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Sample records for membrane sealant prevents

  1. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs CDC SEALS Software CDC State Strategies: Preventing Tooth Decay CDC Oral Health Data Other Sites MedlinePlus – Child Dental Health MedlinePlus – Tooth Decay American Dental Association – Evidence-based clinical practice guideline ...

  2. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the October 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Dental sealants, applied soon after a child's permanent molars come in, can protect against cavities for up to nine years. Applying sealants in schools for low-income children could save millions in dental treatment costs.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  3. Sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Walsh, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental sealants were introduced in the 1960s to help prevent dental caries in the pits and fissures of mainly the occlusal tooth surfaces. Sealants act to prevent the growth of bacteria that can lead to dental decay. There is evidence to suggest that fissure sealants are effective...... in preventing caries in children and adolescents when compared to no sealants. Their effectiveness may be related to the caries prevalence in the population. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of different types of fissure sealants in preventing caries in permanent teeth in children and adolescents. SEARCH...... 2012). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of at least 12 months duration comparing sealants for preventing caries of occlusal or approximal surfaces of premolar or molar teeth with no sealant or different type of sealant in children and adolescents under 20 years...

  4. Sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Walsh, Tanya; Hiiri, Anne; Nordblad, Anne; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Worthington, Helen V

    2013-03-28

    Dental sealants were introduced in the 1960s to help prevent dental caries in the pits and fissures of mainly the occlusal tooth surfaces. Sealants act to prevent the growth of bacteria that can lead to dental decay. There is evidence to suggest that fissure sealants are effective in preventing caries in children and adolescents when compared to no sealants. Their effectiveness may be related to the caries prevalence in the population. To compare the effects of different types of fissure sealants in preventing caries in permanent teeth in children and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 1 November 2012); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 1 November 2012); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 1 November 2012); SCISEARCH, CAplus, INSPEC, NTIS and PASCAL via STN Easy (to 1 September 2012); and DARE, NHS EED and HTA (via the CAIRS web interface to 29 March 2012 and thereafter via Metaxis interface to September 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We also searched for ongoing trials via ClinicalTrials.gov (to 23 July 2012). Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of at least 12 months duration comparing sealants for preventing caries of occlusal or approximal surfaces of premolar or molar teeth with no sealant or different type of sealant in children and adolescents under 20 years of age. Two review authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) for caries or no caries on occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth. For trials with a split-mouth design, the Becker-Balagtas odds ratio was used. For mean caries increment we used the mean difference. All measures are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE methods. We conducted the meta-analyses using a random-effects model for those

  5. Pit and fissure sealants for preventing dental decay in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Walsh, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    compared two different sealant materials. Comparisons varied in terms of types of sealant assessed, outcome measures chosen and duration of follow-up. Adverse events: only four trials assessed adverse events. No adverse events were reported. Authors' conclusions: Resin-based sealants applied on occlusal...... in children and adolescents compared to no sealants. Effectiveness may, however, be related to caries incidence level of the population. This is an update of a review published in 2004, 2008 and 2013. Objectives: To compare the effects of different types of fissure sealants in preventing caries in occlusal......: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing sealants with no sealant or a different type of sealant material for preventing caries of occlusal surfaces of premolar or molar teeth in children and adolescents aged up to 20 years. Studies required at least 12 months follow-up. We excluded studies...

  6. Improving access to preventive dental services through a school-based dental sealant program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Dee; Henshaw, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The lack of access to preventive dental services, such as dental sealants, can be a major barrier to optimal dental health. School-based dental sealant programs can serve as programs to improve access to preventive dental services. This school-based dental sealant program managed by a Boston dental school with collaborating partners in the metro west area of Massachusetts provides free dental sealants to second grade children. The number of second grade children having dental sealants was tracked for 6 school years and compared with the Healthy People 2010 objective of 50% of all children aged 8 years to have at least 1 dental sealant. From school years 2003 to 2004 through 2008 to 2009, 1,609 dental screenings were provided for second grade children. Of those, 1,189 received dental sealants. To determine whether or not the Healthy People 2010 objective was met, the number of children who received dental sealants from the school-based program was added to the number of children who already had their permanent first molars sealed by their own dentist at the time of the dental screening, plus children with sealants per parent report. In total, the aggregate second grade enrollment having sealants during the designated school years was 54%. The specific Healthy People 2010 objective was achieved over the designated time period. School-based dental sealant programs can help to decrease or eliminate barriers for access to preventive dental services by increasing the number of children who receive dental sealants.

  7. Sealants and preventive restorations: review of effectiveness and clinical changes for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigal, R J

    1998-01-01

    Sealants are effective caries-preventive agents to the extent they remain bonded to teeth. Preventive resin restorations (PRR) have a proven record, but are susceptible to failure as the overlying sealant fails. Careful analyses of studies reveal a measurable failure rate of sealants (5-10% per year) that must be addressed. Even under the best of circumstances, sealants fail. Therefore, dentistry (as well as third-party systems) must accept that sealants need vigilant recall and proper preventive maintenance. In addition, it is clear that cost-effective use of sealants will involve selective application on teeth with the greatest caries risk. Caries risk analysis of the patient as well as the tooth is an essential step in the treatment planning process. To improve sealant success, new material advances are suggested. Data from studies using an intermediate layer of dentin bonding agent between etched enamel and sealant show dramatic reduction of failure for sealants, particularly in instances of molars judged difficult to seal due to early stage of eruption.

  8. Pit and fissure sealants for preventing dental decay in permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Walsh, Tanya; Nordblad, Anne; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Worthington, Helen V

    2017-07-31

    Dental sealants were introduced in the 1960s to help prevent dental caries, mainly in the pits and fissures of occlusal tooth surfaces. Sealants act to prevent bacteria growth that can lead to dental decay. Evidence suggests that fissure sealants are effective in preventing caries in children and adolescents compared to no sealants. Effectiveness may, however, be related to caries incidence level of the population. This is an update of a review published in 2004, 2008 and 2013. To compare the effects of different types of fissure sealants in preventing caries in occlusal surfaces of permanent teeth in children and adolescents. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 3 August 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 7), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 3 August 2016), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 3 August 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 3 August 2016. No restrictions were placed on language or date of publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing sealants with no sealant or a different type of sealant material for preventing caries of occlusal surfaces of premolar or molar teeth in children and adolescents aged up to 20 years. Studies required at least 12 months follow-up. We excluded studies that compared compomers to resins/composites. Two review authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We presented outcomes for caries or no caries on occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth as odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR). We used mean difference (MD) for mean caries increment. All measures were presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We conducted meta-analyses using a random-effects model for comparisons where there were more than three trials; otherwise we used the fixed

  9. Intracervical application of synthetic hydrogel sealant for preterm prelabor rupture of membranes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala; Daly, Sean; Griffin, Elizabeth; Gleeson, Noreen

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of prelabor rupture of membranes at 20 weeks' gestation where a hydrogel sealant was applied to the cervical canal in order to maintain an adequate liquor volume in the second trimester. The use of this agent for the purpose of creating plug has not been reported to date.

  10. Intracervical fibrin sealants: a potential treatment for early preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciscione, A C; Manley, J S; Pollock, M; Maas, B; Shlossman, P A; Mulla, W; Lankiewicz, M; Colmorgen, G H

    2001-02-01

    We report our experience with a transvaginally applied intracervical fibrin sealant at <24 weeks' gestation. This is an observational study of a referred patient population, with preterm premature rupture of the membranes at <24 weeks' gestation. Twelve women consented to our protocol. The mean gestational age at preterm premature rupture of membranes was 19 weeks 4 days (range, 13-23 weeks); the mean gestational age at treatment was 20 weeks 5 days (range, 17-23 weeks). All women had a diminution in the amount of amniotic fluid leakage with an increase in amniotic fluid index. Among the 12 pregnancies (13 fetuses), there were 7 surviving neonates. Two women had apparent "resealing" of the membranes. Fibrin sealants in midtrimester rupture of the membranes may lead to improved outcomes and now warrant formal evaluation.

  11. CDC Vital Signs–Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    This podcast is based on the October 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Dental sealants, applied soon after a child's permanent molars come in, can protect against cavities for up to nine years. Applying sealants in schools for low-income children could save millions in dental treatment costs.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  12. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, L A; Leal, S C; Mulder, J; Creugers, N H J; Frencken, J E

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was assessed at the tooth surface level, through a combination of ICDAS II (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) and fissure depth codes. High-caries risk occlusal surfaces were treated according to daily supervised toothbrushing (STB) at school and 2 sealants: composite resin (CR) and atraumatic restorative treatment-high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (ART-GIC). Low-caries risk occlusal surfaces received STB or no intervention. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 y. A cavitated dentine carious lesion was considered a failure. Data were analyzed according to the proportional hazard rate regression model with frailty correction, Wald test, analysis of variance, and t test, according to the jackknife procedure for calculating standard errors. The cumulative survival rates of cavitated dentine carious lesion-free, high-caries risk occlusal surfaces were 95.6%, 91.4%, and 90.2% for STB, CR, and ART-GIC, respectively, over 3 y, which were not statistically significantly different. For low-caries risk occlusal surfaces, no statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival rate of the STB group (94.8%) and the no-intervention group (92.1%) over 3 y. There was neither a difference among STB, CR, and ART-GIC on school premises in preventing cavitated dentine carious lesions in high-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars nor a difference between STB and no intervention for low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  13. School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Prevent Cavities And Are Cost-Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Susan; Naavaal, Shillpa; Scherrer, Christina; Griffin, Paul M; Harris, Kate; Chattopadhyay, Sajal

    2016-12-01

    Untreated cavities can have far-reaching negative consequences for people's ability to eat, speak, and learn. By adolescence, 27 percent of low-income children in the United States will have untreated cavities. School-based sealant programs typically provide dental sealants (a protective coating that adheres to the surface of molars) at little or no cost to students attending schools in areas with low socioeconomic status. These programs have been shown to increase the number of students receiving sealants and to prevent cavities. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of school sealant programs using data (from school programs in fourteen states between 2013 and 2014) on children's cavity risk, including the effects of untreated cavities on a child's quality of life. We found that providing sealants in school programs to 1,000 children would prevent 485 fillings and 1.59 disability-adjusted life-years. School-based sealant programs saved society money and remained cost-effective across a wide range of reasonable values. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Pit and fissure sealants versus fluoride varnishes for preventing dental decay in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiiri, Anne; Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Nordblad, Anne

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of the detected increment in dental caries among children and adolescents is confined to pit and fissure surfaces of first molars. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes in the prevention...... of dental decay on occlusal surfaces. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and 10 other databases were searched to November 2009. There were no language or publication restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Random or quasi-random allocation study design......; sealants versus fluoride varnish or sealants and fluoride varnish combination versus fluoride varnish alone; and subjects under 20 years of age. The primary outcome of interest was the increment in the numbers of carious occlusal surfaces of permanent premolars and molars. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  15. Caries-preventive effect of sealants produced with altered glass-ionomer materials, after 2 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Du, M.Q.; Fan, M.W.; Mulder, J.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the caries-preventive effect of sealants produced with a high-viscosity glass-ionomer with an elevated powder-liquid ratio (ART), of having energy added to this glass-ionomer, and that of glass-carbomer, in comparison to that of resin

  16. Sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Walsh, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    of age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) for caries or no caries on occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth. For trials with a split-mouth design, the Becker......-Balagtas odds ratio was used. For mean caries increment we used the mean difference. All measures are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE methods. We conducted the meta-analyses using a random-effects model for those comparisons where there were......, outcomes, time of outcomes reported and background fluoride exposure if this was reported.Fifteen trials compared glass ionomer with resin sealants and there is insufficient evidence to make any conclusions about the superiority of either of the two materials. Although there were 15 trials the event rate...

  17. Dental sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit and fissure sealants ... that your bite is not right Lose your sealant ... American Dental Association. Dental sealants. Updated October 19, 2016. ADA.org Web site. www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/dental-sealants . ...

  18. Pit and fissure sealants versus fluoride varnishes for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Hiiri, Anne; Nordblad, Anne; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2016-01-18

    Most of the detected increment in dental caries among children and adolescents is confined to occlusal surfaces of posterior permanent molars. Dental sealants and fluoride varnishes are much used preventive options for caries. Although the effectiveness of sealants and fluoride varnishes for controlling caries as compared with no intervention has been demonstrated in clinical trials and summarised in systematic reviews, the relative effectiveness of these two interventions remains unclear. This review is an update of one first published in 2006 and last updated in 2010. Primary objective • To evaluate the relative effectiveness of fissure sealants compared with fluoride varnishes, or fissure sealants together with fluoride varnishes compared with fluoride varnishes alone, for preventing dental caries in the occlusal surfaces of permanent teeth of children and adolescents. Secondary objectives • To evaluate whether effectiveness is influenced by sealant material type and length of follow-up.• To document and report on data concerning adverse events associated with sealants and fluoride varnishes. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 18 December 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 11), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 18 December 2015) and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 18 December 2015). We also searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We screened the reference lists of identified trials and review articles for additional relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials with at least 12 months of follow-up comparing fissure sealants, or fissure sealants together with fluoride varnishes, versus fluoride varnishes for

  19. Effectiveness of fluoride sealant in the prevention of carious lesions around orthodontic brackets: an OCT evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This article aimed to evaluate in vitro the efficiency of Pro Seal fluoride sealant application in the prevention of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets. Material and Methods: Brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of bovine incisors, and five groups were formed (n = 15 according to the exposure of teeth to oral hygiene substances and the application of enamel sealant: G1 (control, only brushing was performed with 1.450 ppm fluoride; G2 (control brushing associated with the use of mouthwash with 225 ppm fluoride; G3, only Pro Seal sealant application was performed with 1.000 ppm fluoride; G4 Pro Seal associated with brushing; G5 Pro Seal associated with brushing and mouthwash. Experimental groups alternated between pH cycling and the procedures described. All specimens were kept at a temperature of 37 °C throughout the entire experiment. Both brushing and immersion in solutions were performed within a time interval of one minute, followed by washing in deionized water three times a day for 28 days. Afterwards, an evaluation by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT of the spectral type was performed. In each group, a scanning exam of the white spot lesion area (around the sites where brackets were bonded and depth measurement of carious lesions were performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied to determine whether there were significant differences among groups. For post hoc analysis, Tukey test was used. Results: There was statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.003, 1 and 3 (p = 0.008, 1 and 4 (p = 0.000 and 1 and 5 (p = 0.000. The group in which only brushing was performed (Group 1 showed deeper enamel lesion. Conclusion: Pro Seal sealant alone or combined with brushing and/or brushing and the use of a mouthwash with fluoride was more effective in protecting enamel, in comparison to brushing alone.

  20. Pit and fissure sealants in the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpazhooh, Amir; Main, Patricia A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the evidence for sealants as a means to prevent caries in children and adolescents and, in the presence of suitable supporting evidence, to develop a protocol for the application of sealants. Previous systematic reviews on this topic were used as the basis for the current review. Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL and several other relevant bibliographic databases were searched for English-language articles, with human subjects, published from 2000 to 2007. A total of 303 articles were identified by the literature search; relevance was determined by examining the title and abstract of the articles. Thirty-eight original research studies met the inclusion criteria. These articles were read in full and scored independently by 2 reviewers, and evidence was extracted for development of recommendations. The following recommendations are based on the evidence gathered in this review: 1. Sealants should be placed on all permanent teeth without cavitation (i.e., teeth that are free of caries, teeth that have deep pit and fissure morphology, teeth with "sticky" fissures or teeth with stained grooves) as soon after eruption as isolation can be achieved. 2. Sealants should not be placed on partially erupted teeth or teeth with cavitation or caries of the dentin. 3. Sealants should be placed on the primary molars of children who are susceptible to caries (i.e., those with a history of caries). 4. Sealants should be placed on first and second molars within 4 years after eruption. 5. Resin-based sealants should be preferred, until such time as glass ionomer cements with better retention capacity are developed. 6. Sealants should be placed as part of an overall prevention strategy based on assessment of caries risk.

  1. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgert, L.A.; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was

  2. Efficacy of Quilting Sutures and Fibrin Sealant Together for Prevention of Seroma in Extended Latissimus Dorsi Flap Donor Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Soo Shin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The extended latissimus dorsi flap is important for breast reconstruction.Unfortunately, donor site seroma is the most common complication of extended latissimusdorsi flap for breast reconstruction. Although using fibrin sealant in the donor site reducesthe rate of seroma formation, donor site seroma remains a troublesome complication. Thepurpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the combination of quilting suturesand fibrin sealant in the latissimus dorsi donor site for the prevention of seroma.Methods Forty-six patients who underwent breast reconstruction with extended latissimusflap were enrolled in the study. The patients received either fibrin sealant (group 1, n=25 or acombination of fibrin sealant and quilting sutures (group 2, n=21 in the extended latissimusdorsi donor site. Outcome measures were obtained from the incidence, volume of postoperativeseroma, total drainage amount, indwelling period of drainage, and duration of hospital stay.Results The incidence of seroma was 76% in group 1 and 42.9% in group 2 (P=0.022. We alsofound significant reductions in seroma volume (P=0.043, total drainage amount (P=0.002,indwelling period of drainage (P=0.01, and frequency of aspiration (P=0.043. The quiltingsutures did not affect the rate of drainage, tube reinsertion, or hospital stay.Conclusions The use of quilting sutures combined with fibrin sealant on the latissimus dorsiflap donor site is helpful for reducing the overall seroma volume, frequency of aspiration, andtotal drainage amount.

  3. Pit and fissure sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Hiiri, Anne; Nordblad, Anne

    2008-01-01

    for comparison of sealant versus sealant. Five split-mouth studies and one parallel group study with 5 to 10 year old children found a significant difference in favour of second or third generation resin-based sealants on first permanent molars, compared to a control without sealant, with a pooled RR of 0.13 (95....... SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3) and MEDLINE (to October 2007); EMBASE (to June 2007); SCISEARCH, CAplus, INSPEC, NTIS, PASCAL, DARE, NHS EED and HTA (to February 2008). There were no language or publication...

  4. Efficacy of Quilting Sutures and Fibrin Sealant Together for Prevention of Seroma in Extended Latissimus Dorsi Flap Donor Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Soo Shin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe extended latissimus dorsi flap is important for breast reconstruction. Unfortunately, donor site seroma is the most common complication of extended latissimus dorsi flap for breast reconstruction. Although using fibrin sealant in the donor site reduces the rate of seroma formation, donor site seroma remains a troublesome complication. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the combination of quilting sutures and fibrin sealant in the latissimus dorsi donor site for the prevention of seroma.MethodsForty-six patients who underwent breast reconstruction with extended latissimus flap were enrolled in the study. The patients received either fibrin sealant (group 1, n=25 or a combination of fibrin sealant and quilting sutures (group 2, n=21 in the extended latissimus dorsi donor site. Outcome measures were obtained from the incidence, volume of postoperative seroma, total drainage amount, indwelling period of drainage, and duration of hospital stay.ResultsThe incidence of seroma was 76% in group 1 and 42.9% in group 2 (P=0.022. We also found significant reductions in seroma volume (P=0.043, total drainage amount (P=0.002, indwelling period of drainage (P=0.01, and frequency of aspiration (P=0.043. The quilting sutures did not affect the rate of drainage, tube reinsertion, or hospital stay.ConclusionsThe use of quilting sutures combined with fibrin sealant on the latissimus dorsi flap donor site is helpful for reducing the overall seroma volume, frequency of aspiration, and total drainage amount.

  5. Comparison of Caries Prevention With Glass Ionomer and Composite Resin Fissure Sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Akbay Oba

    2009-11-01

    Conclusion: Under field conditions in which moisture control was not effective, a high-viscosity and less technique-sensitive glass ionomer material can be used as an effective sealant material, rather than resin.

  6. Caries preventive efficacy of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) and ART sealants in a school-based daily fluoride toothbrushing program in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monse, Bella; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Mulder, Jan; Holmgren, Christopher; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim H

    2012-11-21

    Occlusal surfaces of erupting and newly erupted permanent molars are particularly susceptible to caries.The objective of the study was to assess and compare the effect of a single application of 38% SDF with ART sealants and no treatment in preventing dentinal (D3) caries lesions on occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars of school children who participated in a daily school-based toothbrushing program with fluoride toothpaste. The prospective community clinical trial in the Philippines was conducted over a period of 18 months and included 704 six- to eight-year-old school children in eight public elementary schools with a daily school-based fluoride toothpaste brushing program. Children were randomly assigned for SDF application or ART sealant treatment. Children from two of the eight schools did not receive SDF or ART sealant treatment and served as controls. SDF or ART sealant treatment was applied on sound occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars. Surfaces that were originally defined as sound at baseline but which changed to dentinal (D3) caries lesions were defined as surfaces with new caries (caries increment). Non-compliance to the daily toothbrushing program in three schools offered the opportunity to analyze the caries preventive effect of SDF and sealants separately in fluoride toothpaste brushing and in non-toothbrushing children. In the brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group was comparable with the non-treatment group but caries increment in the sealant group was lower than in the non-treatment group with a statistically significant lower hazard ratio of 0.12 (0.02-0.61). In the non-brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group and the sealant group was lower than the non-treatment group but the hazard ratio was only statistically significant for the sealant group (HR 0.33; 0.20-0.54). Caries increment was lower in toothbrushing children than in non-toothbrushing children. Hazard ratios reached statistical

  7. Caries preventive efficacy of silver diammine fluoride (SDF and ART sealants in a school-based daily fluoride toothbrushing program in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monse Bella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occlusal surfaces of erupting and newly erupted permanent molars are particularly susceptible to caries. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the effect of a single application of 38% SDF with ART sealants and no treatment in preventing dentinal (D3 caries lesions on occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars of school children who participated in a daily school-based toothbrushing program with fluoride toothpaste. Methods The prospective community clinical trial in the Philippines was conducted over a period of 18 months and included 704 six- to eight-year-old school children in eight public elementary schools with a daily school-based fluoride toothpaste brushing program. Children were randomly assigned for SDF application or ART sealant treatment. Children from two of the eight schools did not receive SDF or ART sealant treatment and served as controls. SDF or ART sealant treatment was applied on sound occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars. Surfaces that were originally defined as sound at baseline but which changed to dentinal (D3 caries lesions were defined as surfaces with new caries (caries increment. Non-compliance to the daily toothbrushing program in three schools offered the opportunity to analyze the caries preventive effect of SDF and sealants separately in fluoride toothpaste brushing and in non-toothbrushing children. Results In the brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group was comparable with the non-treatment group but caries increment in the sealant group was lower than in the non-treatment group with a statistically significant lower hazard ratio of 0.12 (0.02-0.61. In the non-brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group and the sealant group was lower than the non-treatment group but the hazard ratio was only statistically significant for the sealant group (HR 0.33; 0.20-0.54. Caries increment was lower in toothbrushing children than in non

  8. [Clinical evaluation of fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Pei-hong; Xu, Quan-lin; Ba, Yong

    2007-08-01

    To study the clinical effect of the fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children. 622 health permanent teeth in 6-8 years old children were divided into three groups. Children in the experimental group A (n=207,335 teeth) underwent fluor protector every six months, experimental group B(n=205, 327 teeth) with glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant and children in the control group(n=210, 354 teeth) underwent no treatment. The incidence of caries were compared among the three groups using SPSS10.0 software package after 3 years. After 3 years, the incidence of caries in A and B experimental groups were lower than in the control group, the difference was significant (P0.05). Fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant also have good clinical effect in preventing caries.

  9. Effect of an Antibacterial Monomer on the Antibacterial Activity of a Pit-and-Fissure Sealant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yu

    Full Text Available Resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants are often used to form a barrier on the occlusal surface of molars to treat caries lesions; however, bacteria can remain in the pit and fissures without detection, increasing the risk of secondary caries. Sealants with antimicrobial properties or microbial repellent actions might be advantageous. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of a 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB-incorporated sealant against Streptococcus mutans. MAE-DB (4% wt was incorporated into a commercially available sealant, Eco-S resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant (Vericom Co., Ltd., Korea; a sealant without MAE-DB served as a negative control, and Clinpro™ Sealant (3M™ ESPE™, a fluoride-releasing resin, was used as a commercial control. The effects of the cured sealants and their eluents on the growth of S. mutans were determined according to colony-forming unit counts and metabolic tests. The effects of the cured sealants on the adherence and membrane integrity of S. mutans were investigated using confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM in conjunction with fluorescent indicators. Compared with the negative control and commercial control, the cured MAE-DB-incorporated pit-and-fissure sealant exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans (P < 0.05, whereas the eluents did not show any detectable antibacterial activity. The commercial control also showed no detectable bactericidal activity. Moreover, the aged experimental material retained its property of contact inhibition of biofilm formation. The fluorescence analysis of CLSM images demonstrated that the cured MAE-DB-incorporated sealant could hamper the adherence of S. mutans and exert a detrimental effect on bacterial membrane integrity. The incorporation of MAE-DB can render a pit-and-fissure sealant with contact antibacterial activity after polymerization via influencing the growth, adherence, and membrane

  10. Dental Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that protect the chewing surfaces of children’s back teeth from tooth decay. Overall, the prevalence of sealants in children’s and adolescent’s teeth has increased since the early 1970s. In spite ...

  11. Effect of Silver Nanoparticle-Added Pit and Fissure Sealant in the Prevention of Dental Caries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-López, Enid Karina; Pierdant-Pérez, Mauricio; Hernández-Sierra, Juan Francisco; Ruíz, Facundo; Mandeville, Peter; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury J

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pit and fissure sealant mixed with silver nanoparticles on dental caries, by means of monthly measurement of fluorescence with DIAGNOdent over six months. This study was divided in two phases: experimental and clinical. In the experimental phase, the adhesion and microleakage of the pit and fissure sealant experiment were evaluated. Two groups of 10 teeth, without serious carious lesions, were included. Conventional (group A) and silver nanoparticles (group B) were added to the pit and fissure sealant. For the clinical phase, a split-mouth study was performed on 40 children aged 6-10 years old with healthy, erupted permanent first molars. A conventional pit and fissure sealant or a silver nanoparticle-mixed sealant was randomly placed. Repeated measures analysis was performed. Conventional sealant presented an average microleakage of 30.6%, and the silver nanoparticle-mixed sealant showed 33.6% (P=NS). A three times greater reduction in fluorescence was found in the silver nanoparticles group compared to the conventional group (Psilver nanoparticle-mixed sealant reduced tooth demineralization significantly and likely increased remineralization, compared to the conventional sealant.

  12. Increase in utilization of dental sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Anty

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore how to increase utilization of dental sealants to reach the national 50% sealant objective as stated in the Healthy People 2010 document. Dental decay is the most common chronic childhood disease. A simple, cost-effective preventive measure to manage this disease is through sealant application. Although dental sealants are effective in reducing the risk of having dental decay, their rate of utilization among children and adolescents is below the objective set forth by the Healthy People 2010 document. This is related to the lack of public awareness, patient education, and inadequate reimbursement for sealants served by third-party insurers. Dental decay is the most common chronic childhood disease. Dental sealants are a simple, cost-effective preventive measure to manage this disease. In order to meet the national 50% sealant objective of the Healthy People 2010 document, public awareness and the education of consumers about the benefit of having dental sealants must be improved. Third-party insurers must improve the benefits for subscribers seeking dental sealant services. Using these approaches, the utilization of dental sealants will improve the oral health among the next generation of Americans.

  13. The state-of-the-art of ART sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E

    2014-03-01

    Sealing caries-prone pits and fissure systems is an effective caries-preventive measure. There are basically two types of sealant materials: glass-ionomer and resin-based materials. Low- and medium-viscosity glass-ionomers were initially used and showed a low level of retention. With the advent of the ART approach in the mid-nineties, high-viscosity glass-ionomers were introduced as sealant material and the retention rate of ART sealants increased substantially. As the effectiveness of a sealant is measured by its capacity to prevent (dentine) carious lesion development, sealant retention is considered a surrogate endpoint. The ART sealant protocol is described. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis covering low- medium- and high-viscosity glass-ionomer (ART) sealants have concluded that there is no evidence that either glass-ionomer or resin-based sealants prevent dentine carious lesions better. The annual dentine carious lesion development in teeth with high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART sealants over the first three years is 1%. These ART sealants have a high capacity of preventing carious lesion development. Because no electricity and running water is required, ART sealants can be placed both inside and outside the dental surgery. High-viscosity glass-ionomer ART sealants can be used alongside resin-based sealants.41:119-124

  14. Caries-Preventive Effect of High-Viscosity Glass Ionomer and Resin-Based Fissure Sealants on Permanent Teeth: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    Full Text Available Glass-ionomers are traditionally regarded to be inferior to resin as fissure sealants in protecting teeth from dental caries, due to their comparatively lower retention rate. Unlike low-viscosity glass-ionomers, high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGIC are placed as sealants by pressing the material into pits and fissures with a petroleum-jelly-coated index finger. Hence, HVGIC sealants are assumed to penetrate pits and fissures deeper, resulting in a higher material retention rate, which may increase its caries-preventive effect.The aim of this review was to answer the question as to whether, in patients with fully erupted permanent molar teeth, HVGIC based fissure sealants are less effective to protect against dental carious lesions in occlusal pits and fissures than resin-based fissure sealants? A systematic literature search in eight databases was conducted. Heterogeneity of accepted trials and imprecision of the established evidence were assessed. Extracted sufficiently homogenous datasets were pooled by use of a random-effects meta-analysis. Internal trial validity was evaluated. The protocol of this systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO / Nr.: CRD42015016007.Seven clinical trials were provisionally included for further review. Of these, one was excluded. Seven trial reports reporting on six trials were accepted. From these, 11 datasets were extracted and pooled in four meta-analyses. The results suggest no statistically significant differences after up to 48 months and borderline significant differences in favour of HVGIC sealants after 60 months (RR 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09-0.95; p = 0.04 / RD -0.07; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.01. The point estimates and upper confidence levels after 24, 36, 48 and 60 months of RR 1.36; RR 0.90; RR 0.62; RR 0.29 and 2.78; 1.67; 1.21; 0.95, respectively, further suggest a chronological trend in favour of HVGIC above resin-based sealants. The

  15. Changes in Caries Experience, Untreated Caries, Sealant Prevalence, and Preventive Behavior Among Third-Graders in New York State, 2002–2004 and 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Vinicius; Kandhari, Priyanka; Moss, Mark; Jolaoso, I. Adeyemi

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study assessed changes in caries experience, untreated caries, sealant prevalence, and preventive behavior among third-grade children in New York State to monitor progress toward state health objectives. Methods We analyzed children's data from the 2002–2004 (n=10,865) and 2009–2012 (n=6,758) New York State Oral Health Survey. We calculated differences in weighted percentages and 95% confidence intervals for caries experience, untreated caries, sealant prevalence, and preventive behavior. We used logistic regression procedures to assess the independent effects and interaction terms on dental caries experience. Results The percentage of children with dental caries and untreated caries decreased from 54.1% and 33.0% in 2002–2004 to 45.2% and 23.6% in 2009–2012, respectively. While this decrease was not uniform across income subgroups, the prevalence of sealants, a key measure of the use of preventive services, increased significantly from 16.7% to 36.0% among lower-income children. Conclusions Measurable improvement in reducing dental caries prevalence among third-grade children has been made in New York State, but this improvement was not uniform across subgroups. Specifically, disease prevalence among lower-income children remained high, underscoring the need to strengthen existing programs and identify additional policy and programmatic interventions. PMID:26346760

  16. Plasma membrane disruption: repair, prevention, adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Steinhardt, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Many metazoan cells inhabit mechanically stressful environments and, consequently, their plasma membranes are frequently disrupted. Survival requires that the cell rapidly repair or reseal the disruption. Rapid resealing is an active and complex structural modification that employs endomembrane as its primary building block, and cytoskeletal and membrane fusion proteins as its catalysts. Endomembrane is delivered to the damaged plasma membrane through exocytosis, a ubiquitous Ca2+-triggered response to disruption. Tissue and cell level architecture prevent disruptions from occurring, either by shielding cells from damaging levels of force, or, when this is not possible, by promoting safe force transmission through the plasma membrane via protein-based cables and linkages. Prevention of disruption also can be a dynamic cell or tissue level adaptation triggered when a damaging level of mechanical stress is imposed. Disease results from failure of either the preventive or resealing mechanisms.

  17. Economic evaluation of dental sealants: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlotan, Marvellous; Chen, Bradley; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Chen, Annie; Fan, Victoria Y

    2018-02-01

    To systematically review the literature on economic evaluations of dental sealants and examine the costs and effectiveness of caries prevention using sealants. Of 21 full-text articles examined, a total of 13 were included in this study. These studies are grouped by the type of intervention as follows: (i) sealants compared with no sealants; (ii) sealants compared with other forms of caries prevention; (iii) resin-based sealants compared with glass-ionomer sealants; (iv) different sealing strategies in primary teeth; (v) different sealing strategies in permanent teeth; and (vi) sealants based on school- or clinic-based setting of delivery. All currency is reported in constant 2010 US$. Cost-effectiveness analyses differed due to varying study designs, assumptions, sealant delivery settings, outcomes, caries risk assessment and study durations. Findings varied on the cost-effectiveness of sealants compared with other caries-preventive strategies. Under the assumption of equal caries risk, always sealing primary molars appeared to be the most effective strategy, whereas risk-based sealing was the optimal strategy with differing caries risk. Studies that assessed sealing strategies in permanent teeth reported that risk-based sealing was more cost-effective than not sealing, but they differed on the cost-effectiveness of risk-based seal compared with non-risk-based seal. Sealants delivered in school settings had mixed results on costs but were as equally effective as sealants delivered in private practices. The cost-effectiveness of sealants is dependent on the conditions of delivery. The list of cost-effectiveness ratios for each intervention can support policy makers to estimate expected returns on their investments in dental sealants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Use of sealants: societal and professional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, P J

    1984-02-01

    At present, sealant use continues at a low level in private practice by dentists and hygienists, and is moderate in community programs although there is high interest in their use in public health settings. Widespread delegation of sealant application to hygienists has not occurred even though the majority of state dental practice acts allow it, and even though practicing hygienists are highly interested in applying sealants. Use in federally sponsored programs is minimal or nonexistent. Information about sealants and adequate clinical experience in their application appear minimal in dental training institutions, and few opportunities have existed for continuing education. Generally, knowledge about sealants among dentists is low; many hold doubtful opinions. Insurance carriers, including commercial, provider, and governmental programs, appear reluctant to reimburse for sealants without purchaser demand and organized dentistry's blessings. Although society emphasizes patient rights to informed consent, few opportunities exist for the public, including group insurance purchasers and union negotiators, to learn about sealant use in conjunction with appropriate fluoride use. Public educational materials are sparse. Manufacturer marketing efforts at present, aimed at providers alone, are at best minimal, with a few exceptions; those targeting the public are nonexistent. Organized dentistry's Council statements may have contributed to a constriction, to date, in the flow of public information about sealants from industry. Lack of communication, or miscommunication, between practitioners and dental scientists has resulted in much misinformation and confusion about the value of sealants and their use. And, the contemporary status of dental manpower and the economy of dental practice in the private sector appear to have provided an infertile environment for acceptance of sealants as a primary preventive technology. In the public sector, interest in sealants is high but

  19. Performance-Based Evaluation of Joint Sealants for Concrete Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Khuri, Ramzi Emile

    1998-01-01

    Pavement concrete joints are the weakest locations in concrete pavement systems. They are man-made cracks to accommodate concrete slab expansion and contraction due to temperature fluctuations. Sealant is usually used in pavement joints to prevent roadway debris, deicing chemicals, and moisture from entering the joint. When sealant fails, the pavement deteriorates rapidly; and when joint sealant performs adequately, the pavement preserves its intended performance. In the field, joint seala...

  20. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors

  1. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclennan Graeme

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making, and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT, timeline acute (CS-SRM, and outcome expectancy (SCT entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT and attitude (TPB entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for

  2. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Johnston, Marie; Clarkson, Jan E; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Glidewell, Liz; Walker, Anne

    2010-04-08

    Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value. Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour

  3. Prevention of lymphocele by using gelatin-thrombin matrix as a tissue sealant after pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with gynecologic cancers: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Hwan; Shin, Hyun Joo; Ju, Woong; Kim, Seung Cheol

    2017-05-01

    This prospective randomized controlled pilot study aimed to find whether gelatin-thrombin matrix used as a tissue sealant (FloSeal) can prevent the occurrence of pelvic lymphocele in patients with gynecologic cancer who has undergone pelvic lymphadenectomy. Each patient, who undergo a laparotomic pelvic lymph node dissection on both sides, was randomly assigned for FloSeal application on 1 side of the pelvis. The other side of the pelvis without any product application being the control side. The amount of lymph drainage at each side of the pelvis was measured for 3 days, and computed tomography scans were obtained 7 days and 6 months after surgery for detection of pelvic lymphocele. Among 37 cases, the median amount of lymph drainage was significantly decreased in the hemi-pelvis treated with FloSeal compared to the control hemi-pelvis (p=0.025). The occurrence of lymphocele was considerably reduced in treated hemi-pelvis (8/37, 21.6%) compared with control hemi-pelvis (12/37, 32.4%) after 7 post-operative days (p=0.219), and more decreased in the treated hemi-pelvis (5/37, 13.5%) compared with control hemi-pelvis (9/37, 24.3%) after postoperative 6 months (p=0.344). The application of FloSeal as a tissue sealant in lymph nodes resected tissues can reduce the incidence of pelvic lymphocele in gynecologic cancer patients. A large randomized controlled study could confirm these preliminary results. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  4. 76 FR 51925 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... with other equipment reactors, distillation columns, evaporators, strippers and other similar [[Page... membrane installation and repair adhesives, single-ply roof membrane sealants, and single-ply roof membrane...

  5. Evaluation of a sealant intervention program among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Hsieh

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The application of pit-and-fissure sealants was 94.54% effective in preventing caries on newly erupted permanent molars among Taiwanese aboriginal schoolchildren. Complete sealant failure demonstrated a high risk for caries, and such teeth should immediately be resealed.

  6. Marginal Microleakage of Conventional Fissure Sealants and Self-Adhering Flowable Composite as Fissure Sealant in Permanent Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimian-Imam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Application of sealants is a safe and effective way to prevent occlusal caries in the posterior teeth. A successful sealant therapy depends on good isolation. Decreased steps of adhesive application may enable proper isolation and use of self-adhering flowable composites for sealant therapy. This study sought to compare the marginal microleakage of fissure sealants and self-adhering flowable composites in permanent teeth.Materials and Methods: This in vitro, experimental study was conducted on 60 extracted human premolar teeth. The teeth were divided randomly into two groups of 30. In the first group, fissure sealant (Clinpro, 3M ESPE, USA was placed on the teeth. In the second group, self-adhering flowable composite (Vertise Flow, Kerr, USA was applied as the sealant. Then, both groups were immersed in 0.5% fuchsin dye solution for 24 hours. Sectioned samples were observed with a stereomicroscope for the extent of dye penetration. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 and the Mann-Whitney test (P<0.05.Results: Microleakage in the fissure sealant group was significantly higher than that in the self-adhering flowable composite group (P<0.001.Conclusion: Microleakage was less using self-adhering flowable composite compared to conventional fissure sealant; therefore, self-adhering flowable composite can be used as a suitable fissure sealant in permanent teeth.

  7. Using an autologous fibrin sealant in the preventing of cerebrospinal fluid leak with large skull base defect following endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ali Erdem; Dursun, Engin; Ozdol, Cagatay; Divanlioglu, Denizhan; Nacar, Osman Arikan; Koyun, Oguz Kara; Ilmaz, Adil Ery; Belen, Ahmed Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak following endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This prospective study is the first evaluation of using autologous fibrin sealant for preventing postoperative CSF leak and related complications. 200 endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches were included in the study and reviewed retrospectively from September 2010 to June 2012. A total of 55 patients who have large skull base and diafragma sella defects, connected with basal cisterns or ventricles, were chosen for the study. The patients were operated via extended or classical endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. The skull base has been repaired using AFS combined with multilayer reconstruction in all cases. The incidence of CSF leak as a complication of EETS was analyzed. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 83 years (mean 49.3 years). There were 25 (46%) male patients and 30 (54%) females. All patients had tumors with suprasellar or parasellar extension. Postoperative CSF leak was determined in 2 patients (3.6%). There were no complications and allergic reactions associated with the use of AFS. Using of AFS combined with multilayer reconstruction technique is a safe and effective method to prevent CSF leak in large defects following EETS.

  8. Sealant Microleakage After Using Nano-Filled Bonding Agents on Saliva-Contaminated Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsa Paryab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The efficacy of correctly applied fissure sealants has been revealed in the prevention of caries. Saliva and moisture contamination of the etched enamel surface before sealant placement can decrease the bonding strength of the sealant to the enamel. The aim of this study was to test the new bonding agents containing nano-fillers in order to reduce the negative effect of saliva contamination on the sealant micro leakage.Materials and Methods: Seventy five sound human premolars were randomly assigned to five equal groups as follows: Group A: etching, sealant; Group B: etching, saliva contamination, sealant; Group C: etching, saliva contamination, Single bond, sealant; Group D: etching, saliva contamination, Adper Single bond 2, sealant; Group E: etching, saliva contamination, N Bond, sealant. The samples were thermo-cycled and immersed in basic fuchsine 0.5% by weight. Then, the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and parallel to the long axis into two segments. Finally, the length of dye penetration at the sealant-tooth interface was scored according to a four-point scale.Results: Micro-leakage was higher in group B compared to the other groups, while there were no differences among the evaluated dentin adhesives.Conclusion: The use of nano-filled bonding agents as an intermediate layer between the etched enamel and the sealant can reduce sealant micro-leakage after saliva contamination at the level of the uncontaminated enamel.

  9. Comparative study of resin sealant and resin modified glass ionomer as pit and fissure sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Malek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the marginal integrity of resin modified glass ionomer cement with that of resin sealant, in vitro. Forty artificial pit and fissure cavities were prepared in occlusal surface of extracted premolar teeth by using ¼ round carbide bur. Cavities were condensed with artificial organic debris followed by cleaning with prophylaxis pumice brush and paste and then separated into two treatment groups. In Group A, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin sealant and in Group B, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant. These specimens were subjected to thermo-cycling followed by dye penetration test. The remaining 5 cavities from each group were analyzed for debris score by the SEM. The results of the microleakage test showed that the efficacy of preventing microleakage of samples sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant was higher than the samples sealed by resin sealant. However, no significant differences were found. It can be concluded that use of resin modified glass ionomer sealant is a good alternative for sealing pits and fissures.

  10. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  11. Pit and fissure sealants in dental public health - application criteria and general policy in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervanto-Seppälä, Sari; Pietilä, Ilpo; Meurman, Jukka H; Kerosuo, Eero

    2009-02-04

    Pit and fissure sealants (sealants) are widely used as a non-operative preventive method in public dental health in Finland. Most children under 19 years of age attend the community-organized dental health services free of charge. The aims of this study were to find out to what extent sealants were applied, what the attitudes of dental professionals towards sealant application were, and whether any existing sealant policies could be detected among the health centres or among the respondents in general. The study evaluated changes that had taken place in the policies used during a ten year period (1991-2001). A questionnaire was mailed to each chief dental officer (CDO) of the 265 public dental health centres in Finland, and to a group of general dentists (GDP) applying sealants in these health centres, giving a total of 434 questionnaires with 22 questions. The response rate was 80% (N = 342). A majority of the respondents reported to application of sealants on a systematic basis for children with increased caries risk. The criteria for applying sealants and the actual strategies seemed to vary locally between the dentists within the health centres and between the health centres nationwide. The majority of respondents believed sealants had short- and long-term effects. The overall use of sealants decreased towards the end of the ten year period. The health centres (N = 28) choosing criteria to seal over detected or suspected enamel caries lesion had a DMFT value of 1.0 (SD +/- 0.49) at age 12 (year 2000) compared to a value of 1.2 (SD +/- 0.47) for those health centres (N = 177) applying sealants by alternative criteria (t-test, p sealant application criteria and policy both locally and nationwide. Occlusal caries management may be improved by shifting the sealant policy from the traditional approach of prevention to interception, i.e. applying the sealants over detected or suspected enamel caries lesions instead of sealing sound teeth.

  12. Ability of optical coherence tomography to detect caries beneath commonly used dental sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jennifer S; Osann, Kathryn; Pharar, Jessica; Lee, Kenneth; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Tucker, Travis; Sabet, Sharareh; Chen, Zhongping; Gukasyan, Ripsik; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2010-10-01

    The onset and progression of early tooth decay is often preventable with dental sealants. However, occasionally decay progresses underneath the sealant. Current technology does not permit monitoring of potential lesion progression or arrest. Dental sealants themselves mask the visual cues that identify early tooth decay, and radiographs are not sufficiently sensitive. Therefore, clinicians can be reluctant to use dental sealant. The objective of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the ability of dentists to detect decay beneath commonly used dental sealants using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. STUDY DESIGNS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Forty extracted teeth were divided into equal groups of carious and non-carious teeth, as determined by visual inspection. After radiographs and OCT imaging, teeth were randomly assigned for sealant placement with one of four commonly purchased dental sealants: Clinpro™, Fuji Triage™, Embrace Wet Bond™, and Delton™.Following sealant placement, teeth were radiographed, imaged with OCT, sectioned, examined histologically, and scored as healthy/not healthy. OCT and radiographic images were scored separately. The gold standard was histopathological diagnosis from the serial sections.Cohen's kappa, sensitivity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were computed for all measures. After 90 minutes training, pre-standardized dentists were able to detect tooth decay more accurately using OCT than with visual or radiographic examination. Detection using OCT was somewhat better prior to sealant placement than afterwards. This effect varied in size depending on the type of sealant used. Radiographic diagnosis was also less accurate after sealant placement. Of the four dental sealants, Delton provided excellent positive predictive value and the best post-sealant negative predictive values. In this ex vivo study, dentists were able to detect tooth decay beneath four commonly used dental sealants based on OCT images

  13. Effect of Adhesive Application on Sealant Success: A Clinical Study of Fifth and Seventh Generation Adhesive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Tandon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of fifth and seventh generation bonding agent on sealant success.Materials and Methods: Sixty-four school children aged six to nine years received sealants in four permanent molars in a split mouth design, such that each patient received sealant in the first permanent molar with fifth generation bonding agent in one arch and seventh generation bonding agent in the other arch; contra-lateral molars were sealed with sealant alone. The evaluation was carried out at baseline, three months, six months and 12 months, according to the criteria by Feigal et al, in 2000. Chi- square test was used to analyze data at P<0.05 level of significance.Results: Statistically significant differences were found for sealant retention between fifth generation and sealant group, and fifth generation and seventh generation groups; whereas, no significant difference was found for sealant retention between seventh generation and sealant group at three, six and 12 months.Conclusion: As separate etch and rinse steps are not required for seventh generation bonding agents, and almost similar results were obtained for both sealant and seventh generation groups, it can be concluded that application of sealant along with a seventh generation bonding agent may enhance sealant success and can be used for caries prevention in preventive programs.Key words:  Pit and Fissure Sealants; Dental Caries; Adhesives

  14. Sealants in dentistry: outcomes of the ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splieth, C H; Ekstrand, K R; Alkilzy, M

    2009-01-01

    Sealants are a successful tool in caries prevention, but their role in preventive strategies after the caries decline has to be discussed. A survey of paediatric departments across Europe revealed that indications for pit and fissure sealants vary considerably, both nationally and internationally...

  15. Signos Vitales de los CDC–Los selladores dentales previenen las caries (Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de octubre del 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los selladores dentales, que se aplican poco después de que les salgan las muelas permanentes a los niños, pueden protegerlos contra las caries hasta por nueve años. Aplicarles los selladores dentales a los niños de bajos ingresos en las escuelas podría ahorrar millones de dólares en costos de tratamientos.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  16. Prevention of calcium-induced membrane structural alterations in erythrocyte membranes by flunarizine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Peter G.; Zimmermann, A.G.; Verkleij, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    The calcium antagonist flunarizine is shown to be able to prevent particle aggregation, membrane aggregation and blebbing resulting from elevated calcium concentrations. The anti-ischemic effects of flunarizine may therefore result in part from its ability to directly interfere with calcium-membrane

  17. Seal or Varnish? A randomised controlled trial to determine the relative cost and effectiveness of pit and fissure sealant and fluoride varnish in preventing dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnutt, Ivor Gordon; Hutchings, Simon; Playle, Rebecca; Morgan-Trimmer, Sarah; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Aawar, Nadine; Angel, Lianna; Derrick, Sharron; Drew, Cheney; Hoddell, Ceri; Hood, Kerenza; Humphreys, Ioan; Kirby, Nigel; Lau, Tin Man Mandy; Lisles, Catherine; Morgan, Maria Zeta; Murphy, Simon; Nuttall, Jacqueline; Onishchenko, Kateryna; Phillips, Ceri; Pickles, Timothy; Scoble, Charlotte; Townson, Julia; Withers, Beverley; Chadwick, Barbara Lesley

    2017-04-01

    Fissure sealant (FS) and fluoride varnish (FV) have been shown to be effective in preventing dental caries when tested against a no-treatment control. However, the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions is unknown. To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FS and FV in preventing dental caries in first permanent molars (FPMs) in 6- and 7-year-olds and to determine their acceptability. A randomised controlled allocation-blinded clinical trial with two parallel arms. A targeted population programme using mobile dental clinics (MDCs) in schools located in areas of high social and economic deprivation in South Wales. In total, 1016 children were randomised, but one parent subsequently withdrew permission and so the analysis was based on 1015 children. The randomisation of participants was stratified by school and balanced for sex and primary dentition baseline caries levels using minimisation in a 1 : 1 ratio for treatments. A random component was added to the minimisation algorithm, such that it was not completely deterministic. Of the participants, 514 were randomised to receive FS and 502 were randomised to receive FV. Resin-based FS was applied to caries-free FPMs and maintained at 6-monthly intervals. FV was applied at baseline and at 6-month intervals over the course of 3 years. The proportion of children developing caries into dentine (decayed, missing, filled teeth in permanent dentition, i.e. D 4-6 MFT) on any one of up to four treated FPMs after 36 months. The assessors were blinded to treatment allocation; however, the presence or absence of FS at assessment would obviously indicate the probable treatment received. Economic measures established the costs and budget impact of FS and FV and the relative cost-effectiveness of these technologies. Qualitative interviews determined the acceptability of the interventions. At 36 months, 835 (82%) children remained in the trial: 417 in the FS arm and

  18. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; York, Cynthia A [Newington, CT; Waszczuk, Piotr [White Bear Lake, MN; Wieckowski, Andrzej [Champaign, IL

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  19. Sealants for preventing and arresting pit-and-fissure occlusal caries in primary and permanent molars: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials-a report of the American Dental Association and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John T; Tampi, Malavika P; Graham, Laurel; Estrich, Cameron; Crall, James J; Fontana, Margherita; Gillette, E Jane; Nový, Brian B; Dhar, Vineet; Donly, Kevin; Hewlett, Edmond R; Quinonez, Rocio B; Chaffin, Jeffrey; Crespin, Matt; Iafolla, Timothy; Siegal, Mark D; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso

    2016-08-01

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 data indicated that, in the United States, nearly one-fourth of children and over one-half of adolescents experienced dental caries in their permanent teeth. The purpose of this review was to summarize the available clinical evidence regarding the effect of dental sealants for the prevention and management of pit-and-fissure occlusal carious lesions in primary and permanent molars, compared with a control without sealants, with fluoride varnishes, or with other head-to head comparisons. The authors included parallel and split-mouth randomized controlled trials that included at least 2 years of follow-up, which they identified using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, LILACS, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and registers of ongoing trials. Pairs of reviewers independently conducted the selection of studies, data extraction, risk of bias assessments, and quality of the evidence assessments by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Of 2,869 records screened, the authors determined that 24 articles (representing 23 studies) proved eligible. Moderate-quality evidence suggested that participants who received sealants had a reduced risk of developing carious lesions in occlusal surfaces of permanent molars compared with those who did not receive sealants (odds ratio [OR], 0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-0.27) after 7 or more years of follow-up. When the authors compared studies whose investigators had compared sealants with fluoride varnishes, they found that sealants reduced the incidence of carious lesions after 7 or more years of follow-up (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07-0.51); however, this finding was supported by low-quality evidence. On the basis of the evidence, the authors could not provide a hierarchy of effectiveness among the studies whose investigators had conducted head-to-head comparisons. The investigators of 2 trials provided

  20. Durability of building joint sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. White; Kar Tean Tan; Donald L. Hunston; R. Sam Williams

    2009-01-01

    Predicting the service life of building joint sealants exposed to service environments in less than real time has been a need of the sealant community for many decades. Despite extensive research efforts to design laboratory accelerated tests to duplicate the failure modes occurring in field exposures, little success has been achieved using conventional durability...

