma membrane protein (IP39) of Euglena gracilis was radiolabeled, peptide mapped, and dissected with proteases to identify cytoplasmic domains that bind and anchor proteins of the cell surface. When plasma membranes were radioiodinated and extracted with octyl glucoside, 98% of the extracted label was found in IP39 or the 68- and 110-kD oligomers of IP39. The octyl glucoside extracts were incubated with unlabeled cell surface proteins immobilized on nitrocellulose (overlays). Radiolabel from the membrane extract bound one (80 kD) of the two (80 and 86 kD) major membrane skeletal protein bands. Resolubilization of the bound label yielded a radiolabeled polypeptide identical in Mr to IP39. Intact plasma membranes were also digested with papain before or after radioiodination, thereby producing a cytoplasmically truncated IP39. The octyl glucoside extract of truncated IP39 no longer bound to the 80-kD membrane skeletal protein in the nitrocellulose overlays. EM of intact or trypsin digested plasma membranes incubated with membrane skeletal proteins under stringent conditions similar to those used in the nitrocellulose overlays revealed a partially reformed membrane skeletal layer. Little evidence of a membrane skeletal layer was found, however, when plasma membranes were predigested with papain before reassociation. A candidate 80-kD binding domain of IP39 has been tentatively identified as a peptide fragment that was present after trypsin digestion of plasma membranes, but was absent after papain digestion in two-dimensional peptide maps of IP39. Together, these data suggest that the unique peripheral membrane skeleton of Euglena binds to the plasma membrane through noncovalent interactions between the major 80-kD membrane skeletal protein and a small, papain sensitive cytoplasmic domain of IP39

  15. Mechanism of organic aerosol formation and aging: Role of the precursor carbon skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Daumit, K. E.; Cross, E. S.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Oxidative aging of organic aerosol consists of a complex set of reactions coupled with gas-particle partitioning processes. Functionalization reactions involve adding oxygen containing functional groups onto a molecule, leading to reduced vapor pressures and promoting aerosol formation. In fragmentation reactions carbon-carbon bonds are broken as oxygen containing functional groups are added, which generally splits the parent molecule into two smaller and more volatile products. The initial structure of an aerosol-forming precursor molecule may influence what chemistry will occur both by changing the branching between fragmentation and functionalization processes as well as changing the effects of those processes. The fate of early generation oxidation products upon further aging is dependent on this initial chemistry, leading to a persistent effect of the precursor carbon skeleton. Aging experiments have been conducted using a high NOx smog chamber based aging technique. Long residence times and modestly elevated OH concentrations lead to typical maximum OH exposure of 3e11 molecule*seconds/cc, approaching several days equivalent exposure to ambient OH concentrations. A broad set of linear, branched and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons has been oxidized to determine the effects of carbon skeleton on the relative importance of fragmentation and functionalization and impacts on aerosol formation chemistry. Relative degree of fragmentation and functionalization is constrained by mass spectrometry of both the gas and particle phase. Measurements of the aerosol oxygen content and mass yield are reported, and structural effects on these properties are determined. Degree of unsaturation is hypothesized to have a significant impact on the effect of fragmentation reactions and to promote additional aerosol formation, extended aging and more oxygenated aerosol.

  16. The membrane skeleton in Paramecium: Molecular characterization of a novel epiplasmin family and preliminary GFP expression results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomel, Sébastien; Diogon, Marie; Bouchard, Philippe; Pradel, Lydie; Ravet, Viviane; Coffe, Gérard; Viguès, Bernard

    2006-02-01

    Previous attempts to identify the membrane skeleton of Paramecium cells have revealed a protein pattern that is both complex and specific. The most prominent structural elements, epiplasmic scales, are centered around ciliary units and are closely apposed to the cytoplasmic side of the inner alveolar membrane. We sought to characterize epiplasmic scale proteins (epiplasmins) at the molecular level. PCR approaches enabled the cloning and sequencing of two closely related genes by amplifications of sequences from a macronuclear genomic library. Using these two genes (EPI-1 and EPI-2), we have contributed to the annotation of the Paramecium tetraurelia macronuclear genome and identified 39 additional (paralogous) sequences. Two orthologous sequences were found in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome. Structural analysis of the 43 sequences indicates that the hallmark of this new multigenic family is a 79 aa domain flanked by two Q-, P- and V-rich stretches of sequence that are much more variable in amino-acid composition. Such features clearly distinguish members of the multigenic family from epiplasmic proteins previously sequenced in other ciliates. The expression of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-tagged epiplasmin showed significant labeling of epiplasmic scales as well as oral structures. We expect that the GFP construct described herein will prove to be a useful tool for comparative subcellular localization of different putative epiplasmins in Paramecium.

  17. Iterating skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Horstmeyer, Thomas; Berthold, Jost

    2012-01-01

    a particular skeleton ad-hoc for repeated execution turns out to be considerably complicated, and raises general questions about introducing state into a stateless parallel computation. In addition, one would strongly prefer an approach which leaves the original skeleton intact, and only uses it as a building...... block inside a bigger structure. In this work, we present a general framework for skeleton iteration and discuss requirements and variations of iteration control and iteration body. Skeleton iteration is expressed by synchronising a parallel iteration body skeleton with a (likewise parallel) state......Skeleton-based programming is an area of increasing relevance with upcoming highly parallel hardware, since it substantially facilitates parallel programming and separates concerns. When parallel algorithms expressed by skeletons involve iterations – applying the same algorithm repeatedly...

  18. Lipid organization of the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Melo, Manuel N; van Eerden, Floris J; Arnarez, Clément; Lopez, Cesar A; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; Periole, Xavier; de Vries, Alex H; Tieleman, D Peter; Marrink, Siewert J

    2014-01-01

    The detailed organization of cellular membranes remains rather elusive. Based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we provide a high-resolution view of the lipid organization of a plasma membrane at an unprecedented level of complexity. Our plasma membrane model consists of 63 different

  19. Giant plasma membrane vesicles: models for understanding membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic membranes into functional domains continues to fascinate and puzzle cell biologists and biophysicists. The lipid raft hypothesis proposes that collective lipid interactions compartmentalize the membrane into coexisting liquid domains that are central to membrane physiology. This hypothesis has proven controversial because such structures cannot be directly visualized in live cells by light microscopy. The recent observations of liquid-liquid phase separation in biological membranes are an important validation of the raft hypothesis and enable application of the experimental toolbox of membrane physics to a biologically complex phase-separated membrane. This review addresses the role of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) in refining the raft hypothesis and expands on the application of GPMVs as an experimental model to answer some of key outstanding problems in membrane biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Organic membrane photonic integrated circuits (OMPICs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, Toru; Hiratani, Takuo; Inoue, Daisuke; Gu, Zhichen; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Urakami, Tatsuhiro; Arai, Shigehisa

    2017-08-07

    We propose the concept of organic membrane photonic integrated circuits (OMPICs), which incorporate various functions needed for optical signal processing into a flexible organic membrane. We describe the structure of several devices used within the proposed OMPICs (e.g., transmission lines, I/O couplers, phase shifters, photodetectors, modulators), and theoretically investigate their characteristics. We then present a method of fabricating the photonic devices monolithically in an organic membrane and demonstrate the operation of transmission lines and I/O couplers, the most basic elements of OMPICs.

  1. MicroCT-based phenomics in the zebrafish skeleton reveals virtues of deep phenotyping in a distributed organ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Matthew; Gistelinck, Charlotte A; Huber, Philippe; Lee, Jane; Thompson, Marjorie H; Monstad-Rios, Adrian T; Watson, Claire J; McMenamin, Sarah K; Willaert, Andy; Parichy, David M; Coucke, Paul; Kwon, Ronald Y

    2017-09-08

    Phenomics, which ideally involves in-depth phenotyping at the whole-organism scale, may enhance our functional understanding of genetic variation. Here, we demonstrate methods to profile hundreds of phenotypic measures comprised of morphological and densitometric traits at a large number of sites within the axial skeleton of adult zebrafish. We show the potential for vertebral patterns to confer heightened sensitivity, with similar specificity, in discriminating mutant populations compared to analyzing individual vertebrae in isolation. We identify phenotypes associated with human brittle bone disease and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor hyperactivity. Finally, we develop allometric models and show their potential to aid in the discrimination of mutant phenotypes masked by alterations in growth. Our studies demonstrate virtues of deep phenotyping in a spatially distributed organ system. Analyzing phenotypic patterns may increase productivity in genetic screens, and facilitate the study of genetic variants associated with smaller effect sizes, such as those that underlie complex diseases.

  2. New Polymeric Membranes for Organic Solvent Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah

    2017-05-01

    The focus of this dissertation was the development, synthesis and modification of polymers for the preparation of membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration. High chemical stability in a wide range of solvents was a key requirement. Membranes prepared from synthesized polymers as well as from commercial polymers were designed and chemically modified to reach OSN requirements. A solvent stable thin-film composite (TFC) membrane is reported, which is fabricated on crosslinked polythiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as substrate. The membranes exhibited high fluxes towards solvents like THF, DMF and DMSO ranging around 20 L/m2 h at 5 bar with a MWCO of around 1000 g/mol. Ultrafiltration PTSC membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation and crosslinked with GPTMS. The crosslinking reaction was responsible for the formation of an inorganic-type-network that tuned the membrane pore size. The crosslinked membranes acquired high solvent stability in DMSO, DMF and THF with a MWCO above 1300 g/mol. Reaction Induced Phase Separation (RIPS) was introduced as a new method for the preparation of skinned asymmetric membranes. These membranes have two distinctive layers with different morphologies both from the same polymer. The top dense layer is composed of chemically crosslinked polymer chains while the bottom layer is a porous structure formed by non-crosslinked polymer chains. Such membranes were tested for vitamin B12 in solvents after either crosslinking the support or dissolving the support and fixing the freestanding membrane on alumina. Pebax® 1657 was utilized for the preparation of composite membranes by simple coating. Porous PAN membranes were coated with Pebax® 1657 which was then crosslinked using TDI. Crosslinked Pebax® membranes show high stability towards ethanol, propanol and acetone. The membranes were also stable in DMF once crosslinked PAN supports were used. Sodium alginate polymer was investigated for the preparation of thin film composite

  3. Freely turning over palmitate in erythrocyte membrane proteins is not responsible for the anchoring of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton: a study with bio-orthogonal chemical probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, Annarita; Achilli, Cesare; Hannoush, Rami N; Risso, Angela; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2013-03-01

    Erythrocyte lipid rafts are anchored to the underlying spectrin membrane skeleton [A. Ciana, C. Achilli, C. Balduini, G. Minetti, On the association of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton in human erythrocytes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1808 (2011) 183-190]. The nature of this linkage and the molecules involved are poorly understood. The interaction is sensitive to the increase in pH and ionic strength induced by carbonate. Given the role of palmitoylation in modulating the partitioning of certain proteins between various sub-cellular compartments and the plasma membrane, we asked whether palmitoylation of p55, a peripheral protein located at the junctional complex between spectrin-actin-protein 4.1 that anchors the membrane skeleton to the lipid bilayer via the transmembrane protein glycophorin C, could contribute to the anchoring of lipid rafts to the membrane skeleton. We adopted a new, non-radioactive method for studying protein palmitoylation, based on bio-orthogonal chemical analogues of fatty acids, containing an omega-alkynyl group, to metabolically label cell proteins, which are then revealed by a "click chemistry" reaction of the alkynyl moiety with an azide-containing reporter tag. We show that the membrane localization and palmitoylation levels of p55 did not change after carbonate treatment. 2-bromopalmitate and cerulenin, two known palmitoylation inhibitors, completely inhibited p55 palmitoylation, and protein palmitoyl thioesterase-1 (PPT1) reduced it, without affecting the association between lipid rafts and membrane-skeleton, indicating, on the one hand, that p55 palmitoylation is enzymatic, and, on the other, that it is not involved in the modulation of the linkage of lipid rafts to the membrane-skeleton. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Pinnau, Ingo; He, Zhenjie; Da Costa, Andre R.; Daniels, Ramin; Amo, Karl D.; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    2003-06-03

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  5. Para-Conjugated Dicarboxylates with Extended Aromatic Skeletons as the Highly Advanced Organic Anodes for K-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Deng, Qijiu; Tan, Haochen; Wang, Chuan; Fan, Cong; Pei, Jingfang; Cao, Bei; Wang, Zhihong; Li, Jingze

    2017-08-23

    A new family of the para-conjugated dicarboxylates embedding in biphenyl skeletons was exploited as the highly advanced organic anodes for K-ion battery. Two members of this family, namely potassium 1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate (K 2 BPDC) and potassium 4,4'-E-stilbenedicarboxylate (K 2 SBDC), were selectively studied and their detailed redox behaviors in K-ion battery were also clearly unveiled. Both K 2 BPDC and K 2 SBDC could exhibit very clear and highly reversible two-electron redox mechanism in K-ion battery, as well as higher potassiation potentials (above 0.3 V vs K + /K) when compared to the inorganic anodes of carbon materials recently reported. Meanwhile, the satisfactory specific and rate capacities could be realized for K 2 BPDC and K 2 SBDC. For example, the K 2 BPDC anode could realize the stable rate capacities of 165/143/135/99 mAh g -1 under the high current densities of 100/200/500/1000 mA g -1 , respectively, after its electronic conductivity was improved by mixing a very small amount of graphene. More impressively, the average specific capacities of ∼75 mAh g -1 could be maintained for the K 2 BPDC anode for 3000 cycles under the high current density of 1 A g -1 .

  6. Novel Ultrathin Membranes Composed of Organic Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Verspeek, Bram; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    of artificial bilayers composed of long-chained organic ions, such as dodecyltrimethylammonium (DMA(+)) and perfluorooctaonate (PFO-). Various ratios of DMA/PFO surfactants result in bilayers of different stability, thickness, area per molecule, and density profiles. In our quest for water filtration, we...... incorporated aquaporin protein into the DMA/PFO bilayer but did not observe sufficient stability of the system. We discuss further steps to utilize these surfactant bilayers as highly selective, salt-impermeable membranes....

  7. Identification of two organic bands showing different chemical composition within the skeleton of Porites lutea: a confocal Raman microscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nehrke; M. Wall

    2012-01-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy mapping was used to investigate the organic matrix distribution within the skeleton of the coral Porites lutea. Two types of growth lines could be identified: one corresponds to the well-known incremental growth layers, whereas the second type of growth lines showed an elemental composition that differed from the incremental growth layers. The position and shape of the latter growth lines resemble either denticle finger-like structures (most likely traces of former s...

  8. Triple-color super-resolution imaging of live cells: resolving submicroscopic receptor organization in the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Stephan; Staufenbiel, Markus; Lisse, Domenik; Richter, Christian P; Beutel, Oliver; Busch, Karin B; Hess, Samuel T; Piehler, Jacob

    2012-05-14

    In living color: efficient intracellular covalent labeling of proteins with a photoswitchable dye using the HaloTag for dSTORM super-resolution imaging in live cells is described. The dynamics of cellular nanostructures at the plasma membrane were monitored with a time resolution of a few seconds. In combination with dual-color FPALM imaging, submicroscopic receptor organization within the context of the membrane skeleton was resolved. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. NOVEL POLYMERIC MEMBRANE FOR DEHYDRATION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a critical role...

  10. Use of biomimetic forward osmosis membrane for trace organics removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik T.; Bajraktari, Niada; Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The use of forward osmosis for the removal of trace organics from water has recently attracted considerable attention as an alternative to traditional pressure driven membrane filtration. However, the existing forward osmosis membranes have been found to be ineffective at rejecting small neutral...... organic pollutants, which limits the applicability of the forward osmosis process. In this study a newly developed biomimetic membrane was tested for the removal of three selected trace organics that can be considered as a bench marking test for a membrane[U+05F3]s ability to reject small neutral organic...... pollutants in aqueous solution. The performance of this membrane was compared with a standard cellulose acetate forward osmosis membrane. The aquaporin membrane was found to have rejection values above 97% for all three trace organics, which was significantly higher than the cellulose acetate membrane...

  11. Purification, in vitro reassembly, and preliminary sequence analysis of epiplasmins, the major constituent of the membrane skeleton of Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, G; Le Caer, J P; Lima, O; Adoutte, A

    1996-01-01

    The epiplasmic layer, a continuous rigid granulo-fibrillar sheet directly subtending the surface membranes of Paramecium, is one of the outermost of the various cytoskeletal networks that compose it cortex. We have previously shown that the epiplasm consists of a set of 30 to 50 protein bands on SDS-PAGE in the range 50 to 33 kDa, the epiplasmins. We report a purification procedure for the set of epiplasmic proteins, a description of their physicochemical and reassembly properties, and a preliminary characterization of their sequence. The conditions for solubilization of the epiplasm and for in vitro reassembly of its purified constituents ar described. Reassembly of the entire set of proteins and of some (but not all) subsets are shown to yield filamentous aggregates. Microsequences of two purified bands of epiplasmins reveal a striking amino acid sequence consisting of heptad repeats of only three main amino acids, P, V, and Q. These repeats were confirmed by DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products. The motif is QPVQ-h, in which h is a hydrophobic residue. This may constitute the core of the epiplasmin sequence and, in view of the tendency of such a sequence to form a coiled-coil, may account for the remarkable self-aggregation properties of epiplasmins.

  12. Rolling Up the Sheet: Constructing Metal–Organic Lamellae and Nanotubes from a [{Mn 3 (propanediolato) 2 }(dicyanamide) 2 ] n Honeycomb Skeleton

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Gang

    2013-12-11

    Target synthesis of metal-organic nanotubes (MONTs) through a classic "rolling-up" mechanism remains a big challenge for coordination chemists. In this work, we report three 2D lamellar compounds and one (4,0) zigzag MONT based on a common honeycomb coordination skeleton. Our synthetic strategy toward sheet/tube superstructure transformation is to asymmetrically modify the inter-layer interactions by gradually increasing the size of the amine templates. Eventually, to relieve the surface tension of individual layers and to enhance surface areas and optimize host-guest interactions to accommodate bigger guests, spontaneous rolling up to form a tubular structure was achieved. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Microporous Organic Materials for Membrane-Based Gas Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Guangshan

    2018-01-01

    Membrane materials with excellent selectivity and high permeability are crucial to efficient membrane gas separation. Microporous organic materials have evolved as an alternative candidate for fabricating membranes due to their inherent attributes, such as permanent porosity, high surface area, and good processability. Herein, a unique pore-chemistry concept for the designed synthesis of microporous organic membranes, with an emphasis on the relationship between pore structures and membrane performances, is introduced. The latest advances in microporous organic materials for potential membrane application in gas separation of H 2 , CO 2 , O 2 , and other industrially relevant gases are summarized. Representative examples of the recent progress in highly selective and permeable membranes are highlighted with some fundamental analyses from pore characteristics, followed by a brief perspective on future research directions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Membrane-Organized Chemical Photoredox Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, James K.

    2014-09-18

    This project has three interrelated goals relevant to solar water photolysis, which are to develop: (1) vesicle-organized assemblies for H2 photoproduction that utilize pyrylium and structurally related compounds as combined photosensitizers and cyclic electroneutral transmembrane electron carriers; (2) transmembrane redox systems whose reaction rates can be modulated by light; and (3) homogeneous catalysts for water oxidation. . In area (1), initial efforts to photogenerate H2 from vectorially-organized vesicles containing occluded colloidal Pt and commonly available pyrylium ions as transmembrane redox mediators were unsuccessful. New pyrylium compounds with significantly lower reduction potentials have been synthesized to address this problem, their apparent redox potentials in functioning systems have been now evaluated by using a series of occluded viologens, and H2 photoproduction has been demonstrated in continuous illumination experiments. In area (2), spirooxazine-quinone dyads have been synthesized and their capacity to function as redox mediators across bilayer membranes has been evaluated through continuous photolysis and transient spectrophotometric measurements. Photoisomerization of the spiro moiety to the ring-open mero form caused net quantum yields to decrease significantly, providing a basis for photoregulation of transmembrane redox. Research on water oxidation (area 3) has been directed at understanding mechanisms of catalysis by cis,cis-[(bpy)2Ru(OH2)]2O4+ and related polyimine complexes. Using a variety of physical techniques, we have: (i) identified the redox state of the complex ion that is catalytically active; (ii) shown using 18O isotopic labeling that there are two reaction pathways, both of which involve participation of solvent H2O; and (iii) detected and characterized by EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopies new species which may be key intermediates in the catalytic cycle.

  15. Spatiotemporal Organization of Spin-Coated Supported Model Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    All cells of living organisms are separated from their surroundings and organized internally by means of flexible lipid membranes. In fact, there is consensus that the minimal requirements for self-replicating life processes include the following three features: (1) information carriers (DNA, RNA), (2) a metabolic system, and (3) encapsulation in a container structure [1]. Therefore, encapsulation can be regarded as an essential part of life itself. In nature, membranes are highly diverse interfacial structures that compartmentalize cells [2]. While prokaryotic cells only have an outer plasma membrane and a less-well-developed internal membrane structure, eukaryotic cells have a number of internal membranes associated with the organelles and the nucleus. Many of these membrane structures, including the plasma membrane, are complex layered systems, but with the basic structure of a lipid bilayer. Biomembranes contain hundreds of different lipid species in addition to embedded or peripherally associated membrane proteins and connections to scaffolds such as the cytoskeleton. In vitro, lipid bilayers are spontaneously self-organized structures formed by a large group of amphiphilic lipid molecules in aqueous suspensions. Bilayer formation is driven by the entropic properties of the hydrogen bond network in water in combination with the amphiphilic nature of the lipids. The molecular shapes of the lipid constituents play a crucial role in bilayer formation, and only lipids with approximately cylindrical shapes are able to form extended bilayers. The bilayer structure of biomembranes was discovered by Gorter and Grendel in 1925 [3] using monolayer studies of lipid extracts from red blood cells. Later, a number of conceptual models were developed to rationalize the organization of lipids and proteins in biological membranes. One of the most celebrated is the fluid-mosaic model by Singer and Nicolson (1972) [4]. According to this model, the lipid bilayer component of

  16. Metal-organic frameworks based membranes for liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Liu, Yuxin; Wang, Jing; Gascon, Jorge; Li, Jiansheng; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-11-27

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a fascinating class of solid crystalline materials which can be self-assembled in a straightforward manner by the coordination of metal ions or clusters with organic ligands. Owing to their intrinsic porous characteristics, unique chemical versatility and abundant functionalities, MOFs have received substantial attention for diverse industrial applications, including membrane separation. Exciting research activities ranging from fabrication strategies to separation applications of MOF-based membranes have appeared. Inspired by the marvelous achievements of MOF-based membranes in gas separations, liquid separations are also being explored for the purpose of constructing continuous MOFs membranes or MOF-based mixed matrix membranes. Although these are in an emerging stage of vigorous development, most efforts are directed towards improving the liquid separation efficiency with well-designed MOF-based membranes. Therefore, as an increasing trend in membrane separation, the field of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation is highlighted in this review. The criteria for judicious selection of MOFs in fabricating MOF-based membranes are given. Special attention is paid to rational design strategies for MOF-based membranes, along with the latest application progress in the area of liquid separations, such as pervaporation, water treatment, and organic solvent nanofiltration. Moreover, some attractive dual-function applications of MOF-based membranes in the removal of micropollutants, degradation, and antibacterial activity are also reviewed. Finally, we define the remaining challenges and future opportunities in this field. This Tutorial Review provides an overview and outlook for MOF-based membranes for liquid separations. Further development of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation must consider the demands of strict separation standards and environmental safety for industrial application.

  17. Metal–organic frameworks based membranes for liquid separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xin

    2017-11-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a fascinating class of solid crystalline materials which can be self-assembled in a straightforward manner by the coordination of metal ions or clusters with organic ligands. Owing to their intrinsic porous characteristics, unique chemical versatility and abundant functionalities, MOFs have received substantial attention for diverse industrial applications, including membrane separation. Exciting research activities ranging from fabrication strategies to separation applications of MOF-based membranes have appeared. Inspired by the marvelous achievements of MOF-based membranes in gas separations, liquid separations are also being explored for the purpose of constructing continuous MOFs membranes or MOF-based mixed matrix membranes. Although these are in an emerging stage of vigorous development, most efforts are directed towards improving the liquid separation efficiency with well-designed MOF-based membranes. Therefore, as an increasing trend in membrane separation, the field of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation is highlighted in this review. The criteria for judicious selection of MOFs in fabricating MOF-based membranes are given. Special attention is paid to rational design strategies for MOF-based membranes, along with the latest application progress in the area of liquid separations, such as pervaporation, water treatment, and organic solvent nanofiltration. Moreover, some attractive dual-function applications of MOF-based membranes in the removal of micropollutants, degradation, and antibacterial activity are also reviewed. Finally, we define the remaining challenges and future opportunities in this field. This Tutorial Review provides an overview and outlook for MOF-based membranes for liquid separations. Further development of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation must consider the demands of strict separation standards and environmental safety for industrial application.

  18. Organic and inorganic osmolytes at lipid membrane interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, P.; Peters, Günther H.j.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discusses the interactions of organic osmolytes and membranous interfaces, and the effects of these interactions on the properties of the membrane. It also includes a treatment of inorganic ions at the membrane interface since osmolyte effects involve a balance between organic...... and inorganic components. Before turning to the physicochemical discussion of interfacial interactions, the chapter outlines some central parts of the biology and biotechnology of organic osmolytes. It reviews the central relationships in preferential interaction theory, which we use in subsequent paragraphs...

  19. Coral skeletons defend against ultraviolet radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Reef

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many coral reef organisms are photosynthetic or have evolved in tight symbiosis with photosynthetic symbionts. As such, the tissues of reef organisms are often exposed to intense solar radiation in clear tropical waters and have adapted to trap and harness photosynthetically active radiation (PAR. High levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR associated with sunlight, however, represent a potential problem in terms of tissue damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By measuring UVR and PAR reflectance from intact and ground bare coral skeletons we show that the property of calcium carbonate skeletons to absorb downwelling UVR to a significant extent, while reflecting PAR back to the overlying tissue, has biological advantages. We placed cnidarians on top of bare skeletons and a UVR reflective substrate and showed that under ambient UVR levels, UVR transmitted through the tissues of cnidarians placed on top of bare skeletons were four times lower compared to their counterparts placed on a UVR reflective white substrate. In accordance with the lower levels of UVR measured in cnidarians on top of coral skeletons, a similar drop in UVR damage to their DNA was detected. The skeletons emitted absorbed UVR as yellow fluorescence, which allows for safe dissipation of the otherwise harmful radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study presents a novel defensive role for coral skeletons and reveals that the strong UVR absorbance by the skeleton can contribute to the ability of corals, and potentially other calcifiers, to thrive under UVR levels that are detrimental to most marine life.

  20. Mineralization of the Sea Urchin Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, F.

    2001-12-01

    The sea urchin possess a calcareous skeleton composed of over 99% magnesian calcite,an enveloping extracellular matrix, and an occluded protein matrix. The most intensively studied skeletal element is the spicule of the embryo. At the 32 cell stage of development a cohort of 4 cells becomes irrevocably dedicated to spicule formation. At the early gastrula stage the descendants of these founder cells form the primary mesenchyme (PMC). The PMCs fuse to form a multinucleated syncytium connected by cytoplasmic cables, and the calcitic skeleton is formed within these cables. Our primary concern is with the cellular and molecular mechanisms that support the formation of the mineralized spicules. The import of calcium into the PMCs results in appearance of intracellular vesicles containing precipitated calcium, which is neither very stable nor birefringent, and could be amorphous. The precipitated calcium is vectorially secreted into an extracellular space. This space is almost completely enclosed by cytoplasmic strands, and the mineral is encased in an extracellular matrix. Proteins destined for the extracellular matrix, and for inclusion in the spicule, are present in the Golgi membranes and in small intracellular vesicles. These vesicles apparently deliver the matrix proteins to the growing spicule. Our current view is that the matrix molecules are much more than a passive armature, but are actively involved in precipitation, secretion, and organization of the mineral phase.

  1. Differential Effect of Plant Lipids on Membrane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  2. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la serna, J. B.; Schütz, G.; Eggeling, Ch.; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, SEP 2016 (2016), 106 ISSN 2296-634X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06989S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : plasma membrane * membrane organization models * heterogeneous distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  3. Organization in lipid membranes containing cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Sarah L; Keller, Sarah L

    2002-12-23

    A fundamental attribute of raft formation in cell membranes is lateral separation of lipids into coexisting liquid phases. Using fluorescence microscopy, we observe spontaneous lateral separation in free-floating giant unilamellar vesicles. We record coexisting liquid domains over a range of composition and temperature significantly wider than previously reported. Furthermore, we establish correlations between miscibility in bilayers and in monolayers. For example, the same lipid mixtures that produce liquid domains in bilayer membranes produce two upper miscibility critical points in the phase diagrams of monolayers.

  4. Remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with membrane separation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Weng, Huan-xin; Chen, Huan-lin; Gao, Cong-jie

    2002-04-01

    Membrane separation, a new technology for removing VOCs including pervaporation, vapor permeation, membrane contactor, and membrane bioreactor was presented. Comparing with traditional techniques, these special techniques are an efficient and energy-saving technology. Vapor permeation can be applied to recovery of organic solvents from exhaust streams. Membrane contactor could be used for removing or recovering VOCs from air or wastewater. Pervaporation and vapor permeation are viable methods for removing VOCs from wastewater to yield a VOC concentrate which could either be destroyed by conventional means, or be recycled for reuse.

  5. Nitrogen isotopic composition of organic matter from a 168 year-old coral skeleton: Implications for coastal nutrient cycling in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Dirk V.; Wang, Xingchen T.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Scheffers, Sander R.; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Haug, Gerald H.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing human activities are known to affect nitrogen cycling on coral reefs, but the full history of anthropogenic impact is unclear due to a lack of continuous records. We have used the nitrogen isotopic composition of skeleton-bound organic matter (CS-δ15N) in a coastal Porites coral from Magnetic Island in the Great Barrier Reef as a proxy for N cycle changes over a 168 yr period (1820-1987 AD). The Magnetic Island inshore reef environment is considered to be relatively degraded by terrestrial runoff; given prior CS-δ15N studies from other regions, there was an expectation of both secular change and oscillations in CS-δ15N since European settlement of the mainland in the mid 1800s. Surprisingly, CS-δ15N varied by less than 1.5‰ despite significant land use change on the adjacent mainland over the 168-yr measurement period. After 1930, CS-δ15N may have responded to changes in local river runoff, but the effect was weak. We propose that natural buffering against riverine nitrogen load in this region between 1820 and 1987 is responsible for the observed stability in CS-δ15N. In addition to coral derived skeletal δ15N, we also report, for the first time, δ15N measurements of non-coral derived organic N occluded within the coral skeleton, which appear to record significant changes in the nature of terrestrial N inputs. In the context of previous CS-δ15N records, most of which yield CS-δ15N changes of at least 5‰, the Magnetic Island coral suggests that the inherent down-core variability of the CS-δ15N proxy is less than 2‰ for Porites.

  6. Metal–organic framework membranes: from synthesis to separation application

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Shilun

    2014-06-26

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials, which are constructed from metal ions or metal ion clusters and bridging organic linkers, exhibit regular crystalline lattices with relatively well-defined pore structures and interesting properties. As a new class of porous solid materials, MOFs are attractive for a variety of industrial applications including separation membranes-a rapidly developing research area. Many reports have discussed the synthesis and applications of MOFs and MOF thin films, but relatively few have addressed MOF membranes. This critical review provides an overview of the diverse MOF membranes that have been prepared, beginning with a brief introduction to the current techniques for the fabrication of MOF membranes. Gas and liquid separation applications with different MOF membranes are also included (175 references). This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  7. The Skeletons' Halloween

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Mexican printer Jose Guadalupe Posada's (1851-1913) numerous prints of "calaveras" gave vast popularity to skeleton figures through his satirical and politically critical renditions of skeletons engaged in daily activities. They are oftentimes represented in festive and playful posturing. Calaveras have now become the most original trait…

  8. The stapl Skeleton Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Zandifar, Mani

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. This paper describes the stapl Skeleton Framework, a highlevel skeletal approach for parallel programming. This framework abstracts the underlying details of data distribution and parallelism from programmers and enables them to express parallel programs as a composition of existing elementary skeletons such as map, map-reduce, scan, zip, butterfly, allreduce, alltoall and user-defined custom skeletons. Skeletons in this framework are defined as parametric data flow graphs, and their compositions are defined in terms of data flow graph compositions. Defining the composition in this manner allows dependencies between skeletons to be defined in terms of point-to-point dependencies, avoiding unnecessary global synchronizations. To show the ease of composability and expressivity, we implemented the NAS Integer Sort (IS) and Embarrassingly Parallel (EP) benchmarks using skeletons and demonstrate comparable performance to the hand-optimized reference implementations. To demonstrate scalable performance, we show a transformation which enables applications written in terms of skeletons to run on more than 100,000 cores.

  9. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-04-19

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively.

  10. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Schütz, Gerhard J.; Eggeling, Christian; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Ever since technologies enabled the characterization of eukaryotic plasma membranes, heterogeneities in the distributions of its constituents were observed. Over the years this led to the proposal of various models describing the plasma membrane organization such as lipid shells, picket-and-fences, lipid rafts, or protein islands, as addressed in numerous publications and reviews. Instead of emphasizing on one model we in this review give a brief overview over current models and highlight how current experimental work in one or the other way do not support the existence of a single overarching model. Instead, we highlight the vast variety of membrane properties and components, their influences and impacts. We believe that highlighting such controversial discoveries will stimulate unbiased research on plasma membrane organization and functionality, leading to a better understanding of this essential cellular structure. PMID:27747212

  11. Morin-based nanofiltration membranes for organic solvent separation processes

    KAUST Repository

    Perez Manriquez, Liliana

    2018-02-26

    In this work we demonstrate the successful optimization of the interfacial polymerization reaction for the manufacture of organic solvent nanofiltration membranes by replacing the toxic amines commonly used for this method with the natural occurring bio-polyphenol morin. For the manufacture of this type of OSN membrane a crosslinked PAN support was coated by interfacial polymerization using morin as the monomer of the aqueous phase and terephtaloyl chloride as the monomer of the organic phase. These membranes showed an exceptional performance and resistance to NMP by having a a permeance of 0.3L/m2 h bar in NMP with a rejection of 96% of Brilliant Blue dye which has a molecular weight of 825.97g/mol, making these membranes attractive for harsh industrial separation processes due to their ease of manufacture, low cost, and excellent performance.

  12. Porous Organic Cage Thin Films and Molecular-Sieving Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qilei; Jiang, Shan; Hasell, Tom; Liu, Ming; Sun, Shijing; Cheetham, Anthony K; Sivaniah, Easan; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-04-06

    Porous organic cage molecules are fabricated into thin films and molecular-sieving membranes. Cage molecules are solution cast on various substrates to form amorphous thin films, with the structures tuned by tailoring the cage chemistry and processing conditions. For the first time, uniform and pinhole-free microporous cage thin films are formed and demonstrated as molecular-sieving membranes for selective gas separation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Volatile organic carbon/air separation test using gas membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.V.; Kaschemekat, J.

    1993-08-01

    An estimated 900 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were discharged to soil columns during the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operations at the Hanford Site. The largest percentage of this volatile organic compound was found in the vadose region of the 200 West Area. Using a Vacuum Extraction System, the volatile organic compound was drawn from the soil in an air mixture at a concentration of about 1,000 parts per million. The volatile organic compounds were absorbed from the air stream using granulated activated carbon canisters. A gas membrane separation system, developed by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., was tested at the Vacuum Extraction System site to determine if the volatile organic compound load on the granulated activated carbon could be reduced. The Vacuum Extraction System condensed most of the volatile organic compound into liquid carbon tetrachloride and vented the residual gas stream into the granulated activated carbon. This system reduced the cost of operation about $5/kilogram of volatile organic compound removed

  14. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  15. Metal–Organic Framework-Functionalized Alumina Membranes for Vacuum Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zuo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature-mimetic hydrophobic membranes with high wetting resistance have been designed for seawater desalination via vacuum membrane distillation (VMD in this study. This is achieved through molecular engineering of metal–organic framework (MOF-functionalized alumina surfaces. A two-step synthetic strategy was invented to design the hydrophobic membranes: (1 to intergrow MOF crystals on the alumina tube substrate and (2 to introduce perfluoro molecules onto the MOF functionalized membrane surface. With the first step, the surface morphology, especially the hierarchical roughness, can be controlled by tuning the MOF crystal structure. After the second step, the perfluoro molecules function as an ultrathin layer of hydrophobic floss, which lowers the surface energy. Therefore, the resultant membranes do not only possess the intrinsic advantages of alumina supports such as high stability and high water permeability, but also have a hydrophobic surface formed by MOF functionalization. The membrane prepared under an optimum condition achieved a good VMD flux of 32.3 L/m2-h at 60 °C. This study may open up a totally new approach for design of next-generation high performance membrane distillation membranes for seawater desalination.

  16. Novel Ultrathin Membranes Composed of Organic Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Verspeek, Bram; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    of artificial bilayers composed of long-chained organic ions, such as dodecyltrimethylammonium (DMA(+)) and perfluorooctaonate (PFO-). Various ratios of DMA/PFO surfactants result in bilayers of different stability, thickness, area per molecule, and density profiles. In our quest for water filtration, we...

  17. Production of organic nanoparticles by using nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuz, A. A.; Şimşek, A. K.; Kazanci, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this research, organic nanoparticles are produced by using different nanoporous membranes with different diameters in different solutions. In production; two liquids, a feed solution and a receiver solution, are seperated by a nanoporous polycarbonate tracketched (PCTE) membrane. The feed solution is pumped through the membrane into the receiver solution. The feed solution contained biopolymers dissolved in HCl and the receiver solution contained NaOH. pH change is used as precipitation method. Chitosan, collagen and alginic acid sodium salt from brown algae are used as biomaterials in order to obtain nanoparticles. Different sized nanoporous membranes are used to find the ideal pore and particle sizes. Nanoparticles are illustrated by SEM and sphere-shaped nanoparticles with different diameters and needle shaped structures are observed.

  18. Organic-inorganic membranes for filtration of corn distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myronchuk Valeriy G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic membranes were obtained by modification of polymer microfiltration membrane with inorganic ion-exchangers, which form secondary porosity inside macroporous substrate (zirconium hydrophosphate or simultaneously in the macroporous substrate and active layer, depending of the particle size (from ≈50 nm up to several microns. Precipitation of the inorganic constituent is considered from the point of view of Ostwald-Freundlich equation. Such processes as pressing test in deionized water and filtration of corn distillery at 1-6 bar were investigated. Theoretical model allowing to establish fouling mechanism, was applied. It was found that the particles both in the substrate and active layer prevent fouling of the membrane with organics and provide rejection of colloidal particles.

  19. Cubic membranes: a legend beyond the Flatland* of cell membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almsherqi, Zakaria A; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Deng, Yuru

    2006-06-19

    Cubic membranes represent highly curved, three-dimensional nanoperiodic structures that correspond to mathematically well defined triply periodic minimal surfaces. Although they have been observed in numerous cell types and under different conditions, particularly in stressed, diseased, or virally infected cells, knowledge about the formation and function of nonlamellar, cubic structures in biological systems is scarce, and research so far is restricted to the descriptive level. We show that the "organized smooth endoplasmic reticulum" (OSER; Snapp, E.L., R.S. Hegde, M. Francolini, F. Lombardo, S. Colombo, E. Pedrazzini, N. Borgese, and J. Lippincott-Schwartz. 2003. J. Cell Biol. 163:257-269), which is formed in response to elevated levels of specific membrane-resident proteins, is actually the two-dimensional representation of two subtypes of cubic membrane morphology. Controlled OSER induction may thus provide, for the first time, a valuable tool to study cubic membrane formation and function at the molecular level.

  20. Permeability of uncharged organic molecules in reverse osmosis desalination membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dražević, Emil; Košutić, Krešimir; Svalina, Marin; Catalano, Jacopo

    2017-06-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are primarily designed for removal of salts i.e. for desalination of brackish and seawater, but they have also found applications in removal of organic molecules. While it is clear that steric exclusion is the dominant removal mechanism, the fundamental explanation for how and why the separation occurs remains elusive. Until recently there was no strong microscopic evidences elucidating the structure of the active polyamide layers of RO membranes, and thus they have been conceived as "black boxes"; or as an array of straight capillaries with a distribution of radii; or as polymers with a small amount of polymer free domains. The knowledge of diffusion and sorption coefficients is a prerequisite for understanding the intrinsic permeability of any organic solute in any polymer. At the same time, it is technically challenging to accurately measure these two fundamental parameters in very thin (20-300 nm) water-swollen active layers. In this work we have measured partition and diffusion coefficients and RO permeabilities of ten organic solutes in water-swollen active layers of two types of RO membranes, low (SWC4+) and high flux (XLE). We deduced from our results and recent microscopic studies that the solute flux of organic molecules in polyamide layer of RO membranes occurs in two domains, dense polymer (the key barrier layer) and the water filled domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Porous organic cage membranes for water desalination: a simulation exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xian; Jiang, Jianwen

    2017-07-19

    Porous organic cages (POCs) have emerged as a new class of porous materials and received considerable interest for their potential applications. Herein we report the first proof-of-concept simulation study on POC membranes for water desalination. Five [4+6] POCs (CC1, CC2, CC3, CC16, and CC17) are considered with similar crystal structures, but different periphery groups and pore morphologies. CC1 is found to be impermeable to water due to disconnected pores. With an interconnected tetrahedral pore network, CC3 and CC16 have an intermediate water permeability of 1-5 × 10 -7 kg m (m 2 h bar) -1 . CC2 and CC17 contain straight pores and a widely open pore network, respectively, thus exhibit a high water permeability of 2-3 × 10 -6 kg m (m 2 h bar) -1 ; nevertheless, salt rejection in CC17 is only 89%. Among the five POC membranes, CC2 is the best for water desalination with performance superior to other membranes reported in the literature. The membrane flexibility is revealed to have a weak effect on water permeation. To provide further microscopic understanding, the permeation duration, diffusion and hydrogen bonding of water in the POC membranes are quantitatively analyzed. From this simulation study, the key factors governing water permeation in the POC membranes are unraveled and CC2 is identified to be an interesting candidate for water desalination.

  2. Functionalized silicon membranes for selective bio-organism capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létant, Sonia E.; Hart, Bradley R.; van Buuren, Anthony W.; Terminello, Louis J.

    2003-06-01

    Membranes with various pore size, length, morphology and density have been synthesized from diverse materials for size-exclusion-based separation. An example is the sterilization of intravenous lines by exclusion of bacteria and viruses using polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with 0.1-μm-diameter pores. Chemically specific filtration has recently been addressed for small molecules. Nevertheless, specific bio-organism immobilization and detection remains a great technical challenge in many biomedical applications, such as decontamination or analysis of air and liquids such as drinking water and body fluids. To achieve this goal, materials with controlled pore diameter, length and surface chemistry are required. In this letter, we present the first functionalized silicon membranes and demonstrate their ability to selectively capture simulated bio-organisms. These extremely versatile and rigid devices open the door to a new class of materials that are able to recognize the external fingerprints of bio-organisms-such as size and outer membrane proteins-for specific capture and detection applications.

  3. Vinculin is a permanent component of the membrane skeleton and is incorporated into the (re)organising cytoskeleton upon platelet activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asijee, G. M.; Sturk, A.; Bruin, T.; Wilkinson, J. M.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    Vinculin, a 130-kDa protein discovered in chicken gizzard smooth-muscle cells and subsequently also described in platelets, is believed to be involved in membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. In this study we investigated vinculin distribution in human blood platelets. Two skeletal fractions and a

  4. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technology in Organic Acid Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norela Jusoh; Norasikin Othman; Nur Alina Nasruddin

    2016-01-01

    Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) process have shown a great potential in wide application of industrial separations such as in removal of many chemicals, organic compounds, metal ions, pollutants and biomolecules. This system promote many advantages including simple operation, high selectivity, low energy requirement, and single stage extraction and stripping process. One potential application of ELM is in the purification of succinic acid from fermentation broth. This study outline steps for developing emulsion liquid membrane process in purification of succinic acid. The steps include liquid membrane formulation, ELM stability and ELM extraction of succinic acid. Several carrier, diluent and stripping agent was screened to find appropriate membrane formulation. After that, ELM stability was investigated to enhance the recovery of succinic acid. Finally, the performance of ELM was evaluated in the extraction process. Results show that formulated liquid membrane using Amberlite LA2 as carrier, palm oil as diluent and sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3 as stripping agent provide good performance in purification. On the other hand, the prepared emulsion was observed to be stable up to 1 hour and sufficient for extraction process. In conclusion, ELM has high potential to purify succinic acid from fermentation broth. (author)

  5. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Wai Kit; Jouët, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: ► Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. ► Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. ► Al 2 O 3 and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. ► High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  6. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wai Kit, E-mail: kekyeung@ust.hk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Joueet, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Schrotter, Jean-Christophe [Water Research Center of Veolia, Anjou Recherche, Chemin de la Digue, BP 76. 78603, Maisons Laffitte, Cedex (France)

    2012-05-15

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  7. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit Chan, Wai; Jouët, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Lun Yeung, King; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-05-01

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation.

  8. Evolution and accumulation of organic foulants on hydrophobic and hydrophilic membrane surfaces in a submerged membrane bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald

    2015-09-07

    Membrane surface modification is attracting more attention to mitigate biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Five membranes differing in chemistry and hydrophobic/hydrophilic potential were run in parallel in a lab-scale MBR under the same conditions. Membranes were sampled after 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of MBR operation with synthetic wastewater. Subsequently, accumulated organic foulants were characterised using several chemical analytical tools. Results showed similar development of organic foulants with time, illustrating that membrane surface chemistry did not affect the selection of specific organic foulants. Multivariate analysis showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the day of sampling. The composition of organic foulants shifted from protein-like substances towards humics and polysaccharides-like substances. We propose that to control biofouling in MBRs, one should focus less on the membrane surface chemistry.

  9. Organic fouling behavior of superhydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membranes functionalized with surface-tailored nanoparticles: Implications for organic fouling in membrane bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Shuai

    2014-08-01

    This study systematically investigates the organic fouling behavior of a superhydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membrane functionalized via post-fabrication tethering of surface-tailored silica nanoparticles to poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted PVDF membrane surface. Sodium alginate (SA), Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as model organic foulants to investigate the antifouling behavior of the superhydrophilic membrane with combined-fouling (mixture of foulants) and individual-fouling (single foulant) tests. A membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant supernatant was also used to verify the organic antifouling property of the superhydrophilic membrane under realistic conditions. Foulant size distributions and foulant-membrane interfacial forces were measured to interpret the observed membrane fouling behavior. Molecular weight cutoff measurements confirmed that membrane functionalization did not adversely affect the intrinsic membrane selectivity. Both filtration tests with the synthetic foulant-mixture solution (containing SA, SRNOM, and BSA) and MBR plant supernatant demonstrated the reliability and durability of the antifouling property of the superhydrophilic membrane. The conspicuous reduction in foulant-membrane interfacial forces for the functionalized membrane further verified the antifouling properties of the superhydrophilic membrane, suggesting great potential for applications in wastewater treatment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Electrospun Superhydrophobic Organic/Inorganic Composite Nanofibrous Membranes for Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Yu, Xufeng; Cheng, Cheng; Deng, Li; Wang, Min; Wang, Xuefen

    2015-10-07

    Electrospun superhydrophobic organic/inorganic composite nanofibrous membranes exhibiting excellent direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performance were fabricated by a facile route combining the hydrophobization of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) and colloid electrospinning of the hydrophobic silica/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. Benefiting from the utilization of SiO2 NPs with three different particle sizes, the electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs) were endowed with three different delicate nanofiber morphologies and fiber diameter distribution, high porosity, and superhydrophobic property, which resulted in excellent waterproofing and breathability. Significantly, structural attributes analyses have indicated the major contributing role of fiber diameter distribution on determining the augment of permeate vapor flux through regulating mean flow pore size (MFP). Meanwhile, the extremely high liquid entry pressure of water (LEPw, 2.40 ± 0.10 bar), robust nanofiber morphology of PVDF immobilized SiO2 NPs, remarkable mechanical properties, thermal stability, and corrosion resistance endowed the as-prepared membranes with prominent desalination capability and stability for long-term MD process. The resultant choreographed PVDF/silica ENMs with optimized MFP presented an outstanding permeate vapor flux of 41.1 kg/(m(2)·h) and stable low permeate conductivity (∼2.45 μs/cm) (3.5 wt % NaCl salt feed; ΔT = 40 °C) over a DCMD test period of 24 h without membrane pores wetting detected. This result was better than those of typical commercial PVDF membranes and PVDF and modified PVDF ENMs reported so far, suggesting them as promising alternatives for MD applications.

  11. ISTP CDF Skeleton Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimiak, Reine; Harris, Bernard; Williams, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Basic Common Data Format (CDF) tools (e.g., cdfedit) provide no specific support for creating International Solar-Terrestrial Physics/Space Physics Data Facility (ISTP/SPDF) standard files. While it is possible for someone who is familiar with the ISTP/SPDF metadata guidelines to create compliant files using just the basic tools, the process is error-prone and unreasonable for someone without ISTP/SPDF expertise. The key problem is the lack of a tool with specific support for creating files that comply with the ISTP/SPDF guidelines. There are basic CDF tools such as cdfedit and skeletoncdf for creating CDF files, but these have no specific support for creating ISTP/ SPDF compliant files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor is a cross-platform, Java-based GUI editor program that allows someone with only a basic understanding of the ISTP/SPDF guidelines to easily create compliant files. The editor is a simple graphical user interface (GUI) application for creating and editing ISTP/SPDF guideline-compliant skeleton CDF files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor consists of the following components: A swing-based Java GUI program, JavaHelp-based manual/ tutorial, Image/Icon files, and HTML Web page for distribution. The editor is available as a traditional Java desktop application as well as a Java Network Launching Protocol (JNLP) application. Once started, it functions like a typical Java GUI file editor application for creating/editing application-unique files.

  12. Removal of trace organic chemical contaminants by a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, T; van den Akker, B; Stuetz, R M; Coleman, H M; Le-Clech, P; Khan, S J

    2012-01-01

    Emerging wastewater treatment processes such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have attracted a significant amount of interest internationally due to their ability to produce high quality effluent suitable for water recycling. It is therefore important that their efficiency in removing hazardous trace organic contaminants be assessed. Accordingly, this study investigated the removal of trace organic chemical contaminants through a full-scale, package MBR in New South Wales, Australia. This study was unique in the context of MBR research because it characterised the removal of 48 trace organic chemical contaminants, which included steroidal hormones, xenoestrogens, pesticides, caffeine, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Results showed that the removal of most trace organic chemical contaminants through the MBR was high (above 90%). However, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, omeprazole, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim were only partially removed through the MBR with the removal efficiencies of 24-68%. These are potential indicators for assessing MBR performance as these chemicals are usually sensitive to changes in the treatment systems. The trace organic chemical contaminants detected in the MBR permeate were 1 to 6 orders of magnitude lower than guideline values reported in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. The outcomes of this study enhanced our understanding of the levels and removal of trace organic contaminants by MBRs.

  13. Ceramic membrane ozonator for soluble organics removal from produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, U. W. R.; Dwipramana, A. S.; Perwira, S. B.; Khoiruddin; Wenten, I. G.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the performance of ozonation for degradation of soluble organic compounds in produced water was investigated. Tubular ceramic membrane diffuser (with and without a static mixer in the lumen side) was used to facilitate contact between ozone and produced water. The ozonation was conducted at ozone flow rate of 8 L.min-1, ozone concentration of 0.4 ppm, original pH of the solution, and pressure of 1.2 bar, while the flow rates of the produced water were varied (192, 378 and 830 mL.min-1). It was found that the reduction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were 85%, 99%, 85%, and 95%, respectively. A lower liquid flow rate in a laminar state showed a better component reduction due to the longer contacting time between the liquid and the gas phase. The introduction of the static mixer in the lumen side of the membrane as a turbulence promoter provided a positive effect on the performance of the membrane diffuser. The twisted static mixer exhibited the better removal rate than the spiral static mixer.

  14. Progress on Zeolite-membrane-aided Organic Acid Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Esterification is a common route to produce carboxylic acid esters as important intermediates in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. However, the reaction is equilibrium limited and needs to be driven forward by selective removal one of the products. There have been some efforts to selectively remove water from reaction mixture via several separation processes (such as pervaporation and reactive distillation). Integrated pervaporation and esterification has gained increasing attention towards. Inorganic zeolite is the most popular material for pervaporation due to its high chemical resistant and separation performance towards water. Zeolite also has proven to be an effective material in removing water from organic compound. Zeolite can act not only as selective layer but also simultaneously act as a catalyst on promoting the reaction. Hence, there are many configurations in integrating zeolite membrane for esterification reaction. As a selective layer to remove water from reaction mixture, high Si/Al zeolite is preferred to enhance its hydrophilicity. However, low Si/Al zeolite is unstable in acid condition due to dealumination thus eliminate its advantages. As a catalyst, acid zeolites (e.g. H-ZSM-5) provide protons for autoprotolysis of the carboxylic acid similar to other catalyst for esterification (e.g. inorganic acid, and ion exchange resins). There are many studies related to zeolite membrane aided esterification. This paper will give brief information related to zeolite membrane role in esterification and also research trend towards it.

  15. Conformations and membrane-driven self-organization of rodlike fd virus particles on freestanding lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Anastasiia B; Herold, Christoph; Petrov, Eugene P

    2017-10-11

    Membrane-mediated interactions and aggregation of colloidal particles adsorbed to responsive elastic membranes are challenging problems relevant for understanding the microscopic organization and dynamics of biological membranes. We experimentally study the behavior of rodlike semiflexible fd virus particles electrostatically adsorbed to freestanding cationic lipid membranes and find that their behavior can be controlled by tuning the membrane charge and ionic strength of the surrounding medium. Three distinct interaction regimes of rodlike virus particles with responsive elastic membranes can be observed. (i) A weakly charged freestanding cationic lipid bilayer in a low ionic strength medium represents a gentle quasi-2D substrate preserving the integrity, structure, and mechanical properties of the membrane-bound semiflexible fd virus, which under these conditions is characterized by a monomer length of 884 ± 4 nm and a persistence length of 2.5 ± 0.2 μm, in perfect agreement with its properties in bulk media. (ii) An increase in the membrane charge leads to the membrane-driven collapse of fd virus particles on freestanding lipid bilayers and lipid nanotubes into compact globules. (iii) When the membrane charge is low, and the mutual electrostatic repulsion of membrane-bound virus particles is screened to a considerable degree, membrane-driven self-organization of membrane-bound fd virus particles into long linear tip-to-tip aggregates showing dynamic self-assembly/disassembly and quasi-semiflexible behavior takes place. These observations are in perfect agreement with the results of recent theoretical and simulation studies predicting that membrane-mediated interactions can control the behavior of colloidal particles adsorbed on responsive elastic membranes.

  16. [WHAT SKELETONS TELL US].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The recent excavations carried out by the Superintendence for the Colosseum, the Roman National Museum and the Archaeological Area of Rome allowed to uncover a large number of burial grounds of Imperial Age. In this work we present the data for 11 cemeteries scattered throughout the Suburbiumn, dating between 1st and 3rd centuries AD. A whole sample of 6061 tombs has been investigated and 5280 skeletons were anthropologically analyzed. All the field data have been scored in appropriate standardized charts in order to make easy their storage and processing in a dedicated database.

  17. Effect of Membrane Type for the Treatment of Organized Industrial Zone (OIZ) Wastewater with a Membrane Bioreactor (MBR): Batch Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay Özkan; İbrahim Uyanık

    2017-01-01

    Organized industrial zone (OIZ) wastewater is a mixed wastewater that is contributed by both municipal use and from different industrial sectors. Since MBR has advantages over conventional treatment plants, membrane types and fouling become the most important parameters in the treatment of this kind of wastewater. In this study, six different membrane types were used to find the most suitable membrane with the least resistivity to fouling. Three different microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltrat...

  18. A NOVEL HYDROPHILIC POLYMER MEMBRANE FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel hydrophilic polymer membranes based on polyallylamine ydrochloride- polyvinylalcohol are developed. The high selectivity and flux characteristics of these membranes for the dehydration of organic solvents are evaluated using pervaporation technology and are found to be ver...

  19. Performance evaluation of organic emulsion liquid membrane on phenol removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Yee Sern; Jayakumar, N.S.; Hashim, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The percentage removal of phenol from aqueous solution by emulsion liquid membrane and emulsion leakage was investigated experimentally for various parameters such as membrane:internal phase ratio, membrane:external phase ratio, emulsification speed, emulsification time, carrier concentration, surfactant concentration and internal agent concentration. These parameters strongly influence the percentage removal of phenol and emulsion leakage. Under optimum membrane properties, the percentage re...