  1. Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joskow, Renée; Barr, Dana Boyd; Barr, John R; Calafat, Antonia M; Needham, Larry L; Rubin, Carol

    2006-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common component of composites and dental sealants. The potential exists for human exposure after sealant placement. The authors prospectively enrolled 15 men in an exposure assessment study; 14 completed the study. After placement of clinically appropriate amounts of one of two sealants, the authors measured BPA in saliva and urine samples collected at prescribed intervals after the sealants were placed. They used selective and sensitive isotope-dilution mass-spectrometry-based methods for BPA measurements, thus providing the most reliable results. Helioseal F (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, N.Y.) leached negligible amounts of BPA. Urinary and salivary BPA levels in subjects who received these sealants were similar to baseline levels. Delton Light Cure (LC) Opaque pit-and-fissure sealant (Dentsply/Ash, York, Pa.) leached more BPA, resulting in low-level BPA exposures similar to those used in laboratory animal testing. BPA exposure after Delton LC sealant placement was significantly higher than exposure after placement of Helioseal F. Patients treated with Delton LC had significantly higher doses of BPA (110 microg) than did those treated with Helioseal F (5.5 microg) (P sealant resulted in low-level BPA exposure; however, exposure was negligible after placement of Helioseal F. Saliva collection after sealant placement likely reduced systemic absorption of BPA from dental sealants. Sealants should remain a useful part of routine preventive dental practice, especially those that leach negligible amounts of BPA. Dental sealants may be a point source for low-level BPA exposure at levels that show health effects in rodents. Further research is required to determine whether human exposure to BPA at these levels causes adverse effects.

  2. Retention of dental sealants placed on sound teeth and incipient caries lesions as part of a service-learning programme in rural areas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Pérez-Ferrera, Gloriana; Guido, Joseph A; Mantilla-Rodriguez, Andres A; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A

    2012-11-01

    Dental sealants are an effective treatment for the prevention and management of caries. To determine the retention of sealants placed in a rural setting in Mexico as part of an international service-learning (ISL) programme and to determine associations between dental sealant's retention and caries diagnosis at the time of sealant placement. Children aged 6-15 were examined for dental caries, received sealants by dental students as part of an ISL programme, and were re-examined 4, 2, or 1 years after placement to assess sealant survival. Sealants were placed on permanent sound surfaces and enamel caries lesions [International Caries Assessment and Detection System (ICDAS) criteria]. Sealant survival was explored using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests and multivariate prediction models. 219 (46%) of 478 (mean age = 10.53 SD = 5.11) children who had received sealants returned for a recall examination (mean age = 10.89 SD = 3.11). After 1-4 years, 96.4% to 60.6% of the sealants placed on sound teeth had survived, and for sealants placed on surfaces with enamel caries lesions (ICDAS 1-3), 94.2% to 55.6% had survived. Differences were not statistically significant. Sealants had survival rates comparable to those previously reported in the literature. Sealants placed on sound and enamel caries lesions had similar survival rates. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Fibrin Sealants in Dura Sealing: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Esposito

    Full Text Available Fibrin sealants are widely used in neurosurgery to seal the suture line, provide watertight closure, and prevent cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current efficacy and safety literature of fibrin sealants in dura sealing and the prevention/treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.A comprehensive electronic literature search was run in the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Resister of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE/PubMed, and EMBASE. Titles and abstracts of potential articles of interest were reviewed independently by 3 of the authors.A total of 1006 database records and additional records were identified. After screening for duplicates and relevance, a total of 78 articles were assessed by the investigators for eligibility. Thirty-eight were excluded and the full-text of 40 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. Seven of these included only safety data and were included in the safety assessment. The remaining 33 articles included findings from 32 studies that enrolled a total of 2935 patients who were exposed to fibrin sealant. Among these 33 studies there were only 3 randomized controlled trials, with the remaining being prospective cohort analysis, case controlled studies, prospective or retrospective case series. One randomized controlled trial, with 89 patients exposed to fibrin sealant, found a greater rate of intraoperative watertight dura closure in the fibrin sealant group than the control group (92.1% versus 38.0%, p0.05. Other clinical trials evaluated the effect of fibrin sealant in the postoperative prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. These were generally lower level evidence studies (ie, not prospective, randomized, controlled trials that were not designed or powered to demonstrate a significant advantage to fibrin sealant use. Two small case series studies evaluated the effect of fibrin sealants in

  4. Dental sealants: a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Robert

    2010-10-01

    This article discusses the oral health status of California children, including sealant prevalence, and reasons why sealants are underutilized, including current reimbursement levels. The article also explains similarities and differences between sealant use in private practice versus public health settings, as well as the effectiveness and economic aspects of school-based sealant programs. Finally, the article briefly discusses the advantages of combined topical fluoride and sealant programs in public health settings.

  5. Parametric Study of Sealant Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshimi

    It has become apparent in recent years the advancement of manufacturing processes in the aerospace industry. Sealant nozzles are a critical device in the use of fuel tank applications for optimal bonds and for ground service support and repair. Sealants has always been a challenging area for optimizing and understanding the flow patterns. A parametric study was conducted to better understand geometric effects of sealant flow and to determine whether the sealant rheology can be numerically modeled. The Star-CCM+ software was used to successfully develop the parametric model, material model, physics continua, and simulate the fluid flow for the sealant nozzle. The simulation results of Semco sealant nozzles showed the geometric effects of fluid flow patterns and the influences from conical area reduction, tip length, inlet diameter, and tip angle parameters. A smaller outlet diameter induced maximum outlet velocity at the exit, and contributed to a high pressure drop. The conical area reduction, tip angle and inlet diameter contributed most to viscosity variation phenomenon. Developing and simulating 2 different flow models (Segregated Flow and Viscous Flow) proved that both can be used to obtain comparable velocity and pressure drop results, however; differences are seen visually in the non-uniformity of the velocity and viscosity fields for the Viscous Flow Model (VFM). A comprehensive simulation setup for sealant nozzles was developed so other analysts can utilize the data.

  6. Sealants fight back aginst bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Mike

    2008-09-01

    Mike Moran, business development manager, Industrial Construction, at Bostik, explains how a range of new sealants increase protection in hospital bathrooms, shower rooms and kitchen facilities against healthcare-acquired infections.

  7. Use of rhamnolipid biosurfactant for membrane biofouling prevention and cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lan Hee; Jung, Yongmoon; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Chang-Min; Yu, Hye-Weon; Park, Hee-Deung; Kim, In S

    2015-01-01

    Rhamnolipids were evaluated as biofouling reducing agents in this study. The permeability of the bacterial outer membrane was increased by rhamnolipids while the growth rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not affected. The surface hydrophobicity was increased through the release of lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polymeric substances from the outer cell membrane. Rhamnolipids were evaluated as agents for the prevention and cleaning of biofilms. A high degree of biofilm detachment was observed when the rhamnolipids were used as a cleaning agent. In addition, effective biofilm reduction occurred when rhamnolipids were applied to various species of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from seawater samples. Biofilm reduction using rhamnolipids was comparable to commercially available surfactants. In addition, 20% of the water flux was increased after rhamnolipid treatment (300 μg ml(-1), 6 h exposure time) in a dead-end filtration system. Rhamnolipids appear to have promise as biological agents for reducing membrane biofouling.

  8. Indole prevents Escherichia coli cell division by modulating membrane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimerel, Catalin; Field, Christopher M.; Piñero-Fernandez, Silvia; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Summers, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Indole is a bacterial signalling molecule that blocks E. coli cell division at concentrations of 3–5 mM. We have shown that indole is a proton ionophore and that this activity is key to the inhibition of division. By reducing the electrochemical potential across the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli, indole deactivates MinCD oscillation and prevents formation of the FtsZ ring that is a prerequisite for division. This is the first example of a natural ionophore regulating a key biological process. Our findings have implications for our understanding of membrane biology, bacterial cell cycle control and potentially for the design of antibiotics that target the cell membrane. PMID:22387460

  9. Pit and fissure sealants in dental public health – application criteria and general policy in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurman Jukka H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pit and fissure sealants (sealants are widely used as a non-operative preventive method in public dental health in Finland. Most children under 19 years of age attend the community-organized dental health services free of charge. The aims of this study were to find out to what extent sealants were applied, what the attitudes of dental professionals towards sealant application were, and whether any existing sealant policies could be detected among the health centres or among the respondents in general. The study evaluated changes that had taken place in the policies used during a ten year period (1991–2001. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to each chief dental officer (CDO of the 265 public dental health centres in Finland, and to a group of general dentists (GDP applying sealants in these health centres, giving a total of 434 questionnaires with 22 questions. The response rate was 80% (N = 342. Results A majority of the respondents reported to application of sealants on a systematic basis for children with increased caries risk. The criteria for applying sealants and the actual strategies seemed to vary locally between the dentists within the health centres and between the health centres nationwide. The majority of respondents believed sealants had short- and long-term effects. The overall use of sealants decreased towards the end of the ten year period. The health centres (N = 28 choosing criteria to seal over detected or suspected enamel caries lesion had a DMFT value of 1.0 (SD ± 0.49 at age 12 (year 2000 compared to a value of 1.2 (SD ± 0.47 for those health centres (N = 177 applying sealants by alternative criteria (t-test, p Conclusion There seems to be a need for defined guidelines for sealant application criteria and policy both locally and nationwide. Occlusal caries management may be improved by shifting the sealant policy from the traditional approach of prevention to interception, i.e. applying the sealants

  10. Pit and fissure sealants in dental public health – application criteria and general policy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervanto-Seppälä, Sari; Pietilä, Ilpo; Meurman, Jukka H; Kerosuo, Eero

    2009-01-01

    Background Pit and fissure sealants (sealants) are widely used as a non-operative preventive method in public dental health in Finland. Most children under 19 years of age attend the community-organized dental health services free of charge. The aims of this study were to find out to what extent sealants were applied, what the attitudes of dental professionals towards sealant application were, and whether any existing sealant policies could be detected among the health centres or among the respondents in general. The study evaluated changes that had taken place in the policies used during a ten year period (1991–2001). Methods A questionnaire was mailed to each chief dental officer (CDO) of the 265 public dental health centres in Finland, and to a group of general dentists (GDP) applying sealants in these health centres, giving a total of 434 questionnaires with 22 questions. The response rate was 80% (N = 342). Results A majority of the respondents reported to application of sealants on a systematic basis for children with increased caries risk. The criteria for applying sealants and the actual strategies seemed to vary locally between the dentists within the health centres and between the health centres nationwide. The majority of respondents believed sealants had short- and long-term effects. The overall use of sealants decreased towards the end of the ten year period. The health centres (N = 28) choosing criteria to seal over detected or suspected enamel caries lesion had a DMFT value of 1.0 (SD ± 0.49) at age 12 (year 2000) compared to a value of 1.2 (SD ± 0.47) for those health centres (N = 177) applying sealants by alternative criteria (t-test, p sealant application criteria and policy both locally and nationwide. Occlusal caries management may be improved by shifting the sealant policy from the traditional approach of prevention to interception, i.e. applying the sealants over detected or suspected enamel caries lesions instead of sealing sound teeth

  11. The state-of-the-art of ART sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sealing caries-prone pits and fissure systems is an effective caries-preventive measure. There are basically two types of sealant materials: glass-ionomer and resin-based materials. Low- and medium-viscosity glass-ionomers were initially used and showed a low level of retention. With the advent of

  12. Characterization of low temperature mechanical properties of crack sealants utilizing direct tension test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Crack sealing has been widely used as a routine preventative maintenance practice. Given its proper : installation, crack sealants can extend pavement service life by three to five years. However, current : specifications for the selection of crack s...

  13. Characterization of low temperature creep properties of crack sealants using bending beam rehometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Crack sealing has been widely used as a routine preventative maintenance practice. Given its proper installation, crack sealants can extend : pavement service life by three to five years. However, current specifications for the selection of crack sea...

  14. Protocol for “Seal or Varnish?” (SoV trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the relative cost and effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants and fluoride varnish in preventing dental decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chestnutt Ivor Gordon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries remains a significant public health problem, prevalence being linked to social and economic deprivation. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible site in the developing permanent dentition. Cochrane reviews have shown pit and fissure sealants (PFS and fluoride varnish (FV to be effective over no intervention in preventing caries. However, the comparative cost and effectiveness of these treatments is uncertain. The primary aim of the trial described in this protocol is to compare the clinical effectiveness of PFS and FV in preventing dental caries in first permanent molars in 6-7 year-olds. Secondary aims include: establishing the costs and the relative cost-effectiveness of PFS and FV delivered in a community/school setting; examining the impact of PFS and FV on children and their parents/carers in terms of quality of life/treatment acceptability measures; and examining the implementation of treatment in a community setting. Methods/design The trial design comprises a randomised, assessor-blinded, two-arm, parallel group trial in 6–7 year old schoolchildren. Clinical procedures and assessments will be performed at 66 primary schools, in deprived areas in South Wales. Treatments will be delivered via a mobile dental clinic. In total, 920 children will be recruited (460 per trial arm. At baseline and annually for 36 months dental caries will be recorded using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS by trained and calibrated dentists. PFS and FV will be applied by trained dental hygienists. The FV will be applied at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The PFS will be applied at baseline and re-examined at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months, and will be re-applied if the existing sealant has become detached/is insufficient. The economic analysis will estimate the costs of providing the PFS versus FV. The process evaluation will assess implementation and

  15. Protocol for "Seal or Varnish?" (SoV) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the relative cost and effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants and fluoride varnish in preventing dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnutt, Ivor Gordon; Chadwick, Barbara Lesley; Hutchings, Simon; Playle, Rebecca; Pickles, Timothy; Lisles, Catherine; Kirkby, Nigel; Morgan, Maria Zeta; Hunter, Lindsay; Hodell, Ceri; Withers, Beverely; Murphy, Simon; Morgan-Trimmer, Sarah; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Phillips, Ceri; Nuttall, Jacqueline; Hood, Kerenza

    2012-11-20

    Dental caries remains a significant public health problem, prevalence being linked to social and economic deprivation. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible site in the developing permanent dentition. Cochrane reviews have shown pit and fissure sealants (PFS) and fluoride varnish (FV) to be effective over no intervention in preventing caries. However, the comparative cost and effectiveness of these treatments is uncertain. The primary aim of the trial described in this protocol is to compare the clinical effectiveness of PFS and FV in preventing dental caries in first permanent molars in 6-7 year-olds. Secondary aims include: establishing the costs and the relative cost-effectiveness of PFS and FV delivered in a community/school setting; examining the impact of PFS and FV on children and their parents/carers in terms of quality of life/treatment acceptability measures; and examining the implementation of treatment in a community setting. The trial design comprises a randomised, assessor-blinded, two-arm, parallel group trial in 6-7 year old schoolchildren. Clinical procedures and assessments will be performed at 66 primary schools, in deprived areas in South Wales. Treatments will be delivered via a mobile dental clinic. In total, 920 children will be recruited (460 per trial arm). At baseline and annually for 36 months dental caries will be recorded using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) by trained and calibrated dentists. PFS and FV will be applied by trained dental hygienists. The FV will be applied at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The PFS will be applied at baseline and re-examined at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months, and will be re-applied if the existing sealant has become detached/is insufficient. The economic analysis will estimate the costs of providing the PFS versus FV. The process evaluation will assess implementation and acceptability through acceptability scales, a schools

  16. Protocol for “Seal or Varnish?” (SoV) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the relative cost and effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants and fluoride varnish in preventing dental decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental caries remains a significant public health problem, prevalence being linked to social and economic deprivation. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible site in the developing permanent dentition. Cochrane reviews have shown pit and fissure sealants (PFS) and fluoride varnish (FV) to be effective over no intervention in preventing caries. However, the comparative cost and effectiveness of these treatments is uncertain. The primary aim of the trial described in this protocol is to compare the clinical effectiveness of PFS and FV in preventing dental caries in first permanent molars in 6-7 year-olds. Secondary aims include: establishing the costs and the relative cost-effectiveness of PFS and FV delivered in a community/school setting; examining the impact of PFS and FV on children and their parents/carers in terms of quality of life/treatment acceptability measures; and examining the implementation of treatment in a community setting. Methods/design The trial design comprises a randomised, assessor-blinded, two-arm, parallel group trial in 6–7 year old schoolchildren. Clinical procedures and assessments will be performed at 66 primary schools, in deprived areas in South Wales. Treatments will be delivered via a mobile dental clinic. In total, 920 children will be recruited (460 per trial arm). At baseline and annually for 36 months dental caries will be recorded using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) by trained and calibrated dentists. PFS and FV will be applied by trained dental hygienists. The FV will be applied at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The PFS will be applied at baseline and re-examined at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months, and will be re-applied if the existing sealant has become detached/is insufficient. The economic analysis will estimate the costs of providing the PFS versus FV. The process evaluation will assess implementation and acceptability through acceptability

  17. Indole prevents Escherichia coli cell division by modulating membrane potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chimerel, Catalin; Field, Christopher M.; Pi?ero-Fernandez, Silvia; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Summers, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Indole is a bacterial signalling molecule that blocks E. coli cell division at concentrations of 3?5?mM. We have shown that indole is a proton ionophore and that this activity is key to the inhibition of division. By reducing the electrochemical potential across the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli, indole deactivates MinCD oscillation and prevents formation of the FtsZ ring that is a prerequisite for division. This is the first example of a natural ionophore regulating a key biological proces...

  18. Uso de sellantes de fosas y fisuras para la prevención de caries en población infanto-juvenil: Methodological review of clinical trials Use of pit and fissure sealants for preventing caries in child population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Faleiros Chioca

    2013-04-01

    using complementary methods for its control. Pit and fissures sealants represent one of the most effective preventive interventions in dentistry, being considered as a contribution to the public health interventions. Nevertheless, there are no consistent evidences about their true effectiveness and impact in the prevention of caries. These inconsistencies could be due to the presence of bias or the heterogeneity of the studies available in literature. Thus, we propose to make a review with the aim to evaluate the methodological quality of clinical trials using pit and fissure sealants. A search of studies between 1990 and 2012 was conducted and 18 clinical trials that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were found. The studies included were obtained and evaluated by a single reviewer. This review concludes that the evidence that guarantees the use of this intervention is methodologically poor. These findings may stimulate the professionals to clarify the truth referring to the effectiveness of sealants, before applying it indiscriminately. The accomplishment of new clinical trials executed with an appropriate methodological design and statistical analysis is recommended, generating reliable results for the decision making that guides the Public Health Policies.

  19. Treatment outcomes and costs of dental sealants among children enrolled in Medicaid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, J A; Stearns, S C; Rozier, R G; Huang, C C

    2001-11-01

    This retrospective cohort analysis of children enrolled in the North Carolina Medicaid program compared the likelihood of restorative treatments and associated cumulative Medicaid expenditures for teeth with or without dental sealants. We assessed the dental experience of the cohort of 15 438 children from 1985 to 1992 on the basis of enrollment and claims files. We conducted regression analyses for outcomes (caries-related services involving the occlusal surface [CRSOs] of permanent first molars) and cumulative expenditures, controlling for characteristics of the child, the treating dentist, and the child's county of residence. Overall, 23% of children received at least 1 sealant and 33% at least 1 CRSO. Sealants were effective in preventing CRSOs, although the degree of effectiveness was highest for children with the greater levels of CRSOs before sealant placement. Estimated cumulative Medicaid expenditures indicated expenditure savings from sealants within 2 years of application for children with 2 or more prior CRSOs. Sealant placement was associated with expenditure savings to Medicaid for certain high-risk children, so Medicaid and, more broadly, society will benefit by providing for sealant placement in these children.

  20. Flowable resin used as a sealant in molars affected by dental fluorosis: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola-Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Mendoza-Razo, Veronica; Rodriguez-Juarez, Fernando; Campos-Cambranis, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    The decline in prevalence and incidence of dental caries in developed countries over the last two decades is considered to be due mainly to the widespread use of fluoride in different forms, but simultaneously with decline in caries, an increase in dental fluorosis has been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the Conventional Sealant Technique (CST) and Enameloplasty Sealant Technique (EST) using a flowable resin as sealant in molars affected by dental fluorosis. A total of 40 extracted third molars affected by dental fluorosis were divided at random into two groups of 20 teeth each, and Tetric Flow resin was used as sealant. All teeth were studied for lateral adaptation and resin penetration by direct and indirect techniques; all samples were replicated in epoxy resin and were evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that EST allowed a deeper sealant penetration and a superior sealant adaptation than CST, both in direct and indirect evaluations by SEM. The most important variables being penetration-interface and penetration depth both being statistically significant (pceromer is an excellent material alternative to be used as sealant and that EST is quite necessary in molars affected by dental fluorosis, the combination of both being a reliable method to be used as primary prevention approach of dental caries in endemic areas of dental fluorosis.

  1. Fouling Issues in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs for Wastewater Treatment: Major Mechanisms, Prevention and Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros K. Gkotsis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is one of the most important considerations in the design and operation of membrane systems as it affects pretreatment needs, cleaning requirements, operating conditions, cost and performance. Given that membrane fouling represents the main limitation to membrane process operation, it is unsurprising that the majority of membrane material and process research and development conducted is dedicated to its characterization and amelioration. This work presents the fundamentals of fouling issues in membrane separations, with specific regard to membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs and the most frequently applied preventive-control strategies. Feed pretreatment, physical and chemical cleaning protocols, optimal operation of MBR process and membrane surface modification are presented and discussed in detail. Membrane fouling is the major obstacle to the widespread application of the MBR technology and, therefore, fouling preventive-control strategies is a hot issue that strongly concerns not only the scientific community, but industry as well.

  2. Do light cured ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants perform better than resin-composite sealants: a 4-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, WeiWei; Chen, Xi; Fan, Ming-Wen; Mulder, Jan; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte C D N J M; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-05-01

    The hypotheses tested were: the cumulative survival rates of dentin caries lesion-free pits and fissures of ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants with light-curing (high-intensity LED) and glass-carbomer sealants are higher than those of conventional ART sealants and resin-composite sealants after 4 years. The randomized controlled clinical trial covered 405 children (mean age 8-years). Three dentists placed sealants in pits and fissures of high caries-risk children. Evaluation by two independent evaluators was conducted after 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. The Kaplan-Meier survival method, ANOVA and t-test were used in data analyses. 1304 first permanent molars were sealed. 12.3% of children and 15.4% of sealants dropped out. 46 re-exposed pits and fissures, 39 (occlusal) 7 (free smooth surfaces), in 42 children developed a dentin carious lesion. The cumulative survival of dentin caries lesion-free occlusal pits and fissures in ART plus LED group (98%) was statistically significantly higher than in the resin-composite group (96.4%) and in the glass-carbomer group (94.5%). The cumulative survival of dentin caries lesion-free occlusal pits and fissures in the glass-carbomer group was statistically significantly lower than that in the conventional ART group (97.3%). For the free smooth surfaces, there was no statistically significantly difference among the four sealant groups. Light-cured ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants prevented the occurrence of dentin cavities best. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of a plasma-based composite biologic sealant with fibrin glue (Tisseel) for vascular anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doillon, Charles J; Dion, Yves-Marie

    2004-12-01

    Biologic sealants are needed in numerous, more and more demanding, procedures--especially with developments occurring in endovascular and laparoscopic vascular techniques. An initial pilot study in dogs showed that a 4-cm aortotomy closed with a polyester patch sutured in place by a 4-mm-spaced running suture consistently led to massive hemorrhage. We then designed a study using five dogs where two aortotomies were done to compare the effect of Tisseel to that of an autologous sealant prepared in our laboratory. Arterial pressures and heparinization were maintained throughout the surgical procedure. Both biologic sealants prevented hemorrhage from the arteriotomy at unclamping. Macroscopic and histologic assessments were performed. At killing, one week later, the autologous sealant exhibited less blood saturation of the collagen sponge compared with Tisseel. The use of autologous plasma combined with other adhesive components could be an efficient alternative to allogenic fibrin glue. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations.

  4. Dental sealants guidelines development: 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, James J; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the chronology of dental sealant guideline developments and changes in recommendations regarding sealant usage by various state, national, and international organizations between 2002 and 2014. More specific objectives include: (1) review and summarize the findings of systematic evidence-based reviews and recommendations regarding the use of pit and fissure sealants published since the 2002 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Pediatric Restorative Dentistry Consensus Conference; (2) identify consistencies and changes in conclusions or recommendations regarding the use of pit and fissure sealants, and differences in the methods used to develop recommendations/guidelines over time; and (3) describe the purpose and scope of current efforts to update American Dental Association 2008 Evidence-based Clinical Recommendations for the Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants. A summary of recommendations based on experts' synthesis of published evidence and recommendations is included.

  5. Is vitamin C able to prevent premature rupture of membranes?

    OpenAIRE

    Citra Aryanti

    2016-01-01

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is leakage of amniotic fluid through ruptured chorioamniotic membranes that occur before starting the labor pain at any gestational age. This is one of the most common problems in obstetrics with many adverse pregnancy outcomes. Main and final mechanisms of membrane rupture is disturbances in its collagen content metabolism. Vitamin C is found to stabilize the cross link triple helix collagen structure and scavange oxidant that involved in PPROM. Associat...

  6. Dentists' levels of evidence-based clinical knowledge and attitudes about using pit-and-fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaiah, Sirisha; Bhoopathi, Vinodh

    2014-08-01

    Although the prevalence of pit-and-fissure sealants in children in the United States is low, the problem is magnified in low-income children. A small proportion of Florida's low-income children receive any preventive dental services, including sealants. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to assess whether Florida's dentists provide sealants as a preventive measure in their practices, their attitudes and their levels of evidence-based clinical knowledge about appropriate sealant use according to the American Dental Association (ADA) recommendations. The authors also assessed whether the number of years since graduation and reliance on peers or colleagues for regular clinical information were associated with dentists' knowledge. The authors administered a 25-item pretested questionnaire to a convenience sample of general and pediatric dentists (n = 163) at the 2013 Florida National Dental Convention in Kissimmee, Fla. The authors conducted multivariate linear regression modeling to predict dentists' levels of evidence-based clinical knowledge. Years since graduation (P = .2) and reliance on peers or colleagues for regular clinical information (P = .6) did not predict higher knowledge. Male dentists (P = .003) and those who accepted children enrolled in Medicaid as new patients (P = .01) had significantly more knowledge compared with their counterparts. Most participating dentists used sealants in their practices and had high levels of positive attitudes about using sealants. Overall knowledge regarding the appropriate use of sealants, however, was low. For practicing dental professionals, the authors recommend disseminating evidence-based recommendations for the use of dental sealants via continuing education courses and other possible modalities. They also recommend that dental schools update their existing courses or modules about sealants by integrating the ADA's recommendations.

  7. In vitro comparison of the bond strength to the enamel of conventional and self-etching dental fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellini, E; De Francesco, M; Avventi, M; Gracco, A; Berengo, M; Simionato, F; Mazzoleni, S

    2013-12-01

    Dental caries in pits and fissures of molars is still very common in young people, despite a gradual reduction in their incidence and prevalence. Prevention with the aid of dental fissure sealants can help to reduce the onset of decay. In vitro tests were conducted to compare the bond strength to enamel of self-etching sealants versus those applied using the conventional procedure. The lingual surface of 40 extracted, caries-free, mandibular third molars was milled to make them flat. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 20 teeth each: those in Group A were treated with Clinpro (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA); those in Group B with Quick Seal (BJM Laboratories Ltd, Or-Yehuda, Israel). Cylinders of sealant were attached to the enamel of the flat surfaces of the samples using a polymerisation process treating the surfaces involved according to the type of material. All samples underwent load testing by means of a universal test machine. The results of the load testing, measured in MPa, were analysed using the Student's t-test for independent samples and the differences proved significant, indicating that the traditionally- applied sealant (mean strength 21.06 MPa) assured a significantly stronger bond (p sealant (mean strength 10.43 MPa) under our experimental conditions. CONCLUSION Conventional sealants generally provide a considerably higher bond strength than self-etching sealants.

  8. Vital Signs: Dental Sealant Use and Untreated Tooth Decay Among U.S. School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Susan O; Wei, Liang; Gooch, Barbara F; Weno, Katherine; Espinoza, Lorena

    2016-10-21

    Tooth decay is one of the greatest unmet treatment needs among children. Pain and suffering associated with untreated dental disease can lead to problems with eating, speaking, and learning. School-based dental sealant programs (SBSP) deliver a highly effective intervention to prevent tooth decay in children who might not receive regular dental care. SBSPs benefits exceed their costs when they target children at high risk for tooth decay. CDC used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 to estimate current prevalences of sealant use and untreated tooth decay among low-income (≤185% of federal poverty level) and higher-income children aged 6-11 years and compared these estimates with 1999-2004 NHANES data. The mean number of decayed and filled first molars (DFFM) was estimated for children with and without sealants. Averted tooth decay resulting from increasing sealant use prevalence was also estimated. All reported differences are significant at pdental sealant use has increased; however, most children have not received sealants. Increasing sealant use prevalence could substantially reduce untreated decay, associated problems, and dental treatment costs.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids, membrane remodeling and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Natividad R; Kim, Eunjoo; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S

    2018-04-12

    Proteins are often credited as the macromolecule responsible for performing critical cellular functions, however lipids have recently garnered more attention as our understanding of their role in cell function and human health becomes more apparent. Although cellular membranes are the lipid environment in which many proteins function, it is now apparent that protein and lipid assemblies can be organized to form distinct micro- or nanodomains that facilitate signaling events. Indeed, it is now appreciated that cellular function is partly regulated by the specific spatiotemporal lipid composition of the membrane, down to the nanosecond and nanometer scale. Furthermore, membrane composition is altered during human disease processes such as cancer and obesity. For example, an increased rate of lipid/cholesterol synthesis in cancerous tissues has long been recognized as an important aspect of the rewired metabolism of transformed cells. However, the contribution of lipids/cholesterol to cellular function in disease models is not yet fully understood. Furthermore, an important consideration in regard to human health is that diet is a major modulator of cell membrane composition. This can occur directly through incorporation of membrane substrates, such as fatty acids, e.g., n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and cholesterol. In this review, we describe scenarios in which changes in membrane composition impact human health. Particular focus is placed on the importance of intrinsic lipid/cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism and extrinsic dietary modification in cancer and its effect on plasma membrane properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Streptococcal Disease Prevention and Management of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina E. Glass

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify opportunities to reduce overuse of antibiotics for prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal (GBS disease and management of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM.

  11. The retention of pit and fissure sealants placed in primary school children by Dental Health Services, Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, L B; Calache, H; Morgan, M V

    1997-08-01

    The benefit of a public sector sealant programme for children in Australia is yet to be established. This study evaluated sealants placed by therapists of the School Dental Service in Victoria, between 1989 and 1994, on permanent teeth of children in 15 primary schools in Melbourne. Seven hundred and seventy four children aged 6-12 years were examined in school dental clinics by six calibrated examiners. A total of 5363 sealants placed on 2875 permanent teeth (including 2616 first molars, 91 per cent of sample) up to four and a half years previously was examined. Values for complete and partial sealant retention were highest for premolars (86 per cent, 9 per cent respectively, total 95 per cent); similar for occlusal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular first molars (63 per cent, 30 per cent; 62 per cent, 32 per cent respectively) and buccal pits of mandibular molars (66 per cent); and low for pits/fissures of Carabelli's cusps of maxillary molars (44 per cent). Cross-sectional examination up to 24 months for both maxillary and mandibular first molars indicated average values of 67 per cent complete retention, 27 per cent partial retention, 6 per cent missing; thereafter complete retention decreased and partial retention increased. Sealant failures in the six months post-placement were attributed to technique failure. Regardless of sealant retention, caries experience was low under partially retained or missing sealants (4.5 per cent) and completely retained sealants (0.4 per cent). It is concluded that the SDS sealant programme is a sound preventive dental public health approach.

  12. Survival of sealants in molars affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization: 18-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; Souza, Juliana Feltrin de; Bussaneli, Diego Girotto; Jeremias, Fabiano; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes Dos; Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Loiola

    2017-04-27

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical survival of sealants applied in first permanent molars (FPMs) affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), at 18 months of follow-up. Forty-one first permanent molars were selected from 21 children, 6-8 years of age. MIH was classified by one calibrated examiner (kappa = 0.80) according to EAPD criteria. The inclusion criteria were fully erupted FPMs with MIH or sound FPMs (without MIH) for which sealant treatment was indicated. The FPMs were assigned to two groups: CG (control group) and HG (MIH group). Both groups were treated with sealant (FluroShield). Clinical follow-up was performed from baseline to 18 months to assess anatomical form, marginal adaptation, retention and presence of caries, according to criteria set by the United States Public Health Service-Modified, and was conducted by a blinded examiner (kappa = 0.80). The actuarial method was used to evaluate the survival of the sealants. The survival rates for the groups were compared using Fisher's exact test (α = 5%). The cumulative survival rates were 81% at 1 month, 68.8% at 6 months, 68.8% at 12 months, and 62.6% at 18 months for CG, and 88% at 1 month, 84% at 6 months, 76% at 12 months, and 72% at 18 months for HG. No significant difference was found between the groups. The sealants in molars affected by MIH presented a survival rate similar to the sealants in the control, suggesting that sealants may be an adequate approach for preventing carious lesions in MIH-affected molars.

  13. Survival of sealants in molars affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization: 18-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Bullio FRAGELLI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical survival of sealants applied in first permanent molars (FPMs affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH, at 18 months of follow-up. Forty-one first permanent molars were selected from 21 children, 6–8 years of age. MIH was classified by one calibrated examiner (kappa = 0.80 according to EAPD criteria. The inclusion criteria were fully erupted FPMs with MIH or sound FPMs (without MIH for which sealant treatment was indicated. The FPMs were assigned to two groups: CG (control group and HG (MIH group. Both groups were treated with sealant (FluroShield. Clinical follow-up was performed from baseline to 18 months to assess anatomical form, marginal adaptation, retention and presence of caries, according to criteria set by the United States Public Health Service-Modified, and was conducted by a blinded examiner (kappa = 0.80. The actuarial method was used to evaluate the survival of the sealants. The survival rates for the groups were compared using Fisher’s exact test (α = 5%. The cumulative survival rates were 81% at 1 month, 68.8% at 6 months, 68.8% at 12 months, and 62.6% at 18 months for CG, and 88% at 1 month, 84% at 6 months, 76% at 12 months, and 72% at 18 months for HG. No significant difference was found between the groups. The sealants in molars affected by MIH presented a survival rate similar to the sealants in the control, suggesting that sealants may be an adequate approach for preventing carious lesions in MIH-affected molars.

  14. PERBEDAAN TOPICAL FLUORIDE APPLICATION DAN FISSURE SEALANT DALAM MENCEGAH KARIES PADAGIGI MOLAR SATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawarti Pawarti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Topical Fluoride Application And Fissure Sealant To Prevent Dental Caries Permanent First Molars. Anatomy pits and fissures of teeth are caries initiation vulnerable areas of the permanent molars that grow at the age of 6 years where children can not perform oral hygiene. Caries prevention can be done by closing the pits and fissures or application of fluoride (topical fluoride application on the surface of the teeth. The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference fissure sealants and topical application of fluoride to prevent dental caries of first permanent molars. This study was a quasi-experimental study with time series, a sample was taken by purposive 117-second grade students of SDN District of North Pontianak. Data were analyzed using t-test. The result showed that fissure sealant more effective in caries prevention of first permanent molar than topical fluoride application where there were none caries teeth after and month fissure sealant, 25% sealant partially off and 11% fully off. Teeth that have done fluoride after 6 months of 3.9% of dental caries, the eighth month of 5.4% of dental caries. There was a significant difference between the effectiveness of fissure sealants with topical application of fluoride to prevent dental caries in first permanent molars p-value < 0.05, after 6-month p-value: 0.004 and after 8-month p-value: 0.001. Abstrak: Topical Fluoride Application Dan Fissure Sealant Untuk Mencegah Karies Pada Gigi Molar Satu Permanen. Anatomi pit dan fisura gigi merupakan daerah rentan inisiasi karies gigi molar satu permanen yang tumbuh pada usia 6 tahun anak belum bisa melakukan kebersihan mulutnya. Pencegahan karies dapat dilakukan dengan cara menutup pit dan fissure atau pengolesan fluor (topical fluoride application pada permukaan gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis perbedaan efektivitas fissure sealant dan topical fluoride application untuk mencegah karies gigi molar satu permanen anak

  15. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  16. Clinical/Photographic/Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis of Pit and Fissure Sealants After 22 Years: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundfeld, D; Machado, L S; Franco, L M; Salomão, F M; Pini, Nip; Sundefeld, Mlmm; Pfeifer, C S; Sundfeld, R H

    Pit and fissure sealant is a clinical technique adopted to prevent caries lesion development. Ionomeric and/or resin-based materials are commonly used for this purpose. This article presents a case series of sealed teeth with 22-year follow-up evaluated by clinical, photographic, and microscopic analysis. In 1992, sixteen patients (9-14 years of age) had at least three teeth sealed with one of the following materials: resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC, Vitrebond or Fuji II LC) or polyacid-modified resin composite (PMRC, VariGlass VLC), totaling 86 sealed permanent teeth. After 22 years, 10 patients were recalled, representing 41 teeth. The retention of sealants was assessed by three methods: clinical analysis by visual inspection; photography; and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and classified as retained (pits and fissures filled by sealant material); partially retained (pits and fissures partially filled by sealant material); or totally lost (no material was found in pits and fissures). The SEM images provided a higher number of retained sealants when compared with the clinical and photographic evaluations. Also, no totally lost scores were found with SEM analysis, regardless of the sealing material. No caries lesions were found. A fully or partially retained sealant in pits and fissures was capable of preventing caries lesions after 22 years within the patient pool analyzed.

  17. Role of Capitonage and Fibrin Sealant in Reducing Seroma Formation after Breast Conservation Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Miri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seroma formation is a common complication after breast cancer surgery. Several techniques such as tube drainage, fibrin sealant and suturing methods have been employed to prevent or reduce seroma formation. Capitonnage, a suturing method widely used following hydatid cyst removal, has been used after breast surgery in limited studies. Our aim was to compare the effectiveness of tube drainage, fibrin sealant and capitonnage to prevent early complications.Methods: Eligible patients with breast cancer who were candidate for breast conserving surgery were enrolled and randomized into three different groups (tube drainage, capitonnage, capitonnage plus fibrin sealant. Patients were visited on 5th,12th and 19th days after surgery and were assessed for any probable complications.Results: A total of 90 patients were enrolled. One patient developed seroma in tube drainage and capitonnage group, while no participant from capitonnage plus fibrin sealant group experienced the mentioned complication. Three patients developed skin necrosis, all of them were treated with capitonnage plus fibrin sealant protocol.Conclusions: Based on our observations, it seems that capitonnage alone or in combination with fibrin sealant do not lead to significant differences in frequency of complications after breast cancer surgery such as hematoma, seroma and surgical site infection.

  18. Primerless RTV Silicone Sealants/Adhesives PP-1135

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinelli, Dean; Brescia, Joseph; Kerwien, Stacey; Rorabaugh, Donald; Osterndorf, John; Sullivan, Francis; Mao, David; Forch, Brad; Beyer, Richard; Tira, James

    2003-01-01

    ...) funded project PP1135, Primeless RTV Silicone Sealants/Adhesives. The objective of the project, the development of primerless addition curable silicone sealants/adhesives, was met for all three phases of the program...

  19. Fibrin sealant for mesh fixation in laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J R; Bisgaard, T; Assaadzadeh, S

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin sealant for mesh fixation has significant positive effects on early outcome after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) compared with titanium tacks. Whether fibrin sealant fixation also results in better long-term outcome is unknown.......Fibrin sealant for mesh fixation has significant positive effects on early outcome after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) compared with titanium tacks. Whether fibrin sealant fixation also results in better long-term outcome is unknown....

  20. Enhancement of withstanding pressure of fibrin sealant by modified mixing ratio of fibrin sealant components for skull base reconstruction: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Youichi; Oshino, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    A method to enhance the withstanding pressure of fibrin sealant in gasket-seal closure to prevent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage after extended transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) was investigated by adjusting the mixing ratio of the components. A plastic chamber (200 ml) was constructed with a lid made of hydroxyapatite with a hole 10 mm in diameter. The chamber could be pressurized via an opening in the side wall. The hole in the hydroxyapatite lid was covered with a Gore-Tex sheet, 15 mm in diameter. The margin of the sheet was free. Solutions A (fibrinogen 80 mg/ml) and B (thrombin 250 units/ml) of fibrin sealant were mixed in volume ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 5:1, and applied to the Gore-Tex sheet, then water was introduced to cover the fibrin sealant. The pressure was measured at which air leakage occurred from the side of the Gore-Tex sheet. The pressure values for A/B ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 5:1 were 117 ± 23.8 mmH(2)O (mean ± standard error) (n = 5), 234 ± 38.8 mmH(2)O (n = 5), and 345 ± 36.4 mmH(2)O (n = 5), respectively, in the acute phase (5 minutes after application of fibrin sealant). Pressures were increased after 24 hours, and that for 5:1 was the highest (373 ± 40.4 mmH(2)O, n = 5). The use of devices such as syringes specially designed to mix solutions A and B in the ratio of 5:1 can easily enhance the preventive effect of fibrin sealant against CSF leakage in ETSS.

  1. Use of occlusal sealant in a community program and caries incidence in high- and low-risk children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Baldini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of sealant placement under the guidelines of the Oral Health Promotion Program for Children and Adolescents (Portugal, and to test the influence of clinical and socioeconomic variables on the DMFT increment in 277 children, born in 1997. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A dental hygienist performed the initial examinations and sealant placement (Helioseal, Vivadent on the permanent first molars in 2005. These activities were registered in dental records that were assessed in 2007. Children were classified according to caries risk at baseline [high (HR: DMFT+dmft>0; low (LR: DMFT+dmft=0 risk] and sealant placement as follows: HR-S and LR-S Groups (with sealant placement; HR-NS and LR-NS Groups (without sealant placement. A calibrated dentist performed the final examination in 2007 at school, based on the World Health Organization recommendations. The variables collected were: dental caries, visible dental plaque, malocclusions, and socioeconomic level (questionnaire sent to children's parents. For univariate (Chi-square or Fisher tests and multivariate (Multiple logistic regression analyses the DMFT increment >0 was selected as dependent variable. RESULTS: Approximately 17.0% of the children showed DMFT increment>0 (mean=0.25. High-risk children presented a significant increase in the number of decayed and/or filled teeth. These children had 7.94 more chance of developing caries. Children who did not receive sealant were 1.8 more prone to have DMFT increment >0. CONCLUSION: It appears that sealant placement was effective in preventing dental caries development. Moreover, the variables "risk" and "sealant placement" were predictors for DMFT increment in the studied children.

  2. The prevalence of dental caries and fissure sealants in 12 year old children by disadvantaged status in Dublin (Ireland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheri, D; McLoughlin, J; Clarkson, J J

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to record dental caries levels and the presence of fissure sealants in 12-year-old schoolchildren whose domestic water supply had been fluoridated since birth in Dublin (Ireland). Cross-sectional study. Participants A representative, random sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren in north-west Dublin. Dental caries levels were recorded using WHO criteria and fissure sealant was recorded when sealant was detectable on a permanent molar tooth. Medical card ownership, as a surrogate for disadvantage, was recorded by use of a questionnaire. Three-hundred and thirty-two (332) children were examined. The mean DMFT was 0.80 (SD 1.24). Analysis (Mann-Whitney U test) based on stratification of the sample according to medical-card status revealed no statistically significant difference between DMFT median scores of children of medical-card holders (i.e., social disadvantage background) and non medical-card holders (p-value = 0.23). However, the data revealed a social gradient in the presence of at least one fissure sealant. Approximately 10% more children in the group of medical-card holders had no fissure sealants present. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the association between the absence of fissure sealants and at least one fissure sealant between the two groups and was considered to be statistically significant (p-value = 0.04). This study demonstrated a social gradient in the presence of fissure sealants, but no such gradient in dental caries levels. This demonstrates the importance of population-based measures in the prevention of dental caries, such as water fluoridation, in reducing oral health inequalities.

  3. Flowable resin used as a sealant in molars using conventional, enameloplasty and fissurotomy techniques: An in vitro study

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    Chaitra T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Preventive procedures using pit and fissure sealants are one of the most important aspects of pediatric dental practice. The objectives of this in vitro study were to comparatively evaluate microleakage of a flowable resin used as a sealant on molars after preparation with conventional, enameloplasty and fissurotomy techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 teeth were divided into three groups of eight samples each. Pits and fissures were prepared with conventional sealant technique (CST (Group A, enameloplasty sealant technique (EST (Group B and fissurotomy technique (FT (Group C. Following sealant placement, thermocycling and sectioning of samples of Groups A, B and C were performed and microleakage was assessed under a stereomicroscope after methylene blue dye immersion. Results: There was significantly lesser microleakage in EST when compared with CST and FT, which showed more microleakage. No statistical significance between CST and FT was found. Interpretation and Conclusion: EST has proven to be an excellent method of preparation of pits and fissures when flowable composite is used as a sealant because of its lesser microleakage.

  4. Dental sealants and flowable composite restorations and psychosocial, neuropsychological, and physical development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Shrader, Peter; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Hauser, Russ; Bellinger, David C; Tavares, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Dental sealant materials may intraorally release their components, including bisphenol-A (BPA), but long-term health effects are uncertain. The New England Children's Amalgam Trial (NECAT) found that composite restorations were associated with psychosocial, but not neuropsychological or physical, outcomes. The previous analysis did not consider sealants and preventive resin restorations (PRRs), which were routinely placed. The purpose of this analysis was to examine sealant/PRR exposure in association with psychosocial and other health outcomes. NECAT recruited 534 six- to 10-year-olds and provided dental care during a five-year follow-up. Annually, examiners conducted psychosocial and neuropsychological tests and measured body mass index (BMI) and fat percentage (BF%). Associations between surface years (SY) of sealants/PRRs and outcomes were tested using multivariable models. Cumulative exposure level to sealants and/or PRRs was not associated with psychosocial assessments (eg, total problems: Child Behavior Checklist, 10-SY β=-0.2 ± 0.3, P=.60) or neuropsychological tests (eg, full-scale IQ, 10-SY β=0.1 ± 0.2, P=.60). There were no associations for changes in BMI-for-age z-score (P=.40), BF% (girls 10-SY β=-0.2 ± 0.3; boys 10-SY β=-0.1 ± 0.3), or menarche (10-SY hazard ratio=0.91, 95% confidence interval=0.83-1.01, P=.08). This study showed no associations between exposure level of dental sealants or PRRs and behavioral, neuropsychological, or physical development in children over 5-years.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Dental Sealants versus Fluoride Varnish in a School-Based Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidell, Matthew; Shearer, Barbara; Lamster, Ira B

    2016-01-01

    While sealants are more effective than fluoride varnish in reducing the development of new carious lesions on occlusal surfaces, and a course of treatment requires fewer clinical visits, they are more expensive per application. This analysis assessed which treatment is more cost-effective. We estimate the costs of sealants and fluoride varnish over a 4-year period in a school-based setting, and compare this to existing estimates of the relative benefits in terms of caries reduction to calculate the relative cost-effectiveness of these two preventive treatments. In our base case scenario, varnish is more cost-effective in preventing caries. Allowing for caries benefits to nonocclusal surfaces further improves the cost-effectiveness of varnish. Although we found that varnish is more cost-effective, the results are context specific. Sealants become equally cost-effective if a dental hygienist applies the sealants instead of a dentist, while varnish becomes increasingly cost-effective when making comparisons outside of a traditional dental clinic setting. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Shear bond strength of some sealants under saliva contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Surarit, Rudee

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength of different types of sealant to non-contaminated and saliva-contaminated enamel. The buccal surfaces of 60 sound permanent third molars were individually embedded in self-curing acrylic resin and wet ground with 1,000-grit silicone carbide paper to obtain a flat enamel surface. The specimens were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) non-fluoride-releasing resin sealant (Concise), 2) fluoride-releasing resin sealant (Clinpro), 3) glass-ionomer sealant (Fuji VII). Each group was divided into 2 subgroups (n = 10): non-contaminated and saliva contaminated with 0.02 ml of fresh human saliva for 20 seconds and then blowed dried prior to sealant placement. All samples were thermocycled 2,000 cycles. The specimens were tested using an Instron running at a crosshead speed of 0.05 mm/min. Stereomicroscope examinations were carried out to evaluate failure sites of the sealants. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Turkey test at a siginificance level of p sealant revealed the shear bond strength of the glass-ionomer sealant was the same for the non-contaminated and saliva-contaminated subgroups. The shear bond strength was lower in both the fluoride and non-fluoride releasing resin-based sealant groups contaminated with saliva than in the fluoride and non-fluoride releasing resin-based sealant groups not contaminated with saliva. Comparison of the different types of sealant also revealed the shear bond strength of the glass-ionomer sealant had a significantly lower shear bond strength than the fluoride and non-fluoride releasing resin-based sealant groups for both the non-contaminated and saliva-contaminated subgroups. The fluoride and non-fluoride releasing resin-based sealant groups were not significantly different from each other. The modes of failure were mostly mixed with the glass-ionomer sealant in both the non-contaminated and saliva-contaminated subgroups of this sealant. The

  7. Assessment of Microshear Bond Strength: Self-Etching Sealant versus Conventional Sealant.

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    Mina Biria

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, self-etching fissure sealants have been introduced to reduce technical sensitivity; however, their efficacy should be assessed. The aim of this study was to assess of the microshear bond strength of self-etching and conventional fissure sealants.Thirty non-carious third molars were randomly divided into three groups (N=10. Microcylinders of Concise fissure sealant were bonded to prepared buccal and lingual surfaces using the two following procedures. In the first group, phosphoric acid was used to prepare the substrate; whereas in group two, Concise was used in combination with Prompt L-Pop. In group 3, a self-etching fissure sealant (Enamel Loc was utilized per se. After 24 hours, the samples were subjected to 500 rounds of thermocycling and shear bond testing using a microtensile tester machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni Post HOC tests (SPSS version 16.THE MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF MICROSHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF THE GROUPS WERE AS FOLLOWS: Group 1: Concise+ etching (14.59 ± 1.19 MPa, Group 2: Concise+Prompt L-Pop (12.86 ± 1.98 MPa, and Group 3: Enamel Loc (5.59 ± 0.72 MPa. One-way ANOVA revealed that all the differences were significant and the conventional sealant exhibited the highest mean bond strength.Conventional sealant using phosphoric acid etch application prior to fissure sealant application demonstrated more bond strength in comparison with that of self-etch bonding and self-etch sealant.

  8. Tissue sealants may reduce haematoma and complications in face-lifts: A meta-analysis of comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Salvatore; Koskivuo, Ilkka; Suominen, Erkki; Veräjänkorva, Esko

    2017-03-01

    The use of tissue sealants has increased among different surgical specialities. Face-lift and rhytidoplasty may cause several complications such as haematoma, ecchymosis, oedema, seroma, skin necrosis, wound dehiscence and wound infection. However, administration of tissue sealants may prevent the occurrence of some complications. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that compared tissue sealant use with controls to evaluate the outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed. The primary outcome was the incidence of haematoma. Secondary outcomes were wound drainage amount, oedema, ecchymosis, seroma, skin necrosis and hypertrophic scarring. Thirteen studies involving 2434 patients were retrieved and included in the present analysis. A statistically significantly decrease in post-operative haematoma [risk ratio (RR), 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18-0.74; p = 0.005] and wound drainage (MD, -16.90, 95% CI = -25.71, -8.08, p ecchymosis, seroma, skin necrosis, and hypertrophic scarring with tissue sealant use. The use of tissue sealants prevents post-operative haematomas and reduces wound drainage. Previous studies have shown a similar trend, but the power of this meta-analysis could verify this perception. III. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of microleakage of Ionoseal filling material as a fissure sealant agent

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    Effat Khodadadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sealing pits and fissures was introduced as an approach to prevent occlusal caries for more than two decades. The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of flow able resin reinforced glass ionomer (Ionoseal with other materials used as fissure sealants. Methods: In this in vitro study, 50 premolar teeth of human free of any caries were selected. Fissurotomy was done with fissure bur. The samples were randomly categorized into five groups (Fissurit FX, Fuji II light-cured,Grandio flow, Ionoseal. Ionoseal was assessed by using two methods: with and without etching and bonding agent prior to sealant application. After sealant placement, all surfaces of the teeth except 2 mm area around the sealant margins were covered with two layers of nail polish.The specimens were thermocycled, and they were sectioned after immersing into a 0.5 % basic fuchsine solution. The amount of microleakage was examined by stereomicroscope. Results: The microleakage comparisons of groups indicated that Ionoseal without etching and bonding application had significantly greater microleakage than the other groups (p0.05. Conclusions: By considering isolation difficulties in children and observing high amount of Ionoseal microleakage (without etching and bonding application, the samples need to be etched and bonded like other resin-based materials before Ionoseal placement in order to achieve clinically desirable microleakage outcomes.

  10. A 3-year clinical evaluation of glass-ionomer cements used as fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Pardi, Vanessa; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate the retention and caries-preventive effectiveness of two ionomeric materials (conventional and resin-modified), used as fissure sealants. 100 children (6-8 years old) with a total of 400 permanent first molars received 200 conventional glass-ionomer (Ketac Bond) and 200 resin-modified glass-ionomer (Vitremer) sealants. Additionally, 108 children constituted the control group (432 teeth). Two dentists assisted by dental hygienists performed the sealant application. Clinical evaluations were carried out 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after the sealant application by two other dentists, not carrying out clinical procedures, previously calibrated (Kappa > 0.75). Total retention rates of 26%, 12%, 3%, and 4% for Ketac Bond and 61%, 31%, 14%, and 13% for Vitremer, being 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after clinical evaluation, respectively. The differences between the two materials were statistically significant. The experimental groups showed a caries incidence of 93%, 78%, 49%, and 56% lower than the control group (Pionomeric materials were low. Nevertheless, these materials showed a cariostatic effect, supported by statistically lower caries incidence in experimental groups compared to control group. Presence of active incipient caries was statistically associated with caries incidence in the first molars after 36 months, in relation to either experimental or control group.

  11. [Ketoconazole and clindamycin efficacy vs oral clindamycin in premature membranes rupture prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Huerta, Eugenio; Garibay Valencia, Miguel; Mirabent-González, Felio

    2008-07-01

    Vulvovaginitis is one of the main causes of premature membrane rupture. To evaluate effectiveness of a combination of ketoconazole (400 mg) and clindamycin (100 mg) in vaginal tablets, compared with clindamicyn alone (600 mg/daily) orally, for six days, to prevent premature membrane rupture in patients with vulvovaginitis. Longitudinal, prospective, comparative, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study in patients older than 18 years, during them third trimester of normoevolutive pregnancy with symptomatic vulvovaginitis. Patients were monitored as out patient. Genital secretion culture and fresh studies were made. Signs and symptoms were evaluated in regular intervals: 4, 7 and 11 days. Pregnancy control was performed every three weeks, until childbirth or premature membrane rupture. 105 patients were included: 53 in the group of ketoconazole and clindamicyn (1), and 52 in the group of clindamycin alone (2). Symptoms were similar in both groups of treatment, without statistically significant differences. A case of group 2 has premature membrane rupture (p = 0.495). C. albicans was cultured in 35% of group 2 and in 11% of group 2. No adverse events with treatments were reported. The combination of ketoconazole and cindamycin was effective to prevent premature membrane rupture in patients with vulvovaginitis.

  12. Aquatic biofouling prevention by electrically charged nanocomposite polymer thin film membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lannoy, Charles-François; Jassby, David; Gloe, Katie; Gordon, Alexander D; Wiesner, Mark R

    2013-03-19

    Electrically conductive polymer-nanocomposite (ECPNC) tight nanofiltration (NF) thin film membranes were demonstrated to have biofilm-preventing capabilities under extreme bacteria and organic material loadings. A simple route to the creation and application of these polyamide-carbon nanotube thin films is also reported. These thin films were characterized with SEM and TEM as well as FTIR to demonstrate that the carbon nanotubes are embedded within the polyamide and form ester bonds with trimesoyl chloride, one of the monomers of polyamide. These polymer nanocomposite thin film materials boast high electrical conductivity (∼400 S/m), good NaCl rejection (>95%), and high water permeability. To demonstrate these membranes' biofouling capabilities, we designed a cross-flow water filtration vessel with insulated electrical leads connecting the ECPNC membranes to an arbitrary waveform generator. In all experiments, conducted in highly bacterially contaminated LB media, flux tests were run until fluxes decreased by 45 ± 3% over initial flux. Biofilm-induced, nonreversible flux decline was observed in all control experiments and a cross-flow rinse with the feed solution failed to induce flux recovery. In contrast, flux decrease for the ECPNC membranes with an electric potential applied to their surface was only caused by deposition of bacteria rather than bacterial attachment, and flux was fully recoverable following a short rinse with the feed solution and no added cleaning agents. The prevention of biofilm formation on the ECPNC membranes was a long-term effect, did not decrease with use, and was highly reproducible.

  13. Prevalence of dental caries and fissure sealants in a Portuguese sample of adolescents.

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    Nélio J Veiga

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and the DMFT index, as well as the distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on permanent teeth in a Portuguese sample of adolescents, and to assess whether the existing usage of sealants and socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the examined sample.A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A self-administered questionnaire with questions about oral health behaviours and socio-economic status was answered by adolescents in the classroom. Clinical examination of oral health status and assessment of fissure sealants were accomplished by only one trained member of the research team.We obtained a DMFT index of 3.32 (2.92, which indicates a moderate level of prevalence of dental caries. When considering a DMFT = 0, we found significant statistical differences between the parents' level of education (≤ 4th grade = 26.3 vs 5th-12th grade = 18.8 vs <12th grade = 43.3, p = 0.001, gender (male = 27.3 vs female = 19.6, p = 0.04, age (≤ 15 years = 27.1 vs <15 years = 18.5, p = 0.02, presence of fissure sealants (yes = 30.6 vs no = 13.5, p = 0.001 and experience of dental pain (no = 25.4 vs yes = 16.8, p = 0.02. When analyzing the prevalence of fissure sealants, we verified that 58.8% of adolescents had at least one fissure sealant applied. Significant statistical differences were found when analyzing the presence of fissure sealants related with parents' educational level (<9th grade, OR = 1.56 CI95% = 1.05-2.54, gender (female, OR = 1.86 CI95% = 1.19-2.98, experience of dental pain (yes, OR = 0.62 CI95% = 0.39-0.97 and presence of dental caries (yes, OR = 0.35 CI95% = 0.19-0.65.The moderate level of caries prevalence reveals the need of improvement of primary prevention interventions among Portuguese adolescents. The establishment of a more targeted

  14. Prevalence of dental caries and fissure sealants in a Portuguese sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Nélio J; Pereira, Carlos M; Ferreira, Paula C; Correia, Ilidio J

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and the DMFT index, as well as the distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on permanent teeth in a Portuguese sample of adolescents, and to assess whether the existing usage of sealants and socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the examined sample. A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A self-administered questionnaire with questions about oral health behaviours and socio-economic status was answered by adolescents in the classroom. Clinical examination of oral health status and assessment of fissure sealants were accomplished by only one trained member of the research team. We obtained a DMFT index of 3.32 (2.92), which indicates a moderate level of prevalence of dental caries. When considering a DMFT = 0, we found significant statistical differences between the parents' level of education (≤ 4th grade = 26.3 vs 5th-12th grade = 18.8 vs sealants (yes = 30.6 vs no = 13.5, p = 0.001) and experience of dental pain (no = 25.4 vs yes = 16.8, p = 0.02). When analyzing the prevalence of fissure sealants, we verified that 58.8% of adolescents had at least one fissure sealant applied. Significant statistical differences were found when analyzing the presence of fissure sealants related with parents' educational level (dental pain (yes, OR = 0.62 CI95% = 0.39-0.97) and presence of dental caries (yes, OR = 0.35 CI95% = 0.19-0.65). The moderate level of caries prevalence reveals the need of improvement of primary prevention interventions among Portuguese adolescents. The establishment of a more targeted preventive program with better and more effective oral health education is essential, having into account socio-demographic aspects.

  15. Effectiveness of Dry Cow Therapy Comprising Antibiotic Treatment, Internal Teat Sealant, and α-Tocopherol Against New Intramammary Infections in Cows

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    Cengiz Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effectiveness of dry cow therapy based on antibiotic, internal teat sealant, and α-tocopherol administered separately or in various combinations at drying-off The study was performed on 322 uninfected quarters of 95 cows originating from three dairy herds. The new intramammary infection rates after calving were measured to evaluate the effectiveness. The quarters were divided into six groups differing in treatment, namely: control group (group C, n = 40 and five treatment groups. Treatment groups were arranged as follows: group A (antibiotic alone, n = 81, group AS (antibiotic + sealant, n = 40, group AST (antibiotic + sealant + α-tocopherol, n = 40, group T (α-tocopherol alone, n = 40, group S (sealant alone, n = 81. New infection rate amounted to 47.5% in group C. The treatment in group AST significantly prevented from the occurrence of new intramammary infections (12.5%, P 0.05, although the use of the sealant alone (group S decreased the risk of new infection (24.7%, P 0.05. Increased α-tocopherol level (P < 0.05 was detected after calving in the quarters from cows that received α-tocopherol injections. In conclusion, the combination of antibiotic, internal teat sealant, and α-tocopherol used in dry cow therapy showed a significantly better preventive effect against new intramammary infections, than the therapeutics administered separately.

  16. Prevalence of sealants in relation to dental caries on the permanent molars of 12 and 15-year-old Greek adolescents. A national pathfinder survey

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    Mamai-Homata Eleni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of sealants as an effective measure for the prevention of pit and fissure caries in children has been well documented by several studies; either they are used on an individual or on a public health basis. In order to plan and establish a national preventive program with sealants in a community, it is mandatory to know the epidemiological pattern of caries along with other variables influencing their use and effectiveness. Aims: To assess the utilization and distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on the first and second permanent molars of Greek adolescents and to evaluate whether the existing usage of sealants and some socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the population examined Methods A stratified cluster sample of 2481 Greek adolescents was selected according to WHO guidelines (1224 twelve and 1,257 fifteen-year-old, living in urban and rural areas in 11 districts within the country. Five calibrated examiners carried out clinical examinations, recording caries experience at the dentine threshold (BASCD criteria and presence or absence of sealants along with Socio-demographic indicators associated with oral health. Mann Whitney and Pearson's chi-square non parametric tests were utilized for assessing the data. The level of significance was p Results Sealants utilization varied considerably within the different districts, with 8,3% of the 12 and 8,0% of the 15-year-old adolescents having at least one sealed molar. Sealants reduced DMFS scores by 11% in the 12-year-olds and by 24% in the 15-year-olds, while 15-year-old adolescents from rural areas had a statistically significant (p = 0.002 less chance of having sealants (71% compared to children from urban areas. Girls had higher chance to receive sealants in both age groups (26% for the 12 and 19% for the 15-year-old as well as patients that visited the dentist for prevention compared to those visiting the dentist because they

  17. Prevalence of sealants in relation to dental caries on the permanent molars of 12 and 15-year-old Greek adolescents. A national pathfinder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulis, Constantine J; Berdouses, Elias D; Mamai-Homata, Eleni; Polychronopoulou, Argyro

    2011-02-14

    The use of sealants as an effective measure for the prevention of pit and fissure caries in children has been well documented by several studies; either they are used on an individual or on a public health basis. In order to plan and establish a national preventive program with sealants in a community, it is mandatory to know the epidemiological pattern of caries along with other variables influencing their use and effectiveness. To assess the utilization and distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on the first and second permanent molars of Greek adolescents and to evaluate whether the existing usage of sealants and some socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the population examined A stratified cluster sample of 2481 Greek adolescents was selected according to WHO guidelines (1224 twelve and 1,257 fifteen-year-old), living in urban and rural areas in 11 districts within the country. Five calibrated examiners carried out clinical examinations, recording caries experience at the dentine threshold (BASCD criteria) and presence or absence of sealants along with Socio-demographic indicators associated with oral health. Mann Whitney and Pearson's chi-square non parametric tests were utilized for assessing the data. The level of significance was p Sealants utilization varied considerably within the different districts, with 8,3% of the 12 and 8,0% of the 15-year-old adolescents having at least one sealed molar. Sealants reduced DMFS scores by 11% in the 12-year-olds and by 24% in the 15-year-olds, while 15-year-old adolescents from rural areas had a statistically significant (p = 0.002) less chance of having sealants (71%) compared to children from urban areas. Girls had higher chance to receive sealants in both age groups (26% for the 12 and 19% for the 15-year-old) as well as patients that visited the dentist for prevention compared to those visiting the dentist because they thought they needed a restoration or because they were in

  18. Vanillin, a potential agent to prevent biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappachery, Sajeesh; Paul, Diby; Yoon, Jeyong; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2010-08-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems are widely used in water purification plants. Reduction in plant performance due to biofilm formation over the membrane is an inherent problem. As quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms of microorganisms have been reported to be involved in the formation of biofilm, ways are sought for quorum quenching (QQ) and thereby prevention of biofilm formation. In this study using a chemostat culture run for seven days in a CDC reactor it was found that a natural QQ compound, vanillin considerably suppressed bacterial biofilm formation on RO membrane. There was 97% reduction in biofilm surface coverage, when grown in the presence of vanillin. Similarly, the average thickness, total biomass and the total protein content of the biofilm that formed in the presence of vanillin were significantly less than that of the control. However vanillin had no effect on 1-day old pre-formed biofilm.

  19. Fissure sealants: Knowledge and practice of Yemeni dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Jamaei, Aisha Ahmed; Halboub, Esam Saleh; Al-Soneidar, Walid Ahmed; Tarakji, Bassel; Alsalhani, Anas

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate Yemeni dental practitioners' knowledge and practices concerning fissure sealants. A modified questionnaire consisted of 25-items was distributed to 500 dentists working in Sana'a City. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square/Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analyses. The response rate was 74%. Most of the respondents were male (61.3%), general practitioners (84.2%), and had sealants, with the majority (88%) believed that there is strong scientific evidence about fissure sealants effectiveness and around 90% showed a good understanding of sealant placement instructions. On the other hand, respondents showed insufficient knowledge about sealants clinical practice. Although a high proportion of dental practitioners showed adequate knowledge about dental sealant, following guidelines and standardized procedures in clinical practice is lacking. These emphasize the need for regular continuing education courses for dental professional.

  20. TRICARE; Revision of Nonparticipating Providers Reimbursement Rate; Removal of Cost Share for Dental Sealants; TRICARE Dental Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    This final rule revises the benefit payment provision for nonparticipating providers to more closely mirror industry practices by requiring TDP nonparticipating providers to be reimbursed (minus the appropriate cost-share) at the lesser of billed charges or the network maximum allowable charge for similar services in that same locality (region) or state. This rule also updates the regulatory provisions regarding dental sealants to clearly categorize them as a preventive service and, consequently, eliminate the current 20 percent cost-share applicable to sealants to conform with the language in the regulation to the statute.

  1. Comparison of antibacterial properties of two fluoride-releasing and a nonfluoride-releasing pit and fissure sealants

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    Menon Preetha V

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Occlusal pits and fissures are the most susceptible sites for the development of dental caries and prevention is difficult in the areas of occurrence. Although only 12.5% of all the tooth surfaces are occlusal, these surfaces develop more than two-thirds of total caries experienced by children. The fate of the bacteria is of significance when they are inadvertently sealed by a dental sealant. This study aimed in examining the antibacterial properties of three commercially available sealants, viz., Teethmate-F, Helioseal-F and Helioseal. Antibacterial testing was done by disc diffusion method. Selective agars were used to grow Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Statistical analysis was carried out using student′s t test. The study proved that Helioseal-F and Helioseal did not possess antibacterial properties and Teethmate-F was the only sealant that showed antibacterial properties.

  2. Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Misture

    2012-09-30

    Two series of silicate glasses that contain gallium as the primary critical component have been identified and optimized for viscous sealing of solid oxide fuel cells operating from 650 to 850°C. Both series of glass sealants crystallize partially upon heat treatment and yield multiphase microstructures that allow viscous flow at temperatures as low as 650°C. A fully amorphous sealant was also developed by isolating, synthesizing and testing a silicate glass of the same composition as the remnant glassy phase in one of the two glass series. Of ~40 glasses tested for longer than 500 hours, a set of 5 glasses has been further tested for up to 1000h in air, wet hydrogen, and against both yttria-stabilized zirconia and aluminized stainless steel. In some cases the testing times reached 2000h. The reactivity testing has provided new insight into the effects of Y, Zr, and Al on bulk and surface crystallization in boro-gallio-silicate glasses, and demonstrated that at least 5 of the newly-developed glasses are viable viscous sealants.

  3. A review of bioceramics and fibrin sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guéhennec, L; Layrolle, P; Daculsi, G

    2004-09-13

    This review focuses on bone substitute composites made by mixing ceramic biomaterials with fibrin sealants. Different biomaterials such as coral, bone-derived materials, bioactive glass ceramics, and synthetic calcium phosphate have been mixed with fibrin sealant, resulting in a combination of the biological properties of the two components. This type of association has not produced identical results in all studies. In the past for some, the addition of fibrin sealant to the biomaterial failed to produce any significant, positive effect on osteointegration, whereas others found a positive impact on bone colonization. Despite the negative biological effects reported previously, bioceramic-fibrin composites have been widely used in various types of bone surgery because they are easy to manipulate. In particular, the intra-operative preparation of these composites makes it possible to add bone growth factors or autologous osteoprogenitor cells prior to bone reconstruction. The bone growth factors and autologous osteoprogenitor cells associated with the bioceramic-fibrin composites should provide surgeons with tissue engineered grafts with enhanced osteointegrative properties. This review discusses both the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the future perspectives, of using bioceramic-fibrin composites in various clinical indications.

  4. A Review of Bioceramics and Fibrin Sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Guéhennec L.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on bone substitute composites made by mixing ceramic biomaterials with fibrin sealants. Different biomaterials such as coral, bone-derived materials, bioactive glass ceramics, and synthetic calcium phosphate have been mixed with fibrin sealant, resulting in a combination of the biological properties of the two components. This type of association has not produced identical results in all studies. In the past for some, the addition of fibrin sealant to the biomaterial failed to produce any significant, positive effect on osteointegration, whereas others found a positive impact on bone colonization. Despite the negative biological effects reported previously, bioceramic-fibrin composites have been widely used in various types of bone surgery because they are easy to manipulate. In particular, the intra-operative preparation of these composites makes it possible to add bone growth factors or autologous osteoprogenitor cells prior to bone reconstruction. The bone growth factors and autologous osteoprogenitor cells associated with the bioceramic-fibrin composites should provide surgeons with tissue engineered grafts with enhanced osteointegrative properties. This review discusses both the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the future perspectives, of using bioceramic-fibrin composites in various clinical indications.

  5. The Role of Vitamin C in Prevention of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomian, Nayereh; Hafizi, Leili; Takhti, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is one of the most important complications of the pregnancy and cause perinatal morbidity and mortality. History of PPROM is a risk factor of recurrent PPROM. Vitamin C plays an important role in collagen metabolism and increases resistance maintenance of the chorioamniotic membranes. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of vitamin C supplementation in prevention of PPROM in women with a positive history of PPROM. Patients and Methods This clinical trial study was performed on 170 pregnant women with the history of PPROM, with singleton pregnancy and gestational age 14 weeks in Imam-Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences during 2008 to 2010. They were randomly divided into two groups. The case patients received 100 mg vitamin C daily from 14th weeks of gestation. PPROM occurrence was compared between two groups as an indicator of the protective effect of vitamin C supplements. Results PPROM occurred in 44.7% of controls and 31.8% of cases (P < 0.05). PROM occurred in 34.1% of controls and 18.8% of cases (P < 0.05). Pregnancy was terminated at term gestation in 21.2% of controls and 49.4% of cases (P < 0.05). Rupture of membranes was significantly decreased in the case group. Conclusions Vitamin C supplementations after 14th weeks of gestation can prevent from PPROM in women with the history of PPROM. PMID:23682322

  6. Biofouling prevention using silver nanoparticle impregnated polyethersulfone (PES) membrane: E. coli cell-killing in a continuous cross-flow membrane module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Pritam; Bandyopadhyaya, Rajdip

    2017-04-01

    Biofouling significantly decreases membrane performance. So silver nanoparticle (Ag-NP) was impregnated selectively on a sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) membrane and its efficacy was tested in a continuous, cross-flow membrane module. The main challenges are: (i) to prevent biofouling on the membrane surface, (ii) achieve zero bacterial cell (E. coli) count in the permeate water, (iii) maintain Ag concentration in the permeate stream within the permissible limit of drinking water and (iv) maintain a high tensile strength of the membrane to prevent mechanical failure. Addressing these factors would ensure a long and productive service-life of the membrane. To this end, 10 4 CFU/ml of E. coli cell-suspension was passed through the Ag-SPES membrane of 150μm total thickness, which has a narrow (1.74μm thickness), upper surface of Ag-NPs. We achieved zero E. coli cell-count and a minimum (10μg/L) Ag concentration in the permeate stream; simultaneously increasing the tensile strength from 2.78MPa to 3.92MPa due to Ag-NP impregnation. Thus, for a continuous inlet flow of E. coli contaminated water, the membrane module could deliver an almost constant permeate flow rate of 3.45L per hour, due to complete E. coli cell-killing. Simultaneously, Ag concentration in permeate stream is well-below the WHO's recommended limit of 100μg/L, for potable quality water. Therefore, the Ag-SPES membrane can be used as an anti-biofouling membrane in a continuous operational mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modification of Salmonella Lipopolysaccharides Prevents the Outer Membrane Penetration of Novobiocin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Thatyane M.; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Andreev, Konstantin; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Gidalevitz, David

    2015-12-01

    Small hydrophilic antibiotics traverse the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria through porin channels. Large lipophilic agents traverse the outer membrane through its bilayer, containing a majority of lipopolysaccharides in its outer leaflet. Genes controlled by the two-component regulatory system PhoPQ modify lipopolysaccharides. We isolate lipopolysaccharides from isogenic mutants of Salmonella sp., one lacking the modification, the other fully modified. These lipopolysaccharides were reconstituted asmonolayers at the air-water interface, and their properties, aswell as their interaction with a large lipophilic drug, novobiocin, was studied. X-ray reflectivity showed that the drug penetrated the monolayer of the unmodified lipopolysaccharides reaching the hydrophobic region,butwas prevented fromthis penetration intothemodified lipopolysaccharides.Results correlatewith behavior of bacterial cells, which become resistant to antibiotics after PhoPQ-regulated modifications. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction showed that novobiocin produced a striking increase in crystalline coherence length, and the size of the near-crystalline domains.

  8. Efficiency of protective sealants for glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, D; Mount, G J; Makinson, O F

    1992-10-01

    This study compared the efficiency of protective sealants for glass ionomer cements. Scotchbond 2, Visar Seal, an experimental light activated silicone and Ketac Glaze were evaluated using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The results showed that Ketac Glaze was a very effective sealant for the newly placed glass ionomer cement and the resin component of Scotchbond 2 is in the same range.

  9. Stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in isolated rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Baccouch, Riadh; Modine, Thomas; Preau, Sebastien; Zannis, Konstantinos; Marchetti, Philippe; Lancel, Steve; Neviere, Remi

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of doxorubicin on left ventricular function and cellular energy state in intact isolated hearts, and, to test whether inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation would prevent doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial and myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial contractile performance and mitochondrial respiration were evaluated by left ventricular tension and its first derivatives and cardiac fiber respirometry, respectively. NADH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose uptake were monitored non-invasively via epicardial imaging of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Heart performance was reduced in a time-dependent manner in isolated rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 1 μM doxorubicin. Compared with controls, doxorubicin induced acute myocardial dysfunction (dF/dt max of 105 ± 8 mN/s in control hearts vs. 49 ± 7 mN/s in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). In cardiac fibers prepared from perfused hearts, doxorubicin induced depression of mitochondrial respiration (respiratory control ratio of 4.0 ± 0.2 in control hearts vs. 2.2 ± 0.2 in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05) and cytochrome c oxidase kinetic activity (24 ± 1 μM cytochrome c/min/mg in control hearts vs. 14 ± 3 μM cytochrome c/min/mg in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). Acute cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin was accompanied by NADH redox state, mitochondrial membrane potential, and glucose uptake reduction. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by cyclosporine A largely prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cardiac energy state and dysfunction. These results suggest that in intact hearts an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is involved in the development of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  10. Laboratory and exterior durability of high performance acrylic sealants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarest, V.A.; Dionne, J.A.; Lertora, M.; Magnotta, J.R. [Rohm and Haas Co., Spring House, PA (United States). Caulk and Sealants Group

    1998-12-31

    This paper documents the laboratory and exterior durability of high performance, Class 25 acrylic sealants. Commercial silicone and polyurethane sealants are used as controls. Laboratory durability is evaluated by measuring sealant flexibility, tensile properties and ASTM C920 and ISO 11600 joint movement capabilities. Many of these properties are measured both before and after 2500 hours of Weather-Ometer exposure. Exterior durability is assessed by monitoring 2 to 15 year exterior exposures in moving joints in low rise commercial buildings of brick, aluminum and Exterior Insulation Finishing Systems (EIFS) construction. Both laboratory and exterior durability measurements indicate that high performance Class 25 acrylic sealants have good joint movement capabilities, excellent weatherability and aesthetics, and are generally able to maintain an effective seal to a variety of substrates after extended exterior exposure. They perform and test in a manner similar to other Class 25 sealants of alternative chemistries.

  11. The Maine Sealant Manual for School-Based and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Kneka, Ed.

    This manual is designed for use by school personnel and dental personnel to aid in the development and maintenance of school-based or school-linked dental sealant programs. The sections include (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Guidelines" (school selection, school contacts, dental providers, target grades, and tooth selection…

  12. In vitro studies on the cytotoxic potential of surface sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingler, S; Matthei, B; Kohl, A; Saure, D; Ludwig, B; Diercke, K; Lux, C J; Erber, R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was an initial screening of the cytotoxic potential of widely used smooth enamel surface sealants. A total of 20 products were allocated to four groups based on their chemical composition: (1) filled resin-based sealants, (2) unfilled resin-based sealants, (3) a resin-modified, glass ionomer-based sealant, and (4) silicone-based sealants. All materials were applied to human enamel slices both in accordance with manufacturers' instructions and in additional experiments applying 50% undercuring and 50% overcuring. An agar overlay assay was then used to test the specimens following ISO 10933. The cytotoxic potential of each material was interpreted based on a reaction index that summarized the decolorization and lysis scores obtained. The cytotoxic potential decreased as follows: unfilled resin-based sealants > filled resin-based sealants > resin-modified, glass ionomer-based sealant > silicone-based sealants. In 75% of the resin-based products, deliberate undercuring was associated with more extensive decolorization zones, leading to higher rates of cytotoxic potential in two of those products. Overcuring, by contrast, was associated with a tendency for smaller decolorization zones in 50% of the resin-based products. Surface sealants derived from resin monomers exhibited cytotoxic potential in the agar overlay assay. There is also evidence of a possible association with curing, as undercuring can increase the cytotoxic potential, whereas normal curing (as per manufacturers' instructions) or overcuring may help minimize such effects. More research into the biological implications of these materials is needed, especially with regard to their potential impact on the adjacent gingiva.

  13. Phage shock proteins B and C prevent lethal cytoplasmic membrane permeability in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, N Kaye; Darwin, Andrew J

    2012-08-01

    The bacterial phage shock protein (Psp) stress response system is activated by events affecting the cytoplasmic membrane. In response, Psp protein levels increase, including PspA, which has been implicated as the master effector of stress tolerance. Yersinia enterocolitica and related bacteria with a defective Psp system are highly sensitive to the mislocalization of pore-forming secretin proteins. However, why secretins are toxic to psp null strains, whereas some other Psp inducers are not, has not been explained. Furthermore, previous work has led to the confounding and disputable suggestion that PspA is not involved in mitigating secretin toxicity. Here we have established a correlation between the amount of secretin toxicity in a psp null strain and the extent of cytoplasmic membrane permeability to large molecules. This leads to a morphological change resembling cells undergoing plasmolysis. Furthermore, using novel strains with dis-regulated Psp proteins has allowed us to obtain unequivocal evidence that PspA is not required for secretin-stress tolerance. Together, our data suggest that the mechanism by which secretin multimers kill psp null cells is by causing a profound defect in the cytoplasmic membrane permeability barrier. This allows lethal molecular exchange with the environment, which the PspB and PspC proteins can prevent. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. DIDS prevents ischemic membrane degradation in cultured hippocampal neurons by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Pamenter

    prevented stimulus-evoked release of von Willebrand Factor from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We conclude that DIDS inhibits MMP exocytosis and through this mechanism preserves neuronal membrane integrity during pathological stress.

  15. Prevention of epidural scarring after microdiscectomy: a randomized clinical trial comparing gel and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanic, Gerd M; Pink, Peter T; Schneider, Frank; Stuecker, Markus; Homann, Nicolaus C; Preidler, Klaus W

    2006-09-01

    A randomized clinical trial compared two materials used to prevent epidural scarring after microdiscectomy. To determine whether ADCON-L Gel (ALG) or Preclude Spinal Membrane (PSM) was more effective in preventing scarring, reducing pain, and improving quality of life postoperatively. Postdiscectomy syndrome may result from epidural scarring. Various materials have been used in attempts to prevent this problem, but none have provided optimal results. Previous laboratory and clinical studies have found ALG and PSM to be effective, but none compared the two materials. Thirty-one patients undergoing primary microdiscectomy were randomly assigned to receive either ALG or PSM. Postoperatively, patients were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with contrast, for volume and rostral-caudal extent of scar tissue and nerve root involvement. Back and leg pain and quality of life were assessed by neurologic examinations and standardized patient surveys. Findings at any reoperations were recorded. Results in the PSM (n = 18) and ALG (n = 13) groups were compared statistically. No operative or postoperative complications occurred. Two patients in each group required reoperation. MRI at 6 months showed no, mild or mild-moderate scarring in most patients, with no significant differences between the ALG and PSM groups in scar volume and extent or nerve root involvement. Neurologic examinations and patient surveys showed substantial reductions in pain over time in both groups but no significant differences between groups. PSM was easy to see and remove at reoperation. PSM and ALG are equally effective in preventing epidural scarring associated with postdiscectomy syndrome.

  16. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Fissure Sealants in a Portuguese Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Nélio J.; Pereira, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Paula C.; Correia, Ilidio J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and the DMFT index, as well as the distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on permanent teeth in a Portuguese sample of adolescents, and to assess whether the existing usage of sealants and socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the examined sample. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A self-administered questionnaire with questions about oral health behaviours and socio-economic status was answered by adolescents in the classroom. Clinical examination of oral health status and assessment of fissure sealants were accomplished by only one trained member of the research team. Results We obtained a DMFT index of 3.32 (2.92), which indicates a moderate level of prevalence of dental caries. When considering a DMFT = 0, we found significant statistical differences between the parents´ level of education (≤ 4th grade = 26.3 vs 5th–12th grade = 18.8 vs Portuguese adolescents. The establishment of a more targeted preventive program with better and more effective oral health education is essential, having into account socio-demographic aspects. PMID:25803849

  17. Independent analysis: efficacy of sealants used in a public health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Jodi L; Rublee, Nancy; Kleber, Laura; Zurkawski, Emily

    2015-04-01

    This short report details part of the findings of a larger, multiphasic research study considering Quality of Care (QoC) and Quality of Life (QoL) for socioeconomic and underserved rural populations accessing dental health care through a Public Health Department. Improving oral health for families that are socioeconomically disadvantaged, with cultural disparities, or lacking access to care was the goal of this project. The purpose of this project was documenting effectiveness of oral health care when dental hygienists working through local area health departments, as an alternative delivery model, provide quality educational and preventive care services. Over a 6 year period, 1,511 sealants were placed. Simple clinical practices using 4-handed dentistry and strict isolation techniques led to achieving a 95% or higher cumulative sealant retention rate. Dental caries was averted for 858 individuals over a 3 year period (2006 to 2009). Using a consultation-referral model, 463 individuals received restorative care. Results from this short report document clinical care practices for populations in rural communities with limited access to care while improving oral health outcomes. The clinical findings in this short report illustrate the successes of an oral health care program offered by a dental hygienist working collaboratively through a Community Public Health Department. Sealant retention, averted dental caries and restorative care provided using a consultative-referral model all illustrate clinical quality of care achieved when employing alternative care models outside the realm of traditional in office procedures. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  18. Formulation and Characterization of Antibacterial Fluoride-releasing Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuwei; Townsend, Janice; Wang, Yapin; Lee, Eun Chee; Evans, Katie; Hender, Erica; Hagan, Joseph L.; Xu, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to formulate and characterize experimental antibacterial fluoride-releasing sealants and compare them with commercial sealants for fluoride release, recharge, adhesion, and microleakage. Methods Two experimental sealants (Exp-1, Exp-2) containing a synthesized antibacterial fluoride-releasing monomer and fluoride-releasing filler were formulated. Exp-2 also contained NovaMin nanoparticles. Commercial sealants Clinpro (CL) FluoroShield (FS), and SeLECT Defense (E34) were also included. Fluoride release from disk samples in deionized water was measured daily using an ion-selective electrode for 14 days, and after recharging with Neutra-Foam (2.0% sodium fluoride), fluoride was measured for 5 days. Microtensile bonding strengths (MTBS) to enamel were tested after 24-hour storage in water at 37°C or thermocycling 5-55°C for 1,000 cycles. A microleakage test was conducted on extracted teeth using a dye-penetration method. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey’s honestly significant difference test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Exp-1 and Exp-2 had significantly higher fluoride release and recharge capabilities than CL and FL (P<.05). All tested sealants had similar MTBS before and after thermocycling. Exp-2 and Exp-1 had significantly lower microleakage scores (P<.05) than other groups. Conclusion The experimental sealants had higher fluoride release and recharge capabilities and similar or better retention than commercial sealants. PMID:23635887

  19. Quantitative changes in fissure sealant six months after placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conry, J P; Pintado, M R; Douglas, W H

    1990-01-01

    Earlier studies have reported extensive volumetric loss of fissure sealant shortly after placement. To determine the volume of fissure sealant lost at six months, we used a servohydraulic profilometric apparatus in combination with computer graphics. Twenty-two premolar teeth were selected, and baseline silicone impressions were made of each tooth. The teeth were sealed and the occlusion adjusted where necessary. Impressions were made immediately of sealed teeth and again at six months. Epoxy replicas were made from all impressions, and their surfaces digitized by sequential profilometry. Using a three-dimensional root mean square (RMS) goodness-of-fit computer program, before sealant, after sealant, and six months after sealant computer-graphic images were superimposed. The volume of sealant lost after six months for all premolar teeth was X = 0.23 mm3 (maxillary second premolar: N = 9, X = 0.29 mm3; maxillary first premolar: N = 5, X = 0.27 mm3; mandibular second premolar: N = 4, X = 0.20 mm3; mandibular first premolar: N = 4, X = 0.08 mm3). The volume differences between tooth groups were not significant as measured by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These volumes represented a 13.99% loss of applied sealant for all premolars (maxillary second premolar: 19.72%; maxillary first premolar: 15.37%; mandibular second premolar: 8.46%; mandibular first premolar: 6.37%). The area of wear and the depth of wear also were measured.

  20. Leak tight sealants and joint details for concrete structure in RAPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha Roy, P.K.; Baste, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Leak tightness may pertain to either air or water and in extreme cases each will require separate consideration based on general basic requirements. Leak-tight sealants against air pressure are required in the construction joints and around penetrations in the concrete containment structures. The containment structures should be able to withstand the maximum anticipated design pressure during the incident of a MCA with only minimal leakage (0.1% of bldg. volume per day in RAPP) which is mostly through these joints. Apart from proper joint design and preparation the sealant itself must have superb adhesion to the concrete surface and integrify throughout its service life to prevent any rupture or micro-cracks at any section of the joint. Leak tightness pertains to water tightness as well. A critical water-tight joint at the bottom dome of the prestressed concrete dousing tank at its junction with the 36 inches dia dousing water pipes constructed in RAPP-2, which should be able to withstand the water pressure, continuous submergence in the water of the tank and the longitudinal and lateral movement of the water pipes during opening and closure of the dousing valves, has been made and hydrostatically tested when not even the slight sweating was found. The construction and materials of the above joints and the sealant along with the properties and performance observed during testing/use are described. As the sealant used is an imported poly-sulphide caulking compound suggestions have also been made, which may be kept in mind while developing an Indian substitute. (author)

  1. An evaluation of nanocomposites as pit and fissure sealants in child patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries affects populations of all ages in all the regions of the world, with the child patient being at the highest risk. Fifty percent of the permanent molars are decayed by the age of 12, due to lack of information about protection and occlusal morphology. Pit and fissure sealing undoubtedly plays a fundamental role in preventing occlusal caries. The most common approach to assess the sealing ability of pit and fissure sealants of tooth/restoration is the measurement of dye penetration along the interface. Aims and Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the microleakage and penetration depth of three different types of dental materials, namely (A Conventional pit and fissure sealant, (B Flowable composite, (C Flowable nanocomposite. Study Design: This in-vitro comparative study comprised of extracted human posterior teeth mounted as blocks. Materials and Methods: In the present study, microleakage and penetration depths of conventional sealants/flowable composite and nanocomposite were measured with the help of a dye under stereomicroscope. Statistical Analysis: A student′t′ test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA tests were performed to compare the mean microleakage and penetration depth. Results: Microleakage was found to be highest for the flowable composites, and least for the conventional sealant. The nanocomposite values were intermediate. Penetration depth was highest for nanocomposite and least for flowable composite. Conclusions: According to the results, the nanocomposite was found to be an excellent dental material for penetration in deep pits and fissures, though it exhibits mild microleakage. Hence, it can be recommended for use in pediatric dental patients, as a pit and fissure sealing agent.

  2. Comparison of commercial fibrin sealants in facelift surgery: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botti G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Botti,1 Michele Pascali,2 Chiara Botti,1 Florian Bodog,3 Pietro Gentile,2 Valerio Cervelli2 1Villa Bella Clinic, Salò, 2Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy; 3University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two types of fibrin glue in patients undergoing facelift surgery. Methods: A prospective, controlled "right-left side" study was carried out in 20 patients. The two fibrin sealants used were Quixil® and Tissucol®. The two sealants were used at the same time, ie, one on one side of the face and the other on the contralateral side. Comparisons were made with regard to rates of hematoma and seroma, degree of induration, edema, ecchymosis, pain levels, and patient satisfaction. Results: The results were almost equivalent. The only exception was a significant (40 mL hematoma in a patient treated with Quixil. Bleeding was most likely due to a sudden rise in blood pressure during the immediate postoperative period. However, it must be emphasized that, while Tissucol actually seals the undermined area, thus virtually eliminating the dead space, Quixil acts differently, in that its effectiveness in preventing hematoma is linked mainly to its hemostatic effect. Conclusion: The two fibrin sealants used were nearly identical with regard to patient safety and quality of the result. Nevertheless, it is noted that, while Tissucol has both hemostatic and "gluing" effects, Quixil is mainly effective in securing hemostasis. Keywords: facelift surgery, rhytidectomy, fibrin sealants, hematoma

  3. Engaging Stakeholders in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Regarding School-Based Sealant Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Gillette, Jane

    2018-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to describe the key lessons learned during the stakeholder engagement stage of planning a randomized clinical trial comparing outcomes of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) as an alternative to pit-and-fissure sealants in a school-based delivery system. Methods: Eighteen caregivers and community-based stakeholders with involvement in the school-based sealant program Sealants for Smiles from the state of Montana, were recruited for this qualitative study. United States (U.S.) Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) methodology standards were used to develop two semi-structured interview guides consisting of 6 questions. One interview guide was used for telephone interviews with caregivers and the second was used for a stakeholder focus group. Content analytic methods were used to analyze the data. Results: All participants believed that a study comparing SDF and sealants was clinically relevant. Non-caregiver stakeholders agreed with the proposed primary outcome of the study (caries prevention) whereas caregivers also emphasized the importance of child-centered outcomes such as minimizing dental anxiety associated with dental care. Stakeholders described potential concerns associated with SDF such as staining and perceptions of safety and discussed ways to address these concerns through community engagement, appropriate framing of the study, proper consent procedures, and ongoing safety monitoring during the trial. Finally, stakeholders suggested dissemination strategies such as direct communication of findings through professional organizations and encouraging insurance plans to incentivize SDF use by reimbursing dental providers. Conclusions: Involving key stakeholders in early planning is essential in developing patient-centered research questions, outcomes measures, study protocols, and dissemination plans for oral health research involving a school-based delivery system. Copyright © 2018

  4. Fluoride release and uptake abilities of different fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Claudio; Andenna, Gianluigi; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Cucca, Lucia

    2016-07-01

    The long-term capability of resin sealants and glass ionomer cements to release fluoride is associated to a reduction in pit and fissure caries. The regular use of fluoride varnishes/toothpastes can result in the absorption of fluoride into the sealant. The objective of the present study was to assess the fluoride release/uptake capacities of different fissure sealants. Three different fissure sealants (Fuji Triage/GC, Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco) were examined. Ten discs of each material were prepared. Each disc was incubated with distilled water and then the solution analyzed for diluted for fluoride concentration, using a combination of fluoride electrode (OrionGP 1 S/N 13824, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA) connected to an expandable ion analyzer (Orion 720A, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA). Standard curves between 1 and 100 ppm F- were used to calibrate the electrode. Cumulative fluoride release was measured on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 21, 35 and 49, then two different fluoride varnishes/pastes (Profluorid Varnish/Voco, MI Paste Plus/GC), were applied to the sealants tested, and fluoride release (after reuptake) was measured on days 56, 70 and 84. Kruskal Wallis test confirmed significant differences in fluoride release between Fuji Triage/GC and Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco from day 1 (P 0.05). The GIC-based sealant (Fuji Triage/GC) released significantly more fluoride than the resin sealants tested. The exposure to the fluoridated varnish (Profluorid Varnish) significantly recharged the sealants tested more than the CPP-ACPF toothpaste (MI Paste Plus). Fissure sealants, fluoride release, fluoride uptake, glass ionomer cements.

  5. Effect of saliva contamination prior to curing on microleakage of pit and fissure sealants, an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar H.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Pit and fissure sealant therapy, is one of the most effective methods, in prevention of occlusal caries. Saliva contamination before curing the resin can increase the risk of failure in this method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of saliva contamination prior to curing on microleakage of pit and fissure sealants. "nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study 21 sound human pre molars were selected and two standardized V-Shaped fissures were prepared on both buccal and lingual surfaces, then they were randomly divided into two equal groups. In the control group, the sealant was cured without any saliva contamination and in the case group, the sealed teeth were immersed in artificial saliva for ten seconds before curing. After thermocycling the samples were immersed in 2% fouchsin solution for 24 hours and then sectioned longitudinally in bucco - lingual direction. The specimens were then fixed and assessed under stereomicroscope to determine microleakage and dye penetration using paired student t. test. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. "nResults: Analysis of data showed no significant differences in microleakage, between the two groups (p=0.178. "nConclusion: According to the results of this study saliva contamination of uncured sealant had no influence on microleakage.

  6. Are self-etch adhesive systems effective in the retention of occlusal sealants? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Graziela; Morgental, Caroline Sonego; Scherer, Maitê Munhoz; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Montagner, Anelise Fernandes; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Occlusal sealants are an effective method for caries prevention, although the effectiveness of different application strategies has not been established yet. This systematic review compared the retention rate of sealants placed on occlusal surfaces following the use of self-etch adhesive systems and traditional acid etching, with or without the application of adhesive system. Literature searching was carried out until June 2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials databases selecting randomized clinical trials that evaluated self-etch adhesive systems associated with pit and fissure sealants in primary or permanent molars comprising retention as outcome. From 683 potentially eligible studies, 10 were selected for full-text analysis and 5 were included in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the bias risk. Pooled-effect estimates were obtained by comparing the retention failure rate between groups (self-etch systems vs acid etching with or without adhesive systems). Significant difference was found between groups, favoring the control group (prior acid etching) (P self-etch systems show lower retention throughout time than sealants applied in the conventional approach, regardless of the use of adhesive systems. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mothers’ knowledge about fluoride therapy and fissu re sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soulmaz Forutan DDS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM:Increased dental caries and dental lesions have made preventive measures, especially amongchildren, inevitable. This study investigated elementary schoolgirls’ mothers’ level of knowledge on preventivemethods against dental caries.METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, mothers of 250 schoolgirls were randomly selected from five regions ofTehran, Iran. Their knowledge about fissure sealanttherapy and fluoride therapy was evaluated using aquestionnaire.Data was analyzed by analysis of variance and independent t-tests in SPSS.RESULTS:Mothers’ knowledge about fissure sealant therapy was lower than fluoride therapy. Very low, low, andmoderate levels of knowledge were detected among nearly a quarter, 47.5%, and 22.6% of the participants,respectively. Only 5.4% of the subjects had acceptable level of knowledge on preventive dentistry methods. There weresignificant correlations between mothers' level ofknowledge and their education level and occupational status.CONCLUSIONS:Educated mothers and working mothers had greater knowledge than did housewives. Dentists have acrucial role in increasing mothers' knowledge.

  8. Evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the use of pit-and-fissure sealants: A report of the American Dental Association and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John T; Crall, James J; Fontana, Margherita; Gillette, E Jane; Nový, Brian B; Dhar, Vineet; Donly, Kevin; Hewlett, Edmond R; Quinonez, Rocio B; Chaffin, Jeffrey; Crespin, Matt; Iafolla, Timothy; Siegal, Mark D; Tampi, Malavika P; Graham, Laurel; Estrich, Cameron; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso

    2016-08-01

    This article presents evidence-based clinical recommendations for the use of pit-and-fissure sealants on the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars in children and adolescents. A guideline panel convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry conducted a systematic review and formulated recommendations to address clinical questions in relation to the efficacy, retention, and potential side effects of sealants to prevent dental caries; their efficacy compared with fluoride varnishes; and a head-to-head comparison of the different types of sealant material used to prevent caries on pits and fissures of occlusal surfaces. This is an update of the ADA 2008 recommendations on the use of pit-and-fissure sealants on the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars. The authors conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other sources to identify randomized controlled trials reporting on the effect of sealants (available on the US market) when applied to the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars. The authors used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to assess the quality of the evidence and to move from the evidence to the decisions. The guideline panel formulated 3 main recommendations. They concluded that sealants are effective in preventing and arresting pit-and-fissure occlusal carious lesions of primary and permanent molars in children and adolescents compared with the nonuse of sealants or use of fluoride varnishes. They also concluded that sealants could minimize the progression of noncavitated occlusal carious lesions (also referred to as initial lesions) that receive a sealant. Finally, based on the available limited evidence, the panel was unable to provide specific recommendations on the relative merits of 1 type of sealant material over the others. These

  9. Evaluation of DRM system for reflective crack prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-31

    Reflective cracking in asphalt pavements presents a serious problem for highway agencies : worldwide. A new interlayer membrane system, DRM, which is a proprietary system consisting of : a sealant and an emulsion, was constructed by the Mississippi D...

  10. Do light cured ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants perform better than resin-composite sealants: a 4-year randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Chen, X.; Fan, M.W.; Mulder, J.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hypotheses tested were: the cumulative survival rates of dentin caries lesion-free pits and fissures of ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants with light-curing (high-intensity LED) and glass-carbomer sealants are higher than those of conventional ART sealants and

  11. Bilateral PLA/alginate membranes for the prevention of postsurgical adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Martina; Esser, Eva; Groll, Jürgen; Tessmar, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    A bilateral barrier membrane for the prevention of postsurgical adhesions was developed. Thereby, a smooth PLA side was supposed to keep the affected tissues glidingly separated, while a mucoadhesive side made of alginate was meant to keep the barrier resident on the site of injury so that suturing becomes redundant or at least the membrane stays long enough to facilitate surgical handling. Because hydrophilic alginate and lipophilic PLA films show only low cohesion, solution electrospun meshes of PLA and PLA-PEG-PLA triblock copolymers with varying poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] content were investigated as cohesion promoter to avoid an easy separation of the functionally different layers. Using direct electrospinning onto the PLA film, a modified contact surface of the mesh was created, which allowed the tested alginate solutions (3%, 5%) to infiltrate to different extents. Thereby, an increasing content of hydrophilic PEG within the mesh copolymer and a lower alginate concentration facilitated the infiltration. As a result, the PLA film with a PLA35k-PEG10k-PLA35k (racemic PLA chains) mesh and an alginate layer cast from a 3% alginate solution appeared to be the most effective combination as examined by means of a t peel test, a mucoadhesion test, a tensile test and optical evaluations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1563-1570, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adhesion testing procedure for hot-poured crack sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Crack sealing is a common pavement maintenance treatment because it extends pavement service life significantly. : However, crack sealant often fails prematurely due to a loss of adhesion. Because current test methods are mostly : empirical and only ...

  13. Near-infrared imaging of demineralization under sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum NIR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using NIR reflectance and NIR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300, 1460, and 1500 to 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) for comparison. The highest contrast for NIR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 to 1700 nm. These NIR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either copolarization or cross-polarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500 and 1700 nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for NIR reflectance measurements.

  14. HVAC; Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning - Aerosol Duct Sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    climatic conditions and different air distribution systems types. Data on thermal energy and fan power was collected before and after the duct sealant...Expeditionary Warfare Center. This technology internally seals leaks in air distribution ducts by injecting a fog of aerosolized sealant particles...into a pressurized duct system. The product keeps the particles suspended within the air stream. As the duct work is pressurized, the particles

  15. The differences of saliva pH before and after application of Bis-GMA resin based-pit and fissure sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayub Irmadani Anwar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pit and fissure sealant applications is one way to prevent caries. One of the effective ingredient as a pit and fissure sealant is a Bis-GMA resin. One of the active components  of  Bis-GMA  resin  is  sodium  fluoride,  which is capable  of releasing fluoride ions to the tooth surface and able to improve the repair and remineralization process through the replacement  of  calcium and phosphate ions found in saliva to increase the pH of saliva. This study was to determine the effect of pit and fissure sealant applications made from Bis-GMA resin to pH of saliva in children aged 6-12 years. The study design is pre and post test with control group design. Saliva samples were derived from 15 pediatric patients has met the criteria. The pH of saliva were taken before and after the application of pit and fissure sealant made from Bis-GMA and measured with pH meter. This study used a non-parametric test, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. The results of this study are also supported by the results of statistical tests showed p-: 0.005 (p<0.05 value, which means that there are significant differences in pH of saliva before and after the application of pit and fissure sealant made from Bis-GMA resin.