  20. Composite proton exchange membrane based on sulfonated organic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitia, Emmanuel Sokiri

    As the world sets its sight into the future, energy remains a great challenge. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is part of the solution to the energy challenge because of its high efficiency and diverse application. The purpose of the PEM is to provide a path for proton transport and to prevent direct mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the anode and the cathode, respectively. Hence, PEMs must have good proton conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and mechanical durability. The current state-of-the-art PEM is a perfluorosulfonate ionomer, Nafion®. Although Nafion® has many desirable properties, it has high methanol crossover and it is expensive. The objective of this research was to develop a cost effective two-phase, composite PEM wherein a dispersed conductive organic phase preferentially aligned in the transport direction controls proton transport, and a continuous hydrophobic phase provides mechanical durability to the PEM. The hypothesis that was driving this research was that one might expect better dispersion, higher surface to volume ratio and improved proton conductivity of a composite membrane if the dispersed particles were nanometer in size and had high ion exchange capacity (IEC, = [mmol sulfonic acid]/gram of polymer). In view of this, considerable efforts were employed in the synthesis of high IEC organic nanoparticles and fabrication of a composite membrane with controlled microstructure. High IEC, ~ 4.5 meq/g (in acid form, theoretical limit is 5.4 meq/g) nanoparticles were achieved by emulsion copolymerization of a quaternary alkyl ammonium (QAA) neutralized-sulfonated styrene (QAA-SS), styrene, and divinylbenzene (DVB). The effects of varying the counterion of the sulfonated styrene (SS) monomer (alkali metal and QAA cations), SS concentration, and the addition of a crosslinking agent (DVB) on the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles to higher IECs were assessed. The nanoparticles were ion exchanged to acid form. The extent of ion

  1. Editorial: Molecular Organization of Membranes: Where Biology Meets Biophysics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cebecauer, Marek; Holowka, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 113 (2017), s. 1-3 ISSN 2296-634X Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanodomains * membrane properties * cell membrane Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  2. Functionalization of a Hydrophilic Commercial Membrane Using Inorganic-Organic Polymers Coatings for Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Eykens

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a thermal separation technique using a microporous hydrophobic membrane. One of the concerns with respect to the industrialization of the technique is the development of novel membranes. In this paper, a commercially available hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane with a suitable structure for membrane distillation was modified using available hydrophobic coatings using ORMOCER® technology to obtain a hydrophobic membrane that can be applied in membrane distillation. The surface modification was performed using a selection of different components, concentrations, and application methods. The resulting membranes can have two hydrophobic surfaces or a hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface depending on the application method. An extensive characterization procedure confirmed the suitability of the coating technique and the obtained membranes for membrane distillation. The surface contact angle of water could be increased from 27° up to 110°, and fluxes comparable to membranes commonly used for membrane distillation were achieved under similar process conditions. A 100 h test demonstrated the stability of the coating and the importance of using sufficiently stable base membranes.

  3. Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes in separation processes: a 10-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to some inorganic membranes, polymeric membranes have relatively low separation performance. However, the processing flexibility and low cost of polymers still make them highly attractive for many industrial separation applications. Polymer-inorganic hybrid membranes constitute an emerging research field and have been recently developed to improve the separation properties of polymer membranes because they possess properties of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good hydrophilicity, selectivity, permeability, mechanical strength, and thermal and chemical stability. The structures and processing of polymer-inorganic nanocomposite hybrid membranes, as well as their use in the fields of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, pervaporation, gas separation and separation mechanism are reviewed.

  4. Effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on membrane fouling in anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodi; Koh, Yoong Keat Kelvin; Ng, How Yong

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) have been regarded as a potential solution to achieve energy neutrality in the future wastewater treatment plants. Coupling ceramic membranes into AnMBRs offers great potential as ceramic membranes are resistant to corrosive chemicals such as cleaning reagents and harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature. In this study, ceramic membranes with pore sizes of 80, 200 and 300 nm were individually mounted in three anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating real domestic wastewater to examine the treatment efficiencies and to elucidate the effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on fouling behaviours. The average overall chemical oxygen demands (COD) removal efficiencies could reach around 86-88%. Although CH4 productions were around 0.3 L/g CODutilised, about 67% of CH4 generated was dissolved in the liquid phase and lost in the permeate. When filtering mixed liquor of similar properties, smaller pore-sized membranes fouled slower in long-term operations due to lower occurrence of pore blockages. However, total organic removal efficiencies could not explain the fouling behaviours. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors were used to analyse the DOMs in detail. The major foulants were identified to be biopolymers that were produced in microbial activities. One of the main components of biopolymers--proteins--led to different fouling behaviours. It is postulated that the proteins could pass through porous cake layers to create pore blockages in membranes. Hence, concentrations of the DOMs in the soluble fraction of mixed liquor (SML) could not predict membrane fouling because different components in the DOMs might have different interactions with membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Membrane Domains and Their Relevance to the Organization of Biological Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2012-01-01

    approaches. Thus, a section containing a historical perspective of lipid domains has been added as an introduction, recapitulating how lipid domains came into view and discussing how this phenomenon influenced different models of biological membranes. General but important aspects of the physical basis...... approaches. This includes a section on experimental results showing correlations between simple lipid mixtures and some specialized natural membranous systems. The chapter ends by discussing the pros and cons of current biological membrane models considering membrane domains, and tackles new challenges...... and future perspectives on membrane-related studies. This last section includes a critical discussion about the appropriateness of connecting phenomena observed in model membrane systems with their natural counterpart – that is, biological membranes....

  6. Fabrication of highly co2 selective metal organic framework membrane using liquid phase epitaxy approach

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-01-28

    Embodiments include a method of making a metal organic framework membrane comprising contacting a substrate with a solution including a metal ion and contacting the substrate with a solution including an organic ligand, sufficient to form one or more layers of a metal organic framework on a substrate. Embodiments further include a defect-free metal organic framework membrane comprising MSiF6(pyz)2, wherein M is a metal, wherein the thickness of the membrane is less than 1,000 µm, and wherein the metal organic has a growth orientation along the [110] plane relative to a substrate.

  7. An investigation into solvent-membrane interactions when assessing drug release from organic vehicles using regenerated cellulose membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Monica L; Brown, Marc B; Moss, Gary P; Jones, Stuart A

    2008-09-01

    The influence of organic solvents on artificial membranes when assessing drug release from topical formulations is, generally, poorly characterised yet current guidelines require no characterisation of the membrane before, during or after an experiment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of solvent-membrane interactions when using in-vitro Franz cell methods for the assessment of corticosteroid release and to assess compliance or otherwise with Higuchi's equation. The rate of beclometasone dipropionate monohydrate (BDP) and betamethasone 17-valerate (BMV) release across a regenerated cellulose membrane (RCM), from both saturated solutions and commercial formulations, was determined. Increasing the ratio of organic solvent, compared with aqueous phase, in the donor fluid (DF) resulted in up to a 416-fold increase in steady-state flux. Further, alterations in the receiver fluid (RF) composition caused, in some cases, 337-fold increases in flux. Analysis indicated that the RCM remained chemically unchanged, that its pore size remained constant and that no drug partitioned into the membrane, regardless of the DF or RF employed. However, it was observed that the organic solvents had a thinning effect on the RCM, resulting in enhanced flux, which was potentially due to the variation in the diffusional path length. Such findings raise issues of the veracity of data produced from any membrane release study involving a comparison of formulations with differing solvent content.

  8. The Milky Way Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. (2014) argued that a very long, very thin infrared dark cloud 'Nessie' lies directly in the Galactic mid-plane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-position-velocity space as traced by low density CO and high density NH3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first 'bone' of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high contrast filament that can be used to map our galaxy's 'skeleton.' We present the first evidence of additional 'bones' in the Milky Way Galaxy, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of many filaments that could potentially trace galactic structure. Our ten bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features which lie parallel to, and no more than twenty parsecs from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use CO, N2H+, and NH3 radial velocity data to establish the location of the candidates in position-velocity space. Of the ten filaments, three candidates have a projected aspect ratio of >50:1 and run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-velocity space. Evidence suggests that these three candidates are Nessie-like features which mark the location of the spiral arms in both physical space and position-velocity space. Other candidates could be spurs, feathers, or interarm clouds associated with the Milky Way's galactic structure. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, we hope to find more bones in future studies, to ultimately create a global-fit to the Galaxy's spiral arms by piecing together individual skeletal features. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  9. Performance evaluation of organic emulsion liquid membrane on phenol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y S; Jayakumar, N S; Hashim, M A

    2010-12-15

    The percentage removal of phenol from aqueous solution by emulsion liquid membrane and emulsion leakage was investigated experimentally for various parameters such as membrane:internal phase ratio, membrane:external phase ratio, emulsification speed, emulsification time, carrier concentration, surfactant concentration and internal agent concentration. These parameters strongly influence the percentage removal of phenol and emulsion leakage. Under optimum membrane properties, the percentage removal of phenol was as high as 98.33%, with emulsion leakage of 1.25%. It was also found that the necessity of carrier for enhancing phenol removal was strongly dependent on the internal agent concentration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alteration of the erythrocyte membrane skeletal ultrastructure in hereditary spherocytosis, hereditary elliptocytosis, and pyropoikilocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S C; Derick, L H; Agre, P; Palek, J

    1990-07-01

    The membrane skeleton of normal erythrocytes is largely organized into a hexagonal lattice of junctional complexes (JC) crosslinked by spectrin tetramers, and occasional double tetramers and hexamers. To explore possible skeletal alterations in hereditary spherocytosis (HS), elliptocytosis (HE), and pyropoikilocytosis (HPP), we have studied the ultrastructure of the spread membrane skeletons from a subpopulation of HS patients with a partial spectrin deficiency ranging from 43% to 86% of normal levels, and in patients with HPP who, in addition to a mild spectrin deficiency, also carried a mutant spectrin that was dysfunctional, thus reducing the ability of spectrin dimers to assemble into tetramers. Membrane skeletons derived from Triton-treated erythrocyte ghosts were examined by negative staining electron microscopy. HS membrane skeletons contained structural elements, consisting of JC and spectrin filaments similar to the normal skeleton. However, less spectrin filaments interconnected the JC, and the decrease of spectrin filaments attached to JC appeared to correlate with the severity of spectrin deficiency. Only in severe HS associated with severe spectrin deficiency was the loss of spectrin sufficient enough to disrupt the overall skeletal architecture. In contrast, membrane skeletons prepared from red blood cells (RBCs) of subjects with HPP were strikingly different from HS RBCs with a comparable degree of spectrin deficiency. Although HPP RBCs were only mildly deficient in spectrin, their skeletal lattice was grossly disrupted, in contrast to only mild ultrastructural abnormalities of HS membrane skeletons with a nearly identical degree of spectrin deficiency. Skeletons from patients with common mild HE or asymptomatic carriers, carrying the mutant spectrin but having normal spectrin content, exhibited a moderate disruption of the skeletal lattice. We propose that the above differences in skeletal ultrastructure may underlie differences in the biomechanical

  11. Sphingolipid Organization in the Plasma Membrane and the Mechanisms That Influence It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are structural components in the plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. Their metabolism produces bioactive signaling molecules that modulate fundamental cellular processes. The segregation of sphingolipids into distinct membrane domains is likely essential for cellular function. This review presents the early studies of sphingolipid distribution in the plasma membranes of mammalian cells that shaped the most popular current model of plasma membrane organization. The results of traditional imaging studies of sphingolipid distribution in stimulated and resting cells are described. These data are compared with recent results obtained with advanced imaging techniques, including super-resolution fluorescence detection and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Emphasis is placed on the new insight into the sphingolipid organization within the plasma membrane that has resulted from the direct imaging of stable isotope-labeled lipids in actual cell membranes with high-resolution SIMS. Super-resolution fluorescence techniques have recently revealed the biophysical behaviors of sphingolipids and the unhindered diffusion of cholesterol analogs in the membranes of living cells are ultimately in contrast to the prevailing hypothetical model of plasma membrane organization. High-resolution SIMS studies also conflicted with the prevailing hypothesis, showing sphingolipids are concentrated in micrometer-scale membrane domains, but cholesterol is evenly distributed within the plasma membrane. Reductions in cellular cholesterol decreased the number of sphingolipid domains in the plasma membrane, whereas disruption of the cytoskeleton eliminated them. In addition, hemagglutinin, a transmembrane protein that is thought to be a putative raft marker, did not cluster within sphingolipid-enriched regions in the plasma membrane. Thus, sphingolipid distribution in the plasma membrane is dependent on the cytoskeleton, but not on favorable interactions with

  12. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-15

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  13. Skeleton scintigraphy in trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal trauma is common and presents both an opportunity and a problem in skeletal scintigraphy. The opportunity arises in the ability of skeletal scintigraphy to demonstrate abnormalities early after direct trauma. It is well recognized that the early detection of fractures in some sites cannot be reliably achieved by standard radiography, especially in the femoral neck and scaphoid bone. The problem comes in recognizing the effects of skeletal trauma when using skeletal scintigraphy for another purpose, such as the detection of metastatic disease. iatrogenic trauma to either the skeleton or soft tissues may be manifest scintigraphic ally. For example Craniotomy typically leaves a rim pattern at the surgical margin. Rib Retraction during thoracotomy can elicit periosteal reaction. Areas of the skeletal receiving curative levels of ionizing radiation (typically 4000 rads or greater) characteristically demonstrate decreased uptake within 6 months to 1 year after therapy. The generally high sensitivity of the skeletal scintigraphy seems to make it an ideal survey test in cases of suspected child abuse especially in which radiographs are unrevealing. Because of difficulties in obtaining a history of trauma from a preschool child or even eliciting a satisfactory description of the location and nature of the pain, skeletal scintigraphy provides a simple and reliable investigation in these children. Subtle trauma, such as that from stress fractures is often difficult to visualize on a plain radiograph. Skeletal scintigraphy is frequently positive at the time of clinical presentation. Skeletal scintigraphy is exquisitely sensitive to the remodeling process and typically shows abnormalities 1 to 2 weeks or more before the appearance of radiographic changes in stress fractures. The periosteal reaction can be visualized within hours of the injury. Insufficiency and fatigue fractures such as vertebral compression fracture, which is probably the most common consequence of

  14. Precambrian Skeletonized Microbial Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Jere H.

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal heterotrophic eukaryotes are mostly absent from the Precambrian, although algal eukaryotes appear about 2.2 billion years ago. Tintinnids, radiolaria and foraminifera have molecular origins well back into the Precambrian yet no representatives of these groups are known with certainty in that time. These data infer times of the last common ancestors, not the appearance of true representatives of these groups which may well have diversified or not been preserved since those splits. Previous reports of these groups in the Precambrian are misinterpretations of other objects in the fossil record. Reported tintinnids at 1600 mya from China are metamorphic shards or mineral artifacts, the many specimens from 635-715 mya in Mongolia may be eukaryotes but they are not tintinnids, and the putative tintinnids at 580 mya in the Doushantou formation of China are diagenetic alterations of well-known acritarchs. The oldest supposed foraminiferan is Titanotheca from 550 to 565 mya rocks in South America and Africa is based on the occurrence of rutile in the tests and in a few modern agglutinated foraminifera, as well as the agglutinated tests. Neither of these nor the morphology are characteristic of foraminifera; hence these fossils remain as indeterminate microfossils. Platysolenites, an agglutinated tube identical to the modern foraminiferan Bathysiphon, occurs in the latest Neoproterozoic in Russia, Canada, and the USA (California). Some of the larger fossils occurring in typical Ediacaran (late Neoproterozoic) assemblages may be xenophyophorids (very large foraminifera), but the comparison is disputed and flawed. Radiolaria, on occasion, have been reported in the Precambrian, but the earliest known clearly identifiable ones are in the Cambrian. The only certain Precambrian heterotrophic skeletal eukaryotes (thecamoebians) occur in fresh-water rocks at about 750 mya. Skeletonized radiolaria and foraminifera appear sparsely in the Cambrian and radiate in the Ordovician

  15. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with organic-inorganic hybrid material for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Yan, Hao; Yao, Xuerong; Shi, Hongwei; Tang, Yujing; Wei, Xiangrong; Liu, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    A series of thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes based on polyamide have been modified by coating the polyvinyl alcohol and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel process on the membrane surface, followed by thermal crosslinking treatment. In order to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified TFC membranes, the membranes were then immersed into H2O2 aqueous solution to convert -SH into -SO3H. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, streaming potential, XPS as well as static contact angle. After surface modification with the organic-inorganic hybrid material, the TFC membranes show increased NaCl rejection and decreased water flux with increasing 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane content in coating solution. The optimal modification membrane (PA-SMPTES-0.8) exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.29%, higher than that (97.20%) of the virgin PA membrane, and a comparable water flux to virgin PA membrane (41.7 L/m2 h vs 47.9 L/m2 h). More importantly, PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA than virgin PA and PVA modified PA (PA-PVA-1.0) membranes. PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane loses about 13% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is lower than that of virgin PA and PA-PVA-1.0 membranes (42% and 18%). Furthermore, the flux recovery of PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane reaches 94% after cleaning. Thus the TFC membranes modified by this organic-inorganic hybrid technology show potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  16. Organic/inorganic composite membranes based on polybenzimidazole and nano-SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Hongting; Liu Lu; Chang Zhihong; Yuan Junjie

    2009-01-01

    Organic/inorganic composite membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) and nano-SiO 2 were prepared in this work. However, the preparation of PBI/SiO 2 composite membrane is not easy since PBI is insoluble in water, while nano-SiO 2 is hydrophilic due to the hydrophilicity of nano-SiO 2 and water-insolubility of PBI. Thus, a solvent-exchange method was employed to prepare the composite membrane. The morphology of the composite membranes was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was revealed that inorganic particles were dispersed homogenously in the PBI matrix. The thermal stability of the composite membrane is higher than that of pure PBI, both for doped and undoped membranes. PBI/SiO 2 composite membranes with up to 15 wt% SiO 2 exhibited improved mechanical properties compared with PBI membranes. The proton conductivity of the composite membranes containing phosphoric acid was studied. The nano-SiO 2 in the composite membranes enhanced the ability to trap phosphoric acid, which improved the proton conductivity of the composite membranes. The membrane with 15 wt% of inorganic material is oxidatively stable and has a proton conductivity of 3.9 x 10 -3 S/cm at 180 deg. C.

  17. Tumors of the foot skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, K.

    2007-01-01

    About 3-4% of all tumors and tumor-like lesions of the skeleton are located in the foot. Many of these lesions have a predilection for certain locations, so that the spectrum of entities occurring in the foot differs from the rest of the skeleton. Despite the fact that practically any entity can occur in the foot in rare cases, taken together the ten most frequent lesions make up for the vast majority of tumors and tumor-like lesions of the foot. The differential diagnosis of these lesions follows the general principles that apply in the rest of the skeleton. It is based on the analysis of the lesion's X-ray morphology and location, the patient's age, and in certain entities, the MR morphology. This article describes the most important tumors and tumor-like lesions of the foot, their differential diagnosis, and the principles of local staging. (orig.) [de

  18. Mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system: A central player in membrane shaping and crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollweber, Florian; von der Malsburg, Karina; van der Laan, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Mitochondria are multifunctional metabolic factories and integrative signaling organelles of eukaryotic cells. The structural basis for their numerous functions is a complex and dynamic double-membrane architecture. The outer membrane connects mitochondria to the cytosol and other organelles. The inner membrane is composed of a boundary region and highly folded cristae membranes. The evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) connects the two inner membrane domains via formation and stabilization of crista junction structures. Moreover, MICOS establishes contact sites between inner and outer mitochondrial membranes by interacting with outer membrane protein complexes. MICOS deficiency leads to a grossly altered inner membrane architecture resulting in far-reaching functional perturbations in mitochondria. Consequently, mutations affecting the function of MICOS are responsible for a diverse spectrum of human diseases. In this article, we summarize recent insights and concepts on the role of MICOS in the organization of mitochondrial membranes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Contact Sites edited by Christian Ungermann and Benoit Kornmann. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Parallel FFT using Eden Skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Dieterle, Mischa; Lobachev, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates and compares skeleton-based Eden implementations of different FFT-algorithms on workstation clusters with distributed memory. Our experiments show that the basic divide-and-conquer versions suffer from an inherent input distribution and result collection problem. Advanced...... approaches like calculating FFT using a parallel map-and-transpose skeleton provide more flexibility to overcome these problems. Assuming a distributed access to input data and re-organising computation to return results in a distributed way improves the parallel runtime behaviour....

  20. Medical applications of membranes: Drug delivery, artificial organs and tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Papenburg, B.J.; Girones nogue, Miriam; Saiful, S.; Bettahalli Narasimha, M.S.; Schmitmeier, Stephanie; Wessling, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    This paper covers the main medical applications of artificial membranes. Specific attention is given to drug delivery systems, artificial organs and tissue engineering which seem to dominate the interest of the membrane community this period. In all cases, the materials, methods and the current

  1. Removal of H2S and volatile organic sulfur compounds by silicone membrane extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manconi, I.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores an alternative process for the abatement and/or desulfurization of H2S and volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSC) containing waste streams, which employs a silicone-based membrane to simultaneously remove H2S and VOSC. An extractive membrane reactor allows the

  2. A molecular dynamics simulation of a homogeneous organic-inorganic hybrid silica membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai-Shiun; Yoshioka, Tomohisa; Kanezashi, Masakoto; Tsuru, Toshinori; Tung, Kuo-Lun

    2010-12-28

    A new molecular dynamics simulation method was successfully applied to construct a homogeneous organic-inorganic hybrid silica membrane using the hybrid-pcff (h-pcff) potential function. Analysis suggested that the hybrid BTESE silica membrane provided a looser network and larger cavity size for the enhancement of gas permeability and selectivity.

  3. Natural Organic Matter Removal and Fouling in a Low Pressure Hybrid Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Uyak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate powdered activated carbon (PAC contribution to natural organic matter (NOM removal by a submerged MF and UF hybrid systems. It was found that filtration of surface waters by a bare MF and UF membranes removed negligible TOC; by contrast, significant amounts of TOC were removed when daily added PAC particles were predeposited on the membrane surfaces. These results support the assumption that the membranes surface properties and PAC layer structure might have considerably influential factor on NOM removal. Moreover, it was concluded that the dominant removal mechanism of hybrid membrane system is adsorption of NOM within PAC layer rather than size exclusion of NOM by both of membrane pores. Transmembrane pressure (TMP increases with PAC membrane systems support the view that PAC adsorption pretreatment will not prevent the development of membrane pressure; on the contrary, PAC particles themselves caused membrane fouling by blocking the entrance of pores of MF and UF membranes. Although all three source waters have similar HPI content, it appears that the PAC interaction with the entrance of membrane pores was responsible for offsetting the NOM fractional effects on membrane fouling for these source waters.

  4. Spatiotemporal mapping of diffusion dynamics and organization in plasma membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Nirmalya; Ng, Xue Wen; Sankaran, Jagadish; Wohland, Thorsten

    2016-09-01

    Imaging fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and the related FCS diffusion law have been applied in recent years to investigate the diffusion modes of lipids and proteins in membranes. These efforts have provided new insights into the membrane structure below the optical diffraction limit, new information on the existence of lipid domains, and on the influence of the cytoskeleton on membrane dynamics. However, there has been no systematic study to evaluate how domain size, domain density, and the probe partition coefficient affect the resulting imaging FCS diffusion law parameters. Here, we characterize the effects of these factors on the FCS diffusion law through simulations and experiments on lipid bilayers and live cells. By segmenting images into smaller 7  ×  7 pixel areas, we can evaluate the FCS diffusion law on areas smaller than 2 µm and thus provide detailed maps of information on the membrane structure and heterogeneity at this length scale. We support and extend this analysis by deriving a mathematical expression to calculate the mean squared displacement (MSDACF) from the autocorrelation function of imaging FCS, and demonstrate that the MSDACF plots depend on the existence of nanoscopic domains. Based on the results, we derive limits for the detection of domains depending on their size, density, and relative viscosity in comparison to the surroundings. Finally, we apply these measurements to bilayers and live cells using imaging total internal reflection FCS and single plane illumination microscopy FCS.

  5. Structure and membrane organization of photosystem II in green plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankamer, B; Barber, J; Boekema, EJ

    1997-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is the pigment protein complex embedded in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria that uses solar energy to drive the photosynthetic water-splitting reaction. This chapter reviews the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of PSII as

  6. Banach spaces with projectional skeletons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 2 (2009), s. 758-776 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : projection * projectional skeleton * norming set Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.225, year: 2009

  7. Simultaneous nitrogen and organics removal using membrane aeration and effluent ultrafiltration in an anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Yaoli

    2017-08-03

    Dissolved methane and a lack of nutrient removal are two concerns for treatment of wastewater using anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). Membrane aerators were integrated into an AFMBR to form an Aeration membrane fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AeMFMBR) capable of simultaneous removal of organic matter and ammonia without production of dissolved methane. Good effluent quality was obtained with no detectable suspended solids, 93±5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal to 14±11 mg/L, and 74±8% of total ammonia (TA) removal to 12±3 mg-N/L for domestic wastewater (COD of 193±23 mg/L and TA of 49±5 mg-N/L) treatment. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were always low (< 1 mg-N/L) during continuous flow treatment. Membrane fouling was well controlled by fluidization of the granular activated carbon (GAC) particles (transmembrane pressures maintained <3 kPa). Analysis of the microbial communities suggested that nitrogen removal was due to nitrification and denitrification based on the presence of microorganisms associated with these processes.

  8. Microporous Polyamide Membranes for Molecular Sieving of Nitrogen from Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haoli; Tao, Fei; Liu, Quan; Zong, Chunxin; Yang, Wenchao; Cao, Xingzhong; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping

    2017-05-15

    Microporous polymer membranes continue to receive tremendous attention for energy-efficient gas separation processes owing to their high separation performances. A new network microporous polyamide membrane with good molecular-sieving performance for the separation of N 2 from a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture is described. Triple-substituted triptycene was used as the main monomer to form a fisherman's net-shaped polymer, which readily forms a composite membrane by solution casting. This membrane exhibited outstanding separation performance and good stability for the molecular-sieving separation of N 2 over VOCs such as cyclohexane. The rejection rate of the membrane reached 99.2 % with 2098 Barrer N 2 permeability at 24 °C under 4 kPa. This approach promotes development of microporous membranes for separation of condensable gases. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Natural organic matter interactions with polyamide and polysulfone membranes: Formation of conditioning film

    KAUST Repository

    Gutierrez, Leonardo

    2015-03-31

    A conditioning film changes the physicochemical properties of the membrane surface and strongly affects subsequent fouling behavior. Results from this Atomic Force Microscopy study indicate that Natural Organic Matter (NOM) characteristics, membrane surface properties, and solution chemistry are fundamental during conditioning film formation. Repulsive forces were observed between HUM (humic-NOM) and Polyamide (PA) or Polysulfone (PS) membranes during approach in Na+ and Ca2+ solutions. However, repulsive and attractive forces were randomly recorded during BIOP (biopolymer-NOM) approach to both membranes, possibly caused by low electrostatic repulsion, hydrogen bonding, and presence of chemically/physically heterogeneous regions on membrane surfaces. During retracting, Ca2+ ions increased HUM adhesion to PA and PS membrane, indicating cation bridging/complexation as dominant interacting mechanism for this isolate. BIOP adsorption on PS and PA membrane was stronger than HUM under similar solution conditions, where hydrogen bonding would play an important role. Additionally, irrespective of solution conditions, higher adhesion energy was recorded on PS than on PA membrane for both NOM isolates, indicating membrane hydrophobicity as an important interacting factor. Results from this research will advance our understanding of conditioning film formation for NOM isolates and membranes of different physicochemical characteristics.

  10. Transport of Proteins Dissolved in Organic Solvents Across Biomimetic Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Lev E.; Klibanov, Alexander M.

    1995-02-01

    Using lipid-impregnated porous cellulose membranes as biomimetic barriers, we tested the hypothesis that to afford effective transmembrane transfer of proteins and nucleic acids, the vehicle solvent should be able to dissolve both the biopolymers and the lipids. While the majority of solvents dissolve one or the other, ethanol and methanol were found to dissolve both, especially if the protein had been lyophilized from an aqueous solution of a pH remote from the protein's isoelectric point. A number of proteins, as well as RNA and DNA, dissolved in these alcohols readily crossed the lipidized membranes, whereas the same biopolymers placed in nondissolving solvents (e.g., hexane and ethyl acetate) or in those unable to dissolve lipids (e.g., water and dimethyl sulfoxide) exhibited little transmembrane transport. The solubility of biopolymers in ethanol and methanol was further enhanced by complexation with detergents and poly(ethylene glycol); significant protein and nucleic acid transport through the lipidized membranes was observed from these solvents but not from water.

  11. Micro- to nanostructure and geochemistry of extant crinoidal echinoderm skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, P; Stolarski, J; Mazur, M; Meibom, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of micro- to nanostructural and geochemical analyses of calcitic skeletons from extant deep-sea stalked crinoids. Fine-scale (SEM, FESEM, AFM) observations show that the crinoid skeleton is composed of carbonate nanograins, about 20-100 nm in diameter, which are partly separated by what appears to be a few nm thick organic layers. Sub-micrometre-scale geochemical mapping of crinoid ossicles using a NanoSIMS ion microprobe, combined with synchrotron high-spatial-resolution X-ray micro-fluorescence (μ-XRF) maps and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) show that high Mg concentration in the central region of the stereom bars correlates with the distribution of S-sulphate, which is often associated with sulphated polysaccharides in biocarbonates. These data are consistent with biomineralization models suggesting a close association between organic components (including sulphated polysaccharides) and Mg ions. Additionally, geochemical analyses (NanoSIMS, energy dispersive spectroscopy) reveal that significant variations in Mg occur at many levels: within a single stereom trabecula, within a single ossicle and within a skeleton of a single animal. Together, these data suggest that physiological factors play an important role in controlling Mg content in crinoid skeletons and that great care should be taken when using their skeletons to reconstruct, for example, palaeotemperatures and Mg/Ca palaeo-variations of the ocean. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Emerging role of chemoprotective agents in the dynamic shaping of plasma membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Natividad R; Salinas, Michael L; Kim, Eunjoo; Chapkin, Robert S

    2017-09-01

    In the context of an organism, epithelial cells by nature are designed to be the defining barrier between self and the outside world. This is especially true for the epithelial cells that form the lining of the digestive tract, which absorb nutrients and serve as a barrier against harmful substances. These cells are constantly bathed by a complex mixture of endogenous (bile acids, mucus, microbial metabolites) and exogenous (food, nutrients, drugs) bioactive compounds. From a cell biology perspective, this type of exposure would directly impact the plasma membrane, which consists of a myriad of complex lipids and proteins. The plasma membrane not only functions as a barrier but also as the medium in which cellular signaling complexes form and function. This property is mediated by the organization of the plasma membrane, which is exquisitely temporally (nanoseconds to minutes) and spatially (nanometers to micrometers) regulated. Since numerous bioactive compounds found in the intestinal lumen can directly interact with lipid membranes, we hypothesize that the dynamic reshaping of plasma membrane organization underlies the chemoprotective effect of select membrane targeted dietary bioactives (MTDBs). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nepenthes insignis uses a C2-portion of the carbon skeleton of L-alanine acquired via its carnivorous organs, to build up the allelochemical plumbagin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischer, Heiko; Hamm, Andreas; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2002-03-01

    Tropical pitcher plants (Nepenthes) catch animals in their specialized cup-shaped leaves, digest the prey by secreting enzymes, and actively take up the resulting compounds. The benefit of this behaviour is the ability to grow and compete in nutrient-poor habitats. Our present in vitro study shows that not only the nitrogen of alanine fed to the carnivorous organs is used by the plant but that in addition intact C2-units derived from C-2 and C-3 of stable isotope labelled L-alanine serve as building blocks, here exemplarily for the synthesis of the secondary metabolite plumbagin, a potent allelochemical. This result adds a new facet to the benefit of carnivory for plants. The availability of plumbagin by a de novo synthesis probably enhances the plants' fitness in their defence against phytophagous and pathogenic organisms. A missing specific uptake or CoA activation mechanism might be the reason that acetate fed to the pitchers was not incorporated into the naphthoquinone plumbagin. The dihydronaphthoquinone glucosides rossoliside and plumbaside A, here isolated for the first time from Nepenthes, by contrast, showed no incorporation after feeding of any of the two precursors, suggesting these compounds to be storage forms with probably very low turnover rates.

  14. Emerging insights into the roles of membrane tethers from analysis of whole organisms: The tip of an iceberg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hong eToh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane tethers have been identified throughout different compartments of the endomembrane system. It is now well established that a number of membrane tethers mediate docking of membrane carriers in anterograde and retrograde transport and in regulating the organization of membrane compartments. Much of our information on membrane tethers have been obtained from the analysis of individual membrane tethers in cultured cells. In the future it will be important to better appreciate the network of interactions mediated by tethers and the potential co-ordination of their collective functions in vivo. There are now a number of studies which have analyzed membrane tethers in tissues and organisms which are providing new insights into the role of this class of membrane protein at the physiological level. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of the function of membrane tethers from knock outs (or knock downs in whole organisms and from mutations in tethers associated with disease.

  15. Photogrammetric survey of dinosaur skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiedemann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To derive physiological data of dinosaurs, it is necessary to determine the volume and the surface area of this animals. For this purpose, a detailed survey of reconstructed skeletons is required. The skeletons of three dinosaurs in the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin and two skeletons in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris have been surveyed using stereo photogrammetry. Two of the Berlin skeletons were also surveyed with the close range laser scanners of the Institut für Navigation of the Universität Stuttgart. Both data acquisition techniques require a geodetic control network as a geometric reference system. The surveying methods used, together with results of mathematical approaches for the determination of the volume and surface of the animals are presented in this paper. Zur Herleitung physiologischer Daten der Dinosaurier ist es erforderlich, zunächst Volumen und Oberfläche ihres Körpers zu bestimmen. Dazu wurde eine detaillierte Vermessung rekonstruierter Skelette durchgeführt. Die Skelette dreier Saurier im Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin und zweier im Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris wurden stereophotogrammetrisch vermessen. Bei zwei der Berliner Skelette wurden zusätzlich die Laserscanner des Instituts für Navigation der Universität Stuttgart eingesetzt. Beide Datenerfassungstechniken benötigen ein Paßpunktfeld als geometrisches Referenzsystem. Die verwendeten Vermessungsmethoden, die mathematischen Ansätze für die Berechnung von Volumina und Oberflächen und die Ergebnisse werden in diesem Aufsatz vorgestellt. doi:10.1002/mmng.1999.4860020108

  16. Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templated Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks Used as Membrane Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yifu; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhao, Meiting; Ma, Qinglang; Chen, Junze; Chen, Bo; Sindoro, Melinda; Yang, Jian; Han, Shikui; Lu, Qipeng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-09

    The incorporation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into membrane-shaped architectures is of great importance for practical applications. The currently synthesized MOF-based membranes show many disadvantages, such as poor compatibility, low dispersity, and instability, which severely limit their utility. Herein, we present a general, facile, and robust approach for the synthesis of MOF-based composite membranes through the in situ growth of MOF plates in the channels of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. After being used as catalysis reactors, they exhibit high catalytic performance and stability in the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. The high catalytic performance might be attributed to the intrinsic structure of MOF-based composite membranes, which can remove the products from the reaction zone quickly, and prevent the aggregation and loss of catalysts during reaction and recycling process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Plasma membrane organization promotes virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Lois M.; Konopka, James. B.

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is a human fungal pathogen capable of causing lethal systemic infections. The plasma membrane plays key roles in virulence because it not only functions as a protective barrier, it also mediates dynamic functions including secretion of virulence factors, cell wall synthesis, invasive hyphal morphogenesis, endocytosis, and nutrient uptake. Consistent with this functional complexity, the plasma membrane is composed of a wide array of lipids and proteins. These components are organized into distinct domains that will be the topic of this review. Some of the plasma membrane domains that will be described are known to act as scaffolds or barriers to diffusion, such as MCC/eisosomes, septins, and sites of contact with the endoplasmic reticulum. Other zones mediate dynamic processes, including secretion, endocytosis, and a special region at hyphal tips that facilitates rapid growth. The highly organized architecture of the plasma membrane facilitates the coordination of diverse functions and promotes the pathogenesis of C. albicans. PMID:26920878

  18. Plasma membrane organization and dynamics is probe and cell line dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuangru; Lim, Shi Ying; Gupta, Anjali; Bag, Nirmalya; Wohland, Thorsten

    2017-09-01

    The action and interaction of membrane receptor proteins take place within the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane, however, is not a passive matrix. It rather takes an active role and regulates receptor distribution and function by its composition and the interaction of its lipid components with embedded and surrounding proteins. Furthermore, it is not a homogenous fluid but contains lipid and protein domains of various sizes and characteristic lifetimes which are important in regulating receptor function and signaling. The precise lateral organization of the plasma membrane, the differences between the inner and outer leaflet, and the influence of the cytoskeleton are still debated. Furthermore, there is a lack of comparisons of the organization and dynamics of the plasma membrane of different cell types. Therefore, we used four different specific membrane markers to test the lateral organization, the differences between the inner and outer membrane leaflet, and the influence of the cytoskeleton of up to five different cell lines, including Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1), Human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), fibroblast (WI-38) and rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells by Imaging Total Internal Reflection (ITIR)-Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS). We measure diffusion in the temperature range of 298-310K to measure the Arrhenius activation energy (E Arr ) of diffusion and apply the FCS diffusion law to obtain information on the spatial organization of the probe molecules on the various cell membranes. Our results show clear differences of the FCS diffusion law and E Arr for the different probes in dependence of their localization. These differences are similar in the outer and inner leaflet of the membrane. However, these values can differ significantly between different cell lines raising the question how molecular plasma membrane events measured in different cell lines can be compared. This article is part of a Special Issue

  19. Protistan Skeletons: A Geologic History of Evolution and Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, Andrew Herbert; Kotrc, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The tests and scales formed by protists may be the epitome of lightweight bioconstructions in nature. Skeletal biomineralization is widespread among eukaryotes, but both predominant mineralogy and stratigraphic history differ between macroscopic and microscopic organisms. Among animals and macroscopic algae, calcium minerals, especially carbonates, predominate in skeleton formation, with most innovations in skeletal biomineralization concentrated in and around the Cambrian Period. In contrast...

  20. Crosslinked poly(ether block amide) composite membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration applications

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah

    2016-10-01

    Poly(ether block amide) – Pebax® – based membranes are well described for gas separation applications. But only a few publications exist for their application in pressure driven liquid applications like ultrafiltration and nanofiltration. Here we use the commercially available Pebax® 1657 for the preparation of membranes for the filtration of organic solvents. Porous polyacrylonitrile membranes were coated with Pebax® 1657 which was then crosslinked. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) was used as a crosslinker agent for the coating. Reaction time and crosslinker concentration were optimized for the aimed application. The Pebax® coating and the impact of the TDI on the resulting crosslinked membranes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). SEM analysis shows a uniform thin coating of the PEBAX that covers the pores of the PAN membranes. FTIR and DSC analysis confirm the crosslinking reaction. Crosslinked Pebax® membranes show high stability toward ethanol propanol, acetone and even dimethylformamide (DMF). In the case of DMF applications, the standard PAN was replaced by crosslinked PAN developed in our laboratory. In order to increase the membranes permeances, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were incorporated in the Pebax® coating. These GO containing membranes showed strongly increased permeances for selected solvents. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Unique characteristics of algal dissolved organic matter and their association with membrane fouling behavior: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Quang Viet; Maqbool, Tahir; Hur, Jin

    2017-04-01

    Over the last several decades, the frequent occurrence of algal bloom in drinking water supplies, driven by increasing anthropogenic input and climate change, has posed serious problems for membrane filtration processes, resulting in reduced membrane permeability and increased energy consumption. It is essential to comprehensively understand the characteristics of algal dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the subsequent effects on the filtration processes for better insight into membrane fouling mitigation. Many studies have revealed that algal DOM has displayed unique characteristics distinguished from other sources of DOM with respect to the chemical composition, the structures, and the molecular weight distributions. Algal DOM is considered to be a major obstacle in understanding membrane fouling due to its complicated interactions among dissimilar algal DOM constituents as well as between algal DOM and membrane material matrices. The present review article summarizes (1) recent characterizing methods for algal DOM, (2) environmental factors affecting the characteristics of algal DOM, (3) the discrepancies between algal DOM and other sources of aquatic DOM, particularly terrestrial sources, and (4) potential fouling effects of algal DOM on membrane filtration processes and their associations with algal DOM characteristics. A broad understanding of algal DOM-driven membrane fouling can lead to breakthroughs in efficient membrane filtration processes to treat algal bloom water sources.

  2. The Effect of Freezing on Thylakoid Membranes in the Presence of Organic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Kurt A.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of salts of organic acids on washed and non-washed chloroplast membranes during freezing was investigated. Thylakoids were isolated from spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.) and, prior to freezing, salts of various organic acids or inorganic salts or both were added. Freezing occurred for 3 to 4 hours at −25 C. After thawing membrane integrity was investigated by measuring the activity of cyclic photophosphorylation. At very low NaCl levels (1 to 3 mm, washed thylakoids) salts of organic acids either could not prevent membrane inactivation in the course of freezing (succinate) or were effective only at relatively high concentrations (0.1 m or more of acetate, pyruvate, malate, tartrate, citrate). If NaCl was present at higher concentrations (e.g., 0.1 m) some organic acids, e.g. succinate, malate, tartrate, and citrate, were able to protect frost-sensitive thylakoids at surprisingly low concentrations (10 to 20 mm). Other inorganic salts such as KCl, MgCl2, NaNO3 could also induce protection by organic acids which otherwise were ineffective or poorly effective. For effective protection, a more or less constant ratio between inorganic salt and organic acid or between two or more organic acids had to be maintained. Departure to either side from the optimal ratio led to progressive inactivation. The unspecificity of the protective effect of organic acids suggests that these compounds protect colligatively. There are also indications that, in addition, more specific interaction with the membranes contributes to protection. At temperatures above the freezing point, the presence of salts of organic acids decreased the rate of membrane inactivation by high electrolyte concentrations. PMID:16657754

  3. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor - membrane distillation hybrid system for energy recovery and water reuse: Removal performance of organic carbon, nutrients, and trace organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoye; Luo, Wenhai; McDonald, James; Khan, Stuart J; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2018-07-01

    In this study, a direct contact membrane distillation (MD) unit was integrated with an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to simultaneously recover energy and produce high quality water for reuse from wastewater. Results show that AnMBR could produce 0.3-0.5L/g COD added biogas with a stable methane content of approximately 65%. By integrating MD with AnMBR, bulk organic matter and phosphate were almost completely removed. The removal of the 26 selected trace organic contaminants by AnMBR was compound specific, but the MD process could complement AnMBR removal, leading to an overall efficiency from 76% to complete removal by the integrated system. The results also show that, due to complete retention, organic matter (such as humic-like and protein-like substances) and inorganic salts accumulated in the MD feed solution and therefore resulted in significant fouling of the MD unit. As a result, the water flux of the MD process decreased continuously. Nevertheless, membrane pore wetting was not observed throughout the operation. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reverse osmosis molecular differentiation of organic liquids using carbon molecular sieve membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Yeun; McCool, Benjamin A.; Deckman, Harry W.; Lively, Ryan P.

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-phase separations of similarly sized organic molecules using membranes is a major challenge for energy-intensive industrial separation processes. We created free-standing carbon molecular sieve membranes that translate the advantages of reverse osmosis for aqueous separations to the separation of organic liquids. Polymer precursors were cross-linked with a one-pot technique that protected the porous morphology of the membranes from thermally induced structural rearrangement during carbonization. Permeation studies using benzene derivatives whose kinetic diameters differ by less than an angstrom show kinetically selective organic liquid reverse osmosis. Ratios of single-component fluxes for para- and ortho-xylene exceeding 25 were observed and para- and ortho- liquid mixtures were efficiently separated, with an equimolar feed enriched to 81 mole % para-xylene, without phase change and at ambient temperature.

  5. Heat shock response in photosynthetic organisms: membrane and lipid connections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, I.; Glatz, A.; Nakamoto, H.; Mishkind, M.L.; Munnik, T.; Saidi, Y.; Goloubinoff, P.; Harwood, J.L.; Vigh, L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of photosynthetic organisms to adapt to increases in environmental temperatures is becoming more important with climate change. Heat stress is known to induce heat-shock proteins (HSPs) many of which act as chaperones. Traditionally, it has been thought that protein denaturation acts as

  6. Hydrothermally stable molecular separation membranes from organically linked silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Ashima sah, A.S.; Kreiter, Robert; Blank, David H.A.; Vente, Jaap F.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2008-01-01

    A highly hydrothermally stable microporous network material has been developed that can be applied in energy-efficient molecular sieving. The material was synthesized by employing organically bridged monomers in acid-catalysed sol–gel hydrolysis and condensation, and is composed of covalently bonded

  7. Hydrothermally stable molecular separation membranes from organically linked silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A.; Kreiter, R.; Blank, D.H.A.; Vente, J.F.; ten Elshof, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A highly hydrothermally stable microporous network material has been developed that can be applied in energy-efficient molecular sieving. The material was synthesized by employing organically bridged monomers in acid-catalysed sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation, and is composed of covalently bonded

  8. Surface modification of PTMSP membranes by plasma treatment: Asymmetry of transport in organic solvent nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, A V; Tsarkov, S E; Gilman, A B; Khotimsky, V S; Roldughin, V I; Volkov, V V

    2015-08-01

    For the first time, the effect of asymmetry of the membrane transport was studied for organic solvents and solutes upon their nanofiltration through the plasma-modified membranes based on poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP). Plasma treatment is shown to provide a marked hydrophilization of the hydrophobic PTMSP surface (the contact angle of water decreases from 88 down to 20°) and leads to the development of a negative charge of -5.2 nC/cm(2). The XPS measurements prove the formation of the oxygen-containing groups (Si-O and C-O) due to the surface modification. The AFM images show that the small-scale surface roughness of the plasma-treated PTMSP sample is reduced but the large-scale surface heterogeneities become more pronounced. The modified membranes retain their hydrophilic surface properties even after the nanofiltration tests and 30-day storage under ambient conditions. The results of the filtration tests show that when the membrane is oriented so that its modified layer contacts the feed solution, the membrane permeability for linear alcohols (methanol-propanol) and acetone decreases nearly two times. When the modified membrane surface faces the permeate, the membrane is seen to regain its transport characteristics: the flux becomes equal to that of the unmodified PTMSP. The well-pronounced effect of the transport asymmetry is observed for the solution of the neutral dye Solvent Blue 35 in methanol, ethanol, and acetone. For example, the initial membrane shows the negative retention for the Solvent Blue 35 dye (-16%) upon its filtration from the ethanol solution whereas, for the modified PTMSP membrane, the retention increases up to 17%. Various effects contributing to the asymmetry of the membrane transport characteristics are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary results with a torsion microbalance indicate that carbon dioxide and exposed carbonic anhydrase in the organic matrix are the basis of calcification on the skeleton surface of living corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Sandeman

    2012-03-01

    , p<0.05 indicating a dependence on carbonate. At a pH of 6.5 the skeleton lost weight at a rate of 1.8 mg.h-1.cm-2. The relationship between net calcification and pH (n=2 indicates that wt gain turns to loss at pH 7.4. These experiments confirm that calcification is a two-step process, involving secretion of a layer of organic matrix incorporating carbonic anhydrase to produce an active calcifying surface which uses carbon dioxide rather than carbonate. It is also unlikely that the calcifying surface is in direct contact with seawater. Inorganic deposition or dissolution of the skeleton in exposed dead areas of coral is a different phenomenon and is carbonate related. The wide range in results from this and other studies of calcification rate and carbon dioxide may be explainable in terms of the ratio of “live” to “dead” areas of coral.

  10. Crosslinked copolyazoles with a zwitterionic structure for organic solvent resistant membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of crosslinked membranes with a zwitterionic structure based on a facile reaction between a newly synthesized copolyazole with free OH groups and (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) is reported. The new OH-functionalized copolyazole is soluble in common organic solvents, such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N′-dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and can be easily processed by phase inversion. After crosslinking with GPTMS, the membranes acquire high solvent resistance. We show the membrane performance and the influence of the crosslinking reaction conditions on the thermal stability, surface polarity, pore morphology, and solvent resistance. By using UV-spectroscopy we monitored the solvent resistance of the membranes in four aggressive solvents (THF, DMSO, DMF and NMP) for 30 days. After this time, only minor changes (less than 2%) were detected for membranes subjected to a crosslinking reaction for 6 hours or longer. Our data suggest that the novel crosslinked membranes can be used for industrial applications in wide harsh environments in the presence of organic solvents.

  11. A palmitoylation switch mechanism regulates Rac1 function and membrane organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Lérida, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Perales, Sara; Calvo, María; Rentero, Carles; Zheng, Yi; Enrich, Carlos; Del Pozo, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    The small GTPase Rac1 plays important roles in many processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, cell-cycle progression and gene expression. The initiation of Rac1 signalling requires at least two mechanisms: GTP loading via the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)/guanosine diphosphate (GDP) cycle, and targeting to cholesterol-rich liquid-ordered plasma membrane microdomains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms governing this specific compartmentalization. We show that Rac1 can incorporate palmitate at cysteine 178 and that this post-translational modification targets Rac1 for stabilization at actin cytoskeleton-linked ordered membrane regions. Palmitoylation of Rac1 requires its prior prenylation and the intact C-terminal polybasic region and is regulated by the triproline-rich motif. Non-palmitoylated Rac1 shows decreased GTP loading and lower association with detergent-resistant (liquid-ordered) membranes (DRMs). Cells expressing no Rac1 or a palmitoylation-deficient mutant have an increased content of disordered membrane domains, and markers of ordered membranes isolated from Rac1-deficient cells do not correctly partition in DRMs. Importantly, cells lacking Rac1 palmitoylation show spreading and migration defects. These data identify palmitoylation as a mechanism for Rac1 function in actin cytoskeleton remodelling by controlling its membrane partitioning, which in turn regulates membrane organization. PMID:22157745

  12. Microstructural Engineering and Architectural Design of Metal-Organic Framework Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Ban, Yujie; Yang, Weishen

    2017-08-01

    In the past decade, a huge development in rational design, synthesis, and application of molecular sieve membranes, which typically included zeolites, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and graphene oxides, has been witnessed. Owing to high flexibility in both pore apertures and functionality, MOFs in the form of membranes have offered unprecedented opportunities for energy-efficient gas separations. Reports on the fabrication of well-intergrown MOF membranes first appeared in 2009. Since then there has been tremendous growth in this area along with an exponential increase of MOF-membrane-related publications. In order to compete with other separation and purification technologies, like cryogenic distillation, pressure swing adsorption, and chemical absorption, separation performance (including permeability, selectivity, and long-term stability) of molecular sieve membranes must be further improved in an attempt to reach an economically attractive region. Therefore, microstructural engineering and architectural design of MOF membranes at mesoscopic and microscopic levels become indispensable. This review summarizes some intriguing research that may potentially contribute to large-scale applications of MOF membranes in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Specific oriented metal-organic framework membranes and their facet-tuned separation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yiyin; Su, Binbin; Cao, Wei; Li, Junwei; Ying, Yulong; Ying, Wen; Hou, Yajun; Sun, Luwei; Peng, Xinsheng

    2014-09-24

    Modulating the crystal morphology, or the exposed crystal facets, of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) expands their potential applications in catalysis, adsorption, and separation. In this article, by immobilizing the citrate modulators on Au nanoparticles and subsequently being fixed on solid copper hydroxide nanostrands, a well-intergrown and oriented HKUST-1 cube crystal membrane was formed at room temperature. In contrast, in the absence of Au nanoparticles, well-intergrown and oriented cuboctahedron and octahedron membranes were formed in water/ethanol and ethanol, respectively. The gas separation performances of these HKUST-1 membranes were tuned via their exposed facets with defined pore sizes. The HKUST-1 cube membrane with exposed {001} facets demonstrated the highest permeance but lowest gas binary separation factors, while the octahedron membrane with exposed {111} facets presented the highest separation factors but lowest permeance, since the window size of {111} facets is 0.46 nm which is smaller than 0.9 nm of {001} facets. Separation of 0.38 nm CO2 from 0.55 nm SF6 was realized by the HKUST-1 octahedron membrane. As a proof of concept, this will open a new way to design MOF-related separation membranes by facet controlling.

  14. An unconventional rapid synthesis of high performance metal-organic framework membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Miral N; Gonzalez, Mariel A; McCarthy, Michael C; Jeong, Hae-Kwon

    2013-06-25

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are attractive for gas separation membrane applications due to their microporous channels with tunable pore shape, size, and functionality. Conventional MOF membrane fabrication techniques, namely in situ and secondary growth, pose challenges for their wider commercial applications. These challenges include reproducility, scalability, and high manufacturing cost. Recognizing that the coordination chemistry of MOFs is fundamentally different from the covalent chemistry of zeolites, we developed a radically different strategy for MOF membrane synthesis. Using this new technique, we were able to produce continuous well-intergrown membranes of prototypical MOFs, HKUST-1 and ZIF-8, in a relatively short period of time (tens of min). With a minimal consumption of precursors and a greatly simplified synthesis protocol, our new technique provides potential for a continuous, scalable, reproducible, and easily commercializable route for the rapid synthesis of MOF membranes. RTD-prepared MOF membranes show greatly improved gas separation performances as compared to those prepared by conventional solvothermal methods, indicating improved membrane microstructure.

  15. Protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in cold-adapted organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römisch, Karin; Collie, Nicola; Soto, Nelyn; Logue, James; Lindsay, Margaret; Scheper, Wiep; Cheng, Chi-Hing C.

    2003-01-01

    Secretory proteins enter the secretory pathway by translocation across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via a channel formed primarily by the Sec61 protein. Protein translocation is highly temperature dependent in mesophilic organisms. We asked whether the protein translocation

  16. SEPARATION OF HAZARDOUS ORGANICS BY LOW PRESSURE REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES - PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive experimental studies showed that thin-film, composite membranes can be used effectively for the separation of selected hazardous organic compounds. This waste treatment technique offers definite advantages in terms of high solute separations at low pressures (<2MPa) and...

  17. A novel class of gas separation membrane based on organic ionic plastic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jonathan L; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria; Pringle, Jennifer M

    2016-10-27

    The first use of organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) as CO 2 separation membranes is reported. The novel OIPC/PVDF nanofiber composites show CO 2 /N 2 ideal selectivities of 30 at 35 °C. The dependence of gas permeability on the thermal phase of the plastic crystals is discussed.

  18. Interaction of the organic tin chloride with the liquid model membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podolak, M; Engel, G; Man, D [Institute of Physics, Opole University, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    The objective of the work was to investigate the effect of organic tin chloride (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl on the electric parameters of membranes in the form of filters of the company Synpor (Czech Republic) impregnated with various fatty acids, dissolved with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}). Three carboxylic acids were used in the study: palmitic, arachidic and oleic, and dissolvent of the acids (CCl{sub 4}) as well as butylene ester of lauric acid. In all cases, introduction of tin chloride of constant concentration amounting to 0.15 mM to the measurement chamber resulted in induction of membrane voltage. In case of pure lauric acid and CCl{sub 4}, the voltage reached the maximum value and then decreased to a certain constant value. In the case of all acids dissolved in CCl{sub 4}, the voltage increased only up to a certain constant value. Voltage drop (below the value) was observed after application of appropriately high concentration of tin chloride, in case of membranes impregnated with the mixture of lauric acid ester with CCl{sub 4} and palmitic acid with CCl{sub 4}. The study also demonstrated that electrical resistance of membranes impregnated with carboxylic acid increased in the presence of tin chloride and decreased in case of membranes impregnated with lauric acid ester. However, electric capacities of membranes did not significant change.

  19. Interaction of the organic tin chloride with the liquid model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, M.; Engel, G.; Man, D.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate the effect of organic tin chloride (C3H7)3SnCl on the electric parameters of membranes in the form of filters of the company Synpor (Czech Republic) impregnated with various fatty acids, dissolved with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Three carboxylic acids were used in the study: palmitic, arachidic and oleic, and dissolvent of the acids (CCl4) as well as butylene ester of lauric acid. In all cases, introduction of tin chloride of constant concentration amounting to 0.15 mM to the measurement chamber resulted in induction of membrane voltage. In case of pure lauric acid and CCl4, the voltage reached the maximum value and then decreased to a certain constant value. In the case of all acids dissolved in CCl4, the voltage increased only up to a certain constant value. Voltage drop (below the value) was observed after application of appropriately high concentration of tin chloride, in case of membranes impregnated with the mixture of lauric acid ester with CCl4 and palmitic acid with CCl4. The study also demonstrated that electrical resistance of membranes impregnated with carboxylic acid increased in the presence of tin chloride and decreased in case of membranes impregnated with lauric acid ester. However, electric capacities of membranes did not significant change.

  20. Synthesis and properties of imidazole-grafted hybrid inorganic-organic polymer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Siwen; Zhou Zhen; Liu Meilin; Li Wen; Ukai, Junzo; Hase, Kohei; Nakanishi, Masatsugu

    2006-01-01

    Imidazole rings were grafted on alkoxysilane with a simple nucleophilic substitute reaction to form hybrid inorganic-organic polymers with imidazole rings. Proton exchange membranes (PEM) based on these hybrid inorganic-organic polymers and H 3 PO 4 exhibit high proton conductivity and high thermal stability in an atmosphere of low relative humidity. The grafted imidazole rings improved the proton conductivity of the membranes in the high temperature range. It is found that the proton conductivities increase with H 3 PO 4 content and temperature, reaching 3.2 x 10 -3 S/cm at 110 deg. C in a dry atmosphere for a membrane with 1 mole of imidazole ring and 7 moles of H 3 PO 4 . The proton conductivity increases with relative humidity (RH) as well, reaching 4.3 x 10 -2 S/cm at 110 deg. C when the RH is increased to about 20%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that these membranes are thermally stable up to 250 deg. C in dry air, implying that they have a good potential to be used as the membranes for high-temperature PEM fuel cells

  1. High-efficiency technology for lithium isotope separation using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Terai, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ( 6 Li) in tritium breeding materials. New lithium isotope separation technique using ionic-liquid impregnated organic membranes (Ionic-Liquid-i-OMs) have been developed. Lithium ions are able to move by electrodialysis through certain Ionic-Liquid-i-OMs between the cathode and the anode in lithium solutions. In this report, the effects of protection cover and membrane thickness on the durability of membrane and the efficiency of isotope separation were evaluated. In order to improve the durability of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM, we developed highly-durable Ionic-Liquid-i-OM. Both surfaces of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM were covered by a nafion 324 overcoat or a cation exchange membrane (SELEMION TM CMD) to prevent the outflow of the ionic liquid. It was observed that the durability of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM was improved by a nafion 324 overcoat. On the other hand, the organic membrane selected was 1, 2 or 3 mm highly-porous Teflon film, in order to efficiently impregnate the ionic liquid. The 6 Li isotope separation factor by electrodialysis using highly-porous Teflon film of 3 mm thickness was larger than using that of 1 or 2 mm thickness.

  2. Hierarchically self-organized monolithic nanoporous membrane for excellent virus enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Gumhye; Jee, Minhyeok; Yang, Seung Yun; Lee, Bom-Yi; Jang, Sung Key; Kim, Jin Kon

    2014-01-22

    Enrichment of viruses is essential for making high dose viral stocks for vaccines and virus-related research. Since the widely used ultracentrifugation for concentrating viral stock requires ultra-high speed rotation, it easily destroys the activity of some viruses, for instance, hepatitis c virus (HCV), which has a fragile structure and low virus titer. We introduce a novel method to concentrate HCV virus in stock by using a hierarchically self-organized monolithic nanoporous membrane made by stepwise anodization. The pores at the top part of the membrane have very regular sizes that are suitable for the perfect filtration of the virus particles in the stock. On the other hand, the remaining part has large pores that maintain high flux and mechanical strength of the membrane under the high pressure (up to 10 bar). The enrichment efficiency of HCV in crude stocks by using the membrane became over 91%, which is four times higher than that (∼22%) obtained by conventionally used centrifugation. A very high efficiency results from the perfect filtration and no damage to the virion particles during the enrichment process, whereas significant damage to the HCV occurs during centrifugation. The hierarchically self-organized monolithic nanoporous membrane could be effectively employed for concentrating various fragile viruses in stocks, for instance, rabies virus and human immunodeficiency virus in addition to HCV virus.

  3. Semipermeable membrane devices in monitoring of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaliunas, D.

    1999-03-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are passive samplers capable of concentrating hydrophobic chemicals from water, sediments, soil and air. They consist of layflat polymeric membrane such as polyethylene containing a thin film of synthetic lipid such as triolein. The transport of hydrophobic chemicals through the membrane into the lipid is governed by the process of passive diffusion. Therefore, SPMDs sample chemicals in a way similar to organisms. This thesis deals with the application of SPMDs in the monitoring of concentrations and effects of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment. SPMDs were exposed to various pesticides (organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids, dinitroanilines, amides) in laboratory flow-through experiments to study the uptake kinetics of organic chemicals from water. To compare the uptake of model compounds by SPMDs and aquatic organisms, the membrane samplers were exposed to chemicals side-by-side with bivalves. Mixtures of chemicals accumulated by SPMDs and mussels were tested in standard toxicity and genotoxicity assays (Microtox, Mutatox, invertebrate toxicity tests, the Ames test, sister chromatid exchange test). These studies showed that the uptake pattern of organic compounds by SPMDs and aquatic organisms was similar, and the passive samplers accumulated levels of chemicals sufficient for standard bioassays. To further validate the method, SPMDs were deployed in a number of polluted water sources in Lithuania. Bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical analytical methods were used to identify pollutants sampled (PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines) and their effects were evaluated in bioassays. SPMDs proved to be useful tools in monitoring of organic pollutants under the field conditions. Criteria for bioassays to be integrated with the SPMD technique were defined based on the results of these studies. Some important factors in the integration of SPMDs and bioassays (toxicity of SPMD-inherent oleic and sediment

  4. Contribution of assimilable organic carbon to biological fouling in seawater reverse osmosis membrane treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Lauren; LeChevallier, Mark; Haas, Charles N

    2016-09-15

    Biological fouling occurs on RO membranes when bacteria and nutrients are present in conditions that are conducive to growth and proliferation of the bacteria. Controlling microbial growth on the membranes is typically limited to biocide application (i.e., disinfectants) in seawater RO plants. However, biological growth and subsequent fouling has not been well-managed. Pretreatment has not been focused on nutrient limitation. This project used a biological assay, the assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test to evaluate pretreatment effects on the nutrient supply. The AOC test provided a useful surrogate measurement for the biodegradability or biofouling potential of RO feed water. Biofouling observed in controlled conditions at the bench- and pilot-scale resulted in statistically significant correlations between AOC and the operational effects caused by biofouling. Membrane fouling rates are observed through operational changes over time such as increased differential pressure between the membrane feed and concentrate locations and decreased permeate flux through the membrane. In full scale plants there were strong correlations when AOC was used as a predictor variable for increased differential pressure (0.28-0.55 bar from September-December 2012) and decreased specific flux (1.40 L per hour/(m(2) · bar)). Increased differential pressure was associated with RO membrane biological fouling when the median AOC was 50 μg/L during pilot testing. Conditions were also evaluated at the bench-scale using a flat sheet RO membrane. In a comparison test using 30 and 1000 μg/L AOC, fouling was detected on more portions of the membrane when AOC was higher. Biofilm and bacterial deposits were apparent from scanning electron microscope imaging and biomass measurements using ATP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on the removal of organic micropollutants from aqueous and ethanol solutions by HAP membranes with tunable hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junyong; Li, Yulian; Cai, Xingguo; Chen, Kai; Zheng, Hejing; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Kaisheng; Lin, Dongyue; Kong, Lingtao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2017-05-01

    A biocompatible and uniquely defined hydroxyapatite (HAP) adsorption membrane with a sandwich structure was developed for the removal of organic micropollutants for the first time. Both the adsorption and membrane technique were used for the removal of organic micropollutants. The hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the HAP adsorbent and membrane were tunable by controlling the surface structure of HAP. The adsorption of organic micropollutants on the HAP adsorbent was studied in batch experiments. The adsorption process was fit with the Freundlich model, while the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The HAP membrane could remove organic micropollutants effectively by dynamic adsorption in both aqueous and ethanol solutions. The removal efficiencies of organic micropollutants depended on the solution composition, membrane thickness and hydrophilicity, flow rate, and the initial concentration of organic micropollutants. The adsorption capacities of the HAP membrane with a sandwich structure (membrane thickness was 0.3 mm) were 6700, 6510, 6310, 5960, 5490, 5230, 4980 and 4360 L m -2 for 1-naphthyl amine, 2-naphthol, bisphenol S, propranolol hydrochloride, metolachlor, ethinyl oestradiol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and bisphenol A, respectively, when the initial concentration was 3.0 mg L -1 . The biocompatible HAP adsorption membrane can be easily regenerated by methanol and was thus demonstrated to be a novel concept for the removal of organic micropollutants from both aqueous and organic solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemically Stable Covalent Organic Framework (COF)-Polybenzimidazole Hybrid Membranes: Enhanced Gas Separation through Pore Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Bishnu P; Chaudhari, Harshal D; Banerjee, Rahul; Kharul, Ulhas K

    2016-03-24

    Highly flexible, TpPa-1@PBI-BuI and TpBD@PBI-BuI hybrid membranes based on chemically stable covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could be obtained with the polymer. The loading obtained was substantially higher (50 %) than generally observed with MOFs. These hybrid membranes show an exciting enhancement in permeability (about sevenfold) with appreciable separation factors for CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4. Further, we found that with COF pore modulation, the gas permeability can be systematically enhanced. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Wetting and Capillary Condensation as Means of Protein Organization in Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Sabra, Mads Christian; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    that in membranes may serve to induce special lipid phases in between integral membrane proteins leading to long-range lipid-mediated joining forces acting between the proteins and hence providing a means of protein organization. The consequences of wetting in terms of protein aggregation and protein clustering...... are derived both within a simple phenomenological theory as well as within a concrete calculation on a microscopic model of lipid-protein interactions that accounts for the lipid bilayer phase equilibria and direct lipid-protein interactions governed by hydrophobic matching between the lipid bilayer...

  8. Electrochemical properties of honeycomb-like structured HFBI self-organized membranes on HOPG electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Ryota; Takatsuji, Yoshiyuki; Lienemann, Michael; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi; Linder, Markus; Haruyama, Tetsuya

    2014-11-01

    HFBI (derived from Trichoderma sp.) is a unique structural protein, which forms a self-organized monolayer at both air/water interface and water/solid interfaces in accurate two-dimensional ordered structures. We have taken advantage of the unique functionality of HFBI as a molecular carrier for preparation of ordered molecular phase on solid substrate surfaces. The HFBI molecular carrier can easily form ordered structures; however, the dense molecular layers form an electrochemical barrier between the electrode and solution phase. In this study, the electrochemical properties of HFBI self-organized membrane-covered electrodes were investigated. Wild-type HFBI has balanced positive and negative charges on its surface. Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes coated with HFBI molecules were investigated electrochemically. To improve the electrochemical properties of this HFBI-coated electrode, the two types of HFBI variants, with oppositely charged surfaces, were prepared genetically. All three types of HFBI-coated HOPG electrode perform electron transfer between the electrode and solution phase through the dense HFBI molecular layer. This is because the HFBI self-organized membrane has a honeycomb-like structure, with penetrating holes. In the cases of HFBI variants, the oppositely charged HFBI membrane phases shown opposite electrochemical behaviors in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. HFBI is a molecule with a unique structure, and can easily form honeycomb-like structures on solid material surfaces such as electrodes. The molecular membrane phase can be used for electrochemical molecular interfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Visser, P.M.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI (Real Time Application Interface). The skeleton is a thin layer that provides unified but extendible interfaces to the underlying operating system, the synchronization algorithms and the upper level applications in need of clock

  10. Fuzzy Object Skeletonization: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Saha, Punam; Jin, Dakai; Liu, Yinxiao; E Christensen, Gary; Chen, Cheng

    2017-08-10

    Skeletonization offers a compact representation of an object while preserving important topological and geometrical features. Literature on skeletonization of binary objects is quite mature. However, challenges involved with skeletonization of fuzzy objects are mostly unanswered. This paper presents a new theory and algorithm of skeletonization for fuzzy objects, evaluates its performance, and demonstrates its applications. A formulation of fuzzy grassfire propagation is introduced; its relationships with fuzzy distance functions, level sets, and geodesics are discussed; and new results are presented. A notion of collision-impact of fire-fronts at skeletal points is introduced, and its role in filtering noisy skeletal points is demonstrated. A fuzzy object skeletonization algorithm is developed using new ideas of surface- and curve-skeletal voxels, digital collision-impact, and continuity of skeletal surfaces. A skeletal noise pruning algorithm is presented using branch-level significance. Accuracy and robustness of the new algorithm are examined on computer-generated phantoms and micro- and conventional CT imaging of trabecular bone specimens. An application of fuzzy object skeletonization to compute structure-width at a low image resolution is demonstrated, and its ability to predict bone strength is examined. Finally, the performance of the new fuzzy object skeletonization algorithm is compared with two binary object skeletonization methods.

  11. Reversed thermo-switchable molecular sieving membranes composed of two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets for gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuerui; Chi, Chenglong; Zhang, Kang; Qian, Yuhong; Gupta, Krishna M; Kang, Zixi; Jiang, Jianwen; Zhao, Dan

    2017-02-16

    It is highly desirable to reduce the membrane thickness in order to maximize the throughput and break the trade-off limitation for membrane-based gas separation. Two-dimensional membranes composed of atomic-thick graphene or graphene oxide nanosheets have gas transport pathways that are at least three orders of magnitude higher than the membrane thickness, leading to reduced gas permeation flux and impaired separation throughput. Here we present nm-thick molecular sieving membranes composed of porous two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets. These membranes possess pore openings parallel to gas concentration gradient allowing high gas permeation flux and high selectivity, which are proven by both experiment and molecular dynamics simulation. Furthermore, the gas transport pathways of these membranes exhibit a reversed thermo-switchable feature, which is attributed to the molecular flexibility of the building metal-organic nanosheets.

  12. Reversed thermo-switchable molecular sieving membranes composed of two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuerui; Chi, Chenglong; Zhang, Kang; Qian, Yuhong; Gupta, Krishna M.; Kang, Zixi; Jiang, Jianwen; Zhao, Dan

    2017-02-01

    It is highly desirable to reduce the membrane thickness in order to maximize the throughput and break the trade-off limitation for membrane-based gas separation. Two-dimensional membranes composed of atomic-thick graphene or graphene oxide nanosheets have gas transport pathways that are at least three orders of magnitude higher than the membrane thickness, leading to reduced gas permeation flux and impaired separation throughput. Here we present nm-thick molecular sieving membranes composed of porous two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets. These membranes possess pore openings parallel to gas concentration gradient allowing high gas permeation flux and high selectivity, which are proven by both experiment and molecular dynamics simulation. Furthermore, the gas transport pathways of these membranes exhibit a reversed thermo-switchable feature, which is attributed to the molecular flexibility of the building metal-organic nanosheets.

  13. Weighted straight skeletons in the plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We investigate weighted straight skeletons from a geometric, graph-theoretical, and combinatorial point of view. We start with a thorough definition and shed light on some ambiguity issues in the procedural definition. We investigate the geometry, combinatorics, and topology of faces and the roof model, and we discuss in which cases a weighted straight skeleton is connected. Finally, we show that the weighted straight skeleton of even a simple polygon may be non-planar and may contain cycles, and we discuss under which restrictions on the weights and/or the input polygon the weighted straight skeleton still behaves similar to its unweighted counterpart. In particular, we obtain a non-procedural description and a linear-time construction algorithm for the straight skeleton of strictly convex polygons with arbitrary weights.

  14. Metal-Organic Framework-Based Membranes for the Separation of Light Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.; Culp, J.T.; Smith, M.R.; Bockrath, B.C.

    2007-10-01

    Metal-organic-frameworks (MOFs) are a class of coordination compounds which exhibit high porosity and a regular crystalline geometry resulting in open pore channels and high surface area. Pore sizes are typically on the order of molecular diameters and MOF pore surfaces are known to adsorb gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide. These characteristics make them potential candidates for use as gas separation membranes. In this presentation, we will discuss our results on the use of MOFs as membranes for the separation of light gases. Specifically, membranes of Cu3(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate)2 were fabricated and gas permeance experiments were performed. Experimental results indicate selectivity for adsorbing gases and potential transport mechanisms will be discussed.

  15. Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets for Membrane-Based Gas Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuan; Li, Yanshuo; Ban, Yujie; Yang, Weishen

    2017-08-07

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets could serve as ideal building blocks of molecular sieve membranes owing to their structural diversity and minimized mass-transfer barrier. To date, discovery of appropriate MOF nanosheets and facile fabrication of high performance MOF nanosheet-based membranes remain as great challenges. A modified soft-physical exfoliation method was used to disintegrate a lamellar amphiprotic MOF into nanosheets with a high aspect ratio. Consequently sub-10 nm-thick ultrathin membranes were successfully prepared, and these demonstrated a remarkable H 2 /CO 2 separation performance, with a separation factor of up to 166 and H 2 permeance of up to 8×10 -7  mol m -2  s -1  Pa -1 at elevated testing temperatures owing to a well-defined size-exclusion effect. This nanosheet-based membrane holds great promise as the next generation of ultrapermeable gas separation membrane. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Metal-Organic Frameworks Supported on Nanofiber for Desalination by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Efome, Johnson E; Rana, Dipak; Matsuura, Takeshi; Lan, Christopher

    2018-03-22

    Among other applications, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are slowly gaining grounds as fillers for desalination composite membranes. In this study, superhydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofibrous membranes were fabricated with MOF (iron 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) loading of up to 5 wt % via electrospinning on a nonwoven substrate. To improve the attachment of nanofibers onto the substrate, a substrate pretreatment method called "solvent basing" was employed. The iron content in the nanofiber, measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, increased proportionally with the increase of the MOF concentration in the spinning dope, indicating a uniform distribution of MOF in the nanofiber. The water contact angle increased up to 138.06 ± 2.18° upon the incorporation of 5 wt % MOF, and a liquid entry pressure of 82.73 kPa could be maintained, making the membrane useful for direct contact membrane distillation experiments. The membrane was stable for the entire operating period of 5 h, exhibiting 2.87 kg/m 2 ·h of water vapor flux and 99.99% NaCl (35 g/L) rejection when the feed and permeate temperature were 48 and 16 °C, respectively. Immobilization of MOF on nanofibers with the enhanced attachment was proven by inductively coupled mass spectrometry analysis, by which no Fe 2+ could be found in the permeate to the detection limit of ppt.

  17. MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM REMEDIATION OFF-GASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijmans, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used to remediate soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Currently, carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration are the most common methods of treating these gas streams. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) proposed an alternative treatment technology based on selective membranes that separate the organic components from the gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream. This technology can be applied to off-gases produced by various remediation activities and the systems can be skid-mounted and automated for easy transportation and unattended operation. The target performance for the membrane systems is to produce clean air (less than 10 ppmv VOC) for discharge or recycle, dischargeable water (less than 1 ppmw VOC), and a concentrated liquid VOC phase. This report contains the results obtained during Phase II of a two-phase project. In Phase I, laboratory experiments were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. In the subsequent Phase II project, a demonstration system was built and operated at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California. The membrane system was fed with off-gas from a Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE) system. The work performed in Phase II demonstrated that the membrane system can reduce the VOC concentration in remediation off-gas to 10 ppmv, while producing a concentrated VOC phase and dischargeable water containing less than 1 ppmw VOC. However, the tests showed that the presence of 1 to 3% carbon dioxide in the SVE off-gas reduced the treatment capacity of the system by a factor of three to four. In an economic analysis, treatment costs of the membrane

  18. Spatially variant morphological restoration and skeleton representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Charif-Chefchaouni, Mohammed; Schonfeld, Dan

    2006-11-01

    The theory of spatially variant (SV) mathematical morphology is used to extend and analyze two important image processing applications: morphological image restoration and skeleton representation of binary images. For morphological image restoration, we propose the SV alternating sequential filters and SV median filters. We establish the relation of SV median filters to the basic SV morphological operators (i.e., SV erosions and SV dilations). For skeleton representation, we present a general framework for the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. We study the properties of the SV morphological skeleton representation and derive conditions for its invertibility. We also develop an algorithm for the implementation of the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. The latter algorithm is based on the optimal construction of the SV structuring element mapping designed to minimize the cardinality of the SV morphological skeleton representation. Experimental results show the dramatic improvement in the performance of the SV morphological restoration and SV morphological skeleton representation algorithms in comparison to their translation-invariant counterparts.

  19. Membrane and Adsorption Processes for Removing of Organics and Inorganics from Urban Wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Majlinda Daci-Ajvazi; Bashkim Thaçi; Nexhat Daci; Salih Gash

    2016-01-01

    Since in Kosovo there are still no water purification plants and untreated wastewaters are discharged in environment, in this paper we’ve studied methods for removing of different organic and inorganic pollutants from Kosovo urban wastewaters. For best results we’ve used two methods, reverse osmosis and adsorption. For reverse osmosis, all samples were pretreated with coagulant (FeSO4) and flocculant (CaO) and then treated with reverse osmosis membranes. For adsorption, we used Kosovo coal as...

  20. Contribution of different effluent organic matter fractions to membrane fouling in ultrafiltration of treated domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, effluent organic matter (EfOM) in treated domestic wastewater was separated into hydrophobic neutrals, colloids, hydrophobic acids, transphilic acids and neutrals and hydrophilic compounds. Their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was identified. Further characterization was conducted with respect to molecular size and hydrophobicity. Each isolated fraction was dosed into salt solution to identify its fouling potential in ultrafiltration (UF) using a hydrophilized polyethersulfone membrane. The results show that each kind of EfOM leads to irreversible fouling. At similar delivered DOC load to the membrane, colloids present the highest fouling effect in terms of both reversible and irreversible fouling. The hydrophobic organics show much lower reversibility than the biopolymers present. However, as they are of much smaller size than the membrane pore opening, they cannot lead to such severe fouling as biopolymers do. In all of the isolated fractions, hydrophilics show the lowest fouling potential. For either colloids or hydrophobic substances, increasing their content in feedwater leads to worse fouling. The co-effect between biopolymers and other EfOM fractions has also been identified as one of the mechanisms contributing to UF fouling in filtering EfOM-containing waters. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  1. Ceramic membrane as a pretreatment for reverse osmosis: Interaction between marine organic matter and metal oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Dramas, Laure

    2013-02-01

    Scaling and (bio)fouling phenomena can severely alter the performance of the reverse osmosis process during desalination of seawater. Pretreatments must be applied to efficiently remove particles, colloids, and also precursors of the organic fouling and biofouling. Ceramic membranes offer a lot of advantages for micro and ultrafiltration pretreatments because their initial properties can be recovered using more severe cleaning procedure. The study focuses on the interaction between metal oxides and marine organic matter. Experiments were performed at laboratory scale. The first series of experiments focus on the filtration of different fractions of natural organic matter and model compounds solutions on flat disk ceramic membranes (47 mm of diameter) characterized with different pore size and composition. Direct filtration experiments were conducted at 0.7 bar or 2 bars and at room temperature (20 ± 0.5 °C). The efficiency of backflush and alkaline cleaning were eval, and titanium oxides. Each metal oxide corresponds to a specific pore size for the disk ceramic membranes: 80, 60, and 30 nm. Different sizes of metal oxide particles are used to measure the impact of the surface area on the adsorption of the organic matter. Seawaters from the Arabian Gulf and from the Red Sea were collected during algal blooms. Cultures of algae were also performed in the laboratory and in cooperation with woods hole oceanographic institute. Solutions of algal exudates were obtained after a couple of weeks of cultivation followed by sonication. Solutions were successively filtered through GFF (0.7 lm) and 0.45 lm membrane filters before use. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of final solution was between 1 and 4 mg/L and showed strong hydrophilic character. These various solutions were prepared with the objective to mimic the dissolved organic matter composition of seawater subjected to algal bloom. Characterization of the solutions of filtration experiments (feed

  2. On the association of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, Annarita; Achilli, Cesare; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts are local inhomogeneities in the composition of the plasma membrane of living cells, that are enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol in a liquid-ordered state, and proteins involved in receptor-mediated signalling. Interactions between lipid rafts and the cytoskeleton have been observed in various cell types. They are isolated as a fraction of the plasma membrane that resists solubilization by nonionic detergents at 4°C (detergent-resistant membranes, DRMs). We have previously described that DRMs are anchored to the spectrin-based membrane skeleton in human erythrocytes and can be released by increasing the pH and ionic strength of the solubilization medium with sodium carbonate. It was unexplained why this carbonate treatment was necessary and why this requirement was not reported by other workers in this area. We show here that when contaminating leukocytes are present in erythrocyte preparations that are subjected to detergent treatment, the isolation of DRMs can occur without the requirement for carbonate treatment. This is due to the uncontrolled breakdown of erythrocyte membrane components by hydrolases that are released from contaminating neutrophils that lead to proteolytic disruption of the supramolecular assembly of the membrane skeleton. Results presented here corroborate the concept that DRMs are anchored to the membrane skeleton through electrostatic interactions that most likely involve the spectrin molecule. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional graphene oxide membrane preparation for organics/inorganic salts mixture separation aiming at advanced treatment of refractory wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Long; Xia, Xue; Haider, Muhammad Rizwan; Jiang, Wen-Li; Tao, Yu; Liu, Mei-Jun; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Ding, Yang-Cheng; Hou, Ya-Nan; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2018-07-01

    Some refractory organic matters or soluble microbial products remained in the effluents of refractory organic wastewater after biological secondary treatment and need an advanced treatment before final disposal. Graphene oxide (GO) was known to have potential to be the next generation membrane material. The functional organics/inorganic salts separation GO membrane preparation and application in wastewater advanced treatment could reduce energy or chemicals consumption and avoid organics/inorganic salts mixed concentrate waste problems after nanofiltration or reverse osmosis. In this study, we developed a novelty GO membrane aiming at advanced purification of organic matters in the secondary effluents of refractory organic wastewater and avoiding the organics/inorganic salts mixed concentrate waste problem. The influence of preparation conditions including pore size of support membrane, the number of GO layers and the applied pressure was investigated. It was found that for organics/inorganic salts mixture separation membrane preparation, the rejection and flux would achieve balance for the support membrane at a pore size of ~0.1μm and the number of GO layers of has an optimization value (~10 layers). A higher assemble pressure (~10bar) contributed to the acquisition of a higher rejection efficiency and lower roughness membrane. This as prepared GO membrane was applied to practical secondary effluent of a chemical synthesis pharmaceuticals wastewater. A good organic matter rejection efficiency (76%) and limited salt separation (<14%) was finally obtained. These results can promote the practical application of GO membrane and the resourcelized treatment of industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Removal of trace organic chemicals and performance of a novel hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ryan W; Regnery, Julia; Nghiem, Long D; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2014-09-16

    A hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor (UFO-MBR) was investigated for over 35 days for nutrient and trace organic chemical (TOrC) removal from municipal wastewater. The UFO-MBR system uses both ultrafiltration (UF) and forward osmosis (FO) membranes in parallel to simultaneously extract clean water from an activated sludge reactor for nonpotable (or environmental discharge) and potable reuse, respectively. In the FO stream, water is drawn by osmosis from activated sludge through an FO membrane into a draw solution (DS), which becomes diluted during the process. A reverse osmosis (RO) system is then used to reconcentrate the diluted DS and produce clean water suitable for direct potable reuse. The UF membrane extracts water, dissolved salts, and some nutrients from the system to prevent their accumulation in the activated sludge of the osmotic MBR. The UF permeate can be used for nonpotable reuse purposes (e.g., irrigation and toilet flushing). Results from UFO-MBR investigation illustrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus removals were greater than 99%, 82%, and 99%, respectively. Twenty TOrCs were detected in the municipal wastewater that was used as feed to the UFO-MBR system. Among these 20 TOrCs, 15 were removed by the hybrid UFO-MBR system to below the detection limit. High FO membrane rejection was observed for all ionic and nonionic hydrophilic TOrCs and lower rejection was observed for nonionic hydrophobic TOrCs. With the exceptions of bisphenol A and DEET, all TOrCs that were detected in the DS were well rejected by the RO membrane. Overall, the UFO-MBR can operate sustainably and has the potential to be utilized for direct potable reuse applications.

  5. Communication Between the Cell Membrane and the Nucleus: Role of Protein Compartmentalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre, Sophie A; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-10-21

    Understanding how the information is conveyed from outside to inside the cell is a critical challenge for all biologists involved in signal transduction. The flow of information initiated by cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts is mediated by the formation of adhesion complexes involving multiple proteins. Inside adhesion complexes, connective membrane skeleton (CMS) proteins are signal transducers that bind to adhesion molecules, organize the cytoskeleton, and initiate biochemical cascades. Adhesion complex-mediated signal transduction ultimately directs the formation of supramolecular structures in the cell nucleus, as illustrated by the establishment of multi complexes of DNA-bound transcription factors, and the redistribution of nuclear structural proteins to form nuclear subdomains. Recently, several CMS proteins have been observed to travel to the cell nucleus, suggesting a distinctive role for these proteins in signal transduction. This review focuses on the nuclear translocation of structural signal transducers of the membrane skeleton and also extends our analysis to possible translocation of resident nuclear proteins to the membrane skeleton. This leads us to envision the communication between spatially distant cellular compartments (i.e., membrane skeleton and cell nucleus) as a bidirectional flow of information (a dynamic reciprocity) based on subtle multilevel structural and biochemical equilibria. At one level, it is mediated by the interaction between structural signal transducers and their binding partners, at another level it may be mediated by the balance and integration of signal transducers in different cellular compartments.

  6. Extracellular matrix, cell skeletons, and embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, E D

    1989-09-01

    During embryonic development, the extracellular matrix (ECM) promotes the production of differentiated products by epithelial cells and the migration of mesenchymal cells, and probably also plays a role in epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. Here we examine the role of the cell skeleton (actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments) in mediating matrix effects on mesenchymal cell morphology, migration, and formation. The interaction of both epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells with ECM seems to involve the actin cortex, which is best developed in the base of the epithelial cell, where it attaches to underlying matrix via membrane-intercalated receptors. To interact with the matrix, the fibroblast has appropriate ECM receptors and an actin cortex around the whole cell. The actin cortex is absolutely required for assumption of bipolar shape, elongation, and movement through the matrix. Since the cortex seems to be anchored to the matrix, it is unlikely that it moves during cell migration. A new hypothesis states that the microtubule- and intermediate filament-rich endoplasm, containing the nucleus, moves past the actin cortex-receptor-matrix complex into the newly synthesized front end of the mesenchymal cell to effect forward movement. When epithelial cells transform into mesenchyme in the embryo, or when they are induced to do this in vitro, they switch from the keratin intermediate filament profile to one rich in vimentin, and the effect of cell matrix interaction on cell shape is profoundly altered. Vimentin-actin interactions with ECM may be a major factor in the ability of a cell to become mesenchymal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The Protein 4.1 family: hub proteins in animals for organizing membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Anthony J; Lu, Hui-Chun; Bennett, Pauline M

    2014-02-01

    Proteins of the 4.1 family are characteristic of eumetazoan organisms. Invertebrates contain single 4.1 genes and the Drosophila model suggests that 4.1 is essential for animal life. Vertebrates have four paralogues, known as 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G and 4.1B, which are additionally duplicated in the ray-finned fish. Protein 4.1R was the first to be discovered: it is a major mammalian erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein, essential to the mechanochemical properties of red cell membranes because it promotes the interaction between spectrin and actin in the membrane cytoskeleton. 4.1R also binds certain phospholipids and is required for the stable cell surface accumulation of a number of erythrocyte transmembrane proteins that span multiple functional classes; these include cell adhesion molecules, transporters and a chemokine receptor. The vertebrate 4.1 proteins are expressed in most tissues, and they are required for the correct cell surface accumulation of a very wide variety of membrane proteins including G-Protein coupled receptors, voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels, as well as the classes identified in erythrocytes. Indeed, such large numbers of protein interactions have been mapped for mammalian 4.1 proteins, most especially 4.1R, that it appears that they can act as hubs for membrane protein organization. The range of critical interactions of 4.1 proteins is reflected in disease relationships that include hereditary anaemias, tumour suppression, control of heartbeat and nervous system function. The 4.1 proteins are defined by their domain structure: apart from the spectrin/actin-binding domain they have FERM and FERM-adjacent domains and a unique C-terminal domain. Both the FERM and C-terminal domains can bind transmembrane proteins, thus they have the potential to be cross-linkers for membrane proteins. The activity of the FERM domain is subject to multiple modes of regulation via binding of regulatory ligands, phosphorylation of the FERM associated domain and

  8. Relationship between presynaptic membrane potential and acetylcholine release in synaptosomes from Torpedo electric organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, F M

    1984-01-01

    The membrane potential of purely cholinergic synaptosomes isolated from Torpedo electric organ was monitored with fluorescent carbocyanine dyes. An increased fluorescence was associated with depolarization and a quenching with hyperpolarization. Fluorescence data provided evidence that Torpedo synaptosomes have a membrane potential mainly driven by a K+ diffusion potential and a membrane potential of about -50 mV could be estimated after calibration of fluorescence signals with ionophore antibiotics. The release of acetylcholine (ACh) from Torpedo synaptosomes was monitored continuously by measuring the light emitted by a chemiluminescent method (Israël & Lesbats, 1981 a). Using fluorescence data, the release of ACh was expressed as a function of membrane potential. The relationship between presynaptic potential and transmitter release as determined by biochemical methods at cholinergic nerve endings showed striking similarities to that observed at the squid giant synapse. Several substances were also tested with regard to their depolarizing and releasing properties and it was found that the toxin isolated from the venom of the annelid Glycera convoluta, which induced a large increase in quantal release of transmitter (Manaranche, Thieffry, & Israël, 1980) promoted a depolarization of Torpedo synaptosomes in addition to ACh release. PMID:6207289

  9. Inorganic Nanoparticles/Metal Organic Framework Hybrid Membrane Reactors for Efficient Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, James W; Schütz, Jürg A; Grundy, Luke; Des Ligneris, Elise; Yi, Zhifeng; Kong, Lingxue; Pozo-Gonzalo, Cristina; Ionescu, Mihail; Dumée, Ludovic F

    2017-10-11

    Photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to useful products has potential to address the adverse environmental impact of global warming. However, most photocatalysts used to date exhibit limited catalytic performance, due to poor CO 2 adsorption capacity, inability to efficiently generate photoexcited electrons, and/or poor transfer of the photogenerated electrons to CO 2 molecules adsorbed on the catalyst surface. The integration of inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles across metal organic framework (MOF) materials has potential to yield new hybrid materials, combining the high CO 2 adsorption capacity of MOF and the ability of the semiconductor nanoparticles to generate photoexcited electrons. Herein, controlled encapsulation of TiO 2 and Cu-TiO 2 nanoparticles within zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) membranes was successfully accomplished, using rapid thermal deposition (RTD), and their photocatalytic efficiency toward CO 2 conversion was investigated under UV irradiation. Methanol and carbon monoxide (CO) were found to be the only products of the CO 2 reduction, with yields strongly dependent upon the content and composition of the dopant semiconductor particles. CuTiO 2 nanoparticle doped membranes exhibited the best photocatalytic performance, with 7 μg of the semiconductor nanoparticle enhancing CO yield of the pristine ZIF-8 membrane by 233%, and methanol yield by 70%. This work opens new routes for the fabrication of hybrid membranes containing inorganic nanoparticles and MOFs, with potential application not only in catalysis but also in electrochemical, separation, and sensing applications.

  10. Effect of Organic Tin Compounds on Electric Properties of Model Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podolak, M.; Engel, G.; Man, D. [Inst. of Physics, Opole Univ., Opole (Poland)

    2006-05-15

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of selected organic tin compounds and potassium chloride (used as a reference substance) on the trans-membrane electric voltage and electric resistance of model membranes, the latter being nitrocellulose filters impregnated with butylene ester of lauric acid. The increasing KCl concentration (in the measurement chambers) caused a rapid rise of the negative trans-membrane voltage, whose value stabilized afterwards. In the case of (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl an abrupt maximum of the negative voltage was observed followed by a monotonic drop to zero. In the case of highest concentrations of this compound the voltages, after having reached zero, changed their polarization to the opposite. Within the range of small concentrations two slight voltage maxima were observed. Non-ionic tin compounds like (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}Sn and (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}Sn had an insignificant influence on the electric properties of the studied membranes. (orig.)

  11. Formation of Ultrathin, Continuous Metal-Organic Framework Membranes on Flexible Polymer Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jingwei; Sutrisna, Putu D; Zhang, Yatao; Chen, Vicki

    2016-03-14

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials have an enormous potential in separation applications, but to realize their potential as semipermeable membranes they need to be assembled into thin continuous macroscopic films for fabrication into devices. By using a facile immersion technique, we prepared ultrathin, continuous zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) membranes on titania-functionalized porous polymeric supports. The coherent ZIF-8 layer was surprisingly flexible and adhered well to the support, and the composite membrane could sustain bending and elongation. The membranes exhibited molecular sieving behavior, close to the theoretical permeability of ZIF-8, with hydrogen permeance up to 201×10(-7)  mol m(-2)  s(-1)  Pa(-1) and an ideal H2 /CO2 selectivity of 7:1. This approach offers significant opportunities to exploit the unique properties of MOFs in the fabrication of separation and sensing devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Superhydrophilic Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membranes for Organic Fouling Control: Fouling Behavior and Antifouling Mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-10-16

    This study investigates the fouling behavior and fouling resistance of superhydrophilic thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes functionalized with surface-tailored nanoparticles. Fouling experiments in both forward osmosis and reverse osmosis modes are performed with three model organic foulants: alginate, bovine serum albumin, and Suwannee river natural organic matter. A solution comprising monovalent and divalent salts is employed to simulate the solution chemistry of typical wastewater effluents. Reduced fouling is consistently observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to control thin-film composite polyamide membranes, in both reverse and forward osmosis modes. The fouling resistance and cleaning efficiency of the functionalized membranes is particularly outstanding in forward osmosis mode where the driving force for water flux is an osmotic pressure difference. To understand the mechanism of fouling, the intermolecular interactions between the foulants and the membrane surface are analyzed by direct force measurement using atomic force microscopy. Lower adhesion forces are observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to the control thin-film composite polyamide membranes. The magnitude and distribution of adhesion forces for the different membrane surfaces suggest that the antifouling properties of the superhydrophilic membranes originate from the barrier provided by the tightly bound hydration layer at their surface, as well as from the neutralization of the native carboxyl groups of thin-film composite polyamide membranes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Superhydrophilic thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes for organic fouling control: fouling behavior and antifouling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Kang, Yan; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-10-16

    This study investigates the fouling behavior and fouling resistance of superhydrophilic thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes functionalized with surface-tailored nanoparticles. Fouling experiments in both forward osmosis and reverse osmosis modes are performed with three model organic foulants: alginate, bovine serum albumin, and Suwannee river natural organic matter. A solution comprising monovalent and divalent salts is employed to simulate the solution chemistry of typical wastewater effluents. Reduced fouling is consistently observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to control thin-film composite polyamide membranes, in both reverse and forward osmosis modes. The fouling resistance and cleaning efficiency of the functionalized membranes is particularly outstanding in forward osmosis mode where the driving force for water flux is an osmotic pressure difference. To understand the mechanism of fouling, the intermolecular interactions between the foulants and the membrane surface are analyzed by direct force measurement using atomic force microscopy. Lower adhesion forces are observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to the control thin-film composite polyamide membranes. The magnitude and distribution of adhesion forces for the different membrane surfaces suggest that the antifouling properties of the superhydrophilic membranes originate from the barrier provided by the tightly bound hydration layer at their surface, as well as from the neutralization of the native carboxyl groups of thin-film composite polyamide membranes.

  14. Concept of Compound Retention Time for Organic Micro Pollutants in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor with Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jiangjiang

    2011-12-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) have received more and more attention in recent years due to their potential harmful effects on public health and aquatic ecosystems, and eliminating OMPs in wastewater treatment systems is an important solution to control OMPs wastage. An innovative hybrid process, anaerobic membrane bioreactor with nanofiltration (AnMBR-NF), in which enhanced OMPs removal is possible based on the concept of compound retention time (CRT) through coupling anaerobic biodegradation and NF rejection, is proposed and examined in terms of preliminary feasibility in this study. First, NF membrane screening through sludge water dead-end filtration tests demonstrated that KOCH NF200 (molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) 200 Da, acid/base stable) performed best in organic matter rejection. Then, selected OMPs (ketobrofen and naproxen) in MQ water and a biologically treated wastewater matrix were filtered through NF200 under constant-pressure dead-end mode, with and without stirring, and several methods (contact angle, scanning electronic microscopy, Zeta potential, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy) were used to characterize membranes. Results show selected OMPs in MQ could be rejected (about 40%) by a clean NF200 membrane. The main rejection mechanism was initial absorption by the membrane followed by size exclusion (electric charge interaction plays a less important role). The wastewater matrix could enhance the rejection significantly (up to 90%) because effluent organic matter (EfOM) enhanced size exclusion and electric charge interaction through blocking membrane pores and forming a gel layer as well as binding some OMPs through partitioning followed by retention by NF. Third, an anaerobic bioreactor was set up to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradability of selected OMPs. Results showed selected OMPs could be absorbed by sludge and reached equilibrium within one day, and then were consumed by anaerobic microorganism with a half life 9.4 days for

  15. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Mencel, Liam A.

    2014-05-06

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (log n) log r) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomised, and runs in expected O(n √(h+1) log² n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (log n) log r + r^(4/3 + ε)) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (log n) log r + r^(17/11 + ε))

  16. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siu-Wing

    2014-09-01

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (logn)logr) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomized, and runs in expected O(n√h+1log2n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (logn) logr + r 4/3 + ε ) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (logn) logr + r 17/11 + ε ).

  17. Acyl-coenzyme A organizes laterally in membranes and is recognized specifically by acyl-coenzyme A binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen Simonsen, A; Bernchou Jensen, U; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2003-01-01

    Long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) is a biochemically important amphiphilic molecule that is known to partition strongly into membranes by insertion of the acyl chain. At present, microscopically resolved evidence is lacking on how acyl-CoA influences and organizes laterally in membranes. By a...

  18. Cardiolipin synthesizing enzymes form a complex that interacts with cardiolipin-dependent membrane organizing proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serricchio, Mauro; Vissa, Adriano; Kim, Peter K; Yip, Christopher M; McQuibban, G Angus

    2018-04-01

    The mitochondrial glycerophospholipid cardiolipin plays important roles in mitochondrial biology. Most notably, cardiolipin directly binds to mitochondrial proteins and helps assemble and stabilize mitochondrial multi-protein complexes. Despite their importance for mitochondrial health, how the proteins involved in cardiolipin biosynthesis are organized and embedded in mitochondrial membranes has not been investigated in detail. Here we show that human PGS1 and CLS1 are constituents of large protein complexes. We show that PGS1 forms oligomers and associates with CLS1 and PTPMT1. Using super-resolution microscopy, we observed well-organized nanoscale structures formed by PGS1. Together with the observation that cardiolipin and CLS1 are not required for PGS1 to assemble in the complex we predict the presence of a PGS1-centered cardiolipin-synthesizing scaffold within the mitochondrial inner membrane. Using an unbiased proteomic approach we found that PGS1 and CLS1 interact with multiple cardiolipin-binding mitochondrial membrane proteins, including prohibitins, stomatin-like protein 2 and the MICOS components MIC60 and MIC19. We further mapped the protein-protein interaction sites between PGS1 and itself, CLS1, MIC60 and PHB. Overall, this study provides evidence for the presence of a cardiolipin synthesis structure that transiently interacts with cardiolipin-dependent protein complexes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic changes of dissolved organic matter in membrane bioreactors at different organic loading rates: Evidence from spectroscopic and chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Tahir; Cho, Jinwoo; Hur, Jin

    2017-06-01

    Excitation emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were utilized to explore the dynamics in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), soluble microbial products (SMP), and effluent for the membrane bioreactors at two different organic loading rates (OLRs). Combination of three different fluorescent components explained the compositional changes of dissolved organic matter. The lower OLR resulted in a higher production of tryptophan-like component (C1) in EPS, while the opposite trends were found for the other two components (humic-like C2 and tyrosine-like C3), signifying the role of C1 in the endogenous condition. Larger sized molecules were more greatly produced in EPS at the lower OLR. Meanwhile, all the size fractions of SMP were more abundant at the higher OLR particular for the early phase of the operation. Irrespective of the OLR, the higher degrees of the membrane retention were found for relatively large sized and protein-like molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of Thin Film Composite Metal-Organic Frameworks Membranes on Polymer Supports

    KAUST Repository

    Barankova, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Since the discovery of size-selective metal-organic frameworks (MOF) researchers have tried to manufacture them into gas separation membranes. ZIF-8 became the most studied MOF for membrane applications mainly because of its simple synthesis, good chemical and thermal stability, recent commercial availability and attractive pore size. The aim of this work is to develop convenient methods for growing ZIF thin layers on polymer supports to obtain defect-free ZIF membranes with good gas separation properties. We present new approaches for ZIF membranes preparation on polymers. We introduce zinc oxide nanoparticles in the support as a secondary metal source for ZIF-8 growth. Initially the ZnO particles were incorporated into the polymer matrix and later on the surface of the polymer by magnetron sputtering. In both cases, the ZnO facilitated to create more nucleation opportunities and improved the ZIF-8 growth compared to the synthesis without using ZnO. By employing the secondary seeded growth method, we were able to obtain thin (900 nm) ZIF-8 layer with good gas separation performance. Next, we propose a metal-chelating polymer as a suitable support for growing ZIF layers. Defect-free ZIF-8 films with a thickness of 600 nm could be obtained by a contra-diffusion method. ZIF-8 membranes were tested for permeation of hydrogen and hydrocarbons, and one of the highest selectivities reported so far for hydrogen/propane, and propylene/propane was obtained. Another promising method to facilitate the growth of MOFs on polymeric supports is the chemical functionalization of the support surface with functional groups, which can complex metal ions and which can covalently bond the MOF crystals. We functionalized the surface of a common porous polymeric membrane with amine groups, which took part in the reaction to form ZIF-8 nanocrystals. We observed an enhancement in adhesion between the ZIF layer and the support. The effect of parameters of the contra-diffusion experiment

  1. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms.

  2. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Koga

    Full Text Available Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms.

  3. Effects of Concentration of Organically Modified Nanoclay on Properties of Sulfonated Poly(vinyl alcohol Nanocomposite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiradee Sanglimsuwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyte nanocomposite membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells were prepared by carrying out a sulfonation of poly(vinyl alcohol with sulfosuccinic acid and adding a type of organically modified montmorillonite (layered silicate nanoclay commercially known as Cloisite 93A. The effects of the different concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 wt. % of the organoclay in the membranes on water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability were measured, respectively, via gravimetry, titration, impedance analysis, and gas chromatography techniques. The IEC values remained constant for all concentrations. Water uptakes and proton conductivities of the nanocomposite membranes changed with the clay content in a nonlinear fashion. While all the nanocomposite membranes had lower methanol permeability than Nafion115, the 6% concentration of Cloisite 93A in sulfonated poly(vinyl alcohol membrane displayed the greatest proton conductivity to methanol permeability ratio.

  4. Interfacial interactions between Skeletonema costatum extracellular organic matter and metal oxides: Implications for ceramic membrane filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Zaouri, Noor A

    2017-03-21

    In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO2 or Al2O3, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms. However, the magnitude of these forces was significantly higher on ZrO2 surfaces, irrespective of cation type (Na+ or Ca2+) or concentration. Interestingly, while HMW SKC-EOM interacting forces to Al2O3 were practically insensitive to solution chemistry, the interactions between ZrO2 and HMW SKC-EOM increased with increasing cation concentration in solution. The structure, and lower charge, hydrophilicity, and density of hydroxyl groups on ZrO2 surface would play a key role on favoring zirconia associations with HMW SKC-EOM. The current results contribute to advance our fundamental understanding of Algogenic Organic Matter (AOM) interfacial interactions with metal oxides (i.e., AOM membrane fouling), and would highly assist in the proper selection of membrane material during episodic algal blooms.

  5. Advanced Fluorescence Microscopy Approaches to Understand the Dynamic Organization of the Plasma Membrane in Eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziomkiewicz, Iwona

    signaling in plants. Furthermore, it was established that ENODL9 clustering affects the organization of the PM and distribution of other PM proteins. Analysis of the phenotype of mutant lines revealed that ENODL9 has an important role for plant development and the adaptation to osmotic stress. This resulted......The plasma membrane (PM) is a physical barrier that defines the boundaries of a cell. It not only isolates the cell interior from the environment, but also enables cell communication and a selective exchange of solutes. To serve those contrasting functions, the PM has a dynamic structure consisting...

  6. Real-time skeleton tracking for embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleca, Foti; Klement, Sascha; Martinetz, Thomas; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Touch-free gesture technology is beginning to become more popular with consumers and may have a significant future impact on interfaces for digital photography. However, almost every commercial software framework for gesture and pose detection is aimed at either desktop PCs or high-powered GPUs, making mobile implementations for gesture recognition an attractive area for research and development. In this paper we present an algorithm for hand skeleton tracking and gesture recognition that runs on an ARM-based platform (Pandaboard ES, OMAP 4460 architecture). The algorithm uses self-organizing maps to fit a given topology (skeleton) into a 3D point cloud. This is a novel way of approaching the problem of pose recognition as it does not employ complex optimization techniques or data-based learning. After an initial background segmentation step, the algorithm is ran in parallel with heuristics, which detect and correct artifacts arising from insufficient or erroneous input data. We then optimize the algorithm for the ARM platform using fixed-point computation and the NEON SIMD architecture the OMAP4460 provides. We tested the algorithm with two different depth-sensing devices (Microsoft Kinect, PMD Camboard). For both input devices we were able to accurately track the skeleton at the native framerate of the cameras.

  7. Impact of effluent organic matter on low-pressure membrane fouling in tertiary treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ayache, C.

    2013-05-01

    This study aims at comparing low-pressure membrane fouling obtained with two different secondary effluents at bench and pilot-scale based on the determination of two fouling indices: the total fouling index (TFI) and the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI). The main objective was to investigate if simpler and less costly bench-scale experimentation can substitute for pilot-scale trials when assessing the fouling potential of secondary effluent in large scale membrane filtration plants producing recycled water. Absolute values for specific flux and total fouling index for the bench-scale system were higher than those determined from pilot-scale, nevertheless a statistically significant correlation (r2 = 0.63, α = 0.1) was obtained for the total fouling index at both scales. On the contrary no such correlation was found for the hydraulically irreversible fouling index. Advanced water characterization tools such as excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEM) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) were used for the characterization of foulants. On the basis of statistical analysis, biopolymers and humic substances were found to be the major contribution to total fouling (r2 = 0.95 and r2 = 0.88, respectively). Adsorption of the low molecular weight neutral compounds to the membrane was attributed to hydraulically irreversible fouling (r2 = 0.67). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A novel anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR) with conductive hollow-fiber membrane for treatment of low-organic strength solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Katuri, Krishna

    2014-11-04

    A new anaerobic treatment system that combined a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with membrane filtration using electrically conductive, porous, nickel-based hollow-fiber membranes (Ni-HFMs) was developed to treat low organic strength solution and recover energy in the form of biogas. This new system is called an anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR). The Ni-HFM served the dual function as the cathode for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the membrane for filtration of the effluent. The AnEMBR system was operated for 70 days with synthetic acetate solution having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 320 mg/L. Removal of COD was >95% at all applied voltages tested. Up to 71% of the substrate energy was recovered at an applied voltage of 0.7 V as methane rich biogas (83% CH4; < 1% H2) due to biological conversion of the hydrogen evolved at the cathode to methane. A combination of factors (hydrogen bubble formation, low cathode potential and localized high pH at the cathode surface) contributed to reduced membrane fouling in the AnEMBR compared to the control reactor (open circuit voltage). The net energy required to operate the AnEMBR system at an applied voltage of 0.7 V was significantly less (0.27 kWh/m3) than that typically needed for wastewater treatment using aerobic membrane bioreactors (1-2 kWh/m3).

  9. Metal-organic frameworks in mixed-matrix membranes for gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanh Jeazet, Harold B; Staudt, Claudia; Janiak, Christoph

    2012-12-14

    Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as additives (fillers) exhibit enhanced gas permeabilities and possibly also selectivities when compared to the pure polymer. Polyimides (Matrimid®) and polysulfones are popular polymer matrices for MOF fillers. Presently investigated MOFs for MMMs include [Cu(SiF(6))(4,4'-BIPY)(2)], [Cu(3)(BTC)(2)(H(2)O)(3)] (HKUST-1, Cu-BTC), [Cu(BDC)(DMF)], [Zn(4)O(BDC)(3)] (MOF-5), [Zn(2-methylimidazolate)(2)] (ZIF-8), [Zn(purinate)(2)] (ZIF-20), [Zn(2-carboxyaldehyde imidazolate)(2)] (ZIF-90), Mn(HCOO)(2), [Al(BDC)(μ-OH)] (MIL-53(Al)), [Al(NH(2)-BDC)(μ-OH)] (NH(2)-MIL-53(Al)) and [Cr(3)O(BDC)(3)(F,OH)(H(2)O)(2)] (MIL-101) (4,4'-BIPY = 4,4'-bipyridine, BTC = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate, BDC = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate, terephthalate). MOF particle adhesion to polyimide and polysulfone organic polymers does not represent a problem. MOF-polymer MMMs are investigated for the permeability of the single gases H(2), N(2), O(2), CH(4), CO(2) and of the gas mixtures O(2)/N(2), H(2)/CH(4), CO(2)/CH(4), H(2)/CO(2), CH(4)/N(2) and CO(2)/N(2) (preferentially permeating gas named first). Permeability increases can be traced to the MOF porosity. Since the porosity of MOFs can be tuned very precisely, which is not possible with polymeric material, MMMs offer the opportunity of significantly increasing the selectivity compared to the pure polymeric matrix. Additionally in most of the cases the permeability is increased for MMM membranes compared to the pure polymer. Addition of MOFs to polymers in MMMs easily yields performances similar to the best polymer membranes and gives higher selectivities than those reported to date for any pure MOF membrane for the same gas separation. MOF-polymer MMMs allow for easier synthesis and handability compared to pure MOF membranes.

  10. Threshold concentration of easily assimilable organic carton in feedwater for biofouling of spiral-wound membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijnen, W A M; Biraud, D; Cornelissen, E R; van der Kooij, D

    2009-07-01

    One of the major impediments in the application of spiral-wound membranes in water treatment or desalination is clogging of the feed channel by biofouling which is induced by nutrients in the feedwater. Organic carbon is, under most conditions, limiting the microbial growth. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the concentration of an easily assimilable organic compound such as acetate in the feedwater and the pressure drop increase in the feed channel. For this purpose the membrane fouling simulator (MFS) was used as a model for the feed channel of a spiral-wound membrane. This MFS unit was supplied with drinking water enriched with acetate at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 microg C x L(-1). The pressure drop (PD) in the feed channel increased at all tested concentrations but not with the blank. The PD increase could be described by a first order process based on theoretical considerations concerning biofilm formation rate and porosity decline. The relationship between the first order fouling rate constant R(f) and the acetate concentration is described with a saturation function corresponding with the growth kinetics of bacteria. Under the applied conditions the maximum R(f) (0.555 d(-1)) was reached at 25 microg acetate-C x L(-1) and the half saturation constant k(f) was estimated at 15 microg acetate-C x L(-1). This value is higher than k(s) values for suspended bacteria grown on acetate, which is attributed to substrate limited growth conditions in the biofilm. The threshold concentration for biofouling of the feed channel is about 1 microg acetate-C x L(-1).

  11. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  12. Hybrid biofilm-membrane bioreactor (Bf-MBR) for minimization of bulk liquid-phase organic substances and its positive effect on membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F Y; Li, P; Li, J; Li, H J; Ou, Q M; Sun, T T; Dong, Z J

    2015-12-01

    Four biofilm membrane bioreactors (Bf-MBRs) with various fixed carrier volumes (C:M) were operated in parallel to investigate the effect of attached-growth mode biomass involvement to the change of liquid-phase organics characteristics and membrane permeability, by comparing with conventional MBR. The experiments displayed that C:M and co-existence of biofilm with suspended solids in Bf-MBRs resulted in slight difference in pollutants removal effectiveness, and in rather distinct biomass properties and bacterial activities. The membrane permeability and specific resistance of bulk suspension of Bf-MBRs related closely with the liquid-phase organic substance, including soluble microbial products (SMP) and biopolymer cluster (BPC). Compared with conventional MBR, Bf-MBR with proper C:M had a low total biomass content and food-chain, where biofilm formation and its dominance affected liquid-phase organics, especially through reducing their content and minimizing strongly and weakly hydrophobic components with small molecular weight, and thus to mitigate membrane fouling significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Membrane Fouling Potential of Secondary Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) from Conventional Activated Sludge Process

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2012-01-01

    Secondary effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a conventional activated sludge process was filtered through constant-pressure dead-end filtration tests with a sequential ultrafiltration (UF, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 10k Dalton) and nanofiltration (NF, MWCO of 200 Dalton) array to investigate its membrane fouling potential. Advanced analytical methods including liquid chromatography with online carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescent excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) were employed for EfOM characterization. EfOM consisted of humic substances and building blocks, low molecular weight (LMW) neutrals, biopolymers (mainly proteins) and hydrophobic organics according to the sequence of their organic carbon fractions. The UF rejected only biopolymers and the NF rejected most humics and building blocks and a significant part of LMW neutrals. Simultaneous occurrence of cake layer and standard blocking during the filtration process of both UF and NF was identified according to constant-pressure filtration equations, which was possibly caused by the heterogeneous nature of EfOM with a wide MW distribution (several ten to several million Dalton). Thus the corresponding two fouling indices (kc for cake layer and ks for standard blocking) from UF and NF could characterize the fouling potential of macromolecular biopolymers and low to intermediate MW organics (including humics, building blocks, LMW neutrals), respectively. Compared with macromolecular biopolymers, low to intermediate MW organics exhibited a much higher fouling potential due to their lower molecular weight and higher concentration.