  16. Parents' Attitude towards the Use of Fluorides and Fissure Sealants and its Effect on their Children's Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Sigalit; Ratson, Tal; Peretz, Benjamin; Dagon, Nurit

    To characterize the attitudes of Israeli parents towards caries preventive measures. participating parents completed a 21-item questionnaire on their demographics, dental history, attitudes and satisfaction from fluorides and fissure sealants. One hundred parents (average age 41.62±4.9 years, 85 females) participated. Most of the parents (88% of the mothers and 84% of the fathers) had an academic education. Most of the parents (54%) had a favorable attitude towards the use of fluoridated gels, while only 37% of them had a positive opinion regarding fluoridated water. The satisfaction levels were very high regarding fissure sealants, fluoridated mouth rinses and fluoridated gels (78.1%, 73.6% and 72.5% respectively). The satisfaction from fluoridated water was split almost equally (50.8% were 'pleased' and 49.2% 'not pleased'). The main source for parental oral health knowledge was the dentist (83%). Parents' attitude towards caries preventive measures was significantly correlated to their gender, dental experience, level of education and the number of children in the family. positive attitude towards caries preventive measures was found among parents with higher awareness for preventive oral health measures and among bigger families. Mothers were more positive about fissure sealants than fathers. Mothers with up to 12 years of education tended to have a positive opinion regarding water fluoridation.

  17. Impact of Wisconsin Medicaid Policy Change on Dental Sealant Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Garcia, Raul I; Gonzalez, Cesar; Visotcky, Alexis; Szabo, Aniko

    2018-02-01

    In September 2006, Wisconsin Medicaid changed its policy to allow nondentists to become certified Medicaid providers and to bill for sealants in public health settings. This study examined changes in patterns of dental sealant utilization in first molars of Wisconsin Medicaid enrollees associated with a policy change. The Electronic Data Systems of Medicaid Evaluation and Decision Support for Wisconsin from 2001 to 2009. Retrospective claims data analysis of Wisconsin Dental Medicaid for children aged 6-16 years. A total of 479,847 children followed up for 1,441,300 person-years with 64,546 visits were analyzed. The rate of visits for sealants by dentists increased significantly from 3 percent per year prepolicy to 11 percent per year postpolicy, and that of nondentists increased from 18 percent per year to 20 percent after the policy change, but this was not significant. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest visit rates for sealant application by dentists and nondentists pre- and postpolicy periods. The Wisconsin Medicaid policy change was associated with increased rates of visits for dental sealant placement by dentists. The rate of visits with sealant placements by nondentists increased at the same rate pre- and postpolicy change. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Fluoride concentration from dental sealants: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus, G; Carta, G; Cagetti, M G; Bossù, M; Sale, S; Cocco, F; Conti, G; Nardone, M; Sanna, G; Strohmenger, L; Lingström, P

    2013-07-01

    A randomized clinical trial was performed in schoolchildren (6-7 yrs) to evaluate fluoride concentration in interproximal fluid after the placement of 3 different sealants. The sample consisted of 2,776 children randomly divided: 926 in the high-viscosity Glass-ionomer Cement group (GIC group), 923 in the fluoride Resin-based group (fluoride-RB group), and 927 in the no-fluoride Resin-based group (RB group). In total, 2,640 children completed the trial. Sealants were applied following manufacturer's instructions. Interproximal fluid samples were collected at baseline and 2, 7, and 21 days after application of sealants, by insertion of a standardized paperpoint into the interproximal mesial space of the sealed tooth for 15 seconds. Fluoride concentration was evaluated by means of a fluoride ion-selective electrode. At 2 days after sealant application, fluoride concentration was significantly higher in GIC and fluoride-RB groups compared with that in the RB group (p sealants increased the fluoride concentrations in interproximal fluid more than did a Resin-based sealant containing fluoride.

  19. Is there evidence that barrier membranes prevent bone resorption in autologous bone grafts during the healing period? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn F. M.; Bos, Ruud R. M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Autologous bone is considered the "reference standard" for bone-grafting procedures. A barrier membrane covering an autologous bone graft (guided bone regeneration [GBR]) is expected to prevent graft resorption. Good clinical results have been reported for GBR, although potential

  20. Construction and monitoring of thin overlay and crack sealant test sections at the Pecos test track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, several crack sealant sections were constructed at the Pecos RTC. Six different sealants were : applied in routed and non-routed configurations on both older and newer pavement. The following summer, : the sections were revaluated in...

  1. Phytochemicals prevent mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and protect SH-SY5Y cells against apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand for outer membrane translocator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqiu; Shamoto-Nagai, Masayo; Maruyama, Wakako; Osawa, Toshihiko; Naoi, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies present the beneficial effects of dietary habits on prevention of aging-associated decline of brain function. Phytochemicals, the second metabolites of food, protect neuronal cells from cell death in cellular models of neurodegenerative disorders, and the neuroprotective activity has been ascribed to the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. In this paper, the cellular mechanism of neuroprotection by phytochemicals was investigated, using the cellular model of mitochondrial apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand of outer membrane translocator protein, in SH-SY5Y cells. PK11195 induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization with rapid transit production of superoxide (superoxide flashes) and calcium release from mitochondria, and activated apoptosis signal pathway. Study on the structure-activity relationship of astaxanthin, ferulic acid derivatives, and sesame lignans revealed that these phytochemicals inhibited mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and protected cells from apoptosis. Ferulic acid derivatives and sesame lignans inhibited or enhanced the mitochondrial pore formation and cell death by PK11195 according to their amphiphilic properties, not directly depending on the antioxidant activity. Regulation of pore formation at mitochondrial membrane is discussed as a novel mechanism behind neuroprotective activity of phytochemicals in aging and age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, and also behind dual functions of phytochemicals in neuronal and cancer cells.

  2. Fouling on ion-exchange membranes: Classification, characterization and strategies of prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The environmentally friendly ion-exchange membrane (IEM) processes find more and more applications in the modern industries in order to demineralize, concentrate and modify products. Moreover, these processes may be applied for the energy conversion and storage. However, the main drawback of the IEM processes is a formation of fouling, which significantly decreases the process efficiency and increases the process cost. The present review is dedicated to the problematic of IEM fouling phenomena. Firstly, the major types of IEM fouling such as colloidal fouling, organic fouling, scaling and biofouling are discussed along with consideration of the main factors affecting fouling formation and development. Secondly, the review of the possible methods of IEM fouling characterization is provided. This section includes the methods of fouling visualization and characterization as well as methods allowing investigations of characteristics of the fouled IEMs. Eventually, the reader will find the conventional and modern strategies of prevention and control of different fouling types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of chain extender on properties of silicone rubber sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiesheng; Wu, Shaopeng; Mi, Yixuan; Zhu, Guojun; Zheng, Shaoping

    2010-03-01

    The room-temperature vulcanizing silicone rubber sealant was prepared with chain extender. The effect of chain extender on the properties of silicone rubber sealant was discussed. The composite samples with chain extender were investigated from the aspects of tack-free time, cross-linkage density, hardness (penetration number) and adhesive strength with the concrete slab. It was found that the adding of the chain extender effectively makes the molecular chain length increase and causes the mechanical properties improvement. In addition, the increase in the amount of the chain extender reduces the cross-linkage density and hardness of silicone rubber sealant, which is accompanied with a decrease in the tack-free time. Adhesive strength is one of the most important requirements for sealant. The effect of chain extender on the adhesive strength was also investigated in this study. It was found that the increase in the amount of the chain extender makes the adhesive strength between the sealant and the concrete slab decrease.

  4. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryer, P.J.; Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L. [Lamar University, Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2010-05-15

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments.

  5. Comparison of Clinical Success of Applying a Kind of Fissure Sealant on the Lower Permanent Molar Teeth in Dry and Wet Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarian, Tahereh; Baghi, Saeid; Alipoor, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Fissure sealant therapy is among the most effective methods of preventing dental caries. However, it is lengthy and isolation of the teeth is difficult in this procedure especially in young children. Using new hydrophilic fissure sealant may reduce such problems. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical success of a hydrophilic fissure sealant on the lower permanent molar teeth in dry and wet conditions. This clinical trial assessed 31 patients (mean age 8.13±1.77 years) who needed fissure sealant therapy on their first or second mandibular permanent molar. Having performed dental prophylaxis, the teeth were etched and rinsed. Then one of the two was randomly selected and sealed with smartseal & loc in isolated and dry conditions; while, the other was wetted on the etched enamel by using a saliva-contaminated micro brush, and was then sealed with the same fissure as the first tooth. Six and 12 months later, two independent observers examined the clinical success of sealant through checking the marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, and anatomical form. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software, version 16. The bivariate Chi-square and Exact Fisher tests were used to compare the clinical success of the two treatment methods. There was a high interpersonal reliability between the two examiners (K= 0.713). After 12 months, 90.3% clinical success was observed in dry conditions and 83.9% in wet conditions for smartseal & loc; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.0707). According to the results of this study, it seems that using new hydrophilic fissure sealant can reduce technical sensitivities and consequently decreases the apprehensions on saliva contamination of etched enamel during treatment procedures.

  6. The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) strategy in Mexico: two-years follow up of ART sealants and restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengas-Quintero, Elisa; Frencken, Jo E; Muñúzuri-Hernández, Jorge Alejandro; Mulder, Jan

    2013-09-08

    The massive use of preventive measures in Mexico has resulted in a large decline in dental caries over the past two decades. There does however remain a largely unmet need for restorative treatment. This paper describes the steps leading up to the adoption of a strategy, as part of general health policy, to use Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) within the Mexican public health service as a means of addressing this. The objective was to evaluate ART restorations and sealants placed in primary and permanent teeth in schoolchildren from deprived areas over a period of 2 years. 18 Dentists from 13 municipalities in 6 states with the lowest human development index treated 304, 6- to 13-year-old schoolchildren with ART sealants and ART restorations (single-surfaces) on the school compounds. Ketac Molar Easymix was the filling material used. ART procedures were evaluated according to the ART assessment criteria after 1 and 2 years, by 7 calibrated evaluators. Survival rates were estimated, using the PHREG Model with frailty correction. The 2-year cumulative survival rates of fully and partially retained ART sealants were 73.1% (primary teeth) and 48.8% (permanent teeth). The dentine carious lesion failure rates of ART sealants in primary and permanent teeth over the 2-year period were 0% and 2.5%, respectively. The 2-year cumulative survival rates of single-surface ART restorations in primary and permanent teeth were 74% and 80.9%, respectively. Secondary carious lesion development occurred in 6 restored primary teeth (2.1%) and in one restored permanent tooth (1.3%). All restorations placed in primary teeth in one state survived, whilst those in one of the 5 remaining states failed statistically significantly more than those in the other 4. The ART procedures were of substantial quality and had prevented to a large extent the development of new dentine carious lesions in these children from socio-economically deprived areas.

  7. Migration of PCBs from Sealants to Adjacent Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Kampmann, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    PCB in sealants can migrate into porous surfaces like concrete and brick and contaminate these materials. The study focuses on an analysis of concentration profiles in relation to alleviation of PCB contamination. The PCB content was determined in 20 samples of concrete and 6 samples of brick...... adjacent to outdoor PCB-containing sealants. The samples were submitted to the laboratory for normal commercial assessment of PCB content in relation to the handling of waste from renovation works in Denmark. The results showed that the PBC concentration in the sealant not necessarily relate...... to the concentration of the adjacent material. The profiles of PCB concentration into the materials showed some variation, though in general there is a tendency of relative higher concentration near the primary source in concrete and longer migration at low concentrations in brick. The concentration profiles seemed...

  8. Bisphenol A in dental sealants and its estrogen like effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Manu; Malik, Poonam; Singh, Jyotirmay

    2012-05-01

    Bisphenol A or BPA-based epoxy resins are widely used in the manufacture of commercial products, including dental resins, polycarbonate plastics, and the inner coating of food cans. BPA is a precursor to the resin monomer Bis-GMA. During the manufacturing process of Bis-GMA dental sealants, Bisphenol A (BPA) might be present as an impurity or as a degradation product of Bis-DMA through esterases present in saliva. Leaching of these monomers from resins can occur during the initial setting period and in conjunction with fluid sorption and desorption over time and this chemical leach from dental sealants may be bioactive. Researchers found an estrogenic effect with BPA, Bis-DMA, and Bis-GMA because BPA lacks structural specificity as a natural ligand to the estrogen receptor. It generated considerable concern regarding the safety of dental resin materials. This review focuses on the BPA in dental sealants and its estrogen-like effect.

  9. Performance of selected polyurethane joint sealants in concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nečasová Barbora

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Often underestimated and neglected, joint sealants in concrete structures play an important role in protecting the structure against its premature deterioration. The focus of the presented paper lays upon the issue of sealing of joints in concrete structures. Concrete is one of the most difficult materials to seal since there are always small particles of dust and the material itself. In this paper, the joint will be viewed as traditional expansion joint. Two representatives of flexible one component polyurethane sealants were selected. The main reason for this selection was that conventional repair materials are usually very rigid and easily incline towards the formation of cracks and gaps. The aim of this paper is not only to verify the suitability of selected materials but also to demonstrate that polyurethane sealants might be a better and long-lasting solution for filling of joints and patching of cracks within concrete structures.

  10. Bisphenol A in dental sealants and its estrogen like effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Rathee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A or BPA-based epoxy resins are widely used in the manufacture of commercial products, including dental resins, polycarbonate plastics, and the inner coating of food cans. BPA is a precursor to the resin monomer Bis-GMA. During the manufacturing process of Bis-GMA dental sealants, Bisphenol A (BPA might be present as an impurity or as a degradation product of Bis-DMA through esterases present in saliva. Leaching of these monomers from resins can occur during the initial setting period and in conjunction with fluid sorption and desorption over time and this chemical leach from dental sealants may be bioactive. Researchers found an estrogenic effect with BPA, Bis-DMA, and Bis-GMA because BPA lacks structural specificity as a natural ligand to the estrogen receptor. It generated considerable concern regarding the safety of dental resin materials. This review focuses on the BPA in dental sealants and its estrogen-like effect.

  11. A comparative study to evaluate the effect of fluoride releasing sealant cured by visible light, argon laers, and light emitting diode curing units: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Pediatric Dentistry, the use of pit and fissure sealant is one of the essential forms of prevention. Pit and fissure caries may be substantially decreased by obliteration of these developmental defects in occlusal, buccal and lingual surfaces with resin based dental sealants. Visible light-curing units, or LCUs, are an integral part of modern adhesive dentistry" They are used to cure resin based composite restoration materials, resin modified glass-ionomer and pit and fissure sealants, as well as to bond orthodontic teeth. Most recently, the argon laser has been approved for initiating the setting reaction with visible light cured-resins. Argon curing of resin materials has been show to enhance the physical properties and degree of polymerization of the resin, while reducing the polymerization time by 75 percent. The study is undertaken considering the inadequate research reports of regarding the comparison of curing ability using argon laser. LEDs and visible light as well as the resistant towards caries activity of the preventive fluoride releasing pit and fissure sealant cured by above mentioned curing units.

  12. Dental sealant knowledge, opinion, values and practice of Spanish dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Martin Laura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple guidelines and systematic reviews recommend sealant use to reduce caries risk. Yet, multiple reports also indicate that sealants are significantly underutilized. This study examined the knowledge, opinions, values, and practice (KOVP of dentists concerning sealant use in the southwest region of Andalusia, Spain. This is a prelude to the generation of a regional plan for improving children’s oral health in Andalusia. Methods The survey’s target population was dentists working in western Andalusia, equally distributed in the provinces of Seville, Cadiz, and Huelva (N=2,047. A convenience sample of meeting participants and meeting participant email lists (N=400 were solicited from the annual course on Community and Pediatric Dentistry. This course is required for all public health sector dentists, and is open to all private sector dentists. Information on the dentist’s KOVP of sealants was collected using four-part questionnaire with 31, 5-point Likert-scaled questions. Results The survey population demographics included 190 men (48% and 206 women (52% with an average clinical experience of 10.6 (± 8.4 years and 9.3 (± 7.5 years, respectively. A significant sex difference was observed in the distribution of place of work (urban/suburb (p=0.001, but no sex differences between working sector (public/private. The mean ± SD values for each of the four KOVP sections for pit and fissure sealants were: knowledge = 3.57 ± 0.47; opinion = 2.48 ± 0.47; value = 2.74 ± 0.52; and practice = 3.48 ± 0.50. No sex differences were found in KOVP (all p >0.4. Independent of sex: knowledge statistically differed by years of experience and place of work; opinion statistically differed by years of experience and sector; and practice statistically differed by years of experience and sector. Less experienced dentists tended to have slightly higher scores (~0.25 on a Likert 1–5 scale. Statistically significant correlations were

  13. Laser fluorescence of dentin caries covered with a novel nano-filled sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Beisel, Christian; Brede, Olivier; Krause, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the possibility to measure caries-induced laser fluorescence underneath a novel nano-filled fissure sealant. Sixty freshly extracted human teeth with occlusal dentine carious lesions were horizontally divided, exposing the respective lesion. Teeth were randomly assigned to three groups: (I) white fissure sealant with filler particles (Fissurit F, Voco), (II) clear fissure sealant without filler particles (Fissurit, Voco) and (III) novel experimental fissure sealant with nano-filler particles (Voco). Starting with a sealant thickness of 3 mm, laser fluorescence measurements (DIAGNOdent, KaVo) were performed after finishing the sealant surfaces with polishing papers, reducing the material at intervals of 0.5 mm until the sealant was removed completely. Evaluating a thickness of 0.5 mm, both the clear (83 % of the baseline fluorescence after fine grit polishing) and the white sealant (25 %) did not allow to measure baseline fluorescence (p 0.05). With increasing sealer thickness, fluorescence was influenced even by the experimental material (89 % of the baseline value at 1 mm). However, by using the experimental material, statistically significant higher fluorescence values than those for the other materials under study (p laser fluorescence in all groups (p laser fluorescence measurements for caries detection can be performed through thicker sealant layers compared to conventional sealant materials. Thus, it might be possible to use this material to assess a caries progression underneath the sealant and administer an appropriate therapy in due time.

  14. Retention of a resin-based sealant and a glass ionomer used as a fissure sealant in children with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Chávez, Mariana C; Nualart-Grollmus, Zacy-Carola

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the retention of sealants of resin and resin-modified ionomeric glass pits and fissures, on first permanent molars of special patients. The sample was comprised by 32 children. The ages were between 7 and 18 years. The sealing procedure was made with the relative isolation of the molars to be sealed, through the use of cotton rolls. Two molars were sealed with Clinpro Sealant 3M Dental and the others with Vitremer. Checking of the sealants was made after 3 and 6 months of their placement, evaluating with 3 values: TR: Totally Restrained; PR: Partially Restrained; and CL: Completely Lost. 67.18% of the resinous sealants, and 70.31% of the glass ionomer sealants were successful after three months. After six months, 57.81% of the resin-based sealants and 51.56% of the glass ionomer sealants were successful. When performing the Chi-square statistical analysis (Psealant was similar to that of the glass ionomer cement at the end of six months and the retention of sealants on maxillary teeth was higher than on mandibular teeth. Key words:Sealant, glass ionomer, retention, caries, special needs.

  15. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of fissure sealants in children and adolescents with a high caries risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusser, Silke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] In Germany, the application of resin-based pits and fissures sealants on the occlusal surfaces of permanent molars is part of individual prophylaxis for children and adolescents between six and 18 years. The individual prophylaxis is covered by the Statutory Health Insurance since 1993.The report addresses questions on medical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, as well as ethical, social, and legal implications of pit and fissure sealants in preventing dental caries for children and adolescents at high caries risk. The results of the studies indicate a protective effect of pit and fissure sealants, particularly for children and adolescents at high caries risk. Additionally, the economic evaluation suggests a tendency for cost savings in this group. Nevertheless, a general expansion of the intervention cannot be recommended. All studies show a risk of bias in favour of pit and fissure sealing and a limited transferability to the German health care system. Studies included in the economic evaluation revealed methodological flaws. Both the economic models and primary studies do not provide reliable results.

  16. [Prevention of epidural fibrosis. Initial experiences with non-resorbable membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanic, G M; Wild, A; Pink, T P; Homann, N C

    2002-05-01

    Scars around the neural structures after opening the spinal canal are common and severe problems in spine surgery. This paper presents the use of a special membrane to avoid epidural scarring in two cases.

  17. Evaluating cyclic fatigue of sealants during outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2009-01-01

    A computer-controlled test apparatus (CCTA) and other instrumentation for subjecting sealant specimens to cyclic fatigue during outdoor exposure was developed. The CCTA enables us to use weather-induced conditions to cyclic fatigue specimens and to conduct controlled tests in-situ during the outdoor exposure. Thermally induced dimensional changes of an aluminum bar...

  18. Near-IR imaging of demineralization under sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum near-IR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using near-IR reflectance and near-IR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300 nm, 1460 nm, and 1500 - 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for comparison. The highest contrast for near- IR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 - 1700 nm. These near-IR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either co-polarization or crosspolarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500-1700-nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for near-IR reflectance measurements.

  19. Dental Pit and Fissure Sealants: Implications for School Health Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack-Brown, K. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    To promote good personal hygiene practices in students, school health personnel must be informed about dental pit and fissure sealants and related programs. Adoption and maintenance of such programs may depend on the success of school health personnel in educating administrators and policymakers. (SM)

  20. Fibrin sealant in general surgery. Personal experience and literary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubitosi, Adelmo; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Esposito, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In consideration of the use of fibrin glue in a general surgery department, authors analyze their last two years series. Operations on liver and biliary ducts, bowel and proctologic surgery, thyroid and breast surgery, abdominal wall hernias, fistulas and difficult wounds are considered with a literary review on fibrin sealant.

  1. A fibrin sealant for perforated and preperforated corneal ulcers.

    OpenAIRE

    Lagoutte, F M; Gauthier, L; Comte, P R

    1989-01-01

    Fibrin sealant is used to close perforated or preperforated corneal ulcers. In addition to the usual advantages of cyanoacrylates it is degraded physiologically and provides a good support for corneal healing. Corneal grafting can be avoided when contraindicated or postponed when conditions allow. This technique has been successful in nine eyes of eight patients.

  2. Prevention and management of silica scaling in membrane distillation using pH adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, John A.; Vanneste, Johan; Gustafson, Emily M.; Waechter, Christopher A.; Jassby, David; Turchi, Craig S.; Cath, Tzahi Y.

    2018-05-01

    Membrane scaling by silica is a major challenge in desalination, particularly for inland desalination of brackish groundwater or geothermal resources, which often contain high concentrations of silica and dissolved solids. Adjustment of feed pH may reduce silica scaling risk, which is important for inland facilities that operate at high water recoveries to reduce brine disposal costs. However, water recovery of reverse osmosis is also limited due to increased osmotic pressure with feed water concentration. Membrane distillation (MD) is a thermally driven membrane desalination technique that is not limited by increased osmotic pressure of the feed. In this investigation, pH adjustment was tested as a strategy to reduce silica scaling risk in the MD process. With feed water pH less than 5 or higher than 10, scaling impacts were negligible at silica concentrations up to 600 mg/L. Scaling rates were highest at neutral pH between 6 and 8. Cleaning strategies were also explored to remove silica scale from membranes. Cleaning using NaOH solutions at pH higher than 11 to induce dissolution of silica scale was effective at temporarily restoring performance; however, some silica remained on membrane surfaces and scaling upon re-exposure to supersaturated silica concentrations occurred faster than with new membranes.

  3. Comparative evaluation of the length of resin tags, viscosity and microleakage of pit and fissure sealants - an in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Prabhakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In this era of preventive dentistry, many techniques are available for prevention of caries, such as plaque control, use of systemic and local fluorides and pit and fissure sealants. The rationale of pit and fissure sealants is that, when they are applied into the caries prone fissures, they penetrate and seal them from the oral environment. This study aims to correlate the relationship between the viscosity of the sealant, resin tag length and microleakage. Materials and Methods : 30 third molars were selected for study. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group E: Embrace wetbond, H: Helioseal, G: Guardian seal. Teeth were cleaned with pumice prophylaxis and pretreated with acid etching and bonding agent. The respective pit and fissure sealants were applied. Teeth were placed in 1% methylene blue dye and sectioned mesio-distally into two halves. These were used to assess the microleakage using stereomicroscope and resin tag length using SEM. Viscosity was assessed using Brooke′s field viscometer. Results : Viscosity was lowest for Embrace wetbond and highest for Guardian seal. Microleakage scores were highest with Guardian seal and lowest with Embrace wetbond. Resin tag lengths were longer with Embrace wetbond as compared to other groups. There is a definite negative correlation between viscosity, resin tag length and microleakage. Lower the viscosity, the longer were the resin tags and the microleakage decreased. Embrace wetbond pit and fissure sealant had lowest viscosity, longest resin tag length and lowest microleakage scores. Conclusion : Embrace wetbond appears to be compatible with residual moisture and ideal for use in children, where isolation is a problem.

  4. Opportunities to Reduce Overuse of Antibiotics for Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease Prevention and Management of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schrag

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify opportunities to reduce overuse of antibiotics for prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal (GBS disease and management of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM.

  5. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment......Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...

  6. Long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants placed in a general dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevinga, M A; Opdam, N J M; Bronkhorst, E M; Truin, G J; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants applied in a general dental practice. Regularly attending patients visiting the practice between July 2006 until November 2007 and who had received sealants before 1st of January 2000 were included in the study. Date of placement of a sealant in posterior non-discoloured permanent teeth and replacement by a restoration was recorded. In a clinical examination occlusal surfaces were scored for (partial) sealant loss and fissure discolouration. The restoration profile of the patient was assessed as low or high, based on the number of restorations placed per year since the first sealant. Sealants had been applied by four dentists and a dental hygienist. 1204 sealants were placed in 148 patients. After a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years, 41.3% of placed sealants were still fully retained and 11.4% were replaced by a restoration. Failure rates were significantly higher in high than in low restoration profile patients and in molars compared to premolars. In those fissures with lost or partially lost sealants, discolouration frequently occurred (40% of all surfaces) irrespective of restoration profile of the patient. In this retrospective practice based study, long-term performance of sealants depended on restoration profile of the individual patient and the tooth type (molar versus premolar).

  7. Evaluation of Different Fissure Sealant Materials and Flowable Composites Used as Pit-and-fissure Sealants: A 24-Month Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Savas, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants mainly depends on their retention and integrity over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate retention rates of two different pit-and-fissure sealants compared with a flowable composite and a self-adhesive flowable composite over a 24 month period. A split-mouth study design was used for all four permanent first molars of each patient. They were subjected to different kinds of sealants--either flowable composites or with fissure sealants. The flowable composites used were: flowable composite with an adhesive system (Tetric EvoFlow); and a self-adhesive flowable composite (Vertise Flow). The fissure sealants used were: a highly filled pit-and-fissure sealant (Fissurit FX); and a highly filled nano-hybrid pit-and-fissure sealant (Grandio Seal). Evaluation of the sealants was carried out at three-, six-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up visits. The complete retention rates were 95.7 percent for Tetric EvoFlow, 80.6 percent for Fissurit FX, 73.1 percent for Grandio Seal, and 62.9 percent for Vertise Flow. The retention rate of Tetric EvoFlow was significantly higher among all materials tested (P<0.05). The flowable composite used with an adhesive system was found to be superior to other sealing materials.

  8. MEMBRANE-OXYGENATOR PREVENTS LUNG REPERFUSION INJURY IN CANINE CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GU, YJ; WANG, YS; CHIANG, BY; GAO, XD; YE, CX; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    The effect of blood activation on lung reperfusion injury during cardiopulmonary bypass was investigated in 20 dogs with the use of a bubble oxygenator (n = 10) or a membrane oxygenator (n = 10). In the bubble oxygenator group, significant leukocyte and platelet right to left atrium gradients were

  9. The use of a cephalonium containing dry cow therapy and an internal teat sealant, both alone and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A J; Breen, J E; Payne, B; Williams, P; Green, M J

    2010-04-01

    The dry period is a critical time in the lactation cycle, being the optimum time to cure existing intramammary infection (IMI) as well as encompassing the periods of highest susceptibility to new infection. Currently, IMI in the dry period is controlled with antibiotic dry cow therapy. The aim of this randomized control trial was to investigate different dry cow therapy regimens by stratifying cows by likely infection status at drying off in herds with low somatic cell count (SCC; bulk milk SCC cows were recruited. The recruited cows were categorized as either infected or uninfected on the basis of SCC and clinical mastitis history. Ipsilateral quarters within each cow were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 4 different treatment regimens according to their infection category. Quarters in high-SCC infected cows were allocated to receive antibiotic dry cow therapy either alone or in combination with an internal teat sealant; quarters in low-SCC uninfected cows were allocated to receive teat sealant either alone or in combination with antibiotic dry cow therapy. All quarters were sampled for bacteriology at drying off and again within 10 d post-calving. Quarters were subsequently monitored for clinical mastitis for the first 100 d of lactation. The mass of residual sealant was assessed immediately post-calving to allow assessment of the association of sealant retention with treatment efficacy. Models were constructed to assess the efficacy of the different regimens in preventing IMI. Apparent cure rates of existing IMI with major pathogens were consistently >90% in quarters receiving antibiotic. Combination treatment of high-SCC infected cows resulted in an increased likelihood of being pathogen free post-calving (odds ratio=1.40; 95% credibility interval=1.03-1.90). The benefits of combination treatment of low-SCC uninfected cows were less clear. With respect to clinical mastitis, combination treatment of high-SCC infected cows resulted in a decreased likelihood of

  10. [Vaseline protection of the skin from the effects of the sealant Uniherm-6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, N A; Novikov, V E; Loseva, V A; Makushkina, V K; Kozlov, N B; Iakushev, P F; Bondarev, D P

    1990-01-01

    The article presents a set of newly elaborated specific techniques of the indication of protective pastes and ointments penetrability into the sealants. The techniques are based on the sealant's colour reactions to iron chloride spirits solution. It was established that skin protecting silicone creams, EIR-1 and HIOT pastes were sealant resistant for 4-6 minutes only. Medicinal vaseline displayed its protection properties for 6 hours, thus demonstrating its greater effectiveness when used in industrial conditions.

  11. Development of 400 F sealants for flat plate solar collector construction and installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, L.; Schubert, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Initial screening of sealants consisted of measuring high temperature stability and adhesion retention. Several sealant compositions exhibited satisfactory performance in these tests and were selected for further evaluation. These materials were based on an EPDM rubber, a Viton fluoroelastomer, and silicone polymers. Further testing of these candidate materials included determination of adhesion retention under uv/water/heat conditions, fogging temperature, low temperature flexibility, and physical properties. Four silicone-based materials appeared to be suitable candidates for sealing solar collectors.

  12. A 48-month clinical evaluation of fissure sealants placed with different adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, E; Yazici, A R; Tuncer, D; Firat, E; Unluer, S; Baseren, M

    2013-01-01

    To compare the retention rates of a nanofilled occlusal fissure sealant placed with the use of an etch-and-rinse or a self-etch adhesive over 48 months. The authors enrolled 244 teeth, each with no restoration or sealant and no detectable caries, from 16 patients. The sealants were placed with Solobond M two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive or Futurabond NR one-step self-etch adhesive by four previously calibrated dentists using a table of random numbers. After completion of the adhesive application, a nanofilled sealant, Grandio Seal, was applied and light-cured. Two other calibrated examiners, who were unaware of which adhesive had been used, independently evaluated the sealants at baseline and at 12-, 24-, 36-, and 48-month recalls. Each sealant was evaluated in terms of caries formation being present or absent and retention using the following criteria: 1 = completely retained, 2 = partial loss, and 3 = total loss. The Pearson χ (2) test was used to evaluate differences in retention rates among the sealants used with different adhesives for each evaluation period. The retention rates for sealants in the Solobond M group were significantly higher than those in the Futurabond NR group in all periods of evaluation (p0.05). There was no new caries formation throughout the 48-month recall period. Fissure sealants placed with etch-and-rinse adhesive showed better retention rates than those placed with self-etch adhesive.

  13. Isolite vs cotton roll isolation in the placement of dental sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Todd; Viswanathan, Kavitha; McWhorter, Alton

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this split-mouth, randomized, controlled trial was to evaluate the retention rates of sealants placed under Isolite vs cotton roll isolation. A convenience sample of 29 patients, with a mean age of 9.8 years and a total of 96 teeth, was included in this study. Matched contralateral pairs of first and second molars were randomized to receive sealants with Isolite or cotton roll isolation. All sealants were performed by one standardized operator. Sealants were placed on first and second permanent molars that had a matched contralateral molar requiring a sealant as well. Photographs were taken of the sealants on the day of placement, and at 6-month and 12-month recalls. Photographs were viewed, and retention of the sealants was evaluated and scored by three calibrated pediatric dentists. The scores were analyzed via Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. There were no significant differences in the retention rates between sealants placed using Isolite isolation compared with cotton roll isolation. Isolite and cotton roll isolation both appear to be equally effective in creating a favorable environment for sealant placement by a single operator.

  14. Cisplatin impairs rat liver mitochondrial functions by inducing changes on membrane ion permeability: Prevention by thiol group protecting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, Jose B.A.; Cardoso, Carla M.P.; Santos, Maria S.; Almeida, Leonor M.; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Fernandes, Maria A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is the most important platinum anticancer drug widely used in the treatment of head, neck, ovarian and testicular cancers. However, the mechanisms by which CisPt induces cytotoxicity, namely hepatotoxicity, are not completely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of CisPt on rat liver mitochondrial functions (Ca 2+ -induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), mitochondrial bioenergetics, and mitochondrial oxidative stress) to better understand the mechanism underlying its hepatotoxicity. The effect of thiol group protecting agents and some antioxidants against CisPt-induced mitochondrial damage was also investigated. Treatment of rat liver mitochondria with CisPt (20 nmol/mg protein) induced Ca 2+ -dependent mitochondrial swelling, depolarization of membrane potential (ΔΨ), Ca 2+ release, and NAD(P)H fluorescence intensity decay. These effects were prevented by cyclosporine A (CyA), a potent and specific inhibitor of the MPT. In the concentration range of up to 40 nmol/mg protein, CisPt slightly inhibited state 3 and stimulated state 2 and state 4 respiration rates using succinate as respiratory substrate. The respiratory indexes, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ADP/O ratios, the ΔΨ, and the ADP phosphorylation rate were also depressed. CisPt induced mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization to protons (proton leak) but did not induce significant changes on mitochondrial H 2 O 2 generation. All the effects induced by CisPt on rat liver mitochondria were prevented by thiol group protecting agents namely, glutathione (GSH), dithiothreitol (DTT), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine (CYS), whereas superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate (ASC) were without effect. In conclusion, the anticancer drug CisPt: (1) increases the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca 2+ -induced MPT; (2) interferes with mitochondrial bioenergetics by increasing mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization to

  15. Microleakage of a universal adhesive used as a fissure sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, R H; Ballester, R; Singer, J da M; Santos, J F

    1998-06-01

    To evaluate the microleakage of a universal hydrophilic adhesive (OptiBond dual-cure) by itself as a pit and fissure sealant compared to that of an ionomeric product (VariGlass) and two hydrophobic sealants (Delton and Fluroshield). Sixty-four extracted human third molars were sealed with one of these four materials under either a conventional procedure (free of humidity) or after contamination of the etched surfaces with 3 microliters of human plasma. The sealed teeth were subjected to 1,500 thermocycles (1 min/5-55 degrees C) and to 450,000 mechanical cycles under an 8.5 kgf average load at 37 degrees C. The tooth crowns were partially coated with nail varnish, immersed in a 50% aqueous solution of AgNO3 for 2 h in darkness, washed and then developed for 8 h under fluorescent light. The teeth were sectioned and dye penetration was scored according to a 4-point scale by four trained professionals. An ANOVA suggested that under no humidity conditions, the average score for VariGlass (1.92 +/- 0.36) was significantly higher (P = 0.0006) than that corresponding to the three remaining materials (1.28 +/- 0.20) which were considered equivalent. Under humid (plasma contaminated) conditions, there was complete loss of Delton and Fluroshield in all cases, whereas the average score for VariGlass (1.98 +/- 0.36) was slightly higher (P = 0.0444) than that for OptiBond (1.62 +/- 0.36). These results suggest that OptiBond may be used by itself as a pit and fissure sealant instead of the combination of adhesive plus sealant.

  16. Microleakage and Shear Bond Strength of a New Giomer Sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-08

    Capt Samuel N. Durham 2. Academic Title: Resident, Advanced Education in General Dentistry Residency (AEGD-2) 3. School/Department/Center: Air Force...34Microleakage and Shear Bond Strength of a New Giomer Sealant" 7. Intended publication/meeting: Operative Dentistry 8. "Required by" date: 30 June 2015...enamel junction to remove the root using a water- cooled slow-speed diamond saw (Isomet, Buehler). Retention cuts were placed in the lingual surface of

  17. Effect of a surface sealant on the color stability of composite resins after immersion in staining solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Lauana Borges; Barreto, Luma Franciélle Cabreira; Miotti, Leonardo Lamberti; Nicoloso, Gabriel Ferreira; Durand, Leticia Brandão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of surface sealants on the color stability of 2 different composite resins after immersion in coffee. Four groups were created (n = 10): microhybrid composite, microhybrid with surface sealant, nanofilled composite, and nanofilled composite with surface sealant. Half of the specimens of each group were immersed in distilled water and half were immersed in coffee for 48 hours. Color was measured before and after immersion. Groups with surface sealants presented less color variation when compared with the groups without surface sealants. The nanofilled resin specimens presented the greatest color variation within the groups without sealant. The surface sealant positively influenced the color stability of composite resin specimens immersed in coffee. When surface sealant was not applied, the microhybrid specimens had better color stability than the nanofilled.

  18. [Clinical application of hydrogel membrane of silicone rubber for preventing adhesion in orthopedics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y E; Shi, T; Mei, B; Yin, Z; Su, J

    1998-09-01

    Grafting hydrogels onto silicone rubber membranes were prepared by radiation technique for medical application. This material is characterized by high purity, hydrophilia, formation of stable hydrogel after water absorption, good biocompatibility, etc. Clinical application was initiated on the basis of animal experiments. The material was used in 47 cases of joint and tendon injuries, in 9 cases of rheumatoid arthritis, and in 4 other cases; totaling 60 cases. All patients were followed up for three and a half years after surgical operation. A general effectiveness of above 86% was noted.

  19. The success of fissure sealants placed by dentists and dental care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchian, F; Rodd, H D; Robinson, P G

    2011-03-01

    To obtain preliminary data on the effectiveness of fissure sealants placed by dentists and dental care professionals (DCPs). Case-note review of fissure sealants provided for paediatric patients within primary dental services in South Yorkshire. Records were retrieved for 1,100 fissure sealants, placed on first and second permanent molars of 312 children by 25 participating dentists and 25 DCPs during 2001-2003. Independent variables included operator details and patient-related factors including: caries experience at baseline, age, gender, and socio-economic status. The outcome variables were sealant retention and progression to caries at three years. Bivariate analyses were used to explore the role of potential factors associated with the success of fissure sealant survival. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox's regression models were used to estimate the probability of sealant success for both operator groups. Retention rates at three years for fissure sealants placed by dentists and DCPs were 62.4% (SD = 22.1) and 58.1% (SD = 21.5) respectively. After three years, 87.1% (SD = 9.8) and 84.2% (SD = 11.6) of teeth sealed by dentists and DCPs remained sound. Exploratory analysis found no significant difference in sealant retention or caries transformation rates according to operator type. On the basis of these preliminary findings, delegation of fissure sealants to DCPs would seem to be justified in view of the comparable sealant success rates achieved by dentists and DCPs. These data can now be used to inform future randomised controlled trials on the effectiveness of fissure sealants by different operator groups.

  20. Fluoride release and recharging ability of new dental sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, D; Sfeikos, T; Tolidis, K

    2016-02-01

    This in vitro investigation was to evaluate the fluoride release and recharge abilities of three recently introduced dental fissure sealants (FS). Three dental FS were assessed: Teethmate F-1 (Kuraray), Fissurit F (Voco), BeautiSealant (Shofu), and a conventional glass ionomer cement FX-II (Shofu) as a control. Eight cylindrical specimens (7 × 2 mm) of each material were made and immersed individually in 5 ml de-ionized water in plastic containers. Fluoride release of the tested materials was evaluated during the experimental period (28 days) utilising a fluoride ion-selective electrode. At the end of the test period, the specimens were soaked for 5 min in a fluoride solution (0.05 % NaF) and fluoride release was evaluated for the next 5 days. The data were statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test and the level of significance was preset at α = 0.05. The total fluoride release over the 28-day period for each material was: FX-II (408.6 ± 45.66 μg/cm(2)) > Teethmate F-1 (89.45 ± 12.32 μg/cm(2)) > Fissurit F (68.62 ± 8.72 μg/cm(2)) > BeautiSealant (33.32 ± 4.91 μg/cm(2)), (p  Teethmate F-1 (9.76 ± 1.62 μg/cm(2)) > BeautiSealant (5.69 ± 0.89 μg/cm(2)) > Fissurit F (4.76 ± 0.72 μg/cm(2)), (p sealants exhibited different capabilities to release and uptake fluoride ions after re-fluoridation but significantly lower than the glass ionomer tested.

  1. KEBERHASILAN PENETRASI BAHAN PIT & FISSURE SEALANT KE DALAM FISURA MENGGUNAKAN SYRINGE BLUE MICRO TIPS DAN SYRINGE WHITE MINI BRUSH TIPS (LAPORAN PENELITIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avy Permata Sari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the success and differences of pit & fissure sealant materal penetration of composite resin type (UltraSeal XT Plus into fissure by using syringe blue micro tips and syringe white mini brush tips in fissure closure efforts for caries prevention of permanent teeth. The study was conducted to 30 maxillary first premolar, using syring blue micro tips, and 30 maxilary first premolar using syringw white mini brush tips. The samples, then, were made smears and observed by optic microscope with 300 times magnification. The result of this stuy showed that mean of pit & fissure sealant material penetration of composite resin type into fissure by using blue micro tips was (67.93 ± 13.09%. By using syringe white mini brush tips was (92.96 ± 6.18%. With t-test, it showed a significant difference (t = 9.84, p<0,01.

  2. A small molecule inhibits Akt through direct binding to Akt and preventing Akt membrane translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwa; Sun, Mei; He, Lili; Zhou, Qing-Hua; Chen, Jun; Sun, Xia-Meng; Bepler, Gerold; Sebti, Said M; Cheng, Jin Q

    2010-03-12

    The Akt pathway is frequently hyperactivated in human cancer and functions as a cardinal nodal point for transducing extracellular and intracellular oncogenic signals and, thus, presents an exciting target for molecular therapeutics. Here we report the identification of a small molecule Akt/protein kinase B inhibitor, API-1. Although API-1 is neither an ATP competitor nor substrate mimetic, it binds to pleckstrin homology domain of Akt and blocks Akt membrane translocation. Furthermore, API-1 treatment of cancer cells results in inhibition of the kinase activities and phosphorylation levels of the three members of the Akt family. In contrast, API-1 had no effects on the activities of the upstream Akt activators, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase-1, and mTORC2. Notably, the kinase activity and phosphorylation (e.g. Thr(P)(308) and Ser(P)(473)) levels of constitutively active Akt, including a naturally occurring mutant AKT1-E17K, were inhibited by API-1. API-1 is selective for Akt and does not inhibit the activation of protein kinase C, serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase, protein kinase A, STAT3, ERK1/2, or JNK. The inhibition of Akt by API-1 resulted in induction of cell growth arrest and apoptosis selectively in human cancer cells that harbor constitutively activated Akt. Furthermore, API-1 inhibited tumor growth in nude mice of human cancer cells in which Akt is elevated but not of those cancer cells in which it is not. These data indicate that API-1 directly inhibits Akt through binding to the Akt pleckstrin homology domain and blocking Akt membrane translocation and that API-1 has anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo and could be a potential anti-cancer agent for patients whose tumors express hyperactivated Akt.

  3. First Permanent Molar Restoration Differences between Those with or without Dental Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthy, Raymond A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study examined differences in the number of restorations in permanent, posterior teeth for those children receiving dental sealants with cost sharing when compared to children who do not receive sealants. Results indicated a 51 percent reduction in restoration rates for each quadrant sealed. Findings have implications for cost savings and…

  4. Long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants placed in a general dental practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hevinga, M.A.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants applied in a general dental practice. METHODS: Regularly attending patients visiting the practice between July 2006 until November 2007 and who had received sealants

  5. Assessment of retention rates and clinical benefits of a community sealant program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorantes, Carlos; Childers, Noel K; Makhija, Sonia K; Elliott, Ron; Chafin, Teri; Dasanayake, Ananda P

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) evaluate the retention rates of occlusal sealants in children in an urban school-based sealant program run by a County Health Department in Alabama; and (2) assess the clinical benefits of this sealant program by comparing caries experience of a group of participants and nonparticipants. The records of 2,097 children (mean age=8.1 +/- 1.6 years) who received sealants and had at least 1 follow-up examination were analyzed to determine the outcome of sealed and nonsealed surfaces of permanent first molars (PFM). Additionally, 103 fifth-grade students who did and did not participate in the sealant program (P=participants; NP=nonparticipants) were examined by a masked examiner who recorded their PFM condition. Sealants placed by the County Health Department had a retention rate of 71% over an average of 1.6 +/- 0.7 years (range=0.5-4.4 years). The patient's age at the initial visit appeared to be the only factor that influenced retention. On average, participants had at least 1 PFM that remained caries-free, compared to nonparticipants (permanent decayed, missing, and filled teeth [DMFT] in NP=1.5 +/- 1.4, P=0.5 +/- 0.8; P<.016). Retention rates for occlusal sealants in this public health program were similar to those reported in previous clinical studies. Furthermore, children who had sealants had significant protection from occlusal decay up to grade 5.

  6. Caries detection methods : Can they aid decision making for invasive sealant treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, AC; Verdonschot, EH; Huysmans, M

    2001-01-01

    The decision to place sealants is a difficult one, and it has been suggested that in a low risk population it may be efficient to wait until caries is detected in the fissure. An invasive sealant technique with fissure preparation may then be indicated. The diagnostic method used in the indication

  7. Long-term protective effect of surface sealants against erosive wear by intrinsic and extrinsic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Tauböck, Tobias T; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    To test sealants to prevent erosive tooth wear caused by extrinsic and intrinsic acids under long-term exposition. 144 bovine enamel samples were randomly allocated to twelve groups (1-12). Samples of groups 1, 5 and 9 remained unsealed (positive controls), 2, 6 and 10 were sealed with Silicon Seal Nano Mix and 3, 7 and 11 with Seal&Protect. Groups 4, 8 and 12 were sealed with flowable composite (negative controls). Groups 1-4 were immersed in artificial saliva, 5-8 in hydrochloric acid and groups 9-12 in citric acid for 28 days, respectively. After 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 14, 21 and 28 days, solutions were renewed and enamel wear was quantified by assignation of (32)P in the solutions. In all immersion solutions, lowest mineral loss was observed for the negative controls whilst highest loss was observed for unsealed positive controls. In artificial saliva and citric acid, the loss from samples sealed with Seal&Protect was not significantly different compared with negative controls whilst loss in groups sealed with Silicon Seal Nano Mix was significantly higher. In hydrochloric acid, loss from samples sealed with Seal&Protect was not different compared with that of negative controls up to 4 days. Except day 1, the mineral loss in the Seal&Protect group was significantly lower compared with that of the Silicon Seal Nano Mix group. The tested resin based surface sealant is able to significantly reduce the erosive demineralisation of enamel caused by hydrochloric and citric acid even under long-term exposition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rasagiline prevents cyclosporine A-sensitive superoxide flashes induced by PK11195, the initial signal of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqiu; Shamoto-Nagai, Masayo; Maruyama, Wakako; Osawa, Toshihiko; Naoi, Makoto

    2016-05-01

    Rasagiline, a neuroprotective inhibitor of type B monoamine oxidase, prevented PK111195-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells through inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis signaling (J Neural Transm 120:1539-1551, 2013, J Neural Transm 122:1399-1407, 2015). This paper presents that PK11195 induced superoxide flashes, the transit production burst, mediated by cyclosporine A-sensitive membrane permeability transition. Rasagiline prevented superoxide flashes, calcium efflux, and cell death by PK11195. Regulation of the initial pore formation at the inner mitochondrial membrane was confirmed as the decisive mechanism of neuroprotection by rasagiline.

  9. Comparison of retention rates of fissure sealants using two flowable restorative materials and a conventional resin sealant: two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Aylin Akbay; Sönmez, Işıl Şaroğlu; Ercan, Ertuğrul; Dülgergil, Türksel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the retention rates of two flowable restorative systems (Admira Flow and Grandio Flow) with that of a conventional resin-based sealant (Fissurit F). The study was planned as a clinical trial with a split-mouth design. A total of 122 sealants (38 Admira Flow, 41 Grandio Flow, 43 Fissurit F) were randomly applied to completely erupted permanent molars in 35 patients aged 9-20 years and followed up for 24 months. Data were analyzed using Pearson's χ(2) and multiple comparison tests. At the end of the follow-up period, Fissurit F had higher retention rates (81.0%) than both Admira Flow (60.5%) and Grandio Flow (57.1%), with p 0.05). The two flowable composite resin materials used as fissure sealant were less retentive than the conventional resin sealant. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Utilization of dental sealants by Alabama Medicaid children: barriers in meeting the year 2010 objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, A P; Li, Y; Philip, S; Kirk, K; Bronstein, J; Childers, N K

    2001-01-01

    As a national objective, 50% of US children are expected to have dental sealants on at least one permanent molar by the age of 14 years. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of dental sealants among Alabama Medicaid children and to evaluate the characteristics of the sealant users and non-users so the potential barriers in meeting the year 2000/2010 sealant objectives can be identified. Alabama Medicaid 1990-1997 claims for children (N = 3,683,842) were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics, likelihood ratio, Chi-Square and t-tests, and ANOVA. Logistic regression analysis was used in identifying the predictors of dental sealant utilization. Nearly 22 percent of children had at least one sealant claim by 12 to 14 years of age (white = 28.3%; Black = 19.8%; OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.4-1.8; female = 23.6%; male = 19.7%; OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.4). 5- to 9-year-olds were more likely to have sealants compared to 11- to 14-year-olds (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.7-6.1). The availability of a Medicaid accepting dentist within the county of residence was a significant predictor (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.2). Less than 2% of the annual amount claimed for total dental services in Alabama was related to sealants and the providers were reimbursed only for 50% to 70% of the amount claimed for sealant procedures. Racial and gender disparities in obtaining care, non-availability of a Medicaid-participating dentist within the county, and lower payment/claim ratio may make the national sealant objective difficult to achieve in Alabama.

  11. Do school-based dental sealant programs reach higher risk children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark D; Detty, Amber M Richardson

    2010-01-01

    This report compares sealant prevalence by caries risk status among third graders at Ohio schools with and without school-based dental sealant programs (S-BSPs), and estimates the percent of children receiving sealants in S-BSPs who are higher risk for dental caries. We analyzed data from a statewide open-mouth oral health survey of Ohio third grade schoolchildren for sealant prevalence by S-BSP availability and caries risk classification. Children were classified as higher or lower risk for dental caries based on school lunch program enrollment and other non-clinical access-related indicators. Differences between groups were evaluated by the chi-square test (P dental sealants than lower risk children (28.7 percent versus 42.7 percent, P sealant prevalence for both risk categories was equivalent for higher and lower risk children (59.4 percent, 63.4 percent, P = 0.428). Higher risk children at schools with S-BSPs were more than twice as likely to have a sealant as higher risk children at non-S-BSP schools (59.4 percent versus 28.7 percent, P sealant, 61 percent attended a school with an S-BSP compared with 12.3 percent of lower risk children with at least one sealant. Higher risk children accounted for at least 75 percent of children receiving sealants through S-BSPs. In Ohio, targeting S-BSPs by family income-based school-level criteria was effective in reaching higher risk children.

  12. A comparison of the effects of toothbrushing and handpiece prophylaxis on retention of sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolavic Gray, Shellie; Griffin, Susan O; Malvitz, Dolores M; Gooch, Barbara F

    2009-01-01

    Tooth surface cleaning before acid etching is considered to be an important step in the retention of resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants. The authors reviewed and summarized instructions for cleaning tooth surfaces from five manufacturers of 10 unfilled resin-based sealants marketed in the United States. The authors also searched electronic databases for studies that directly compared the effects of different surface-cleaning methods on sealant retention and for systematic reviews of the effectiveness of sealants. They explored the association between surface-cleaning methods and sealant retention in the studies included in the systematic reviews. They calculated the summary weighted retention rates for studies that used either a handpiece or toothbrush prophylaxis. All of the sealant manufacturers' instructions for use (IFU) recommended cleaning the tooth before acid etching. None of the IFU directly stated that a handpiece was required to perform the cleaning, but five IFU implied the use of handpiece prophylaxis. None of the IFU recommended surface-altering procedures in caries-free teeth. Direct evidence from two clinical trials showed no difference in complete sealant retention between surfaces cleaned mechanically with pumice or prophylaxis paste and those cleaned with air-water syringe or dry toothbrushing. Indirect evidence from 10 studies found that weighted summary retention by year after sealant placement in studies that used toothbrush prophylaxis was greater than or equivalent to values for studies that used handpiece prophylaxis. Levels of sealant retention after surface cleaning with toothbrush prophylaxis were at least as high as those associated with hand-piece prophylaxis. This finding may translate into lower resource costs for sealant placement.

  13. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Smit, John; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-09-23

    ABSTRACT

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaFaand RsaFb, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaFaand RsaFbare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaFaand RsaFbare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaFaand RsaFbled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaFaand RsaFbled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaFaand RsaFbin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels in

  14. Apricot melanoidins prevent oxidative endothelial cell death by counteracting mitochondrial oxidation and membrane depolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Cossu

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular benefits associated with diets rich in fruit and vegetables are thought to be due to phytochemicals contained in fresh plant material. However, whether processed plant foods provide the same benefits as unprocessed ones is an open question. Melanoidins from heat-processed apricots were isolated and their presence confirmed by colorimetric analysis and browning index. Oxidative injury of endothelial cells (ECs is the key step for the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, therefore the potential protective effect of apricot melanoidins on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative mitochondrial damage and cell death was explored in human ECs. The redox state of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments was detected by using the redox-sensitive, fluorescent protein (roGFP, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP was assessed with the fluorescent dye, JC-1. ECs exposure to hydrogen peroxide, dose-dependently induced mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation. Additionally detected hydrogen peroxide-induced phenomena were MMP dissipation and ECs death. Pretreatment of ECs with apricot melanoidins, significantly counteracted and ultimately abolished hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and cell death. In this regard, our current results clearly indicate that melanoidins derived from heat-processed apricots, protect human ECs against oxidative stress.

  15. Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines from Biosafe Surrogates Prevent Acute Lethal Glanders in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Norris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted Gram-negative mammalian pathogen that causes the severe disease glanders. Glanders can manifest as a rapid acute progression or a chronic debilitating syndrome primarily affecting solipeds and humans in close association with infected animals. In USA, B. mallei is classified as one of the most important bacterial biothreat agents. Presently, there is no licensed glanders vaccine available for humans or animals. In this work, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs were isolated from three attenuated biosafe bacterial strains, Burkholderia pseudomallei Bp82, B. thailandensis E555, and B. thailandensis TxDOH and used to vaccinate mice. B. thailandensis OMVs induced significantly higher antibody responses that were investigated. B. mallei specific serum antibody responses were of higher magnitude in mice vaccinated with B. thailandensis OMVs compared to levels in mice vaccinated with B. pseudomallei OMVs. OMVs derived from biosafe strains protected mice from acute lethal glanders with vesicles from the two B. thailandensis strains affording significant protection (>90% up to 35 days post-infection with some up to 60 days. Organ loads from 35-day survivors indicated bacteria colonization of the lungs, liver, and spleen while those from 60 days had high CFUs in the spleens. The highest antibody producing vaccine (B. thailandensis E555 OMVs also protected C57BL/6 mice from acute inhalational glanders with evidence of full protection.

  16. Ultra Structural Characterisation of Tetherin - a Protein Capable of Preventing Viral Release from the Plasma Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra K. Gupta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin is an antiviral restriction factor made by mammalian cells to protect them from viral infection. It prevents newly formed virus particles from leaving infected cells. Its antiviral mechanism appears to be remarkably uncomplicated. In 2 studies published in PLoS Pathogens electron microscopy is used to support the hypothesis that the tethers that link HIV-1 virions to tetherin expressing cells contain tetherin and are likely to contain tetherin alone. They also show that the HIV-1 encoded tetherin antagonist that is known to cause tetherin degradation, Vpu, serves to reduce the amount of tetherin in the particles thereby allowing their release.

  17. Safety and efficacy of distal perfusion catheterization to prevent limb ischemia after common femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin

    2016-01-01

    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannula has the potential for obstructing flow to the lower limb, thus causing severe ischemia and possible limb loss. We evaluated the safety and clinical efficacy of percutaneous distal perfusion catheterization in preventing limb ischemia. Between March 2013 and February 2015, 28 patients with distal perfusion catheterization after ECMO were included in this retrospective study. The technical success was evaluated by Doppler ultrasound at the popliteal level after saline injection via distal perfusion catheter. Clinical success was assessed when at least one of the following conditions was met: restoration of continuous peripheral limb oximetry value or presence of distal arterial pulse on Doppler ultrasound evaluation or resolution of early ischemic sign after connecting the catheter with ECMO. Twenty-six patients with early ischemia were successfully cannulated with a distal perfusion catheter (92.8%). Clinical success was achieved in 12/28 (42.8%) patients; 8/10 (80.0%) patients with survival duration exceeding 7 days and 4/18 (22.2%) patients with survival duration less than 7 days, respectively. A percutaneous distal perfusion catheter placement was a feasible tool with safety and efficacy in preventing lower limb ischemia for patients with prolonged common femoral arterial cannulation for ECMO

  18. Safety and efficacy of distal perfusion catheterization to prevent limb ischemia after common femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannula has the potential for obstructing flow to the lower limb, thus causing severe ischemia and possible limb loss. We evaluated the safety and clinical efficacy of percutaneous distal perfusion catheterization in preventing limb ischemia. Between March 2013 and February 2015, 28 patients with distal perfusion catheterization after ECMO were included in this retrospective study. The technical success was evaluated by Doppler ultrasound at the popliteal level after saline injection via distal perfusion catheter. Clinical success was assessed when at least one of the following conditions was met: restoration of continuous peripheral limb oximetry value or presence of distal arterial pulse on Doppler ultrasound evaluation or resolution of early ischemic sign after connecting the catheter with ECMO. Twenty-six patients with early ischemia were successfully cannulated with a distal perfusion catheter (92.8%). Clinical success was achieved in 12/28 (42.8%) patients; 8/10 (80.0%) patients with survival duration exceeding 7 days and 4/18 (22.2%) patients with survival duration less than 7 days, respectively. A percutaneous distal perfusion catheter placement was a feasible tool with safety and efficacy in preventing lower limb ischemia for patients with prolonged common femoral arterial cannulation for ECMO.

  19. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm(2) and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm(2)of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  20. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Asefi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow, Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists. A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2 and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm2of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  1. Bisphenol A in dental sealants and its estrogen like effect

    OpenAIRE

    Rathee, Manu; Malik, Poonam; Singh, Jyotirmay

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A or BPA-based epoxy resins are widely used in the manufacture of commercial products, including dental resins, polycarbonate plastics, and the inner coating of food cans. BPA is a precursor to the resin monomer Bis-GMA. During the manufacturing process of Bis-GMA dental sealants, Bisphenol A (BPA) might be present as an impurity or as a degradation product of Bis-DMA through esterases present in saliva. Leaching of these monomers from resins can occur during the initial setting per...

  2. Photochemical modification of poly(ether sulfone) ultrafiltration membranes by UV-assisted graft polymerization for the prevention of biofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieracci, John Paul

    Membranes are widely used by the biotechnology industry in the separation and recovery of proteins from biological solutions. Fouling of membrane surfaces by irreversible protein adsorption during ultrafiltration causes loss of membrane permeability and can reduce membrane selectivity and lead to significant product loss through denaturation. In this work, low fouling poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were produced by ultraviolet (UV) assisted graft polymerization of hydrophilic vinyl monomers using a newly developed photochemical dip modification technique. This technique was developed to make the UV modification process more easily adaptable to continuous membrane manufacturing processes. A method was also developed to measure and track the degree of polymer grafting on the membrane surface using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR). Grafting the hydrophilic monomer N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP) onto the membrane surface increased surface wettability and produced membranes with the high wettability of regenerated cellulose membranes. The enhanced surface wettability significantly decreased irreversible adsorptive fouling during the filtration of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). In order to maintain the rejection of BSA after modification, PES chain scission was tightly controlled by regulating the UV wavelength range and the light intensity used. The UV reactor system was operated with 300 nm UV lamps and a benzene filter used to remove high energy wavelengths below 275 nm that were determined to cause severe loss of BSA rejection due to pore enlargement from extensive chain scission. Dip modification caused membrane permeability to decrease due to the grafted chains blocking the membrane pores. The use of a chain transfer agent during modification followed by ethanol cleaning increased modified membrane permeability, but BSA rejection was severely decreased. The resultant membranes produced by

  3. Halofuginone- and Chitosan-Coated Amnion Membranes Demonstrate Improved Abdominal Adhesion Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Washburn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether coating the amniotic membrane with halofuginone, a type 1 collagen synthase inhibitor, with or without the hemostasis-inducing substance chitosan, reduced the number and severity of adhesions in the rat uterine horn injury model. Sixty retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats underwent midline laparotomy and a zone of ischemia was created in the left uterine horn of each animal. Rats were randomized to one of six treatment groups: (1 untreated control, (2 oxidized regenerated cellulose (Interceed® (ORC, (3 plain amnion, (4 amnion coated on both sides with 0.5% solution of halofuginone (HAH, (5 amnion coated on one side with 0.5% halofuginone and on the other side with chitosan (CAH, or (6 amnion coated on both sides with chitosan (CAC. The zone of ischemia in each left uterine horn was wrapped in each treatment. Rats were sacrificed 2 weeks after laparotomy, and adhesions were counted and scored for severity. Data were analyzed using Chi square and a p <0.05 was considered significant. Our results showed that there were no differences in the percentage of animals with adhesions in the untreated, ORC, plain amnion, or CAC groups. No adhesions formed in any animal in the HAH group and only 14% of the animals developed adhesions to the uterine horn in the CAH group (p < 0.05. The percentage of animals with moderate and severe adhesions did not differ between untreated controls and the ORC groups, but were significantly reduced in all four of the amnion groups: plain amnion, HAH, CAH, and CAC (p < 0.05. Amnion coated with halofuginone alone or in combination with chitosan reduced the percentage of animals with adhesions, as well as the percentage of animals with moderate and severe adhesions compared to untreated controls and the ORC group in the rat uterine horn injury model. Amnion alone or coated with chitosan reduced the percentage of rats with moderate and severe adhesions, but not the percentage of rats with

  4. Effect of light curing methods on microleakage and microhardness of different resin sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangthip, Duangporn; Ballungpattama, Suda; Sitthisettapong, Thanya

    2011-07-01

    This study's purpose was to evaluate the effect of light curing methods on the microleakage and microhardness of sealants. The Elipar Free Light 2 light emitting diode (LED) with 10- and 20-second curing times, and the Elipar 2500 halogen light with a 20-second curing time were compared. Four different sealants were used: (1) Delton Clear; (2) Delton Opaque; (3) UltraSeal XT Clear; and (4) UltraSeal XT Opaque. Specimens were fabricated in a silicone mold (2-mm thick) and cured. Knoop hardness was measured at the bottom and top surfaces. For the microleakage evaluation, 120 human molars were divided into 12 groups and sealed with the sealants and curing methods, as stated previously. The teeth were thermocycled and immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours. Each tooth was sectioned and examined for dye penetration. There were no statistically significant differences in the microleakage of sealants polymerized by either the halogen or LED curing methods. The microhardness of sealants varied according to the type of material and curing method. A 10-second polymerization time with light emitting diodes was not sufficient to cure the 2-mm-thick opaque or high filler loaded sealants. Decreasing the curing time, however, had no effect on the microleakage of the sealants.

  5. Comparison of various concentrations of tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles on mechanical properties and remineralization of fissure sealants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tavassoli-Hojjati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties (flexural strength, micro-shear bond strength and remineralizing potential of fissure sealants by adding various concentrations of β-tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles.This in-vitro study consisted of five experimental groups containing prepared nano-fisssure sealants (1-5 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles and two control groups containing a prepared and a commercial fissure sealant. Flexural/micro-shear bond strength values were measured using Zwick test machine. Cavities on sixty healthy premolar teeth were filled with the fissure sealants containing 0-5 wt.% of nano β-TCP. The samples were assessed for remineralization under scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDAX. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, One-way ANOVA and Tukey's Post Hoc analysis/HSD were used to analyze the data.There was no significant difference between the flexural strengths/elastic modulus of the 0-5 wt.% nano β-TCP groups (p>0.05. The average flexural strength/elastic modulus of the prepared fissure sealant group (0% was significantly higher than the commercial fissure sealant group (Clinpro (p0.05. Examining the samples under SEM showed a significant increase in thickness of the intermediate layer with increasing concentrations of β-TCP nanoparticles (p<0.05.Addition of 1-5 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles to the fissure sealants significantly increased the remineralization potential without affecting the mechanical properties.

  6. A 1-year clinical evaluation of fissure sealants on permanent first molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Ninawe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate and compare the retention, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomical form of pit and fissure sealants. Materials and Methods : Thirty children between the ages of 6 and 10 years, who were attending the school health program regularly, had participated in the study. A split-mouth design was used in which the two fissure sealants (Helioseal-F and Glass ionomer Fuji VII were randomly placed in 60 matched contralateral pairs of permanent molar teeth. Sealants were rated by a single trained and calibrated examiner using mouth mirrors and probes following the US Public Health Service criteria. The sealants were evaluated at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year intervals. Results : The data obtained for retention, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomical form of pit and fissure sealants were tabulated and compared statistically using the Chi-square test of significance. Conclusion : The Helioseal-F sealant was better than the Glass ionomer Fuji VII sealant with respect to retention, anatomical form and surface texture. Both the materials showed similar results with respect to marginal discoloration.

  7. Effectiveness of audiovisual distraction in behavior modification during dental caries assessment and sealant placement in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; El Batawi, Hisham Yehia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) distraction in behavior modification during dental caries assessment and sealant placement in children with autism spectrum disorder. This study was conducted on 28 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, aged 6.5-9.8 years. Children underwent one introductory (desensitization) appointment and three treatment sessions. During the introductory session, children had the procedures explained to them, they watched a movie projected on a screen while oral screening and assessment of cooperation level were carried out. In treatment session I, oral examination, charting, and dental x-rays were undertaken, whereas the children watched movies with or without video eyewear. During treatment sessions II/III, dental prophylaxis was carried out on upper and lower jaws in addition to the application of dental sealants on the right upper and lower and the left upper and lower permanent molars, respectively, while the children were distracted by cartoon movies using video eyewear. Changes in pulse oximeter and heart rate were recorded every 5 min. Independent samples t -test was used to assess the significance of changes in pulse and O 2 saturation levels during each visit. International Caries Detection and Assessment System-code 2 was found to be the most prevalent ( n = 58; 52%). A significant difference ( P behavior in the subjects. Video eyewear distraction proved an effective tool in managing children with autism spectrum disorder during noninvasive preventive dental procedures.

  8. Does Fibrin Sealant Reduce Seroma after Immediate Breast Reconstruction Utilizing a Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gyu Cha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common complication of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in breastreconstruction is seroma formation in the back. Many clinical studies have shown that fibrinsealant reduces seroma formation. We investigated any statistically significant differences inpostoperative drainage and seroma formation when utilizing the fibrin sealant on the site ofthe latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap harvested for immediate breast reconstruction afterskin-sparing partial mastectomy.Methods A total of 46 patients underwent immediate breast reconstruction utilizing alatissimus dorsi myocutaneous island flap. Of those, 23 patients underwent the procedurewithout fibrin sealant and the other 23 were administered the fibrin sealant. All flaps wereelevated with manual dissection by the same surgeon and were analyzed to evaluate thepotential benefits of the fibrin sealant. The correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney U testwere used for analyzing the drainage volume according to age, weight of the breast specimen,and body mass index.Results Although not statistically significant, the cumulative drainage fluid volume was higherin the control group until postoperative day 2 (530.1 mL compared to 502.3 mL, but thefibrin sealant group showed more drainage beginning on postoperative day 3. The donor sitecomparisons showed the fibrin sealant group had more drainage beginning on postoperativeday 3 and the drain was removed 1 day earlier in the control group.Conclusions The use of fibrin sealant resulted in no reduction of seroma formation. Becausethe benefits of the fibrin sealant are not clear, the use of fibrin sealant must be fully discussedwith patients before its use as a part of informed consent.

  9. Effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants bonded with different adhesive systems: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas Unverdi, Gizem; Atac, Stephan Atilla; Cehreli, Zafer Cavit

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the clinical retention of a resin-based fissure sealant placed with an intermediate layer of etch-and-rinse (ER) or self-etch (SE) adhesives. Two hundred twenty-eight sealants were placed in 57 children with previously unsealed, caries-free permanent first molars, employing a split-mouth design. The teeth were randomized into four groups (n = 57 teeth/groups) according to the adhesive system placed under the tested sealant (Delton FS+; Dentsply). Group 1 (control): no bonding agent (conventional acid-etch sealant); group 2: prior enamel etch + ER adhesive (XP Bond; Dentsply); group 3: SE adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond; Kuraray) without prior etching; and group 4: prior enamel etch + SE adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond). Clinical assessments were performed according to modified USPHS criteria at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The data were analyzed statistically using Fisher's Exact test, the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the Log-rank test. At 24 months, sealants bonded with XP Bond and Clearfil SE Bond with prior enamel etching showed similar retention rates (p > 0.05), and these rates were significantly better than the rates of the conventional sealant and Clearfil-SE groups (p  0.05). The cumulative survival rates on palatal/buccal surfaces showed similar outcomes as with occlusal surfaces: XP Bond (94%), Clearfil SE Bond + acid-etch (94%), conventional sealant (52%), and Clearfil SE Bond only (37%). Application of the tested ER adhesive and the SE adhesive with enamel etching significantly improved the clinical retention of Delton-FS over the 24-month period. The use of a resin-based fissure sealant placed with ER or SE adhesive with prior acid-etching yielded better retention than the conventional sealant over the 24-month period.

  10. Studies on the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome of infants due to hyaline membrane disease with plasminogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, C M; Choi, T S; Weintraub, D H; Eisenberg, B; Staub, H P; Courey, N G; Foote, R J; Goplerud, D; Moesch, R V; Ray, M; Bross, I D; Jung, O S; Mink, I B; Ambrus, J L

    1975-07-01

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) is leading single cause of death of newborn, premature infants. The "hyaline membranes" consist chiefly of fibrin. The clinical manifestation of HMD is the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Infants with RDS were treated with urokinase-activated human plasmin in a previous clinical trial. Survival rate was increased in the plasmin treated group as compared to the placebo recipients. However, cost and difficulty in the preparation of the enzyme made this treatment impractical. We, as well as others, have shown the premature infants lack serum plasminogen; thus they are unable to develop effective fibrinolysis and are defenseless against pulmonary fibrin deposition. Therefore, plamsinogen was tested as a possible preventive agent in RDS due to HMD. In a double blind, randomized study, infants between 1 and 2.5 kg birth weight received plasminogen or placebo shortly after birth, and were then followed for development of RDS. After 100 infants were entered into the study, the code was broken and results were evaluated to assure safety of the procedure. Among the 100 infants, 51 received placebo, 49 received plasminogen. Among the infants who received placebo, seven developed mild, and ten developed severe respiratory distress; of these ten, five died with histopathologically documented HMD. Two infants died from causes other than HMD. Among the 49 infants treated with plasminogen, 13 developed mild and three developed severe respiratory distress. There was no death due to HMD. Two deaths were due to other causes. Factors placing the infant at risk from HMD (degree of prematurity, sex, cesarean section, bleeding episodes during pregnancy, maternal diabetes) were found to be evenly distributed between control and treated groups. Since completing the first phase of the study, data of an additional 277 infants has become available. Although the code was not broken in this series, a preliminary look at mortality data in comparison with

  11. Fouling prevention of peptides from a tryptic whey hydrolysate during electromembrane processes by use of monovalent ion permselective membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Persico, Mathieu; Bazinet, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Peptide adsorption occurring on conventional anion- and cation-exchange membranes is one of the main technological locks in electrodialysis (ED) for hydrolysate demineralization. Hence, the peptide fouling of monovalent anion (MAP) and monovalent cation (MCP) permselective membranes was studied and compared to conventional membranes (AMX-SB and CMX-SB). It appeared that the main peptide sequences responsible for fouling were TPEVDDEALEKFDK, VAGTWY and VLVLDTDYK for both anionic membranes; and...

  12. Comparison of microleakage between flowable nanocomposite, flowable Composite and Conventional sealant in fissure sealant therapy of the permanent teeth: an in- vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Maleki Kambakhsh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Novel dental materials including nanocomposites have been introduced in recent years. It is claimed that they have superior properties such as high esthetic., low wear, increased filler content resulting in better mechanical properties, and releasing ions i.e. fluoride and amorphous calcium phosphate that are important for enamel remineralization. Considering these features, if they have retention and microleakage rates comparable with conventional sealants, these materials can be appropriate alternatives to conventional resin sealants in future. The current study aimed at comparing . microleakage of a flowable nanocomposite, a flowable composite , and a conventional sealant in fissure sealant therapy of the permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: First of all ,42 extracted sound human maxillary first premolars were collected and were randomly divided into 3 equal groups. Then the teeth were embedded in self-cure acrylic resin. Occlusal fissures of the samples were cleaned using explorer, enameloplasty with ¼ round diamond bur and water/air spray was done. The prepared surfaces were etched using 36% phosphoric acid gel for 15s, rinsed and dried. Bonding agent was placed in the pits and fissures, cured for 10s after thinning with air. In the first, second , and the third group conventional sealant, flowable composite , and flowable nanocomposite were placed, respectively; and light cured for 40s. The samples were thermocycled (1000 cycles between 5-55ºC and then immersed in 2% basic Fuchsine solution for 24hs. They were then cut bucculingually and microleakage evaluation was done using stereomicroscope. The obtained data was analyzed using Kruskal wallis tests. Results: There was no significant difference in microleakage rate of the study groups. (P>0.05. Conclusion: Considering the condition of the study, it can be concluded that flowable composite and flowable nanocomposite can be used as suitable alternatives to

  13. Membrane omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency as a preventable risk factor for comorbid coronary heart disease in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Major depression disorder (MDD) significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA+DHA levels increase risk for both MDD and CHD, case-control studies finding that the n-3 fatty acid status of MDD patients places them at high risk for emergent CHD morbidity and mortality, meta-analyses of controlled n-3 fatty acid intervention studies finding significant advantage over placebo for reducing depression symptom severity in MDD patients, and for secondary prevention of cardiac events in CHD patients, findings that n-3 fatty acid status is inversely correlated with other documented CHD risk factors, and patients diagnosed with MDD after ACS exhibit significantly lower n-3 fatty acid status compared with nondepressed ACS patients. This body of evidence provides strong support for future studies to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary n-3 fatty acid status on CHD comorbidity and mortality in MDD patients.

  14. Evaluation of initial caries score and caries incidence in a public health sealant program: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Childers, Noel K; Lauten, Johnson; Dorantes, Carlos E; Chafin, Teri; Dasanayake, Ananda P

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between: (1) children's caries score (dmft, DMFT) at the time of sealant placement; and (2) "success" (measured as being caries-free) of that tooth at follow-up visits. An existing database of over 38,000 sealants (10,038 children) placed between 1997 and 2002 by the Jefferson County Health Department's Community Based Sealant Program, Birmingham, Ala, was used in the analysis. Only children returning for followup visits after the initial placement of the sealants were included in this study, resulting in 6,452 sealants (2,097 children). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the differences in sealant success between children with a dmft score of 0 vs a dmft score of >0 at baseline, and a DMFT score of 0 vs a DMFT score of >0 at baseline. In the permanent and primary dentitions, those who had no caries at the time of sealant placement (dmft/DMFT=0) had a significantly higher success of sealants during years 1 to 5 compared to those with a caries score of greater than 0 (dmft/DMFT>0; P<.023, P<.002, respectively). Children with previous caries experience may be at a higher risk for sealant "failure" (measured as caries on a tooth surface previously sealed) after 1 year and, therefore, may require more diligent sealant maintenance.

  15. Use of CO2 laser in pit and fissure caries prevention: clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Rosso, Naomi; Duarte, Danilo; Guedes Pinto, Antonio C.; Genovese, Walter J.

    1997-05-01

    In this four-year follow up in vivo controlled study, 112 human permanent first molars, from children between the ages of 6 and 11 years old were used to investigate the viability of the CO2 laser in promoting carie-free occlusal surfaces in permanent molars, as an isolated form of treatment or associated with conventional fissure sealants. The findings suggest that occlusal caries prevention only by means of CO2 laser irradiation is not effective; that the utilization of photo-activated sealants, as well as its association with CO2 laser, applied over the occlusal fissures, are effective means of preventing occlusal caries and that the application of CO2 laser over occlusal fissures, prior to the application of a photo-activated fissure sealant, improves the retention of the sealant.

  16. THE STATE AND PERSPECTIVE OF HERMETIZATION OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES WITH USE OF RUBBER SEALANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Leshchenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The works on creation of effective rubber sealants for hermetic sealing of joints of underground structures from modular ferroconcrete and pig-iron, including tunnel elements for the underground, are carried out.

  17. Validation of hot-poured crack sealant performance-based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes a comprehensive research effort to validate thresholds for performance-based guidelines and : grading system for hot-poured asphalt crack sealants. A series of performance tests were established in earlier research and : includ...

  18. Design, development, and testing of a hybrid in situ testing device for building joint sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Embree, N.; Buch, C.; Williams, R. S.

    2005-04-01

    The testing of sealant samples has been restricted to devices that either focus on fatiguing multiple samples or quantifying the mechanical properties of a single sample. This manuscript describes a device that combines these two instrumental designs: the ability to both fatigue and characterize multiple sealant samples at the same time. This device employs precise movement capability combined with a stiff loading frame and accurate force measurement for the characterization of five ASTM C719 sealant samples. The performance of this device is demonstrated by monitoring the changes in mechanical properties of silicone sealant during the first 90h of cure. A complete description of the apparatus, results from the study of curing and analysis is included.

  19. Development of apparent viscosity test for hot-poured crack sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Current crack sealant specifications focuses on utilizing simple empirical tests such as penetration, : resilience, flow, and bonding to cement concrete briquettes (ASTM D3405) to measure the ability of the material : to resist cohesive and adhesion ...

  20. Radon penetration of concrete slab cracks, joints, pipe penetrations, and sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielson, KK; Rogers, VC; Holt, RB; Pugh, TD; Grondzik, WA; deMeijer, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Radon movement through 12 test slabs with different cracks, pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, sealants, and tensile stresses characterized the importance of these anomalous structural domains, Diffusive and advective radon transport were measured with steady-state air pressure

  1. Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealants placed as part of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIC) sealants placed in primary molars of six to eight year-olds and as part of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restoration. Design: A longitudinal clinical study. Setting: Matungulu/Kangundo rural divisions, Machakos district, ...

  2. Surface roughness and maintenance of surface sealants for resin composites after toothbrushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Fernanda; Spohr, Ana Maria; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto; Burnett, Luiz Henrique

    2016-02-01

    (1) To evaluate in vitro the surface roughness of a resin composite covered with three surface sealants and submitted to simulated toothbrushing for different periods; (2) Verify, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the presence of surface sealants after simulated toothbrushing; and (3) To evaluate whether the type of dentifrice influences the maintenance of the surface sealant. The study hypothesis was that neither variable would influence the surface roughness of the composite and the maintenance of the surface sealant. 108 specimens were prepared with the resin Amelogen Plus, and divided into six groups (n = 18) according to the type of surface sealant [Fortify (F), BisCover LV (B) and Permaseal (P)] and toothpaste [Total 12 Clean Mint (CT) and Colgate Total 12 Professional Whitening (PW)]. The samples were subjected to brushing cycles, simulating periods of 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. After each period, the surface roughness of the samples was measured. An additional group of 48 samples was prepared for SEM analysis. The results were analyzed by ANOVA with three fixed variables (sealants, time and toothpaste) and by Tukey's test (α = 0.05). BisCover had the lowest mean surface roughness (0.06 µm) compared with the sealants Fortify (0.09 µm) and Permaseal (0.08 µm), which were not statistically different. Fortify, at 12 months of brushing, had the highest mean roughness (0.13 µm). The mean roughness for the dentifrice CT was lower (0.07 µm) when compared with PW (0.08 µm) and was statistically different. Roughness increased up to 12 months of simulated brushing (0.04 µm, 0.08 µm and 0.11 µm), decreasing from the 18th month (0.08 µm) to the 24th month of brushing (0.07 µm). None of the sealants was observed (with SEM) to be completely removed from the resin at 24 months of brushing.

  3. Dental Sealants: Knowledge, Value, Opinion, and Practice among Dental Professionals of Bathinda City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Asawa, Kailash; Gupta, Vivek V.; Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Bapat, Salil; Mishra, Prashant; Roy, Santanu Sen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding use of dental sealants among private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab. A self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 28 items was used to assess their knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding dental sealants. One-way analysi...

  4. Biodegradable-Polymer-Blend-Based Surgical Sealant with Body-Temperature-Mediated Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Adam M; Lee, Nora G; Casey, Brendan J; Srinivasan, Priya; Sikorski, Michael J; Daristotle, John L; Sandler, Anthony D; Kofinas, Peter

    2015-12-22

    The development of practical and efficient surgical sealants has the propensity to improve operational outcomes. A biodegradable polymer blend is fabricated as a nonwoven fiber mat in situ. After direct deposition onto the tissue of interest, the material transitions from a fiber mat to a film. This transition promotes polymer-substrate interfacial interactions leading to improved adhesion and surgical sealant performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Artificial dural sealant that allows multiple penetrations of implantable brain probes

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Nathan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2008-01-01

    This study reports extensive characterization of the silicone gel (3−4680, Dow Corning, Midland, MI), for potential use as an artificial dural sealant in long-term electrophysiological experiments in neurophysiology. Dural sealants are important to preserve the integrity of the intra-cranial space after a craniotomy and in prolonging the lifetime and functionality of implanted brain probes. In this study, we report results of our tests on a commercially available silicone gel with unique prop...

  6. Mechanistic service life prediction of rigid pavement joint sealant : a new laboratory testing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Abo-Qudais, Saad A.

    1995-01-01

    A new method to evaluate the performance of sealants used in rigid pavement joints was developed. A special fixture, attached to a servo-hydraulic testing machine, was designed to transfer applied cyclic shear deflection to a sealant sandwiched between two 51 x 51 x 51 mm portland cement concrete (PCC) cubes at a constant horizontal deflection. The new testing method simulates field conditions where shear deflection is caused by vehicular loading, while horizontal deflection is...

  7. 3-year survival rates of retained composite resin and ART sealants using two assessment criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Augusto HILGERT

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to test the null-hypothesis that there is no difference in the cumulative survival rate of retained composite resin (CR sealants and a high-viscosity glass-ionomer Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART sealant in first permanent molars calculated according to the traditional and the modified retention assessment criteria over a period of 3 years. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial consisted of 123 schoolchildren, 6–7-years-old. At baseline, high-caries risk pits and fissures of fully erupted first permanent molars were treated with CR and ART sealants. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 years. Retention was scored for free-smooth surface and for each of three sections into which the occlusal surface had been divided. The modified criterion differed from the traditional in that it determined an occlusal sealant to be a failure when at least one section contained no visible sealant material. Data were analysed according to the PHREG model with frailty correction, Wald-test, ANOVA and t-test, using the Jackknife procedure. The cumulative survival rates for retained CR and ART sealants in free-smooth and occlusal surfaces for both criteria were not statistically significantly different over the 3 years. A higher percentage of retained CR sealants on occlusal surfaces was observed at longer evaluations. Cumulative survival rates were statistically significantly lower for the modified criterion in comparison to the traditional. The modified retention assessment criterion should be used in future sealant-retention studies.

  8. Effect of LED curing on the marginal leakage of a pit and fissure sealant

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Mejia, Martha Elena; Magister en Estomatología. Profesor Principal. UNMSM. Dpto. Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM.; Gloria Zevallos, Waldo; Dpto. Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM.; Abuhadba Hoyos, Tulio; Dpto. Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the curing effect of a light-emitting diode LED unit and conventional halogen light on the marginal leakage of a pit and fissure sealant. We used 40 caries-free permanent premolars recently extracted, which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 20), sealed with a resin based fissure sealant, Helioseal F (Ivoclar Vivadent), according to the manufacturer patterns, then photopolymerized using either L.E.D. light or conventional halogen ligh...

  9. Low-cost glass ionomer cement as ART sealant in permanent molars: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela HESSE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are normally performed with well-known brands of glass ionomer cement (GIC, but the cost of these materials is high for public healthcare in less-affluent communities. Given the need to research cheaper materials, it seems pertinent to investigate the retention rate of a low-cost GIC applied as atraumatic restorative treatment (ART sealants in two centers in Brazil. Four hundred and thirty-seven 6-to-8-year-old schoolchildren were selected in two cities in Brazil. The children were randomly divided into two groups, according to the tested GIC applied in the first permanent molars. The retention rate was evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the log-rank test were performed. The variables were tested for association with sealant longevity, using logistic regression analyses (α = 5%. The retention rate of sealants after 12 months was 19.1%. The high-cost GIC brand presented a 2-fold-more-likely-to-survive rate than the low-cost brand (p < 0.001. Significant difference was also found between the cities where the treatments were performed, in that Barueri presented a higher sealant survival rate than Recife (p < 0.001. The retention rate of a low-cost GIC sealant brand was markedly lower than that of a well-known GIC sealant brand.

  10. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  11. LIQUIDARMOR CM Flashing and Sealant, High Impact Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-12-01

    Air leakage is responsible for about 1.1 quads of energy or 6% of the total energy used by commercial buildings in the US. Consequently, infiltration and exfiltration are among the largest envelope-related contributors to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning loads in commercial buildings. New air sealing technologies have recently emerged that aim to improve the performance of air barrier systems by simplifying their installation procedure. LIQUIDARMORTM CM Flashing and Sealant is an example of these new advanced material technologies. This technology is a spray-applied sealant and liquid flashing and can span gaps that are up to ¼ in. wide without a supporting material. ORNL verified the performance of LIQUIDARMORTM CM with field tests and energy simulations from a building in which LIQUIDARMORTM CM was one of components of the air barrier system. The Homeland Security Training Center (HTC) at the College of DuPage in Glen Ellyn, IL, served as the demonstration site. Blower door test results show the average air leakage rate in the demonstration site to be 0.15 cfm/ft2 at 1.57 psf, or 63% lower than the 0.4 cfm at 1.57 psf specified in the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). According to simulation results, HTC lowered its annual heating and cooling cost by about $3,000 or 9% compared to a similar building that lacked an air barrier system. This demonstration project serves as an example of the level of building envelope airtightness that can be achieved by using air barrier materials that are properly installed, and illustrates the energy and financial savings that such an airtight envelope could attain.

  12. Effect of Human Amniotic Membrane on Prevention of Colorectal Anastomosis Leakage in Cases with Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy: An Experimental Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Moslemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiotherapy is one of the most important factors which results in negative effects on wound healing and increases anastomosis leakage. Diverting loop ileostomy has been usually performed after colorectal anastomosis in cases of colorectal cancer with a history of neoadjuvant radiotherapy to decrease the chance of leakage. Considering the side effects of diverting loop ileostomy, the objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of human amniotic membrane (HAM on colorectal anastomosis leakage after neo-adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods: In this experimental animal study, 20 crossbreed rabbits were randomly divided into two groups (case group: 13 rabbits, control group: 7 rabbits after receiving an equal dose of external beam radiation. Four weeks after irradiation, resection of 4 cm of colorectal segment and end-to-end single layer anastomosis were conducted. In the case group, a 2×2 cm wrap of HAM applied around the site of anastomosis. Eight weeks later, all the survived rabbits were sacrificed. A segment of anastomotic sites was resected in all expired and survived rabbits and sent for pathological evaluation. Mann-Whitney U Test (SPSS for Windows, Ver. 16, Chicago, IL was applied to analyze healing scores between the two groups. Results: Due to anastomosis dehiscence, 5 rabbits expired in the control group, but all the 13 rabbits (case group survived after 8 weeks and showed no leakage. In addition, pathological evaluation revealed significant epithelialization and neovascularization in the case group. Statistically, healing score was higher in the case group rather than the control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: To prevent post irradiation colorectal anastomosis leakage, the use of HAM might play a significant role and a feasible technical approach.

  13. Retention of a resin-based sealant and a glass ionomer used as a fissure sealant in children with special needs

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Ch?vez, Mariana C.; Nualart-Grollmus, Zacy-Carola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research is to evaluate the retention of sealants of resin and resin-modified ionomeric glass pits and fissures, on first permanent molars of special patients. Material and Methods: The sample was comprised by 32 children. The ages were between 7 and 18 years. The sealing procedure was made with the relative isolation of the molars to be sealed, through the use of cotton rolls. Two molars were sealed with Clinpro Sealant 3M Dental and the others with Vitremer. Chec...

  14. Adhesive systems under fissure sealants: yes or no?: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherian, Ali; Sarraf Shirazi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2016-06-01

    The authors of this systematic review and meta-analysis had 2 aims: to evaluate fissure sealant retention with and without the use of an adhesive system and to compare fissure sealant retention using etch-and-rinse adhesive systems versus self-etching adhesive systems. The authors conducted a literature search (all articles published through November 1, 2015) to identify studies for inclusion in this systematic review. They assessed the quality of the evidence provided using the modified Jadad scale and performed meta-analyses using a random-effects model. The authors considered 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. In addition, they used 5 of 9 studies related to the first part of the study and 3 of 4 studies related to the second part of the study that met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. In the analysis of the first part of the systematic review, the authors found that adhesive systems had a significant positive effect on fissure sealant (odds ratio, 3.294; 95% confidence interval, 1.292-8.401; P = .013). In the analysis of the second part of the systematic review, the authors found that etch-and-rinse adhesives were superior to self-etching adhesives in the fissure sealant procedure (odds ratio, 14.569; 95% confidence interval, 2.616-81.131; P = .002). The use of adhesive systems beneath fissure sealants can increase the retention of fissure sealants. Also, when adhesive systems are used with fissure sealants, etch-and-rinse systems are preferable. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Disassembly of the actin network inhibits insulin-dependent stimulation of glucose transport and prevents recruitment of glucose transporters to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, T; Vranic, M; Klip, A

    1994-11-25

    In muscle and fat tissues, insulin stimulates glucose transport through the translocation of glucose transporter proteins from an intracellular storage pool to the plasma membrane. The mechanism of this translocation is unknown. We have examined the possible role of the actin microfilament network in the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin and on the distribution of glucose transporters, in differentiated L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. Insulin (10(-7) M for 30 min) caused a major reorganization of the actin network of differentiated L6 myotubes. Cytochalasin D, a widely used inhibitor of actin filament formation, caused a dose- and time-dependent disassembly of the actin network, which was associated with an 80% inhibition of the insulin stimulation of glucose transport, without affecting the basal rate of glucose uptake. L6 myotubes express three glucose transporter isoforms, named GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. Disassembly of the actin network by cytochalasin D did not affect the number of basal glucose transporters in the plasma membrane but reduced the content of all three glucose transporters in intracellular membranes and prevented their appearance at the plasma membrane response to insulin. The inhibitory effect of cytochalasin D treatment on the insulin stimulation of glucose transport occurred downstream of tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 and of binding of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to the insulin receptor substrate-1. Using immunoprecipitation of intact membranes, we detected specific association of the actin-binding protein spectrin with GLUT4 glucose transporter-containing vesicles. We conclude that an intact actin network is required for the correct intracellular localization of glucose transporters, as well as for their incorporation into the plasma membrane in response to insulin. A direct interaction may exist between the actin network and the glucose transporter vesicles which may be mediated through a spectrin

  16. Laparoscopic fixation of biologic mesh at the hiatus with fibrin or polyethylene glycol sealant in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Eric D; Lerdsirisopon, Sopon; Costello, Kevin P; Melman, Lora; Greco, Suellen C; Frisella, Margaret M; Matthews, Brent D; Deeken, Corey R

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the acute and chronic fixation strengths achieved by fibrin or polyethylene glycol (PEG) sealants to secure biologic mesh at the esophageal hiatus in a porcine model. For this study, 32 female domestic pigs were divided into four groups of 8 each. The four groups respectively received acute fibrin sealant, acute PEG sealant, chronic fibrin sealant, and chronic PEG sealant. Laparoscopically, a 5.5 × 8.5-cm piece of Biodesign Surgisis Hiatal Hernia Graft (porcine small intestine submucosa) was oriented with the U-shaped cutout around the gastroesophageal junction and the short axis in the craniocaudal direction to simulate hiatal reinforcement with a biologic mesh. The mesh then was secured with 2 ml of either fibrin sealant or PEG sealant. The pigs in the acute groups were maintained alive for 2 h to allow for complete polymerization of the sealants, and the pigs in the chronic group were maintained alive for 14 days. After the pigs were euthanized, specimens of the mesh-tissue interface were subjected to lap shear testing to determine fixation strength, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides were evaluated for evidence of remodeling. No significant differences were observed between the acute and chronic fixation strengths or the remodeling characteristics of the two sealants. However, fixation strength increased significantly over time for both types of sealant. Evidence of remodeling also was significantly more pronounced in the chronic specimens than in the acute specimens. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using fibrin or PEG sealants to secure biologic mesh at the hiatus in a porcine model.

  17. Multi-functional electrospun antibacterial core-shell nanofibrous membranes for prolonged prevention of post-surgical tendon adhesion and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalumon, K T; Sheu, Chialin; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chen, Shih-Heng; Jose, Gils; Kuo, Chang-Yi; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2018-04-05

    The possibility of endowing an electrospun anti-adhesive barrier membrane with multi-functionality, such as lubrication, prevention of fibroblast attachment and anti-infection and anti-inflammation properties, is highly desirable for the management of post-surgical tendon adhesion. To this end, we fabricated core-shell nanofibrous membranes (CSNMs) with embedded silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/poly(caprolactone) (PCL) shell and hyaluronic acid (HA)/ibuprofen in the core. HA imparted a lubrication effect for smooth tendon gliding and reduced fibroblast attachment, while Ag NPs and ibuprofen functioned as anti-infection and anti-inflammation agents, respectively. CSNMs with a PEG/PCL/Ag shell (PPA) and HA core containing 0% (H/PPA), 10% (HI10/PPA), 30% (HI30/PPA) and 50% (HI50/PPA) ibuprofen were fabricated through co-axial electrospinning and assessed through microscopic, spectroscopic, thermal, mechanical and drug release analyses. Considering nutrient passage through the barrier, the microporous CSNMs exerted the same barrier effect but drastically increased the mass transfer coefficients of bovine serum albumin compared with the commercial anti-adhesive membrane SurgiWrap®. Cell attachment/focal adhesion formation of fibroblasts revealed effective reduction of initial cell attachment on the CSNM surface with minimum cytotoxicity (except HI50/PPA). The anti-bacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was verified to be due to the Ag NPs in the membranes. In vivo studies using H/PPA and HI30/PPA CSNMs and SurgiWrap® in a rabbit flexor tendon rupture model demonstrated the improved efficacy of HI30/PPA CSNMs in reducing inflammation and tendon adhesion formation based on gross observation, histological analysis and functional assays. We conclude that HI30/PPA CSNMs can act as a multifunctional barrier membrane to prevent peritendinous adhesion after tendon surgery. A multi-functional anti-adhesion barrier

  18. Maintenance of membrane organization in the aging mouse brain as the determining factor for preventing receptor dysfunction and for improving response to anti-Alzheimer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Julie; Thomas, Mélanie H; Gregory-Pauron, Lynn; Pinçon, Anthony; Lanhers, Marie-Claire; Corbier, Catherine; Claudepierre, Thomas; Yen, Frances T; Oster, Thierry; Malaplate-Armand, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Although a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the "aging" parameter is not systematically considered in preclinical validation of anti-AD drugs. To explore how aging affects neuronal reactivity to anti-AD agents, the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-associated pathway was chosen as a model. Comparison of the neuroprotective properties of CNTF in 6- and 18-month old mice revealed that CNTF resistance in the older animals is associated with the exclusion of the CNTF-receptor subunits from rafts and their subsequent dispersion to non-raft cortical membrane domains. This age-dependent membrane remodeling prevented both the formation of active CNTF-receptor complexes and the activation of prosurvival STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways, demonstrating that age-altered membranes impaired the reactivity of potential therapeutic targets. CNTF-receptor distribution and CNTF signaling responses were improved in older mice receiving dietary docosahexaenoic acid, with CNTF-receptor functionality being similar to those of younger mice, pointing toward dietary intervention as a promising adjuvant strategy to maintain functional neuronal membranes, thus allowing the associated receptors to respond appropriately to anti-AD agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  20. Microleakage assessment of fissure sealant following fissurotomy bur or pumice prophylaxis use before etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the microleakage level of fissure sealants prepared by a fissurotomy bur or pumice prophylaxis prior to acid etching. Materials and Methods: Ninety freshly extracted healthy maxillary premolar teeth were randomly selected for this investigation. Teeth were then divided into three fissure sealant preparatory groups of A: Fissurotomy bur + acid etch; B: Pumice prophylaxis + acid etch and C: Acid etch alone. Sealant was applied to the occlusal fissures of all specimens using a plastic instrument. This was to avoid any air trap under the sealant. Sample teeth were first thermocycled (1000 cycles, 20 s dwell time and then coated with two layers of nail varnish leaving 2 mm around the sealant. This was then followed by immersion in basic fuchsin 3%. Processed teeth were sectioned longitudinally and examined under a stereomicroscope for microleakage assessment using a score of 0-3. Collected data was then subjected to Kruskall-Wallis Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney U-test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Teeth in fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis groups had significantly reduced level of microleakage than those in acid etch alone (P = 0.005 and P = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: Use of fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis accompanied with acid etching appears to have a more successful reduction of microleakage than acid etch alone.

  1. Effect of new light curing units on microleakage and microhardness of resin sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Mehmet; Tirali, Resmiye Ebru

    2016-01-01

    To determine new developed light curing units with shorter curing times effects on microleakage and microhardness values for resin fissure sealants. Resin filled sealant (UltraSeal-XT), resin unfilled sealant (Delton Type-II) and ormocer-based sealant (Admira-Seal) were light cured with a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH), two LED light and a high power LED. Two hundred and forty extracted human molars were randomly allocated into four groups according to used light-curing unit and three subgroups were formed for three different fissure sealant materials. Specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 h, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for marginal microleakage. Knoop hardness number (KHN) readings were measured after 48 h. Statistical analyses of test were found in significant difference both microleakage and microhardness values between the various light curing units. The time saving approaches in the curing light were determined higher microhardness, although it was found in higher microleakage.

  2. Dental Sealants: Knowledge, Value, Opinion, and Practice among Dental Professionals of Bathinda City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Kailash; Gupta, Vivek V; Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Bapat, Salil; Mishra, Prashant; Roy, Santanu Sen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding use of dental sealants among private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab. A self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 28 items was used to assess their knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding dental sealants. One-way analysis of variance, independent sample t-test, and multivariate regression analysis were utilized for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5%, respectively. Results. The mean scores for knowledge, value, opinion, and practice were 41.8 ± 3.7, 18.7 ± 2.8, 18.1 ± 1.4, and 12.9 ± 2.3, respectively. Analysis revealed that qualification was statistically significant among all dependent variables (P ≤ 0.05); work experience was significantly associated with both knowledge and opinion means scores (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion. The results suggest that dental practitioners had sufficient knowledge about dental sealants. They also acknowledge the importance of use of dental sealants. Practice of dental sealants in clinics was found adequate but they were not following the specific guidelines and standardized procedures.

  3. Dental Sealants: Knowledge, Value, Opinion, and Practice among Dental Professionals of Bathinda City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Asawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding use of dental sealants among private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab. A self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 28 items was used to assess their knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding dental sealants. One-way analysis of variance, independent sample t-test, and multivariate regression analysis were utilized for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5%, respectively. Results. The mean scores for knowledge, value, opinion, and practice were 41.8 ± 3.7, 18.7 ± 2.8, 18.1 ± 1.4, and 12.9 ± 2.3, respectively. Analysis revealed that qualification was statistically significant among all dependent variables (P≤0.05; work experience was significantly associated with both knowledge and opinion means scores (P≤0.05. Conclusion. The results suggest that dental practitioners had sufficient knowledge about dental sealants. They also acknowledge the importance of use of dental sealants. Practice of dental sealants in clinics was found adequate but they were not following the specific guidelines and standardized procedures.

  4. Impact of adhesive and photoactivation method on sealant integrity and polymer network formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniek Castillo Dutra Borges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the influence of photoactivation method and hydrophobic resin (HR application on the marginal and internal adaptation, hardness (KHN, and crosslink density (CLD of a resin-based fissure sealant. Model fissures were created in bovine enamel fragments (n = 10 and sealed using one of the following protocols: no adhesive system + photoactivation of the sealant using continuous light (CL, no adhesive system + photoactivation of the sealant using the soft-start method (SS, HR + CL, or HR + SS. Marginal and internal gaps and KHN were assessed after storage in water for 24 h. The CLD was indirectly assessed by repeating the KHN measurement after 24 h of immersion in 100% ethanol. There was no difference among the samples with regard to marginal or internal adaptation. The KHN and CLD were similar for samples cured using either photoactivation method. Use of a hydrophobic resin prior to placement of fissure sealants and curing the sealant using the soft-start method may not provide any positive influence on integrity or crosslink density.

  5. In situ evaluation of the remineralizing capacity of pit and fissure sealants containing amorphous calcium phosphate and/or fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kélio Garcia; Pedrini, Denise; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Ferreira, Lilian; Cannon, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This in situ study evaluated the remineralizing potential of pit and fissure sealants containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and/or fluoride in artificially induced carious lesions on smooth enamel surfaces. Ten volunteers who wore acrylic palatal devices were enrolled in this 5-day double-blind study and assigned to one of the following five groups: (I) demineralized enamel slab+Fluroshield (sealant with fluoride); (II) demineralized enamel slab+Aegis (sealant with ACP); (III) demineralized enamel slab+experimental sealant with fluoride (ESF); (IV) demineralized enamel slab+experimental sealant with fluoride/ACP (ACP-F); and (V) demineralized enamel slab (control). After the experimental period, the percentage of surface microhardness recovery (%SMHR) and the integrated loss of subsurface hardness (DeltaKHN) were evaluated. The concentrations of fluoride, calcium and phosphorus in enamel were also determined. The sealants containing ACP and/or fluoride presented a higher remineralizing capacity (%SMHR and DeltaKHN) than that of the control group. Aegis provided either more efficient or similar remineralization than the other sealants. The association between ACP and fluoride did not show a greater efficacy in the remineralization. F, Ca and P concentrations in enamel varied according to the group. The pit and fissure sealants containing ACP were able to promote remineralization of artificially induced carious lesions on smooth enamel surfaces.