  14. Identification of effluent organic matter fractions responsible for low-pressure membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Filloux, Emmanuelle

    2012-11-01

    Anion exchange resin (AER), powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ozonation treatments were applied on biologically treated wastewater effluent with the objective to modify the effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrix. Both AER and PAC led to significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal, while the TOC remained nearly constant after ozonation. Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed that the AER treatment preferentially removed high and intermediate molecular weight (MW) humic-like structures while PAC removed low MW compounds. Only a small reduction of the high MW colloids (i.e. biopolymers) was observed for AER and PAC treatments. Ozonation induced a large reduction of the biopolymers and an important increase of the low MW humic substances (i.e. building blocks).Single-cycle microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) tests were conducted using commercially available hollow fibres at a constant flux. After reconcentration to their original organic carbon content, the EfOM matrix modified by AER and PAC treatments exhibited higher UF membrane fouling compared to untreated effluent; result that correlated with the higher concentration of biopolymers. On the contrary, ozonation which induced a significant degradation of the biopolymers led to a minor flux reduction for both UF and MF filtration tests. Based on a single filtration, results indicate that biopolymers play a major role in low pressure membrane fouling and that intermediate and low MW compounds have minor impact. Thus, this approach has shown to be a valid methodology to identify the foulant fractions of EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Free cholesterol and cholesterol esters in bovine oocytes: Implications in survival and membrane raft organization after cryopreservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Buschiazzo

    Full Text Available Part of the damage caused by cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes occurs at the plasma membrane. The addition of cholesterol to cell membranes as a strategy to make it more tolerant to cryopreservation has been little addressed in oocytes. In order to increase the survival of bovine oocytes after cryopreservation, we proposed not only to increase cholesterol level of oocyte membranes before vitrification but also to remove the added cholesterol after warming, thus recovering its original level. Results from our study showed that modulation of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD did not affect the apoptotic status of oocytes and improved viability after vitrification yielding levels of apoptosis closer to those of fresh oocytes. Fluorometric measurements based on an enzyme-coupled reaction that detects both free cholesterol (membrane and cholesteryl esters (stored in lipid droplets, revealed that oocytes and cumulus cells present different levels of cholesterol depending on the seasonal period. Variations at membrane cholesterol level of oocytes were enough to account for the differences found in total cholesterol. Differences found in total cholesterol of cumulus cells were explained by the differences found in both the content of membrane cholesterol and of cholesterol esters. Cholesterol was incorporated into the oocyte plasma membrane as evidenced by comparative labeling of a fluorescent cholesterol. Oocytes and cumulus cells increased membrane cholesterol after incubation with MβCD/cholesterol and recovered their original level after cholesterol removal, regardless of the season. Finally, we evaluated the effect of vitrification on the putative raft molecule GM1. Cholesterol modulation also preserved membrane organization by maintaining ganglioside level at the plasma membrane. Results suggest a distinctive cholesterol metabolic status of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs among seasons and a dynamic organizational structure

  16. Refining image segmentation by polygon skeletonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Keith C.

    1987-01-01

    A skeletonization algorithm was encoded and applied to a test data set of land-use polygons taken from a USGS digital land use dataset at 1:250,000. The distance transform produced by this method was instrumental in the description of the shape, size, and level of generalization of the outlines of the polygons. A comparison of the topology of skeletons for forested wetlands and lakes indicated that some distinction based solely upon the shape properties of the areas is possible, and may be of use in an intelligent automated land cover classification system.

  17. Microbial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Microfiltration Membranes: A Detailed Characterization Using Model Organisms with Increasing Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vanysacker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development.

  18. Microbial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Microfiltration Membranes: A Detailed Characterization Using Model Organisms with Increasing Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanysacker, L.; Denis, C.; Declerck, P.; Piasecka, A.; Vankelecom, I. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development. PMID:23986906

  19. Remarkably enhanced gas separation by partial self-conversion of a laminated membrane to metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Pan, Jia Hong; Wang, Nanyi; Steinbach, Frank; Liu, Xinlei; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-03-02

    Separation methods based on 2D interlayer galleries are currently gaining widespread attention. The potential of such galleries as high-performance gas-separation membranes is however still rarely explored. Besides, it is well recognized that gas permeance and separation factor are often inversely correlated in membrane-based gas separation. Therefore, breaking this trade-off becomes highly desirable. Here, the gas-separation performance of a 2D laminated membrane was improved by its partial self-conversion to metal-organic frameworks. A ZIF-8-ZnAl-NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) composite membrane was thus successfully prepared in one step by partial conversion of the ZnAl-NO3 LDH membrane, ultimately leading to a remarkably enhanced H2 /CH4 separation factor and H2 permeance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Molecular Grafting of Fluorinated and Nonfluorinated Alkylsiloxanes on Various Ceramic Membrane Surfaces for the Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds Applying Vacuum Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Joanna; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Kujawski, Wojciech; Knozowska, Katarzyna

    2017-02-22

    Four main tasks were presented: (i) ceramic membrane functionalization (TiO 2 5 kDa and 300 kDa), (ii) extended material characterization (physicochemistry and tribology) of pristine and modified ceramic samples, (iii) evaluation of chemical and mechanical stability, and finally (iv) assessment of membrane efficiency in vacuum membrane distillation applied for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal from water. Highly efficient molecular grafting with four types of perfluoroalkylsilanes and one nonfluorinated agent was developed. Materials with controllable tribological and physicochemical properties were achieved. The most meaningful finding is associated with the applicability of fluorinated and nonfluorinated grafting agents. The results of contact angle, hysteresis of contact angle, sliding angle, and critical surface tension as well as Young's modulus, nanohardness, and adhesion force for grafting by these two modifiers are comparable. This provides insight into the potential applicability of environmental friendly hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces. The achieved hydrophobic membranes were very effective in the removal of VOCs (butanol, methyl-tert-butyl ether, and ethyl acetate) from binary aqueous solutions in vacuum membrane distillation. The correlation between membrane effectiveness and separated solvent polarity was compared in terms of material properties and resistance to the wetting (kinetics of wetting and in-depth liquid penetration). Material properties were interpreted considering Zisman theory and using Kao diagram. The significant influence of surface chemistry on the membrane performance was noticed (5 kDa, influence of hydrophobic nanolayer and separation controlled by solution-diffusion model; 300 kDa, no impact of surface chemistry and separation controlled by liquid-vapor equilibrium).

  1. Interfacial interactions between Skeletonema costatum extracellular organic matter and metal oxides: Implications for ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaouri, Noor; Gutierrez, Leonardo; Dramas, Laure; Garces, Daniel; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2017-06-01

    In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO 2 or Al 2 O 3 , were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms. However, the magnitude of these forces was significantly higher on ZrO 2 surfaces, irrespective of cation type (Na + or Ca 2+ ) or concentration. Interestingly, while HMW SKC-EOM interacting forces to Al 2 O 3 were practically insensitive to solution chemistry, the interactions between ZrO 2 and HMW SKC-EOM increased with increasing cation concentration in solution. The structure, and lower charge, hydrophilicity, and density of hydroxyl groups on ZrO 2 surface would play a key role on favoring zirconia associations with HMW SKC-EOM. The current results contribute to advance our fundamental understanding of Algogenic Organic Matter (AOM) interfacial interactions with metal oxides (i.e., AOM membrane fouling), and would highly assist in the proper selection of membrane material during episodic algal blooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance and Fouling Study of Asymmetric PVDF Membrane Applied in the Concentration of Organic Fertilizer by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes using membrane distillation (MD as an alternative to the conventional multi-stage flushing (MSF process to concentrate a semi-product of organic fertilizer. By applying a unique asymmetric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane, which was specifically designed for MD applications using a nonsolvent thermally induced phase separation (NTIPS method, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD performance was investigated in terms of its sustainability in permeation flux, fouling resistance, and anti-wetting properties. It was found that the permeation flux increased with increasing flow rate, while the top-surface facing feed mode was the preferred orientation to achieve 25% higher flux than the bottom-surface facing feed mode. Compared to the commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane, the asymmetric PVDF membrane exhibited excellent anti-fouling and sustainable flux, with less than 8% flux decline in a 15 h continuous operation, i.e., flux decreased slightly and was maintained as high as 74 kg·m−2·h−1 at 70 °C. Meanwhile, the lost flux was easily recovered by clean water rinsing. Overall 2.6 times concentration factor was achieved in 15 h MD operation, with 63.4% water being removed from the fertilizer sample. Further concentration could be achieved to reach the desired industrial standard of 5x concentration factor.

  3. Performance and Fouling Study of Asymmetric PVDF Membrane Applied in the Concentration of Organic Fertilizer by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfei; Xiao, Tonghu; Bao, Chenghuan; Zhang, Jifei; Yang, Xing

    2018-02-16

    This study proposes using membrane distillation (MD) as an alternative to the conventional multi-stage flushing (MSF) process to concentrate a semi-product of organic fertilizer. By applying a unique asymmetric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, which was specifically designed for MD applications using a nonsolvent thermally induced phase separation (NTIPS) method, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performance was investigated in terms of its sustainability in permeation flux, fouling resistance, and anti-wetting properties. It was found that the permeation flux increased with increasing flow rate, while the top-surface facing feed mode was the preferred orientation to achieve 25% higher flux than the bottom-surface facing feed mode. Compared to the commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane, the asymmetric PVDF membrane exhibited excellent anti-fouling and sustainable flux, with less than 8% flux decline in a 15 h continuous operation, i.e., flux decreased slightly and was maintained as high as 74 kg·m-2·h-1 at 70 °C. Meanwhile, the lost flux was easily recovered by clean water rinsing. Overall 2.6 times concentration factor was achieved in 15 h MD operation, with 63.4% water being removed from the fertilizer sample. Further concentration could be achieved to reach the desired industrial standard of 5x concentration factor.

  4. Composite hollow fiber membranes for organic solvent-based liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Bolhuis-Versteeg, Lydia A.M.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Instability issues of liquid membranes extraction significantly limit its wide application in industry. We report research on the application of a new composite hollow fiber membrane to stabilizing liquid membrane extraction. These type of composite membranes have either a polysulfone (PSf)

  5. LDRD final report on imaging self-organization of proteins in membranes by photocatalytic nano-tagging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Shelnutt, John Allen; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Song, Yujiang; Medforth, Craig J.

    2005-11-01

    We have developed a new nanotagging technology for detecting and imaging the self-organization of proteins and other components of membranes at nanometer resolution for the purpose of investigating cell signaling and other membrane-mediated biological processes. We used protein-, lipid-, or drug-bound porphyrin photocatalysts to grow in-situ nanometer-sized metal particles, which reveal the location of the porphyrin-labeled molecules by electron microscopy. We initially used photocatalytic nanotagging to image assembled multi-component proteins and to monitor the distribution of lipids and porphyrin labels in liposomes. For example, by exchanging the heme molecules in hemoproteins with a photocatalytic tin porphyrin, a nanoparticle was grown at each heme site of the protein. The result obtained from electron microscopy for a tagged multi-subunit protein such as hemoglobin is a symmetric constellation of a specific number of nanoparticle tags, four in the case of the hemoglobin tetramer. Methods for covalently linking photocatalytic porphyrin labels to lipids and proteins were also developed to detect and image the self-organization of lipids, protein-protein supercomplexes, and membrane-protein complexes. Procedures for making photocatalytic porphyrin-drug, porphyrin-lipid, and porphyrin-protein hybrids for non-porphyrin-binding proteins and membrane components were pursued and the first porphyrin-labeled lipids was investigated in liposomal membrane models. Our photocatalytic nanotagging technique may ultimately allow membrane self-organization and cell signaling processes to be imaged in living cells. Fluorescence and plasmonic spectra of the tagged proteins might also provide additional information about protein association and membrane organization. In addition, a porphyrin-aspirin or other NSAID hybrid may be used to grow metal nanotags for the pharmacologically important COX enzymes in membranes so that the distribution of the protein can be imaged at the

  6. Models of plasma membrane organization can be applied to mitochondrial membranes to target human health and disease with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Shaikh, Saame; Brown, David A

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), abundant in fish oil, have potential for treating symptoms associated with inflammatory and metabolic disorders; therefore, it is essential to determine their fundamental molecular mechanisms. Recently, several labs have demonstrated the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts anti-inflammatory effects by targeting the molecular organization of plasma membrane microdomains. Here we briefly review the evidence that DHA reorganizes the spatial distribution of microdomains in several model systems. We then emphasize how models on DHA and plasma membrane microdomains can be applied to mitochondrial membranes. We discuss the role of DHA acyl chains in regulating mitochondrial lipid-protein clustering, and how these changes alter several aspects of mitochondrial function. In particular, we summarize effects of DHA on mitochondrial respiration, electron leak, permeability transition, and mitochondrial calcium handling. Finally, we conclude by postulating future experiments that will augment our understanding of DHA-dependent membrane organization in health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the removal of organic micro-pollutants from anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent by fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin

    2017-03-23

    In this study, the behavior of organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) transport including membrane fouling was assessed in fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) during treatment of the anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) effluent. The flux decline was negligible when the FO membrane was oriented with active layer facing feed solution (AL-FS) while severe flux decline was observed with active layer facing draw solution (AL-DS) with di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer as DS due to struvite scaling inside the membrane support layer. DAP DS however exhibited the lowest OMPs forward flux or higher OMPs rejection rate compared to other two fertilizers (i.e., mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) and KCl). MAP and KCl fertilizer DS had higher water fluxes that induced higher external concentration polarization (ECP) and enhanced OMPs flux through the FO membrane. Under the AL-DS mode of membrane orientation, OMPs transport was further increased with MAP and KCl as DS due to enhanced concentrative internal concentration polarization while with DAP the internal scaling enhanced mass transfer resistance thereby lowering OMPs flux. Physical or hydraulic cleaning could successfully recover water flux for FO membranes operated under the AL-FS mode but only partial flux recovery was observed for membranes operated under AL-DS mode because of internal scaling and fouling in the support layer. Osmotic backwashing could however significantly improve the cleaning efficiency.

  8. The effect of natural and synthetic fatty acids on membrane structure, microdomain organization, cellular functions and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguren, Maitane; López, David J; Escribá, Pablo V

    2014-06-01

    This review deals with the effects of synthetic and natural fatty acids on the biophysical properties of membranes, and on their implication on cell function. Natural fatty acids are constituents of more complex lipids, like triacylglycerides or phospholipids, which are used by cells to store and obtain energy, as well as for structural purposes. Accordingly, natural and synthetic fatty acids may modify the structure of the lipid membrane, altering its microdomain organization and other physical properties, and provoking changes in cell signaling. Therefore, by modulating fatty acids it is possible to regulate the structure of the membrane, influencing the cell processes that are reliant on this structure and potentially reverting pathological cell dysfunctions that may provoke cancer, diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The so-called Membrane Lipid Therapy offers a strategy to regulate the membrane composition through drug administration, potentially reverting pathological processes by re-adapting cell membrane structure. Certain fatty acids and their synthetic derivatives are described here that may potentially be used in such therapies, where the cell membrane itself can be considered as a target to combat disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Free-standing hierarchical α-MnO2@CuO membrane for catalytic filtration degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinsheng; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Ding, An; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Tang, Chuyang Y; Li, Guibai

    2018-06-01

    Catalytic membrane, due to its compact reactor assembling, high catalytic performance as well as low energy consumption, has proved to be more attractive for wastewater treatment. In this work, a free-standing α-MnO 2 @CuO membrane with hierarchical nanostructures was prepared and evaluated as the catalytic membrane to generate radicals from peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the oxidative degradation of organic dyes in aqueous solution. Benefiting from the high mass transport efficiency and the hierarchical nanostructures, a superior catalytic activity of the membrane was observed for organic dyes degradation. As a typical organic dye, more than 99% of methylene blue (MB) was degraded within 0.23 s using dead-end filtration cell. The effects of flow rate, PMS concentration and buffer solution on MB degradation were further investigated. Besides MB, the catalytic membrane also showed excellent performance for the removal of other dyes, such as congo red, methyl orange, rhodamine B, acid chrome blue K and malachite green. Moreover, the mechanism study indicated that OH and SO 4 - generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn/Cu species with different oxidation states mainly accounted for the dyes degradation. The catalytic filtration process using α-MnO 2 @CuO catalytic membrane could provide a novel method for wastewater purification with high efficiency and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Amorphous calcium carbonate particles form coral skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Giuffre, Anthony J.; Sun, Chang-Yu; Stifler, Cayla A.; Frazier, Matthew J.; Neder, Maayan; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A.

    2017-09-01

    Do corals form their skeletons by precipitation from solution or by attachment of amorphous precursor particles as observed in other minerals and biominerals? The classical model assumes precipitation in contrast with observed “vital effects,” that is, deviations from elemental and isotopic compositions at thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we show direct spectromicroscopy evidence in Stylophora pistillata corals that two amorphous precursors exist, one hydrated and one anhydrous amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC); that these are formed in the tissue as 400-nm particles; and that they attach to the surface of coral skeletons, remain amorphous for hours, and finally, crystallize into aragonite (CaCO3). We show in both coral and synthetic aragonite spherulites that crystal growth by attachment of ACC particles is more than 100 times faster than ion-by-ion growth from solution. Fast growth provides a distinct physiological advantage to corals in the rigors of the reef, a crowded and fiercely competitive ecosystem. Corals are affected by warming-induced bleaching and postmortem dissolution, but the finding here that ACC particles are formed inside tissue may make coral skeleton formation less susceptible to ocean acidification than previously assumed. If this is how other corals form their skeletons, perhaps this is how a few corals survived past CO2 increases, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum that occurred 56 Mya.

  11. Multipass membrane air-stripping (MAS) for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surfactant micellar solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan; Luo, Jian; Sabatini, David A

    2009-10-30

    Air-stripping is one of the most effective technologies for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surfactant solutions, although the presence of surfactant poses some unique challenges. This study evaluated the effect of a mixed surfactant system on the apparent Henry's law constant of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and the efficiency of PCE removal from surfactant solutions using a lab-scale hollow fiber membrane contactor. Results show that the presence of surfactant significantly reduced the apparent Henry's law constant of PCE, and the reduction was proportional to the total surfactant concentration. PCE removal efficiency by membrane air-stripping (MAS) decreased as the surfactant system transitioned from solubilization to supersolubilization. Besides significantly reducing the apparent volatility of VOCs, the presence of surfactant brings additional mass transfer resistance in air-stripping, which makes it difficult to achieve high levels of contaminant removal, even at very high air/liquid (A/L) ratios. In contrast, multipass/multistage MAS operated at low A/L ratios could achieve near 100% contaminant removal because of less mass transfer limitation during each stripping pass/stage. Experimental results, together with model calculations demonstrate multipass (and multistage) air-stripping as a cost-effective alternative for removing VOCs from surfactant micellar solutions compared to the options of using large air strippers or operating at high A/L ratios.

  12. Fate and behavior of dissolved organic matter in a submerged anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Luo, Jinxue; Stuckey, David C; Tan, Soon Keat

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the production, composition, and characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in an anoxic-aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated. The average concentrations of proteins and carbohydrates in the MBR aerobic stage were 3.96 ± 0.28 and 8.36 ± 0.89 mg/L, respectively. After membrane filtration, these values decreased to 2.9 ± 0.2 and 2.8 ± 0.2 mg/L, respectively. High performance size exclusion chromatograph (HP-SEC) analysis indicated a bimodal molecular weight (MW) distribution of DOMs, and that the intensities of all the peaks were reduced in the MBR effluent compared to the influent. Three-dimensional fluorescence excitation emission matrix (FEEM) indicated that fulvic and humic acid-like substances were the predominant DOMs in biological treatment processes. Precise identification and characterization of low-MW DOMs was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis indicated that the highest peak numbers (170) were found in the anoxic stage, and 54 (32%) compounds were identified with a similarity greater than 80%. Alkanes (28), esters (11), and aromatics (7) were the main compounds detected. DOMs exhibited both biodegradable and recalcitrant characteristics. There were noticeable differences in the low-MW DOMs present down the treatment process train in terms of numbers, concentrations, molecular weight, biodegradability, and recalcitrance.

  13. Trace organics removal using three membrane bioreactor configurations: MBR, IFAS-MBR and MBMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, T; Alonso, E; Santos, J L; Rodríguez, C; Gómez, M A; Malfeito, J J

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen pharmaceutically active compounds and 22 other trace organic pollutants were analysed regularly in the influent and permeate from a semi-real plant treating municipal wastewater. The plant was operated during 29 months with different configurations which basically differed in the type of biomass present in the system. These processes were the integrated fixed-film activated sludge membrane bioreactor (IFAS-MBR), which combined suspended and attached biomass, the moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR) (only attached biomass) and the MBR (only suspended biomass). Moreover, removal rates were compared to those of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operating nearby with conventional activated sludge treatment. Reverse osmosis (RO) was used after the pilot plant to improve removal rates. The highest elimination was found for the IFAS-MBR, especially for hormones (100% removal); this was attributed to the presence of biofilm, which may lead to different conditions (aerobic-anoxic-anaerobic) along its profile, which increases the degradation possibilities, and also to a higher sludge age of the biofilm, which allows complete acclimation to the contaminants. Operating conditions played an important role, high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and sludge retention time (SRT) being necessary to achieve these high removal rates. Although pharmaceuticals and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates showed high removal rates (65-100%), nonylphenols and phthalate could only be removed to 10-30%. RO significantly increased removal rates to 88% mean removal rate.

  14. Cordierite containing ceramic membranes from smectetic clay using natural organic wastes as pore-forming agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Misrar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cordierite ceramic membranes were manufactured from natural clay, oxides and organic wastes as pore forming agents. Mixtures aforementioned materials with the pore-forming agents (up to 10 wt.% were investigated in the range 1000–1200 °C using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry and filtration tests. Physical properties (density, water absorption and bending strength were correlated to the processing factors (pore-forming agent addition, firing temperature and soaking time. The results showed that cordierite together with spinel, diopside and clinoenstatite neoformed. SEM analysis revealed heterogeneous aspects. The results of the response surface methodology showed that the variations of physical properties versus processing parameters were well described by the used polynomial model. The addition of pore forming agent and temperature were the most influential factors. Filtration tests were performed on the best performing sample. The results allowed to testify that these membranes could be used in waste water treatment.

  15. Organic micropollutants in aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Changes in microbial communities and gene expression

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2016-07-09

    Organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) are contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment due to the risk of their proliferation into the environment, but their impact on the biological treatment process is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the presence of OMPs on the core microbial populations of wastewater treatment. Two nanofiltration-coupled membrane bioreactors (aerobic and anaerobic) were subjected to the same operating conditions while treating synthetic municipal wastewater spiked with OMPs. Microbial community dynamics, gene expression levels, and antibiotic resistance genes were analyzed using molecular-based approaches. Results showed that presence of OMPs in the wastewater feed had a clear effect on keystone bacterial populations in both the aerobic and anaerobic sludge while also significantly impacting biodegradation-associated gene expression levels. Finally, multiple antibiotic-type OMPs were found to have higher removal rates in the anaerobic MBR, while associated antibiotic resistance genes were lower.

  16. Organic micro-pollutants’ removal via anaerobic membrane bioreactor with ultrafiltration and nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2015-12-15

    The removal of 15 organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) in synthetic municipal wastewater was investigated in a laboratory-scale mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) using ultrafiltration and AnMBR followed by nanofiltration (NF), where powdered activated carbon (PAC) was added to enhance OMPs removal. No significant effects of OMPs spiking and NF connection on bulk organics removal and biogas production were observed. Amitriptyline, diphenhydramine, fluoxetine, sulfamethoxazole, TDCPP and trimethoprim showed readily biodegradable characteristics with consistent biological removal over 80%. Atrazine, carbamazepine, DEET, Dilantin, primidone and TCEP showed refractory characteristics with biological removal below 40%. Acetaminophen, atenolol and caffeine showed a prolonged adaption time of around 45 d, with initial biological removal below 40% and up to 50-80% after this period. Most readily biodegradable OMPs contained a strong electron donating group. Most refractory OMPs contained a strong electron withdrawing group or a halogen substitute. NF showed consistent high rejection of 80-92% with an average of 87% for all OMPs, which resulted in higher OMPs removal in AnMBR-NF than in AnMBR alone, especially for refractory OMPs. Limited sorption performance of PAC for OMPs removal was mainly due to low and batch dosage (100 mg/L) as well as the competitive sorption caused by bulk organics.

  17. The ethics of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in brain-dead potential organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ave, Anne L; Gardiner, Dale; Shaw, David M

    2016-05-01

    Organ-preserving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OP-ECMO) is defined as the use of extracorporeal support for the primary purpose of preserving organs for transplantation, rather than to save the patient's life. This paper discusses the ethics of using OP-ECMO in donation after brain determination of death (DBDD) to avoid the loss of organs for transplantation. We review case reports in the literature and analyze the ethical issues raised. We conclude that there is little additional ethical concern in continuing OP-ECMO in patients already on ECMO if they become brain dead. The implementation of OP-ECMO in hemodynamically unstable brain-dead patients is ethically permissible in certain clinical situations but requires specific consent from relatives if the patient's wish to donate is not clear. If no evidence of a patient's wish to donate is available, OP-ECMO is not recommended. In countries with presumed consent legislation, failure to opt out should be considered as a positive wish to donate. If a patient is not-yet brain-dead or is undergoing testing for brain death, OP-ECMO is not recommended. Further research on OP-ECMO is needed to better understand the attitudes of professionals, families, and lay people to ensure agreement on key ethical issues. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of a Hydrophobic Metal-Organic Framework Membrane Supported on Thin Porous Metal Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Canfield, Nathan L.; Liu, Wei

    2016-02-29

    A hydrophobic metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66-CH3 is prepared and its solvothermal stability is investigated in comparison to UiO-66. It is confirmed that the MOF stability is enhanced by introduction of the two methyl groups, while the water adsorption is reduced. Given its hydrophobicity and stability, UiO-66-CH3 is proposed as an attractive membrane material for gas separation under moisture conditions. The UiO-66-CH3 membrane is prepared on a 50µm-thin porous Ni support sheet for the first time by use of a secondary growth method. It is found that uniform seed coating on the support is necessary to form a continuous membrane. In addition to growth time and temperature, presence of a modulator in the growth solution is found to be useful for controlling hydrothermal membrane growth on the seeded support. A dense, inter-grown membrane layer is formed by 24-h growth over a temperature range from 120 oC to 160 oC. The membrane surface comprises 500 nm octahedral crystals, which are supposed to grow out of the original 100 nm spherical seeding crystals. The separation characteristics of resulting membranes are tested with pure CO2, air, CO2/air mixture, and humid CO2/air mixture. CO2 permeance as high as 1.9E-06 mol/m2/s/Pa at 31oC is obtained. Unlike the hydrophilic zeolite membranes, CO2 permeation through this membrane is not blocked by the presence of water vapor in the feed gas. The results suggest that this MOF framework is a promising membrane material worth to be further investigated for separation of CO2 and other small molecules from humid gas mixtures.

  19. The effects of organic carbon, ammoniacal-nitrogen, and oxygen partial pressure on the stratification of membrane-aerated biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPara, Timothy M; Cole, Alina C; Shanahan, John W; Semmens, Michael J

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen) concentrations on the microbial activity and community structure in membrane-aerated biofilms (MABs). MABs were grown under well-defined conditions of fluid flow, substrate concentration, and membrane oxygen partial pressure. Biofilms were then removed and thin-sliced using a cryostat/microtome parallel to the membrane. Individual slices were analyzed for changes with depth in biomass density, respiratory activity, and the population densities of ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria populations. Oxygen-sensing microelectrodes were used to determine the depth of oxygen penetration into each biofilm. Our results demonstrated that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria grow near the membrane, while denitrifying bacteria grow a substantial distance from the membrane. However, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria did not grow simultaneously when organic concentrations became too high or ammonia concentrations became too low. In conclusion, membrane-aerated biofilms exhibit substantial stratification with respect to community structure and activity. A fundamental understanding of the factors that control this stratification will help optimize the performance of full-scale membrane-aerated biofilm reactors for wastewater treatment.

  20. Performance and fouling mechanism of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) treating fermentation wastewater with high organic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Kang, Yun; Zhang, Liqiu; Qu, Dan; Cheng, Xiang; Feng, Li

    2018-03-01

    In this study, direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was used for treating fermentation wastewater with high organic concentrations. DCMD performance characteristics including permeate flux, permeate water quality as well as membrane fouling were investigated systematically. Experimental results showed that, after 12hr DCMD, the feed wastewater was concentrated by about a factor of 3.7 on a volumetric basis, with the permeate flux decreasing from the initial 8.7L/m 2 /hr to the final 4.3L/m 2 /hr due to membrane fouling; the protein concentration in the feed wastewater was increased by about 3.5 times and achieved a value of 6178mg/L, which is suitable for reutilization. Although COD and TOC in permeate water increased continuously due to the transfer of volatile components from wastewater, organic rejection of over 95% was achieved in wastewater. GC-MS results suggested that the fermentation wastewater contained 128 kinds of organics, in which 14 organics dominated. After 12hr DCMD, not only volatile organics including trimethyl pyrazine, 2-acetyl pyrrole, phenethyl alcohol and phenylacetic acid, but also non-volatile dibutyl phthalate was detected in permeate water due to membrane wetting. FT-IR and SEM-EDS results indicated that the deposits formed on the membrane inner surface mainly consisted of Ca, Mg, and amine, carboxylic acid and aromatic groups. The fouled membrane could be recovered, as most of the deposits could be removed using a HCl/NaOH chemical cleaning method. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Rooster sperm plasma membrane protein and phospholipid organization and reorganization attributed to cooling and cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol to phospholipid ratio is used as a representation for membrane fluidity, and predictor of cryopreservation success but results are not consistent across species and ignore the impact of membrane proteins. Therefore, this research explored the modulation of membrane fluidity and protein ...

  2. Polymer-metal organic frameworks (MOFs) mixed matrix membranes for gas separation applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, S.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of polymeric membranes is often limited by a trade-off between membrane permeability and selectivity, the so-called Robeson upper bound. Additionally, in high pressure CO2 capture applications, excessive swelling of the polymer membrane often leads to plasticization resulting in

  3. Comments on a skeleton design paradigm for a demosponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluma, Y; Ilan, M; Sherman, D

    2011-09-01

    The ball-shaped marine sponge Cinachyrellalevantinensis is 3-5 cm in diameter. It filters large quantities of seawater for feeding. Sponges contain numerous, hydrated, brittle amorphous SiO₂ spicules of several types that form 70-80% by weight of the sponge. We performed mechanical tests to determine the functionality of the sponge skeleton. The potential effect of habitat on skeleton properties was investigated by comparing sponges from 0.5 m and 30 m depth. We determined how spicules contribute to maintaining the strength and macroscopic structural integrity of a sponge, and studied their deformation mechanisms under external loading, and their microscopic design parameters. Compression tests of cylindrical samples cut from sponges revealed their macroscopic deformation mechanisms. Experiments solely with the organic material (following spicules dissolution) revealed the contribution of the spicules to the load carrying capacity and structural integrity of the sponge. Cantilever bending tests of anchored spicules determined the strength of individual spicules, the sponge's main skeletal elements. As the strength of brittle spicules is statistical in nature, we used Weibull Statistics to define their strength and evaluate their Young's modulus. Shallow and deep-water sponges did not differ significantly neither in response to compression, nor in spicule strength under bending and tension. Spicule weight fraction within a sponge was significantly higher in shallow-water individuals. We conclude that the structural integrity and strength of this sponge's skeleton is derived from its low-strength, small spicules, produced by a cost-effective process. The operating deformation of the spicules (bending) and their design parameters make them highly efficient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress regulated members of the plant organic cation transporter family are localized to the vacuolar membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis six genes group into the gene family of the organic cation transporters (OCTs. In animals the members of the OCT-family are mostly characterized as polyspecific transporters involved in the homeostasis of solutes, the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters and the transport of choline and carnitine. In plants little is known about function, localisation and regulation of this gene family. Only one protein has been characterized as a carnitine transporter at the plasma membrane so far. Findings We localized the five uncharacterized members of the Arabidopsis OCT family, designated OCT2-OCT6, via GFP fusions and protoplast transformation to the tonoplast. Expression analysis with RNA Gel Blots showed a distinct, organ-specific expression pattern of the individual genes. With reporter gene fusion of four members we analyzed the tissue specific distribution of OCT2, 3, 4, and 6. In experiments with salt, drought and cold stress, we could show that AtOCT4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated during drought stress, AtOCT3 and 5 during cold stress and AtOCT 5 and 6 during salt stress treatments. Conclusion Localisation of the proteins at the tonoplast and regulation of the gene expression under stress conditions suggests a specific role for the transporters in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  5. A novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor system: biological stability and trace organic compound removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Cath, Tzahi Y; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-05-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) by a novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor (MDBR) system was examined. Salinity build-up and the thermophilic conditions to some extent adversely impacted the performance of the bioreactor, particularly the removal of total nitrogen and recalcitrant TrOCs. While most TrOCs were well removed by the thermophilic bioreactor, compounds containing electron withdrawing functional groups in their molecular structure were recalcitrant to biological treatment and their removal efficiency by the thermophilic bioreactor was low (0-53%). However, the overall performance of the novel MDBR system with respect to the removal of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and TrOCs was high and was not significantly affected by the conditions of the bioreactor. All TrOCs investigated here were highly removed (>95%) by the MDBR system. Biodegradation, sludge adsorption, and rejection by MD contribute to the removal of TrOCs by MDBR treatment. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Adaptable Spectrin/Ankyrin-Based Mechanism for Long-Range Organization of Plasma Membranes in Vertebrate Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Vann; Lorenzo, Damaris N

    2016-01-01

    Ankyrins are membrane-associated proteins that together with their spectrin partners are responsible for micron-scale organization of vertebrate plasma membranes, including those of erythrocytes, excitable membranes of neurons and heart, lateral membrane domains of columnar epithelial cells, and striated muscle. Ankyrins coordinate functionally related membrane transporters and cell adhesion proteins (15 protein families identified so far) within plasma membrane compartments through independently evolved interactions of intrinsically disordered sequences with a highly conserved peptide-binding groove formed by the ANK repeat solenoid. Ankyrins are coupled to spectrins, which are elongated organelle-sized proteins that form mechanically resilient arrays through cross-linking by specialized actin filaments. In addition to protein interactions, cellular targeting and assembly of spectrin/ankyrin domains also critically depend on palmitoylation of ankyrin-G by aspartate-histidine-histidine-cysteine 5/8 palmitoyltransferases, as well as interaction of beta-2 spectrin with phosphoinositide lipids. These lipid-dependent spectrin/ankyrin domains are not static but are locally dynamic and determine membrane identity through opposing endocytosis of bulk lipids as well as specific proteins. A partnership between spectrin, ankyrin, and cell adhesion molecules first emerged in bilaterians over 500 million years ago. Ankyrin and spectrin may have been recruited to plasma membranes from more ancient roles in organelle transport. The basic bilaterian spectrin-ankyrin toolkit markedly expanded in vertebrates through gene duplications combined with variation in unstructured intramolecular regulatory sequences as well as independent evolution of ankyrin-binding activity by ion transporters involved in action potentials and calcium homeostasis. In addition, giant vertebrate ankyrins with specialized roles in axons acquired new coding sequences by exon shuffling. We speculate that

  7. Involvement of the skeleton in malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirschel, J.; Ozdoba, C.

    1987-01-01

    Of 114 patients with Hodgkin's disease reviewed, 13 (11%) had bone involvement. The typical osseous lesion in Hodgkin's desease is a secondary manifestation in the axial skeleton. The lesions are mainly lytic; there is no relation between the site of the affection and the character of the lesion. Of 261 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 19 (7,3%) had bone involvement. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma very rarely affects the bone primarily; these lesions are lytic. Involvement of the appendicular skeleton is reported to be typical; this cannot be confirmed by our study. Most secondary osseous lesions in non-Hodgkin lymphoma are found in the cranium, the spine and the sternum; this pattern of distribution as well as the mainly lytic appearance can be considered typical. (orig.) [de

  8. Calcaneal spurs among San and Khoi skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline, Cermak; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Only few studies considered the prevalence of calcaneal enthesophytes commonly called heel spurs among historic skeleton samples. In the present study the frequency of plantar calcaneal spurs among 54 19(th) century Khoisan skeletons was analyzed. Five individuals (9.6 %) had a plantar calcaneal spur at the right side or left side. Calcaneal spurs were more likely to occur in older individuals. More than 20 % of the individuals aged between 40 and 60 years (mature) showed plantar spurs, while 6.2 % of the individuals aged between 20 and 40 years had plantar spurs; however this difference was not significant. No sex differences were present in the prevalence of calcaneal spurs. Male and female individuals did not differ in the metric dimensions of the calcanceal spurs significantly.

  9. Investigation of polymer membranes modified by fullerenol for dehydration of organic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Mariia E.; Penkova, Anastasia V.; Kuzminova, Anna I.; Ermakov, Sergey S.; Roizard, Denis

    2017-07-01

    This study focuses on the development of novel dense and supported mixed-matrix membranes based on chitosan and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylenoxide) (PPO) with low-hydroxylated fullerenol C60(OH)12. These novel membranes containing nano-carbon particles were prepared to reach high membrane performances for further integration in a dehydration process like distillation coupled with pervaporation. SEM microscopy was used to visualize the internal morphology of the membrane. It was found that all membranes were well stable and highly water-selective in spite of the different nature of polymers.

  10. DeepSkeleton: Learning Multi-Task Scale-Associated Deep Side Outputs for Object Skeleton Extraction in Natural Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Bai, Xiang; Yuille, Alan

    2017-11-01

    Object skeletons are useful for object representation and object detection. They are complementary to the object contour, and provide extra information, such as how object scale (thickness) varies among object parts. But object skeleton extraction from natural images is very challenging, because it requires the extractor to be able to capture both local and non-local image context in order to determine the scale of each skeleton pixel. In this paper, we present a novel fully convolutional network with multiple scale-associated side outputs to address this problem. By observing the relationship between the receptive field sizes of the different layers in the network and the skeleton scales they can capture, we introduce two scale-associated side outputs to each stage of the network. The network is trained by multi-task learning, where one task is skeleton localization to classify whether a pixel is a skeleton pixel or not, and the other is skeleton scale prediction to regress the scale of each skeleton pixel. Supervision is imposed at different stages by guiding the scale-associated side outputs toward the groundtruth skeletons at the appropriate scales. The responses of the multiple scale-associated side outputs are then fused in a scale-specific way to detect skeleton pixels using multiple scales effectively. Our method achieves promising results on two skeleton extraction datasets, and significantly outperforms other competitors. Additionally, the usefulness of the obtained skeletons and scales (thickness) are verified on two object detection applications: Foreground object segmentation and object proposal detection.

  11. Thin-film composite crosslinked polythiosemicarbazide membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN)

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah

    2015-01-01

    In this work we report a new class of solvent stable thin-film composite (TFC) membrane fabricated on crosslinked polythiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as substrate that exhibits superior stability compared with other solvent stable polymeric membranes reported up to now. Integrally skinned asymmetric PTSC membranes were prepared by the phase inversion process and crosslinked with an aromatic bifunctional crosslinker to improve the solvent stability. TFC membranes were obtained via interfacial polymerization using trimesoyl chloride (TMC) and diaminopiperazine (DAP) monomers. The membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurement.The membranes exhibited high fluxes toward solvents like tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) ranging around 20L/m2 h at 5bar with a molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of around 1000g/mol. The PTSC-based thin-film composite membranes are very stable toward polar aprotic solvents and they have potential applications in the petrochemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in Scleractinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Takaoka, Tori L.; Kuehl,Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Hexacorallia includes the Scleractinia, or stony corals, characterized by having an external calcareous skeleton made of aragonite, and the Corallimorpharia, or mushroom corals, that lack such a skeleton. Although each group has traditionally been considered monophyletic, some molecular phylogenetic analyses have challenged this, suggesting that skeletal features are evolutionarily plastic, and reviving notions that the scleractinian skeleton may be ephemeral and that the group itself may be polyphyletic. Nevertheless, the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of Hexacorallia supported scleractinian monophyly (REF), and so this remains controversial. In order to resolve this contentious issue, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of nine scleractinians and four corallimorpharians and performed phylogenetic analysis that also included three outgroups (an octocoral and two sea anemones). Our data provide the first strong evidence that Scleractinia is paraphyletic and that the Corallimorpharia is derived from within the group, from which we conclude that skeletal loss has occurred in the latter group secondarily. It is possible that a driving force in such skeletal loss could be the high levels of CO{sub 2} in the ocean during the mid-Cretaceous, which would have impacted aragonite solubility. We estimate from molecular divergence measures that the Corallimorpharia arose in the mid-Cretaceous, approximately 87 million years ago (Ma), supporting this view. These data also permit us to date the origin of Scleractinia to 265 Ma, narrowing the gap between the group's phylogenetic origin and its earliest fossil record.

  13. Free-radicals and advanced chemistries involved in cell membrane organization influence oxygen diffusion and pathology treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    A breakthrough has been discovered in pathology chemistry related to increasing molecular structure that can interfere with oxygen diffusion through cell membranes. Free radicals can crosslink unsaturated low-viscosity fatty acid oils by chain-growth polymerization into more viscous liquids and even solids. Free radicals are released by mitochondria in response to intermittent hypoxia that can increase membrane molecular organization to reduce fluidity and oxygen diffusion in a possible continuing vicious cycle toward pathological disease. Alternate computational chemistry demonstrates molecular bond dynamics in free energy for cell membrane physiologic movements. Paired electrons in oxygen and nitrogen atoms require that oxygen bonds rotate and nitrogen bonds invert to seek polar nano-environments and hide from nonpolar nano-environments thus creating fluctuating instability at a nonpolar membrane and polar biologic fluid interface. Subsequent mechanomolecular movements provide free energy to increase diffusion by membrane transport of molecules and oxygen into the cell, cell-membrane signaling/recognition/defense in addition to protein movements for enzyme mixing. In other chemistry calcium bonds to membrane phosphates primarily on the outer plasma cell membrane surface to influence the membrane firing threshold for excitability and better seal out water permeation. Because calcium is an excellent metal conductor and membrane phosphate headgroups form a semiconductor at the biologic fluid interface, excess electrons released by mitochondria may have more broad dissipation potential by safe conduction through calcium atomic-sized circuits on the outer membrane surface. Regarding medical conditions, free radicals are known to produce pathology especially in age-related disease in addition to aging. Because cancer cell membranes develop extreme polymorphism that has been extensively followed in research, accentuated easily-visualized free-radical models are

  14. Synthesis and Electrospraying of Nanoscale MOF (Metal Organic Framework) for High-Performance CO2 Adsorption Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahiduzzaman; Allmond, Kelsey; Stone, John; Harp, Spencer; Mujibur, Khan

    2017-01-01

    We report the sonochemical synthesis of MOF (metal organic framework) nanoparticles of 30-200 nm in size and electrospraying of those particles on electrospun nanofibers to process a MOF-attached nanofibrous membrane. This membrane displayed significant selectivity towards CO2 and capacity of adsorbing with 4000-5000 ppm difference from a mixed gas flow of 1% CO2 and 99% N2. Applying ultrasonic waves during the MOF synthesis offered rapid dispersion and formation of crystalline MOF nanoparticles in room temperature. The MOF nanoparticles of 100-200 nm in size displayed higher surface area and adsorption capacity comparing to that of 30-60 nm in size. Nanofibrous membrane was produced by electrospinning of MOF blended PAN solution followed by electrospraying of additional MOF nanoparticles. This yielded uniform MOF deposition on nanofibers, occurred due to electrostatic attraction between highly charged nanoparticles and conductive nanofibers. A test bench for real-time CO2 adsorption at room temperature was built with non-dispersive Infrared (NDIR) CO2 sensors. Comparative tests were performed on the membrane to investigate its enhanced adsorption capacity. Three layers of the as-produced membranes displayed CO2 adsorption for approximately 2 h. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the membrane showed the thermal stability of the MOF and PAN up to 290 and 425 °C, respectively.

  15. Highly selective sieving of small gas molecules by using an ultra-microporous metal–organic framework membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Kang, Zixi

    2014-09-12

    © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Two tailor-made microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes were successfully fabricated on nickel screens by secondary growth. The effect of pore structures on gas separation was examined by means of single and binary gas permeation tests. The MOF JUC-150 membrane with its ultra-micropores showed marked preferential permeance to H2 relative to other gas molecules. The selectivity factors of this membrane were 26.3, 17.1 and 38.7 for H2/CH4, H2/N2 and H2/CO2, respectively, at room temperature. To the best of our knowledge, these values represent unprecedentedly high separation selectivity among those for all MOF membranes reported to date. The JUC-150 membrane also shows high thermal stability and outstanding separation performance at a high temperature of 200 °C. The separation performance of these membranes persists even after more than 1 year exposure to air. The superiority of the tailored pore size, high selectivity for H2 over other gases, significant stability and recyclability make these materials potential candidates for industrial H2 recycling applications.

  16. Modeling of RO/NF membrane rejections of PhACs and organic compounds: a statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Amy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Rejections of pharmaceutical compounds (Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Clofibric acid, Naproxen, Primidone, Phenacetin and organic compounds (Dichloroacetic acid, Trichloroacetic acid, Chloroform, Bromoform, Trichloroethene, Perchloroethene, Carbontetrachloride, Carbontetrabromide by NF (Filmtec, Saehan and RO (Filmtec, Saehan, Toray, Koch membranes were studied. Chloroform presented the lowest rejection due to small molar volume, equivalent width and length. Diclofenac and Primidone showed high rejections related to high molar volume and length. Dichloroacetic acid and Trichloroacetic acid presented good rejections caused by charge exclusion instead of steric hindrance mechanism influencing rejection. Bromoform and Trichloroethene showed low rejections due to small length and equivalent width. Carbontetrabromide, Perchloroethene and Carbontetrachloride with higher equivalent width than BF and TCE presented better rejections. A qualitative analysis of variables using Principal Component Analysis was successfully implemented for reduction of physical-chemical compound properties that influence membrane rejection of PhACs and organic compounds. Properties such as dipole moment, molar volume, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, molecular length and equivalent width were found to be important descriptors for simulation of membrane rejection. For membranes used in the experiments, we may conclude that charge repulsion was an important mechanism of rejection for ionic compounds. After analysis with Multiple Linear Regression, we also may conclude that membrane rejection of neutral compounds was well predicted by molar volume, length, equivalent width, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and dipole moment. Molecular weight was a poor descriptor variable for rejection modelling. We were able to provide acceptable statistical significance for important results.

  17. Low-temperature bonding process for the fabrication of hybrid glass-membrane organ-on-a-chip devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Kyall J.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wang, Chenxi; Priest, Craig; Prestidge, Clive A.; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko; Thierry, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    The integration of microfluidics with living biological systems has paved the way to the exciting concept of "organs-on-a-chip," which aims at the development of advanced in vitro models that replicate the key features of human organs. Glass-based devices have long been utilized in the field of microfluidics but the integration of alternative functional elements within multilayered glass microdevices, such as polymeric membranes, remains a challenge. To this end, we have extended a previously reported approach for the low-temperature bonding of glass devices that enables the integration of a functional polycarbonate porous membrane. The process was initially developed and optimized on specialty low-temperature bonding equipment (μTAS2001, Bondtech, Japan) and subsequently adapted to more widely accessible hot embosser units (EVG520HE Hot Embosser, EVG, Austria). The key aspect of this method is the use of low temperatures compatible with polymeric membranes. Compared to borosilicate glass bonding (650°C) and quartz/fused silica bonding (1050°C) processes, this method maintains the integrity and functionality of the membrane (Tg 150°C for polycarbonate). Leak tests performed showed no damage or loss of integrity of the membrane for up to 150 h, indicating sufficient bond strength for long-term cell culture. A feasibility study confirmed the growth of dense and functional monolayers of Caco-2 cells within 5 days.

  18. The echinoderm larval skeleton as a possible model system for experimental evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Morino, Yoshiaki; Wada, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of various body plans results from the acquisition of novel structures as well as the loss of existing structures. Some novel structures necessitate multiple evolutionary steps, requiring organisms to overcome the intermediate steps, which might be less adaptive or neutral. To examine this issue, echinoderms might provide an ideal experimental system. A larval skeleton is acquired in some echinoderm lineages, such as sea urchins, probably via the co-option of the skeletogenic machinery that was already established to produce the adult skeleton. The acquisition of a larval skeleton was found to require multiple steps and so provides a model experimental system for reproducing intermediate evolutionary stages. The fact that echinoderm embryology has been studied with various natural populations also presents an advantage. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The effect of organic ion-exchange resin on properties of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivčík, J.; Vladařová, J.; Hadrava, J.; Černín, A.; Brožová, Libuše

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2010), s. 179-184 ISSN 1944-3994. [Membrane Science and Technology Conference of Visegrad Countries /4./ PERMEA 2009, 07.07.2009-11.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane * membrane modification * particle size of distribution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2010

  20. Sorption of triclosan on electrospun fibrous membranes: Effects of pH and dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangjie Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Three hydrophobic and polyporous electrospun fibrous membranes (EFMs were prepared by electrospinning methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(lactide-co-glycolide (MPEG-PLGA, poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA and poly(d,l-lactide (PDLLA. The effects of pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM on triclosan (TCS sorption by EFMs in aqueous solution were investigated. The results indicated that hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and π–π bonding interactions led to fast adsorption, which governed the adsorption rates of TCS onto EFMs. The maximum sorption capacities of MPEG-PLGA, PLGA and PDLLA reached 130, 93 and 99 mg g−1, respectively, which were in positive correlation with their pore volumes and influenced by pore filling processes. The solution pH could significantly influence the TCS sorption by EFMs. In acid condition, protonated TCS facilitated their sorption onto EFMs. No obvious sorption was observed in alkaline condition due to repulsive forces between negatively charged EFMs and deprotonated TCS (pKa = 7.9. The presence of DOM inhibited TCS sorption onto EFMs due to competitive adsorption. The results could be due to the occupation of the adsorption sites and the blockage of the pore entrance by DOM.

  1. Proton Conductivity of Proton Exchange Membrane Synergistically Promoted by Different Functionalized Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhuang; Tang, Beibei; Wu, Peiyi

    2017-07-12

    In this study, two functionalized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), UiO-66-SO 3 H and UiO-66-NH 2 , were synthesized. Then, different composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared by single doping and codoping of these two MOFs, respectively. It was found that codoping of these two MOFs with suitable sizes was more conducive to the proton conductivity enhancement of the composite PEM. A synergistic effect between these two MOFs led to the the formation of more consecutive hydration channels in the composite PEM. It further greatly promoted the proton conductivity of the composite PEM. The proton conductivity of the codoped PEM reached up to 0.256 S/cm under 90 °C, 95% RH, which was ∼1.17 times higher than that of the recast Nafion (0.118 S/cm). Besides, the methanol permeability of the codoped PEM was prominently decreased owing to the methanol trapping effect of the pores of these two MOFs. Meanwhile, the high water and thermal stabilities of these two MOFs were beneficial to the high proton conductivity stability of the codoped PEM under high humidity and high temperature. The proton conductivity of the codoped PEM was almost unchanged throughout 3000 min of testing under 90 °C, 95% RH. This work provides a valuable reference for designing different functionalized MOFs to synergistically promote the proton conductivities of PEMs.

  2. Effect of microbial community structure on organic removal and biofouling in membrane adsorption bioreactor used in seawater pretreatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sanghyun

    2016-03-03

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated on-site for 56 d with different powdered activated carbon (PAC) dosages of 0, 1.5 and 5.0 g/L to pretreat seawater for reverse osmosis desalination. It was hypothesized that PAC would stimulate adsorption and biological degradation of organic compounds. The microbial communities responsible for biofouling on microfiltration (MF) membranes and biological organic removal in MBR were assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and 454-pyrosequencing. The PAC addition improved assimilable organic carbon removal (53-59%), and resulted in reduced biofouling development on MF (> 50%) with only a marginal development in trans-membrane pressure. Interestingly, the bacterial community composition was significantly differentiated by the PAC addition. Cyanobacterium, Pelagibaca and Maricoccus were dominant in the PAC-free conditions, while Thiothrix and Sphingomonas were presumably responsible for the better reactor performances in PAC-added conditions. In contrast, the archaeal communities were consistent with predominance of Candidatus Nitrosopumilus. These data therefore show that the addition of PAC can improve MBR performance by developing different bacterial species, controlling AOC and associated biofouling on the membranes.

  3. [Precut technique for Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty, preparation and storage in organ culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayyoud, T; Röck, D; Hofmann, J; Bartz-Schmidt, K-U; Yoeruek, E

    2012-06-01

    The preparation of the Descemet's membrane (DM) with the endothelial cell layer may be performed directly prior to surgery or as a precut tissue procedure. The purpose of the current study was the evaluation of the preparation technique and the tissue culture of 10 days regarding potential endothelial cell loss. Ten corneoscleral rims with an average age of 64.3 years were dissected to obtain 8.5 mm in diameter endothelial-DM complexes, which subsequently were organ cultured for 10 days. The endothelial cell density (ECD) was assessed during the cell culture period at days 1., 4., 7. and 10. In addition, time of preparation and transplant morphology were evaluated. The DM with the endothelial cell layer could successfully be dissected from all corneoscleral rims. The average preparation time was 8.3 min. The average ECD count was 2183 ± 77 cells/mm2 prior to, 2094 ± 110 cells/ mm2 at day 1, 2078 ± 134 cells/mm2 at day 4, 1977 ± 107 cells/mm2 at day 7 and 1898 ± 170 cells/mm2 at day 10 after preparation, respectively. Endothelial cell loss was 4.1 %, 4.8 %, 9.4 % and 13.1 % after preparation, respectively. None of the transplants exhibited large, centrally-located cell deficits. The isolated storage of DM with the endothelial layer, without any stromal remnants, showed gratifying results under storage conditions in organ culture with a moderate ECD decrease. Hence, the implementation of a precut DMEK is conceivable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Assessing the removal of organic micropollutants by a novel baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Pathak, Nirenkumar

    2018-04-14

    A novel approach was employed to study removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in a baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration (OMBR-MF) hybrid system under oxic–anoxic conditions. The performance of OMBR-MF system was examined employing three different draw solutes (DS), and three model OMPs. The highest forward osmosis (FO) membrane rejection was attained with atenolol (100 %) due to its higher molar mass and positive charge. With inorganic DS caffeine (94-100 %) revealed highest removal followed by atenolol (89-96 %) and atrazine (16-40 %) respectively. All three OMPs exhibited higher removal with organic DS as compared to inorganic DS. Significant anoxic removal was observed for atrazine under very different redox conditions with extended anoxic cycle time. This can be linked with possible development of different microbial consortia responsible for diverse enzymes secretion. Overall, the OMBR-MF process showed effective removal of total organic carbon (98%) and nutrients (phosphate 97% and total nitrogen 85%), respectively.

  5. The Effect of Highly Hydroxylated Fullerenol C60(OH36 on Human Erythrocyte Membrane Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Grebowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the interaction of highly hydroxylated fullerenol C60(OH36 with erythrocyte membranes was studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR of stearic acid derivatives labeled with a nitroxyl radical at C-12 or C-16 and with a nitroxyl derivative of maleimide covalently attached to sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins. A significant increase in membrane fluidity in the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer was observed for 12-doxylstearic acid at fullerenol concentrations of 100 mg/L or 150 mg/L, while for 16-doxylstearic acid significant increase in fluidity was only observed at 150 mg/L. Fullerenol at 100 mg/L or 150 mg/L caused conformational changes in membrane proteins, expressed as an increase in the hw/hs parameter, when fullerenol was added before the maleimide spin label (MSL to the membrane suspension. The increase of the hw/hs parameter may be caused by changes in lipid-protein or protein-protein interactions which increase the mobility of the MSL label and as a result increase the membrane fluidity. Incubation of the membranes with the MSL before the addition of fullerenol blocked the available membrane protein –SH groups and minimized the interaction of fullerenol with them. This confirms that fullerenol interacts with erythrocyte membrane proteins via available protein –SH groups.

  6. Characterization of Selected Parameters of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Membranes Based on Various Polymers and Nd-Fe-B Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybak A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper magnetic organic-inorganic hybrid membranes based on EC, PPO polymer matrices and various magnetic powder microparticles were synthesized and studied. Constant pressure permeation technique and the Time Lag method were used to obtain the gas transport coefficients. The mechanical, rheological and magnetic parameters of magnetic hybrid membranes were examined. It was found that their separation and gas transport properties (D, P, S and α were improved with the decrease in powder particle size and the increase of membrane’s remanence, saturation magnetization and magnetic particle filling. The increase of the magnetic powder addition and a decrease of its granulation improved also mechanical and rheological parameters of the tested membranes. This improvement also had a positive effect on their gas separation properties and their potential usage in the future.

  7. Fine structure of granal thylakoid membrane organization using cryo electron tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouril, Roman; Oostergetel, Gert T.; Boekema, Egbert J.

    The architecture of grana membranes from spinach chloroplasts was studied by cryo electron tomography. Tomographic reconstructions of ice-embedded isolated grana stacks enabled to resolve features of photosystem II (PSII) in the native membrane and to assign the absolute orientation of individual

  8. Switching skeletons: hydrostatic support in molting crabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer R A.; Kier, William M.; Walker, I. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal support systems are essential for support, movement, muscular antagonism, and locomotion. Crustaceans shed their rigid exoskeleton at each molt yet are still capable of forceful movement. We hypothesize that the soft water-inflated body of newly molted crabs may rely on a hydrostatic skeleton, similar to that of worms and polyps. We measured internal hydrostatic pressure and the force exerted during claw adduction and observed a strong correlation between force and hydrostatic pressure, consistent with hydrostatic skeletal support. This alternation between the two basic skeletal types may be widespread among arthropods.