  6. Adhesive complex coacervate inspired by the sandcastle worm as a sealant for fetoscopic defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sarbjit

    Inspired by the Sandcastle Worm, biomimetic of the water-borne adhesive was developed by complex coacervation of the synthetic copolyelectrolytes, mimicking the chemistries of the worm glue. The developed underwater adhesive was designed for sealing fetal membranes after fetoscopic surgery in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and sealing neural tissue of a fetus in aminiotic sac for spina bifida condition. Complex coacervate with increased bond strength was created by entrapping polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-dA) monomer within the cross-linked coacervate network. Maximum shear bond strength of ~ 1.2 MPa on aluminum substrates was reached. The monomer-filled coacervate had complex flow behavior, thickening at low shear rates and then thinning suddenly with a 16-fold drop in viscosity at shear rates near 6 s-1. The microscale structure of the complex coacervates resembled a three-dimensional porous network of interconnected tubules. This complex coacervate adhesive was used in vitro studies to mimic the uterine wall-fetal membrane interface using a water column with one end and sealed with human fetal membranes and poultry breast, and a defect was created with an 11 French trocar. The coacervate adhesive in conjunction with the multiphase adhesive was used to seal the defect. The sealant withstood an additional traction of 12 g for 30-60 minutes and turbulence of the water column without leakage of fluid or slippage. The adhesive is nontoxic when in direct contact with human fetal membranes in an organ culture setting. A stable complex coacervate adhesive for long-term use in TTTS and spina bifida application was developed by methacrylating the copolyelectrolytes. The methacrylated coacervate was crosslinked chemically for TTTS and by photopolymerization for spina bifida. Tunable mechanical properties of the adhesive were achieved by varying the methacrylation of the polymers. Varying the amine to phosphate (A/P) ratio in the coacervate formation

  7. Cerebrovascular requirement for sealant, anti-coagulant and remodeling molecules that allow for the maintenance of vascular integrity and blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George

    2003-09-01

    The integrity of the vasculature and the maintenance of the blood supply to the brain are crucial for the survival of higher vertebrates. However, peripheral mechanisms of sealing the vasculature that rely on the clotting of blood and platelet aggregation around the site of a 'leak' would lead to decreased cerebral perfusion and compromise the viability of terminally differentiated and irreplaceable neurons. Therefore, in higher organisms it is likely that a sealant/anti-coagulant system that maintains vascular supply has evolved as a necessity to life. We propose that one such system involves the amyloid-beta precursor protein (AbetaPP) and its cleavage product Abeta since (1) both AbetaPP/Abeta are known to deposit in the media of the cerebrovasculature wall following localized injury, (2) Abeta is generated from AbetaPP, a known acute phase reactant, (3) Abeta's physiochemical properties allow it to span between the extracellular matrix and the (endothelial) cell membrane and under inflammatory conditions aggregate to form an intracranial 'scab', thereby maintaining structural integrity of the blood brain barrier, (4) AbetaPP/Abeta together act as an anti-coagulant, (5) Abeta promotes vascular/neuronal remodeling, and (6) Abeta deposits resolve after injury. These properties are consistent with the acute phase generation and rapid cortical deposition of AbetaPP/Abeta following injury (either sustained by trauma or stresses associated with aging) that would be an important compensatory response aimed at limiting the loss of terminally differentiated neurons. Such a system would allow the maintenance of blood supply to the brain by sealing vascular lesions, preventing hemorrhagic stroke while at the same time inhibiting the coagulation cascade from blocking capillaries. Obviously, strategies to remove Abeta would have serious consequences for the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Indeed, recent in vivo evidence demonstrates that the removal of deposited Abeta

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2012-01-01

    . The PCB(tot) levels in the air of the contaminated section were 168-3843 ng m(-3) (mean: 1030 ng m(-3)), while the mean levels in the reference apartments were 6.03 ng m(-3). The sum of the 24 measured PCB congeners in sealants from the contaminated section was 187-221680 mg kg(-1). Principal component......Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...... analysis revealed four groups among the sealant samples with different congener compositions, only two of which were clearly similar to known PCB mixtures, while two were not. Significant correlations and intercorrelations were observed between the lower chlorinated congeners in air and sealant, e...

  9. Analysis of functional damages of membrane receptor by radiation exposure and development of the damage preventive method by modifying the membrane lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Fumio; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Asano, Toshihiko; Ogura, Atsuro; Suzuki, Osamu; Matsuda, Junichiro [National Inst. of Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The influences of radiation exposure on the body were evaluated with ligand-binding ability of a receptor on biomembrane, which is a highly sensitive and essential indicator for human body. The present study aimed to establish a model system for ligand-receptor binding reactions and analyze the effects of {gamma}-ray radiation on the systems. When a macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was exposed to {gamma}-ray, active oxygen (O{sub 2}{sup -}) producing capacity was significantly increased when compared to non-exposed cells at a dose ranging 1.3-2.6 Gy but decreased at 5.3 Gy or more, whereas the producing ability of nitrogen monoxide radical was not affected by the radiation. Then, radiation effects on cell surface receptor was examined using a monocyte cell line, U937. The distributions of CD14 and CD4 were not changed by radiation, but the TNF{alpha} receptor was increased dose-dependently. When the membrane lipids were modified by using bovine serum albumin bound eicosapentaenoic acid (BSA-EPA), the increase of TNF{alpha} expression caused by radiation did not occur, while the expression was decreased when modified with BSA bound arachidonic acid (BSA-AA). (M.N.)

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Enamel Surface Treatment Using Er.Cr:YSSG and Applying Two Bondings with Current Clinical Method on A Fissure Sealant Microleakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saharkhizan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The clinical success of sealant therapy depends on its ability to pro-vide a marginal integrity resulting in micro leakage absence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of enamel surface treatment using Er.Cr:YSSG and applying bandings with current clinical method on a fissure sealant microleakage. Material & Methods: In this experimental study 60 human premolar teeth were assigned to 3 groups according to the conditioning as follows: (1 35% phosphoric acid gel etching; (2 Er,Cr:YSSG laser + applying a self-etch adhesive; and (3 Er,Cr:YSSG laser + applying margin bond. All fissures were sealed by Helioseal F according to the manufacturer's instruc-tions. The samples were thermocycled for 500 cycles (5 degrees -55 degrees C, and im-mersed in a 0.5% basic fuchsin solution for 24 h. After sectioning, microleakage was evalu-ated by stereomicroscope at 6x magnification. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results: No dye penetration was perceived in 20%, 15%, and 0% of cases in groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively; all specimens were suffering from microleakage, in group 3. There was no statistically significant difference of microleakage scores between groups 1 and 2 (P=0.976. in group 1 were significantly lower than those of group 3 (P=0.016, and those of group 2 were lower than group 3 (P=0.009. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that enamel conditioning prior to the place-ment of sealant by Er,Cr:YSSG laser combined with an self-etch adhesive prevent micro-leakage as effective as conventional acid etching. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (1:1-7

  11. Causes of poor sealant performance in soil-gas-resistant foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.

    1994-01-01

    Sealants for radon-resistant foundation construction must seal the gap between concrete sections. Modern sealants have such low permeability that seal performance depends only on the permeability of the material that contacts the sealant. The surface permeability of concrete walls and floors was measured by a specially designed permeameter, which measures the airflow induced by a pressure difference across a temporary test seal applied to the surface. The permeability of bulk concrete is about 10 -15 m 2 . Areas free of surface defects had surface permeability ranging from 10 -14 to 10 -16 m 2 . However, surface defects are common on concrete wall surfaces, which increase the permeability to >10 -12 m 2 , too high for standard seal designs to be adequate as the only method of soil gas and radon exclusion. Radon-resistant seals require either extended contact widths or mechanical removal of the surface layer and defects. (au) (4 refs.)

  12. Research on durability of self-leveling silicone rubber as aqueduct joint sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meizhu; Mi, Yixuan; Wu, Shaopeng; Liu, Jiesheng

    2010-03-01

    Aqueduct joints are intentionally preset to accommodate expansion and contraction due to temperature changes. The performance of the joints, especially for the large aqueduct, is very important to the service behavior of the aqueduct structure. Currently, the durability of traditional sealant materials is too poor, and the seepage of the aqueduct joints has become the uppermost engineering disease. In this research, a new kind of self-leveling silicon rubber, which consists of polysiloxane oligomer, fillers, plasticizer, crosslinking agent, catalyst and tackifier, etc, has been prepared to be used as the aqueduct joint sealant. Experimental investigation has been conducted on the stability of the self-leveling silicone rubber under different conditions such as water immersion, freeze-thaw cycling, hot pressing-cold drawing, fatigue. The results show that the silicone rubber has better durability and can be much more compatible for the performance requirements of the joint sealant for the large aqueduct structures.

  13. Modification of silicone sealant to improve gamma radiation resistance, by addition of protective agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Giovanni; Burillo, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sealant (SS) was modified with the addition of different protective compounds to conserve its physical-chemical properties during gamma irradiation. 2-Vinyl naphthalene (2-VN), bisphenol-A (BPA) and poly (vinyl carbazole) (PVK) were used to evaluate radiation protection through the crosslinking effect of radiation. The samples were irradiated with doses from 100 kGy to 500 kGy at room temperature in air, with a 60Co gamma source, and the changes in molecular weight, thermal behavior, elastic properties and infrared spectra (FTIR-ATR) absorbance analysis were determined. The molecular weight of unmodified silicone sealant increases with the absorbed dose because of crosslinking as predominant effect. However, the crosslinking effect was inhibited with the addition of protective agent due to the aromatic compounds present. Modified silicone sealant films present better radiation resistance than unmodified system.

  14. Retention of fissure sealants in young permanent molars affected by dental fluorosis: a 12-month clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin, S; Reddy, E R; Manjula, M; Srilaxmi, N; Rani, S T; Rajesh, A

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate and compare retention and caries occurance following placement of Clinpro and FUJI VII fissure sealants, by two different techniques simultaneously in unsealed, contralateral young permanent molars of 7- to 10-year-old children affected by mild to moderate dental fluorosis at various recall intervals of 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. 80 schoolchildren with mild to moderate dental fluorosis were assigned to Group A and Group B with 40 children in each group. In Group A Clinpro fissure sealant and in Group B Fuji VII fissure sealant was used. In both the groups fissure sealants were applied by conventional fissure sealant technique (CST) on one side and enameloplasty sealant technique (EST) on the other side of the same arch. The applied fissure sealants were evaluated clinically for retention and caries incidence. Clinpro fissure sealant showed a retention rate of 95% when compared with Fuji VII (57.5%) at the end of 12 months, which was statistically significant. Regarding techniques, EST showed better results than CST in both the groups. Comparison of groups with respect to retention and techniques at different time periods was performed using Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05). Comparison of different time periods with respect to retention and technique in all the groups was performed using Wilcoxon matched pairs test by ranks (p < 0.05). Clinpro fissure sealant showed better retention at all treatment intervals, when compared with Fuji VII. Further follow-up is required to study the efficacy of the fissure sealant placement techniques.

  15. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  16. Preventing Crystal Agglomeration of Pharmaceutical Crystals Using Temperature Cycling and a Novel Membrane Crystallization Procedure for Seed Crystal Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Simone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel membrane crystallization system was used to crystallize micro-sized seeds of piroxicam monohydrate by reverse antisolvent addition. Membrane crystallization seeds were compared with seeds produced by conventional antisolvent addition and polymorphic transformation of a fine powdered sample of piroxicam form I in water. The membrane crystallization process allowed for a consistent production of pure monohydrate crystals with narrow size distribution and without significant agglomeration. The seeds were grown in 350 g of 20:80 w/w acetone-water mixture. Different seeding loads were tested and temperature cycling was applied in order to avoid agglomeration of the growing crystals during the process. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM; and particle vision and measurement (PVM were used to monitor crystal growth; nucleation and agglomeration during the seeded experiments. Furthermore; Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor solute concentration and estimate the overall yield of the process. Membrane crystallization was proved to be the most convenient and consistent method to produce seeds of highly agglomerating compounds; which can be grown via cooling crystallization and temperature cycling.

  17. Anti Streptococcus mutans non fluoride and fluoride containing sealants after adding nano-silver particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghasempour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Since recurrent caries are one of the major causes of failure in resin restorations, the production of antibacterial resin composites was always under investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fissure sealants containing nanosilver particles against the Streptococcus mutans.   Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the antibacterial properties of two sealants (with fluoride (Clinpro 3M and without fluoride (Concise 3M was investigated with 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05% w/w after adding nano-silver using direct contact test. Sealants formed on the walls of 500ml micro tube and after curing, they left in contact with bacterial suspension. In periods of 3, 24, 48h, a 10 µl volume of liquid medium was placed in blood agar culture and after 24 h incubation at 37ºC, the number of S.mutans colony was counted by colony counter. Data were analyzed using ANOVA andT-test.   Results: Results reported sealants with fluoride comparing to non fluoride ones had significant effect on inhibition of S.mutans growth (P<0.001. The direct contact test demonstrated that by increasing the amount of nano particles, the bacterial growth was significantly diminished (P<0.001.   Conclusion: While sealants with fluoride demonstrated antibacterial effect, sealants with incorporation of higher weight percentage of nanosilver particles, had stronger and more significant antibacterial effect in direct contact test.

  18. Fibrin sealant for Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection ptosis repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jill A; Holck, David E E; Perry, Julian D; Wulc, Allan E; Burns, John A; Cahill, Kenneth V; Morgenstern, Kenneth E

    2006-01-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of fibrin sealant for use in Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection ptosis repair. This was a retrospective review of a consecutive case series. All patients underwent Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection ptosis repair with fibrin sealant used for wound closure. Surgery was performed in a manner similar to a previously described technique, using fibrin tissue sealant rather that suture for wound closure. Postoperative symmetry was defined as MRD1 of each eyelid within 0.5 mm. Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection ptosis repair with fibrin sealant used for wound closure was performed on 53 eyelids of 33 patients. There were 27 female patients and 6 male patients. Twenty patients underwent bilateral ptosis repair and 13 patients underwent unilateral ptosis repair. Average follow-up was 17 weeks (range, 3 to 45 weeks). Mean preoperative MRD1 was 1.22 mm (range, -1.5 to 2.5 mm) in the right upper eyelid and 1.50 mm (range, 0 to 2 mm) in the left upper eyelid. Mean postoperative MRD1 was 3.11 mm (range, 2 to 4.5 mm) in the right upper eyelid and 3.12 mm (range, 1 to 4.5 mm) in the left upper eyelid. Postoperative symmetry was found in 32 of 33 patients (97%). We found no evidence of keratopathy or other complications attributable to the fibrin sealant. Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection ptosis repair with fibrin sealant used for wound closure may allow for predictable results with few complications and appears to be an acceptable alternative to traditional suture techniques.

  19. In vitro study of microleakage of fissure sealant with different previous treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Urquía, Morales María C; Brasca, N; Girardi, M; Bonnin, C; Ríos, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate microleakeage of a sealant after using three different techniques for conditioning the surface to be sealed. Twenty-four caries-free upper and lower premolars were used, which were preserved in distilled water at room temperature. The structural faults were enlarged using a cylindrical conical diamond (ISO 007). Teeth were randomly assigned into three groups of eight. Group I (control) was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid (Vivadent) for 15 seconds after which the sealant Helioseal F (Vivadent) was applied and cured for 40 seconds. Group II was conditioned in the same way, after which one-step adhesive Te-econom (Vivadent) and the sealant were applied. Group III was conditioned using a self-etching adhesive, Go (SDI), after which the sealant was applied. Adhesive was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. The samples were thermocycled for 300 cycles between 5 degrees and 55 degreesC and immersed in a 2% methylene blue solution for 48 hs. at standardized temperature of 37 degreesC +/- 1 degree. Then they were rinsed with tap water and ground longitudinally in V-P direction with silica carbide rotatory disks of decreasing grit. The amount of leakage was evaluated under stereoscopic microscope at 40X magnification. The longitudinal penetration of dye into the tooth-sealant interface was scored on a scale of 0 to 3. The results were analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. In Group II, 100% of the samples showed low (50%) or no (50%) leakage. Both the other groups had a higher percentage of specimens with high leakage (scores 2 and 3) (P = 0.000). Group II had the best performance, with significant differences (P = 0.0028) compared to the other experimental groups. Marginal leakage was lowest when the tooth was conditioned with phosphoric acid and subsequent application of an adhesive, prior to sealant.

  20. Treatment of venous ulcers with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAN Gatti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous ulcers of the lower limbs complicated by infection or chronicity represent a serious public health problem. The elevated number of those afflicted burdens the health services, interferes in quality of life and causes absenteeism. Although there are 2,500 items on the market, ranging from the simplest dressing up to the most complex types of dressing, treatment remains a challenge. Among the substances used, fibrin sealant is the one that promotes diminution of bacterial colonization and of edema, controls hemorrhaging, alters the pain threshold by protecting the nerve endings, hydrates the wound bed and forms granulation tissue that favors healing. Its disadvantages include higher cost and utilization of human fibrinogen that can transmit infectious diseases. The Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP at São Paulo State University (UNESP developed a new sealant made up of fibrinogen extracted from large animals and from an enzyme obtained from snake venom. The present study, developed in the Health Education Clinic (CEPS of Sacred Heart University (USC aimed to evaluate the effect of the new sealant on the healing process of venous ulcers in 24 adult patients, seven of whom were male and 17 female. Two study groups were formed as follows: Group 1 (G1 - control group of 11 patients treated with essential fatty acid (EFA and Unna's boot, and Group 2 (G2 - 13 patients treated with essential fatty acid (EFA, fibrin sealant and Unna's boot. The follow-up lasted eight weeks and the sealant was applied at only the first and fourth weeks. The results showed that Group 2 presented worse lesion conditions as to healing, but, when comparing the two groups, it was noteworthy that the the sealant was effective in healing venous ulcers. There is evidence that the new sealant is recommended for leg ulcers with the following advantages: ease of application, preparation of the wound bed, diminution of pain and a higher number of

  1. Prevention of preterm birth based on short cervix: symptomatic women with preterm labor or premature prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Amen

    2009-10-01

    The diagnosis of preterm labor (PTL) is challenging, especially in women whose cervical dilatation is 15 mm. Transvaginal ultrasound CL can also be performed in the presence of ruptured membranes and predicts latency. Although additional data are needed, the evidence so far suggests that the use of transvaginal ultrasound CL and fetal fibronectin can be used to better identify and manage women with PTL likely to have an imminent preterm delivery, and to avoid interventions in women who would not.

  2. Local mucous membrane lesions caused by irradiation of the oropharynx can be prevented by a dental shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schratter-Sehn, A.U.; Vienna Univ.; Schmidt, W.F.O.; Kaercher, K.H.; Kielhauser, R.; Langer, H.

    1992-01-01

    In patients with metallic dental fillings radiation therapy to the oral cavity can cause mucous membrane lesions, which are more severe than expected. They appear as circumscribed erosions, opposite to metallic fillings and are caused by an increase in radiation dose through secondary radiation due to the higher density and atomic number of the filling material. This dose increase can be directly measured with 0.1 mm thin sheets of graphite-loaded TLD's (LiF, Vinten). For Co-60 gamma rays a commercial amalgam filling caused a dose increase by a factor of 1.7. The half value layer for this additional radiation was measured to be approximately 0.4 mm tissue. In order to avoid painful mucous membrane ulcerations which are even more a problem if hyperfractionated treatment schedules are used, we constructed individual dental shields for each patient. As shielding material we used a dental impression material (Optosil P + , Bayer). This method was tested in 35 patients, in all of them circumscribed mucous membrane ulcerations could be avoided. The method proved to be fast and simple and was very well tolerated by all patients. (orig.) [de

  3. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cements versus resin-based materials as fissure sealants: a meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengopal, V; Mickenautsch, S

    2010-02-01

    To appraise quantitatively current evidence regarding the caries-preventing effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RM-GIC) fissure sealants in comparison to that of resin-based fissure sealants. Systematic review with meta-analysis. 8 Anglophone databases and 2 Lusophone databases were searched until 15 April 2009, using a pre-determined search strategy. Clinical trials were considered for inclusion if their titles/abstracts were relevant to the topic, published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and had a two-arm longitudinal study design. The outcome measure of the caries-preventive effect was caries absence on sealed teeth. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the accepted articles in order to complete a 2x2 table for meta-analysis. The unit of interest was the tooth, and the number of caries-free teeth (n) at the end of each time interval (6, 12 and 24 months) was compared against the total number of evaluated teeth (N). Datasets were assessed for their clinical and methodological heterogeneity, following Cochrane guidelines, and only homogeneous datasets were combined for meta-analysis, using a random effects model (RevMan 4.2). Differences in the caries-preventive effect were computed on the basis of the combined Relative Risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Of the 212 articles identified, only 6 trials were included. From these, 19 separate datasets were extracted. For the pooled data, equivalent caries-preventive effects were observed at 6 months (RR= 0.98, 95% CI 0.95- 1.00; p = 0.08); 12 months (RR=1.00, 95% CI 0.96-1.04, p = 0.99) and 24 months (RR=1.01, 95% CI 0.84-1.21, p = 0.91). The 36-month data (not pooled) favoured resin-based sealants (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.97, p = 0.002). This meta-analysis found no conclusive evidence that either material was superior to the other in preventing dental caries.

  4. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  5. A randomized controlled trial of cluster audit and feedback on the quality of dental sealant for rural schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianviwat, S; Hintao, J; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Thitasomakul, S

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether audit and feedback could improve the quality of the application of dental sealant in rural Thai school children. A single blind, cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted. Hospital-based and school-based school sealant applied by dental nurses in Southern province of Thailand. Dental nurses and school children who received dental sealant were involved. The intervention consisted of confidential feedback of data and tailor-made problem-solving workshops. Sealant quality was measured by sealant retention and caries on sealed surfaces at six-month after sealing. The teeth examinations were done among different groups of children prior and after the intervention. After the intervention, the sealant retention rate increased dramatically in the intervention group, whereas in the control group the rate was similar to that found at baseline. The rate of caries after the intervention was stable in the intervention group and increased slightly in the control group. At the beginning of the study, the adjusted odds ratio of complete sealant retention between the intervention and control group was 0.47 which increased to 1.99 at the end of the study. However, no effect on caries on sealed surfaces was observed. The intensive focus on actual problems during the audit and feedback improved the dental nurses' performance and the quality of the dental service, although it had no statistical impact on the incidence of caries.

  6. Comparison of The Canary System and DIAGNOdent for the in vitro detection of caries under opaque dental sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvertown, Josh D; Wong, Bonny P Y; Abrams, Stephen H; Sivagurunathan, Koneswaran S; Mathews, Sapna M; Amaechi, Bennett T

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of operators using The Canary System and DIAGNOdent to detect natural pit and fissure caries under four commonly-used opaque dental sealants. Mixed sound and carious pits/fissures (N = 105) selected from 40 human teeth were randomly assigned (10 teeth/group) to one of four opaque sealant groups (Delton, Embrace WetBond, Helioseal F, UltraSeal XT Plus). Selected pits/fissures sites on occlusal surfaces were scanned with The Canary System and DIAGNOdent, sealed, re-scanned, and subjected to polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the scanned regions were sound or carious. Sensitivities and specificities for each detection method before and after sealant placement were calculated. The Canary System and DIAGNOdent were able to distinguish between sound and carious tissue beneath opaque sealants with an accuracy of 76% and 59%, respectively. The Canary System can serve as a clinical tool to aid dental professionals to detect and monitor the status of caries lesions and tooth structure underneath sealant. The increased likelihood of false-positive diagnoses with DIAGNOdent due to intrinsic auto-fluorescence of sealant filler and opacifying agents might limit its usefulness as an aid to detect caries underneath opaque sealants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Comparative efficacy of nanofilled and microfilled resin-modified glass ionomer as pits and fissure sealant in permanent molar teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzuma Akhter Zakaria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacy of nanofilled and microfilled resin- modified glass ionomer as pits and fissure sealants in permanent molar teeth. Ninety six teeth having fissure at the occlusal surface were randomly divided into two groups: Group I: Treated by nanofilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealant and Group II: Treated by microfilled resin- modified glass ionomer sealants. Clinical assessment was performed by modified Ryge´s criteria by means of retention, color match, marginal adaptation at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up visit. Chi-square test was used for testing differences between the two groups; a value of p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The results revealed that at 12 months observation period, nanofilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealant showed better retention, color stability and marginal adaptation than that of microfilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealants. Furthermore, the differences between two groups in respect to marginal adaptation and color match were statistically significant (p<0.05. It can be concluded that nanofilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealant could be a better alternative to microfilled resin- modified glass ionomer sealant.

  8. The evidence base for professional and self-care prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    and fissure sealants. The quality of evidence for fluoride gel, fluoride mouth rinse, xylitol gums and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) was rated as low. For secondary caries prevention and caries arrest, only fluoride interventions and SDF proved consistent benefits, although the quality of evidence was low...

  9. A Test Method for Monitoring Modulus Changes during Durability Tests on Building Joint Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. White; Donald L. Hunston; Kar Tean Tan; Gregory T. Schueneman

    2012-01-01

    The durability of building joint sealants is generally assessed using a descriptive methodology involving visual inspection of exposed specimens for defects. It is widely known that this methodology has inherent limitations, including that the results are qualitative. A new test method is proposed that provides more fundamental and quantitative information about...

  10. Heterologous fibrin sealant derived from snake venom: from bench to bedside - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rui Seabra; de Barros, Luciana Curtolo; Abbade, Luciana Patrícia Fernandes; Barraviera, Silvia Regina Catharino Sartori; Silvares, Maria Regina Cavariani; de Pontes, Leticia Gomes; Dos Santos, Lucilene Delazari; Barraviera, Benedito

    2017-01-01

    Hemostatic and adhesive agents date back to World War II, when homologous fibrin sealant came onto scene. Considering that infectious diseases can be transmitted via human blood, a new heterologous fibrin sealant was standardized in the 1990s. Its components were a serine protease (a thrombin-like enzyme) extracted from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes and a fibrinogen-rich cryoprecipitate extracted from the blood of Bubalus bubalis buffaloes. This new bioproduct has been used as a coagulant, sealant, adhesive and recently as a candidate scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells and bone and cartilage repair. This review discusses the composition of a new heterologous fibrin sealant, and cites published articles related to its preclinical applications aiming at repairing nervous system traumas and regenerating bone marrow. Finally, we present an innovative safety trial I/II that found the product to be a safe and clinically promising candidate for treating chronic venous ulcers. A multicenter clinical trial, phase II/III, with a larger number of participants will be performed to prove the efficacy of an innovative biopharmaceutical product derived from animal venom.

  11. Long-Standing Motor and Sensory Recovery following Acute Fibrin Sealant Based Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Perussi Biscola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant. Results were analyzed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after lesion. Astrogliosis, microglial reaction, and synapse preservation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and ultrastructural changes at ventral spinal cord were also investigated. Sensory-motor recovery was behaviorally studied. Coaptation preserved synaptic covering on lesioned motoneurons and led to neuronal survival. Reactive gliosis and microglial reaction decreased in the same groups (AX+FS, AX+CFS at 4 weeks. Regarding axonal regeneration, coaptation allowed recovery of greater number of myelinated fibers, with improved morphometric parameters. Preservation of inhibitory synaptic terminals was accompanied by significant improvement in the motor as well as in the nociceptive recovery. Overall, the present data suggest that acute repair of neonatal peripheral nerves with fibrin sealant results in neuroprotection and regeneration of motor and sensory axons.

  12. In Vitro Comparison of Microleakage of Two Materials Used as Pit and Fissure Sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Marginal seal of the material is extremely important in fissure sealant therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate microleakage of flowable composite resins and conventional fissure sealants with or without dentin bonding agent. Materials and methods. The occlusal surface of 60 intact extracted human premolars, divided into four groups, were cleaned with pumice/slurry, etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds, rinsed and dried. Groups were treated differently: Excite bonding agent followed by Helioseal F fissure sealant in group1; Helioseal F alone in group 2; Excite bonding agent followed by Tetric Flow in group 3; and Tetric Flow alone in group 4. Light-curing was done after each application. After thermocycling, the whole surface of each specimen was coated with nail varnish except for one millimeter around the fissure sealant. The teeth were immersed in 2% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned buccolingually. The sections were analyzed for leakage under a stereomicroscope. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at a significance level of P 0.05, except for groups 2 and 4 (P = 0.002 and groups 3 and 4 (P = 0.033. Conclusion. Use of a flowable composite with bonding agent is a good alternative for sealing pits and fissures; however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary.

  13. Design approach to sealant selection for the life of the well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, M.; Ravi, K.; Driel, W.D. van; Schreppers, G.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Recent experience in the field has demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the annular sealant are a critical factor in the success of a well. A demanding operational regime of the well such as High Pressure/High Temperature (HP/HT) and well interventions, e.g. pressure testing stimulation,

  14. [Absolute or relative isolation for fissure sealants? 12-month clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llodra Calvo, J C; Baca García, P

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this clinical study is to analyse the effectiveness of a sealant. Rubber dam and cotton roll methods of isolation where compared with respect to the effect of isolation method on retreatment and protection from caries during 12 months. We study the cost effectiveness ratio for both methods of isolation. The results could not be substantiated any differences between two methods.

  15. A Systematic Approach to the Study of Accelerated weathering of Building Joint Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. White; Donald L. Hunston; Kar Tean Tan; James J. Filliben; Adam L. Pintar; Greg. Schueneman

    2012-01-01

    An accurate service life prediction model is needed for building joint sealants in order to greatly reduce the time to market of a new product and reduce the risk of introducing a poorly performing product into the marketplace. A stepping stone to the success of this effort is the precise control of environmental variables in a laboratory accelerated test apparatus in...

  16. In vitro study of Streptococcus mutans adhesion on composite resin coated with three surface sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Hye Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Although the coating of surface sealants to dental composite resin may potentially reduce bacterial adhesion, there seems to be little information regarding this issue. This preliminary in vitro study investigated the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans on the dental composite resins coated with three commercial surface sealants. Materials and Methods Composite resin (Filtek Z250 discs (8 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness were fabricated in a mold covered with a Mylar strip (control. In group PoGo, the surfaces were polished with PoGo. In groups PS, OG, and FP, the surfaces polished with PoGo were coated with the corresponding surface sealants (PermaSeal, PS; OptiGuard, OG; Fortify Plus, FP. The surfaces of the materials and S. mutans cells were characterized by various methods. S. mutans adhesion to the surfaces was quantitatively evaluated using flow cytometry (n = 9. Results Group OG achieved the lowest water contact angle among all groups tested (p 0.05 or significantly lower (group OG, p < 0.001 bacterial adhesion when compared with the control group. Conclusions The application of the surface sealants significantly reduced S. mutans adhesion to the composite resin polished with the PoGo.

  17. Severe Emphysema Treated by Endoscopic Bronchial Volume Reduction with Lung Sealant (AeriSeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Falkenstern-Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic lung volume reduction using lung sealant is a very new and innovative treatment option for patients with severe progressive and irreversible lung emphysema. A 55-year-old ex-smoker (60 pack years referred to our center because of severe lung emphysema with progressive worsening of the obstructive ventilator pattern and clinical condition. We detected collateral channels of this patient by using the Chartis system. Therefore, we decided to treat the advanced emphysema of our patient with endoscopic volume reduction using lung sealant (AeriSeal. The foam of lung sealant AeriSeal is instilled into the peripheral airways and alveoli where it polymerizes and functions as tissue glue on the lung surface in order to seal the target region to cause durable irreversible absorption atelectasis. The follow-up evaluation 12 weeks later showed improved lung function (increased FEV 1/partial oxygen pressure/peripheral oxygen saturation and a reduction of TLC and RV with improved quality of life. Correlation between changes in primary and secondary outcome measures in the lung function parameters and 6-minute-walking test before and 12 weeks after the application of lung sealant revealed significant reduction of hyperinflation and improvement both in the flow rates and in the physical capability of this patient.

  18. Rheological properties of flowable resin composites and pit and fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beun, Sébastien; Bailly, Christian; Devaux, Jacques; Leloup, Gaëtane

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the viscoelastic properties of commercially available flowable resin composites and resin-based pit and fissure sealants. The weight percentage of filler particles and the morphology of the filler particles were also investigated. Eight flowable resin composites (Admira Flow, Filtek Flow, FlowLine, Grandio Flow, Point-4 Flowable, Revolution Formula 2, Tetric Flow and X-Flow) and four pit and fissure sealants (Clinpro, Delton FS+, Estiseal F and Guardian Seal) were tested. Rheological measurements were performed using a dynamic oscillation rheometer. The filler weight content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the morphology of the particles was investigated by scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). Flowable resin composites are non-Newtonian, shear-thinning materials. As the shear rate increased, the complex viscosity decreased drastically. They all showed elasticity even at the lowest frequencies. They also all showed thixotropy. Pit and fissure sealants are non-Newtonian, very low-viscosity fluids. No correlation was found between the rheological properties and the filler weight content or the particles' shape. Huge differences are observed in the viscosity and flow characteristics of flowable resin composites that can have a potential influence on their clinical behavior during handling and thus on their clinical indications. Pit and fissure sealants show very different rheological properties from one another.

  19. A Trajectory Generation Method Based on Edge Detection for Auto-Sealant Cartesian Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Samsul Maarif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents algorithm ingenerating trajectory for sealant process using captured image. Cartesian robot as auto-sealant in manufacturing process has increased productivity, reduces human error and saves time. But, different sealant path in many engine models means not only different trajectory but also different program. Therefore robot with detection ability to generate its own trajectory is needed. This paper describes best lighting technique in capturing image and applies edge detection in trajectory generation as the solution. The algorithm comprises image capturing, Canny edge detection, integral projection in localizing outer most edge, scanning coordinates, and generating vector direction codes. The experiment results show that the best technique is diffuse lighting at 10 Cd. The developed method gives connected point to point trajectory which forms sealant path with a point to next point distance is equal to 90° motor rotation. Directional movement for point to point trajectory is controlled by generated codes which are ready to be sent by serial communication to robot controller as instruction for motors which actuate axes X and Y directions.

  20. Thy28 partially prevents apoptosis induction following engagement of membrane immunoglobulin in WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Hiroko; Jiang, Xiao-Zhou; Asakura, Hideki; Mizuguchi, Junichiro

    2012-03-01

    Thy28 protein is conserved among plants, bacteria, and mammalian cells. Nuclear Thy28 protein is substantially expressed in testis, liver, and immune cells such as lymphocytes. Lymphocyte apoptosis plays a crucial role in homeostasis and formation of a diverse lymphocyte repertoire. In this study, we examined whether Thy28 affects induction of apoptosis in WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells following engagement of membrane immunoglobulin (mIg). Once they were established, the Thy28-overexpressing WEHI-231 cells showed similar expression levels of IgM and class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule compared with controls. The Thy28-overexpressing cells were considerably resistant to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), caspase-3 activation, and increase in annexin-positive cells upon mIg engagement. These changes were concomitant with an increase in G1 phase associated with upregulation of p27(Kip1). The anti-IgM-induced sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which was associated with late-phase hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production, was partially reduced in the Thy28-expressing cells relative to controls. Taken together, the data suggest that in WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells, Thy28 regulates mIg-mediated apoptotic events through the JNK-H(2)O(2) activation pathway, concomitant with an accumulation of cells in G1 phase associated with upregulation of p27(Kip1) in WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells.

  1. Influence of prophylaxis paste treatment on the abrasive wear of surface sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Tauböck, Tobias T; Attin, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the abrasive wear of surface sealants (Seal&Protect and K-0184 (experimental sealant)) and the influence of pre-treatment with mineral deposit forming prophylaxis pastes (NUPRO Sensodyne and NUPRO) on this wear. One hundred and eight bovine dentine samples were randomly allocated to nine groups (1-9). Pre-treatment (10 s): groups 1-3: untreated, groups 4-6: NUPRO, groups 7-9: NUPRO Sensodyne. Sealing: groups 1, 4 and 7: unsealed, groups 2, 5 and 8: Seal&Protect, groups 3, 6 and 9: K-0184 (experimental sealer). Samples were then brushed with 12 000 brushing strokes (BS) with toothpaste slurry in an automatic brushing machine (120 BS/min; F = 2.5 N). Surface profiles were recorded at baseline, after pre-treatment and sealing and after each 2000 BS. Total profile change (wear or gain due to pre-treatment, treatment and 12 000 BS): groups 1, 4 and 7 (no surface sealant) showed a not significantly different wear of 18.48 ± 2.63 µm, 24.98 ± 3.02 µm and 21.50 ± 5.47 µm, respectively. Remaining groups (sealed) showed a gain in height with no significant difference among each other. Wear in sealed groups (2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9) were not significantly different at all numbers of brushing strokes. Starting with 4000 BS, the wear in unsealed groups (1, 4 and 7) was statistically significantly higher compared to all other groups. Stability and wear resistance of surface sealants are not affected by pre-treatment of dentine with NUPRO Sensodyne. The surface sealants tested provide a stable protective surface layer on dentine, which lasts for at least 12 000 brushing strokes.

  2. Effect of sealant agents on the color stability and surface roughness of nanohybrid composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Şahin, Onur; Koroglu, Aysegül; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-07-01

    The effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of nanohybrid composite resins is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of 4 nanohybrid composite resin materials. Forty disks (10×2 mm) were fabricated for each nanohybrid composite resin material (Z-550, Tetric EvoCeram, Clearfill Majesty, Ice) (N=160) and divided into 4 surface treatment groups: 1 conventional polishing (control) and 3 different sealant agent (Palaseal, Optiglaze, BisCover) coupling groups (n=10). The specimens were thermocycled, and surface roughness (Ra) values were obtained with a profilometer. Scanning electron microscope images were also recorded. CIELab color parameters of each specimen were measured with a spectrophotometer before and after 7 days of storage in a coffee solution. Color differences were calculated by the CIEDE 2000 (ΔE00) formula. The data were statistically analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The surface treatment technique significantly affected the Ra values of the composite resins tested (Pcomposite resin material was also significant for ΔE00 values (Pcomposite resin groups, significant decreases in Ra were observed only for the Palaseal agent coupled composite resin groups (except Ice) compared with the control groups (Pcomposite resin group, except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty (Pcomposite resin groups, significant differences were observed between the color change seen with BisCover and other sealants for Clearfill Majesty composite resin (Pcomposite resins except for Ice produced smoother surfaces. All surface sealant agents provided less discoloration of nanohybrid composite resins after coffee staining compared with conventional polishing except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty composite resin. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. The Effect of Drinks and Temperature on the Staining of Resin Composites Coated with Surface Sealants

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    Hui R

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Surface staining of resin composite by dietary factors may be modified by the placement of a low-viscosity surface sealant aimed at reducing surface voids and defects occurring after light-curing and polishing. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the staining effect of various drinks and temperatures on the surface sealant (Fortify Plus™ sealed on a nano-filled resin composite (Supreme XTE™ after artificial aging at different temperatures. Materials and Methods: Surface sealant was applied on one surface of forty resin composite discs (10×2 mm. Five discs each were immersed in test solutions of black cola, commercial dark grape juice, coffee and distilled water (negative control. Discs were either placed at 4°C (20 discs or 37°C (20 discs and the colour difference (ΔE was calculated based on the colour coordinates at 0 (baseline, 7, 14 and 28 days of staining treatment. Two-factor with replication analysis was carried out with ANOVA. Results: The results showed significant discolouration after 28 days immersion in coffee (P<0.001 and grape juice group (P<0.001. Surface sealant significantly affected colour changes in coffee and grape juice group (P=0.002. Higher temperatures in coffee and grape juice also significantly increased the effect of staining (P<0.001. Conclusions: Surface sealant was able to reduce discolouration in the grape juice group only. A lower temperature of 4°C caused less staining in coffee and grape juice groups as compared to the 37°C corresponding test groups. Prolonged immersion time significantly increased discolouration in coffee and grape juice groups.

  4. Effect of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF on the Mcroleakage of Composite Flow and Fssure Sealant Restorations

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    Arash Poorsattar Bejeh Mir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A large number of investigations have revealed that physical and chemical alterations and weight loss could occur in composite materials exposed to acidic phosphate fluoride (APF gel. The purpose of this study was to assess the microleakage of a fissure sealant and a flow composite exposed to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 60 intact human extracted premolar teeth were used. After preparing the occlusal groove, the teeth were divided into two groups (n=30. Teeth were filled with either Helioseal fissure sealant (Vivadent, Germany or Tetric flow composite (Vivadent, Germany. After that, each group was divided into two subgroups (n=15: 1.23% APF gel (Sultan, U.S.A was applied in the case subgroups, while control subgroups were preserved in normal saline solution. All of teeth were covered with 2 layers of nail varnish except for the filling zone and 1mm around the border of filling. After submerging in 0.5% fushin solution, specimens were sectioned bucco-lingually. Then dye penetration through the filling and fissure sealant was assessed by means of a stereo-microscope. The depth of dye penetration was scored. The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Levene test. Results: The mean values of dye penetration were 1.26±1.09, 1.4±1.05, 1.2±1.37, and 1.4±1.35 for fissure sealant+gel, composite+gel, composite+normal saline, and normal saline groups, respectively. No significant difference was found in inter-groups (P=0.96. Conclusion: Considering the result of the present research, APF gel had no significant effect on the microleakage of Tetric flow composite filling and Helioseal fissure sealant and thus, it can be applied for routine usage.

  5. In vitro sealing potential of a self-adhesive pit and fissure sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Jorge; Sezinando, Ana; Gomes, George

    2011-05-01

    To study the sealing ability of a self-adhesive sealant. Thirty-five extracted molars were assigned to seven groups: group 1, 35% phosphoric acid (PA) followed by Clinpro Sealant (CL) as the control group; group 2, Enamel Loc (EL), a self-adhesive sealant; group 3, PA followed by EL; group 4, Adper Prompt L-Pop (AP) followed by CL; group 5, AP followed by EL; group 6, PA followed by Adper Single Bond Plus (SB) and CL; and group 7, PA followed by SB and EL. Specimens were thermocycled and immersed in 50 wt% ammoniac silver nitrate. Silver leakage was measured in ranks from 0 to 4 and analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at P < .05. One additional tooth per group was used to study the enamel etching pattern. Specimens were observed under a field-emission SEM. The least silver infiltration was measured for group 1 (control group), which was significantly different from all other six groups. Etching enamel prior to the application of EL resulted in significantly less leakage than all other groups, except for the control group. EL alone resulted in similar leakage to EL with either AP or SB. None of the groups resulted in perfectly sealed interfaces. Under SEM, EL was unable to etch enamel. The self-etch adhesive AP resulted in a less defined etching pattern than the etch-and-rinse adhesive SB. Etching enamel with phosphoric acid is still essential for sealing the enamel-sealant interface. The self-adhesive sealant tested in this study may not be indicated for clinical use.

  6. Effect of artificial aging on the bond durability of fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xiaofei; Li, Wei; Ling, Chen; Fok, Alex

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of artificial aging on the bond durability of fissure sealants in vitro. Twenty bovine incisors received 4 different sealant treatments and were divided into four groups: 1. Ultraseal XT plus (UX); 2. Enamel Loc (EL); 3. 35% phosphoric acid plus Enamel Loc (PEL); 4. Adper Prompt L-Pop plus Clinpro (PPC). Beam-shaped specimens were prepared and randomly divided into three subgroups. One subgroup underwent the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test after 24-h storage in 37°C water. The other two subgroups were also subjected to the microtensile bond strength test after 5000 and 10,000 thermal cycles, respectively. Another twelve intact human third molars were sealed using 1 of 3 methods and were divided into 3 groups of 4 each: 1. Ultraseal XT plus; 2. Adper Prompt L-Pop plus Clinpro; and 3. Enamel Loc. Two specimens from each group were immersed in a 50% silver nitrate solution for 24 h, followed by exposure to fluorescent light for 8 h, before being scanned in a micro-CT (microcomputer tomography) machine. The other two were handled in the same way after undergoing 10,000 thermal cycles. The CT images obtained were evaluated. All samples from the EL group were broken during preparation, so no µTBS results were available. After 5000 thermal cycles, the bond strengths of the three other groups (UX, PEL, PPC) decreased significantly (p UX group remained relatively unchanged. After thermocycling, considerable silver penetration could be seen at the sealant/enamel interface of the EL group in micro-CT images. The etch-and-rinse procedure for sealant application promotes higher bond strength under artificial aging. Micro-CT, a nondestructive analytical tool, may be used to evaluate the sealant/enamel interface effectively.

  7. Knowledge and practices of caries prevention among Taiwanese dentists attending a national conference

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    Tzu-Hsien Lin

    2010-12-01

    Conclusions: A portion of Taiwanese dentists seemed to have limited up-to-date information about certain topics related to caries prevention. The frequency of treatments for caries prevention, such as topical fluoride and sealants, did not match the perceived effectiveness of these treatments by participants.

  8. Atraumatic restorative treatment for prevention and treatment of caries in an underserved community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Naty; Simpser-Rafalin, Sara; Berthold, Peter

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of atraumatic restorative treatment to prevent and treat caries in an underserved community in Mexico. We placed 370 restorations and 193 sealants in 118 children aged 5 to 18; 85% reported no pain, and 93% were comfortable with their restorations. We then evaluated the children 1 and 2 years later. At 2-year evaluation, 66% of restorations and 35% of sealants were retained. Atraumatic restorative treatment is acceptable and effective to control and prevent decay in a socioeconomically deprived community.

  9. Combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation as a prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Capozzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if the use of combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT is a safe and effective prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft after penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Methods. We report the case of a 17 years old patient with a history of congenital glaucoma, trabeculectomy and multiple corneal graft rejections, presenting total limbal cell deficiency. To reduce the possibility of graft rejection in the left eye after a new PK, a two step procedure was performed. At first the patient underwent a combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft (LAT and AMT and then, 10 months later, a new PK. Results. During 12 months of follow-up, the corneal graft remained stable and smooth, with no sign of graft rejection. Conclusions. In our patient, the prophylactic use of LAT from HLA-matched donors and AMT before PK, may result in a better prognosis of corneal graft survival.

  10. The effect of surface sealant application and accelerated aging on posterior restorative surfaces: An SEM and AFM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekçe, Neslihan; Pala, Kanşad; Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa

    2017-03-31

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface sealant application and 10,000 thermocycles on the surface roughness and microhardness of different resin composite systems. A micro-hybrid (G Aenial Posterior), a nano-hybrid (Clearfil Majesty Posterior), a nano-fill (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Enamel Shade), and a bulk-fill resin composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative) were used for the study. Specimens were evaluated at 24 h, after application of the surface sealant Fortify Plus, and after thermocycling. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a posthoc Bonferroni test (pRestorative increased significantly after surface sealant application. However, neither surface sealant application nor thermocycling had a significant effect on composite microhardness values except Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (p>0.05).

  11. Degree of conversion of three fissure sealants cured by different light curing units using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ario Santini

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Higher DC is achieved with the LED with less exposure time compared with the conventional QTH at top and bottom surfaces of the three fissure sealants, although a lower conversion may be expected in opaque materials.

  12. Point-of-use membrane filtration and hyperchlorination to prevent patient exposure to rapidly growing mycobacteria in the potable water supply of a skilled nursing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Chen, Tai-Ho; Keane, Tim; Toney, Nadege; Toney, Sean; Armbruster, Catherine R; Butler, W Ray; Arduino, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are frequently associated with contaminated tap water. A pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus in patients undergoing bronchoscopy was identified by 2 acute care hospitals. RGM was identified in bronchoscopy specimens of 28 patients, 25 of whom resided in the same skilled nursing facility (SNF). An investigation ruled out bronchoscopy procedures, specimen collection, and scope reprocessing at the hospitals as sources of transmission. To identify the reservoir for RGM within the SNF and evaluate 2 water system treatments, hyperchlorination and point-of-use (POU) membrane filters, to reduce RGM. A comparative in situ study of 2 water system treatments to prevent RGM transmission. An SNF specializing in care of patients requiring ventilator support. RGM and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were examined in facility water before and after hyperchlorination and in a subsequent 24-week assessment of filtered water by colony enumeration on Middlebrook and R2A media. Mycobacterium chelonae was consistently isolated from the SNF water supply. Hyperchlorination reduced RGM by 1.5 log(10) initially, but the population returned to original levels within 90 days. Concentration of HPC bacteria also decreased temporarily. RGM were reduced below detection level in filtered water, a 3-log(10) reduction. HPC bacteria were not recovered from newly installed filters, although low quantities were found in water from 2-week-old filters. POU membrane filters may be a feasible prevention measure for healthcare facilities to limit exposure of sensitive individuals to RGM in potable water systems.