  9. Randomly organized lipids and marginally stable proteins: a coupling of weak interactions to optimize membrane signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Anne M; Mahling, Ryan; Fealey, Michael E; Rannikko, Anika; Dunleavy, Katie; Hendrickson, Troy; Lohese, K Jean; Kruggel, Spencer; Heiling, Hillary; Harren, Daniel; Sutton, R Bryan; Pastor, John; Hinderliter, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Eukaryotic lipids in a bilayer are dominated by weak cooperative interactions. These interactions impart highly dynamic and pliable properties to the membrane. C2 domain-containing proteins in the membrane also interact weakly and cooperatively giving rise to a high degree of conformational plasticity. We propose that this feature of weak energetics and plasticity shared by lipids and C2 domain-containing proteins enhance a cell's ability to transduce information across the membrane. We explored this hypothesis using information theory to assess the information storage capacity of model and mast cell membranes, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, carboxyfluorescein release assays, and tryptophan fluorescence to assess protein and membrane stability. The distribution of lipids in mast cell membranes encoded 5.6-5.8bits of information. More information resided in the acyl chains than the head groups and in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane than the outer leaflet. When the lipid composition and information content of model membranes were varied, the associated C2 domains underwent large changes in stability and denaturation profile. The C2 domain-containing proteins are therefore acutely sensitive to the composition and information content of their associated lipids. Together, these findings suggest that the maximum flow of signaling information through the membrane and into the cell is optimized by the cooperation of near-random distributions of membrane lipids and proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hierarchical Nanostructures of Metal-Organic Frameworks Applied in Gas Separating ZIF-8-on-ZIF-67 Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Alexander; Wulfert-Holzmann, Paul; Friebe, Sebastian; Pavel, Janet; Strauß, Ina; Mundstock, Alexander; Steinbach, Frank; Caro, Jürgen

    2018-02-02

    Membranes from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are highly interesting for industrial gas separation applications. Strongly improved performances for carbon capture and H 2 purification tasks in MOF membranes are obtained by using highly reproducable and very accuratly, hierarchically grown ZIF-8-on-ZIF-67 (ZIF-8@ZIF-67) nanostructures. To forgo hardly controllable solvothermal synthesis, particles and layers are prepared by self-assembling methods. It was possible for the first time to confirm ZIF-8-on-ZIF-67 membrane growth on rough and porous ceramic supports using the layer-by-layer deposition. Additionally, hierarchical particles are made in a fast RT synthesis with high monodispersity. Characterization of the hierarchical and epitaxial grown layers and particles is performed by SEM, TEM, EDXM and gas permeation. The system ZIF-8@ZIF-67 shows a nearly doubled H 2 /CO 2 separation factor, regardless of whether neat membrane or mixed-matrix-membrane in comparison to other MOF materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Nanofiltration and Tight Ultrafiltration Membranes for Natural Organic Matter Removal—Contribution of Fouling and Concentration Polarization to Filtration Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Winter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanofiltration (NF and tight ultrafiltration (tight UF membranes are a viable treatment option for high quality drinking water production from sources with high concentrations of contaminants. To date, there is limited knowledge regarding the contribution of concentration polarization (CP and fouling to the increase in resistance during filtration of natural organic matter (NOM with NF and tight UF. Filtration tests were conducted with NF and tight UF membranes with molecular weight cut offs (MWCOs of 300, 2000 and 8000 Da, and model raw waters containing different constituents of NOM. When filtering model raw waters containing high concentrations of polysaccharides (i.e., higher molecular weight NOM, the increase in resistance was dominated by fouling. When filtering model raw waters containing humic substances (i.e., lower molecular weight NOM, the increase in filtration resistance was dominated by CP. The results indicate that low MWCO membranes are better suited for NOM removal, because most of the NOM in surface waters consist mainly of humic substances, which were only effectively rejected by the lower MWCO membranes. However, when humic substances are effectively rejected, CP can become extensive, leading to a significant increase in filtration resistance by the formation of a cake/gel layer at the membrane surface. For this reason, cross-flow operation, which reduces CP, is recommended.

  12. Nanofiltration and Tight Ultrafiltration Membranes for Natural Organic Matter Removal-Contribution of Fouling and Concentration Polarization to Filtration Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Joerg; Barbeau, Benoit; Bérubé, Pierre

    2017-07-02

    Nanofiltration (NF) and tight ultrafiltration (tight UF) membranes are a viable treatment option for high quality drinking water production from sources with high concentrations of contaminants. To date, there is limited knowledge regarding the contribution of concentration polarization (CP) and fouling to the increase in resistance during filtration of natural organic matter (NOM) with NF and tight UF. Filtration tests were conducted with NF and tight UF membranes with molecular weight cut offs (MWCOs) of 300, 2000 and 8000 Da, and model raw waters containing different constituents of NOM. When filtering model raw waters containing high concentrations of polysaccharides (i.e., higher molecular weight NOM), the increase in resistance was dominated by fouling. When filtering model raw waters containing humic substances (i.e., lower molecular weight NOM), the increase in filtration resistance was dominated by CP. The results indicate that low MWCO membranes are better suited for NOM removal, because most of the NOM in surface waters consist mainly of humic substances, which were only effectively rejected by the lower MWCO membranes. However, when humic substances are effectively rejected, CP can become extensive, leading to a significant increase in filtration resistance by the formation of a cake/gel layer at the membrane surface. For this reason, cross-flow operation, which reduces CP, is recommended.

  13. MICOS and phospholipid transfer by Ups2–Mdm35 organize membrane lipid synthesis in mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Mari J.; Friedman, Jonathan R.; Osman, Christof; Salin, Bénédicte; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Nunnari, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria exert critical functions in cellular lipid metabolism and promote the synthesis of major constituents of cellular membranes, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine. Here, we demonstrate that the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase Psd1, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, promotes mitochondrial PE synthesis via two pathways. First, Ups2–Mdm35 complexes (SLMO2–TRIAP1 in humans) serve as phosphatidylserine (PS)-specific lipid transfer proteins in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, allowing formation of PE by Psd1 in the inner membrane. Second, Psd1 decarboxylates PS in the outer membrane in trans, independently of PS transfer by Ups2–Mdm35. This latter pathway requires close apposition between both mitochondrial membranes and the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS). In MICOS-deficient cells, limiting PS transfer by Ups2–Mdm35 and reducing mitochondrial PE accumulation preserves mitochondrial respiration and cristae formation. These results link mitochondrial PE metabolism to MICOS, combining functions in protein and lipid homeostasis to preserve mitochondrial structure and function. PMID:27241913

  14. Polystyrene Sulfonate Threaded through a Metal-Organic Framework Membrane for Fast and Selective Lithium-Ion Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Ying, Yulong; Mao, Yiyin; Peng, Xinsheng; Chen, Banglin

    2016-11-21

    Extraction of lithium ions from salt-lake brines is very important to produce lithium compounds. Herein, we report a new approach to construct polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) threaded HKUST-1 metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes through an in situ confinement conversion process. The resulting membrane PSS@HKUST-1-6.7, with unique anchored three-dimensional sulfonate networks, shows a very high Li + conductivity of 5.53×10 -4  S cm -1 at 25 °C, 1.89×10 -3  S cm -1 at 70 °C, and Li + flux of 6.75 mol m -2  h -1 , which are five orders higher than that of the pristine HKUST-1 membrane. Attributed to the different size sieving effects and the affinity differences of the Li + , Na + , K + , and Mg 2+ ions to the sulfonate groups, the PSS@HKUST-1-6.7 membrane exhibits ideal selectivities of 78, 99, and 10296 for Li + /Na + , Li + /K + , Li + /Mg 2+ and real binary ion selectivities of 35, 67, and 1815, respectively, the highest ever reported among ionic conductors and Li + extraction membranes. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Low-temperature bonded glass-membrane microfluidic device for in vitro organ-on-a-chip cell culture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Kyall J.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wang, Chenxi; Priest, Craig; Prestidge, Clive A.; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The integration of microfluidics with living biological systems has paved the way to the exciting concept of "organson- a-chip", which aims at the development of advanced in vitro models that replicate the key features of human organs. Glass based devices have long been utilised in the field of microfluidics but the integration of alternative functional elements within multi-layered glass microdevices, such as polymeric membranes, remains a challenge. To this end, we have extended a previously reported approach for the low-temperature bonding of glass devices that enables the integration of a functional polycarbonate porous membrane. The process was initially developed and optimised on specialty low-temperature bonding equipment (μTAS2001, Bondtech, Japan) and subsequently adapted to more widely accessible hot embosser units (EVG520HE Hot Embosser, EVG, Austria). The key aspect of this method is the use of low temperatures compatible with polymeric membranes. Compared to borosilicate glass bonding (650 °C) and quartz/fused silica bonding (1050 °C) processes, this method maintains the integrity and functionality of the membrane (Tg 150 °C for polycarbonate). Leak tests performed showed no damage or loss of integrity of the membrane for up to 150 hours, indicating sufficient bond strength for long term cell culture. A feasibility study confirmed the growth of dense and functional monolayers of Caco-2 cells within 5 days.

  16. Studying the role of common membrane surface functionalities on adsorption and cleaning of organic foulants using QCM-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Alison E; Steiner, Zvi; Miao, Jing; Kasher, Roni; Li, Qilin

    2011-08-01

    Adsorption of organic foulants on nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane surfaces strongly affects subsequent fouling behavior by modifying the membrane surface. In this study, impact on organic foulant adsorption of specific chemistries including those in commercial thin-film composite membranes was investigated using self-assembled monolayers with seven different ending chemical functionalities (-CH(3), -O-phenyl, -NH(2), ethylene-glycol, -COOH, -CONH(2), and -OH). Adsorption and cleaning of protein (bovine serum albumin) and polysaccharide (sodium alginate) model foulants in two solution conditions were measured using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and were found to strongly depend on surface functionality. Alginate adsorption correlated with surface hydrophobicity as measured by water contact angle in air; however, adsorption of BSA on hydrophilic -COOH, -NH(2), and -CONH(2) surfaces was high and dominated by hydrogen bond formation and electrostatic attraction. Adsorption of both BSA and alginate was the fastest on -COOH, and adsorption on -NH(2) and -CONH(2) was difficult to remove by surfactant cleaning. BSA adsorption kinetics was shown to be markedly faster than that of alginate, suggesting its importance in the formation of the conditioning layer. Surface modification to render -OH or ethylene-glycol functionalities are expected to reduce membrane fouling.

  17. Lab-on-a-brane: nanofibrous polymer membranes to recreate organ-capillary interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Karim I.; Thomas, Vinoy; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2016-03-01

    Drug discovery is a complex and time consuming process involving significant basic research and preclinical evaluation prior to testing in patients. Preclinical studies rely extensively on animal models which often fail in human trials. Biomimetic microphysiological systems (MPS) using human cells can be a promising alternative to animal models; where critical interactions between different organ systems are recreated to provide physiologically relevant in vitro human models. Central here are blood-vessel networks, the interface controlling transport of cellular and biomolecular components between the circulating fluid and underlying tissue. Here we present a novel lab-on-a-brane (or lab-on-a-membrane) nanofluidics MPS that combines the elegance of lab-on-a-chip with the more realistic morphology of 3D fibrous tissue-engineering constructs. Our blood-vessel lab-on-a-brane effectively simulates in vivo vessel-tissue interface for evaluating transendothelial transport in various pharmacokinetic and nanomedicine applications. Attributes of our platform include (a) nanoporous barrier interface enabling transmembrane molecular transport, (b) transformation of substrate into nanofibrous 3D tissue matrix, (c) invertible-sandwich architecture, and (d) simple co-culture mechanism for endothelial and smooth muscle layers to accurately mimic arterial anatomy. Structural, mechanical, and transport characterization using scanning electron microscopy, stress/strain analysis, infrared spectroscopy, immunofluorescence, and FITC-Dextran hydraulic permeability confirm viability of this in vitro system. Thus, our lab-on-a-brane provides an effective and efficient, yet considerably inexpensive, physiologically relevant alternative for pharmacokinetic evaluation; possibly reducing animals used in preclinical testing, costs from false starts, and time-to-market. Furthermore, it can be configured in multiple simultaneous arrays for personalized and precision medicine applications and for

  18. Skeletonized Least Squares Wave Equation Migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2010-10-17

    The theory for skeletonized least squares wave equation migration (LSM) is presented. The key idea is, for an assumed velocity model, the source‐side Green\\'s function and the geophone‐side Green\\'s function are computed by a numerical solution of the wave equation. Only the early‐arrivals of these Green\\'s functions are saved and skeletonized to form the migration Green\\'s function (MGF) by convolution. Then the migration image is obtained by a dot product between the recorded shot gathers and the MGF for every trial image point. The key to an efficient implementation of iterative LSM is that at each conjugate gradient iteration, the MGF is reused and no new finitedifference (FD) simulations are needed to get the updated migration image. It is believed that this procedure combined with phase‐encoded multi‐source technology will allow for the efficient computation of wave equation LSM images in less time than that of conventional reverse time migration (RTM).

  19. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  20. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for life-threatening asthma refractory to mechanical ventilation: analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Hye Ju; Kim, Dohyung; Jeon, Doosoo; Kim, Yun Seong; Rycus, Peter; Cho, Woo Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in cases of near-fatal asthma (NFA) has increased, but the benefits and potential complications of this therapy have yet to be fully investigated. Methods Cases were extracted from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry between March 1992 and March 2016. All patients with a diagnosis of asthma (according to the International Classification of Diseases 9th edition), who also received ECMO, were extracted. Exclusion...

  1. [Okuda wooden human skeleton made in Edo era, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hisao

    2006-03-01

    Probably in 1820 (late Edo era), a human skeleton for medical education was carved from cypress wood, based on a criminal's skeleton under the supervision of a medical doctor, Banri Okuda in Osaka City. The skeleton is called "Okuda wooden skeleton" and is now housed in the National Science Museum, Tokyo. The bones can be assembled into a skeleton by metal pivots or bamboo sticks. The thorax and pelvis were made of several pieces of wood and combined together, respectively. By and large, the wooden skeleton shows morphological characteristics usually seen in early middle-aged females of the Edo era. But the claviculae, distal ends of the femora, and the patellae are exceptionally larger than those of a female, implying that these bones of the original skeleton had already been lost or were deformed before the wooden skeleton was made. Actually the wooden skeleton might not have been used for medical education but rather for the promotion of European medicine, which was gradually developing in the Edo era.

  2. NF-RO Membrane Performance for Treating the Effluent of an Organized Industrial Zone Wastewater Treatment Plant: Effect of Different UF Types

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim Uyanık; Oktay Özkan; İsmail Koyuncu

    2017-01-01

    Reuse of water is necessary in Organized Industrial Zones (OIZ) due to excessive use of groundwater in semi-arid Turkey. Membrane treatment of the OIZ wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents should be explored for new treatment options. In this study, three different UF membranes with variable molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) values (4, 10, and 250 kDa) were used to treat the effluent of an OIZ WWTP at laboratory scale. Six different nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes we...

  3. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for the Support of a Potential Organ Donor with a Fatal Brain Injury before Brain Death Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Wook Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of available organ donors is a significant problem and various efforts have been made to avoid the loss of organ donors. Among these, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been introduced to help support and manage potential donors. Many traumatic brain injury patients have healthy organs that might be eligible for donation for transplantation. However, the condition of a donor with a fatal brain injury may rapidly deteriorate prior to brain death determination; this frequently results in the loss of eligible donors. Here, we report the use of venoarterial ECMO to support a potential donor with a fatal brain injury before brain death determination, and thereby preserve donor organs. The patient successfully donated his liver and kidneys after brain death determination.

  4. Skeletonized wave-equation inversion for Q

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2016-09-06

    A wave-equation gradient optimization method is presented that inverts for the subsurface Q distribution by minimizing a skeletonized misfit function ε. Here, ε is the sum of the squared differences between the observed and the predicted peak/centroid frequency shifts of the early-arrivals. The gradient is computed by migrating the observed traces weighted by the frequency-shift residuals. The background Q model is perturbed until the predicted and the observed traces have the same peak frequencies or the same centroid frequencies. Numerical tests show that an improved accuracy of the inverted Q model by wave-equation Q tomography (WQ) leads to a noticeable improvement in the migration image quality.

  5. Chiral twist drives raft formation and organization in membranes composed of rod-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Louis; Lubensky, Tom C

    2017-01-03

    Lipid rafts are hypothesized to facilitate protein interaction, tension regulation, and trafficking in biological membranes, but the mechanisms responsible for their formation and maintenance are not clear. Insights into many other condensed matter phenomena have come from colloidal systems, whose micron-scale particles mimic basic properties of atoms and molecules but permit dynamic visualization with single-particle resolution. Recently, experiments showed that bidisperse mixtures of filamentous viruses can self-assemble into colloidal monolayers with thermodynamically stable rafts exhibiting chiral structure and repulsive interactions. We quantitatively explain these observations by modeling the membrane particles as chiral liquid crystals. Chiral twist promotes the formation of finite-sized rafts and mediates a repulsion that distributes them evenly throughout the membrane. Although this system is composed of filamentous viruses whose aggregation is entropically driven by dextran depletants instead of phospholipids and cholesterol with prominent electrostatic interactions, colloidal and biological membranes share many of the same physical symmetries. Chiral twist can contribute to the behavior of both systems and may account for certain stereospecific effects observed in molecular membranes.

  6. Transport of organic anions through the erythrocyte membrane as K+-valinomycin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, G V; Skarin, A; Whitman, P

    1978-04-26

    K+, Rb+, or Cs+ complexes of valinomycin form ion pair complexes with picric acid and trinitrobenzenesulfonate (TNBS). The formation of a picrate-K+-valinomycin complex is supported by spectral evidence. These complexes have zero net charge and readily permeate the intact erythrocyte membrane. The K+-valinomycin complex has been used to convert the nonpenetrating TNBS into a penetrating covalent probe, making it as useful vectorial probe to measure accessible amino groups of proteins and phospholipids on both sites of the erythrocyte membrane. The enhanced transport of TNBS into the cell by valinomycin is dependent on external K+ in the medium. The entry of TNBS into the cell is manifested by an increased labeling of hemoglobin and membrane phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Stilbeneisothiocyanatedisulfonate (SITS) and anilinonaphthalenesulfonate (ANS) inhibit both the basal and K+-valinomycin stimulated labeling of PE and hemoglobin by TNBS. The data suggest two independent effects of ANS and SITS, one mediated by an inhibition of the anion transport protein and another by the incorporation of these hydrobic anions into the cell membrane with an increase in negative charge on the membrane which leads to an inhibition of TNBS permeation into the cell by electrostatic repulsion.

  7. Organic solvent-induced changes in membrane geometry in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells - a common narcotic effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, C.J.W.; de Groot, A.; Westerink, R.H.S.; Vijverberg, H.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents may cause narcotic effects. At the cellular level, these narcotic effects have been associated with a reduction in neuronal excitability caused by changes in membrane structure and function. In order to critically test whether changes in membrane geometry contribute to

  8. Application of Pre-coated Microfiltration Ceramic Membrane with Powdered Activated Carbon for Natural Organic Matter Removal from Secondary Wastewater Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Kurniasari, Novita

    2012-12-01

    Ceramic membranes offer more advantageous performances than conventional polymeric membranes. However, membrane fouling caused by Natural Organic Matters (NOM) contained in the feed water is still become a major problem for operational efficiency. A new method of ceramic membrane pre-coating with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC), which allows extremely contact time for adsorbing aquatic contaminants, has been studied as a pre-treatment prior to ceramic microfiltration membrane. This bench scale study evaluated five different types of PAC (SA Super, G 60, KCU 6, KCU 8 and KCU 12,). The results showed that KCU 6 with larger pore size was performed better compared to other PAC when pre-coated on membrane surface. PAC pre-coating on the ceramic membrane with KCU 6 was significantly enhance NOM removal, reduced membrane fouling and improved membrane performance. Increase of total membrane resistance was suppressed to 96%. The removal of NOM components up to 92%, 58% and 56% for biopolymers, humic substances and building blocks, respectively was achieved at pre-coating dose of 30 mg/l. Adsorption was found to be the major removal mechanism of NOM. Results obtained showed that biopolymers removal are potentially correlated with enhanced membrane performance.

  9. Constructing towers with skeletons from open Lie algebras and integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Marcella; Winterroth, Ekkehart

    2012-02-01

    We provide a given algebraic structure with the structure of an infinitesimal algebraic skeleton. The necessary conditions for integrability of the absolute parallelism of a tower with such a skeleton are dispersive nonlinear models and related conservation laws given in the form of associated linear spectral problems.

  10. Qualitative Comparison of Contraction-Based Curve Skeletonization Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobiecki, André; Yasan, Haluk C.; Jalba, Andrei C.; Telea, Alexandru C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many new methods have been proposed for extracting curve skeletons of 3D shapes, using a mesh-contraction principle. However, it is still unclear how these methods perform with respect to each other, and with respect to earlier voxel-based skeletonization methods, from the viewpoint

  11. Radiation injuries to the skeleton and their orthopedic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, R.; Rahnfeld, R.

    1978-01-01

    70 patients subjected to orthopedic treatment and radiotherapy for skeletal tumors have been examined. It was found that serious radiation injuries frequently occurred. Above all there were contractures, disordered healing of wounds, ulcerations, and scolioses and kyphoses of the growing skeleton. Therefore, in the case of diseases of the skeleton, it is recommended to restrain radiotherapy. It has to be rejected in child's age

  12. A skeleton for distributed work pools in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Berthold, Jost; Loogen, Rita

    2010-01-01

    We present a flexible skeleton for implementing distributed work pools in our parallel functional language Eden. The skeleton manages a pool of tasks (work pool) in a distributed manner using a demand-driven work stealing approach for load balancing. All coordination is done locally within...

  13. Heterochronic activation of VEGF signaling and the evolution of the skeleton in echinoderm pluteus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Yoshiaki; Koga, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Kazunori; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Kiyomoto, Masato; Wada, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the echinoderm larval skeleton was examined from the aspect of interactions between skeletogenic mesenchyme cells and surrounding epithelium. We focused on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, which was reported to be essential for skeletogenesis in sea urchin larvae. Here, we examined the expression patterns of vegf and vegfr in starfish and brittle stars. During starfish embryogenesis, no expression of either vegfr or vegf was detected, which contrast with previous reports on the expression of starfish homologs of sea urchin skeletogenic genes, including Ets, Tbr, and Dri. In later stages, when adult skeletogenesis commenced, vegfr and vegf expression were upregulated in skeletogenic cells and in the adjacent epidermis, respectively. These expression patterns suggest that heterochronic activation of VEGF signaling is one of the key molecular evolutionary steps in the evolution of the larval skeleton. The absence of vegf or vegfr expression during early embryogenesis in starfish suggests that the evolution of the larval skeleton requires distinct evolutionary changes, both in mesoderm cells (activation of vegfr expression) and in epidermal cells (activation of vegf expression). In brittle stars, which have well-organized skeletons like the sea urchin, vegfr and vegf were expressed in the skeletogenic mesenchyme and the overlying epidermis, respectively, in the same manner as in sea urchins. Therefore, the distinct activation of vegfr and vegf may have occurred in two lineages, sea urchins and brittle stars. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The skeleton of the staghorn coral Acropora millepora: molecular and structural characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ramos-Silva

    Full Text Available The scleractinian coral Acropora millepora is one of the most studied species from the Great Barrier Reef. This species has been used to understand evolutionary, immune and developmental processes in cnidarians. It has also been subject of several ecological studies in order to elucidate reef responses to environmental changes such as temperature rise and ocean acidification (OA. In these contexts, several nucleic acid resources were made available. When combined to a recent proteomic analysis of the coral skeletal organic matrix (SOM, they enabled the identification of several skeletal matrix proteins, making A. millepora into an emerging model for biomineralization studies. Here we describe the skeletal microstructure of A. millepora skeleton, together with a functional and biochemical characterization of its occluded SOM that focuses on the protein and saccharidic moieties. The skeletal matrix proteins show a large range of isoelectric points, compositional patterns and signatures. Besides secreted proteins, there are a significant number of proteins with membrane attachment sites such as transmembrane domains and GPI anchors as well as proteins with integrin binding sites. These features show that the skeletal proteins must have strong adhesion properties in order to function in the calcifying space. Moreover this data suggest a molecular connection between the calcifying epithelium and the skeletal tissue during biocalcification. In terms of sugar moieties, the enrichment of the SOM in arabinose is striking, and the monosaccharide composition exhibits the same signature as that of mucus of acroporid corals. Finally, we observe that the interaction of the acetic acid soluble SOM on the morphology of in vitro grown CaCO3 crystals is very pronounced when compared with the calcifying matrices of some mollusks. In light of these results, we wish to commend Acropora millepora as a model for biocalcification studies in scleractinians, from

  15. Skeleton extraction based on the topology and Snakes model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxue Cai

    Full Text Available A new skeleton line extraction method based on topology and flux is proposed by analyzing the distribution characteristics of the gradient vector field in the Snakes model. The distribution characteristics of the skeleton line are accurately obtained by calculating the eigenvalues of the critical points and the flux of the gradient vector field. Then the skeleton lines can be effectively extracted. The results also show that there is no need for the pretreatment or binarization of the target image. The skeleton lines of complex gray images such as optical interference patterns can be effectively extracted by using this method. Compared to traditional methods, this method has many advantages, such as high extraction accuracy and fast processing speed. Keywords: Skeleton, Snakes model, Topology, Photoelasticity image

  16. Variability in magnesium content in Arctic echinoderm skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglikowska, A; Najorka, J; Voronkov, A; Chełchowski, M; Kukliński, P

    2017-08-01

    In this study, 235 measurements of magnesium concentration in echinoderm's skeletons were compiled, including 30 species and 216 specimens collected from northern and western Barents Sea. We aimed to reveal the scale of Mg variation in the skeletons of Arctic echinoderms. Furthermore, we attempted to examine whether the Mg concentration in echinoderm skeletons is determined primarily by biological factors or is a passive result of environmental influences. We found that the Mg concentration in echinoderm skeletons was characteristic for particular echinoderm classes or was even species-specific. The highest Mg contents were observed in asteroids, followed by ophiuroids, crinoids, and holothuroids, with the lowest values in echinoids. These results strongly imply that biological factors play an important role in controlling the incorporation of Mg into the skeletons of the studied individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Membrane Microdomains and Cytoskeleton Organization Shape and Regulate the IL-7 Receptor Signalosome in Human CD4 T-cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarit, Blanche; Bugault, Florence; Pillet, Anne-Hélène; Lavergne, Vincent; Bochet, Pascal; Garin, Nathalie; Schwarz, Ulf; Thèze, Jacques; Rose, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-7 is the main homeostatic regulator of CD4 T-lymphocytes (helper) at both central and peripheral levels. Upon activation by IL-7, several signaling pathways, mainly JAK/STAT, PI3K/Akt and MAPK, induce the expression of genes involved in T-cell differentiation, activation, and proliferation. We have analyzed the early events of CD4 T-cell activation by IL-7. We have shown that IL-7 in the first few min induces the formation of cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains that compartmentalize its activated receptor and initiate its anchoring to the cytoskeleton, supporting the formation of the signaling complex, the signalosome, on the IL-7 receptor cytoplasmic domains. Here we describe by stimulated emission depletion microscopy the key roles played by membrane microdomains and cytoskeleton transient organization in the IL-7-regulated JAK/STAT signaling pathway. We image phospho-STAT5 and cytoskeleton components along IL-7 activation kinetics using appropriate inhibitors. We show that lipid raft inhibitors delay and reduce IL-7-induced JAK1 and JAK3 phosphorylation. Drug-induced disassembly of the cytoskeleton inhibits phospho-STAT5 formation, transport, and translocation into the nucleus that controls the transcription of genes involved in T-cell activation and proliferation. We fit together the results of these quantitative analyses and propose the following mechanism. Activated IL-7 receptors embedded in membrane microdomains induce actin-microfilament meshwork formation, anchoring microtubules that grow radially from rafted receptors to the nuclear membrane. STAT5 phosphorylated by signalosomes are loaded on kinesins and glide along the microtubules across the cytoplasm to reach the nucleus 2 min after IL-7 stimulation. Radial microtubules disappear 15 min later, while transversal microtubules, independent of phospho-STAT5 transport, begin to bud from the microtubule organization center. PMID:23329834

  18. Atomic Force Microscopy of bacterial photosynthetic systems: A new model for Native Membrane Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahatyrova, S.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to investigate the supramolecular architecture of a photosynthetic membrane from Rhodobacter sphaeroides purple bacteria cells. This is extremely timely, since we now know all of the structures of photosynthetic pigment-protein LH and RC complexes, ATP-synthase and

  19. Sphingolipid levels crucially modulate lateral microdomain organization of plasma membrane in living yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeř, J.; Veselá, Petra; Malínský, Jan; Herman, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 588, č. 3 (2014), s. 443-449 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0720 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : membrane microdomain * lipid order * fluidity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2014

  20. Eisosomes promote the ability of Sur7 to regulate plasma membrane organization in Candida albicans.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, H.X.; Douglas, L.M.; Veselá, Petra; Rachel, R.; Malínský, Jan; Konopka, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2016), s. 1663-1675 ISSN 1059-1524 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10641S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : plasma membrane * eisosome * PIL1 * SUR7 Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.685, year: 2016

  1. Polymeric hollow fiber membranes for bioartificial organs and tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diban-Ibrahim Gomez, Nazely; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric hollow fiber (HF) membranes are commercially available, i.e. microfiltration and ultrafiltration cartridges or reverse osmosis and gas separation modules, to be applied for separation purposes in industry, for instance to recover valuable raw materials or products, or for the treatment of

  2. Pervaporation Separation of Water-Ethanol Mixtures Using Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyssler type heteropolyacid viz., H14[NaP5W30O110] incorporated chitosan nanocomposite membranes (NCMs) were prepared by solution casting, characterized using a variety of techniques and employed in the pervaporation separation of water-ethanol mixtures as a function of feed wa...

  3. Collagen-chitosan-glycerol bio-composite as artificial tympanic membrane for ruptured inner ear organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyanti, Prihartini; Setya Angtika, Rara; Githanadi, Brillyana; Hanif Kharisma, Ditya; Asyraf, Tarikh Omar; Wardani, Adita

    2017-05-01

    WHO data in 2012 shows that 5.3% of world population highly suffers from hearing loss and deafness. One of the deafness causes is rupture of tympanic membrane. Tympanic membrane damage which occurs often is perforated tympanic membrane, and it is also commonly known in medical term as tympanic membrane perforation. The causes, for instance, are high frequency of using earphones, traumatic accidents, noise, bacteria, viruses, and infectious microorganism. Tympanoplasty becomes the only treatment that can be widely accepted despite of deficiencies in postoperative complications. Therefore, this research aims to create artificial tympanic membrane made of natural materials such as type I collagen composited with chitosan and made of addition of glycerol to improve its mechanical strength and biodegradability. The method included the process of dissolving acetic acid in distilled water and mixation with chitosan. The solution is next added with glycerol and stirred to be homogeneous. After that, it was minted in petri dish and aerated before characterized. The sample characterization included tensile strength of which tensile test results showed that the value of the elasticity modulus tended to decrease with an increase in collagen concentration. The elasticity modulus values in a row for the variations of 7: 3, 8: 2, and 9: 1 were 35.10 MPa, 54,52MPa, and 47,45MPa respectively. The morphological test with 1000x, 2500x, and 5000x magnification showed their interaction in the formation of pores. Cytotoxicity results, moreover, showed that those samples were non-toxic and safe for the body due to the percentage of living cells. The sound absorption coefficient was between 1000 Hz - 2000 Hz which means that it could use as sound absorbing material. The antibacterial test results showed that all the sample variations were anti-bacterial due to the diameter of the clear zone. In conclusion, collagen and chitosan composite with addition of glycerol could be used for

  4. Anti-organic fouling and anti-biofouling poly(piperazineamide) thin film nanocomposite membranes for low pressure removal of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Anupam; Trivedi, Jaladhi S; Kumar, Sweta Binod; Chandel, Arvind K Singh; Haldar, Soumya; Jewrajka, Suresh K

    2018-02-05

    Propensity towards anti-organic fouling, anti-biofouling property and low rejection of multivalent cation (monovalent counter ion) restricts the application of the state-of-art poly(piperazineamide) [poly(PIP)] thin film composite (TFC) nanofiltration (NF) membrane for the treatment of water containing toxic heavy metal ions, organic fouling agents and microbes. Herein, we report the preparation of thin film nanocomposite (TFNC) NF membranes with improved heavy metal ions rejection efficacy, anti-biofouling property, and anti-organic fouling properties compared to that of poly(PIP) TFC NF membrane. The TFNC NF membranes were prepared by the interfacial polymerization (IP) between PIP and trimesoyl chloride followed by post-treatment with polyethyleneimine (PEI) or PEI-polyethylene glycol conjugate and then immobilization of Ag NP. The IP was conducted on a polyethersulfone/poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly(vinyl pyrollidone)/silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) blend ultrafiltration membrane support. The TFNC membranes exhibited >99% rejection of Pb 2+ , 91-97% rejection of Cd 2+ , 90-96% rejection of Co 2+ and 95-99% rejection of Cu 2+ with permeate flux ∼40Lm -2 h -1 at applied pressure 0.5MPa. The improved heavy metal ions rejection efficacy of the modified NF membranes is attributed to the development of positive surface charge as well as lowering of surface pore size compared to that of unmodified poly(PIP) TFC NF membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  6. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  7. Sea urchin skeleton: Structure, composition, and application as a template for biomimetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapkin, Nikolay P.; Khalchenko, Irina G.; Panasenko, Alexander E.; Drozdov, Anatoly L.

    2017-07-01

    SEM and optical microscopy, chemical and EDX analysis, XRD, and FT-IR spectroscopy of three sea urchins skeletons (tests) show that the test is a spongy stereom, consisting of calcite with high content of magnesium. The tests are composed of mineral-organic composite of calcite-magnesite crystals, coated with organic film, containing silicon in form of polyphenylsiloxane. In the test of sea urchin pore spaces are linked into united system of regular structure with structure motive period about 20 um. This developed three-dimensional structure was used as a template for polymer material based on polyferrofenilsiloxane [OSiC6H5OH]x[OSiC6H5O]y[OFeO]z, which is chemically similar to the native film, coating sea urchins skeleton.

  8. Growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse organs on non-coated and extracellular matrix-coated Biopore membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic mouse salivary glands, pancreata, and kidneys were isolated from embryos of appropriate gestational age by microdissection, and were cultured on Biopore membrane either non-coated or coated with type I collagen or Matrigel. As expected, use of Biopore membrane allowed high quality photomicroscopy of the living organs. In all organs extensive mesenchymal spreading was observed in the presence of type I collagen or Matrigel. However, differences were noted in the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings on epithelial growth and morphogenesis: salivary glands were minimally affected, pancreas morphogenesis was adversely affected, and kidney growth and branching apparently was enhanced. It is suggested that these differences in behaviour reflect differences in the strength of interactions between the mesenchymal cells and their surrounding endogenous matrix, compared to the exogenous ECM macromolecules. This method will be useful for culture of these and other embryonic organs. In particular, culture of kidney rudiments on ECM-coated Biopore offers a great improvement over previously used methods which do not allow morphogenesis to be followed in vitro.

  9. Effects of chemical cleaning on RO membrane inorganic, organic and microbial foulant removal in a full-scale plant for municipal wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Meng, Lu; Zhao, Qing-Bo; Shi, Ye; Hu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Yun

    2017-04-15

    Of all of the strategies for controlling reverse osmosis (RO) membrane fouling, chemical cleaning is indispensable. To study the effects of chemical cleaning on membrane foulant removal, a comparative analysis of RO membranes before and after common alkaline and acid cleaning was conducted by dissecting lead and terminal RO membranes in a full-scale municipal wastewater reclamation plant. Most foulants on the membranes were removed by chemical cleaning processes. Calcium was the major inorganic component of the foulants because of its highest concentration in the feed water. Aluminum and iron were also abundant elements on the membranes due to their high deposition ratios and low removal efficiencies. Hydrophilic neutrals (HIN) and hydrophobic neutrals (HON) were the two largest dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions on the membranes before cleaning. HIN and hydrophilic acids (HIA) were not effectively removed. Chemical cleaning removed 94% and 90% of the total bacteria on the lead and tail membranes and considerably changed the structure of the microbial communities. Bacteria excessively producing extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), such as Pseudomonas and Zoogloea, were much more resistant to the chemical cleaning process. After cleaning, the membrane microbial community structures were more similar to those in the feed water than the structures on the membranes before cleaning. These results shed light on the effects of cleaning in a full-scale RO plant, improves our understanding of the removal of foulants and provides potential research directions for cleaning methods and RO pretreatment processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Constraining calcium isotope fractionation (d44/40Ca) in modern and fossil scleractinian coral skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Pretet Chloé; Samankassou Elias; Felis Thomas; Reynaud Stéphanie; Böhm Florian; Eisenhauer Anton; Ferrier-Pagès Christine; Gattuso Jean-Pierre; Camoin Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of environmental (temperature salinity) and biological (growth rate inter generic variations) parameters on calcium isotope fractionation (d44/40Ca) in scleractinian coral skeleton to better constrain this record. Previous studies focused on the d44/40Ca record in different marine organisms to reconstruct seawater composition or temperature but only few studies investigated corals. This study presents measurements performed on modern corals from n...

  11. Constraining calcium isotope fractionation (δ44/40Ca) in modern and fossil scleractinian coral skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Pretet, Chloé; Samankassou, Elias; Felis, Thomas; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Böhm, Florian; Eisenhauer, Anton; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Camoin, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of environmental (temperature, salinity) and biological (growth rate, inter-generic variations) parameters on calcium isotope fractionation (δ44/40Ca) in scleractinian coral skeleton to better constrain this record. Previous studies focused on the δ44/40Ca record in different marine organisms to reconstruct seawater composition or temperature, but only few studies investigated corals. This study presents measurements performed on modern corals f...

  12. Polymer membranes modified by fullerene C-60 for pervaporation of organic mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polotskaya, G. A.; Penkova, A. V.; Pientka, Zbyněk; Toikka, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, 1-3 (2010), s. 83-88 ISSN 1944-3994. [PERMEA 2009. Prague, 07.06.2009-11.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/1165 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : pervaporation * fullerene-containing membranes * poly(phenylene oxide) Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2010

  13. Identification of the chemical form of sulfur compounds in the Japanese pink coral (Corallium elatius) skeleton using μ-XRF/XAS speciation mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamenori, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Luan, Nguyen Trong; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kawahata, Hodaka; Iwasaki, Nozomu

    2014-05-01

    The distributions and chemical forms of sulfur compounds in the skeleton of Japanese pink coral (Corallium elatius) were investigated using X-ray spectroscopic techniques combined with micro-focused soft X-ray radiation. Microscopic X-ray fluorescence/soft X-ray photoabsorption (μ-XRF/XAS) speciation mapping clarified that sulfate is the primary species in the coral skeleton, with minor amounts of organic sulfur, whereas both sulfate and organic sulfur coexist in coenenchyme. Analysis of the post-edge region of the XAS spectra confirmed that sulfate ions in the coral skeleton are mainly in the form of gypsum-like inorganic sulfate substituting for the carbonate ions in the calcite skeleton. The sulfate concentration was negatively correlated with the magnesium concentration and positively correlated with that of phosphorus. Speciation mapping of sulfate in the coral skeleton showed clear fluctuations with sulfate concentrations being higher at dark bands, whereas the small amount of organic sulfur had unclear dark/bright bands. These results suggest that the little organic sulfur that is present is contained in the organic matter embedded in the biocrystal of coral skeleton. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of passive membrane samplers to assess organic contaminant inputs at five coastal sites in west Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Pamela L.; Prouty, Nancy G.; Storlazzi, Curt; D'antonio, Nicole

    2017-07-26

    Five passive membrane samplers were deployed for 28 continuous days at select sites along and near the west Maui coastline to assess organic compounds and contaminant inputs to diverse, shallow coral reef ecosystems. Daily and weekly fluctuations in such inputs were captured on the membranes using integrative sampling. The distribution of organic compounds observed at these five coastal sites showed considerable variation; with high concentrations of terrestrially sourced organic compounds such as C29 sterols and high molecular weight n-alkanes at the strongly groundwater-influenced Kahekili vent site. In comparison, the coastal sites were presumably influenced more by seasonal surface and stream water runoff and therefore had marine-sourced organic compounds and fewer pharmaceuticals and personal care products. The direct correlation to upstream land-use practices was not obvious and may require additional wet-season sampling. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products as well as flame retardants were detected at all sites, and the Kahekili vent site had the highest number of detections. Planned future work must also determine the organic compound and contaminant concentrations adsorbed onto water column particulate matter, because it may also be an important vector for contaminant transport to coral reef ecosystems. The impact of contaminants per individual (such as fecundity and metabolism) as well as per community (such as species abundance and diversity) is necessary for an accurate assessment of environmental stress. Results presented herein provide current contaminant inputs to select nearshore environments along the west Maui coastline captured during the dry season, and they can be useful to aid potential future evaluations and (or) comparisons.

  15. Building Up the Milky Way's Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    A team of scientistshas now uncovered half of theentire skeleton of the Milky Way, using an automated method to identify large filaments of gas and dust hiding between stars in the galactic plane.Galactic distribution of 54 newly discovered filaments, plotted along with colored lines indicating six relevant spiral arms in our galaxy. The upper two plots show the consistency of the filaments motion with the spiral arms, while the lower shows their location within the galactic plane. [Wang et al. 2016]The Search for Nessie and FriendsThe Milky Ways interstellar medium is structured hierarchically into filaments. These structures are difficult to observe since they largely lie in the galactic plane, but if we can discover the distribution and properties of these filaments, we can better understand how our galaxy formed, and how the filaments affect star formation in our galaxy today.Some of the largest of the Milky Ways filaments are hundreds of light-years long like the infrared dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, declared in 2013 to be one of the bones of the Milky Way because of its position along the center of the Scutum-Centaurus spiral arm.Follow-up studies since the discovery of Nessie (like this one, or this) have found a number of additional large-scale filaments, but these studies all use different search methods and selection criteria, and the searches all start with visual inspection by humans to identify candidates.What if we could instead automate the detection process and build a homogeneous sample of the large filaments making up the skeleton of the Milky Way?Automated DetectionThis is exactly what a team of astronomers led by Ke Wang (European Southern Observatory) has done. The group used a customization of an algorithm called a minimum spanning tree the technique used to optimize the cost of internet networks, road networks, and electrical grids in our communities to perform an automated search of data from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. The search was

  16. Mechanobiology of TGFβ signaling in the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, Joanna P; Monteiro, David A; Alliston, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Physical and biochemical cues play fundamental roles in the skeleton at both the tissue and cellular levels. The precise coordination of these cues is essential for skeletal development and homeostasis, and disruption of this coordination can drive disease progression. The growth factor TGFβ is involved in both the regulation of and cellular response to the physical microenvironment. It is essential to summarize the current findings regarding the mechanisms by which skeletal cells integrate physical and biochemical cues so that we can identify and address remaining gaps that could ultimately improve skeletal health. In this review, we describe the role of TGFβ in mechanobiological signaling in bone and cartilage at the tissue and cellular levels. We provide detail on how static and dynamic physical cues at the macro-level are transmitted to the micro-level, ultimately leading to regulation at each level of the TGFβ pathway and to cell differentiation. The continued integration of engineering and biological approaches is needed to answer many remaining questions, such as the mechanisms by which cells generate a coordinated response to physical and biochemical cues. We propose one such mechanism, through which the combination of TGFβ and an optimal physical microenvironment leads to synergistic induction of downstream TGFβ signaling. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in the regulation of organic acid exudation under aluminum toxicity and phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenqian; Kan, Qi; Zhang, Jiarong; Zeng, Bingjie; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are 2 major limiting factors for plant growth and crop production in acidic soils. Organic acids exuded from roots have been generally regarded as a major resistance mechanism to Al toxicity and P deficiency. The exudation of organic acids is mediated by membrane-localized OA transporters, such as ALMT (Al-activated malate transporter) and MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion). Beside on up-regulation expression of organic acids transporter gene, transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase are also involved in organic acid release process under Al toxicity and P deficiency. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge about this field of study on the role of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in organic acid exudation under Al toxicity and P deficiency conditions.

  18. Outer Membrane Permeability of Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803: Studies of Passive Diffusion of Small Organic Nutrients Reveal the Absence of Classical Porins and Intrinsically Low Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowata, Hikaru; Tochigi, Saeko; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The outer membrane of heterotrophic Gram-negative bacteria plays the role of a selective permeability barrier that prevents the influx of toxic compounds while allowing the nonspecific passage of small hydrophilic nutrients through porin channels. Compared with heterotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane properties of cyanobacteria, which are Gram-negative photoautotrophs, are not clearly understood. In this study, using small carbohydrates, amino acids, and inorganic ions as permeation probes, we determined the outer membrane permeability of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in intact cells and in proteoliposomes reconstituted with outer membrane proteins. The permeability of this cyanobacterium was >20-fold lower than that of Escherichia coli. The predominant outer membrane proteins Slr1841, Slr1908, and Slr0042 were not permeable to organic nutrients and allowed only the passage of inorganic ions. Only the less abundant outer membrane protein Slr1270, a homolog of the E. coli export channel TolC, was permeable to organic solutes. The activity of Slr1270 as a channel was verified in a recombinant Slr1270-producing E. coli outer membrane. The lack of putative porins and the low outer membrane permeability appear to suit the cyanobacterial autotrophic lifestyle; the highly impermeable outer membrane would be advantageous to cellular survival by protecting the cell from toxic compounds, especially when the cellular physiology is not dependent on the uptake of organic nutrients. IMPORTANCE Because the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria affects the flux rates for various substances into and out of the cell, its permeability is closely associated with cellular physiology. The outer membrane properties of cyanobacteria, which are photoautotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, are not clearly understood. Here, we examined the outer membrane of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. We revealed that it is relatively permeable to inorganic ions but is

  19. Membrane System for the Recovery of Volatile Organic Compounds from Remediation Off-Gases. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Membrane Technology and Research, Inc.'s (MTR's) membrane-based off-gas treatment technology separates the organic components from the off-gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream that can be discharged or recycled to the gas-generating process. The membrane system produces a constant, high-quality air discharge stream irrespective of the feed-air composition. The system also produces a concentrated liquid VOC stream for disposal. Any water vapor present in the off-gas is removed as condensed dischargeable water. Benefits: Applicable to a broad range of off-gas generating sources. Target streams are off-gas from soil remediation by in situ vacuum extraction or air and steam sparging, and soil vitrification Suitable for remote sites: systems require minimal site preparation, little operator attention once installed, electrical power but no other utilities, and no expendable chemicals Minimizes waste volume: dischargeable air and water are produced, and VOCs removed from the feed gas ar e concentrated into a condensed liquid. No other waste streams result Treats off-gases containing both flammable and nonflammable and chlorinated and nonchlorinated VOCs Cost competitive with other technologies in the VOC concentration range 100-1,000 ppm and offers significant cost reduction at higher VOC concentrations Systems are easily moved and transported to new sites with a minimum of refurbishing or modification Generates no air emissions, minimizing permitting issues and speeding up the start of a clean-up operation Technology: Removal of VOCs from air streams with membranes is a relatively new technology

  20. Hybrid organic-inorganic anion-exchange pore-filled membranes for the recovery of nitric acid from highly acidic aqueous waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Vivek; Agarwal, Chhavi; Adya, V C; Pandey, Ashok K

    2018-04-15

    Recycling of acid from aqueous waste streams is highly important not only from the environmental point of view but also for developing the sustainable technology. One of the effective ways to recover acid from aqueous waste streams is the anion-exchange membrane based diffusion-dialysis. The work presents the synthesis and characterization of anion-exchange pore-filled membranes for the objective of recovery of high concentration of acid by diffusion dialysis. The membranes were prepared by anchoring the guest organic-inorganic anionic gel in the pores of the host poly(propylene) membrane by in situ UV-initiator induced polymerization of the appropriate monomers along with cross-linker. The removal of nitric acid in the presence of different representative monovalent, divalent and trivalent nitrates and the leakage of these ions through anion exchange membrane have been studied by DD technique for optimizing the chemical composition of the membrane. The nitric acid permeation rate of the membrane with the optimized composition has been found to be considerably faster than the commercial Selemion membrane without sacrificing salt leakage. The performance of the optimized pore-filled anion exchange membranes has been found to be independent of the acid concentration, nature of the anion and substrate and has been observed to be solely dependent on the guest inorganic-organic hybrid anionic gel component. The membranes have been found to be stable and reusable for the acid recovery. Removal of nitric acid as high as 90% from the simulated high level nuclear waste with the optimized grafted pore-filled membrane has been achieved with negligible salt transport. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Organic carbon movement through two SWRO facilities from source water to pretreatment to product with relevance to membrane biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahri, Abdullah Hassan Mohammed

    2016-12-29

    The presence of algae, bacteria, various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the raw water, after each pretreatment process and in the permeate and concentrate streams, were measured at two SWRO plants to assess biofouling potential. It was found that the most significant process controlling the concentration of algae, bacteria, and the biopolymer and humic substances was the intake type with the subsurface intake discharge showing significant reductions. The mixed media filtration process was marginally useful in removing some TOC and NOM, but had little effect on TEP removal. Some bacterial regrowth may be occurring in the cartridge filters, but the evidence is inconsistent. Significant quantities of the biopolymer and humic substance concentrations were found to be retained in the membranes, but the concentrations were significantly greater in the facility using an open-ocean intake. Bacteria and TEP were found in the permeate stream, which may document bacterial regrowth and TEP production downstream of the membrane process. Measurements of the organic carbon passage through SWRO facilities can be successfully used to evaluate pretreatment process effectiveness and to make SWRO plant operational improvements.

  2. Liquid Membranes as a Tool for Chemical Speciation of Metals in Natural Waters: Organic and Inorganic Complexes of Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, Cristina; Mendiguchía, Carolina; Moreno, Carlos

    2018-04-15

    The different species of nickel present in natural waters exhibit different transport behaviour through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs). This fact has been used to design and optimise a separation/pre-concentration system applicable to separate labile and non-labile nickel fractions. A hydrazone derivative-1,2-cyclohexanedione bis-benzoyl-hydrazone (1,2-CHBBH) dissolved in toluene/dimethyl formamide (2% DMF)-was used as a chemical carrier of nickel species, from an aqueous source solution (sample) to a receiving acidic solution. Both chemical and hydrodynamic conditions controlling the transport system were studied and optimised. Under optimum conditions, variations in the transport of nickel ions as a function of organic (humic acids) and inorganic (chloride ions) ligands were studied. Relationships between the permeability coefficient ( P ) or recovery efficiency (%R) and the concentrations of ligands and nickel species were analysed using Winhumic V software. A negative correlation between P and the concentration of organic nickel complexes was found, suggesting that only labile nickel species are transported through the liquid membrane, with non-labile complexes remaining in the water sample; allowing for their separation and subsequent quantification in natural waters.

  3. A Metal Chelating Porous Polymeric Support: The Missing Link for a Defect-free Metal-Organic Framework Composite Membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Barankova, Eva

    2017-02-06

    Since the discovery of size-selective metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), researchers have tried to incorporate these materials into gas separation membranes. Impressive gas selectivities were found, but these MOF membranes were mostly made on inorganic supports, which are generally too bulky and expensive for industrial gas separation. Forming MOF layers on porous polymer supports is industrially attractive but technically challenging. Two features to overcome these problems are described: 1) a metal chelating support polymer to bind the MOF layer, and 2) control of MOF crystal growth by contra-diffusion, aiming at a very thin nanocrystalline MOF layer. Using a metal chelating polythiosemicarbazide (PTSC) support and adjusting the metal and organic ligand concentrations carefully, a very compact ZIF-8 (ZIF=zeolitic imidazolate framework) layer was produced that displayed interference colors because of its smooth surface and extreme thinness-within the range of visible light. High performances were measured in terms of hydrogen/propane (8350) and propylene/propane (150) selectivity.

  4. A Metal Chelating Porous Polymeric Support: The Missing Link for a Defect-Free Metal-Organic Framework Composite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barankova, Eva; Tan, Xiaoyu; Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Litwiller, Eric; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2017-03-06

    Since the discovery of size-selective metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), researchers have tried to incorporate these materials into gas separation membranes. Impressive gas selectivities were found, but these MOF membranes were mostly made on inorganic supports, which are generally too bulky and expensive for industrial gas separation. Forming MOF layers on porous polymer supports is industrially attractive but technically challenging. Two features to overcome these problems are described: 1) a metal chelating support polymer to bind the MOF layer, and 2) control of MOF crystal growth by contra-diffusion, aiming at a very thin nanocrystalline MOF layer. Using a metal chelating poly-thiosemicarbazide (PTSC) support and adjusting the metal and organic ligand concentrations carefully, a very compact ZIF-8 (ZIF=zeolitic imidazolate framework) layer was produced that displayed interference colors because of its smooth surface and extreme thinness-within the range of visible light. High performances were measured in terms of hydrogen/propane (8350) and propylene/propane (150) selectivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Prediction of eye irritation from organic chemicals using membrane-interaction QSAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A; Hopfinger, A J; Osborne, R; Bruner, L H; Thompson, E D

    2001-02-01

    Eye irritation potency of a compound or mixture has traditionally been evaluated using the Draize rabbit-eye test (Draize et al., 1944). In order to aid predictions of eye irritation and to explore possible corresponding mechanisms of eye irritation, a methodology termed "membrane-interaction QSAR analysis" (MI-QSAR) has been developed (Kulkarni and Hopfinger 1999). A set of Draize eye-irritation data established by the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) (Bagley et al., 1992) was used as a structurally diverse training set in an MI-QSAR analysis. Significant QSAR models were constructed based primarily upon aqueous solvation-free energy of the solute and the strength of solute binding to a model phospholipid (DMPC) monolayer. The results demonstrate that inclusion of parameters to model membrane interactions of potentially irritating chemicals provides significantly better predictions of eye irritation for structurally diverse compounds than does modeling based solely on physiochemical properties of chemicals. The specific MI-QSAR models reported here are, in fact, close to the upper limit in both significance and robustness that can be expected for the variability inherent to the eye-irritation scores of the ECETOC training set. The MI-QSAR models can be used with high reliability to classify compounds of low- and high-predicted eye irritation scores. Thus, the models offer the opportunity to reduce animal testing for compounds predicted to fall into these two extreme eye-irritation score sets. The MI-QSAR paradigm may also be applicable to other toxicological endpoints, such as skin irritation, where interactions with cellular membranes are likely.

  6. Energy metabolism and the skeleton: Reciprocal interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Patrizia; Panico, Anna; Spertino, Elena; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The relation between bone remodelling and energy expenditure is an intriguing, and yet unexplained, challenge of the past ten years. In fact, it was only in the last few years that the skeleton was found to function, not only in its obvious roles of body support and protection, but also as an important part of the endocrine system. In particular, bone produces different hormones, like osteocalcin (OC), which influences energy expenditure in humans. The undercarboxylated form of OC has a reduced affinity for hydroxyapatite; hence it enters the systemic circulation more easily and exerts its metabolic functions for the proliferation of pancreatic β-cells, insulin secretion, sensitivity, and glucose tolerance. Leptin, a hormone synthesized by adipocytes, also has an effect on both bone remodelling and energy expenditure; in fact it inhibits appetite through hypothalamic influence and, in bone, stimulates osteoblastic differentiation and inhibits apoptosis. Leptin and serotonin exert opposite influences on bone mass accrual, but several features suggest that they might operate in the same pathway through a sympathetic tone. Serotonin, in fact, acts via two opposite pathways in controlling bone remodelling: central and peripheral. Serotonin product by the gastrointestinal tract (95%) augments bone formation by osteoblast, whereas brain-derived serotonin influences low bone mineral density and its decrease leads to an increase in bone resorption parameters. Finally, amylin (AMY) acts as a hormone that alters physiological responses related to feeding, and plays a role as a growth factor in bone. In vitro AMY stimulates the proliferation of osteoblasts, and osteoclast differentiation. Here we summarize the evidence that links energy expenditure and bone remodelling, with particular regard to humans. PMID:23330074

  7. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  8. The Skeleton of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. argued that the very long, very thin infrared dark cloud “Nessie” lies directly in the Galactic midplane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in position-position-velocity (p-p-v) space as traced by lower-density {{CO}} and higher-density {{NH}}3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first “bone” of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high-contrast filament that can be used to map our Galaxy’s “skeleton.” Here we present evidence for additional bones in the Milky Way, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of several filaments that could potentially trace Galactic structure. Our 10 bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features that lie parallel to, and no more than 20 pc from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use {{CO}}, {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+, {{{HCO}}}+, and {{NH}}3 radial velocity data to establish the three-dimensional location of the candidates in p-p-v space. Of the 10 candidates, 6 also have a projected aspect ratio of ≥50:1 run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in p-p-v space; and exhibit no abrupt shifts in velocity. The evidence presented here suggests that these candidates mark the locations of significant spiral features, with the bone called filament 5 (“BC_18.88-0.09”) being a close analog to Nessie in the northern sky. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, it should be possible to find more bones in future studies.

  9. A Deg-protease family protein in marine Synechococcus is involved in outer membrane protein organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Kayra Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deg-family proteases are a periplasm-associated group of proteins that are known to be involved in envelope stress responses and are found in most microorganisms. Orthologous genes SYNW2176 (in strain WH8102 and sync_2523 (strain CC9311 are predicted members of the Deg-protease family and are among the few genes induced by copper stress in both open ocean and coastal marine Synechococcus strains. In contrast to the lack of a phenotype in a similar knockout in Synechocystis PCC6803, a SYNW2176 knockout mutant in strain WH8102 was much more resistant to copper than the wild-type. The mutant also exhibited a significantly altered outer membrane protein composition which may contribute to copper resistance, longer lag phase after transfer, low-level consistent alkaline phosphatase activity, and an inability to induce high alkaline phosphatase activity in response to phosphate stress. This phenotype suggests a protein-quality-control role for SYNW2176, the absence of which leads to a constitutively activated stress response. Deg-protease family proteins in this ecologically important cyanobacterial group thus help to determine outer membrane responses to both nutrients and toxins.

  10. Performance of a cutinase membrane reactor for the production of biodiesel in organic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Sara M; Lemos, Francisco; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2011-06-01

    The enzymatic transesterification of oils with an alcohol, using recombinant cutinase of Fusarium solani pisi microencapsulated in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reversed micelles, was performed in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). A tubular ceramic membrane with a nominal molecular weight cut off of 15,000 Da was used to retain the enzyme, and characterized in terms of rejection coefficients of the reaction components by transmission experiments. The performance of the MBR in a total recirculation-batch mode was compared with results obtained in a stirred batch tank reactor. The continuous operation of the MBR was also evaluated and the influence of the alcohol type and permeate flow rate on conversion degree and productivity (up to 500 g(product) /day/g(enzyme) was attained) were analyzed. Cutinase wild type and mutant T179C were tested for this process and the high long-term operational stability of the cutinase mutant demonstrated its potential as biocatalyst for the enzymatic continuous production of biodiesel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 13C-NMR of diterpenes with pimarane skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, W.S.; Pereira, A.L.; Silva Queiroz, P.P. da; Silva, R.S. da; Valente, L.M.M.; Peixoto, E.M.; Cunha Pinto, A. da

    1981-01-01

    The effect of substituent groups on the chemical shift of carbons using nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of carbon 13 ( 13 C-NMR) is discussed. Diterpenes having pimarane skeleton, isolated from plants of Velloziaceae family are analysed. (ARHC) [pt

  12. Skeleton extraction based on the topology and Snakes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanxue; Ming, Chengguo; Qin, Yueting

    A new skeleton line extraction method based on topology and flux is proposed by analyzing the distribution characteristics of the gradient vector field in the Snakes model. The distribution characteristics of the skeleton line are accurately obtained by calculating the eigenvalues of the critical points and the flux of the gradient vector field. Then the skeleton lines can be effectively extracted. The results also show that there is no need for the pretreatment or binarization of the target image. The skeleton lines of complex gray images such as optical interference patterns can be effectively extracted by using this method. Compared to traditional methods, this method has many advantages, such as high extraction accuracy and fast processing speed.

  13. Processing and Performance of MOF (Metal Organic Framework)-Loaded PAN Nanofibrous Membrane for CO2 Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahiduzzaman; Khan, Mujibur R.; Harp, Spencer; Neumann, Jeffrey; Sultana, Quazi Nahida

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to produce a nanofibrous membrane functionalized with adsorbent particles called metal organic framework (MOF) in order to adsorb CO2 from a gas source. Therefore, Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was chosen as the precursor for nanofibers and HKUST-1, a Cu-based MOF, was chosen as adsorbent. The experimental process consists of electrospinning PAN solution blended with HKUST-1 to produce a nanofibrous mat as working substrates. The fibers were collected in a cylindrical canister model. SEM image of this mat showed nanofibers with the presence of small adsorbent particles, impregnated into the as-spun fibers discretely. To increase the amount of MOF particles for effectual gas adsorption, a secondary solvothermal process of producing MOF particles on the fibers was required. This process consists of multiple growth cycles of HKUST-1 particles by using a sol-gel precursor. SEM images showed uniform distribution of porous MOF particles of 2-4 µm in size on the fiber surface. Energy dispersive spectroscopy report of the fiber confirmed the presence of MOF particles through the identification of characteristic Copper elemental peaks of HKUST-1. To determine the thermal stability of the fibrous membrane, Thermogravimetric analysis of HKUST-1 consisting of PAN fiber was performed where a total weight loss of 40% between 210 and 360 °C was observed, hence proving the high-temperature durability of the synthesized membrane. BET surface area of the fiber membrane was measured as 540.73 m2/g. The fiber membrane was then placed into an experimental test bench containing a mixed gas inflow of CO2 and N2. Using non-dispersive infrared CO2 sensors connected to the inlet and outlet port of the bench, significant reduction of CO2 in concentration was measured. Comparative IR spectroscopic analysis between the gas-treated and gas untreated fiber samples showed the presence of characteristic peak in the vicinity of 2300 and 2400 cm-1 which

  14. [Vesicular intracellular transport in the digestive organs. Membrane vesicle--the universal mechanism of the functional transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, I A

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of long-term research of the morpho-functional characteristics of the cells of the stomach, small intestine and gallbladder the mechanism and function of membrane vesicles in the implementation of the main functions of these organs sets out in this article: the secretion of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells, the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine and the fluid at a concentration of bile epitheliocytes of gallbladder. Proofs of the intracellular formation of hydrochloric acid in tubulovesicles of the parietal cells and turnover of its secretory membranes in the process of secretory cycle, that has ensured the re-use and explained the extraordinary life of these unique cells are presented. The credible mechanism of HCl output oppression by H(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity blockers has set out on this basis. The article provides detailed endocytosis mechanism of the ions and nutrients absorption by enterocytes. The mechanism of participation of the apical contractile complex of brush border of epithelial cells in the initiation of endocytosis and cytoplasmic microtubules in transport of membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm was analyzed. Based on our research and numerous of the world scientific proceedings the conclusion was done about the existence of two energy dependent types of transport in the absorptive epithelium of the digestive--transmembrane (ionic and nutritive) homeostatic type which is realized by the ATP-system of the basal plasmalemma, and vesicular (endocytosis) type which is impltmented by apical contractile complex of brush border and cytoplasmic microtubules. Both types of transport are interrelated and are under constant cellular control. This observation is relevant to the majority of cells, including those involved in the secretion of various substances: hydrochloric acid by parietal cells, enzymes by main cells of the gastric glands and exocrinocytes of the pancreas, hormone by endocrine cells of the APUD system and, finally

  15. Reproductive organ and vascular specific promoter of the rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase mediates environmental stress responses in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Md Kamrul Huda

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and helps in removal of calcium (Ca(2+ from the cell, hence regulating Ca(2+ level within cells. Though plant Ca(2+ATPases have been shown to be involved in plant stress responses but their promoter regions have not been well studied.The 1478 bp promoter sequence of rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase contains cis-acting elements responsive to stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region, serial deletions of the promoter were fused with the GUS sequence and four constructs were obtained. These were differentially activated under NaCl, PEG cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate treatments. We demonstrated that the rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase promoter is responsible for vascular-specific and multiple stress-inducible gene expression. Only full-length promoter showed specific GUS expression under stress conditions in floral parts. High GUS activity was observed in roots with all the promoter constructs. The -1478 to -886 bp flanking region responded well upon treatment with salt and drought. Only the full-length promoter presented cold-induced GUS expression in leaves, while in shoots slight expression was observed for -1210 and -886 bp flanking region. The -1210 bp deletion significantly responded to exogenous methyl viologen and abscisic acid induction. The -1210 and -886 bp flanking region resulted in increased GUS activity in leaves under methyl jasmonate treatments, whereas in shoots the -886 bp and -519 bp deletion gave higher expression. Salicylic acid failed to induce GUS activities in leaves for all the constructs.The rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase promoter is a reproductive organ-specific as well as vascular-specific. This promoter contains drought, salt, cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate related cis-elements, which regulated gene expression. Overall, the tissue-specificity and inducible

  16. Specific absorbed fraction in bone tissue and bone marrow resulting from photons distributed in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromoto, G.

    1979-01-01

    The computer code 'ALGAM: Monte Carlo Estimation of Internal Dose from Gamma -ray Sources in a Phanton Man' only provides for an average dose to bone marrow resulting from a photon source distributed in the human body. Since there is no realistic model for the separation of these doses in the present phantom, some modifications were performed in the ALGAM code in order to introduce an heterogeneous skeleton and through this new model it was possible to make the estimation of dose in bone marrow. The specific absorbed fraction resulting from running the new program for 12 monoenergetic photon sources distributed in three source organs - skeleton, red marrow and yellow marrow is presented. The results obtained show that for low photon energies, the old model overestimates the specific absorbed fraction in bone marrow up to a factor of 4; while in bone, it underestimates the specific absorbed fractions up to a factor of 1.6. (Author) [pt

  17. D2.6_Motion capture sequences and skeleton avatar

    OpenAIRE

    Even Zohar, Oshri; Brekelmans, Jasper; Aarts, Jochem; Heuklom, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The conceptualization development of generic inverse kinematic (1) (IK) avatar skeletons for the WhoLoDance project was derived from the guidelines and requirements that emerged from discussions with the consortium dance partners from the project’s start and through several dance partners and technical partners meetings in the last 14 month. The creation of a unified performer IK Skeleton Fitting (retargeting) and visualization was based on several principles manifested in those guideli...

  18. Program Transformation to Identify List-Based Parallel Skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kannan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Algorithmic skeletons are used as building-blocks to ease the task of parallel programming by abstracting the details of parallel implementation from the developer. Most existing libraries provide implementations of skeletons that are defined over flat data types such as lists or arrays. However, skeleton-based parallel programming is still very challenging as it requires intricate analysis of the underlying algorithm and often uses inefficient intermediate data structures. Further, the algorithmic structure of a given program may not match those of list-based skeletons. In this paper, we present a method to automatically transform any given program to one that is defined over a list and is more likely to contain instances of list-based skeletons. This facilitates the parallel execution of a transformed program using existing implementations of list-based parallel skeletons. Further, by using an existing transformation called distillation in conjunction with our method, we produce transformed programs that contain fewer inefficient intermediate data structures.

  19. Automatic and hierarchical segmentation of the human skeleton in CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yabo; Liu, Shi; Li, H. Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2017-04-01

    Accurate segmentation of each bone of the human skeleton is useful in many medical disciplines. The results of bone segmentation could facilitate bone disease diagnosis and post-treatment assessment, and support planning and image guidance for many treatment modalities including surgery and radiation therapy. As a medium level medical image processing task, accurate bone segmentation can facilitate automatic internal organ segmentation by providing stable structural reference for inter- or intra-patient registration and internal organ localization. Even though bones in CT images can be visually observed with minimal difficulty due to the high image contrast between the bony structures and surrounding soft tissues, automatic and precise segmentation of individual bones is still challenging due to the many limitations of the CT images. The common limitations include low signal-to-noise ratio, insufficient spatial resolution, and indistinguishable image intensity between spongy bones and soft tissues. In this study, a novel and automatic method is proposed to segment all the major individual bones of the human skeleton above the upper legs in CT images based on an articulated skeleton atlas. The reported method is capable of automatically segmenting 62 major bones, including 24 vertebrae and 24 ribs, by traversing a hierarchical anatomical tree and by using both rigid and deformable image registration. The degrees of freedom of femora and humeri are modeled to support patients in different body and limb postures. The segmentation results are evaluated using the Dice coefficient and point-to-surface error (PSE) against manual segmentation results as the ground-truth. The results suggest that the reported method can automatically segment and label the human skeleton into detailed individual bones with high accuracy. The overall average Dice coefficient is 0.90. The average PSEs are 0.41 mm for the mandible, 0.62 mm for cervical vertebrae, 0.92 mm for thoracic

  20. Membrane-Based Osmotic Heat Engine with Organic Solvent for Enhanced Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulsky, E; Boo, C; Lin, SH; Elimelech, M

    2015-05-05

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher ORE energy efficiency with the LiCl methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery <90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  1. Membrane-based osmotic heat engine with organic solvent for enhanced power generation from low-grade heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaulsky, Evyatar; Boo, Chanhee; Lin, Shihong; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-05-05

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl-methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl-water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher OHE energy efficiency with the LiCl-methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl-water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery<90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  2. Renewable energy powered membrane technology: Impact of pH and ionic strength on fluoride and natural organic matter removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Agyeman, Isaac; Shen, Junjie; Schäfer, Andrea Iris

    2018-04-15

    Real water pH and ionic strength vary greatly, which influences the performance of membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Systematic variation of pH (3-12) and ionic strength (2-10g/L as total dissolved solids (TDS)) was undertaken with a real Tanzanian water to investigate how water quality affects retention mechanisms of fluoride (F) and natural organic matter (NOM). An autonomous solar powered NF/RO system driven by a solar array simulator was supplied with constant power from a generator. An open NF (NF270) and a brackish water RO (BW30) membrane were used. A surface water with a very high F (59.7mg/L) and NOM (110mgC/L) was used. Retention of F by NF270 was 80% at pH4, and about 99% at pH >5, due to the smaller pore size and hence a more dominant size exclusion. In consequence, only little impact of ionic strength increase was observed for BW30. The concentration of NOM in permeates of both NF270 and BW30 were typically energy fluctuations, this research emphasises on feed water quality that affects system performance and may alter due to a number of environmental factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rejection of organic micropollutants by high pressure membranes (NF/RO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verliefde, A.R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of numerous organic micropollutants, such as pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and hormones, but also pesticides and industrial pollutants, in the sources for the drinking water supply, are a big concern for drinking water utilities. Even though not all pollutants are harmful to

  4. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation rescue in adolescent with bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia like Wegener's granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Lars; Broman, Lars Mikael

    2017-01-01

    We report a 17-year-old woman with bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP)-like granulomatosis with polyangiitis developing severe airway obliterations. Pending age, phase and grade of autoimmune treatment, and offering ECMO treatment may be crucial for survival but occasionally preface futility. ECMO-treated patient with BOOP-like GPA has never been described before.

  5. Removal of trace organic contaminants by a membrane bioreactor-granular activated carbon (MBR-GAC) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2012-06-01

    The removal of trace organics by a membrane bioreactor-granular activated carbon (MBR-GAC) integrated system were investigated. The results confirmed that MBR treatment can be effective for the removal of hydrophobic (log D>3.2) and readily biodegradable trace organics. The data also highlighted the limitation of MBR in removing hydrophilic and persistent compounds (e.g. carbamazepine, diclofenac, and fenoprop) and that GAC could complement MBR very well as a post-treatment process. The MBR-GAC system showed high removal of all selected trace organics including those that are hydrophilic and persistent to biological degradation at up to 406 bed volumes (BV). However, over an extended period, breakthrough of diclofenac was observed after 7320 BV. This suggests that strict monitoring should be applied over the lifetime of the GAC column to detect the breakthrough of hydrophilic and persistent compounds which have low removal by MBR treatment. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial organization of the cytoskeleton enhances cargo delivery to specific target areas on the plasma membrane of spherical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne E.; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations. The emerging ballistic motion along filaments is frequently interrupted due to constricting intersection nodes or cycles of detachment and reattachment processes in the crowded cytoplasm. In order to investigate the efficiency of search strategies established by the cell’s specific spatial organization of the cytoskeleton we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. With extensive computer simulations we analyze the dependence of the mean first passage times for narrow escape problems on the structural characteristics of the cytoskeleton, the motor properties and the fraction of time spent in each state. We find that an inhomogeneous architecture with a small width of the actin cortex constitutes an efficient intracellular search strategy.

  7. The organ preservation and enhancement of donation success ratio effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in circulatory unstable brain death donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoli; Chen, Zhiquan; Nasralla, David; Zeng, Xianpeng; Yang, Jing; Ye, Shaojun; Zhang, Yi; Peng, Guizhu; Wang, Yanfeng; Ye, Qifa

    2016-10-01

    Between 2010 and 2013, we recorded 66 cases of failed organ donation after brain death (DBD) due to the excessive use of the vasoactive drugs resulting in impaired hepatic and/or renal function. To investigate the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in donor management, ECMO was used to provide support for DBD donors with circulatory and/or respiratory failure from 2013 to 2015. A retrospective cohort study between circulatory non-stable DBD with vasoactive drugs (DBD-drug) and circulatory non-stable DBD with ECMO (DBD-ECMO) was designed to compare the transplant outcomes. A total of 19 brain death donors were supported by ECMO. The incidence rate of post-transplant liver primary non-function (PNF) was 10% (two of 20) in DBD-drug group and zero in DBD-ECMO group. Kidney function indicators, including creatinine clearance and urine production, were significantly better in DBD-ECMO group, as well as the kidney delayed graft function (DGF) rate was found to be decreased by the use of ECMO in our study. Donation success rate increased steadily from 47.8% in 2011 to 84.6% in 2014 after the ECMO intervention. The use of ECMO in assisting circulatory and respiratory function of DBD can reduce liver and kidney injury from vasoactive drugs, thereby improving organ quality and reducing the organ discard rates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Spatial organization of the cytoskeleton enhances cargo delivery to specific target areas on the plasma membrane of spherical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne E; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-11-15

    Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations. The emerging ballistic motion along filaments is frequently interrupted due to constricting intersection nodes or cycles of detachment and reattachment processes in the crowded cytoplasm. In order to investigate the efficiency of search strategies established by the cell's specific spatial organization of the cytoskeleton we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. With extensive computer simulations we analyze the dependence of the mean first passage times for narrow escape problems on the structural characteristics of the cytoskeleton, the motor properties and the fraction of time spent in each state. We find that an inhomogeneous architecture with a small width of the actin cortex constitutes an efficient intracellular search strategy.

  9. Comparative Study on Performance and Organic Fouling of ZrO2 Ceramic Membranes in Ultrafiltration of Synthetic Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Cen

    2011-07-01

    Adsorption of organic matter on ceramic membrane can lead to hydraulic-irreversible fouling, which decreases the permeate flux and the cost-efficiency of membrane devices. In order to optimize the filtration process, detailed information is necessary about the organic fouling mechanisms on ceramic membranes. In this study, dead-end filtration experiments of both synthetic water and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were conducted on a ZrO2 ceramic membrane. The experiment results of synthetic water showed that humic acid (HA) was able to be adsorbed by the ZrO2 membrane and cause permeate flux decline; and that HA-tryptophan mixture, at the same DOC level, promoted the filtration flux decline; DOC removal in the case of HA-tryptophan was lower than that of HA alone. It seems that hydrophilic organic matter with low molecular weight have some specific contribution to the organic fouling of the ZrO2 membrane. The results also suggest that tryptophan molecules were preferentially adsorbed on the membrane at the beginning, exposing their hydrophobic sides which might further adsorb HA from the feed water. During the filtration of WWTP effluent, protein-like substances (mainly tryptophan-like) were also preferentially adsorbed on the membrane compared with humic-like ones in the initial few cycles of filtration. More humic-like substances were adsorbed in the following filtration cycles due to the increase of membrane hydrophobicity. A significant rise in hydraulic-irreversible flux decline was obtained by decreasing pH from near pHpzc to below pHpzc of the membrane. It suggests that a positively charged surface is preferred for HA adsorption. Ionic strength increase did not affect the filtration of HA, but it lessened the hydraulic-irreversible flux decline of HA-tryptophan filtration. The adsorption of HA-tryptophan can be attributed to outersphere interaction while HA adsorption is mainly caused by inner-sphere interaction. The results of

  10. Biology of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeldt, D. W.; Rubin, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    The principal role of the skeleton is to provide structural support for the body. While the skeleton also serves as the body's mineral reservoir, the mineralized structure is the very basis of posture, opposes muscular contraction resulting in motion, withstands functional load bearing, and protects internal organs. Although the mass and morphology of the skeleton is defined, to some extent, by genetic determinants, it is the tissue's ability to remodel--the local resorption and formation of bone--which is responsible for achieving this intricate balance between competing responsibilities. The aim of this review is to address bone's form-function relationship, beginning with extensive research in the musculoskeletal disciplines, and focusing on several recent cellular and molecular discoveries which help understand the complex interdependence of bone cells, growth factors, physical stimuli, metabolic demands, and structural responsibilities. With a clinical and spine-oriented audience in mind, the principles of bone cell and molecular biology and physiology are presented, and an attempt has been made to incorporate epidemiologic data and therapeutic implications. Bone research remains interdisciplinary by nature, and a deeper understanding of bone biology will ultimately lead to advances in the treatment of diseases and injuries to bone itself.

  11. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) sensitive organic cation/H/sup +/ antiporter in renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokol, P.P.; Holohan, P.D.; Ross, C.R.

    1986-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that organic cation transport in BBMV is coupled to the countertransport of a H/sup +/ by employing a prototypic organic cation, N/sup 1/-methylnicotinamide (NMN), and a rapid filtration assay. Two H/sup +/ gradient uncouplers, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)/sub 3/ and gramicidin D were effective in dissipating H/sup +/ driven (/sup 3/H)NMN transport. Nigericin, a K/sup +//H/sup +/ exchanger, generated a H/sup +/ gradient in situ which drove the net accumulation of NMN. The molecular mechanism of H/sup +/ coupling was examined employing DCCD, a hydrophobic carbodiimide, which inactivates essential carboxylate groups, the putative H/sup +/ receptor. DCCD inactivated NMN transport irreversibly with an IC/sub 50/ of 2.6..mu..M whereas the hydrophilic carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide, did not. DCCD inactivation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was not affected by NMN. A double logarithmic plot of the apparent rate constants vs. (DCCD) gave a slope of 0.8. The data are consistent with a simple bimolecular reaction mechanism and imply that one molecule of DCCD inactivates one carboxylate group per active transport unit. The results show that (1) the transport of organic cations is coupled to the countermovement of a H/sup +/ and (2) a carboxylate group is essential for H/sup +/ binding and translocation.

  12. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Computation of a Theoretical Membrane Phase Diagram, and the Role of Phase in Lipid Raft-Mediated Protein Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Eshan D.; Whitehead, Samuel C.; Holowka, David; Baird, Barbara; Sethna, James P.

    2018-01-01

    Lipid phase heterogeneity in the plasma membrane is thought to be crucial for many aspects of cell signaling, but the physical basis of participating membrane domains such as "lipid rafts" remains controversial. Here we consider a lattice model yielding a phase diagram that includes several states proposed to be relevant for the cell membrane, including microemulsion - which can be related to membrane curvature - and Ising critical behavior. Using a neural network-based machine learning appro...

  14. Enhanced Proton Conductivity of Sulfonated Hybrid Poly(arylene ether ketone) Membranes by Incorporating an Amino-Sulfo Bifunctionalized Metal-Organic Framework for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Chunyu; Li, Zhenhua; Zhao, Chengji; Duan, Yuting; Zhuang, Zhuang; Bu, Fanzhe; Na, Hui

    2018-03-07

    Novel side-chain-type sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SNF-PAEK) containing naphthalene and fluorine moieties on the main chain was prepared in this work, and a new amino-sulfo-bifunctionalized metal-organic framework (MNS, short for MIL-101-NH 2 -SO 3 H) was synthesized via a hydrothermal technology and postmodification. Then, MNS was incorporated into a SNF-PAEK matrix as an inorganic nanofiller to prepare a series of organic-inorganic hybrid membranes (MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX). The mechanical property, methanol resistance, electrochemistry, and other properties of MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX hybrid membranes were characterized in detail. We found that the mechanical strength and methanol resistances of these hybrid membranes were improved by the formation of an ionic cross-linking structure between -NH 2 of MNS and -SO 3 H on the side chain of SNF-PAEK. Particularly, the proton conductivity of these hybrid membranes increased obviously after the addition of MNS. MNS@SNF-PAEK-3% exhibited the proton conductivity of 0.192 S·cm -1 , which was much higher than those of the pristine membrane (0.145 S·cm -1 ) and recast Nafion (0.134 S·cm -1 ) at 80 °C. This result indicated that bifunctionalized MNS rearranged the microstructure of hybrid membranes, which could accelerate the transfer of protons. The hybrid membrane (MNS@SNF-PAEK-3%) showed a better direct methanol fuel cell performance with a higher peak power density of 125.7 mW/cm 2 at 80 °C and a higher open-circuit voltage (0.839 V) than the pristine membrane.

  15. Full-Scale Implementation of a Vertical Membrane Bioreactor for Simultaneous Removal of Organic Matter and Nutrients from Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Ryong Chae

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In nutrient-sensitive estuaries, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are required to implement more advanced treatment methods in order to meet increasingly stringent effluent guidelines for organic matter and nutrients. To comply with current and anticipated water quality regulations and to reduce the volume of produced sludge, we have successfully developed a vertical membrane bioreactor (VMBR that is composed of anoxic (lower layer and oxic (upper layer zones in one reactor. Since 2009, the VMBR has been commercialized (Q = 1100–16,000 m3/d under the trade-name of DMBRTM for recycling of municipal wastewater in South Korea. In this study, we explore the performance and stability of the full-scale systems. As a result, it was found that the DMBRTM systems showed excellent removal efficiencies of organic substances, suspended solids (SS and Escherichia coli (E. coli. Moreover, average removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP by the DMBRTM systems were found to be 79% and 90% at 18 °C, 8.3 h HRT and 41 d SRT. Moreover, transmembrane pressure (TMP was maintained below 40 kPa at a flux of 18 L/m2/h (LMH more than 300 days. Average specific energy consumption of the full-scale DMBRTM systems was found to be 0.94 kWh/m3.

  16. A skeleton structure of self-replicating dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Yasumasa; Ueyama, Daishin

    1999-06-01

    Self-replicating patterns (SRP) have been observed in several chemical reaction models, such as the Gray-Scott (GS) model, as well as in physical experiments. Watching these experiments (computational and physical) is like watching the more familiar coarsening processes but in reverse: the number of unit localized patterns increases until they fill the domain completely. Self-replicating dynamics, then, can be regarded as a transient process from a localized trigger to a stable stationery or oscillating Turing pattern. Since it is a transient process, it is very difficult to give a suitable definition to characterize SRP. It cannot be described in terms of well-studied structures such as the attractor or a singular saddle orbit for a dynamical system. In this paper, we present a new point of view to describe the transient dynamics of SRP over a finite interval of time. We focus our attention on the basic mechanism causing SRP from a global bifurcational point of view and take our clues from two model systems including the GS model. A careful analysis of the anatomy of the global bifurcation diagram suggests that the dynamics of SRP is related to a hierarchical structure of limit points of folding bifurcation branches in parameter regions where the branches have ceased to exist. Thus, the skeleton structure mentioned in the title refers to the remains of bifurcation branches, the aftereffects of which are manifest in the dynamics of SRP. One of the natural and important problems is about the existence of an organizing center from which the whole hierarchical structure of limit points emerges. In our setting, the numerics suggests a strong candidate for that, i.e., Bogdanov-Takens-Turing (BTT) singularity together with the presence of a stable critical point, and so this indicates a universality of the above structure in the class of equations sharing this characteristic.

  17. Shedding Light on the Cosmic Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Astronomers have tracked down a gigantic, previously unknown assembly of galaxies located almost seven billion light-years away from us. The discovery, made possible by combining two of the most powerful ground-based telescopes in the world, is the first observation of such a prominent galaxy structure in the distant Universe, providing further insight into the cosmic web and how it formed. "Matter is not distributed uniformly in the Universe," says Masayuki Tanaka from ESO, who led the new study. "In our cosmic vicinity, stars form in galaxies and galaxies usually form groups and clusters of galaxies. The most widely accepted cosmological theories predict that matter also clumps on a larger scale in the so-called 'cosmic web', in which galaxies, embedded in filaments stretching between voids, create a gigantic wispy structure." These filaments are millions of light years long and constitute the skeleton of the Universe: galaxies gather around them, and immense galaxy clusters form at their intersections, lurking like giant spiders waiting for more matter to digest. Scientists are struggling to determine how they swirl into existence. Although massive filamentary structures have been often observed at relatively small distances from us, solid proof of their existence in the more distant Universe has been lacking until now. The team led by Tanaka discovered a large structure around a distant cluster of galaxies in images they obtained earlier. They have now used two major ground-based telescopes to study this structure in greater detail, measuring the distances from Earth of over 150 galaxies, and, hence, obtaining a three-dimensional view of the structure. The spectroscopic observations were performed using the VIMOS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope and FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Thanks to these and other observations, the astronomers were able to make a real demographic study of this structure

  18. Tuberculous arthritis of the appendicular skeleton: MR imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Hemant E-mail: parurad@hotmail.com; Shah, Jeshil; Patkar, Deepak; Singrakhia, Manoj; Patankar, Tufail; Hutchinson, Charles

    2004-12-01

    Tuberculosis [TB] of the appendicular skeleton is an uncommon infection caused by the tuberculous bacilli and constitutes only 1-3% of all tuberculosis infections. MR imaging features of tuberculous arthritis include bone marrow oedema, cortical erosions, synovitis, joint effusion, tenosynovitis, soft tissue collections, and myositis. These imaging features are at times non-specific, but in the correct clinical context help in diagnosis of tuberculosis. We present the various pathological manifestations of TB arthritis involving the different joints of appendicular skeleton and discuss their MR imaging appearances.

  19. Tuberculous arthritis of the appendicular skeleton: MR imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Hemant; Shah, Jeshil; Patkar, Deepak; Singrakhia, Manoj; Patankar, Tufail; Hutchinson, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis [TB] of the appendicular skeleton is an uncommon infection caused by the tuberculous bacilli and constitutes only 1-3% of all tuberculosis infections. MR imaging features of tuberculous arthritis include bone marrow oedema, cortical erosions, synovitis, joint effusion, tenosynovitis, soft tissue collections, and myositis. These imaging features are at times non-specific, but in the correct clinical context help in diagnosis of tuberculosis. We present the various pathological manifestations of TB arthritis involving the different joints of appendicular skeleton and discuss their MR imaging appearances

  20. Handbook on diagnostic radiology. Muscles and skeleton 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, Axel

    2005-01-01

    The third volume is focused on systemic skeleton diseases, inflammatory and degenerative bone joint diseases and soft tissue diseases. Using graphic material the congenital and other sclerotic bone diseases, metabolic and hematological system diseases, trophic disturbances including necrosis and periosteum diseases are presented. A substantial chapter is on rheumatic diseases is based on the subtle projection radiographic diagnostic, refined by actual results of MRI diagnostics of soft tissues and skeleton. The chapters on crystal arthropathies lead over to degenerative bone joint and vertebral diseases, which reach an increasing significance within the diagnostic radiology. Finally substantial chapters cover soft tissue diseases including their tumors. [de

  1. The use of radionuclide skeleton visualization method in hygienic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likutova, I.V.; Bobkova, T.E.; Belova, E.A.; Bogomazov, M.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    Inhalation, intragastric and combined effect of two cadmium compounds on rats is studied. Investigations are performed by biochemical methods and the method of radionuclide visualization of the skeleton which was performed delta hours after RPP introduction in gamma-chamber with computer tape recording for the following mathematical treatment of the image. Using the method of radionuclide skeleton visualization pronounced quantitative characteristics of changes in the bone tissue are obtained, it is found that dose dependence of these changes is especially important when estimating the complex effect. Biochemical methods, are used to find alterations, however they have not been assessed quantitatively

  2. Tutorial for Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized Data

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kai

    2017-04-25

    Full waveform inversion of seismic data is often plagued by cycle skipping problems so that an iterative optimization method often gets stuck in a local minimum. To avoid this problem we simplify the objective function so that the iterative solution can quickly converge to a solution in the vicinity of the global minimum. The objective function is simplified by only using parsimonious and important portions of the data, which are defined as skeletonized data. We now present a mostly non-mathematical tutorial that explains the theory of skeletonized inversion. We also show its effectiveness with examples.

  3. Impact of organic fractions identified by SEC and fluorescence EEM on the hydraulic reversibility of ultrafiltration membrane fouling by secondary effluents

    KAUST Repository

    Haberkampa, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Loss of membrane filtration performance due to organic fouling is still a significant drawback for the application of low-pressure membranes in tertiary wastewater treatment. The present study investigates the relevance of different organic fractions present in secondary effluents in terms of hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling of hollow-fibre ultrafiltration membranes. A good correlation between the hydraulically reversible filtration resistance and the total organic biopolymer concentration according to size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was observed. Qualitatively biopolymers consist mainly of polysaccharides as well as proteins with high molecular weight. Polysaccharides are retained by the membrane pores, but can be removed by simple UF backwashing. On the other hand, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) analysis indicates that the extent of the hydraulically irreversible fouling correlates with the presence of protein-like substances. Removal of protein-like substances by biological slow sand filtration or chemical coagulation results in the significant reduction of the hydraulically irreversible fouling, which is presumably due to proteins in the molecular range of biopolymers. In contrast to the comparatively low sensitivity of colorimetric methods for the analysis of proteins and polysaccharides, the combined application of size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence EEM analysis is a promising tool for the determination of the organic fouling propensity of secondary effluents. ©2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  4. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of the LOXL1 gene and its relationship to pelvic organ prolapse and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Georgia; Lu, Minyan; Stoddard, Paul; Sammel, Mary D; Romero, Roberto; Strauss, Jerome F; Matthews, Catherine A

    2009-05-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse and preterm premature rupture of membranes, the 2 conditions which have in common weakening of the tensile strength of tissues, are thought to be caused, in part, by abnormal extracellular matrix synthesis and/or catabolism. We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (NT_010194(LOXL1):g.45008784A>C) in the promoter of the LOXL1 gene, which is essential for elastin synthesis. Promoter studies showed that the minor "C'' allele had significantly greater activity than the major "A'' allele. Case-control studies examined the association of the alleles of this single nucleotide polymorphism with pelvic organ prolapse and preterm premature rupture of membranes. When comparing allele frequencies and genotypes in pelvic organ prolapse cases versus controls, no significant associations were found. A case-control study conducted in African American neonates also found no significant associations between the promoter alleles and preterm premature rupture of membranes. We conclude that a functional single nucleotide polymorphism exists in the promoter region of the LOXL1 gene. Association studies suggest that the promoter single nucleotide polymorphism does not contribute significantly to risk of pelvic organ prolapse or preterm premature rupture of membranes.

  5. Removal of volatile to semi-volatile organic contaminants from water using hollow fiber membrane contactors and catalytic destruction of the contaminants in the gas phase

    OpenAIRE

    Tarafder, Shamsul Abedin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Chlorinated organic compounds and ether compounds are frequently found in groundwater and efficient treatment options are needed. In this study, the efficient transferal of the compounds from the water phase to the gas phase was studied followed by the catalytic treatment of the gas phase. For the removal of the organic contaminants from water, a microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane (HFM) module was operated under low strip gas flow to water flow ratios (_< 5:1). Rem...

  6. From biological membranes to biomimetic model membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes play an essential role in the cellular protection as well as in the control and the transport of nutrients. Many mechanisms such as molecular recognition, enzymatic catalysis, cellular adhesion and membrane fusion take place into the biological membranes. In 1972, Singer et al. provided a membrane model, called fluid mosaic model, in which each leaflet of the bilayer is formed by a homogeneous environment of lipids in a fluid state including globular assembling of proteins and glycoproteins. Since its conception in 1972, many developments were brought to this model in terms of composition and molecular organization. The main development of the fluid mosaic model was made by Simons et al. (1997 and Brown et al. (1997 who suggested that membrane lipids are organized into lateral microdomains (or lipid rafts with a specific composition and a molecular dynamic that are different to the composition and the dynamic of the surrounding liquid crystalline phase. The discovery of a phase separation in the plane of the membrane has induced an explosion in the research efforts related to the biology of cell membranes but also in the development of new technologies for the study of these biological systems. Due to the high complexity of biological membranes and in order to investigate the biological processes that occur on the membrane surface or within the membrane lipid bilayer, a large number of studies are performed using biomimicking model membranes. This paper aims at revisiting the fundamental properties of biological membranes in terms of membrane composition, membrane dynamic and molecular organization, as well as at describing the most common biomimicking models that are frequently used for investigating biological processes such as membrane fusion, membrane trafficking, pore formation as well as membrane interactions at a molecular level.

  7. Membrane Dialysis Extraction (MDE): a novel approach for extracting toxicologically relevant hydrophobic organic compounds from soils and sediments for assessment in biotests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, T.B.; Leist, E.; Braunbeck, T.; Hollert, H. [Dept. of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Rastall, A.C.; Erdinger, L. [Inst. of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Goal, scope and background. Organic solvents are routinely used to extract toxicants from polluted soils and sediments prior to chemical analysis or bioassay. Conventional extraction methods often require the use of heated organic solvents, in some cases under high pressure. These conditions can result in loss of volatile compounds from the sample and the degradation of thermally labile target analytes. Moreover, extracts of soils and sediments also frequently contain substantial quantities of organic macromolecules which can act as sorbing phases for target analytes and in doing so interfere with both chemical analysis and bioassays. Membrane dialysis extraction (MDE) is described as a simple, passive extraction method for selectively extracting toxicologically relevant hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from polluted soils and sediments and analyzed for its applicability in ecotoxicological investigations. Methods. Toxicologically relevant hydrophobic organic compounds were extracted from wet and dry sediments by sealing replicate samples in individual lengths of pre-cleaned low-density polyethylene (LD-PE) tubing and then dialysing in n-hexane. Results. The membrane dialysis extraction was found to be at least as efficient as Soxhlet methodology to extract toxicologically relevant HOCs from sediment samples. In most cases, MDE-derived extracts showed a higher toxicological potential than the Soxhlet extracts. Lack of any significant effects in any MDE controls indicated these differences were not caused by contamination of the LD-PE membrane used. The elevated toxicological potential of MDE extracts is most likely the result of enhanced bioavailability of toxic compounds in consequence of lower amounts of organic macromolecules (i.e. sorbing phases) in the MDE extracts. This effect is probably the result of a size-selective restriction by the LD-PE membrane. Conclusion. Membrane dialysis extraction was found to be a simple, efficient and cost-effective method

  8. Thin-Film Nanocomposite (TFN) Membranes Incorporated with Super-Hydrophilic Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) UiO-66: Toward Enhancement of Water Flux and Salt Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dangchen; Peh, Shing Bo; Han, Gang; Chen, Shing Bor

    2017-03-01

    Zirconiumv (IV)-carboxylate metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and incorporated in the polyamide (PA) selective layer to fabricate novel thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes. Compared to unmodified pure polyamide thin-film composite (TFC) membranes, the incorporation of UiO-66 nanoparticles significantly changes the membrane morphology and chemistry, leading to an improvement of intrinsic separation properties due to the molecular sieving and superhydrophilic nature of UiO-66 particles. The best performing TFN-U2 (0.1 wt % particle loading) membrane not only shows a 52% increase of water permeability but also maintains salt rejection levels (∼95%) similar to the benchmark. The effects of UiO-66 loading on the forward osmosis (FO) performance were also investigated. Incorporation of 0.1 wt % UiO-66 produced a maximum water flux increase of 40% and 25% over the TFC control under PRO and FO modes, when 1 M NaCl was used as the draw solution against deionized water feed. Meanwhile, solute reverse flux was maintained at a relatively low level. In addition, TFN-U2 membrane displayed a relatively linear increase in FO water flux with increasing NaCl concentration up to 2.0 M, suggesting a slightly reduced internal concentration polarization effect. To our best knowledge, the current study is the first to consider implementation of Zr-MOFs (UiO-66) onto TFN-FO membranes.

  9. Studies of structural and mechanical properties of aluminum skeleton castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeleton castings were manufactured in accordance to elaborated production technology. The subject of the research was the microstructural analysis of non - monolithic castings. Analysis of metallographic specimens and quantitative analysis of silicon crystals and secondary dendrite-arm spacing analysis of solution α were performed. Studies were executed for typical regions of skeleton castings. The regions were diversified regarding the cooling rate.The greatest value of compression strength were observed for casting manufactured according to technological conditions: pouring temperature Tpour 1013 K, temperature of the mould Tmould 333 K and height of the gating system h – 265 mm. Technological conditions and modification treatment were determined on base of advantageous structural properties (high homogeneity and refinement. On basis of the research authors confirmed that in applied conditions of solidification advantageous structure of AlSi11 alloy was obtained. The article showed the method of structure design of AlSi11 alloys skeleton castings, which was essential to obtain favorable operating properties of skeleton castings in future technical applications.

  10. Identification through osteometric data on three radium-burdened skeletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, J.E.; Forkal, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The skeletal remains of four persons of uncertain identity were disinterred from a family grave. The weight and description morphological traits of each bone were recorded, as were the lengths of the long bones. Analyses of these data, combined with information obtained from medical records and disinterment reports, led to the specific identification of each skeleton

  11. An Augmented Fast Marching Method for Computing Skeletons and Centerlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple and robust method for computing skeletons for arbitrary planar objects and centerlines for 3D objects. We augment the Fast Marching Method (FMM) widely used in level set applications by computing the paramterized boundary location every pixel came from during the boundary

  12. A Practical Introduction to Skeletons for the Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bucksch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Before the availability of digital photography resulting from the invention of charged couple devices in 1969, the measurement of plant architecture was a manual process either on the plant itself or on traditional photographs. The introduction of cheap digital imaging devices for the consumer market enabled the wide use of digital images to capture the shape of plant networks such as roots, tree crowns, or leaf venation. Plant networks contain geometric traits that can establish links to genetic or physiological characteristics, support plant breeding efforts, drive evolutionary studies, or serve as input to plant growth simulations. Typically, traits are encoded in shape descriptors that are computed from imaging data. Skeletons are one class of shape descriptors that are used to describe the hierarchies and extent of branching and looping plant networks. While the mathematical understanding of skeletons is well developed, their application within the plant sciences remains challenging because the quality of the measurement depends partly on the interpretation of the skeleton. This article is meant to bridge the skeletonization literature in the plant sciences and related technical fields by discussing best practices for deriving diameters and approximating branching hierarchies in a plant network.

  13. Anatomical investigation on the appendicular skeleton of the cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pes consists of tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus and four pedal digits. The tibiotarsus is longer than the femur. The spur is not found in the male bird. Conclusion: The skeleton of the cattle egret has a unique conformation that accommodates its ability to flight as well as being an insectivorous animal. Key words: Anatomy ...

  14. Biogas-pH automation control strategy for optimizing organic loading rate of anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating high COD wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Liu, Jibao; Sui, Qianwen; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-01

    Control of organic loading rate (OLR) is essential for anaerobic digestion treating high COD wastewater, which would cause operation failure by overload or less efficiency by underload. A novel biogas-pH automation control strategy using the combined gas-liquor phase monitoring was developed for an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating high COD (27.53 g·L(-1)) starch wastewater. The biogas-pH strategy was proceeded with threshold between biogas production rate >98 Nml·h(-1) preventing overload and pH>7.4 preventing underload, which were determined by methane production kinetics and pH titration of methanogenesis slurry, respectively. The OLR and the effluent COD were doubled as 11.81 kgCOD·kgVSS(-1)·d(-1) and halved as 253.4 mg·L(-1), respectively, comparing with a constant OLR control strategy. Meanwhile COD removal rate, biogas yield and methane concentration were synchronously improved to 99.1%, 312 Nml·gCODin(-1) and 74%, respectively. Using the biogas-pH strategy, AnMBR formed a "pH self-regulation ternary buffer system" which seizes carbon dioxide and hence provides sufficient buffering capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2014-08-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50mg/L for general reuse was 6gCOD/L/d and 0.63gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m2/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Membrane organization determines barrier properties of endothelial cells and short-chain sphingolipid-facilitated doxorubicin influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hell, A J; Klymchenko, A; Gueth, D M; van Blitterswijk, W J; Koning, G A; Verheij, M

    2014-09-01

    The endothelial lining and its outer lipid membrane are the first major barriers drug molecules encounter upon intravenous administration. Our previous work identified lipid analogs that counteract plasma membrane barrier function for a series of amphiphilic drugs. For example, short-chain sphingolipids (SCS), like N-octanoyl-glucosylceramide, effectively elevated doxorubicin accumulation in tumor cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and in endothelial cells, whereas other (normal) cells remained unaffected. We hypothesize here that local membrane lipid composition and the degree of lipid ordering define SCS efficacy in individual cells. To this end, we study the differential effect of SCS on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in its confluent versus proliferative state, as a model system. While their (plasma membrane) lipidome stays remarkably unaltered when BAECs reach confluency, their lipids segregate to form apical and basolateral domains. Using probe NR12S, we reveal that lipids in the apical membrane are more condensed/liquid-ordered. SCS preferentially attenuate the barrier posed by these condensed membranes and facilitate doxorubicin influx in these particular membrane regions. We confirm these findings in MDCK cells and artificial membranes. In conclusion, SCS-facilitated drug traversal acts on condensed membrane domains, elicited by confluency in resting endothelium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tensegrity and mechanoregulation: from skeleton to cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. S.; Ingber, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate how mechanical stresses that are applied to the whole organism are transmitted to individual cells and transduced into a biochemical response. DESIGN: In this article, we describe fundamental design principles that are used to stabilize the musculoskeletal system at many different size scales and show that these design features are embodied in one particular form of architecture that is known as tensegrity. RESULTS: Tensegrity structures are characterized by use of continuous tension and local compression; architecture, prestress (internal stress prior to application of external force), and triangulation play the most critical roles in terms of determining their mechanical stability. In living organisms, use of a hierarchy of tensegrity networks both optimizes structural efficiency and provides a mechanism to mechanically couple the parts with the whole: mechanical stresses applied at the macroscale result in structural rearrangements at the cell and molecular level. CONCLUSION: Due to use of tensegrity architecture, mechanical stress is concentrated and focused on signal transducing molecules that physically associate with cell surface molecules that anchor cells to extracellular matrix, such as integrins, and with load-bearing elements within the internal cytoskeleton and nucleus. Mechanochemical transduction may then proceed through local stress-dependent changes in molecular mechanics, thermodynamics, and kinetics within the cell. In this manner, the entire cellular response to stress may be orchestrated and tuned by altering the prestress in the cell, just as changing muscular tone can alter mechanical stability and structural coordination throughout the whole musculoskeletal system.

  18. On the Spatial Organization of mRNA, Plasmids, and Ribosomes in a Bacterial Host Overexpressing Membrane Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke A van Gijtenbeek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By using fluorescence imaging, we provide a time-resolved single-cell view on coupled defects in transcription, translation, and growth during expression of heterologous membrane proteins in Lactococcus lactis. Transcripts encoding poorly produced membrane proteins accumulate in mRNA-dense bodies at the cell poles, whereas transcripts of a well-expressed homologous membrane protein show membrane-proximal localization in a translation-dependent fashion. The presence of the aberrant polar mRNA foci correlates with cessation of cell division, which is restored once these bodies are cleared. In addition, activation of the heat-shock response and a loss of nucleoid-occluded ribosomes are observed. We show that the presence of a native-like N-terminal domain is key to SRP-dependent membrane localization and successful production of membrane proteins. The work presented gives new insights and detailed understanding of aberrant membrane protein biogenesis, which can be used for strategies to optimize membrane protein production.

  19. An Interactive Exhibition about Animal Skeletons: Did the Visitors Learn Any Zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Laterveer-de Beer, Manon

    2002-01-01

    Explores museum visitors' understanding of skeleton exhibits and whether such exhibits increase their understanding of the zoology displayed. The exhibition under study focused on the diversity of vertebrae skeletons which were arranged according to the mode of locomotion. (DDR)

  20. Ankyrin-B directs membrane tethering of periaxin and is required for maintenance of lens fiber cell hexagonal shape and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Walters, Mark; Brophy, Peter J; Bennett, Vann; Rao, Ponugoti V

    2016-01-15

    Periaxin (Prx), a PDZ domain protein expressed preferentially in myelinating Schwann cells and lens fibers, plays a key role in membrane scaffolding and cytoarchitecture. Little is known, however, about how Prx is anchored to the plasma membrane. Here we report that ankyrin-B (AnkB), a well-characterized adaptor protein involved in linking the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton to integral membrane proteins, is required for membrane association of Prx in lens fibers and colocalizes with Prx in hexagonal fiber cells. Under AnkB haploinsufficiency, Prx accumulates in the soluble fraction with a concomitant loss from the membrane-enriched fraction of mouse lenses. Moreover, AnkB haploinsufficiency induced age-dependent disruptions in fiber cell hexagonal geometry and radial alignment and decreased compressive stiffness in mouse lenses parallel to the changes observed in Prx null mouse lens. Both AnkB- and Prx-deficient mice exhibit disruptions in membrane organization of the spectrin-actin network and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in lens fiber cells. Taken together, these observations reveal that AnkB is required for Prx membrane anchoring and for maintenance of lens fiber cell hexagonal geometry, membrane skeleton organization, and biomechanics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Removal of nitrogen and organic matter in a submerged-membrane bioreactor operating in a condition of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Major Barbosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the removal of nitrogen and organic matter in a membrane bioreactor system operating in a condition of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification controlled by intermittent aeration. A submerged-membrane system in a bioreactor was used in a pilot scale to treat domestic wastewater. The dissolved oxygen concentration was maintained between 0.5 and 0.8 mg L-1. The concentration of the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS in the system ranged from 1 to 6 g L-1. The system efficiency was evaluated by the removal efficiency of organic matter, quantified by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Total Organic Carbon (TOC. Nitrogen removal was assessed by quantifying Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN and ammonia nitrogen. During the system start-up, the removal efficiencies of COD and NTK were around 90% and 80%, respectively. After the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND conditions were established, the removal efficiencies of COD and NTK were 70% and 99%, respectively. These results showed that sewage treatment with the membrane bioreactor (MBR system, operating with simultaneous nitrification and denitrification conditions, was able to remove organic matter and promote nitrification and denitrification in a single reactor, producing a high-quality permeate.

  2. Diagenesis of echinoderm skeletons: Constraints on paleoseawater Mg/Ca reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Krzykawski, Tomasz; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    One of the most profound environmental changes thought to be reflected in chemical composition of numerous geological archives is Mg/Ca ratio of the seawater, which has varied dramatically throughout the Phanerozoic. Echinoderms that today typically form high magnesium calcite skeletons are increasingly being utilized as a proxy for interpreting secular changes in seawater chemistry. However, accurate characterization of the diagenetic changes of their metastable high magnesium calcite skeletons is a prerequisite for assessing their original, major-element geochemical composition. Here we expand the existing models of diagenesis of echinoderm skeleton by integration of various analytical methods that up to now rarely have been used to assess the diagenetic changes of fossil echinoderms. We validated the preservation of a suite of differently preserved echinoderm ossicles, mostly crinoids, ranging in age from the Cambrian through Recent. In 13 of 99 fossil echinoderm ossicles we found well-preserved porous microstructure (stereom), non-luminescent behaviour or blotchy dark color in cathodoluminescence, and distinct nanostructural features (layered and nanocomposite structure). Moreover, in representatives of such preserved samples, distribution of sulphates associated with organic matter is identical to those in Recent echinoderms. Only such ossicles, despite of local micrometer-scale diagenetic changes, were herein considered well-preserved, retaining their original major-element skeletal composition. By contrast, majority of samples show transformation to the stable low magnesium calcite that leads to obliteration of the primary geochemical and micro/nanostructural features and is accompanied with increase in cathodoluminescence emission intensity. Using only well-preserved fossil echinoderm samples, we found purely random variation in Mg/Ca in echinoderm skeletons through the observed time series; any periodicities in echinoderm skeletal Mg/Ca ratio which might

  3. Morphological integration in the appendicular skeleton of two domestic taxa: the horse and donkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanot, Pauline; Herrel, Anthony; Guintard, Claude; Cornette, Raphaël

    2017-10-11

    Organisms are organized into suites of anatomical structures that typically covary when developmentally or functionally related, and this morphological integration plays a determinant role in evolutionary processes. Artificial selection on domestic species causes strong morphological changes over short time spans, frequently resulting in a wide and exaggerated phenotypic diversity. This raises the question of whether integration constrains the morphological diversification of domestic species and how natural and artificial selection may impact integration patterns. Here, we study the morphological integration in the appendicular skeleton of domestic horses and donkeys, using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics on 75 skeletons. Our results indicate that a strong integration is inherited from developmental mechanisms which interact with functional factors. This strong integration reveals a specialization in the locomotion of domestic equids, partly for running abilities. We show that the integration is stronger in horses than in donkeys, probably because of a greater degree of specialization and predictability of their locomotion. Thus, the constraints imposed by integration are weak enough to allow important morphological changes and the phenotypic diversification of domestic species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Advanced treatment of textile dyeing secondary effluent using magnetic anion exchange resin and its effect on organic fouling in subsequent RO membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Li; Shi, Jialu; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-02

    Strict regulations are forcing dyeing factory to upgrade existing waste treatment system. In this study, advanced treatment of dyeing secondary effluent by magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP) was investigated and compared with ultrafiltration (UF); NDMP as a pre-treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) was also studied. NDMP resin (20 mL/L) gave higher removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (83.9%) and colority (94.9%) than UF with a cut-off of 10 kDa (only 48.6% and 44.1%, respectively), showing that NDMP treatment was effective to meet the stringent discharge limit of DOC and colority. Besides, NDMP resin (20 mL/L) as a pretreatment of RO increased the permeate flux by 12.5% and reduced irreversible membrane fouling by 6.6%, but UF pretreatment did not mitigate RO membrane fouling. The results of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra and resin fractions showed that NDMP had more efficient removal than UF for transphilic acid and hydrophilic fraction, such as protein-like organic matters and soluble microbial products, which contributed to a significant proportion of RO membrane fouling. In sum, NDMP resin treatment not only gave effective removal of DOC and colority of dyeing secondary effluent, but exhibited some improvement for RO membrane flux and irreversible fouling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mixed-Matric Membranes for CO2 and H2 Gas Separations Using Metal-Organic Framework and Mesoporus Hybrid Silicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inga Musselman; Kenneth Balkus, Jr.; John Ferraris

    2009-01-07

    In this work, we have investigated the separation performance of polymer-based mixed-matrix membranes containing metal-organic frameworks and mesoporous hybrid silicas. The MOF/Matrimid{reg_sign} and MOP-18/Matrimid{reg_sign} membranes exhibited improved dispersion and mechanical strength that allowed high additive loadings with reduced aggregation, as is the case of the 80 wt% MOP-18/Matrimid{reg_sign} and the 80% (w/w) Cu-MOF/Matrimid{reg_sign} membranes. Membranes with up to 60% (w/w) ZIF-8 content exhibited similar mechanical strength and improved dispersion. The H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation properties of MOF/Matrimid{reg_sign} mixed-matrix membranes was improved by either keeping the selectivity constant and increasing the permeability (MOF-5, Cu-MOF) or by improving both selectivity and permeability (ZIF-8). In the case of MOF-5/Matrimid{reg_sign} mixed-matrix membranes, the H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity was kept at 2.6 and the H{sub 2} permeability increased from 24.4 to 53.8 Barrers. For the Cu-MOF/Matrimid{reg_sign} mixed-matrix membranes, the H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity was kept at 2.05 and the H{sub 2} permeability increased from 17.1 to 158 Barrers. These two materials introduced porosity and uniform paths that enhanced the gas transport in the membranes. When ZIF-8/Matrimid{reg_sign} mixed-matrix membranes were studied, the H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity increased from 2.9 to 4.4 and the permeability of H{sub 2} increased from 26.5 to 35.8 Barrers. The increased H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity in ZIF-8/Matrimid{reg_sign} membranes was explained by the sieving effect introduced by the ZIF-8 crystals (pore window 0.34 nm) that restricted the transport of molecules larger than H{sub 2}. Materials with microporous and/or mesoporous cavities like carbon aerogel composites with zeolite A and zeolite Y, and membranes containing mesoporous ZSM-5 showed sieving effects for small molecules (e.g. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}), however, the membranes were most

  6. Mixed-Matrix Membranes for CO2 and H2 Gas Separations Using Metal-Organic Framework and Mesoporus Hybrid Silicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musselman, Inga; Balkus, Kenneth Jr.; Ferraris, John

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the separation performance of polymer-based mixed-matrix membranes containing metal-organic frameworks and mesoporous hybrid silicas. The MOF/Matrimid(reg s ign) and MOP-18/Matrimid(reg s ign) membranes exhibited improved dispersion and mechanical strength that allowed high additive loadings with reduced aggregation, as is the case of the 80 wt% MOP-18/Matrimid(reg s ign) and the 80% (w/w) Cu-MOF/Matrimid(reg s ign) membranes. Membranes with up to 60% (w/w) ZIF-8 content exhibited similar mechanical strength and improved dispersion. The H 2 /CO 2 separation properties of MOF/Matrimid(reg s ign) mixed-matrix membranes was improved by either keeping the selectivity constant and increasing the permeability (MOF-5, Cu-MOF) or by improving both selectivity and permeability (ZIF-8). In the case of MOF-5/Matrimid(reg s ign) mixed-matrix membranes, the H 2 /CO 2 selectivity was kept at 2.6 and the H 2 permeability increased from 24.4 to 53.8 Barrers. For the Cu-MOF/Matrimid(reg s ign) mixed-matrix membranes, the H 2 /CO 2 selectivity was kept at 2.05 and the H 2 permeability increased from 17.1 to 158 Barrers. These two materials introduced porosity and uniform paths that enhanced the gas transport in the membranes. When ZIF-8/Matrimid(reg s ign) mixed-matrix membranes were studied, the H 2 /CO 2 selectivity increased from 2.9 to 4.4 and the permeability of H 2 increased from 26.5 to 35.8 Barrers. The increased H 2 /CO 2 selectivity in ZIF-8/Matrimid(reg s ign) membranes was explained by the sieving effect introduced by the ZIF-8 crystals (pore window 0.34 nm) that restricted the transport of molecules larger than H 2 . Materials with microporous and/or mesoporous cavities like carbon aerogel composites with zeolite A and zeolite Y, and membranes containing mesoporous ZSM-5 showed sieving effects for small molecules (e.g. H 2 and CO 2 ), however, the membranes were most selective for CO 2 due to the strong interaction of the zeolites with

  7. Recent advances in fixation of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslemani, Danny; Kellman, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Fixation of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton is an evolving aspect for facial plastic, oral and maxillofacial, and plastic surgery. This review looks at the recent advances that aid in reduction and fixation of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. More surgeons are using resorbable plates for craniomaxillofacial fixation. A single miniplate on the inferior border of the mandible may be sufficient to reduce and fixate an angle fracture. Percutaneous K-wires may assist in plating angle fractures. Intraoperative computed tomography (CT) may prove to be useful for assessing reduction and fixation. Resorbable plates are becoming increasingly popular in orthognathic surgery and facial trauma surgery. There are newer operative techniques for fixating the angle of the mandible. Also, the utilization of the intraoperative CT provides immediate feedback for accurate reduction and fixation. Prebent surgical plates save operative time, decrease errors, and provide more accurate fixation.

  8. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Buzuloiu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  9. Average geodesic distance of skeleton networks of Sierpinski tetrahedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinjin; Wang, Songjing; Xi, Lifeng; Ye, Yongchao

    2018-04-01

    The average distance is concerned in the research of complex networks and is related to Wiener sum which is a topological invariant in chemical graph theory. In this paper, we study the skeleton networks of the Sierpinski tetrahedron, an important self-similar fractal, and obtain their asymptotic formula for average distances. To provide the formula, we develop some technique named finite patterns of integral of geodesic distance on self-similar measure for the Sierpinski tetrahedron.