  13. [Study on membrane type leaf water evaporation inhibitors for improving effect of preventing diseases and pest controlling of Lycium barbarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Lv, Zhe; Xu, Chang-Qing; Liu, Sai; Chen, Jun; Peng, Xiao; Wu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Through indoor and field comparative experiments, the properties of membrane type leaf evaporation inhibitors and its effects on photosynthesis of Lycium barbarum and compatibility and synergistic of pesticide were studied. The evaporation inhibitors and L. barbarum were chosen to investigate the suppression of water evaporation and the compatibility with pesticides. The effect of evaporation inhibitors on photosynthesis of L. barbarum leaves was determined by the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system. The results showed that water evaporation of L. barbarum leaves of different leaf age were evidently suppressed after treated with evaporation inhibitor. The inhibitor was well compatible with pesticide and effectively improved the pesticide efficacy,and had no significant effect on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. It is concluded that the evaporation inhibitor has good compatibility with the pesticide, and has remarkable effect of restraining moisture evaporation, which make it can be used for reducing the dosage and improving the efficacy of the pesticide in the field of L. barbarum. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Influence of irradiation by a novel CO29.3-μm short-pulsed laser on sealant bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, P; Sherathiya, K; Kinsel, R; Vaderhobli, R; Rechmann, B M T

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether irradiation of enamel with a novel CO 2 9.3-μm short-pulsed laser using energies that enhance caries resistance influences the shear bond strength of composite resin sealants to the irradiated enamel. Seventy bovine and 240 human enamel samples were irradiated with a 9.3-μm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with four different laser energies known to enhance caries resistance or ablate enamel (pulse duration from 3 μs at 1.6 mJ/pulse to 43 μs at 14.9 mJ/pulse with fluences between 3.3 and 30.4 J/cm 2 , pulse repetition rate between 4.1 and 41.3 Hz, beam diameter of 0.25 mm and 1-mm spiral pattern, and focus distance of 4-15 mm). Irradiation was performed "freehand" or using a computerized, motor-driven stage. Enamel etching was achieved with 37% phosphoric acid (Scotchbond Universal etchant, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN). As bonding agent, Adper Single Bond Plus was used followed by placing Z250 Filtek Supreme flowable composite resin (both 3M ESPE). After 24 h water storage, a single-plane shear bond test was performed (UltraTester, Ultradent Products, Inc., South Jordan, UT). All laser-irradiated samples showed equal or higher bond strength than non-laser-treated controls. The highest shear bond strength values were observed with the 3-μs pulse duration/0.25-mm laser pattern (mean ± SD = 31.90 ± 2.50 MPa), representing a significant 27.4% bond strength increase over the controls (25.04 ± 2.80 MPa, P ≤ 0.0001). Two other caries-preventive irradiation (3 μs/1 mm and 7 μs/0.25 mm) and one ablative pattern (23 μs/0.25 mm) achieved significantly increased bond strength compared to the controls. Bovine enamel also showed in all test groups increased shear bond strength over the controls. Computerized motor-driven stage irradiation did not show superior bond strength values over the clinically more relevant freehand irradiation. Enamel

  15. Ablation of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 4 prevents development of hypertrophy in a model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vikram; Lorenz, John N; Lasko, Valerie M; Nieman, Michelle L; Jiang, Min; Gao, Xu; Rubinstein, Jack; Wieczorek, David F; Shull, Gary E

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms linking the expression of sarcomeric mutant proteins to the development of pathological hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase PMCA4 in the HCM phenotype using a transgenic model that expresses mutant (Glu180Gly) α-tropomyosin (Tm180) in heart. Immunoblot analysis revealed that cardiac PMCA4 expression was upregulated early in Tm180 disease pathogenesis. This was accompanied by an increase in levels of the L-type Ca(2+)-channel, which is implicated in pathological hypertrophy. When Tm180 mice were crossed with a PMCA4-null line, loss of PMCA4 caused the abrogation of hypertrophy in Tm180/PMCA4-null double mutant mice. RT-PCR analysis of Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts revealed blunting of the fetal program and reversion of pro-fibrotic Col1a1 and Col3a1 gene expression to wild-type levels. This was accompanied by evidence of reduced L-type Ca(2+)-channel expression, and diminished calcineurin activity. Expression of the metabolic substrate transporters glucose transporter 4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b was preserved and Tm180-related changes in mRNA levels of various contractile stress-related proteins including the cardiac ankyrin protein CARP and the N2B isoform of titin were reversed in Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts. cGMP levels were increased and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein was elevated in Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts. These changes were associated with a sharp reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts, which occurred despite persistence of Tm180-related impairment of relaxation dynamics. These results reveal a novel and specific role for PMCA4 in the Tm180 hypertrophic phenotype, with the "protective" effects of PMCA4 deficiency encompassing multiple determinants of HCM-related hypertrophy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PF-1355, a mechanism-based myeloperoxidase inhibitor, prevents immune complex vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Warner, Roscoe; Ruggeri, Roger; Su, Chunyan; Cortes, Christian; Skoura, Athanasia; Ward, Jessica; Ahn, Kay; Kalgutkar, Amit; Sun, Dexue; Maurer, Tristan S; Bonin, Paul D; Okerberg, Carlin; Bobrowski, Walter; Kawabe, Thomas; Zhang, Yanwei; Coskran, Timothy; Bell, Sammy; Kapoor, Bhupesh; Johnson, Kent; Buckbinder, Leonard

    2015-05-01

    Small vessel vasculitis is a life-threatening condition and patients typically present with renal and pulmonary injury. Disease pathogenesis is associated with neutrophil accumulation, activation, and oxidative damage, the latter being driven in large part by myeloperoxidase (MPO), which generates hypochlorous acid among other oxidants. MPO has been associated with vasculitis, disseminated vascular inflammation typically involving pulmonary and renal microvasculature and often resulting in critical consequences. MPO contributes to vascular injury by 1) catabolizing nitric oxide, impairing vasomotor function; 2) causing oxidative damage to lipoproteins and endothelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis; and 3) stimulating formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, resulting in vessel occlusion and thrombosis. Here we report a selective 2-thiouracil mechanism-based MPO inhibitor (PF-1355 [2-(6-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide) and demonstrate that MPO is a critical mediator of vasculitis in mouse disease models. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic response model of PF-1355 exposure in relation with MPO activity was derived from mouse peritonitis. The contribution of MPO activity to vasculitis was then examined in an immune complex model of pulmonary disease. Oral administration of PF-1355 reduced plasma MPO activity, vascular edema, neutrophil recruitment, and elevated circulating cytokines. In a model of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, formerly known as Goodpasture disease, albuminuria and chronic renal dysfunction were completely suppressed by PF-1355 treatment. This study shows that MPO activity is critical in driving immune complex vasculitis and provides confidence in testing the hypothesis that MPO inhibition will provide benefit in treating human vasculitic diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Assessment of early occlusal caries pre- and post-sealant application--an imaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jennifer S; Ballantine, Jami; Fontana, Margherita; Wang, Alex; Calantog, Alden; Benavides, Erika; Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2014-08-01

    Clinicians have difficulty assessing and monitoring early occlusal caries. Traditional clinical exam and radiographs are unable to detect the subtle alterations in enamel indicative of de- or re-mineralization, particularly under dental sealants. Although clinicians have used laser fluorescence (LF) to address this gap, this modality has demonstrated weak correlation with histology. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-II) has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for caries detection, but since it is based on visual assessment, it is of no use in areas beneath the most commonly used dental sealants which are opaque. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emergent assessment tool which has demonstrated great promise in detecting and quantifying caries, including areas beneath commonly used dental sealants and composites. However, OCT has not yet been widely integrated into clinical dental practice, perhaps because OCT imaging does not provide an easily accessible diagnostic outcome for clinicians. The objective of this ex vivo study was to use OCT-images of sound and carious occlusal surfaces in combination with a simple algorithm to compare the caries detection ability of OCT with tools clinicians may be more familiar with (LF and radiography), and with an established valid and reliable clinical assessment tool (ICDAS-II). One hundred twenty extracted teeth with sound or naturally carious occlusal surfaces were imaged with OCT, LF, radiography, and examined clinically with the ICDAS-II. Teeth were randomized to one of two dental sealants recommended for use with LF. A novel simple algorithm was used to interpret OCT-based images. The accuracy of caries severity assessments of the OCT-based diagnosis, LF, ICDAS-II, and digital radiography were compared to the 4-point histological analysis gold standard. OCT and ICDAS-II caries severity assessments demonstrated high sensitivity (94.0%; 92.3%) and specificity (85.0%; 83.3%), LF

  18. Use of asphalt emulsion sealants in disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-07-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt % asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation

  19. Usefulness of hemostatic sealants for minimizing ovarian damage during laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chahien; Kim, Woo Young; Lee, Dong Hee; Lee, San Hui

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of topical hemostatic sealants and bipolar coagulation during laparoscopic ovarian endometriotic cyst resection on ovarian reserve by comparing the rates of decrease in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). A randomized prospective data collection was made on women aged 19-45 years who planned to have laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy at one of two institutions (n = 80), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea or National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea, from January 2014 to April 2016. Patients were randomly divided into two groups treated with either a topical hemostatic sealant or bipolar coagulation for hemostasis. The hemostatic group was randomized to the FloSeal or TachoSil subgroups. Preoperative and 3-month postoperative AMH levels were checked and the rates of decrease of AMH were compared. All patients enrolled were treated with dienogest (Visanne) for 6-12 months. None were lost to follow-up at postoperative 3 months, but about one-third of the patients had been lost to follow-up by 6-12 months. AMH was significantly decreased in both groups 3 months postoperatively; however, the rate of decrease in the bipolar coagulation group was greater than that in the hemostatic sealant group, 41.9% (interquartile range [IQR], 22.29-65.24) versus 18.1% (IQR, 10.94-29.90), P = 0.007. Between the two hemostatic subgroups, there was no significant difference in AMH decrease rate, 14.95% (IQR, 11.34-21.21) versus 18.1% (IQR 9.76-40.70), P = 0.204. Hemostatic sealants may be an alternative to bipolar coagulation for preservation of ovarian reserve after laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy for endometriosis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Effect of Two Surface Sealants on Microleakage of Class V Resin Composite Restorations

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    Mosa Aboali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: When composite resin polymerizes, shrinkage stresses tend to produce gaps at the tooth/ restoration interfaces. Surface sealants may reduce or avoid problems related to the marginal interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different surface sealants (Fortify and Optiguard on the microleakage of class V resin composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Twenty three sound noncarious molars were collected. Totally, 45 Class V cavities with the occlusal margins in enamel and cervical margins in cementum were prepared in both buccal and lingual surfaces. The specimens were randomly assigned in three groups (15 cavities in each group and then restored with a resin composite. After the finishing and polishing procedures, the restorations in each group were covered with a specific surface sealant, except for the control samples, which were not sealed. After placing restorations, the specimens were thermocycled and then immersed in a 50% silver nitrate solution (tracer agent for four hours, sectioned longitudinally and analyzed for leakage using a stereomicroscope in a blind manner. The marginal microleakage was evaluated at the occlusal and cervical interfaces and compared among the three groups using the Kruskall-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Microleakage was found in all groups at both occlusal and cervical margins. Significantly greater leakage was observed at the cervical margins compared to the enamel margins of the material groups (P=0.005. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups at occlusal margins (P=0.66. In the cervical region, Fortify showed improved results and statistically presented the lowest degree of microleakage (P=0.003. onclusion: The used sealant materials presented different rates of effectiveness and Fortify decreased marginal microleakage significantly.

  1. In vivo bisphenol-a release from dental pit and fissure sealants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloukos, Dimitrios; Pandis, Nikolaos; Eliades, Theodore

    2013-08-01

    To search the literature and assess the short- and long-term release of bisphenol-A (BPA) in human tissues after treatment with dental sealants. Two review authors performed data extraction independently and in duplicate using data collection forms. Disagreements were resolved by discussion with an arbiter. Electronic database searches of published and unpublished literature were performed. The following electronic databases with no language and publication date restrictions were searched: MEDLINE (via Ovid and Pubmed), EMBASE (via ovid), Cochrane Trials Register and CENTRAL. The reference lists of all eligible studies were hand-searched. In the absence of RCTs, six interventional and two observational studies, examining in vivo BPA release in human salivary, blood and urinary samples, were included. Due to the heterogeneity in methodology and reporting, the main synthesis of the results was qualitative. The quantitative synthesis based on the weighted Z-test could only include two studies. BPA levels identified in saliva ranged from traces below the method's detection limit to 30 μg/ml. In urine, BPA quantities spanned from 0.17 mg/g to 45.4 mg/g. BPA was not traced in any blood sample at any point of time in the relevant studies. The quantitative analysis showed evidence of BPA release one hour after sealant placement compared to the amount traced before restoration (Stouffer's z trend: sealant placement. From the qualititative and quantitative synthesis of studies, it is reasonable to conclude that BPA is released after placement of some dental pit and fissure sealants in the oral cavity. The biggest quantities are detected in saliva immediately after or one hour after their placement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Marketing Risk-Framing Approaches for Dental Sealants in Rural American Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Laura S; Champine, Dorothy; Hoyt, Dee; Lin, Lillian; Salois, Emily; Silvas, Sharon; Tail, Terri Weasel; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    To compare three variants of a culturally relevant and theoretically based message to determine the most influential risk-framing approach for improving intention to place dental sealants for preschool children. A convenience sample of adult, American Indian participants (n = 89) attending a community health fair were assigned to view a gain-framed, loss-framed, or mix-framed dental sealant message. We compared participants' scores on a 46-item survey to determine the relative effect of the frame assignment on seven indices of behavior change. The mean difference in participants' stage-of-change scores (x = 1.17, n = 89, SD = 1.90) demonstrated a significant improvement for all groups after watching the dental sealant message t88  = 5.81, p mix-framed message resulted in the highest scores. The gain-framed message was the least influential on four constructs. This finding is in contrast to findings that gain-framed oral health messages are most influential (Gallagher & Updegraff, 2012; O'Keefe & Jensen, 2007). Community advisory board members determined to use the mix-framed approach in an oral health social marketing campaign with a rural, American Indian audience. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Influence of coffee on reflectance and chemistry of resin composite protected by surface sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Cesar, Ilene Cristine Rosia; Santos, Carla Gabriela Couto; De Cardoso, Ana Luiza Merigo Oliveira; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane Suzy; Munin, Egberto; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2007-10-01

    To assess the influence of the light-curing unit type and whether or not it was worth using surface sealant protection on resin composite restorative materials stained by coffee. Another objective was to propose the monitoring of coffee staining by FT-Raman spectroscopy using carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds as reference to the composite matrix degradation. Sixty cylindrical specimens of resin composite were prepared and divided into six groups: HC (control)--cured with a halogen light; LC (control) cured with a LED; HF--cured with a halogen light + Fortify Plus; LF--cured with a LED + Fortify Plus; HP--cured with a halogen light + PermaSeal; LP--cured with a LED + PermaSeal. After storage for 24 hours at 37% and 100% of relative humidity, the top surface was protected, and the other surfaces isolated. Polishing with paper discs was performed after 24 hours of curing and prior to FT-Raman spectroscopy and reflectance measurements. All specimens were submitted to coffee staining for 14 days and evaluated by both systems. Results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests. FT-Raman spectrum only showed significant changes in groups LC and LP (P< 0.05). Reflectance demonstrated that staining was present in all specimens protected by sealants. Sealant staining was larger in the HF (P < 0.001) group.

  5. Cost-effectiveness study of a school-based sealant program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C W; Pereira, A C; Eklund, S A

    2000-01-01

    A nonprofit private dental clinic provides free dental treatment for children up to the age of eighteen years. In order to expand its services to reach more children, a school-based sealant program using dental auxiliary personnel was organized. This paper evaluated the performance of the school-based program during 1991 by comparing the costs of the school-based program with the costs of the sealants placed in the clinic in twelve months. Costs were calculated based on 1991 expenditures, and effectiveness rates were estimated from dental literature on sealants. The cost of saving one tooth-surface from decaying within a six-year period at the school and the clinic was $65 and $42 with an average sealing time per tooth surface of 18 and 12.5 minutes, respectively. Despite the relatively lower cost of personnel, the school program cost was 35 percent higher than at the clinic. Nevertheless, if hidden costs, such as transportation, time off work, and waiting time for those attending the clinic were considered, costs could be comparable or even higher for the clinic. The main goal of this paper is to explore a methodology to compare programs of different nature, and critically evaluate the results.

  6. Shear bond strength of pit-and-fissure sealants to saliva-contaminated and noncontaminated enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Juliana Machado; Torres, Carolina Paes; Lessa, Fernanda Campos Rosetti; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength of 2 resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants--Clinpro and Fluroshield--to saliva-contaminated and noncontaminated enamel. Forty buccal halves of permanent molar crowns were individually embedded in polyester resin and ground with wet silicone carbide papers to obtain flat enamel surfaces. The specimens were randomly assigned to 2 groups: (A) without contamination; and (B) contaminated with 0.01 ml of fresh human saliva. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups (N=10), according to the sealant applied: (1) Clinpro; and (2) Fluroshield. Shear bond strength was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Failure mode was assessed. Means (MPa) were: (1) A1=7.66 +/- 3.12; A2=12.39 +/- 4.34; (2) B1=5.05 +/- 1.44; B2=10.44 +/- 2.35. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Scheffé's statistical test (Psealants and the experimental conditions analyzed. Fluroshield provided higher bond strength and was different from Clinpro (P.05) was observed between the tested materials. It may be concluded that, under dry conditions, the filled pit-and-fissure sealant (Fluroshield) yielded better bonding performance. Salivary contamination undermined the adhesion of both materials to enamel and resulted in lower bond strengths.

  7. Comparison of Two Different Bonding Agents on Clinical Performance of Fissure Sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Makarem

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Considering the fact that several bonding agents are available in market, clinical evaluations are required to find the durability of the sealants after using bonding agents. The purpose of this study was to compare the durability of the fissure sealant after applying two kinds of dentin bonding materials, AdheSE and Excite.Materials and Methods: In this clinical study sample group consisted of hundred permanent first molars teeth of forty two children. Convenience sampling method has been applied.After three, six and twelve month follow-up, marginal integrity, retention rate and caries in experimental groups were examined. Data were analyzed according to Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney statistical tests.Results: There was no statistical significant difference between the two examined groups,considering marginal integrity, retention rate and caries. In AdheSE group, maxillary teeth had a better retention than mandibular ones.Conclusion: It seems that in pediatric dentistry use of Excite as a bonding agent before the placement of fissure sealant is preferable.

  8. Autologous fibrin sealant (Vivostat®) in the neurosurgical practice: Part I: Intracranial surgical procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Francesca; Certo, Francesco; Basile, Luigi; Maugeri, Rosario; Grasso, Giovanni; Meccio, Flavia; Ganau, Mario; Iacopino, Domenico G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhages, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and infections are the most challenging postoperative complications in Neurosurgery. In this study, we report our preliminary results using a fully autologous fibrin sealant agent, the Vivostat® system, in achieving hemostasis and CSF leakage repair during cranio-cerebral procedures. Methods: From January 2012 to March 2014, 77 patients were studied prospectively and data were collected and analyzed. Autologous fibrin sealant, taken from patient's blood, was prepared with the Vivostat® system and applied on the resection bed or above the dura mater to achieve hemostasis and dural sealing. The surgical technique, time to bleeding control and associated complications were recorded. Results: A total of 79 neurosurgical procedures have been performed on 77 patients. In the majority of cases (98%) the same autologous fibrin glue provided rapid hemostasis and dural sealing. No patient developed allergic reactions or systemic complications in association with its application. There were no cases of cerebral hematoma, swelling, infection, or epileptic seizures after surgery whether in the immediate or in late period follow-up. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, the easy and direct application of autologous fibrin sealant agent helped in controlling cerebral bleeding and in providing prompt and efficient dural sealing with resolution of CSF leaks. Although the use of autologous fibrin glue seems to be safe, easy, and effective, further investigations are strongly recommended to quantify real advantages and potential limitations. PMID:25984391

  9. Treatment of therapy-refractive ulcera cruris of various origins with autologous keratinocytes in fibrin sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, S; Ermuth, T; Tanczos, E; Bannasch, H; Horch, R E; Zschocke, I; Peschen, M; Schöpf, E; Vanscheidt, W; Augustin, M

    2005-02-01

    Evaluation of the effects of cultivated, subconfluent, autologous keratinocytes in fibrin sealant (BioSeed-S) on the healing of therapy-refractive chronic wounds. Open observational study in 60 patients with chronic leg ulcers and impaired wound healing of various origins. After whole-skin excision and cultivation of the autologous keratinocytes, the suspended cells were applied to the preconditioned wound in fibrin sealant. Wound epithelization and wound size were recorded at defined times. Fifty-two of the 60 participating patients could be evaluated. After 6 weeks, 29 ulcers (55.8%) were healed. The mean epithelization increased between the 8th and 42nd postoperative day from 23% to 62.5%. In 50.0% of the patients, global assessment of the wound showed a high degree of epithelization or healing after 42 days. In 32.6% of treated patients, improvement was observed, while no healing tendency was to be found in 17.4%. The present observational study indicates that the transplantation of autologous keratinocytes suspended in fibrin sealant could be of advantage in the treatment of refractive leg ulcers.

  10. Clinical comparison between an opaque and a clear pit and fissures sealants: a 12-month split-mouth, randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, G M; Mazur, M; Corridore, D; Capocci, M; Rinaldo, F Md; Maruotti, A; Ottolenghi, L; Guerra, F

    2018-01-01

    We design a clinical splith-mouth, randomized controlled study, in which the retention of an opaque and clear pit and fissures sealants were evaluated and their effectiveness compared at 6 and 12 months of follow up. A secondary aim was to evaluate the possibility of using a fluorescence based intra-oral camera through the clear sealant to monitor enamel demineralization. Consecutive young adolescents with at least two molars with code 0, 1, 2 caries evidenced following the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) were enrolled. A split-mouth randomized allocation was carried out. One skilled operator applied the sealant under 3.5 X magnification. A second operator evaluated clinical retention and performed the intra-oral camera assessments at 6 and 12 months follow up. A total of 42 patients, (20 males and 22 females, mean age 14.25) with 176 dental lesions were enrolled. Nine patients dropped out accounting for 26 teeth lost during follow up. Overall, a total of 150 sealed teeth were evaluated in the study. In 77 cases the clear sealant was used, while in 73 the opaque sealant was utilized. The opaque sealant rated 100% complete retention at 6 months, and 97.3% at 12 months, while the clear selant 91.8% and 85.9% respectively. Demineralization under clear selant was registered when sealant partial detachment occurred. The overall retention rate of an opaque sealant was higher than that of a clear sealant after 12 months of follow-up. This difference may partly be due to difficulty in clinical detection of clear sealants during follow-up. Fluorescence based intra-oral camera seems useful to monitor enamel demineralization in clear sealant.

  11. [Prevention of spontaneous preterm birth (excluding preterm premature rupture of membranes): Guidelines for clinical practice - Text of the Guidelines (short text)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentilhes, L; Sénat, M-V; Ancel, P-Y; Azria, E; Benoist, G; Blanc, J; Brabant, G; Bretelle, F; Brun, S; Doret, M; Ducroux-Schouwey, C; Evrard, A; Kayem, G; Maisonneuve, E; Marcellin, L; Marret, S; Mottet, N; Paysant, S; Riethmuller, D; Rozenberg, P; Schmitz, T; Torchin, H; Langer, B

    2016-12-01

    To determine the measures to prevent spontaneous preterm birth (excluding preterm premature rupture of membranes)and its consequences. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. In France, premature birth concerns 60,000 neonates every year (7.4 %), half of them are delivered after spontaneous onset of labor. Among preventable risk factors of spontaneous prematurity, only cessation of smoking is associated to a decrease of prematurity (level of evidence [LE] 1). This is therefore recommended (grade A). Routine screening and treatment of vaginal bacteriosis in general population is not recommended (grade A). Asymptomatic women with single pregnancy without history of preterm delivery and a short cervix between 16 and 24 weeks is the only population in which vaginal progesterone is recommended (grade B). A history-indicated cerclage is not recommended in case of only past history of conisation (grade C), uterine malformation (Professional consensus), isolated history of pretem delivery (grade B) or twin pregnancies in primary (grade B) or secondary (grade C) prevention of preterm birth. A history-indicated cerclage is recommended for single pregnancy with a history of at least 3 late miscarriages or preterm deliveries (grade A).). In case of past history of a single pregnancy delivery before 34 weeks gestation (WG), ultrasound cervical length screening is recommended between 16 and 22 WG in order to propose a cerclage in case of lengthpremature rupture of membranes. Maintenance tocolysis is not recomended (grade B). Antenatal corticosteroid administration is recommended to every woman at risk of preterm delivery before 34 weeks of gestation (grade A). After 34 weeks, evidences are not consistent enough to recommend systematic antenatal corticosteroid treatment (grade B), however, a course might be indicated in the clinical situations associated with the

  12. Surveillance for dental caries, dental sealants, tooth retention, edentulism, and enamel fluorosis--United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Barker, Laurie K; Canto, María Teresa; Dye, Bruce A; Gooch, Barbara F; Griffin, Susan O; Hyman, Jeffrey; Jaramillo, Freder; Kingman, Albert; Nowjack-Raymer, Ruth; Selwitz, Robert H; Wu, Tianxia

    2005-08-26

    Dental caries is a common chronic disease that causes pain and disability across all age groups. If left untreated, dental caries can lead to pain and infection, tooth loss, and edentulism (total tooth loss). Dental sealants are effective in preventing dental caries in the occlusal (chewing) and other pitted and fissured surfaces of the teeth. Enamel fluorosis is a hypomineralization of enamel related to fluoride exposure during tooth formation (first 6 years for most permanent teeth). Exposure to fluoride throughout life is effective in preventing dental caries. This is the first CDC Surveillance Summary that addresses these conditions and practices. 1988-1994 and 1999-2002. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is an ongoing survey of representative samples of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population aged >/=2 months in NHANES 1988-1994 and all ages during 1999-2002. The dental component gathered information on persons aged >/=2 years. During 1999-2002, among children aged 2-11 years, 41% had dental caries in their primary teeth. Forty-two percent of children and adolescents aged 6-19 years and approximately 90% of adults had dental caries in their permanent teeth. Among children aged 6-19 years, 32% had received dental sealants. Adults aged >/=20 years retained a mean of 24 of 28 natural teeth and 8% were edentulous. Among persons aged 6-39 years, 23% had very mild or greater enamel fluorosis. Disparities were noticed across all age groups, among racial/ethnic groups, persons with lower education and income, and by smoking status. From 1988-1994 to 1999-2002, four trends were observed: 1) no change in the prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth among children aged 2-11 years, 2) a reduction in prevalence of caries in permanent teeth of up to 10 percentage points among persons aged 6-19 years and up to six percentage points among dentate adults aged >/=20 years, 3) an increase of 13 percentage points in dental sealants among

  13. Clinical assessment of two types of adhesive (fifth & sixth generation on fissure sealant of saliva contaminated enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Nogourani M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Since the clinical studies conducted to explore the effect of bonding agents on the success of fissure sealant are limited in number, the present study was conducted to compare the effects of two bonding agents on the success of fissure sealant of the saliva- contaminated teeth. "nMaterials and Methods: In this study, 63 teeth of 35 students aged 6-8 with healthy and newly-erupted upper jaw molar teeth, were selected and divided into two groups. In one group, single-bond and In the other, SE bond were used. As the teeth were newly erupted and the distopalatal area being in contact with the gingival sulcus and this fact that, this area was impossible to isolate, the distal sulcus of the contaminated teeth and the mesial area capable of adequate isolation were assumed isolated. For each group, after etching, the teeth on one side were treated with a sealant and the teeth on the other side were first bonded and then treated with the sealant. Hence, four groups were formed: bonded/isolated, bonded/contaminated, controlled/isolated and controlled/contaminated for any bonding agent. The results of the treatment were assessed in terms of the success and failure and then analyzed using Mc Nemar, and Chi-square tests and Cochran. "nResults: The results of the study indicated that:1. Saliva contamination caused a significant increase in sealant failures(p<0.05.2. Use of the two bonding agents significantly increased the success of the sealant(p<0.05.3. Use of the two bonding agents significantly increased the success of the fissure sealant on the saliva-contaminated teeth, even more than when the teeth had been isolated and with only fissure sealant(p<0.05. 4. For the contaminated enamel, the results of SE bond were better than those of the single bond (p<0.05. However, in isolated condition the results of using single bond were better (p<0.05. "nConclusion: The results of the study supported the use of these two bonding agents in

  14. Micro-leakage of a Fissure Sealant Cured Using Quartz-tungsten-halogen and Plasma Arc Light Curing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Soleimani, Ali Asghar; Jafari, Najmeh; Varkesh, Bentolhoda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Newer curing units such as plasma arc can polymerize the sealants in much shorter curing times. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different curing units on the micro-leakage of a fissure sealant material. Materials and methods. Sixty two extracted premolars without caries were randomly divided into two groups of 31 samples. Occlusal surfaces of all teeth were cleansed. Then, teeth surfaces were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. After rinsing and drying, occlusal surfaces of teeth were sealed by a fissure sealant. The sealant was then cured using either a halogen light curing unit or a plasma arc curing light. After sealing, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. The teeth were then sectioned and examined for micro-leakage. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Results. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding micro-leakage (P = 0.42). Conclusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between two different curing units. Therefore, plasma arc unit might be a useful alternative for sealant polymerization.

  15. Micro-leakage of a Fissure Sealant Cured Using Quartz-tungsten-halogen and Plasma Arc Light Curing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Newer curing units such as plasma arc can polymerize the sealants in much shorter curing times. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different curing units on the micro-leakage of a fissure sealant material. Materials and methods. Sixty two extracted premolars without caries were randomly divided into two groups of 31 samples. Occlusal surfaces of all teeth were cleansed. Then, teeth surfaces were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. After rinsing and drying, occlusal surfaces of teeth were sealed by a fissure sealant. The sealant was then cured using either a halogen light curing unit or a plasma arc curing light. After sealing, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. The teeth were then sectioned and examined for micro-leakage. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Results. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding micro-leakage (P = 0.42. Conclusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between two different curing units. Therefore, plasma arc unit might be a useful alternative for sealant polymerization.

  16. Development of fungus resistant sealant mixed with antibacterial zeolite; Kokinsei zeolite wo riyoshita bokabi sealing zai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, Y.; Shimazu, T.; Terauchi, S.; Sasaki, M. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    The application of antibacterial zeolite was studied for development of antifungal sealants which are highly antifungal and non-harmful to human body. Various kinds of the conventional antifungal construction materials have accomplished the duty by the addition of organic antifungal agents. However, those were generally short in sustainability of effectiveness in the beginning even if having excellent antifungal property, and the higher the antifungal property is, the more strongly they affect human body. As a result of the study on tensile strength and storage stability, the maximum amount of antibacterial zeolite to be added was 6200 ppm for not reducing the basic performance of sealants. From various promotion tests and exposure tests such as JIS, it was confirmed that the sealant with the antibacterial zeolite added has antifungal property the same as or more than that of the existing antifungal sealants and the sustainability. Further, it was confirmed that the developed antifungal sealant is effective to suppress MRSA which causes infection in the hospital. 2 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  18. Methods and preliminary findings of a cost-effectiveness study of glass-ionomer-based and composite resin sealant materials after 2 yr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldman, A.S.; Chen, X.; Fan, M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of glass-carbomer, conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) [without or with heat (light-emitting diode (LED) thermocuring) application], and composite resin sealants were compared after 2 yr in function. Estimated net costs per sealant were obtained from data

  19. Autologous but not Fibrin Sealant Patches for Stump Coverage Reduce Clinically Relevant Pancreatic Fistula in Distal Pancreatectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Maximilian; D'Haese, Jan Goesta; Crispin, Alexander; Angele, Martin Kurt; Werner, Jens; Hartwig, Werner

    2016-11-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) causes significant morbidity and mortality after distal pancreatectomy. Patch coverage of the pancreatic stump is often used with the intention to prevent POPF. Despite numerous investigations, the effects of patch coverage remain unclear. The present meta-analysis aims to clarify the effects of patch coverage in distal pancreatectomy on the incidence of POPF. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Database according to the PRISMA Statement was performed. Subsequently a meta-analysis on rates and overall incidence of POPF and length of hospital stay was carried out. By applying the inverse variance weighting method, the combined effect size and 95 % confidence interval were calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed using I 2 statistics. Five randomized controlled trials and six observational clinical studies were included for final analysis. A cumulative incidence of 43 % of POPF grades A-C was identified. Patch coverage in distal pancreatectomy is significantly associated with a decreased rate of POPF grade C (p = 0.006). Patches of autologous vascularized tissue significantly reduce the overall incidence of POPF (p = 0.04) and clinically relevant POPF grade B and C (p = 0.002). Fibrin sealant patches do not influence rates of POPF after distal pancreatectomy. None of the outcomes evaluated showed adverse results for the patch group. Patch coverage after distal pancreatectomy can reduce the rate of POPF. Patch coverage with autologous vascularized tissue but not fibrin sealant patches may be used to reduce clinically relevant POPF and postoperative morbidity in distal pancreatectomy.

  20. Evidence of Effectiveness of Current Therapies to Prevent and Treat Early Childhood Caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Dhar, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence related to self-applied and professionally applied fluorides, antimicrobial agents, fissure sealants, temporary restorations, and restorative care for the prevention and management of early childhood caries (ECC...

  1. Evidence of Effectiveness of Current Therapies to Prevent and Treat Early Childhood Caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Dhar, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence related to self-applied and professionally applied fluorides, antimicrobial agents, fissure sealants, temporary restorations, and restorative care for the prevention and management of early childhood caries (E...

  2. Utilization of Preventive Dental Practices by Graduates of One U.S. Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, Louis W.; Johnson, Robin M.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 113 graduates of the State University of New York at Stony Brook dental school now in general practice found a high rate of self-reported use of preventive practices (oral hygiene instruction, pit-and-fissure sealants, fluorides, and diet analysis) included in the dental school's curriculum. (MSE)

  3. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...

  4. Aluminosilicate-based sealants for SOFCs and other electrochemical applications - A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulyaganov, Dilshat U.; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Kharton, Vladislav V.; Ferreira, José M. F.

    2013-11-01

    Among different designs of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), planar design is the most promising due to easier fabrication, improved performance and relatively high power density. In planar SOFCs and other solid-electrolyte devices, gas-tight seals must be formed along the edges of each cell and between the stack and gas manifolds. For a sealant to work effectively in high-temperature SOFC environment, equilibrium needs to be achieved amid its mechanical properties and flow behavior so that it does not only maintain its hermeticity at high temperature but is also able to reduce mechanical stresses generated in the seal during thermal cycling. The most common sealants based on glass or glass-ceramic materials have been shown to operate in fuel cells for more than 1000 h with no significant degradation. Analysis of the current literature sources demonstrated that from thermal and chemical stability points of view, silicate based glass systems are more suitable than borate and borosilicate glass systems. In this work, different glass-ceramic (GC) compositions based on alkaline- and alkaline-earth aluminosilicate-based glass systems are reviewed with a special emphasis on their thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties. Based on these considerations, glass composition design approaches are provided that aid in search of the best seal glasses satisfying the rigid functional requirements. Among all the glass systems studied, a pyroxene based CaO-MgO-SrO-BaO-La2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 seal GC compositions have been specifically discussed because those have achieved appropriate thermal and chemical properties along with high stability. Approaches for further developments and optimization of GC sealants are briefly discussed.

  5. Solution blow spun polymer: A novel preclinical surgical sealant for bowel anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Nora G; Behrens, Adam M; Srinivasan, Priya; Rossi, Christopher T; Daristotle, John L; Kofinas, Peter; Sandler, Anthony D

    2017-08-01

    Solution blow spinning is a technique for depositing polymer fibers with promising potential use as a surgical sealant. This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of solution blow spun polymer (BSP) for sealing bowel perforations in a mouse model of partial cecal transection. We then evaluated its use for reinforcing a surgical anastomosis in a preclinical piglet model. Three commercially available surgical sealants (fibrin glue, polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel, and cyanoacrylate) were compared to BSP in the ability to seal partially transected cecum in mice. For anastomosis feasibility testing in a piglet model, piglets were subjected to small bowel transection with sutured anastomosis reinforced with BSP application. Outcome measures included anastomotic burst pressure, anastomotic leak rate, 14-day survival, and complication rate. For the mouse model, the survival rates for the sealants were 30% for fibrin glue, 20% for PEG hydrogel, 78% for cyanoacrylate, and 67% for BSP. Three of 9 mice died after BSP administration because of perforation leak, failure to thrive with partial obstruction at the perforation site, and unknown causes. All other mice died of perforation leak. The mean burst pressure at 24h was significantly higher for BSP (81mm Hg) when compared to fibrin glue (6mm Hg, p=0.047) or PEG hydrogel (10mm Hg, p=0.047), and comparable to cyanoacrylate (64mm Hg, p=0.91). For piglets, 4 of 4 animals survived at 14days. Mean burst pressures at time of surgery were 37±5mm Hg for BSP and 11±9mm Hg for suture-only controls (p=0.09). Solution blow spinning may be an effective technique as an adjunct for sealing of gastrointestinal anastomosis. Further preclinical testing is warranted to better understand BSP properties and alternative surgical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Collector sealants and breathing. Final Report, 25 September 1978-31 December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M A; Luck, R M; Yeoman, F A; Navish, Jr, F W

    1980-02-20

    The objectives of this program were: (1) to investigate the pertinent properties of a variety of possible sealants for solar collectors and identify the most promising candidates, and (2) to study the effect of breathing in flat-plate, thermal solar collector units. The study involved two types of sealants, Class PS which includes preformed seals or gaskets and Class SC which includes sealing compounds or caulks. It was the intent of the study to obtain data regarding initial properties of candidate elastomers from manufacturers and from the technical literature and to use those sources to provide data pertaining to endurance of these materials under environmental service conditions. Where necessary, these data were augmented by experimental measurements. Environmental stresses evaluated by these measurements included elevated temperatures, moisture, ultraviolet light, ozone and oxygen, and fungus. The second major area of the work involved a study of the effects of materials used and design on the durability of solar collectors. Factors such as design, fabrication, materials of construction, seals and sealing techniques and absorber plate coatings were observed on actual field units removed from service. Such phenomena as leakage, corrosion and formation of deposits on glazing and absorber plate were noted. An evaluation of the properties of several desiccants was made in order to providemeans to mitigate the deleterious effects of water on collector life. Adsorbents for organic degradation products of sealants were also investigated in order to protect the glazing and absorber plate from deposited coatings. Since adsorbents and desiccants in general tend to take up both water and organic decomposition products, relative affinities of a number of these agents for water and for organic compounds were determined . Results are presented in detail.

  7. Tissuepatch is biocompatible and seals iatrogenic membrane defects in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Alexander C; Joyeux, Luc; Van der Merwe, Johannes; Jimenez, Julio; Prapanus, Savitree; Barrett, David W; Connon, Che; Chowdhury, Tina T; David, Anna L; Deprest, Jan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate novel sealing techniques for their biocompatibility and sealing capacity of iatrogenic fetal membrane defects in a pregnant rabbit model. At day 23 of gestation (term = d31), a standardized fetoscopy was performed through a 14G cannula. The resulting fetal membrane defect was closed with condensed collagen, collagen with fibrinogen, Tissuepatch, Duraseal, or a conventional collagen plug (Lyostypt) as reference. At d30, the fetuses were harvested and full thickness fetal membrane samples were analyzed. The study consisted of 2 consecutive parts: (1) biocompatibility testing by fetal survival, apoptosis, and infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells in the membranes and (2) the efficacy to seal fetal membrane defects. Three sealants (collagen with fibrinogen, Duraseal, or Lyostypt) were associated with a higher fetal mortality compared to control unmanipulated littermates and hence were excluded from further analysis. Tissuepatch was biocompatible, and amniotic fluid levels were comparable to those of control untouched littermates. Compared to the condensed collagen, Tissuepatch was also easier in surgical handling and induced limited cell proliferation. Tissuepatch had the best biocompatibility and efficacy in sealing an iatrogenic fetal membrane defect in the pregnant rabbit compared to other readily available sealants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A case history on long-term effectiveness of clay sealant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents a case history in which a cadaver and the associated burial objects were found to be well-preserved after more than 2100 years of burial in Southern China. The preservation was attributed to the presence of a 60-300 cm thick kaolin or white clay layer around the tomb, which acted effectively as a barrier to moisture and air percolation. The degree of preservation in other tombs of similar age in the same area apparently depended on the mineralogy and thickness of the clay sealants used. The implication of this case history to nuclear fuel waste disposal is discussed

  9. Demonstration and Validation of a High-Performance Floor-Sealant System to Reduce Concrete Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    concrete surface to improve wear resistance and impermeability to liquids and contami- nants. The product selected for demonstration and validation in...System to Reduce Concrete Degradation Final Report on Project F10-AR02 Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to ry Clint...of a High-Performance Floor-Sealant System to Reduce Concrete Degradation Final Report on Project F10-AR02 Clint A. Wilson and Susan A. Drozdz

  10. Improved solar-collector sealants. Semiannual report, May 1981-October 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, L.C.; Frost, L.W.; Alvino, W.M.; Bower, G.M.

    1981-10-20

    The results of a program to develop improved sealants and gaskets for use in flat plate thermal solar collectors are presented. This study includes an evaluation of six classes of polymers: EPDM, silicone, fluoroelastomer, acrylics, ethylene acrylics, chlorobutyl elastomers. Selected materials from each of the above classes were formulated and compounded. Data are presented on compound formulations, curing, screening tests and extended aging tests. In addition, information is presented on the modification of silicones and fluoroelastomers by the incorporation of new synthetic hydroxy and vinyl terminated silicones of varying molecular weight to improve low temperature compression set.

  11. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell membrane integrity, cell signaling, protein synthesis, and cell cycle progression, all of which are potential areas of intervention to arrest the cancer process. What are the ... at the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention Web site at http://prevention. ...

  12. Resin-based dental sealants as a source of human exposure to bisphenol analogues, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Pranav; Kumosani, Taha A; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2018-04-01

    Although studies have examined leaching of bisphenol A (BPA) from dental sealants into saliva, occurrence of BPA, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and their derivatives in dental sealants themselves has not been investigated. In this study, concentrations of eight bisphenol analogues (BPs), BADGE and its derivatives (BADGEs), including BADGE‧H 2 O, BADGE‧HCl, BADGE‧2H 2 O, BADGE‧2HCl, and BADGE‧H 2 O‧HCl, were determined in 70 dental sealants collected from the U.S. market. Of the 70 dental sealants analyzed, 65 contained at least one of the target chemicals measured. BADGE‧2H 2 O was the most abundant compound, found at concentrations of up to 1780µg/g. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of total BADGEs was 47.8µg/g, which was two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of total BPs (GM: 539ng/g). BPA was found in 46% of the sealants and BADGEs was found in 87% of the sealants analyzed. Majority of the dental sealants analyzed in this study were manufactured in the United States and Korea; no significant differences were observed in the concentrations of BPs and BADGEs between the two countries. An exposure assessment was made based on the concentrations of BPs and BADGEs measured in sealants and their application rates in dentistry. The worst-case exposure scenario with the highest measured concentration of total BPs and BADGEs and application on 8 teeth at 8mg each yielded an estimated daily intake (EDI) of 1670 and 5850ng/kg·bw/day for adults and children, respectively. Although the EDI is below the specific migration limit set by the European Food Safety Authority, dental sealants are a source of exposure to BPs and BADGEs, especially in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of enameloplasty and air abrasion on sealant micro-leakage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Soleymani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-leakage, one of the major reasons for recurrent decays, may lead to uncontrollable flow of liquids, pulp inflammation and peri-apical pathology. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate micro-leakage of pit and fissure sealants after using three different pit and fissure preparation techniques: 1 acid etching, 2 fissure enameloplasty and acid etching, and 3 air abrasion and acid etching.Sixty-nine extracted sound molars and premolars were randomly divided into three groups (23 samples in each group. Teeth were prepared using one of three occlusal surface treatments. Then the sealant was applied on the occlusal fissures of all teeth. The teeth were thermocycled and stored in normal saline. All teeth were sealed apically and coated with nail varnish and then were immersed in a 2% solution of methylen blue. Two buccolingual sections were made. The surfaces were scored 0 to 3 for the extent of micro-leakage using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Kruskal- wallis and Dunn procedure.Enameloplasty and acid etching were significantly different regarding micro-leakage (P= 0.016, but no significant difference in micro-leakage was observed between air abrasion and the other methods.Enameloplasty followed by acid etching produced significantly less micro-leakage than the acid etching technique. Air abrasion acid etching was better than the acid etching technique in reducing micro-leakage too.

  14. Evaluation of Fibrin Sealants and Tissue Adhesives in Oral Surgery for Patients with Bleeding Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm Ak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of two local haemostatic agents administered together with preoperative dose of replacement therapy for oral surgical procedures in patients with bleeding disorders METHODS: Twenty-one patients were divided into three groups randomly. Patients in Group 1 (n=7 received preoperative replacement therapy with postoperative fibrin sealant application in the surgical site. Patients in Group 2 (n=7 received preoperative replacement therapy with postoperative tissue adhesive application in the surgical site. Patients in Group 3 (n=7 were given total dose of replacement therapy pre- and postoperatively. RESULTS: No postoperative bleeding was observed in 17 patients including five patients in Group 1 (71.42%, six patients in Group 2 (85.71% and six patients in Group 3 (85.71%. Haemorrhagic complication was observed in only four patients among all groups. CONCLUSION: We conclude that utilization of fibrin sealants and tissue adhesives in oral surgery is beneficial due to the lessened amount of factor concentrates used for replacement therapy and the rapid haemostasis at the operation side to perform serial surgical procedures in the same session.

  15. Successful conservative treatment of enterocutaneous fistula with cyanoacrylate surgical sealant: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, N; Aquilino, F; Panzera, P; Martines, G

    2017-01-01

    Enterocutaneous (EC) fistula is an abnormal communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the skin. The majority of EC fistulas result from surgery. Only 15-25% of EC fistulas are spontaneous and they often result from underlying diseases such as Crohn's disease, radiation and chemotherapy. A 62-year old woman who, in 2012, underwent Pylorus-preserving cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD sec. Traverso-Longmire), due to an advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (pT3N1M1). After surgery, the patient underwent chemotherapy with folfirinox regimen. In December 2016, as a result of the appearance of metastatic liver lesions and perianastomotic recurrence, the patient underwent second line treatment with Gemcitabine and pab-paclitaxel. After five months from the beginning of this new second line therapy she presented an EC fistula. The fistula of the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and with percutaneous injection of cyanoacrylic sealant. The result suggests the advisability of percutaneous injection of sealant devices, such as cyanoacrylate glue; in order to successfully control stable Enterocutaneous fistulas with acceptable morbidity and mortality especially in particular situations, such as, with low output EC fistulas without signs of complications or on patients considered not suitable for surgery, a conservative approach could ensure the control of the fistula. This approach is easy and safe, viable and useful for future trials on the efficacy in conservative treatment of EC fistula.

  16. Radon penetration of concrete slab cracks, joints, pipe penetrations, and sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, K K; Rogers, V C; Holt, R B; Pugh, T D; Grondzik, W A; de Meijer, R J

    1997-10-01

    Radon movement through 12 test slabs with different cracks, pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, sealants, and tensile stresses characterized the importance of these anomalous structural domains. Diffusive and advective radon transport were measured with steady-state air pressure differences controlled throughout the deltaP = 0 to 60 Pa range. Diffusion coefficients (deltaP = 0) initially averaged 6.5 x 10(-8) m2 s(-1) among nine slabs with only 8% standard deviation, but increased due to drying by 0.16% per day over a 2-y period to an average of 2.0 x 10(-7) m2 s(-1). An asphalt coating reduced diffusion sixfold but an acrylic surface sealant had no effect. Diffusion was 42 times higher in solid masonry blocks than in concrete and was not affected by small cracks. Advective transport (deltaP slabs (10(-16) m2 permeability), pipe penetrations, and caulked gaps, but was significant for cracks, disturbed pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, and concrete under tensile stress. Crack areas calculated to be as small as 10(-7) m2 significantly increased radon advection. Algebraic expressions predict air velocity and effective crack width from enhanced radon transport and air pressures. Masonry blocks, open cracks, and slab cold joints enhance radon penetration but stressed slabs, undisturbed pipe penetrations, and sealed cracks may not.

  17. Occlusal dental caries incidence and implications for sealant programs in a US college student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, J W; Katz, R V

    1993-01-01

    Given the decline in dental caries incidence in preteens and young teenagers in the United States, a study of the incidence of dental caries in young adults (17-23 years) was conducted to provide a descriptive epidemiologic picture of this "new" natural history of dental caries in the late and post-teenage years. A retrospective study was performed analyzing the detailed dental records of the four-year college experience in the class of 1989, US Coast Guard Academy. Occlusal caries incidence, in the absence of associated proximal caries, was shown to be moderately common in molars (11.9%) and rare in premolars (0.8%). In contrast to previous studies' findings, demographic indicators, socioeconomic status indicators, and prior caries experience were poor predictors of occlusal caries incidence; targeting a universal sealant policy in this population therefore would be done best by tooth type rather than patient type. A preliminary cost-comparison model, projected over a 40-month period, suggests that the cost of initiating a universal molar sealant policy in this population would be 92 cents per year per student greater than the cost of restoring occlusal caries in the presence of sound proximal surfaces. This cost comparison suggests that it would be advantageous to initiate such a policy.

  18. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  19. Biobased Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.A.B.; Zlopasa, J.; Picken, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of a composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane applicable to building material, such as concrete, cement, etc., to a meth od of applying said composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane, a biocompatible membrane, use of said membrane for various

  20. Elastic membranes in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H

    2016-07-01

    An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Effectiveness of Fibrin Sealant Patch in Reducing Drain Volume after Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Women with Gynecologic Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Cheong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fibrin sealant in decreasing postoperative lymphatic drainage in women after pelvic lymphadenectomy and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy during gynecologic cancer surgery. Methods. This study is a retrospective case-control study. Forty-five patients who underwent staging surgery were enrolled. Twenty-seven patients were in the fibrin sealant group (group A and 18 in the control group (group B. The two groups were compared for the total volume of drain, hospital stay, harvested lymph node, and incidence of asymptomatic lymphocele. Lymphocele formation was evaluated by computed tomography (CT on 3 months after surgery. Results. There were no significant differences in patient demographics between group A and B with respect to age, BMI, and harvested lymph nodes. Patients who received fibrin sealants had reduced total volume of drainage from postoperative days 2 to 5 compared to the control group (group A versus group B: 994.819±745.85 ml versus 1847.89±1241.41 ml; P=0.015. However no differences were observed in hospital stay (P=0.282, duration of drain (P=0.207, and incidence of asymptomatic lymphocele at 3 months (P=0.126. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that the application of fibrin sealants after pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy may reduce lymphatic drainage in gynecologic malignancy.

  2. Cost-effectiveness, in a randomized trial, of glass-ionomer-based and resin sealant materials after 4 yr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldman, A.S.; Chen, X.; Fan, M.; Frencken, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This study, conducted from a government program perspective, compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of oral health interventions, in particular their delivery to underserved populations in whom dental sealants constitute an important, high-yielding complement to toothbrushing in dental-caries

  3. Behavior of adhesion forces of silicone adhesive sealants and mastic butyl under the influence of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Wanderley da

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives are products that can keep materials together by bonds between the surfaces. Sealants are products that can keep filled a space between two surfaces, through a barrier that is configured as a 'bridge' between the two surfaces. The mastic is a product made of a mixture of substances with the primary butyl polymer, with the consistency of a mass not dried that can be used as a sealant. The polysiloxane, also known as silicone are the most important synthetic polymers with inorganic structure, and are matrices of silicone adhesive sealants. To demonstrate the behavior of the adhesive forces of these products under different conditions, we used five different techniques. These products were subjected to two different conditions to verify the behavior of adhesion, one at the environmental condition and another under the ionizing radiation. The results showed not only differences between products (silicone and mastic), but also that the adhesive forces have different behaviors under the conditions which the samples were subjected. With this was reached the goal of this study that aspired show the differences between the mastic and silicone, this last one is often considered - erroneously - the same as mastic. Thus it was proven that: 1. silicone can be regarded as an adhesive and a sealant at ambient conditions, 2. mastic improves substantially adhesion in an environment of ionizing radiation and this property can be an excellent alternative to the adhesive market. (author)

  4. Validation of micro-CT against the section method regarding the assessment of marginal leakage of sealants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Fan, M.W.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate the micro-CT and related software against the section method using the stereomicroscope for marginal leakage assessment along the sealant-enamel interface. METHODS: Pits and fissures of the occlusal surface of 10 teeth were sealed with a

  5. Sealant retention is better assessed through colour photographs than through the replica and the visual examination methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Fan, M.; Rong, W.; Lo, E.C.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the colour photograph method has a higher level of validity for assessing sealant retention than the visual clinical examination and replica methods. Sealed molars were assessed by two evaluators. The scores for the three methods were compared

  6. Disruption of lolCDE, Encoding an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter, Is Lethal for Escherichia coli and Prevents Release of Lipoproteins from the Inner Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Kimie; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter LolCDE was previously identified, by using reconstituted proteoliposomes, as an apparatus catalyzing the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Mutations resulting in defective LolD were previously shown to be lethal for E. coli. The amino acid sequences of LolC and LolE are similar to each other, but the necessity of both proteins for lipoprotein release has not been proved. Moreover, previous reconstituti...

  7. TissuePatch™ as a novel synthetic sealant for repair of superficial lung defect: in vitro tests results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruoyu; Bures, Maximilian; Höffler, Hans-Klaus; Zinne, Norman; Länger, Florian; Bisdas, Theodosios; Haverich, Axel; Krüger, Marcus

    2012-11-19

    Controversies surrounding the efficacy of surgical sealants against alveolar air leaks (AAL) in lung surgery abound in the literature. We sought to test the sealing efficacy of a novel synthetic sealant, TissuePatch™ in an in vitro lung model. The lower lobe of freshly excised swine lung (n = 10) was intubated and ventilated. A superficial parenchymal defect (40 × 25 mm) was created, followed by AAL assessment. After sealant application, AAL was assessed again until burst failure occurred. The length of defect was recorded to evaluate the elasticity of the sealant. Superficial parenchymal defects resulted in AAL increasing disproportionally with ascending maximal inspiratory pressure (Pmax). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed strong correlation between AAL and Pmax, compliance, resistance. After sealant application, AAL was sealed in all ten tests at an inspired tidal volume (TVi) of 400 ml, in nine tests at TVi = 500 ml, in seven at TVi = 600 ml and in five at TVi = 700 ml. The mean burst pressure was 42 ± 9 mBar. Adhesive and cohesive sealant failures were found in six and three tests respectively. The length of defect before sealant failure was 8.9 ± 4.9% larger than that at TVi = 400 ml, demonstrating an adequate elasticity of this sealant film. TissuePatch™ may be a reliable sealant for alternative or adjunctive treatment for repair of superficial parenchymal defects in lung surgery. The clinical benefits of this sealant should be confirmed by prospective, randomised controlled clinical trials. ABSTRAKT: Die Wirksamkeit von chirurgischen Klebstoffen zur Prävention von alveolo-pleuralem Luftleck (APL) ist trotz zunehmenden klinischen Anwendungen in Lungenchirurgie immer noch kontrovers diskutiert. Wir evaluierten die Abdichtungswirksamkeit von einem neuartigen synthetischen Kleber, TissuePatch™ mittels eines in vitro Lungenmodels. METHODE: Der Unterlappen von frisch entnommenen Schweinlungen (n = 10) wurde

  8. [Influence of Fissure Sealants on Dental Health of Elementary School Children in Weimar - A Longitudinal Observational Study under Real-life Conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, F; Ifland, S; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Schüler, I M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present observational study was to assess the effect of the number and timing of placing fissure sealants (FS) on caries prevalence in elementary school children under real-life conditions. Methods: Oral health data from 7- to 10-year-old elementary school children (n=505) attending 4 consecutive annual checkups between 2004 and 2009 was extracted from the public health service database. The number of intact FS and the number of teeth affected by caries was scored according to WHO standard (1997). Results: 34.9% pupils had at least one, 10% 4 FS. Children without FS had a higher dental caries rate compared to peers with FS (0.2 DT/0.4 DMFT vs. 0.1 DT/0.2 DMFT). Pupils with 4 FS showed the lowest number of teeth with caries (0 DT/0 DMFT). Children with an early application of FS had a lower D-component than children with a later or missing application (0.1 DT vs. 0.2 DT). Pupils with less than 4 FS had a higher risk of developing caries in their permanent dentition compared to peers with 4 FS (OR 4.36). Conclusion: FS is an effective caries preventive measure under real-life conditions. Early application and sealing of all 4 molars can optimize the prevention of caries in the permanent dentition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The effect of different surface conditioning methods and curing protocols on bond strengths of two different fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezin Özer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro shear bond strength of two different resin-based fissure sealants [BeautiSealant (BS, UltraSeal XT hydro (UH] associated with application of an acid etching (Ultra-Etch Acid or a primer (BeautiSealant Primer and two different polymerization modes (Standard mode; 10 s or Xtra power mode; 3 s of a third generation light emitting diode (LED light curing unit. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Eighty enamel surface samples were prepared from 40 extracted human third molar teeth. Samples were randomly divided into 8 subgroups according to fissure sealants, conditioning methods and polymerization modes (n=10; Group 1: Acid + BS+ Xtra power mode, Group 2: Primer + BS + Xtra power mode, Group 3: Acid + BS + Standard mode, Group 4: Primer + BS + Standard mode, Group 5: Acid + UH + Xtra power mode, Group 6: Primer + UH + Xtra power mode, Group 7: Acid + UH + Standard mode, Group 8: Primer + UH + Standard mode. An Instron machine (1.0 mm/min was used to measure shear bond strength values. Data were statistically analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Significant differences were detected between the groups (p<0.05. Shear bond strength values of all BS subgroups were significantly lower than UH subgroups (p<0.05. Highest shear bond strength values were obtained in Group 5 and the lowest was obtained in Group 1. CONCLUSION: Shear bond strength values of fissure sealants can be affected by surface conditioning methods and curing protocols.