  10. Evolution of the vertebrate skeleton: morphology, embryology, and development

    OpenAIRE

    Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Two major skeletal systems?the endoskeleton and exoskeleton?are recognized in vertebrate evolution. Here, we propose that these two systems are distinguished primarily by their relative positions, not by differences in embryonic histogenesis or cell lineage of origin. Comparative embryologic analyses have shown that both types of skeleton have changed their mode of histogenesis during evolution. Although exoskeletons were thought to arise exclusively from the neural crest, recent experiments ...

  11. Organization of Subunits in the Membrane Domain of the Bovine F-ATPase Revealed by Covalent Cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer; Ding, ShuJing; Walpole, Thomas B; Holding, Andrew N; Montgomery, Martin G; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2015-05-22

    The F-ATPase in bovine mitochondria is a membrane-bound complex of about 30 subunits of 18 different kinds. Currently, ∼85% of its structure is known. The enzyme has a membrane extrinsic catalytic domain, and a membrane intrinsic domain where the turning of the enzyme's rotor is generated from the transmembrane proton-motive force. The domains are linked by central and peripheral stalks. The central stalk and a hydrophobic ring of c-subunits in the membrane domain constitute the enzyme's rotor. The external surface of the catalytic domain and membrane subunit a are linked by the peripheral stalk, holding them static relative to the rotor. The membrane domain contains six additional subunits named ATP8, e, f, g, DAPIT (diabetes-associated protein in insulin-sensitive tissues), and 6.8PL (6.8-kDa proteolipid), each with a single predicted transmembrane α-helix, but their orientation and topography are unknown. Mutations in ATP8 uncouple the enzyme and interfere with its assembly, but its roles and the roles of the other five subunits are largely unknown. We have reacted accessible amino groups in the enzyme with bifunctional cross-linking agents and identified the linked residues. Cross-links involving the supernumerary subunits, where the structures are not known, show that the C terminus of ATP8 extends ∼70 Å from the membrane into the peripheral stalk and that the N termini of the other supernumerary subunits are on the same side of the membrane, probably in the mitochondrial matrix. These experiments contribute significantly toward building up a complete structural picture of the F-ATPase. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Organization of Subunits in the Membrane Domain of the Bovine F-ATPase Revealed by Covalent Cross-linking*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer; Ding, ShuJing; Walpole, Thomas B.; Holding, Andrew N.; Montgomery, Martin G.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The F-ATPase in bovine mitochondria is a membrane-bound complex of about 30 subunits of 18 different kinds. Currently, ∼85% of its structure is known. The enzyme has a membrane extrinsic catalytic domain, and a membrane intrinsic domain where the turning of the enzyme's rotor is generated from the transmembrane proton-motive force. The domains are linked by central and peripheral stalks. The central stalk and a hydrophobic ring of c-subunits in the membrane domain constitute the enzyme's rotor. The external surface of the catalytic domain and membrane subunit a are linked by the peripheral stalk, holding them static relative to the rotor. The membrane domain contains six additional subunits named ATP8, e, f, g, DAPIT (diabetes-associated protein in insulin-sensitive tissues), and 6.8PL (6.8-kDa proteolipid), each with a single predicted transmembrane α-helix, but their orientation and topography are unknown. Mutations in ATP8 uncouple the enzyme and interfere with its assembly, but its roles and the roles of the other five subunits are largely unknown. We have reacted accessible amino groups in the enzyme with bifunctional cross-linking agents and identified the linked residues. Cross-links involving the supernumerary subunits, where the structures are not known, show that the C terminus of ATP8 extends ∼70 Å from the membrane into the peripheral stalk and that the N termini of the other supernumerary subunits are on the same side of the membrane, probably in the mitochondrial matrix. These experiments contribute significantly toward building up a complete structural picture of the F-ATPase. PMID:25851905

  13. Limited Trabecular Bone Density Heterogeneity in the Human Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiba Chirchir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence for variation in trabecular bone density and volume within an individual skeleton, albeit in a few anatomical sites, which is partly dependent on mechanical loading. However, little is known regarding the basic variation in trabecular bone density throughout the skeleton in healthy human adults. This is because research on bone density has been confined to a few skeletal elements, which can be readily measured using available imaging technology particularly in clinical settings. This study comprehensively investigates the distribution of trabecular bone density within the human skeleton in nine skeletal sites (femur, proximal and distal tibia, third metatarsal, humerus, ulna, radius, third metacarpal, and axis in a sample of N=20 individuals (11 males and 9 females. pQCT results showed that the proximal ulna (mean = 231.3 mg/cm3 and axis vertebra (mean = 234.3 mg/cm3 displayed significantly greater (p0.01. The homogeneity of the majority of elements suggests that these sites are potentially responsive to site-specific genetic factors. Secondly, the lack of correlation between elements (p>0.05 suggests that density measurements of one anatomical region are not necessarily accurate measures of other anatomical regions.

  14. Surprising transformation of a block copolymer into a high performance polystyrene ultrafiltration membrane with a hierarchically organized pore structure

    KAUST Repository

    Shevate, Rahul

    2018-02-08

    We describe the preparation of hierarchical polystyrene nanoporous membranes with a very narrow pore size distribution and an extremely high porosity. The nanoporous structure is formed as a result of unusual degradation of the poly(4-vinyl pyridine) block from self-assembled poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) membranes through the formation of an unstable pyridinium intermediate in an alkaline medium. During this process, the confined swelling and controlled degradation produced a tunable pore size. We unequivocally confirmed the successful elimination of the P4VP block from a PS-b-P4VPVP membrane using 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and other characterization techniques. Surprisingly, the long range ordered surface porosity was preserved even after degradation of the P4VP block from the main chain of the diblock copolymer, as revealed by SEM. Aside from a drastically improved water flux (∼67% increase) compared to the PS-b-P4VP membrane, the hydraulic permeability measurements validated pH independent behaviour of the isoporous PS membrane over a wide pH range from 3 to 10. The effect of the pore size on protein transport rate and selectivity (a) was investigated for lysozyme (Lys), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and globulin-γ (IgG). A high selectivity of 42 (Lys/IgG) and 30 (BSA/IgG) was attained, making the membranes attractive for size selective separation of biomolecules from their synthetic model mixture solutions.

  15. Thin Film Nanocomposite Membrane Filled with Metal-Organic Frameworks UiO-66 and MIL-125 Nanoparticles for Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhom, Mohammed; Hu, Weiming; Deng, Baolin

    2017-06-14

    Knowing that the world is facing a shortage of fresh water, desalination, in its different forms including reverse osmosis, represents a practical approach to produce potable water from a saline source. In this report, two kinds of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) nanoparticles (NPs), UiO-66 (~100 nm) and MIL-125 (~100 nm), were embedded separately into thin-film composite membranes in different weight ratios, 0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. The membranes were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization (IP) of m -phenylenediamine (MPD) in aqueous solution and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in an organic phase. The as-prepared membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, and salt rejection and water flux assessments. Results showed that both UiO-66 and MIL-125 could improve the membranes' performance and the impacts depended on the NPs loading. At the optimum NPs loadings, 0.15% for UiO-66 and 0.3% for MIL-125, the water flux increased from 62.5 L/m² h to 74.9 and 85.0 L/m² h, respectively. NaCl rejection was not significantly affected (UiO-66) or slightly improved (MIL-125) by embedding these NPs, always at >98.5% as tested at 2000 ppm salt concentration and 300 psi transmembrane pressure. The results from this study demonstrate that it is promising to apply MOFs NPs to enhance the TFC membrane performance for desalination.

  16. How NASA KSC Controls Interfaces with the use of Motion Skeletons and Product Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will show how NASA KSC controls interfaces for Modular Product Architecture (MPA) using Locator Skeletons, Interface Skeletons, and Product Structure, to be combined together within a Motion Skeleton. The user will learn how to utilize skeleton models to communicate interface data, as successfully done at NASA KSC in their use of Motion Skeletons to control interfaces for multi-launch systems. There will be discussion of the methodology used to control design requirements through WTParts, and how to utilize product structure for non-CAD documents.

  17. Trace organic solutes in closed-loop forward osmosis applications: influence of membrane fouling and modeling of solute build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Arnout; Le-Clech, Pierre; Van Nevel, Sam; Verbeken, Kim; Cornelissen, Emile R; Khan, Stuart J; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2013-09-15

    In this study, trace organics transport in closed-loop forward osmosis (FO) systems was assessed. The FO systems considered, consisted of an FO unit and a nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) unit, with the draw solution circulating between both units. The rejection of trace organics by FO, NF and RO was tested. It was found that the rejection rates of FO were generally comparable with NF and lower than RO rejection rates. To assess the influence of fouling in FO on trace organics rejection, FO membranes were fouled with sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin or by biofilm growth, after which trace organics rejection was tested. A negative influence of fouling on FO rejection was found which was limited in most cases, while it was significant for some compounds such as paracetamol and naproxen, indicating specific compound-foulant interactions. The transport mechanism of trace organics in FO was tested, in order to differentiate between diffusive and convective transport. The concentration of trace organics in the final product water and the build-up of trace organics in the draw solution were modeled assuming the draw solution was reconcentrated by NF/RO and taking into account different transport mechanisms for the FO membrane and different rejection rates by NF/RO. Modeling results showed that if the FO rejection rate is lower than the RO rejection rate (as is the case for most compounds tested), the added value of the FO-RO cycle compared to RO only at steady-state was small for diffusively and negative for convectively transported trace organics. Modeling also showed that trace organics accumulate in the draw solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interactive Shape Modeling using a Skeleton-Mesh Co-Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jacob Andreas; Abdrashitov, Rinat; Singh, Karan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Polar-Annular Mesh representation (PAM). A PAM is a mesh-skeleton co-representation designed for the modeling of 3D organic, articulated shapes. A PAM represents a manifold mesh as a partition of polar (triangle fans) and annular (rings of quads) regions. The skeletal topology...... of a shape is uniquely embedded in the mesh connectivity of a PAM, enabling both surface and skeletal modeling operations, interchangeably and directly on the mesh itself. We develop an algorithm to convert arbitrary triangle meshes into PAMs as well as techniques to simplify PAMs and a method to convert...... a PAM to a quad-only mesh. We further present a PAM-based multi-touch sculpting application in order to demonstrate its utility as a shape representation for the interactive modeling of organic, articulated figures as well as for editing and posing of pre-existing models....

  19. The skeleton in the closet: should historians of science care about the history of mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amir

    2011-09-01

    Up until the 1950s, the history of mathematics was an integral part of the history of science. To George Sarton and his contemporaries, mathematics was the rational skeleton that organized science and held it together, and its history was a fundamental component of the broader history of science. But when historians began focusing on the cultural roots of science rather than its rational structure, the study of mathematics was marginalized and ultimately excluded from the history of science. The alienation between the two fields is detrimental to both, and in recent years there has been a sustained effort to reestablish meaningful communication between the two. This time, however, mathematics is seen not as the static skeleton of science but, instead, as a dynamic and historically evolving field in its own right-just like science itself. The new approach allows for a culturally sensitive study of mathematics, as well as a new and fruitful relationship between the history of science and the history of mathematics. The essays in this Focus section offer a sampling of the new approaches, opening the way to a rapprochement between fields that have gone their separate ways but should by rights be closely interconnected.

  20. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in blunt thoracic trauma: A study of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jordan V; Hooft, Nicole M; Robinson, Brenton R; Todd, Emily; Bremner, Ross M; Petersen, Scott R; Smith, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Reports documenting the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after blunt thoracic trauma are scarce. We used a large, multicenter database to examine outcomes when ECMO was used in treating patients with blunt thoracic trauma. We performed a retrospective analysis of ECMO patients in the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization database between 1998 and 2014. The diagnostic code for blunt pulmonary contusion (861.21, DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.) was used to identify patients treated with ECMO after blunt thoracic trauma. Variations of pre-ECMO respiratory support were also evaluated. The primary outcome was survival to discharge; the secondary outcome was hemorrhagic complication associated with ECMO. Eighty-five patients met inclusion criteria. The mean ± SEM age of the cohort was 28.9 ± 1.1 years; 71 (83.5%) were male. The mean ± SEM pre-ECMO PaO2/FIO2 ratio was 59.7 ± 3.5, and the mean ± SEM pre-ECMO length of ventilation was 94.7 ± 13.2 hours. Pre-ECMO support included inhaled nitric oxide (15 patients, 17.6%), high-frequency oscillation (10, 11.8%), and vasopressor agents (57, 67.1%). The mean ± SEM duration of ECMO was 207.4 ± 23.8 hours, and 63 patients (74.1%) were treated with venovenous ECMO. Thirty-two patients (37.6%) underwent invasive procedures before ECMO, and 12 patients (14.1%) underwent invasive procedures while on ECMO. Hemorrhagic complications occurred in 25 cases (29.4%), including 12 patients (14.1%) with surgical site bleeding and 16 (18.8%) with cannula site bleeding (6 patients had both). The rate of survival to discharge was 74.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that shorter duration of ECMO and the use of venovenous ECMO predicted survival. Outcomes after the use of ECMO in blunt thoracic trauma can be favorable. Some trauma patients are appropriate candidates for this therapy. Further study may discern which subpopulations of trauma patients will benefit most from ECMO. Therapeutic

  1. Beneficial Effect of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation on Organ Perfusion During Management of the Unstable Brain-dead Donor: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J H; Choi, B H; Moon, K M; Park, Y M; Yang, K H; Ryu, J H; Chu, C W

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that the quality of organs retrieved from brain-dead donors (DBDs) is better than those retrieved from circulatory death donors. However, in situations of organ retrieval from marginal DBDs, who are unstable despite intensive care, transplantation outcomes are not good. Organ ischemia is the most important determining factor in decreased organ quality in circulatory death donors and in some DBDs. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for management of DBDs can be an emergency countermeasure. The purpose of this report is to relay our experience with four cases of ECMO for DBD management. In all four cases, the donors were unstable and showed clear signs of ischemia despite intensive care, including ventilator use and administration of inotropic agents. Two donors had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and two exhibited dysfunctional oxygen delivery. ECMO was used to improve organ perfusion. ECMO resulted in an increased partial pressure of arterial oxygen increased and decreased lactic acid levels. Vital signs were stabilized, especially in the donors who were bleeding. The organ was successfully retrieved from each donor. Two livers (one of them was split), eight kidneys, and one pancreas were retrieved from four DBDs. All other organs were transplanted successfully, and there were no cases of primary nonfunction or delayed graft function. The ECMO machine is the most powerful supportive device for management of unstable DBDs. The use of ECMO in unstable DBDs can be beneficial in expanding the donor pool as well as improving the quality of retrieved organs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. In-tube electro-membrane extraction with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption as an efficient technique for synthetic food dyes determination in foodstuff samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Abdossalami asl, Yousef

    2015-09-04

    A simple and efficient extraction technique with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption termed as in-tube electro-membrane extraction (IEME) is introduced. This method is based upon the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference. For this purpose, a thin polypropylene (PP) sheet placed inside a tube acts as a support for the membrane solvent, and 30μL of an aqueous acceptor solution is separated by this solvent from 1.2mL of an aqueous donor solution. This method yielded high extraction recoveries (63-81%), and the consumption of the organic solvent used was only 0.5μL. By performing this method, the purification is high, and the utilization of the organic solvent, used as a mediator, is very simple and repeatable. The proposed method was evaluated by extraction of four synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, and Carmoisine) as the model analytes. Optimization of variables affecting the method was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. These variables were the type of membrane solvent, applied extraction voltage, extraction time, pH range, and concentration of salt added. Under the optimized conditions, IEME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 1.00-800ngmL(-1), low limits of detection (0.3-1ngmL(-1)), and good extraction repeatabilities (RSDs below 5.2%, n=5). It seems that this design is a proper one for the automation of the method. Also the consumption of the organic solvent in a sub-microliter scale, and its simplicity, high efficiency, and high purification can help one getting closer to the objectives of the green chemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of the multilamellar membrane organization and of the chiral macrodomains in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum revealed by small-angle neutron scattering and circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely; Szabó, Milán; Unnep, Renáta; Káli, György; Miloslavina, Yuliya; Lambrev, Petar H; Zsiros, Ottó; Porcar, Lionel; Timmins, Peter; Rosta, László; Garab, Győző

    2012-03-01

    Diatoms possess effective photoprotection mechanisms, which may involve reorganizations in the photosynthetic machinery. We have shown earlier, by using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, that in Phaeodactylum tricornutum the pigment-protein complexes are arranged into chiral macrodomains, which have been proposed to be associated with the multilamellar organization of the thylakoid membranes and shown to be capable of undergoing light-induced reversible reorganizations (Szabó et al. Photosynth Res 95:237, 2008). Recently, by using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on the same algal cells we have determined the repeat distances and revealed reversible light-induced reorganizations in the lamellar order of thylakoids (Nagy et al. Biochem J 436:225, 2011). In this study, we show that in moderately heat-treated samples, the weakening of the lamellar order is accompanied by the diminishment of the psi-type CD signal associated with the long-range chiral order of the chromophores (psi, polymer or salt-induced). Further, we show that the light-induced reversible increase in the psi-type CD is associated with swelling in the membrane system, with magnitudes larger in high light than in low light. In contrast, shrinkage of the membrane system, induced by sorbitol, brings about a decrease in the psi-type CD signal; this shrinkage also diminishes the non-photochemical quenching capability of the cells. These data shed light on the origin of the psi-type CD signal, and confirm that both CD spectroscopy and SANS provide valuable information on the macro-organization of the thylakoid membranes and their dynamic properties; these parameters are evidently of interest with regard to the photoprotection in whole algal cells.

  4. Thin Film Nanocomposite Membrane Filled with Metal-Organic Frameworks UiO-66 and MIL-125 Nanoparticles for Water Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kadhom

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowing that the world is facing a shortage of fresh water, desalination, in its different forms including reverse osmosis, represents a practical approach to produce potable water from a saline source. In this report, two kinds of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs nanoparticles (NPs, UiO-66 (~100 nm and MIL-125 (~100 nm, were embedded separately into thin-film composite membranes in different weight ratios, 0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. The membranes were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization (IP of m-phenylenediamine (MPD in aqueous solution and trimesoyl chloride (TMC in an organic phase. The as-prepared membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, and salt rejection and water flux assessments. Results showed that both UiO-66 and MIL-125 could improve the membranes’ performance and the impacts depended on the NPs loading. At the optimum NPs loadings, 0.15% for UiO-66 and 0.3% for MIL-125, the water flux increased from 62.5 L/m2 h to 74.9 and 85.0 L/m2 h, respectively. NaCl rejection was not significantly affected (UiO-66 or slightly improved (MIL-125 by embedding these NPs, always at >98.5% as tested at 2000 ppm salt concentration and 300 psi transmembrane pressure. The results from this study demonstrate that it is promising to apply MOFs NPs to enhance the TFC membrane performance for desalination.

  5. Arrangement of photosystem II supercomplexes in crystalline macrodomains within the thylakoid membrane of green plant chloroplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, EJ; van Breemen, JFL; van Roon, H; Dekker, JP; Dekker, Jan P.

    2000-01-01

    The chloroplast thylakoid membrane of green plants is organized in stacked grana membranes and unstacked stroma membranes. We investigated the structural organization of Photosystem II (PSII) in paired grana membrane fragments by transmission electron microscopy. The membrane fragments were obtained

  6. Nitrogen recovery from wastewater using gas-permeable membranes: Impact of inorganic carbon content and natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membranes coupled with low-rate aeration are useful to recover ammonium from livestock effluents. In this study, the role of inorganic carbon (bicarbonate) to enhance the nitrogen (N) recovery process was evaluated using synthetic effluents with various ammonium to bicarbonate molar ra...

  7. Out-coupling membrane for large-size organic light-emitting panels with high efficiency and improved uniformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lei, E-mail: dinglei@sust.edu.cn [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Wang, Lu-Wei [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Zhou, Lei, E-mail: zhzhlei@gmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai' an 223003 (China); Zhang, Fang-hui [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710021 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • An out-coupling membrane embedded with a scattering film of SiO{sub 2} spheres and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic was successfully developed for 150 × 150 mm{sup 2} OLEDs. • Remarkable enhancement in efficiency was achieved from the OLEDs with out- coupling membrane. • The uniformity of large-size GOLED lighting panel is remarkably improved. - Abstract: An out-coupling membrane embedded with a scattering film of SiO{sub 2} spheres and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic was successfully developed for 150 × 150 mm{sup 2} green OLEDs. Comparing with a reference OLED panel, an approximately 1-fold enhancement in the forward emission was obtained with an out-coupling membrane adhered to the surface of the external glass substrate of the panel. Moreover, it was verified that the emission color at different viewing angles can be stabilized without apparent spectral distortion. Particularly, the uniformity of the large-area OLEDs was greatly improved. Theoretical calculation clarified that the improved performance of the lighting panels is primarily attributed to the effect of particle scattering.

  8. Determination of the excitation migration time in Photosystem II consequences for the membrane organization and charge separation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broess, K.; Trinkunas, G.; Hoek, van A.; Croce, R.; Amerongen, van H.

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescence decay kinetics of Photosystem II (PSII) membranes from spinach with open reaction centers (RCs), were compared after exciting at 420 and 484 nm. These wavelengths lead to preferential excitation of chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b, respectively, which causes different initial

  9. Determination of the excitation migration time in Photosystem II - Consequences for the membrane organization and charge separation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broess, Koen; Trinkunas, Gediminas; van Hoek, Arie; Croce, Roberta; van Amerongen, Herbert

    The fluorescence decay kinetics of Photosystem II (PSII) membranes from spinach with open reaction centers (RCs), were compared after exciting at 420 and 484 nm. These wavelengths lead to preferential excitation of chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b, respectively, which causes different initial

  10. Determination of the excitation migration time in Photosystem II. Consequences for the membrane organization and charge separation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broess, Koen; Trinkunas, Gediminas; van Hoek, Arie; Croce, Roberta; van Amerongen, Herbert

    The fluorescence decay kinetics of Photosystem II (PSII) membranes from spinach with open reaction centers (RCs), were compared after exciting at 420 and 484 nm. These wavelengths lead to preferential excitation of chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b, respectively, which causes different initial

  11. Tumors of the foot skeleton; Tumoren des Fussskeletts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, K. [Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik, Sektion diagnostische Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    About 3-4% of all tumors and tumor-like lesions of the skeleton are located in the foot. Many of these lesions have a predilection for certain locations, so that the spectrum of entities occurring in the foot differs from the rest of the skeleton. Despite the fact that practically any entity can occur in the foot in rare cases, taken together the ten most frequent lesions make up for the vast majority of tumors and tumor-like lesions of the foot. The differential diagnosis of these lesions follows the general principles that apply in the rest of the skeleton. It is based on the analysis of the lesion's X-ray morphology and location, the patient's age, and in certain entities, the MR morphology. This article describes the most important tumors and tumor-like lesions of the foot, their differential diagnosis, and the principles of local staging. (orig.) [German] Etwa 3-4% aller Tumoren und tumoraehnlichen Laesionen des Skelettsystems sind im Fussskelett lokalisiert. Aufgrund der Lokalisationspraeferenz, die viele dieser Laesionen haben, unterscheidet sich das spezifische Spektrum der am Fussskelett vorkommenden Entitaeten deutlich vom Spektrum des Gesamtskeletts. Obwohl grundsaetzlich fast jede Laesion auch am Fussskelett lokalisiert sein kann, verteilt sich die grosse Mehrzahl der Laesionen des Fussskeletts auf etwa 10 verschiedene Entitaeten. Die Differenzialdiagnose dieser Laesionen folgt im Grundsatz den Prinzipien, die auch fuer Laesionen anderer Lokalisation gelten und basiert damit auf der praezisen Analyse der Roentgenmorphologie, des Patientenalters, der genauen Lokalisation und bei bestimmten Differenzialdiagnosen auch der MR-Morphologie. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird auf die fuer das Fussskelett wichtigsten Laesionen und ihre differenzialdiagnostische Zuordnung eingegangen, darueber hinaus auf die Technik der lokalen Ausdehnungsbestimmung. (orig.)

  12. A skeleton model for the MJO with refined vertical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thual, Sulian; Majda, Andrew J.

    2016-05-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales and planetary spatial scales. The skeleton model is a minimal dynamical model that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (I) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 {ms}^{-1}, (II) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω /dk ≈ 0, and (III) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model depicts the MJO as a neutrally-stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. Here we propose and analyse an extended version of the skeleton model with additional variables accounting for the refined vertical structure of the MJO in nature. The present model reproduces qualitatively the front-to-rear vertical structure of the MJO found in nature, with MJO events marked by a planetary envelope of convective activity transitioning from the congestus to the deep to the stratiform type, in addition to a front-to-rear structure of moisture, winds and temperature. Despite its increased complexity the present model retains several interesting features of the original skeleton model such as a conserved energy and similar linear solutions. We further analyze a model version with a simple stochastic parametrization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity. The stochastic model solutions show intermittent initiation, propagation and shut down of MJO wave trains, as in previous studies, in addition to MJO events with a front-to-rear vertical structure of varying intensity and characteristics from one event to another.

  13. Enhanced fouling by inorganic and organic foulants on pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) hollow fiber membranes under high pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Sicong

    2015-04-01

    We have studied, for the first time, the fouling behavior of pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) hollow fiber membranes under low, moderate and high hydraulic pressures. The thin film composite (TFC) polyethersulfone (PES) membrane has a high water permeability and good mechanical strength. Membrane fouling by gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scalants, sodium alginate, and the combined foulants was examined under various pressures up to an ultrahigh hydraulic pressure of 18bar. In the combined fouling experiments, the membranes were conditioned by one of foulants followed by the other. Flux decline results suggested that such conditioning could increase the rate of combined fouling because of the change in membrane surface chemistry. Specially, the co-existence of gypsum crystals and alginate under 0bar led to the synergistic combined fouling and resulted in a greater flux decline than the sum of individual fouling. Interestingly, such gypsum-alginate synergistic fouling was not observed under high pressure PRO tests because the increased reverse salt flux inhibited the formation of gypsum crystals. Therefore, alginate fouling could be the dominant fouling mechanism for both (1) alginate conditioning and then scalants fouling, and (2) scalants conditioning and then alginate fouling PRO processes under 8bar and 18bar. Since the reverse salt flux increases from 5.6±1.1g/m2h at 0bar to 74.3±9.7g/m2h at 8bar, and finally to 150.5±2.5g/m2h under 18bar, the reverse salt ions lead to substantial declines of normalized flux under 8bar and 18bar because the reverse sodium ions not only reduce the effective driving force across the PRO membrane but also induce a significant cake-enhanced sodium concentration polarization layer and facilitate alginate gelation near the membrane surface. Therefore, the removal of alginate type foulants from the feed water stream may become essential for the success of PRO processes under high pressures.

  14. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2015-08-19

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.

  15. The reactivity of Cymbidium hybridum protocorms, sustained on luffa ligno-skeleton in vitrocultures in liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko SZABO

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Is known the fact that the Cymbidium hybridum orchid protocorms, submersed in liquid culture medium (in hypoxia conditions himself multiply with higher speed in comparison to aerated condition, on surface of agarized (solid culture media. Also, is known the fact that the Luffa ligno-skeleton (obtained from ripe pulp of Luffa cilindrica fruits lends successfully at its usage as wick in supply with nutrients of various plant species inoculs, cultivated “in vitro” on liquid media. In this work, we are presenting the role of Luffa ligno-skeleton in maintaining the Cymbidium hybridum protocorms, cultivated “in vitro”, on culture medium liquid surface (type of Murashige-Skoog, 1962.Behind these experiments, was proved that the ligno-skeleton of Luffa type of bridges for Cymbidium hybridum protocorms, sustained in aerated condition, is more efficient in bearing with those marked on solid culture medium, as in number, as in accumulation of fresh and dry weight, regardless of growth regulators included in media; on liquid culture media containing 1 mg/l AIB or 2 mg/l K as growth regulators, where bearing with the homologue culture variant (solidified media with agar-agar, with same mineral and organic composition, the differences was until 29.3% superior, and bearing with the witness medium (solid – agarized – medium, but without growth regulators until 30.2% biggest, concerning the number of protocorms.

  16. DFT investigation of Ni(II) adsorption onto MA-DTPA/PVDF chelating membrane in the presence of coexistent cations and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Laizhou; Zhao, Xiaodan; Fu, Jie; Wang, Xiuli; Sheng, Yiping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2012-01-15

    Melamine-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid/polyvinylidene fluoride (MA-DTPA/PVDF) chelating membrane bearing polyaminecarboxylate groups was used to remove Ni(II) from nickel plating effluents. Adsorption experiments were conducted to study the adsorption of the membrane towards Ni(II) in Ni(II)-Ca(II), Ni(II)-NH(4)(+), Ni(II)-Fe(III) binary systems, and Ni(II)-lactic acid, Ni(II)-succinic acid and Ni(II)-citric acid complex systems. For the ternary nickel plating processes, the effects of 3d transition metals including Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) on Ni(II) adsorption were evaluated. The influences of the aforementioned coexistent cations and organic acids were elucidated by the continuum solvation model (COSMO)-corrected density functional theory (DFT) method. Geometries and complexation energies were analyzed for metal-MA-DTPA and Ni(II)-organic acid complexes. DFT results accord with the experimental data, indicating that DFT is helpful to evaluate the complexation between the membrane and metal cations. The coexistent Ca(II) tends to form more stable complex with MA-DTPA ligand than NH(4)(+) and Fe(III), and can interfere with the formation of Ni(II)-MA-DTPA complex. The complexing sequence of 3d metals with MA-DTPA ligand is Zn(II)organic acid complexes follow the order of lactic acid

  17. Final technical report. A sodium-cycle based organism with improved membrane resistance aimed at increasing the efficiency of energy biotransformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Kim

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the project was to express in E. coli components that would allow a formation of oxidative phosphorylation based on a sodium cycle. This would improve the resistance of cells to organic solvents, detergents and other toxins. The author cloned and expressed the nqr operon from H. influenzae in E. coli. Experiments with membrane vesicles indicated the presence of the functional recombinant sodium pumping NADH dehydrogenase. A gene for a hybrid E. coli/P.modestum ATPase was constructed which will enable one to co-express a sodium ATPsynthase together with a sodium NADH dehydrogenase.

  18. Final technical report. A sodium-cycle based organism with improved membrane resistance aimed at increasing the efficiency of energy biotransformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Kim

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the project was to express in E. coli components that would allow a formation of oxidative phosphorylation based on a sodium cycle. This would improve the resistance of cells to organic solvents, detergents and other toxins. The author cloned and expressed the nqr operon FR-om H. influenzae in E. coli. Experiments with membrane vesicles indicated the presence of the functional recombinant sodium pumping NADH dehydrogenase. A gene for a hybrid E. coli/P.modestum ATPase was constructed which will enable one to co-express a sodium ATPsynthase together with a sodium NADH dehydrogenase

  19. 1-Skeletons of the Spanning Tree Problems with Additional Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bondarenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study polyhedral properties of two spanning tree problems with additional constraints. In the first problem, it is required to find a tree with a minimum sum of edge weights among all spanning trees with the number of leaves less than or equal to a given value. In the second problem, an additional constraint is the assumption that the degree of all nodes of the spanning tree does not exceed a given value. The recognition versions of both problems are NP-complete. We consider polytopes of these problems and their 1-skeletons. We prove that in both cases it is a NP-complete problem to determine whether the vertices of 1-skeleton are adjacent. Although it is possible to obtain a superpolynomial lower bounds on the clique numbers of these graphs. These values characterize the time complexity in a broad class of algorithms based on linear comparisons. The results indicate a fundamental difference between combinatorial and geometric properties of the considered problems from the classical minimum spanning tree problem.

  20. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Uranium in coral skeletons determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohde, S.; Hossain, M.M.M.; Ozaki, H.; Masuzawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and non-destructive method has been proposed for the routine determination of uranium by epithermal neutron activation analysis in coral skeletons. Using a cadmium capsule, about 0.1-0.2 g samples were irradiated for 6 hours in the Triga Mark II Reactor. Measurements of γ-ray ( 239 Np via 239 U) were performed with each sample and standard after cooling for about three days. Compared with a non-destructive thermal NAA, the present method was found to improve the sensitivity because it reduced the intense Compton background induced by 24 Na. Uranium in coral standards was determined within 2% of analytical precision. The data obtained for the carbonate standards are mostly consistent with reported values. The present method could be usefully applied to determine uranium contents in fossil corals from the Funafuti Atoll in the Pacific. The distribution of uranium between seawater and coral skeletons is also discussed in order to understand the environmental media in which the coral grew. (author)

  2. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dziuba

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of core by liquid metal at estability technological parameters.. Below the assumptions and results of the initial simulated calculations are presented. The total number of the nodes in the casting was 1920 and of the connectors was 5280 what gave filling of 100% for the nodes and 99,56% for the connectors in the results of the simulation. Together it resulted as 99,78 % of filling the volume of the casting. The nodes and connectors were filled up to the 30 level of the casting in the simulation. The all connectors were filled up to the 25 level of the casting in the simulation. Starting from the 25 level individual connectors at the side surface of the casting weren’t filled up. The connectors weren’t supplied by multi-level getting system. The differences of filling the levels are little (maximally 5 per cent.

  3. Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-08-17

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is then found that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs tomography (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to Q full waveform inversion (Q-FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsur-face Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  4. Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-02-08

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  5. Plakoglobin is required for maintenance of the cortical actin skeleton in early Xenopus embryos and for cdc42-mediated wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofron, Matthew; Heasman, Janet; Lang, Stephanie A; Wylie, Christopher C

    2002-08-19

    Early Xenopus embryos are large, and during the egg to gastrula stages, when there is little extracellular matrix, the cytoskeletons of the individual blastomeres are thought to maintain their spherical architecture and provide scaffolding for the cellular movements of gastrulation. We showed previously that depletion of plakoglobin protein during the egg to gastrula stages caused collapse of embryonic architecture. Here, we show that this is due to loss of the cortical actin skeleton after depletion of plakoglobin, whereas the microtubule and cytokeratin skeletons are still present. As a functional assay for the actin skeleton, we show that wound healing, an actin-based behavior in embryos, is also abrogated by plakoglobin depletion. Both wound healing and the amount of cortical actin are enhanced by overexpression of plakoglobin. To begin to identify links between plakoglobin and the cortical actin polymerization machinery, we show here that the Rho family GTPase cdc42, is required for wound healing in the Xenopus blastula. Myc-tagged cdc42 colocalizes with actin in purse-strings surrounding wounds. Overexpression of cdc42 dramatically enhances wound healing, whereas depletion of maternal cdc42 mRNA blocks it. In combinatorial experiments we show that cdc42 cannot rescue the effects of plakoglobin depletion, showing that plakoglobin is required for cdc42-mediated cortical actin assembly during wound healing. However, plakoglobin does rescue the effect of cdc42 depletion, suggesting that cdc42 somehow mediates the distribution or function of plakoglobin. Depletion of alpha-catenin does not remove the cortical actin skeleton, showing that plakoglobin does not mediate its effect by its known linkage through alpha-catenin to the actin skeleton. We conclude that in Xenopus, the actin skeleton is a major determinant of cell shape and overall architecture in the early embryo, and that plakoglobin plays an essential role in the assembly, maintenance, or organization of

  6. In-depth analyses of organic matters in a full-scale seawater desalination plant and an autopsy of reverse osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sanghyun

    2016-02-17

    In order to facilitate the global performance of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems, it is important to improve the feed water quality before it enters the RO. Currently, many desalination plants experience production losses due to incidents of organic and biofouling. Consequently, monitoring or characterizing the pretreatment step using more advanced organic and biological parameters are required for better operation to lessen fouling issues. In this study, the performance of pretreatment processes (including coagulation, dual media filtration (DMF), polishing with cartridge filter (CF) coupled with anti-scalant) used at Perth Seawater Desalination Plant (PSDP) located in Western Australia were characterized in terms of organic and biological fouling parameters. These analyses were carried out using liquid chromatography with organic carbon detector (LC-OCD), three dimensional-fluorescence excitation emission matrix (3D-FEEM) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Furthermore, the used (exhausted) RO membrane and CF were autopsied so that the fates and behaviors of organic foulants in these treatment systems could be better understood.

  7. Rejection of Emerging Organic Contaminants by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes: Effects of Fouling, Modelling and Water Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Yangali Quintanilla, V.

    2010-01-01

    The book contains a description of the presence of micropollutants (medicines, hormones, pesticides) in surface water and shows that conventional water treatment poorly removes micropollutants. Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are more appropriate technologies; however removals can vary depending on the properties of compounds and types of membranes. Thus, quantification of removals is studied by means of multivariate data analysis techniques and more understanding of the separation of micr...

  8. Contribution of effluent organic matter (EfOM) to ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling: Isolation, characterization, and fouling effect of EfOM fractions

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2014-11-01

    EfOM has been regarded as a major organic foulant resulting in UF membrane fouling in wastewater reclamation. To investigate fouling potential of different EfOM fractions, the present study isolated EfOM into hydrophobic neutrals (HPO-N), colloids, hydrophobic acids (HPO-A), transphilic neutrals and acids (TPI), and hydrophilics (HPI), and tested their fouling effect in both salt solution and pure water during ultrafiltration (UF). Major functional groups and chemical structure of the isolates were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) analysis. The influence of the isolation process on the properties of EfOM fractions was minor because the raw and reconstituted secondary effluents were found similar with respect to UV absorbance, molecular size distribution, and fluorescence character. In membrane filtration tests, unified membrane fouling index (UMFI) and hydraulic resistance were used to quantify irreversible fouling potential of different water samples. Results show that under similar DOC level in feed water, colloids present much more irreversible fouling than other fractions. The fouling effect of the isolates is related to their size, chemical properties, and solution chemistry. Further investigations have identified that the interaction between colloids and other fractions also influences the performance of colloids in fouling phenomena. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Characterizing fluorescent dissolved organic matter in a membrane bioreactor via excitation-emission matrix combined with parallel factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Tahir; Quang, Viet Ly; Cho, Jinwoo; Hur, Jin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we successfully tracked the dynamic changes in different constitutes of bound extracellular polymeric substances (bEPS), soluble microbial products (SMP), and permeate during the operation of bench scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) via fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Three fluorescent groups were identified, including two protein-like (tryptophan-like C1 and tyrosine-like C2) and one microbial humic-like components (C3). In bEPS, protein-like components were consistently more dominant than C3 during the MBR operation, while their relative abundance in SMP depended on aeration intensities. C1 of bEPS exhibited a linear correlation (R(2)=0.738; pbEPS amounts in sludge, and C2 was closely related to the stability of sludge. The protein-like components were more greatly responsible for membrane fouling. Our study suggests that EEM-PARAFAC can be a promising monitoring tool to provide further insight into process evaluation and membrane fouling during MBR operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metal Organic Framework Crystals in Mixed-Matrix Membranes: Impact of the Filler Morphology on the Gas Separation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetghadam, Anahid; Seoane, Beatriz; Keskin, Damla; Duim, Nicole; Rodenas, Tania; Shahid, Salman; Sorribas, Sara; Le Guillouzer, Clément; Clet, Guillaume; Tellez, Carlos; Daturi, Marco; Coronas, Joaquin; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2016-05-10

    Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) and Matrimid ® or 6FDA-DAM have been investigated. The MOF loading has been varied between 5 and 20 wt%, while NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) with three different morphologies: nanoparticles, nanorods and microneedles have been dispersed in Matrimid ® . The synthesized membranes have been tested in the separation of CO 2 from CH 4 in an equimolar mixture. At 3 bar and 298 K for 8 wt% MOF loading, incorporation of NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) nanoparticles leads to the largest improvement compared to nanorods and microneedles. The incorporation of the best performing filler, i.e. NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) nanoparticles, to the highly permeable 6FDA-DAM has a larger effect, and the CO 2 permeability increased up to 85 % with slightly lower selectivities for 20 wt% MOF loading. Specifically, these membranes have a permeability of 660 Barrer with CO 2 /CH 4 separation factor of 28, leading to a performance very close to the Robeson limit of 2008. Furthermore, a new non-destructive technique based on Raman spectroscopy mapping is introduced to assess the homogeneity of the filler dispersion in the polymer matrix. The MOF contribution can be calculated by modelling the spectra. The determined homogeneity of the MOF filler distribution in the polymer is confirmed by FIB-SEM analysis.

  11. Mixed-Matrix Membranes containing an Azine-Linked Covalent Organic Framework: Influence of the polymeric matrix on Post-Combustion CO 2 -capture

    KAUST Repository

    Shan, Meixia

    2017-12-07

    The use of an azine-linked covalent organic framework (ACOF-1) as filler in mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) has been studied for the separation of CO2 from N2. To better understand the mechanisms that govern separation in complex composites, MMMs were prepared with different loadings of ACOF-1 and three different polymers as continuous phase: low flux-mid selectivity Matrimid®, mid flux-high selectivity Polyactive™ and high flux-low selectivity 6FDA:DAM. The homogeneous distribution of ACOF-1 together with the good adhesion between the ACOF-1 particles and the polymer matrices were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. In mixed-gas CO2/N2 separation a clear influence of the polymer used was observed on the performance of the composite membranes. While for Matrimid® and 6FDA:DAM an overall enhancement of the polymer\\'s separation properties could be achieved, in case of Polyactive™ penetration of the more flexible polymer into the COF porosity resulted in a decreased membrane permeability. The best improvement was obtained for Matrimid®-based MMMs, for which a selectivity increase from 29 to 35, together with an enhancement in permeability from 9.5 to 17.7 Barrer for 16wt% COF loading, was observed. Our results demonstrate that the combination of the filler-polymeric matrix pair chosen is crucial. For a given filler the polymer performance improvement strongly depends on the polymeric matrix selected, where a good match between the discontinuous and continuous phase, both in the terms of compatibility and gas separation properties, is necessary to optimize membrane performance.

  12. Ozonation effect on natural organic matter adsorption and biodegradation--application to a membrane bioreactor containing activated carbon for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguer, Ronan; Tatin, Romuald; Couvert, Annabelle; Wolbert, Dominique; Tazi-Pain, Annie

    2010-02-01

    More stringent legislation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) urges the drinking water industry to improve in DOM removal, especially when applied to water with high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents and low turbidity. To improve conventional processes currently used in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), the performances of a hybrid membrane bioreactor containing fluidized activated carbon were investigated at the DWTP of Rennes. Preliminary results showed that the residual DOC was the major part of the non-biodegradable fraction. In order to increase the global efficiency, an upstream oxidation step was added to the process. Ozone was chosen to break large molecules and increase their biodegradability. The first step consisted of carrying out lab-scale experiments in order to optimise the necessary ozone dose by measuring the process yield, in terms of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC). Secondly, activated carbon adsorption of the DOC present in ozonated water was quantified. The whole process was tested in a pilot unit under field conditions at the DWTP of Rennes (France). Lab-scale experiments confirmed that ozonation increases the BDOC fraction, reduces the aromaticity of the DOC and produces small size organic compounds. Adsorption tests led to the conclusion that activated carbon unexpectedly removes BDOC first. Finally, the pilot unit results revealed an additional BDOC removal (from 0.10 to 0.15 mg L(-1)) of dissolved organic carbon from the raw water considered. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling of RO/NF membrane rejections of PhACs and organic compounds : A statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yangali-Quintanilla, V.; Kim, T.U.; Kennedy, M.; Amy, G.

    2008-01-01

    Rejections of pharmaceutical compounds (Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Clofibric acid, Naproxen, Primidone, Phenacetin) and organic compounds (Dichloroacetic acid, Trichloroacetic acid, Chloroform, Bromoform, Trichloroethene, Perchloroethene, Carbontetrachloride, Carbontetrabromide) by NF (Filmtec, Saehan)

  14. Spine and axial skeleton injuries in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Nathan A; Buchowski, Jacob; Zebala, Lukas; Brophy, Robert H; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J

    2012-08-01

    The majority of previous literature focusing on spinal injuries in American football players is centered around catastrophic injuries; however, this may underestimate the true number of these injuries in this athletic cohort. The goals of this study were to (1) report the incidence of spinal and axial skeleton injuries, both minor and severe, in the National Football League (NFL) over an 11-year period; (2) determine the incidence of spinal injury by injury type, anatomic location, player position, mechanism of injury, and type of exposure (practice vs game); and (3) determine the average number of practices and days missed because of injury for each injury type. Descriptive epidemiological study. All documented injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine; pelvis; ribs; and spinal cord were retrospectively analyzed using the NFL's injury surveillance database over a period of 11 seasons from 2000 through 2010. The data were analyzed by the number of injuries per athlete-exposure, the anatomic location and type of injury, player position, mechanism of injury, and number of days missed per injury. A total of 2208 injuries occurred to the spine or axial skeleton over an 11-season interval in the NFL, with a mean loss of 25.7 days per injury. This represented 7% of the total injuries during this time period. Of these 2208 injuries, 987 (44.7%) occurred in the cervical spine. Time missed from play was greatest for thoracic disc herniations (189 days/injury). Other injuries that had a mean time missed greater than 30 days included (in descending order) cervical fracture (120 days/injury), cervical disc degeneration/herniation (85 days/injury), spinal cord injury (77 days/injury), lumbar disc degeneration/herniation (52 days/injury), thoracic fracture (34 days/injury), and thoracic nerve injury (30 days/injury). Offensive linemen were the most likely to suffer a spinal injury, followed by defensive backs, defensive linemen, and linebackers. Blocking and tackling

  15. Integration of parts in the facial skeleton and cervical vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCane, Brendan; Kean, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to undertake an exploratory analysis of the relationship among parts in the facial skeleton and cervical vertebrae and their integration as 2-dimensional shapes by determining their individual variations and covariations. The study was motivated by considerations applicable to clinical orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery, in which such relationships bear directly on pretreatment analysis and assessment of posttreatment outcome. Lateral radiographs of 61 adolescents of both sexes without major malocclusions were digitized and marked up by using continuous outline spline curves for 8 defined parts in the facial skeleton, including the cervical vertebrae. Individual part variation was analyzed by using principal components analysis, and paired part covariation was analyzed by using 2-block partial least squares analysis in 2 modes: relative size, position, and shape; and shape only. For individual part variations, cranial base, soft-tissue profile, and mandible had the largest variations across the sample. For covariation of relative size, position, and shape, the cervical vertebrae were highly correlated with the cranial base (r = 0.80), nasomaxillary complex (r = 0.70), mandible (r = 0.74), maxillary dentition (r = 0.70), and mandibular dentition (r = 0.74); the maxillary dentition and mandibular dentition were highly correlated (r = 0.70); the mandible was highly correlated with the bony profile (r = 0.72), soft-tissue profile (r = 0.79), and, to a lesser extent, the cranial base (r = 0.67); the bony profile was highly correlated with the cranial base (r = 0.70) and soft-tissue profile (r = 0.80); the soft-tissue profile was highly correlated with the nasomaxillary dentition (r = 0.81). Covariation of shape only was much weaker with significant covariations found between bony profile and mandible (r = 0.53), bony profile and mandibular dentition (r = 0.65), mandibular dentition and soft-tissue profile (r = 0.54), mandibular

  16. [Monteggia lesions in the growing skeleton: principles of therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesl, T; Havránek, P

    2010-02-01

    In this retrospective study we analyse the methods of Monteggia lesion (ML) treatment in children used in our department. Based on the results we propose several general principals for the therapy of this complex injury to the forearm in agrowing skeleton. The group included patients with the diagnosis of acute ML treated at our department in the 2003-2007 period. No patients in whom therapy was started later than two weeks after injury were included. We assessed injuries according to the Bado classification system modified by Olney for young age, and also by the system based on ML stability assessment previously published by us.We evaluated the type of ulnar fracture and lesions affecting the radio-humero-ulnar joint, and the therapeutic method used. The treatment outcome was evaluated by the criteria proposed by Letts et al. for the elbow joint in children (minimal follow-up of one year). RESULTS In the five-year period, we treated 36 children with acute ML. The most frequent were patients with Bado type I equivalent lesion (61 %) and those with unstable ML (53 %).We treated 39 % of the patients conservatively and 61% by osteo-synthesis. The ;osteosynthesis of one bone was performed in 30 % (radius, 11 % ulna, 19 %) and of both bones in 31 % of the cases. The outcome assessed by the Letts score was excellent in 80 %, good in 17 % of the patients and poor in only one patient (3 %). There is general consensus in the literature that childhood ML, if early and correctly diagnosed and correctly treated, has a good prognosis in most of the cases, in contrast to adult ML. However, the views on therapy vary from closed reduction under general anaesthesia to routine surgical exploration of the radio-humero-ulnar joint with open reduction of dislocation of the radial head and temporary radio-humeral arthrodesis. However, a unified therapeutic approach to an immature skeleton has not been proposed yet. In the treatment of a growing skeleton, the reduction and stabilisation

  17. Revealing the Raft Domain Organization in the Plasma Membrane by Single-Molecule Imaging of Fluorescent Ganglioside Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenichi G N; Ando, Hiromune; Komura, Naoko; Konishi, Miku; Imamura, Akihiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto; Fujiwara, Takahiro K; Kusumi, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    Gangliosides have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, particularly in the formation and function of raft domains in the plasma membrane. However, the scarcity of suitable fluorescent ganglioside analogs had long prevented us from determining exactly how gangliosides perform their functions in the live-cell plasma membrane. With the development of new fluorescent ganglioside analogs, as described by Komura et al. (2017), this barrier has been broken. We can now address the dynamic behaviors of gangliosides in the live-cell plasma membrane, using fluorescence microscopy, particularly by single-fluorescent molecule imaging and tracking. Single-molecule tracking of fluorescent GM1 and GM3 revealed that these molecules are transiently and dynamically recruited to monomers (monomer-associated rafts) and homodimer rafts of the raftophilic GPI-anchored protein CD59 in quiescent cells, with exponential residency times of 12 and 40ms, respectively, in a manner dependent on raft-lipid interactions. Upon CD59 stimulation, which induces CD59-cluster signaling rafts, the fluorescent GM1 and GM3 analogs were recruited to the signaling rafts, with a lifetime of 48ms. These results represent the first direct evidence that GPI-anchored receptors and gangliosides interact in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Furthermore, they show that gangliosides continually move in and out of rafts that contain CD59 in an extremely dynamic manner, with much higher frequency than expected previously. Such studies would not have been possible without fluorescent ganglioside probes, which exhibit native-like behavior and single-molecule tracking. In this chapter, we review the methods for single-molecule tracking of fluorescent ganglioside analogs and the results obtained by applying these methods. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tat proteins as novel thylakoid membrane anchors organize a biosynthetic pathway in chloroplasts and increase product yield 5-fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques de Jesus, Maria Perestrello Ramos; Zygadlo Nielsen, Agnieszka; Busck Mellor, Silas; Matthes, Annemarie; Burow, Meike; Robinson, Colin; Erik Jensen, Poul

    2017-11-01

    Photosynthesis drives the production of ATP and NADPH, and acts as a source of carbon for primary metabolism. NADPH is also used in the production of many natural bioactive compounds. These are usually synthesized in low quantities and are often difficult to produce by chemical synthesis due to their complex structures. Some of the crucial enzymes catalyzing their biosynthesis are the cytochromes P450 (P450s) situated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), powered by electron transfers from NADPH. Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glucoside and its biosynthesis involves a dynamic metabolon formed by two P450s, a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) and a P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Its biosynthetic pathway has been relocated to the chloroplast where ferredoxin, reduced through the photosynthetic electron transport chain, serves as an efficient electron donor to the P450s, bypassing the involvement of POR. Nevertheless, translocation of the pathway from the ER to the chloroplast creates other difficulties, such as the loss of metabolon formation and intermediate diversion into other metabolic pathways. We show here that co-localization of these enzymes in the thylakoid membrane leads to a significant increase in product formation, with a concomitant decrease in off-pathway intermediates. This was achieved by exchanging the membrane anchors of the dhurrin pathway enzymes to components of the Twin-arginine translocation pathway, TatB and TatC, which have self-assembly properties. Consequently, we show 5-fold increased titers of dhurrin and a decrease in the amounts of intermediates and side products in Nicotiana benthamiana. Further, results suggest that targeting the UGT to the membrane is a key factor to achieve efficient substrate channeling. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioluminescence-Based Method for Measuring Assimilable Organic Carbon in Pretreatment Water for Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Lauren A.; Schneider, Orren D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    A bioluminescence-based assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test was developed for determining the biological growth potential of seawater within the reverse osmosis desalination pretreatment process. The test uses Vibrio harveyi, a marine organism that exhibits constitutive luminescence and is nutritionally robust. AOC was measured in both a pilot plant and a full-scale desalination plant pretreatment. PMID:21148685

  20. Patterning and lifetime of plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase is dependent on actin organization in Arabidopsis interphase cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampathkumar, A.; Gutierrez, R.; McFarlane, H.E.; Bringmann, M.; Lindeboom, J.J.; Emons, A.M.C.; Samuels, L.; Ketelaar, T.; Ehrhardt, D.W.; Persson, S.

    2013-01-01

    The actin and microtubule cytoskeletons regulate cell shape across phyla, from bacteria to metazoans. In organisms with cell walls, the wall acts as a primary constraint of shape, and generation of specific cell shape depends on cytoskeletal organization for wall deposition and/or cell expansion. In

  1. Membrane partitioning of ionic liquid cations, anions and ion pairs - Estimating the bioconcentration potential of organic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dołżonek, Joanna; Cho, Chul-Woong; Stepnowski, Piotr; Markiewicz, Marta; Thöming, Jorg; Stolte, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Recent efforts have been directed towards better understanding the persistency and toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) in the context of the "benign-by-design" approach, but the assessment of their bioaccumulation potential remains neglected. This paper reports the experimental membrane partitioning of IL cations (imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, phosphonium), anions ([C(CN) 3 ] - , [B(CN) 4 ] - , [FSO 2 ) 2 N] - , [(C 2 F 5 ) 3 PF 3 ] - , [(CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N] - ) and their combinations as a measure for estimating the bioconcentration factor (BCF). Both cations and anions can have a strong affinity for phosphatidylcholine bilayers, which is mainly driven by the hydrophobicity of the ions. This affinity is often reflected in the ecotoxicological impact. Our data revealed that the bioconcentration potential of IL cations and anions is much higher than expected from octanol-water-partitioning based estimations that have recently been presented. For some ILs, the membrane-water partition coefficient reached levels corresponding to BCFs that might become relevant in terms of the "B" (bioaccumulation potential) classification under REACH. However, this preliminary estimation need to be confirmed by in vivo bioconcentration studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Removal of pharmaceuticals and organic matter from municipal wastewater using two-stage anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Kasturi; Lee, Ming-Yi; Lai, Webber Wei-Po; Lee, Chien Hsien; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2014-08-01

    The aim of present study was to treat municipal wastewater in two-stage anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) (anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) followed by AFMBR) using granular activated carbon (GAC) as carrier medium in both stages. Approximately 95% COD removal efficiency could be obtained when the two-stage AFMBR was operated at total HRT of 5h (2h for AFBR and 3h for AFMBR) and influent COD concentration of 250mg/L. About 67% COD and 99% TSS removal efficiency could be achieved by the system treating the effluent from primary clarifier of municipal wastewater treatment plant, at HRT of 1.28h and OLR of 5.65kg COD/m(3)d. The system could also effectively remove twenty detected pharmaceuticals in raw wastewaters with removal efficiency in the range of 86-100% except for diclofenac (78%). No other membrane fouling control was required except scouring effect of GAC for flux of 16LMH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.

  4. Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-09-06

    We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel-time inversion, the complicated surface-wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the (kx,ω) domain. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2D or 3D velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is less prone to the cycle skipping problems of full waveform inversion (FWI). The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distribution in laterally heterogeneous media.

  5. Benchmarking high performance computing architectures with CMS’ skeleton framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Gartung, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2017-10-01

    In 2012 CMS evaluated which underlying concurrency technology would be the best to use for its multi-threaded framework. The available technologies were evaluated on the high throughput computing systems dominating the resources in use at that time. A skeleton framework benchmarking suite that emulates the tasks performed within a CMSSW application was used to select Intel’s Thread Building Block library, based on the measured overheads in both memory and CPU on the different technologies benchmarked. In 2016 CMS will get access to high performance computing resources that use new many core architectures; machines such as Cori Phase 1&2, Theta, Mira. Because of this we have revived the 2012 benchmark to test it’s performance and conclusions on these new architectures. This talk will discuss the results of this exercise.

  6. The Difficulty of Sexing Skeletons from Unknown Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sierp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of sex from skeletal remains is performed using a number of methods developed by biological anthropology. They must be evaluated for consistency and for their performance in a forensic setting. Twenty skeletons of varied provenance had their sex determined by 15 existing methods of forensic anthropology (7 metric and 8 morphological. The methods were evaluated for their consistency in determination of sex. No single individual was identified as belonging to one sex exclusively. Ambiguous results were obtained by metric methods for fourteen individuals (70% and by morphological methods for only five individuals (25% (Chi-squared = 4.3, df = 1, P<0.05. Methods which use the size of bones as an indicator of sex perform poorly on skeletal remains of individuals of unknown provenance. Methods which combine morphologic and metric techniques, that is, geometric morphometric analysis, may result in greater levels of consistency.

  7. Companions for ``Nessie'' in the Milky Way's Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    The recent discovery of a purported bone of the Milky Way, a dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, has provided us with new clues for mapping out the spiral structure of our galaxy. It turns out that Nessie may not be alone: a follow-up study has identified more bones, potentially making up a skeleton of the Milky Way that traces out the densest parts of its spiral arms.Inconvenient Vantage PointHow many spiral arms does the Milky Way have? Where are they located? What does the structure look like between the arms? It may seem surprising that these fundamental questions dont yet have clear answers. But because were stuck in the galaxys disk, were forced to piece together our understanding of the Milky Ways structure based primarily on measurements of position and radial velocity of structures within the galactic plane.The discovery of Nessie presents an intriguing new tool to identify the layout of the galaxy. Nessie is a very long, thin, infrared-dark filament that runs along the modeled position of the Scutum-Centaurus arm and is believed therefore to trace the structure of the arm. In a new study led by Catherine Zucker (University of Virginia, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), the authors have searched for additional bones like Nessie, hoping to use them to map out the skeleton of the Milky Way.New Bones DiscoveredIn this map of radial velocity vs. galactic longitude, the bone candidates are indicated by the numbered points. The colored lines indicate the positions of two of the galactic spiral arms, according to various models. Click for a closer look! [Zucker et al. 2015]Zucker and collaborators began by using World Wide Telescope, a tool that facilitates visualization of multiple layers of data at a variety of scales, to search through Spitzer infrared data for additional structures like Nessie. Searching specifically along the predicted positions of galactic arms, they found 15 initial bone candidates.Next, the team obtained radial-velocity data for the

  8. Boulevard as Natural Skeleton Element of Modern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyzerova, A. V.; Bulavina, L. V.

    2017-11-01

    The implementation of spatial planning environmental principles is becoming increasingly relevant due to the renewed environment state. In this context, boulevards are regarded as an integral element of the natural city skeleton, the building process of which is aimed at the environment improving. Empty boulevards in modern cities are considered to be the main problem on the way to this goal achieving. The research analyzes the process of boulevards historical evolution and identifies the main factors that have affected the loss of their sustainability in modern cities. The boulevard noise level was calculated proving the inconsistency of modern traditional boulevards with the requirements of a comfortable environment. Based on the identified features and problems of modern boulevards, town planning recommendations are being developed that contribute to the formation of the stability of boulevards in modern cities.

  9. Pb-210-in-vivo measurements in the human skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheler, R.; Dettmann, K.

    1998-01-01

    A suitable method for the retrospective estimation of the exposure to short-lived radon progeny is the in-vivo measurement of the decay product Pb-210. The deposited Pb-210 is estimated at the skull by measurements with a low-energy Ge-detector-array. Because the decision limit resp. minimal detectable activity of 24 Bq resp. 48 Bq the quantitative assessment of cumulated exposure is possible for long-time exposure at levels of the equilibrium equivalent radon-concentration above 500 Bqm -3 . It seems that the average value of Pb-210-activity in the skeleton of individuals living in regions with increased radon-concentration exceeds the mean value of 15 Bq. A correlation with the exposure may be possible. (orig.) [de

  10. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...

  11. Effect of Bisphosphonates on the Rapidly Growing Male Murine Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Eric D.; Louis, Leeann; Brooks, Daniel J.; Bouxsein, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are effective for preventing and treating skeletal disorders associated with hyperresorption. Their safety and efficacy has been studied in adults where the growth plate is fused and there is no longitudinal bone growth and little appositional growth. Although bisphosphonate use in the pediatric population was pioneered for compassionate use in the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta, they are being increasingly used for the treatment and prevention of bone loss in children at risk of hyperresorptive bone loss. However, the effect of these agents on the growing skeleton in disorders other than osteogenesis imperfecta has not been systematically compared. Studies were, therefore, undertaken to examine the consequences of bisphosphonate administration on the growth plate and skeletal microarchitecture during a period of rapid growth. C57Bl6/J male mice were treated from 18 to 38 days of age with vehicle, alendronate, pamidronate, zoledronate, or clodronate at doses selected to replicate those used in humans. Treatment with alendronate, pamidronate, and zoledronate, but not clodronate, led to a decrease in the number of chondrocytes per column in the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer. This was not associated with altered hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis or vascular invasion at the growth plate. The effects of pamidronate on trabecular microarchitecture were less beneficial than those of alendronate and zoledronate. Pamidronate did not increase cortical thickness or cortical area/total area relative to control mice. These studies suggest that bisphosphonate administration does not adversely affect skeletal growth. Long-term investigations are required to determine whether the differences observed among the agents examined impact biomechanical integrity of the growing skeleton. PMID:24422540

  12. Historic timber skeleton structures and the local seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation deals with the employment of timber skeleton structure and the local seismic culture. After the 1755 earthquake in the reconstruction of Lisbon a type of building with timber skeleton and masonry infill called "gaiola pombalina" was promoted, since this was designed to better resists earthquakes. "Gaiola" means cage, and it was also named after the Marques de Pombal who introduced it in the reconstruction following the earthquake. The „gaiola pombalina" presents a timber skeleton with Saint Andrew crosses in the interior walls with masonry infill and thick masonry load bearing walls loosing in thickness to the upper floors in the exterior walls. The masonry can fall out during earthquakes but the building remains staying given the interior timber skeleton. The type of buildings with timber structure and (masonry) infill behaved well in earthquakes in various parts of the earth, like Nepal (the dhaji dewary type), Pakistan, Turkey (the himiş type after the 1999 earthquake) [both latter types were researched by Langenbach, www.conservationtech.com and www.traditional-is-modern.net] and also in Germany after the 1356 earthquake (the Southern German subtype of Fachwerk). Also in Italy a subtype called "casa baraccata" was promoted in a construction code to a similar time (following the 1783 earthquake in Southern Italy, see Tobriner 1983) as that of the "gaiola pombalina", the time of the Baroque, when town planning acquired another status. Unlike at the "gaiola pombalina" the "casa baraccata" the timber skeleton is at the exterior walls. For this reason this type of buildings is considered to be an expression of the local seismic culture. However, this type of buildings is common also for areas where seismic risk is not an issue, like half-timbered in England and the northern subtype of Fachwerk in Northern Germany, and in some high seismic risk regions with mountains and timber resources like Romania is not spread. Given these premises the author

  13. Prediction of RO/NF membrane rejections of PhACs and organic compounds : A statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yangali-Quintanilla, V.; Kim, T.U.; Kennedy, M.; Amy, G.

    2008-01-01

    OA fund TU Delft Rejections of pharmaceutical compounds (Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Clofibric acid, Naproxen, Primidone, Phenacetin) and organic compounds (Dichloroacetic acid, Trichloroacetic acid, Chloroform, Bromoform, Trichloroethene, Perchloroethene, Car-bontetrachloride, Carbontetrabromide) by NF

  14. Towards a non-abelian electric-magnetic symmetry: the skeleton group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampmeijer, L.; Bais, F.A.; Schroers, B.J.; Slingerland, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    We propose an electric-magnetic symmetry group in non-abelian gauge theory, which we call the skeleton group. We work in the context of non-abelian unbroken gauge symmetry, and provide evidence for our proposal by relating the representation theory of the skeleton group to the labelling and fusion

  15. Osteoblastomas of the axial skeleton shown by skeletal scanning: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, N.L.; Preston, D.F.; Robinson, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Two patients with osteoblastoma of the axial skeleton showed intense uptake of 99 /sup m/Tc-polyphosphate and 99 /sup m/Tc-diphosphonate on skeletal scans. Although this lesion is uncommon, it should be included in the differential diagnosis for young patients who show abnormal accumulation of 99 /sup m/Tc-phosphates in the axial skeleton

  16. Surface and Curve Skeletonization of Large 3D Models on the GPU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Kustra, Jacek; Telea, Alexandru C.

    We present a GPU-based framework for extracting surface and curve skeletons of 3D shapes represented as large polygonal meshes. We use an efficient parallel search strategy to compute point-cloud skeletons and their distance and feature transforms (FTs) with user-defined precision. We regularize

  17. Skeletonization and Distance Transforms of 3D Volumes Using Graphics Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortmont, M.A.M.M. van; Wetering, H.M.M. van de; Telea, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a fast method for computing distance transforms and skeletons of 3D objects using programmable Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). We use an efficient method, called distance splatting, to compute the distance transform, a one-point feature transform, and 3D skeletons. We efficiently

  18. [Progress in Application of Measuring Skeleton by CT in Forensic Anthropology Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, C Y; Xu, L; Wang, N; Zhang, M; Li, Y S; Lü, J X

    2017-02-01

    Individual identification by measuring the human skeleton is an important research in the field of forensic anthropology. Computed tomography (CT) technology can provide high-resolution image of skeleton. Skeleton image can be reformed by software in the post-processing workstation. Different skeleton measurement indexes of anthropology, such as diameter, angle, area and volume, can be measured on section and reformative images. Measurement process is barely affected by human factors. This paper reviews the literatures at home and abroad about the application of measuring skeleton by CT in forensic anthropology research for individual identification in four aspects, including sex determination, height infer, facial soft tissue thickness measurement and age estimation. The major technology and the application of CT in forensic anthropology research are compared and discussed, respectively. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  19. Management of premature rupture of membranes at term: the need to correct a recurring mistake in articles, chapters, and recommendations of professional organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krispin, Eyal

    2017-12-01

    Recommendations about the management of premature rupture of membranes at term are based, in part, on a large, randomized controlled trial published in 1996: the TERMPROM trial. The original article contained an error in Table 1, in which "Interval from membrane rupture to delivery" was listed instead of "Interval from membrane rupture to study entry." While the authors and journal corrected this error, the mistake published in the original paper has made its way into subsequent publications and even in guidelines or practice bulletins issued by professional organizations, textbooks, and other publications around the world. The mistake, that half of women with premature rupture of membranes at term who were managed expectantly delivered within 5 hours and 95% delivered within 28 hours of membrane rupture, should be replaced with the actual fact that half of women with premature rupture of membranes at term who were managed expectantly delivered within 33 hours, and 95% delivered within 94-107 hours of membrane rupture. Correcting this error in contemporary health care information and publications is important to counsel patients accurately and to optimize the clinical care of women with premature rupture of membranes at term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Disturb or stabilise? Effects of different molecules on biological membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwko, Magdalena Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    The properties of biological membranes are often regulated by special molecules produced by organisms. Knowledge about the mechanisms by which these molecules affect biological membranes is a key issue in understanding living organisms. The interactions between phospholipid membranes and different

  1. Phytoplasma infection in tomato is associated with re-organization of plasma membrane, ER stacks, and actin filaments in sieve elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxa, Stefanie V; Degola, Francesca; Polizzotto, Rachele; De Marco, Federica; Loschi, Alberto; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; di Toppi, Luigi Sanità; van Bel, Aart J E; Musetti, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplasmas, biotrophic wall-less prokaryotes, only reside in sieve elements of their host plants. The essentials of the intimate interaction between phytoplasmas and their hosts are poorly understood, which calls for research on potential ultrastructural modifications. We investigated modifications of the sieve-element ultrastructure induced in tomato plants by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani,' the pathogen associated with the stolbur disease. Phytoplasma infection induces a drastic re-organization of sieve-element substructures including changes in plasma membrane surface and distortion of the sieve-element reticulum. Observations of healthy and stolbur-diseased plants provided evidence for the emergence of structural links between sieve-element plasma membrane and phytoplasmas. One-sided actin aggregates on the phytoplasma surface also inferred a connection between phytoplasma and sieve-element cytoskeleton. Actin filaments displaced from the sieve-element mictoplasm to the surface of the phytoplasmas in infected sieve elements. Western blot analysis revealed a decrease of actin and an increase of ER-resident chaperone luminal binding protein (BiP) in midribs of phytoplasma-infected plants. Collectively, the studies provided novel insights into ultrastructural responses of host sieve elements to phloem-restricted prokaryotes.

  2. The Organic Anion-Transporting Peptide 2B1 Is Localized in the Basolateral Membrane of the Human Jejunum and Caco-2 Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Markus; Kaltheuner, Lars; Wildberg, Charlotte; Müller, Janett; Grube, Markus; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Oswald, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    The organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1 which is ubiquitously expressed in the human body is assumed to play an important role in the cellular uptake of many drugs. Although the expression and function of this solute carrier transporter is well characterized in the human liver and other tissues, little is known about its localization and functional relevance in the intestine. Thus, it was the aim of this study to investigate its localization and function in the human jejunum and in the frequently used intestinal Caco-2 cell line. The basolateral membrane of jejunal tissue from 6 individuals showed a significant enrichment of OATP2B1 (17-fold) and the known basolateral proteins ABCC3 and Na/K-ATPase compared to the apical membrane as derived from targeted proteomics analysis. On the contrary, apical localization could be confirmed for ABCB1, ABCC2, and PEPT1. Basolateral localization of OATP2B1 could also be verified in Caco-2 cells. Bidirectional transport studies with established OATP2B1 substrates (sulfasalazine and pravastatin) across freshly exercised human jejunum and Caco-2 cell monolayers demonstrated a markedly higher transport from the basal to the apical compartment than in the opposite direction. Our data provide evidence for a basolateral localization of OATP2B1 which may improve our understanding of intestinal drug absorption. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Number, Organization, and Size of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Coding Sequences as well as the Most Conserved Pmp Protein Differ within and across Chlamydia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; Creasy, Heather Huot; Myers, Garry S A; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Variation is a central trait of the polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) family. The number of pmp coding sequences differs between Chlamydia species, but it is unknown whether the number of pmp coding sequences is constant within a Chlamydia species. The level of conservation of the Pmp proteins has previously only been determined for Chlamydia trachomatis. As different Pmp proteins might be indispensible for the pathogenesis of different Chlamydia species, this study investigated the conservation of Pmp proteins both within and across C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci. The pmp coding sequences were annotated in 16 C. trachomatis, 6 C. pneumoniae, 2 C. abortus, and 16 C. psittaci genomes. The number and organization of polymorphic membrane coding sequences differed within and across the analyzed Chlamydia species. The length of coding sequences of pmpA,pmpB, and pmpH was conserved among all analyzed genomes, while the length of pmpE/F and pmpG, and remarkably also of the subtype pmpD, differed among the analyzed genomes. PmpD, PmpA, PmpH, and PmpA were the most conserved Pmp in C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci, respectively. PmpB was the most conserved Pmp across the 4 analyzed Chlamydia species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A polymeric membrane ion selective electrode based on organic-inorganic composite ion exchanger for the determination of thorium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Agarwal, Himanshu; Chandan Kumar, Singh; Sindhu, Susheel Kumar; Pankaj Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode based on organic- inorganic composite ion exchanger, tin(IV) tungstoselenate-pyridine, has been prepared and tested for the selective determination of thorium(IV) ions. The PVC membrane electrode comprising 16% composite ion exchanger as the electroactive phase, 50% o-dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer, 4% tetraphenyl borate as anionic excluder and 30% poly(vinylchloride) displays a linear response to thorium(IV) ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -1 -8.0 x 10 -6 M with a Nernstain slope of 14.2 mV/ decade. The electrode shows a very short response time (∼15 s) and may be used in the pH range 2.5-9.0. The selectivity coefficient for alkali, alkaline earth and transition is smaller than 4.0 x 10 -4 . The sensor has been successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Th 4+ with EDTA as well as also for the determination of Th 4+ in the binary mixtures. (author)

  5. Clarin-1, encoded by the Usher Syndrome III causative gene, forms a membranous microdomain: possible role of clarin-1 in organizing the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guilian; Zhou, Yun; Hajkova, Dagmar; Miyagi, Masaru; Dinculescu, Astra; Hauswirth, William W; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Geng, Ruishuang; Alagramam, Kumar N; Isosomppi, Juha; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Flannery, John G; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2009-07-10

    Clarin-1 is the protein product encoded by the gene mutated in Usher syndrome III. Although the molecular function of clarin-1 is unknown, its primary structure predicts four transmembrane domains similar to a large family of membrane proteins that include tetraspanins. Here we investigated the role of clarin-1 by using heterologous expression and in vivo model systems. When expressed in HEK293 cells, clarin-1 localized to the plasma membrane and concentrated in low density compartments distinct from lipid rafts. Clarin-1 reorganized actin filament structures and induced lamellipodia. This actin-reorganizing function was absent in the modified protein encoded by the most prevalent North American Usher syndrome III mutation, the N48K form of clarin-1 deficient in N-linked glycosylation. Proteomics analyses revealed a number of clarin-1-interacting proteins involved in cell-cell adhesion, focal adhesions, cell migration, tight junctions, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with the hypothesized role of clarin-1 in actin organization, F-actin-enriched stereocilia of auditory hair cells evidenced structural disorganization in Clrn1(-/-) mice. These observations suggest a possible role for clarin-1 in the regulation and homeostasis of actin filaments, and link clarin-1 to the interactive network of Usher syndrome gene products.

  6. Influence of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids on Transport of Cadmium and Copper Ions across Model Phospholipid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parisová, Martina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Mareček, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 27-44 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : cadmium * copper * low molecular weight organic acid Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  7. Poly(Acrylic acid–Based Hybrid Inorganic–Organic Electrolytes Membrane for Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiam-Wen Liew

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membranes (NCPEMs based on poly(acrylic acid(PAA and titania (TiO2 are prepared by a solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity of NCPEMs increases with the weight ratio of TiO2.The highest ionic conductivity of (8.36 ± 0.01 × 10−4 S·cm−1 is obtained with addition of 6 wt % of TiO2 at ambient temperature. The complexation between PAA, LiTFSI and TiO2 is discussed in Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR studies. Electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs are fabricated using the filler-free polymer electrolyte or the most conducting NCPEM and carbon-based electrodes. The electrochemical performances of fabricated EDLCs are studied through cyclic voltammetry (CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. EDLC comprising NCPEM shows the specific capacitance of 28.56 F·g−1 (or equivalent to 29.54 mF·cm−2 with excellent electrochemical stability.

  8. Suppression of Apoptosis by Basement Membrane Requires three-dimensional Tissue Organization and Withdrawal from the Cell Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreau, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1995-12-28

    The basement membrane (BM) extracellular matrix induces differentiation and suppresses apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells, whereas cells lacking BM lose their differentiated phenotype and undergo apoptosis. Addition of purified BM components, which are known to induce {beta}-casein expression, did not prevent apoptosis, indicating that a more complex BM was necessary. A comparison of culture conditions where apoptosis would or would not occur allowed us to relate inhibition of apoptosis to a complete withdrawal from the cell cycle, which was observed only when cells acquired a three-dimensional alveolar structure in response to BM. In the absence of this morphology, both the G1 cyclin kinase inhibitor p21/WAF-I and positive proliferative signals including c-myc and cyclin Dl were expressed and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) continued to be hyperphosphorylated. When we overexpressed either c-myc in quiescent cells or p21 when cells were still cycling, apoptosis was induced. In the absence of three-dimensional alveolar structures, mammary epithelial cells secrete a number of factors including transforming growth factor a and tenascin, which when added exogenously to quiescent cells induced expression of c-myc and interleukin-{beta}1-converting enzyme (ICE) mRNA and led to apoptosis. These experiments demonstrate that a correct tissue architecture is crucial for long-range homeostasis, suppression of apoptosis, and maintenance of differentiated phenotype.

  9. Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1/mOct1) Is Localized in the Apical Membrane of Caco-2 Cell Monolayers and Enterocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianxiang (Kevin); Everett, Ruth S.; Proctor, William R.; Ng, Chee M.; Costales, Chester L.; Brouwer, Kim L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic cation transporters (OCTs) are members of the solute carrier 22 family of transporter proteins that are involved in absorption, distribution, and excretion of organic cations. OCT3 is localized in the apical (AP) membrane of enterocytes, but the literature is ambiguous about OCT1 (mOct1) localization, with some evidence suggesting a basolateral (BL) localization in human and mouse enterocytes. This is contrary to our preliminary findings showing AP localization of OCT1 in Caco-2 cell monolayers, an established model of human intestinal epithelium. Therefore, this study aims at determining the localization of OCT1 (mOct1) in Caco-2 cells, and human and mouse enterocytes. Functional studies using OCT1-specific substrate pentamidine showed transporter-mediated AP but not BL uptake in Caco-2 cells and human and mouse intestinal tissues. OCT1 inhibition decreased AP uptake of pentamidine by ∼50% in all three systems with no effect on BL uptake. A short hairpin RNA-mediated OCT1 knockdown in Caco-2 cells decreased AP uptake of pentamidine by ∼50% but did not alter BL uptake. Immunostaining and confocal microscopy in all three systems confirmed AP localization of OCT1 (mOct1). Our studies unequivocally show AP membrane localization of OCT1 (mOct1) in Caco-2 cells and human and mouse intestine. These results are highly significant as they will require reinterpretation of previous drug disposition and drug-drug interaction studies where conclusions were drawn assuming BL localization of OCT1 in enterocytes. Most importantly, these results will require revision of the regulatory guidance for industry in the United States and elsewhere because it has stated that OCT1 is basolaterally localized in enterocytes. PMID:23680637

  10. Transport properties of anion exchange membranes in contact with organic ions. Part 2. Influence of the size of the aromatic chain; Proprietes de transport de membranes echangeuses d'anions en presence d'ions organiques. Partie 2. Influence de la taille de la chaine aromatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delimi, R. [Lab. de Traitement des eaux, Institut de Chimie, Universite de Badji Mokhtar, Annaba (Algeria); Sandeaux, J.; Sandeaux, R.; Pourcelly, G. [Montpellier-2 Univ., Institut Europeen des Mambranes, UMR 5635, 34 (France)

    2000-12-01

    Electrodialysis (process using ion exchange membranes and an electric field) is used for the treatment of waters and industrial effluents. In this work, the physico-chemical properties of an anion exchange membrane (ADS, Solvay) were studied in aqueous solutions containing both a mineral salt (10{sup -1} M NaCl) and an organic salt (10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} M). The organic salt was a sodium carboxylate or sulfonate bearing one or two aromatic rings. Measurements of ion exchange, water content, electric resistance, self-diffusion and electro-diffusion fluxes were performed. According to the concentration, the organic anions with highly hydrophobic character can induce a poisoning of the membrane. (authors)

  11. Effects of acidified seawater on coral calcification and variations of U/Ca ratio in their skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M.; Ozaki, S.; Iguchi, A.; Sakai, K.; Suzuki, A.; Kawahata, H.

    2011-12-01

    The rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is changing the carbonate chemistry of the ocean. Elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) has caused significant decrease in surface seawater pH and carbonate ion concentration. Therefore, ocean acidification has a negative effect on calcification of marine calcifying organisms. Especially, hermatypic corals are dominant organisms in coral reef ecosystems, so their calcificication is a key to determine the health of reef ecosystems. On the other hand, recent study has suggested that there is a negative correlation between U/Ca ratio in coral skeleton and seawater pH, based on the culture experiment using primary polyps of Acropora digitifera. In this study, primary polyps and adult colonies of A. digitifera and adult colonies of Porites australiensis, which are the dominant species around the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, were reared in seawater with different pCO2 (300, 400, 600, 800, 1000ppm) and pH (7.4, 7.6, 8.0) settings controlled by CO2 bubbling. Calcification rate of adult coral was estimated by buoyant method, while skeletal growth of polyps was evaluated by measuring the dry weight of each skeleton after the experiments. In order to evaluate the relationship between U/Ca ratios in coral skeletons and seawater pH, U/Ca ratios in reared corals were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of A. digitifera showed that the growth rate of adult corals had no significant correlation against pCO2, but dry weight of polyp skeletons decreased with increase in pCO2. Growth rate of P. australiensis typically showed a positive correlation with pH. However, growth rates were different among colonies, suggesting that their responses to acidification may vary among the colonies. Regarding the variations of U/Ca ratios, there were positive correlations between U/Ca ratios in adults of A. digitifera and P. australiensis and seawater pCO2 (pH), while no relation was observed in polyp corals.

  12. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  13. Biobased Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.A.B.; Zlopasa, J.; Picken, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of a composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane applicable to building material, such as concrete, cement, etc., to a meth od of applying said composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane, a biocompatible membrane, use of said membrane for various

  14. Canaliculi in the tessellated skeleton of cartilaginous fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, M.N.; Socha, J.J.; Hall, B.K.; Summers, A.P. (UCI); (Dalhousie U.); (VPI-SU)

    2010-08-04

    The endoskeletal elements of sharks and rays are comprised of an uncalcified, hyaline cartilage-like core overlain by a thin fibro-ceramic layer of mineralized hexagonal tiles (tesserae) adjoined by intertesseral fibers. The basic spatial relationships of the constituent tissues (unmineralized cartilage, mineralized cartilage, fibrous tissue) are well-known - endoskeletal tessellation is a long-recognized synapomorphy of elasmobranch fishes - but a high-resolution and three-dimensional (3D) understanding of their interactions has been hampered by difficulties in sample preparation and lack of technologies adequate for visualizing microstructure and microassociations. We used cryo-electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation tomography to investigate tessellated skeleton ultrastructure but without damage to the delicate relationships between constituent tissues or to the tesserae themselves. The combination of these techniques allowed visualization of never before appreciated internal structures, namely passages connecting the lacunar spaces within tesserae. These intratesseral 'canaliculi' link consecutive lacunar spaces into long lacunar strings, radiating outward from the center of tesserae. The continuity of extracellular matrix throughout the canalicular network may explain how chondrocytes in tesserae remain vital despite encasement in mineral. Extracellular fluid exchange may also permit transmission of nutrients, and mechanical and mineralization signals among chondrocytes, in a manner similar to the canalicular network in bone. These co-adapted mechanisms for the facilitated exchange of extracellular material suggest a level of parallelism in early chondrocyte and osteocyte evolution.

  15. The Dynamics of Secretion during Sea Urchin Embryonic Skeleton Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Fred H.; Killian, Christopher E.; Hamilton, Patricia; Croker, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    Skeleton formation involves secretion of massive amounts of mineral precursor, usually a calcium salt, and matrix proteins, many of which are deposited on, or even occluded within, the mineral. The cell biological underpinnings of this secretion and subsequent assembly of the biomineralized skeletal element is not well understood. We ask here what is the relationship of the trafficking and secretion of the mineral and matrix within the primary mesenchyme cells of the sea urchin embryo, cells that deposit the endoskeletal spicule. Fluorescent labeling of intracellular calcium deposits show mineral precursors are present in granules visible by light microscopy, from whence they are deposited in the endoskeletal spicule, especially at its tip. In contrast, two different matrix proteins tagged with GFP are present in smaller post-Golgi vesicles only seen by electron microscopy, and the secreted protein are only incorporated into the spicule in the vicinity of the cell of origin. The matrix protein, SpSM30B, is post-translationally modified during secretion, and this processing continues after its incorporation into the spicule. Our findings also indicate that the mineral precursor and two well characterized matrix proteins are trafficked by different cellular routes. PMID:18355808

  16. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hung Jung.

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by μ 2 ∼ Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 where Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed

  17. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  18. Morphology of the axial skeleton of seven bat genera (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudioso, Pablo J; Díaz, M Mónica; Barquez, Rubén M

    2017-01-01

    Here we present detailed descriptions and comparisons of the axial skeleton of seven species of bats belonging to five subfamilies of Phyllostomidae of different trophic guilds. The material examined consisted of 34 complete skeletons of seven species. For five of the studied species, previous descriptions have not been conducted, and for the vampires only limited information is available, so that descriptions for these species are here completed. The axial skeleton has characters that allow grouping of the species phylogenetically of the same subfamily and by feeding habits. At the same time, there are characters that associate species from different subfamilies with different types of diet or ways to obtain food.

  19. Effects of toxic organic flotation reagent (aniline aerofloat) on an A/O submerged membrane bioreactor (sMBR): Microbial community dynamics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weixiong; Sun, Shuiyu; Wu, Chun; Xu, Pingting; Ye, Ziwei; Zhuang, Shengwei

    2017-08-01

    Bio-treatment of flotation wastewater has been proven to be both effective and economical, as a treatment method. Despite this, little is known regarding the effects of toxic organic floatation reagents such as Dianilinodithiophosphoric acid (DDA), on the microbial community performance or dynamics, which are critical to the effective performance of the bio-treatment reactor. A submerged membrane bioreactor (sMBR) was constructed to continuously treat simulated wastewater contaminated with DDA, an organic flotation reagent that is now considered a significant pollutant. The performance of the sMBR system was investigated at different DDA loading concentrations, with assessment of the effects of DDA on the microbial communities within the sMBR, in particular the biodiversity and succession within the microbial community. Results showed that, with increased DDA loadings, the performance of the sMBR was initially negatively affected, but the system adapted efficiently and consistently reached a COD removal rate of up to 80%. Increased DDA loading concentrations had an adverse effect on the activity of both the activated sludge and microbial communities, resulting in a large alteration in microbial dynamics, especially during the start-up stage and the high DDA loading stage. Strains capable of adapting to the presence of DDA, capable of degrading DDA or utilizing its byproducts, were enriched within the sMBR community, such as Zoogloea, Clostridium, Sideroxydans lithotrophicus, Thiobacillus, Thauera amino aromatica and Alicycliphilus denitrificans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A coaxially heated membrane introduction mass spectrometry interface for the rapid and sensitive on-line measurement of volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants in air and water at parts-per-trillion levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexander J; Creba, A Skye; Ferguson, Robyn M; Krogh, Erik T; Gill, Christopher G

    2006-01-01

    A coaxially heated membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) sampling interface is presented that demonstrates improved on-line performance for the direct measurement of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in air and water samples at parts-per-trillion levels. The device is based on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) capillary hollow fibre membrane (HFM) in a pneumatically assisted "flow-over" configuration that is resistively heated on the membrane interior via a coaxial nichrome wire, establishing a thermal gradient counter to the analyte concentration gradient. This arrangement allows for continuous and/or pulsed heating modes, affording excellent sensitivity for the on-line measurement of SVOCs while retaining sensitivity for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, the signal response time for SVOCs is reduced substantially over conventional "flow-over" MIMS interfaces. Separation and quantitation of analytes are achieved using quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Guidelines for the use of the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in environmental monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, David A.

    2010-01-01

    the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS). The tips given in this document focus on these two samplers but are applicable to most types of passive sampling devices. The information in this guide is heavily weighted towards the sampling of water; however, information specific to the use of SPMDs for air sampling will also be covered.

  2. A membrane introduction mass spectrometer utilizing ion-molecule reactions for the on-line speciation and quantitation of volatile organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Nicholas G; Bell, Ryan J; Krogh, Erik T; Gill, Chris G

    2015-12-15

    The ability of membrane introduction mass spectrometry to quantitatively resolve low molecular weight volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) using electron ionization (EI) can be compromised by isobaric interferences. This work focuses on reducing isobaric interferences with ion-molecule reactions in a portable quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for the analysis of VOCs. EI was used to produce reagent ions from precursors (chloroform, methyl iodide, trichloroethylene or chlorobenzene) that were continually infused into the helium acceptor phase upstream of the membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) sampling interface. The reagent ions were selectively stored in the ion trap, and then allowed to react with target VOC analytes in air samples via ion-molecule reactions within the trap storage volume. A variety of reaction times were examined (50-5000 ms), and the resulting product ions were analyzed in positive ion mode. The detection limits achieved were comparable with those obtained using EI (low ppbv), and in some cases better than for EI coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). For the VOCs studied, isobaric interferences were greatly reduced or eliminated using chloroform as a reagent gas. The predominant ionization mechanism was via adduct formation, although charge transfer and hydride abstractions were also observed. An internal standard was shown to be effective at correcting for signal changes due to consumption of reagent ions when complex mixtures were sampled. Ion-molecule reactions were exploited to eliminate isobaric interferences that are often encountered in direct, real-time analysis strategies for atmospheric VOC mixtures. The use of a continuously infused internal standard will improve quantitative results in field applications where analyte concentration and sample complexity may be wide ranging. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cholesterol strongly affects the organization of lipid monolayers studied as models of the milk fat globule membrane: Condensing effect and change in the lipid domain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Appala Venkata Ramana; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Paboeuf, Gilles; Vié, Véronique; Lopez, Christelle

    2015-10-01

    The biological membrane that surrounds the milk fat globules exhibits phase separation of polar lipids that is poorly known. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by cholesterol in the organization of monolayers prepared as models of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction experiments allowed characterization of the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature of lipids, Tm ~35°C, in vesicles prepared with a MFGM lipid extract. For temperature below Tm, atomic force microscopy revealed phase separation of lipids at 30 mN·m(-1) in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of the MFGM lipid extract. The high Tm lipids form liquid condensed (LC) domains that protrude by about 1.5 nm from the continuous liquid expanded (LE) phase. Cholesterol was added to the MFGM extract up to 30% of polar lipids (cholesterol/milk sphingomyelin (MSM) molar ratio of 50/50). Compression isotherms evidenced the condensing effect of the cholesterol onto the MFGM lipid monolayers. Topography of the monolayers showed a decrease in the area of the LC domains and in the height difference H between the LC domains and the continuous LE phase, as the cholesterol content increased in the MFGM lipid monolayers. These results were interpreted in terms of nucleation effects of cholesterol and decrease of the line tension between LC domains and LE phase in the MFGM lipid monolayers. This study revealed the major structural role of cholesterol in the MFGM that could be involved in biological functions of this interface (e.g. mechanisms of milk fat globule digestion). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Scaling of the appendicular skeleton of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sittert, Sybrand; Skinner, John; Mitchell, Graham

    2015-05-01

    Giraffes have remarkably long and slender limb bones, but it is unknown how they grow with regard to body mass, sex, and neck length. In this study, we measured the length, mediolateral (ML) diameter, craniocaudal (CC) diameter and circumference of the humerus, radius, metacarpus, femur, tibia, and metatarsus in 10 fetuses, 21 females, and 23 males of known body masses. Allometric exponents were determined and compared. We found the average bone length increased from 340 ± 50 mm at birth to 700 ± 120 mm at maturity, while average diameters increased from 30 ± 3 to 70 ± 11 mm. Fetal bones increased with positive allometry in length (relative to body mass) and in diameter (relative to body mass and length). In postnatal giraffes bone lengths and diameters increased iso- or negatively allometric relative to increases in body mass, except for the humerus CC diameter which increased with positive allometry. Humerus circumference also increased with positive allometry, that of the radius and tibia isometrically and the femur and metapodials with negative allometry. Relative to increases in bone length, both the humerus and femur widened with positive allometry. In the distal limb bones, ML diameters increased isometrically (radius, metacarpus) or positively allometric (tibia, metatarsus) while the corresponding CC widths increased with negative allometry and isometrically, respectively. Except for the humerus and femur, exponents were not significantly different between corresponding front and hind limb segments. We concluded that the patterns of bone growth in males and females are identical. In fetuses, the growth of the appendicular skeleton is faster than it is after birth which is a pattern opposite to that reported for the neck. Allometric exponents seemed unremarkable compared to the few species described previously, and pointed to the importance of neck elongation rather than leg elongation during evolution. Nevertheless, the front limb bones

  5. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hung Jung.

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by [mu][sup 2] [approximately] Q[sub min][sup 2]Q[sub med][sup 2]/Q[sub max][sup 2] where Q[sub min][sup 2]Q[sub med][sup 2]/Q[sub max][sup 2] are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

  6. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hung Jung

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by {mu}{sup 2} {approximately} Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} where Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

  7. Space flight and the skeleton: lessons for the earthbound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1997-01-01

    Loss of bone during extended space flight has long been a concern that could limit the ability of humans to explore the universe. Surprisingly, the available data do not support the concept that weightlessness leads inexorably to a depleted skeleton unable to withstand the stress of a return to a 1-g environment. Nevertheless, some bone loss does occur, especially in those bones most stressed by gravity prior to flight, which provides confirmation of the proposal formulated over a century ago by Julius Wolff that mechanical stress determines the form and function of bone. Although the phenomenon of bone loss with skeletal unloading, whether by space flight or immobilization or just taking a load off your feet (literally) is well established, the mechanisms by which bone senses load and adjusts to it are not so clear. What actually is the stimulus, and what are the sensors? What are the target cells? How do the sensors communicate the message into the cells, and by what pathways do the cells respond? What is the role of endocrine, factors vs. paracrine or autocrine factors in mediating or modulating the response? None of these questions has been answered with certainty, but, as will become apparent in this review, we have some clues directing us to the answers. Although the focus of this review concerns space flight, it seems highly likely that the mechanisms mediating the transmission of mechanical load to changes in bone formation and resorption apply equally well to all forms of disuse osteoporosis and are likely to be the same mechanisms affected by other etiologies of osteoporosis.

  8. Validation Studies of Temperature Distribution and Mould Filling Process for Composite Skeleton Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of composite skeleton casting and mould filling process (Fig. 4, 5, 6. The basic subject of the computer simulation was the analysis of ability of metal to fill the channels creating the skeleton shape and prepared in form of a core. Analysis of filling for each consecutive levels of the skeleton casting was conducted for simulation results and real casting. The skeleton casting was manufactured according to proposed technology (Fig. 5. Number of fully filled nodes in simulation was higher than obtained in experimental studies. It was observed in the experiment, that metal during pouring did not flow through the whole channel section, what enabled possibilities of reducing the channel section and pointed out the necessity of local pressure increase.

  9. Effective self-regulated science learning through multimedia-enriched skeleton concept maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maree, Ton; Van Bruggen, Jan; Jochems, Wim

    2018-01-01

    This study combines work on concept mapping with scripted collaborative learning. Purpose: The objective was to examine the effects of self-regulated science learning through scripting students’ argumentative interactions during collaborative ‘multimedia-enriched skeleton concept mapping’ on

  10. Development and evaluation of an articulated registration algorithm for human skeleton registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Stephen; Perk, Timothy; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Accurate registration over multiple scans is necessary to assess treatment response of bone diseases (e.g. metastatic bone lesions). This study aimed to develop and evaluate an articulated registration algorithm for the whole-body skeleton registration in human patients. In articulated registration, whole-body skeletons are registered by auto-segmenting into individual bones using atlas-based segmentation, and then rigidly aligning them. Sixteen patients (weight = 80-117 kg, height = 168-191 cm) with advanced prostate cancer underwent the pre- and mid-treatment PET/CT scans over a course of cancer therapy. Skeletons were extracted from the CT images by thresholding (HU>150). Skeletons were registered using the articulated, rigid, and deformable registration algorithms to account for position and postural variability between scans. The inter-observers agreement in the atlas creation, the agreement between the manually and atlas-based segmented bones, and the registration performances of all three registration algorithms were all assessed using the Dice similarity index—DSIobserved, DSIatlas, and DSIregister. Hausdorff distance (dHausdorff) of the registered skeletons was also used for registration evaluation. Nearly negligible inter-observers variability was found in the bone atlases creation as the DSIobserver was 96 ± 2%. Atlas-based and manual segmented bones were in excellent agreement with DSIatlas of 90 ± 3%. Articulated (DSIregsiter = 75 ± 2%, dHausdorff = 0.37 ± 0.08 cm) and deformable registration algorithms (DSIregister = 77 ± 3%, dHausdorff = 0.34 ± 0.08 cm) considerably outperformed the rigid registration algorithm (DSIregsiter = 59 ± 9%, dHausdorff = 0.69 ± 0.20 cm) in the skeleton registration as the rigid registration algorithm failed to capture the skeleton flexibility in the joints. Despite superior skeleton registration performance, deformable registration algorithm failed to preserve the local rigidity of bones as over 60% of the

  11. Validation of alternative marine calcareous skeletons as recorders of global climate changes (CALMARS): final report

    OpenAIRE

    Willenz, P.; Berry, L.; Dehairs, F.A.; Baeyens, W.F.J.; Gillikin, D.P.; Keppens, E.; De Ridder, F.; André, L.; Verheyden, S.; Lorrain, A.; Dubois, Ph.; Ranner, H.; Blust, R.; Mubiana, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding environmental proxies stored in biogenic carbonates has become a major task and a multidisciplinary endeavour. The CALMARs project (CALcareous MARine Skeletons as recorders of global climate changes) involved reading these records stored in biogenic carbonates and aimed at validating the skeletons of sclerosponges, bivalves and echinoderms as environmental proxies. The first aim was to determine the growth rates of two hyper calcified sponges: Ceratoporella nicholsoni and Petrob...

  12. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... check for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis Complement levels Cryoglobulin test Treatment The goal of treatment ... not as helpful for people with membranous nephropathy. Medicines used treat membranous nephropathy include: Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ...

  13. On the physical meaning of equivalent skeleton void ratio for granular soil with fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bei-Bing; Yang, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Recent research on the behavior of silty sand usually involves the use of equivalent skeleton void ratio to characterize its packing density state. The equivalent skeleton void ratio is a modified void ratio by the introduction of a parameter b to account for the participation of fines in the force chains. However, the parameter b is poorly understood. This paper presents an investigation into the physical meaning of the equivalent skeleton void ratio by conducting a series of discrete element method (DEM) simulations on biaxial tests of assemblies of coarse and fine particles. The simulation results reveal that the parameter b is a state variable dependent on confining pressure, packing density and particle gradation and it varies during shearing. It should not be treated as a constant as reported in the literature. It is also found that the distribution pattern of fine particles in the skeleton of the assembly plays a crucial role in the overall macroscopic response. Contraction is principally induced by the movement of fine particles out of the force chains and dilation is generally involved with the migration of fine particles into forces chains. Furthermore, a new expression of the equivalent skeleton void ratio is put forward with the introduction of the parameter d to take into account the absence of large particles from force chains, along with comparisons between this new definition for the equivalent skeleton void ratio and the existing one.

  14. Skeletonization of radial and gastroepiploic conduits in coronary artery bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darzi Ara

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of a skeletonized internal thoracic artery in coronary artery bypass graft surgery has been shown to confer certain advantages over a traditional pedicled technique, particularly in certain patient groups. Recent reports indicate that radial and gastroepiploic arteries can also be harvested using a skeletonized technique. The aim of this study is to systematically review the available evidence regarding the use of skeletonized radial and gastroepiploic arteries within coronary artery bypass surgery, focusing specifically on it's effect on conduit length and flow, levels of endothelial damage, graft patency and clinical outcome. Four electronic databases were systematically searched for studies reporting the utilisation of the skeletonization technique within coronary revascularisation surgery in humans. Reference lists of all identified studies were checked for any missing publications. There appears to be some evidence that skeletonization may improve angiographic patency, when compared with pedicled vessels in the short to mid-term. We have found no suggestion of increased complication rates or increased operating time. Skeletonization may increase the length of the conduit, and the number of sequential graft sites, but no clear clinical benefits are apparent. Our study suggests that there is not enough high quality or consistent evidence to currently advocate the application of this technique to radial or gastroepiploic conduits ahead of a traditional pedicled technique.

  15. Skeletonization of radial and gastroepiploic conduits in coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Rachel M; Warren, Oliver J; Szczeklik, Michal; Wallace, Sophie; Leff, Daniel R; Kokotsakis, John; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2007-06-05

    The use of a skeletonized internal thoracic artery in coronary artery bypass graft surgery has been shown to confer certain advantages over a traditional pedicled technique, particularly in certain patient groups. Recent reports indicate that radial and gastroepiploic arteries can also be harvested using a skeletonized technique. The aim of this study is to systematically review the available evidence regarding the use of skeletonized radial and gastroepiploic arteries within coronary artery bypass surgery, focusing specifically on it's effect on conduit length and flow, levels of endothelial damage, graft patency and clinical outcome. Four electronic databases were systematically searched for studies reporting the utilisation of the skeletonization technique within coronary revascularisation surgery in humans. Reference lists of all identified studies were checked for any missing publications. There appears to be some evidence that skeletonization may improve angiographic patency, when compared with pedicled vessels in the short to mid-term. We have found no suggestion of increased complication rates or increased operating time. Skeletonization may increase the length of the conduit, and the number of sequential graft sites, but no clear clinical benefits are apparent. Our study suggests that there is not enough high quality or consistent evidence to currently advocate the application of this technique to radial or gastroepiploic conduits ahead of a traditional pedicled technique.

  16. Calibrating amino acid δ13C and δ15N offsets between polyp and protein skeleton to develop proteinaceous deep-sea corals as paleoceanographic archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kelton W.; Williams, Branwen; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Glynn, Danielle S.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    Compound-specific stable isotopes of amino acids (CSI-AA) from proteinaceous deep-sea coral skeletons have the potential to improve paleoreconstructions of plankton community composition, and our understanding of the trophic dynamics and biogeochemical cycling of sinking organic matter in the Ocean. However, the assumption that the molecular isotopic values preserved in protein skeletal material reflect those of the living coral polyps has never been directly investigated in proteinaceous deep-sea corals. We examined CSI-AA from three genera of proteinaceous deep-sea corals from three oceanographically distinct regions of the North Pacific: Primnoa from the Gulf of Alaska, Isidella from the Central California Margin, and Kulamanamana from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. We found minimal offsets in the δ13C values of both essential and non-essential AAs, and in the δ15N values of source AAs, between paired samples of polyp tissue and protein skeleton. Using an essential AA δ13C fingerprinting approach, we show that estimates of the relative contribution of eukaryotic microalgae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the sinking organic matter supporting deep-sea corals are the same when calculated from polyp tissue or recently deposited skeletal tissue. The δ15N values of trophic AAs in skeletal tissue, on the other hand, were consistently 3-4‰ lower than polyp tissue for all three genera. We hypothesize that this offset reflects a partitioning of nitrogen flux through isotopic branch points in the synthesis of polyp (fast turnover tissue) and skeleton (slow, unidirectional incorporation). This offset indicates an underestimation, albeit correctable, of approximately half a trophic position from gorgonin protein-based deep-sea coral skeleton. Together, our observations open the door for applying many of the rapidly evolving CSI-AA based tools developed for metabolically active tissues in modern systems to archival coral tissues in a paleoceanographic context.

  17. Membrane order in the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaea, David B; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2017-01-01

    The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment. We find that after a brief incubation to allow endocytosis, NR12S is distributed between the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment. The NR12S reports that the endocytic recycling compartment is more highly ordered than the plasma membrane. We also find that the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment are differentially affected by altering cellular cholesterol levels. The membrane order of the plasma membrane, but not the endocytic recycling compartment, is altered significantly when cellular cholesterol content is increased or decreased by 20%. These results demonstrate that changes in cellular cholesterol differentially alter membrane order within different organelles.

  18. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  19. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  1. C-reactive protein increases membrane fluidity and distorts lipid lateral organization of pulmonary surfactant. Protective role of surfactant protein A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saenz, Alejandra; Lopez-Sanchez, Almudena; Mojica-Lazaro, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    intratracheal instillation of CRP into rat lungs. Insertion of CRP into surfactant membranes was investigated through monolayer techniques. The effect of CRP on membrane structure was studied through differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy using large and giant unilamellar......The purpose of this study was to investigate how surfactant membranes can be perturbed by C-reactive protein (CRP) and whether surfactant protein A (SP-A) might overcome CRP-induced surfactant membrane alterations. The effect of CRP on surfactant surface adsorption was evaluated in vivo after...... vesicles. Our results indicate that CRP inserts into surfactant membranes and drastically increases membrane fluidity, resulting in surfactant inactivation. At 10% CRP/phospholipid weight ratio, CRP causes disappearance of liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered phase coexistence distinctive of surfactant...

  2. Dialysis membranes for blood purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K

    2000-01-01

    All of the artificial membranes in industrial use, such as a reverse-osmosis membrane, dialysis membrane, ultrafiltration membrane, microfiltration membrane and gas separation membrane, also have therapeutic applications. The most commonly used artificial organ is the artificial kidney, a machine that performs treatment known as hemodialysis. This process cleanses the body of a patient with renal failure by dialysis and filtration, simple physicochemical processes. Hemodialysis membranes are used to remove accumulated uremic toxins, excess ions and water from the patient via the dialysate, and to supply (deficit) insufficient ions from the dialysate. Dialysis membranes used clinically in the treatment of patients with renal failure account for by far the largest volume of membranes used worldwide; more than 70 million square meters are used a year. Almost all dialyzers now in use are of the hollow-fiber type. A hollow-fiber dialyzer contains a bundle of approximately 10000 hollow fibers, each with an inner diameter of about 200 microm when wet. The membrane thickness is about 20-45 microm, and the length is 160-250 mm. The walls of the hollow fibers function as the dialysis membrane. Various materials, including cellulose-based materials and synthetic polymers, are used for dialysis membranes. This paper reviews blood purification, hemodialysis and dialysis membranes.

  3. Drug Clearance from Cerebrospinal Fluid Mediated by Organic Anion Transporters 1 (Slc22a6) and 3 (Slc22a8) at Arachnoid Membrane of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyu; Tachikawa, Masanori; Uchida, Yasuo; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2018-03-05

    Although arachnoid mater epithelial cells form the blood-arachnoid barrier (BAB), acting as a blood-CSF interface, it has been generally considered that the BAB is impermeable to water-soluble substances and plays a largely passive role. Here, we aimed to clarify the function of transporters at the BAB in regulating CSF clearance of water-soluble organic anion drugs based on quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) and in vivo analyses. Protein expression levels of 61 molecules, including 19 ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters and 32 solute-carrier (SLC) transporters, were measured in plasma membrane fraction of rat leptomeninges using QTAP. Thirty-three proteins were detected; others were under the quantification limits. Expression levels of multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mdr1a/P-gp/Abcb1a) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2) were 16.6 and 3.27 fmol/μg protein (51.9- and 9.82-fold greater than in choroid plexus, respectively). Among those organic anion transporters detected only at leptomeninges, not choroid plexus, organic anion transporter 1 (oat1/Slc22a6) showed the greatest expression (2.73 fmol/μg protein). On the other hand, the protein expression level of oat3 at leptomeninges was 6.65 fmol/μg protein, and the difference from choroid plexus was within two-fold. To investigate oat1's role, we injected para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) with or without oat1 inhibitors into cisterna magna (to minimize the contribution of choroid plexus function) of rats. A bulk flow marker, FITC-inulin, was not taken up from CSF up to 15 min, whereas uptake clearance of PAH was 26.5 μL/min. PAH uptake was completely blocked by 3 mM cephalothin (inhibits both oat1 and oat3), while 17% of PAH uptake was inhibited by 0.2 mM cephalothin (selectively inhibits oat3). These results indicate that oat1 and oat3 at the BAB provide a distinct clearance pathway of organic anion drugs from CSF independently of choroid plexus.

  4. Volatile Organic Compound Gamma-Butyrolactone Released upon Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 Acute Infection Modulated Membrane Potential and Repressed Viral Infection in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Kevin; Chen, Feng; Waguespack, Yan; Figliozzi, Robert W; Kharel, Madan K; Zhang, Qiaojuan; Martin-Caraballo, Miguel; Hsia, S Victor

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS). It was observed that the concentrations of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in particular changed significantly after a 24-hour infection. Since HSV-1 may establish latency in neurons after the acute infection, GBL was tested to determine if it exerts neuronal regulation of infection. The results indicated that GBL altered the resting membrane potential of differentiated LNCaP cells and promoted a non-permissive state of HSV-1 infection by repressing viral replication. These observations may provide useful clues towards understanding the complex signaling pathways that occur during the HSV-1 primary infection and establishment of viral latency.

  5. Centrifugal pumps and hemolysis in pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients: An analysis of Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ciaran; Monteagudo, Julie; Schad, Christine; Cheung, Eva; Middlesworth, William

    2017-06-01

    It is currently unclear whether centrifugal pumps cause more hemolysis than roller pumps in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuits. The aim of this study was to help answer that question in pediatric patients. A limited deidentified data set was extracted from the international multicenter Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry comprising all reported ECMO runs for patients 18years or younger between 2010 and 2015. Logistic regression was used to evaluate a possible association between hemolysis and pump type, controlling for patient demographics, circuit factors, and complications. 14,776 ECMO runs for 14,026 patients had pump type recorded. Centrifugal pumps were employed in 60.4% of ECMO circuits. Hemolysis was a reported complication for 1272 (14%) centrifugal pump runs and for 291 (5%) roller pump runs. 1755 (20%) centrifugal pump runs reported kidney injury as compared to 797 (14%) roller pump runs. In the full logistic regression, the odds of hemolysis were significantly greater for runs using centrifugal pumps (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.9-3.8, ppumps was associated with increased rates of hemolysis, hyperbilirubinemia, and kidney injury. Retrospective cohort study. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of blood components, abdominal distension, and ecdysone therapy on the ultrastructural organization of posterior midgut epithelial cells and perimicrovillar membranes in Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Albuquerque-Cunha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blood components, nerve-cord severance, and ecdysone therapy on the posterior midgut epithelial cells of 5th-instar Rhodnius prolixus nymphs 10 days after feeding were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Cutting the nerve-cord of the blood-fed insects partially reduced the development of microvilli and perimicrovillar membranes (PMM, and produced large vacuoles and small electrondense granules; insects fed on Ringer's saline diet exhibited well developed microvilli and low PMM production; swolled rough endoplasmatic reticulum and electrondense granules; Ringer's saline meal with ecdysone led to PMM development, glycogen particles, and several mitochondria in the cytoplasm; epithelial cells of the insects fed on Ringer's saline meal whose nerve-cord was severed showed heterogeneously distributed microvilli with reduced PMM production and a great quantity of mitochondria and glycogen in the cytoplasm; well developed microvilli and PMM were observed in nerve-cord severed insects fed on Ringer's saline meal with ecdysone; Ringer's saline diet containing hemoglobin recovered the release of PMM; and insects fed on human plasma showed slightly reduced PMM production, although the addition of ecdysone in the plasma led to a normal midgut ultrastructural organization. We suggest that the full development of microvilli and PMM in the epithelial cells depends on the abdominal distension in addition to ingestion of hemoglobin, and the release of ecdysone.

  7. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  8. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  9. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  10. Stabilization of Erythrocyte Membranes by Polyamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, Samir K.; Mohandas, Narla; Marton, Laurence J.; Shohet, Stephen B.

    1983-04-01

    Using a laser diffraction technique, we have studied the effects of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, the three physiologic polyamines, on the deformability and mechanical stability of human erythrocyte membranes. Ghosts resealed with polyamines were subjected to high fluid shear stress in an ektacytometer. All polyamines increased the membrane shear modulus (decreased deformability) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The order of effectiveness was spermine > spermidine > putrescine. At 10 μ M, spermine appreciably decreased membrane deformability. For the measurement of membrane mechanical stability, resealed ghosts were subjected to constant high shear stress in the ektacytometer and deformability was continuously recorded as the deformable ghosts fragmented into rigid spherical vesicles. Polyamines, especially spermine, caused a noticeable increase in the t1/2 for fragmentation. These effects could not be ascribed to proteolysis or Ca2+-induced transglutamination. That the effects of polyamines were specific and not simply due to their positive charge was demonstrated by the finding that Ca2+ and Mg2+ destabilized the erythrocyte membrane as evidenced by decreasing the t1/2 for fragmentation. Extracellular polyamines were not effective except under conditions that caused significant accumulation inside the cell. The data indicate that intracellular physiologic polyamines, especially spermine, decrease erythrocyte membrane deformability and stabilize the membrane skeleton, making it more resistant to fragmentation.

  11. A combined process of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment and membrane concentration for recovery of dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Kaur, Ishneet; Baktash, Mir Mojtaba; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-01-01

    To recover dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process, a new combined process concept of sequential steps of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment, and membrane concentration, was proposed. The removal of lignin in the PHL was achieved in the activated carbon adsorption step, which also facilitates the subsequent operations, such as the membrane filtration and ion exchange resin treatment. The ion exchange resin treatment resulted in the removal/concentration of acetic acid, which opens the door for acetic acid recovery. The membrane filtration is to recover/concentrate the dissolved sugars. The combined process resulted in the production of PHL-based concentrate with relatively high concentration of hemicellulosic sugars, i.e., 22.13%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation of Gas Permeability in a Metal-Organic Framework MIL-101(Cr)-Polysulfone Mixed-Matrix Membrane with Free Volume Measurements by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeazet, Harold B Tanh; Koschine, Tönjes; Staudt, Claudia; Raetzke, Klaus; Janiak, Christoph

    2013-10-25

    Hydrothermally stable particles of the metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) were incorporated into a polysulfone (PSF) matrix to produce mixed-matrix or composite membranes with excellent dispersion of MIL-101 particles and good adhesion within the polymer matrix. Pure gas (O2, N2, CO2 and CH4) permeation tests showed a significant increase of gas permeabilities of the mixed-matrix membranes without any loss in selectivity. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) indicated that the increased gas permeability is due to the free volume in the PSF polymer and the added large free volume inside the MIL-101 particles. The trend of the gas transport properties of the composite membranes could be reproduced by a Maxwell model.

  13. Correlation of Gas Permeability in a Metal-Organic Framework MIL-101(Cr)–Polysulfone Mixed-Matrix Membrane with Free Volume Measurements by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeazet, Harold B. Tanh; Koschine, Tönjes; Staudt, Claudia; Raetzke, Klaus; Janiak, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Hydrothermally stable particles of the metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) were incorporated into a polysulfone (PSF) matrix to produce mixed-matrix or composite membranes with excellent dispersion of MIL-101 particles and good adhesion within the polymer matrix. Pure gas (O2, N2, CO2 and CH4) permeation tests showed a significant increase of gas permeabilities of the mixed-matrix membranes without any loss in selectivity. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) indicated that the increased gas permeability is due to the free volume in the PSF polymer and the added large free volume inside the MIL-101 particles. The trend of the gas transport properties of the composite membranes could be reproduced by a Maxwell model. PMID:24957061

  14. Selective retention of 147Pm in skeleton and its injury effect on immune cells of bone marrow studied by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Xia Fen; Yang Shuqin

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of the present study is to ascertain the retention reculiarity in organism by varying doses of 147 Pm and its injury effect on immune cells of bone marrow. The experimental groups of BALB/C strain mice were injected intravenously with 37, 1.85 x 10 2 , 9.25 x 10 2 , 3.7 x 10 3 , 1.85 x 10 4 and 1.85 x 10 5 Bq/g respectively. The radioactivities in liver, kidney, skeleton, lung and blood samples were determined by liquid scintillation. The results showed that the most of 147 Pm was deposited in skeleton, then in liver, blood, kidney and lung. The absorbed doses in skeleton increases as the intake of 147 Pm increases. At the same time, the incorporation of 3 H-TdR in immune cell of bone marrow is remarkably decreased. It shows, under the radiation of 147 Pm, the DNA synthesis function is inhibited, and the immune cell of bone marrow is seriously injured