  10. Physicomechanical and antibacterial properties of experimental resin-based dental sealants modified with nylon-6 and chitosan nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, María F; Otte, Andrew D; Gregory, Richard L; Pinal, Rodolfo; Ferreira-Zandoná, Andrea; Bottino, Marco C

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate resin-based experimental dental sealants containing electrospun nylon-6 (N6) and chitosan (CH) fibers in an attempt to improve the physicomechanical properties and provide an antibacterial protective effect, respectively. Electrospun N6 and CH mats were immersed into a resin mixture, light-cured, and then cryomilled to obtain micron-sized resin-modified fiber particles. Different levels of the novel cryomilled particles (i.e. 1, 2.5, and 5% relative to the resin mixture, % by weight) were used to prepare the N6- and CH-containing sealants. A commercial sealant and the experimental resin mixture (unfilled) were used as controls. Flexural strength (FS), Vickers microhardness (VH), and agar diffusion tests were performed. The data were analyzed at the 5% significance level. No significant difference in fiber diameter of N6 (503 ± 31 nm) and CH (595 ± 38 nm) was observed. Upon cryomilling, the resin-modified CH and N6 mats led to the formation of irregularly-shaped particles, with an average diameter of 14.24 µm and 15.87 µm, respectively. CH-5% had significantly higher FS (115.3 ± 1.3 MPa) than all the other groups. CH-1% had significantly higher hardness values (38.3 ± 0.3 VHN) than all the other groups. Collectively, the results indicated that CH-containing sealants presented the highest FS and hardness; however, none of the CH-containing sealants displayed antimicrobial properties. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development of 400/sup 0/F sealants for flat plate solar collector construction and installation. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, L.; Schubert, R.J.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Initial screening of sealants consisted of measuring high temperature stability and adhesion retention. Several sealant compositions exhibited satisfactory performance in these tests and were selected for further evaluation. These materials were based on an EPDM rubber, a Viton fluoroelastomer, and silicone polymers. Further testing of these candidate materials included determination of adhesion retention under uv/water/heat conditions, fogging temperature, low temperature flexibility, and physical properties. Four silicone-based materials appeared to be suitable candidates for sealing solar collectors. These include Dow Corning 90-006-02 and 3120, General Electric 1200, and PR-1939 from Products Research and Chemical Corporation.

  12. Determinations of PCB within a project to develop cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, M; Sikander, E; Ek-Olausson, B; Hjorthage, A; Rosell, L; Tornevall, M

    1999-08-01

    Determinations of PCB were carried out as part of a project aimed at developing cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks. The goals of the project were to develop methods, which minimise the spread of PCB to the outdoor environment and to indoor air, and which keep the PCB levels as low as reasonably possible in the workplace environment whilst removing the elastic sealant. The following PCB determinations were carried out: (1) concentration in the elastic sealant; (2) concentration in the concrete close to the sealant; (3) concentration in soil; (4) concentration in the indoor air; and (5) concentration in the air in the workplace environment. The cleanup process consisted of a number of different steps: (1) cutting the elastic sealant with an oscillating knife; (2) grinding the concrete with a mechanical machine; (3) sawing the concrete with a mechanical saw and (4) cutting the concrete with a mechanical chisel. In all these different steps a high capacity vacuum cleaner connected to the machines was used. The elastic sealant contained 4.7 to 8.1% total PCB of a technical product with a composition most similar to Clophene A40. The concrete close to the sealant (first 2 mm) contained 0.12 and 1.7% total PCB at two different places. The pattern of the PCB in the concrete resembled that of the sealant. PCB concentrations in the soil from the ground close to the building were 0.1 and 0.3 ppm at two different places before the remedial action. The source of the PCB in the soil is most likely the sealant as the PCB pattern is similar for the two materials. The PCB levels in the workplace air at the beginning of the project, when the techniques were not fully developed, were generally above the occupational exposure limit of 10 micrograms m-3 (up to 120 micrograms m-3). Later when the techniques were optimised to better take care of dust and gases produced during the cutting and grinding etc., the levels were

  13. Arabidopsis protein kinase PKS5 inhibits the plasma membrane H+ -ATPase by preventing interaction with 14-3-3 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Guo, Yan; Cuin, Tracey A.

    2007-01-01

    Regulation of the trans-plasma membrane pH gradient is an important part of plant responses to several hormonal and environmental cues, including auxin, blue light, and fungal elicitors. However, little is known about the signaling components that mediate this regulation. Here, we report that an ......Regulation of the trans-plasma membrane pH gradient is an important part of plant responses to several hormonal and environmental cues, including auxin, blue light, and fungal elicitors. However, little is known about the signaling components that mediate this regulation. Here, we report...

  14. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... check for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis Complement levels Cryoglobulin test Treatment The goal of treatment ... not as helpful for people with membranous nephropathy. Medicines used treat membranous nephropathy include: Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ...

  15. Fissure sealants: in vitro evaluation of abrasion wear and superficial roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pardi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro wear and superficial roughness of four materials (Delton Dyract Flow, Dentsply; Filtek Flow, Vitremer, 3M ESPE used as fissure sealant in 32 extracted human molars divided in four groups (n = 8 after abrasion with toothbrush/dentifrice. Impressions of each occlusal surface were made to analyze wear and circular specimens were prepared to analyze the roughness. Teeth and specimens were mounted in a toothbrushing machine. The replicas were observed using a SEM to determine the superficial wear. Wear: there were no statistically significant differences either between Delton and Filtek Flow or between Dyract Flow and Vitremer. Roughness: there were no statistical differences between Filtek Flow and Dyract Flow, Dyract Flow and Vitremer, Vitremer and Delton., Considering the clinical practice, if caries activity is present the use of Vitremer is suggested not only for its well known fluoride release, but it presented good roughness results.

  16. Novel Chemically-Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealants (Ceramicretes) for Arctic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Godwin A. Chukwu; Gang Chen; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramic borehole sealant, i.e. Ceramicrete, has many advantages over conventionally used permafrost cement at Alaska North Slope (ANS). However, in normal field practices when Ceramicrete is mixed with water in blenders, it has a chance of being contaminated with leftover Portland cement. In order to identify the effect of Portland cement contamination, recent tests have been conducted at BJ services in Tomball, TX as well as at the University of Alaska Fairbanks with Ceramicrete formulations proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The tests conducted at BJ Services with proposed Ceramicrete formulations and Portland cement contamination have shown significant drawbacks which has caused these formulations to be rejected. However, the newly developed Ceramicrete formulation at the University of Alaska Fairbanks has shown positive results with Portland cement contamination as well as without Portland cement contamination for its effective use in oil well cementing operations at ANS.

  17. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  18. A survey of fissure sealants and dental caries prevalence in the first permanent molars among primary school girls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwayli, Hessa M; Alshiha, Sattam A; Alfraih, Yazeed K; Hattan, Mohammed A; Alamri, Abdullah A; Aldossary, Mohammed S

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of caries and fissure sealants on the first permanent molars (FPMs) among 6-9-year-old girls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The FPMs of 17,891 school girls from 120 randomly selected public primary schools were evaluated by visual and tactile examination for the carious status and the presence of fissure sealants. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data at level of 5%. A total of 58,140 FPMs were assessed in the 17,891 children. Nearly 64.6% of the children were caries free. Only 1.3% of the children had at least one fissure sealant applied. At tooth level, the decayed FPMs counted for 24.6%. There was obvious underutilization of fissure sealants on the FPMs; 0.8% ( n = 478). The caries prevalence in the mandibular FPMs (33%) was significantly higher than in the maxillary FPMs, 18.2% ( P sealants among the three different grade/age groups ( P > 0.05). Caries prevalence in the FPMs was high and serious among this cohort of young students. This was contrasting the very low prevalence of fissure sealants.

  19. Artificial dural sealant that allows multiple penetrations of implantable brain probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nathan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2008-06-15

    This study reports extensive characterization of the silicone gel (3-4680, Dow Corning, Midland, MI), for potential use as an artificial dural sealant in long-term electrophysiological experiments in neurophysiology. Dural sealants are important to preserve the integrity of the intracranial space after a craniotomy and in prolonging the lifetime and functionality of implanted brain probes. In this study, we report results of our tests on a commercially available silicone gel with unique properties that make it an ideal dural substitute. The substitute is transparent, elastic, easy to apply, and has re-sealing capabilities, which makes it desirable for applications where multiple penetrations by the brain probe is desirable over an extended period of time. Cytotoxicity tests (for up to 10 days) with fibroblasts and in vivo tests (for 12 weeks) show that the gel is non-toxic and does not produce any significant neuronal degeneration when applied to the rodent cortex even after 12 weeks. In vivo humidity testing showed no sign of CSF leakage for up to 6 weeks. The gel also allows silicon microprobes to penetrate with forces less than 0.5 mN, and a 200-microm diameter stainless steel microprobe with a blunt tip to penetrate with a force less than 2.5 mN. The force dependency on the velocity of penetration and thickness of the gel was also quantified and empirically modeled. The above results demonstrate that the silicone gel (3-4680) can be a viable dural substitute in long-term electrophysiology of the brain.

  20. Creation of a uniform pleural defect model for the study of lung sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Masato; Tao, Hiroyuki; Sato, Toshihiko; Nakajima, Naoki; Sugai, Hajime; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2007-07-01

    Animal models are indispensable for the development of new therapeutic methods for the closure of alveolar air leakage. However, it is difficult to create a uniform pleural defect model. The purpose of this study was to establish an appropriate animal model for assessing the efficacy and histotoxicity of synthetic sealants for lung surgery. Nine beagle dogs were used to evaluate the pleural defect model in comparison with conventional resection procedures. A donut-shaped silicon ring with an inner diameter of 15 mm was placed on the pleura, and 0.1 mL of cyanoacrylate was dropped into the ring. A pleural defect was created by sliding a microtome blade just beneath the polymerized cyanoacrylate. Hemostasis was performed by pressure with a sponge. Morphologically, round areas of the pleura were uniformly resected with our procedure. The resected tissue consisted of pleura and thin underlying lung parenchyma. Among the results from 3 surgeons, there were no significant differences in the mean time required for hemostasis (P = .69), the mean thickness of the resected tissue (P = .13), and the mean amount of air leakage from the resected area (P = .19). No penetration of cyanoacrylate into the lung parenchyma was evidenced by immunofluorescence microscopy. Histologically, when the pleura was resected without using cyanoacrylate, a thick fibrocellular layer extended to the lung parenchyma. Furthermore, severe fibrosis was observed when electrocautery was used for hemostasis. However, when the pleura was resected using cyanoacrylate, the normal alveolar structure was preserved. Our uniform pleural defect model using cyanoacrylate may be feasible for the evaluation of synthetic sealants for alveolar air leakage.

  1. Comparison of cephalonium alone and in combination with an internal teat sealant for dry cow therapy in seasonally calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, A J; Chambers, G; Laven, R A

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effect of combining an internal teat sealant (ITS) and a long-acting cephalonium-based dry cow therapy (DCT) on the prevalence of cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) >150,000 cells/mL 60-80 days after calving, and the incidence of clinical mastitis diagnosed by farm staff in the first 100 days after calving. Cows from a spring-calving, pasture-based, dairy farm in the South Canterbury region of New Zealand were randomly allocated to receive cephalonium DCT (n=289) or cephalonium and internal teat sealant (n=304) at the end of lactation. Cows were inspected twice daily by farm staff during the dry period and following calving for signs of mastitis. Individual SCC were determined from herd tests conducted in the previous lactation and following calving. Logistic regression models were used to determine relationships with the prevalence of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, and survival analysis was used to model time to the first case of clinical mastitis following calving at the cow and quarter level. The OR for a cow with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, including age and individual SCC in the preceding lactation in the model, was 0.53 (95% CI=0.32-0.89) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.017). At the cow level, including age and preceding SCC in the model, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis by farm staff in the first 100 days of lactation was 0.60 (95% CI=0.39-0.98) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.04). At the quarter level, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis, with age included in the model, was 0.41 (95% CI=0.23-0.74) for the combination therapy compared to cephalonium alone (pcows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL 60-80 days after calving. This study adds to the evidence that the prevention of intra mammary infections throughout the dry period and up to calving by using combination therapy is

  2. The prevention of colorectal anastomotic leakage with tissue adhesives in a contaminated environment is associated with the presence of anti-inflammatory macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Wu (Zhouqiao); K.A. Vakalopoulos (Konstantinos); G.S.A. ter Hoeve-Boersema (Simone); L.F. Kroese (Leonard); K.H. Lam (King); P.H. van der Horst (Paul); I.M. Mulder (Irene); Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); J. Jeekel (Johannes); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Colorectal anastomoses created in a contaminated environment result in a high leakage rate. This study investigated whether using anastomotic sealants (TissuCol®, Histoacryl® Flex, and Duraseal®) prevents leakage in a rat peritonitis model. Study design: Sixty-seven Wistar

  3. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  4. Rasagiline prevents apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand of the outer membrane translocator protein (18 kDa), in SH-SY5Y cells through suppression of cytochrome c release from mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Makoto; Maruyama, Wakako; Yi, Hong

    2013-11-01

    Rasagiline protects neuronal cells from cell death caused by various lines of insults. Its neuroprotective function is due to suppression of mitochondrial apoptosis signaling and induction of neuroprotective genes, including Bcl-2 and neurotrophic factors. Rasagiline inhibits the mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, an initial stage in apoptosis, but the mechanism has been elusive. In this paper, it was investigated how rasagiline regulates mitochondrial death cascade in apoptosis induced in SH-SY5Y cells by PK11195, a ligand of the outer membrane translocator protein of 18 kDa. Rasagiline prevented release of cytochrome c (Cyt-c), and the following caspase 3 activation, ATP depletion and apoptosis, but did not inhibit the mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, in contrast to Bcl-2 overexpression. Rasagiline stabilized the mitochondrial contact site and suppressed Cyt-c release into cytoplasm, which should be the critical point for the regulation of apoptosis. Monoamine oxidase was not associated with anti-apoptotic activity of rasagiline in PK11195-induced apoptosis.

  5. Effect of occlusal calculus utilized as a potential "biological sealant" in special needs patients with gastric feeding tubes: a qualitative in vitro contrast to pit and fissure sealant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Barry M; Sharp, Harry K; Fourmy, Emily E; Phebus, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report and in vitro investigation was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of intact occlusal calculus of primary molars extracted from a special needs patient who received nutrition via a gastric feeding tube. An adolescent with a history of developmental disturbance presented for routine dental care in a hospital facility. Prophylaxis was performed, and 2 mandibular permanent molars were restored. Five primary molars were extracted due to mobility and delayed retention. Heavy deposits of intact calculus were present on the occlusal surfaces of the primary teeth. The extracted teeth were immersed in methylene blue dye solution, invested in acrylic resin, sectioned into blocks, and photographed at 20× and 40× magnification. Previously photographed calculus-free molars with pit and fissure sealants were reviewed and served as contrasting "restorations." The occlusal calculus on the primary teeth extracted from the patient absorbed the dye, while the comparison teeth containing pit and fissure sealants exhibited varying degrees of marginal dye penetration (microleakage). No marginal microleakage was noted in the calculus specimens, indicating that this substrate may serve as a "natural" occlusal surface sealant and that its removal from occlusal surfaces during routine oral prophylaxis may be unnecessary.

  6. Local mucous membrane lesions caused by irradiation of the oropharynx can be prevented by a dental shield. Praevention lokaler Schleimhautlaesionen waehrend Oropharynx-Bestrahlung durch einen Plombenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schratter-Sehn, A.U. (Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie Vienna Univ. (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Strahlenbiologie); Schmidt, W.F.O.; Kaercher, K.H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Strahlenbiologie); Kielhauser, R. (Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie); Langer, H. (Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Zahnheilkunde)

    1992-01-01

    In patients with metallic dental fillings radiation therapy to the oral cavity can cause mucous membrane lesions, which are more severe than expected. They appear as circumscribed erosions, opposite to metallic fillings and are caused by an increase in radiation dose through secondary radiation due to the higher density and atomic number of the filling material. This dose increase can be directly measured with 0.1 mm thin sheets of graphite-loaded TLD's (LiF, Vinten). For Co-60 gamma rays a commercial amalgam filling caused a dose increase by a factor of 1.7. The half value layer for this additional radiation was measured to be approximately 0.4 mm tissue. In order to avoid painful mucous membrane ulcerations which are even more a problem if hyperfractionated treatment schedules are used, we constructed individual dental shields for each patient. As shielding material we used a dental impression material (Optosil P{sup +}, Bayer). This method was tested in 35 patients, in all of them circumscribed mucous membrane ulcerations could be avoided. The method proved to be fast and simple and was very well tolerated by all patients. (orig.).

  7. Relation between in-vitro wear and nanomechanical properties of commercial light-cured dental composites coated with surface sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Santos Jr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the correlation between the in-vitro wear resistance and the nanomechanical properties of dental sealants commercially available. Mechanical properties, namely hardness (H and elastic modulus (E, were assessed by nanoindentation technique. The coated samples presented lower H and E values than the Z250 composite resin substrate. Such measurements were used to calculate H/E ratios. Wear tests were carried out in water by using a pin-on-plate apparatus. Scars formed on the samples were qualitatively examined by optical microscopy, while their wear depths were measured by contact profilometry. Based on the findings, an empirical correlation between the wear depths and H/E was obtained. A high H/E ratio was associated to surfaces with enhanced wear resistance. For the tribological conditions here employed, the H/E ratio could be, therefore, considered a useful parameter for ranking the in-vitro wear of dental sealants.

  8. PAH concentrations in lake sediment decline following ban on coal-tar-based pavement sealants in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban settings in large parts of the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of coal-tar sealants. We evaluated the effect of Austin’s ban by analyzing PAHs in sediment cores and bottom-sediment samples collected in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2012, and 2014 from Lady Bird Lake, the principal receiving water body for Austin urban runoff. The sum concentration of the 16 EPA Priority Pollutant PAHs (∑PAH16) in dated core intervals and surficial bottom-sediment samples collected from sites in the lower lake declined about 44% from 1998–2005 to 2006–2014 (means of 7980 and 4500 μg kg–1, respectively), and by 2012–2014, the decline was about 58% (mean of 3320 μg kg–1). Concentrations of ∑PAH16 in bottom sediment from two of three mid-lake sites decreased by about 71 and 35% from 2001 to 2014. Concentrations at a third site increased by about 14% from 2001 to 2014. The decreases since 2006 reverse a 40-year (1959–1998) upward trend. Despite declines in PAH concentrations, PAH profiles and source-receptor modeling results indicate that coal-tar sealants remain the largest PAH source to the lake, implying that PAH concentrations likely will continue to decline as stocks of previously applied sealant gradually become depleted.

  9. Motor Recovery and Synaptic Preservation after Ventral Root Avulsion and Repair with a Fibrin Sealant Derived from Snake Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbizan, Roberta; Castro, Mateus V.; Rodrigues, Antônio C.; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira, Rui S.; Oliveira, Alexandre L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ventral root avulsion is an experimental model of proximal axonal injury at the central/peripheral nervous system interface that results in paralysis and poor clinical outcome after restorative surgery. Root reimplantation may decrease neuronal degeneration in such cases. We describe the use of a snake venom-derived fibrin sealant during surgical reconnection of avulsed roots at the spinal cord surface. The present work investigates the effects of this fibrin sealant on functional recovery, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and glial reaction in the spinal motoneuron microenvironment after ventral root reimplantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Female Lewis rats (7 weeks old) were subjected to VRA and root replantation. The animals were divided into two groups: 1) avulsion only and 2) replanted roots with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom. Post-surgical motor performance was evaluated using the CatWalk system twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery, and their lumbar intumescences were processed for motoneuron counting and immunohistochemistry (GFAP, Iba-1 and synaptophysin antisera). Array based qRT-PCR was used to evaluate gene regulation of several neurotrophic factors and receptors as well as inflammatory related molecules. The results indicated that the root reimplantation with fibrin sealant enhanced motor recovery, preserved the synaptic covering of the motoneurons and improved neuronal survival. The replanted group did not show significant changes in microglial response compared to VRA-only. However, the astroglial reaction was significantly reduced in this group. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, the present data suggest that the repair of avulsed roots with snake venom fibrin glue at the exact point of detachment results in neuroprotection and preservation of the synaptic network at the microenvironment of the lesioned motoneurons. Also such procedure reduced the astroglial reaction and

  10. Motor recovery and synaptic preservation after ventral root avulsion and repair with a fibrin sealant derived from snake venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Barbizan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ventral root avulsion is an experimental model of proximal axonal injury at the central/peripheral nervous system interface that results in paralysis and poor clinical outcome after restorative surgery. Root reimplantation may decrease neuronal degeneration in such cases. We describe the use of a snake venom-derived fibrin sealant during surgical reconnection of avulsed roots at the spinal cord surface. The present work investigates the effects of this fibrin sealant on functional recovery, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and glial reaction in the spinal motoneuron microenvironment after ventral root reimplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female Lewis rats (7 weeks old were subjected to VRA and root replantation. The animals were divided into two groups: 1 avulsion only and 2 replanted roots with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom. Post-surgical motor performance was evaluated using the CatWalk system twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery, and their lumbar intumescences were processed for motoneuron counting and immunohistochemistry (GFAP, Iba-1 and synaptophysin antisera. Array based qRT-PCR was used to evaluate gene regulation of several neurotrophic factors and receptors as well as inflammatory related molecules. The results indicated that the root reimplantation with fibrin sealant enhanced motor recovery, preserved the synaptic covering of the motoneurons and improved neuronal survival. The replanted group did not show significant changes in microglial response compared to VRA-only. However, the astroglial reaction was significantly reduced in this group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the present data suggest that the repair of avulsed roots with snake venom fibrin glue at the exact point of detachment results in neuroprotection and preservation of the synaptic network at the microenvironment of the lesioned motoneurons. Also such procedure reduced the

  11. Microleakage of Sealants after Phosphoric Acid, Er: YAG Laser and Air Abrasion Enamel Conditioning: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumes, Ana Caroline; Longo, Daniele Lucca; De Rossi, Andiara; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; de Paula E Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Küchler, Erika Calvano

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to answer the focused question: Does the application of phosphoric acid, Er:YAG laser and air abrasion enamel conditioning methods previous to the oclusal sealant application in human permanent molars influence the microleakage? A literature research was carried out in the Pubmed Medline, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane databases using with the MeSH terms and keyword search strategy. A supplemental hand search of the references of retrieved articles was also performed. Inclusion criteria comprised ex vivo studies (extracted teeth) with permanent human teeth that used chemical (phosphoric acid) or mechanical (Er:YAG laser and air abrasion) conditioning methods previous the sealant application. The studies should evaluate microleakage as an outcome. Meta-analysis pooled plot were obtained comparing the microleakage after pre-treatment with phosphoric acid, Er:YAG and air abrasion enamel conditioning for sealant application using RevMan software. The search resulted in 164 articles, 55 records were excluded because they were duplicated. The analysis of titles and abstracts resulted in the exclusion of 105 studies. Four studies were included in the systematic review and the meta-analysis. According to the risk of bias evaluation, the four studies were considered low risk of bias. The meta-analysis showed that phosphoric acid had lower microleakage than Er:YAG laser (p air abrasion (p laser and air abrasion (p > 0.05). The evidence supports that the pretreatment with phosphoric acid leads lower microleakage in oclusal sealants than Er:YAG laser and air abrasion.

  12. Enamel pretreatment with Er:YAG laser: effects on the microleakage of fissure sealant in fluorosed teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Memarpour,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microleakage and penetration of fissure sealant in permanent molar teeth with fluorosis after pretreatment of the occlusal surface. Materials and Methods A total of 120 third molars with mild dental fluorosis were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 20. The tooth surfaces were sealed with an unfilled resin fissure sealant (FS material. The experimental groups included: 1 phosphoric acid etching (AE + FS (control; 2 AE + One-Step Plus (OS, Bisco + FS; 3 bur + AE + FS; 4 bur + AE + OS + FS; 5 Er:YAG laser + AE + FS; and 6 Er:YAG laser + AE + OS + FS. After thermocycling, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% fuchsin and sectioned. Proportions of mircoleakage (PM and unfilled area (PUA were measured by digital microscope. Results Overall, there were significant differences among all groups in the PM (p = 0.00. Group 3 showed the greatest PM, and was significantly different from groups 2 to 6 (p < 0.05. Group 6 showed the lowest PM. Pretreatment with Er:YAG with or without adhesive led to less PM than bur pretreatment. There were no significant differences among groups in PUA. Conclusions Conventional acid etching provided a similar degree of occlusal seal in teeth with fluorosis compared to those pretreated with a bur or Er:YAG laser. Pretreatment of pits and fissures with Er:YAG in teeth with fluorosis may be an alternative method before fissure sealant application.

  13. Evaluation of shear bond strength, penetration ability, microleakage and remineralisation capacity of glass ionomer-based fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukyilmaz, E; Savas, S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength, penetration ability, microleakage, and remineralisation capacity of glass ionomer-based fissure sealant materials. In this study, three glass ionomer-based fissure sealants were evaluated (Fuji Triage, Fuji VII EP, and GCP Glass Seal). A dye-penetration test was performed to evaluate microleakage under a stereomicroscope. The materials were applied to occlusal tooth surfaces, and bucco-lingual sections (1 mm width) were assessed to evaluate the penetration ability. Shear bond strength of tested materials was assessed using a universal testing machine. Finally, the remineralisation capacities of the materials were evaluated with EDS. The Fuji Triage exhibited the lowest microleakage and unfilled area proportion (p<0.05). The highest shear bond strength was calculated with Fuji VII EP (p<0.05). The fluoride content for all treatment groups was significantly different when remineralisation values were compared to demineralisation (p<0.05). Both the Fuji Triage and Fuji VII EP yielded compatible and satisfactory results and all fissure sealants used in this study are sufficient as anti-caries agents.

  14. Modification of membrane cholesterol and desmosterol in chicken spermatozoa improves post-thaw survival and prevents impairment of sperm function after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiyama, Ai; Tajima, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Naoto; Asano, Atsushi

    2017-09-26

    During cryopreservation, spermatozoa are subjected to cryodamage that leads to a decline in fertilisation ability. Due to the complex nature of this process, the initial trigger for cryodamage remains unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that cryopreservation induces early apoptotic changes characterised by phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation via sterol loss from the plasma membrane of chicken spermatozoa. This led us to hypothesise that sterol incorporation into membranes minimises cryodamage, thereby improving the quality of cryopreserved chicken spermatozoa. In the present study, treating spermatozoa with 1.5mgmL-1 cholesterol- and 3mgmL-1 desmosterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC and DLC respectively) increased post-thaw survival and motility. These effects appeared to be highly dependent the amount of sterol loaded into the spermatozoa. Localisation experiments confirmed the incorporation of exogenous cholesterol into the sperm head region. Detection of PS translocation showed that elevation of these sterols inhibited early apoptotic changes, thereby enhancing post-thaw survival. Furthermore, CLC and DLC treatment suppressed spontaneous acrosome reaction after cryopreservation, preserving the ability of spermatozoa to undergo acrosome reactions in response to physiological stimulation. These results demonstrate that loading sterols into chicken spermatozoa before cryopreservation enhances their quality by inhibiting early apoptotic changes and spontaneous acrosome reactions. The present study provides new mechanistic insight into cryodamage in chicken spermatozoa.

  15. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  16. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  17. Effect of Family Income on the Relationship Between Parental Education and Sealant Prevalence, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Agili, Dania E; Griffin, Susan O

    2015-08-27

    We examined the association between sealant prevalence and parental education for different levels of family income, controlling for other covariates. We combined data from 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study sample was 7,090 participants aged 6 to 19 years. Explanatory variables, chosen on the basis of Andersen and Aday's framework of health care utilization, were predisposing variables - child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education (high school diploma); enabling variables - family income (200% of the FPL), health insurance status, and regular source of medical care; and a need variable - future need for care (perceived child health status is excellent/very good, good, fair/poor). We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses and included a term for interaction between education and income in the multivariate model. We report significant findings (P ≤ .05). Sealant prevalence was associated with all explanatory variables in bivariate and multivariate analyses. In bivariate analyses, higher parental education and family income were independently associated with higher sealant prevalence. In the multivariate analysis, higher parental education was associated with sealant prevalence among higher income children, but not among low-income children (education greater than a high school diploma versus less than a high school diploma in families with income ≥100% FPL. Our findings suggest that income modifies the association of parental education on sealant prevalence. Recognition of this relationship may be important for health promotion efforts.

  18. Influence of caries risk on the retention of a resin-modified glass ionomer used as occlusal sealant: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pereira da Silva TAGLIAFERRO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known whether caries risk influence occlusal sealants retention. Objective To determine the retention rates (RR of the resin-modified glass ionomer cement used as occlusal sealant in permanent first molars of 6-8-year old schoolchildren and to analyze the influence of caries risk at baseline on the RR of the sealant, over a 24-month period. Material and method The sealant application was performed in a dental office at the beginning of the study, after children being allocated into high caries risk group (HR and low caries risk group (LR. The examinations were performed by the same calibrated dentist at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Retention rates were estimated, the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival probabilities; and the comparison between HR and LR groups was evaluated by Wilcoxon and log-rank test. Result The results showed that 14% of sealed teeth showed total loss (16% for HR and 12% for LR and 46% showed partial loss during the study (51% for HR and 41% for LR, in relation to the baseline sample. No difference could be demonstrated by the survival analysis between HR and LR groups (p>0.05. Conclusion Caries risk did not influence the retention rates of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement used as occlusal sealant in 6-8-year old schoolchildren.

  19. Evaluation of asbestos exposure within the automotive repair industry: a study involving removal of asbestos-containing body sealants and drive clutch replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2008-12-01

    Two independent assessments were performed of airborne asbestos concentrations generated during automotive repair work on vintage vehicles . The first involved removal of asbestos-containing seam sealant, and the second involved servicing of a drive clutch. Despite the relatively high concentrations (5.6-28%) of chrysotile fibers detected within bulk samples of seam sealant, the average asbestos concentration for personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples during seam sealant removal was 0.006 f/cc (fibers/cubic centimeter of air). Many other air samples contained asbestos at or below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). Pneumatic chiseling of the sealant material during removal resulted in 69% of area air samples containing asbestos. Use of this impact tool liberated more asbestos than hand scraping. Asbestos fibers were only detected in air samples collected during the installation of a replacement clutch. The highest asbestos corrected airborne fiber concentration observed during clutch installation was 0.0028 f/cc. This value is approximately 100 times lower than Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1f/cc. The airborne asbestos concentrations observed during the servicing of vintage vehicles with asbestos-containing seam sealant and clutches are comparable to levels reported for repair work involving brake components and gaskets.

  20. Corrosion Prevention and Control Planning Guidebook for Military Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Sacrificial coatings (e.g., galvanizing)  Surface modification (e.g., weld overlays , electro-plating)  Sealants (e.g., wet installed fasteners...operational environment should be avoided. Consider compatibility when using multiple materials. If dissimilar materials cannot be avoided, isolate those... Dissimilar Metals.  MIL-HDBK-1568, Military Handbook: Materials and Processes for Corrosion Prevention and Control in Aerospace Weapons Systems (18 July

  1. Synergistic efficiency of the desilication of brackish underground water in Saudi Arabia by coupling γ-radiation and Fenton process: Membrane scaling prevention in reverse osmosis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Mohammed S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main water resources in arid Saudi Arabia is underground water. However, this brackish water has high silica content which can cause a recalcitrant deposit on the membrane in the reverse osmosis units during its desalination. In this study, we examined the synergistic efficiency of the removal of silica from the Buwaib water sample, when combining two advanced oxidation processes, γ-irradiation and the Fenton process, using hydrogen peroxide and zero valent metal iron as source of Fe3+. This latter adsorbs effectively on silica and co-precipitate. The influence of absorbed dose, iron dosage and pH effect were investigated. This preliminary study showed that these attractive and effective hybrid processes are very efficient in removing silica.

  2. Measurement of properties of sealant materials for solid oxide fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, R.J.; Sammes, N.M.; Zhang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal expansion of ceramic materials, ceramic cements and steels was studied, and their compatibility with materials used in the SOFC system was evaluated. A number of ceramic cements, a glass paste and a glass ceramic were examined to identify their potential as a sealing material in a tubular fuel cell system. Thermal expansion coefficients of these materials were compared for thermal matching with materials employed in the fuel cell construction, such as yttria stabilised with 8 mole% zirconia (8YSZ) and stainless steel. A reasonable match was found for Macor, a glass ceramic, with one of the steel samples studied and with 8YSZ. Candidate sealants were tested for bonding quality, which made it evident that the ceramic cements had to be discarded. Good bonds between Macor and one of the steel samples and Macor and 8YSZ were formed, resulting in a gas tight seal. Uncertainty remains regarding the long term effect of the interface reactions between steel and Macor. Exposure of the Macor and a steel-Macor-8YSZ assembly to the different fuel cell gas atmospheres revealed that the Macor reacts with hydrogen, the long term effect of which is also unknown. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  3. Shear bond strength and microleakage of a new self-etch adhesive pit and fissure sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchika, Vinay; Birlbauer, Sebastian; Chiang, Meng-Ling; Schuldt, Christoph; Crispin, Alexander; Hickel, Reinhard; Kühnisch, Jan

    2017-12-27

    This study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) and microleakage of a new self-etch adhesive-based fissure sealant (EG) on aprismatic enamel in comparison to conventional fissure sealing with 30 s acid etching (CG). The fissures were sealed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups: 1-day water storage, 3-month water storage, and 5,000× thermocycling. After measuring SBS using the Ultradent method, failure mode was analyzed. In additional 16 teeth, microleakage was tested using dye penetration method. Pairwise comparisons were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-Test. Multiple linear regression was performed to assess the factors influencing on SBS. EG had significantly lower mean SBS (4.1 MPa±2.1) than the CG (17.6 MPa±6.4). CG (1.1%) performed significantly better than the EG (12.8%) in microleakage analysis. The tested EG yielded significantly inferior results and its clinical use should be decided after weighing its pros and cons.

  4. Final environmental and regulatory assessment of using asphalt as a sealant in mine shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses the properties of asphalt, the current regulatory status governing asphalt and future regulatory implications which may be pertinent in using asphalt as a waterproof shaft sealant. An understanding of the inherent organic composition of asphalt, an increase in the number of health and environmental research publications conducted on asphalt and an examination of the apparent trend of regulatory agencies toward more stringent environmental regulation governing the use of organic materials suggests asphalt could become regulated at a future time. This would only occur, however, if asphalt was found to conform to the present regulatory definitions of pollutants, contaminants or hazardous substances or if asphalt was included on a regulated substance list. In this regard, the study points out that asphalt contains very low levels of hazardous poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA's). These levels are significantly lower than the levels present in coal tars, a substance known to contain high levels of hazardous PNA's. Asphalt, however, has the inherent potential of producing higher concentrations of PNA's if the adverse condition of cracking should occur during the refinery production stage or on-site preparation of the asphalt. Also, unless existing control technology is applied, emission levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates and volatile organic carbons from the on-site preparation facilities could approach the permissible health standard levels of EPA. The study indicates, however, that available literature is limited on these issues

  5. Performance of a polymer sealant coating in an arctic marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.; Cowgill, M.; Griffith, A.; Chernaenko, L.; Diashev, A.; Nazarian, A.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of using a polymer-based coating, Polibrid 705, to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment has been successfully demonstrated using a combination of field and laboratory testing. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Northern Navy and deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading dock. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors, exposed to the full annual Arctic weather cycle. The 12 months of field testing gave rise to little degradation of the sealant coating, except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at a research laboratory in St. Petersburg. The laboratory tests examined a variety of properties, including bond strength between the coating and the substrate, thermal cycling resistance, wear resistance, flammability, and ease of decontamination. The Polibrid 705 coating met all the Russian Navy qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities

  6. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON PROPERTIES OF IONOMERIC AND RESIN SEALANT MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Correr, Gisele Maria; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Bruschi; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo; Alves, Marcelo Correa; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of environmental conditions on the degradation of ionomeric and resin sealant materials. Material and Methods: FluroShield, Vitremer, and Ketac Molar disc-shaped specimens (n=18/material) were prepared, polished, subjected to initial hardness and roughness readings. Six discs of each material were randomly assigned to one of three different storage solutions: 0.3% citric acid (CA), demineralization solution (DE), and remineralization solution (RE). The specimens were individually immersed in 3 mL of the test solutions, which were daily changed. After 15 days of storage, new surface roughness and hardness readings were done. Fluoride release in the solutions was measured within 15 days. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's and Contrast tests (α=0.05). Results: The storage in CA increased the roughness of Vitremer and Ketac Molar. A significant reduction in hardness was observed for all materials after storage in all solutions. For all materials, the greatest amounts of fluoride release occurred during the 1st day. FluroShield presented the same patterns of fluoride release in all solutions. Ketac Molar and Vitremer released the highest amounts of fluoride in the CA solution. Conclusions: Ionomeric materials are more susceptible to degradation than resin-based materials under acidic conditions. Acidic conditions lead to a higher fluoride release from ionomeric materials. PMID:19668988

  7. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  8. Use of caries prevention services in the Northwest PRECEDENT dental network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracane, J; Hilton, T; Korpak, A; Gillette, J; McIntyre, P Speed; Berg, J

    2011-02-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the use of caries preventive services by Northwest PRECEDENT dental network practitioners and compared the caries experience of patients who received such services in the past 12 months with those who had not. An oral health survey was conducted on approximately 20 patients seen by each of 97 private practice dental practitioners in the network. Eligible patients (total of 1877 aged 3-92) were randomly assessed for the occurrence of one or more new caries lesions as well as having received the following preventive services within the past 12 months: fluoride varnish or gel, sealant in molar or premolar, and prophylaxis. Patients were stratified by gender and age (1-17 years old, 18-64 years old, and 65+ years old). Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the practitioner characteristics and the use of preventive services, as well as the preventive services and the presence of a new caries lesion in the past 12 months. The percent of patients in age category 1-17 years old/18-64 years old/65+ years old receiving each preventive treatment varied as follows: 95%/85%/81% for prophylaxis, 87%/24%/22% for fluoride, and 27%/2%/0% for sealant. There was a very limited association between the use of a specific preventive service and practitioner gender, and no significant association between use of services and practice location (rural, urban or suburban). There was a significant association between greater use of sealants for dentists with 0-15 years of practice experience as compared with those having more than 25 years of experience. For the 1-17-year-old age group, boys had about 1.7 times the odds of having a new lesion than girls in the past 12 months, and patients receiving a sealant had 1.9 times the odds of having a new caries lesion. In the 18-64-year-old group, receiving a prophylaxis in the past 12 months was significantly associated with lower odds for having a new lesion (odds ratio = 0.57). This

  9. Dental sealants and restorations and urinary bisphenol A concentrations in children in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Christy; Rue, Tessa; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Martin, Michael; Seminario, Ana Lucia; DeRouen, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    Resin-based dental sealants and composites contain bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate, a bisphenol A (BPA) derivative. The authors hypothesized that a greater number of sealants or restorations would be associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations. The authors examined urinary BPA measurements (in nanograms per milliliter) and oral examination data for 1,001 children aged 6 to 19 years from data sets of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). They categorized children according to number of occlusal sealants and number of restorations, with four categories in each of the two groups. They estimated associations by using unadjusted and adjusted tobit regression models. The lowest quartile of BPA concentrations ranged from 0.3 ng/mL to 1.9 ng/mL, whereas the highest quartile ranged from 7.3 ng/mL to 149 ng/mL. In adjusted analysis, children with seven to 16 sealants had geometric mean BPA concentrations 25 percent higher than those of children with no sealants (95 percent confidence interval [CI], -14 percent to 82 percent; P = .23). In adjusted analysis, children with seven to 42 restorations had geometric mean BPA concentrations 20 percent higher than those of children with no restorations (95 percent CI, -6 percent to 53 percent; P = .13). Neither of these adjusted estimates was statistically significant. Though the findings were in the direction hypothesized, the authors did not observe a statistically significant association between a greater number of sealants or restorations and higher urinary BPA concentrations. Additional studies are needed to determine the extent of oral and systemic exposure to BPA from resin-based dental restorative materials over time. Dentists should follow this issue carefully as it develops and as the body of evidence grows. There is insufficient evidence to change practice at this time.

  10. Membrane fouling and wetting in membrane distillation and their mitigation by novel membranes with special wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangxin; Lin, Shihong

    2017-04-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) has been identified as a promising technology to desalinate the hypersaline wastewaters from fracking and other industries. However, conventional hydrophobic MD membranes are highly susceptible to fouling and/or wetting by the hydrophobic and/or amphiphilic constituents in these wastewaters of complex compositions. This study systematically investigates the impact of the surface wetting properties on the membrane wetting and/or fouling behaviors in MD. Specifically, we compare the wetting and fouling resistance of three types of membranes of different wetting properties, including hydrophobic and omniphobic membranes as well as composite membranes with a hydrophobic substrate and a superhydrophilic top surface. We challenged the MD membranes with hypersaline feed solutions that contained a relatively high concentration of crude oil with and without added synthetic surfactants, Triton X-100. We found that the composite membranes with superhydrophilic top surface were robustly resistant to oil fouling in the absence of Triton X-100, but were subject to pore wetting in the presence of Triton X-100. On the other hand, the omniphobic membranes were easily fouled by oil-in-water emulsion without Triton X-100, but successfully sustained stable MD performance with Triton X-100 stabilized oil-in-water emulsion as the feed solution. In contrast, the conventional hydrophobic membranes failed readily regardless whether Triton X-100 was present, although via different mechanisms. These findings are corroborated by contact angle measures as well as oil-probe force spectroscopy. This study provides a holistic picture regarding how a hydrophobic membrane fails in MD and how we can leverage membranes with special wettability to prevent membrane failure in MD operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, opinions and practices regarding dental caries prevention and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Kleinman, Dushanka V; Wang, Min Qi; Massey, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, practices and opinions regarding dental caries prevention and early detection. A 30 item survey was mailed to 1,258 Maryland dental hygienists. Two follow-up mailings and email reminders were sent. The response rate was 43% (n=540). Nearly all respondents were female (98%), and 58% practiced in solo settings. Knowledge and certainty of knowledge were moderate: sealants are needed regardless of topical fluoride use (55% certain, 40% less certain), newly erupted permanent molars are the best candidates for sealants (54%, 36%) and professionally applied fluorides are desirable in areas without fluoridated water (55%, 36%). Fewer were certain that incipient lesions can be remineralized before cavitation (23%, 69%), and dilute, frequently administered fluorides are more effective in caries prevention than concentrated, less frequently administered fluorides (6%, 24%). Opinions regarding effectiveness of protocols for 2 age groups from 6 months to 6 years, the challenges of early childhood caries (ECC), prevention practices regarding sealant and topical fluoride applications varied widely. Eighty-nine percent reported routinely assessing dental caries risk factors of child patients and 90% were interested in continuing education courses. There were no significant differences between different types of practice settings, year of graduation, race/ethnicity or gender. Knowledge of recommended guidelines for fluoride and sealant application support clinical decision-making and self-care counseling. Misinformation and lack of understanding of current research and recommendations identify a need for educational interventions in undergraduate dental hygiene programs and through continuing education for practicing hygienists.

  12. Curcumin Pretreatment Prevents Potassium Dichromate-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, Decreased Respiratory Complex I Activity, and Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylly Ramsés García-Niño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from turmeric with recognized antioxidant properties. Hexavalent chromium is an environmental toxic and carcinogen compound that induces oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of curcumin on the hepatic damage generated by potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 in rats. Animals were pretreated daily by 9-10 days with curcumin (400 mg/kg b.w. before the injection of a single intraperitoneal of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.. Groups of animals were sacrificed 24 and 48 h later. K2Cr2O7-induced damage to the liver was evident by histological alterations and increase in the liver weight and in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma. In addition, K2Cr2O7 induced oxidative damage in liver and isolated mitochondria, which was evident by the increase in the content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl and decrease in the glutathione content and in the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, K2Cr2O7 induced decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, in the activity of respiratory complex I, and permeability transition pore opening. All the above-mentioned alterations were prevented by curcumin pretreatment. The beneficial effects of curcumin against K2Cr2O7-induced liver oxidative damage were associated with prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction.

  13. Curcumin Pretreatment Prevents Potassium Dichromate-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, Decreased Respiratory Complex I Activity, and Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Tapia, Edilia; Zazueta, Cecilia; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Vega-García, Claudia Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from turmeric with recognized antioxidant properties. Hexavalent chromium is an environmental toxic and carcinogen compound that induces oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of curcumin on the hepatic damage generated by potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in rats. Animals were pretreated daily by 9-10 days with curcumin (400 mg/kg b.w.) before the injection of a single intraperitoneal of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.). Groups of animals were sacrificed 24 and 48 h later. K2Cr2O7-induced damage to the liver was evident by histological alterations and increase in the liver weight and in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma. In addition, K2Cr2O7 induced oxidative damage in liver and isolated mitochondria, which was evident by the increase in the content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl and decrease in the glutathione content and in the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, K2Cr2O7 induced decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, in the activity of respiratory complex I, and permeability transition pore opening. All the above-mentioned alterations were prevented by curcumin pretreatment. The beneficial effects of curcumin against K2Cr2O7-induced liver oxidative damage were associated with prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23956771

  14. No difference in sexual dysfunction after transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach for inguinal hernia with fibrin sealant or tacks for mesh fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H C; Burcharth, J; Andresen, K

    2017-01-01

    and tacks for mesh fixation and no difference between genders. Pain intensity, characteristics and origin were comparable between fibrin sealant and tacks for both genders. We found a relationship between a higher rate of sexual dysfunction and lower age for both genders. CONCLUSION: We found no difference...... for mesh fixation were sent a questionnaire regarding sexual dysfunction. Sexually active patients without recurrence were evaluated in this study. RESULTS: Pain during sexual activity was present in 115 of 1019 (11.3 %) males and 17 of 147 (11.6 %) females. There was no difference between fibrin sealant...

  15. Detection of occlusal caries with impedance spectroscopy and laser fluorescence before and after placement of fissure sealants: An in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Diana; Ekstrand, Kim; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    Purposes : To (1) investigate the influence of fissure sealants on impedance spectroscopy (ACIS) and laser fluorescence (LF) readings, (2) compare the performance of the ACIS device with the LF technique and visual inspection (ICDAS) in permanent molars with various degrees of occlusal caries......, the DIAGNOdent pen and ICDAS at baseline, after bleaching, etching and placement of a clear fissure sealant. A digital radiograph was exposed at baseline. After the assessments, the actual lesion depth was histologically determined.  Results : Bleaching did not affect the readings but significantly higher ACIS...... and LF-pen values were recorded after acid etching (Preadings significantly (P

  16. A comparison of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum dry cow therapy used alone and in combination with a teat sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A J; Breen, J E; Payne, B; Green, M J

    2011-02-01

    The dry period is a critical time in the lactation cycle, offering the optimum time for cure of existing intramammary infection (IMI), while also encompassing the periods of highest susceptibility to new intramammary infection. Until recent years, intramammary infection in the dry period has been controlled with the use of antibiotic dry cow therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate 3 different dry cow therapy regimens, in low-somatic cell count (SCC; bulk milk SCCcows was recruited to the study and randomly allocated to receive either the broad-spectrum antibiotic cefquinome, a combination treatment comprising the narrow-spectrum antibiotic cloxacillin and an internal teat sealant, or the narrow-spectrum antibiotic cloxacillin alone. All quarters were sampled for bacteriology at drying off and again in the week immediately postcalving; 2 quarters were also sampled 2 wk before the estimated calving date to allow an assessment of infection dynamics during the dry period. Quarters were subsequently monitored for clinical mastitis for the first 100 d of lactation. Conventional multilevel (random effects) models were constructed to assess the efficacy of products in preventing IMI. Survival analysis was used to examine factors that influenced the risk of clinical mastitis using conventional Cox proportional hazards models. No differences were identified between the treatment groups in terms of cure of IMI caused by the major pathogens. Quarters in both the combination and cefquinome-treated groups were more likely to be free of a major pathogen or enterobacterial pathogen postcalving. With respect to clinical mastitis, the cefquinome-treated group was less likely to develop clinical mastitis than was the cloxacillin treated group. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of gelatine matrix-thrombin sealants used during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Katz, Darren; Pinochet, Rodrigo; Kurta, Jordan M; Coleman, Jonathan A

    2008-12-01

    To compare haemostasis and other outcomes after the use of bovine-derived or porcine-derived gelatine matrix-thrombin sealants (GMTS) in a continuous series of patients during and for 6 months after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Between October 2006 and September 2007, a consecutive sample of 35 patients with renal tumours underwent LPN by a single surgeon at a referral centre. Group 1 (25 patients) received a bovine-derived GMTS and Group 2 (10 patients) a porcine-derived GMTS. All patients underwent LPN and received one of the two GMTS, applied to the resected bed before sutured renorrhaphy over oxidized nitrocellulose bolsters. Surgical and pathology variables, including ischaemia time, blood loss, tumour size, and serum creatinine values before and after LPN, were measured. Glomerular filtration rates were calculated before and after LPN. Haemostasis was ascertained by visual examination. Intraoperative haemostasis was achieved in all cases. No associated complications occurred within 3 weeks of LPN. The two groups were comparable in age (median, 65 vs 69 years, P = 0.62), gender, tumour number and location, median ischaemia time (34 vs 28 min, P = 0.148), and blood loss (200 vs 150 mL, P = 0.518). One patient in Group 1 developed a urinary fistula. One patient in Group 2 experienced self-limited gross haematuria. Both the porcine- and bovine-derived agents provided acceptable haemostasis without adverse events during LPN and in the early postoperative period. Occurrences of delayed haemorrhage and urinary fistula were not likely to be related to the choice of prothrombotic agent.

  18. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWGILL, M.G.; MOSKOWITZ, P.D.; CHERNAENKO, L.M.; NAZARIAN, A.; GRIFFITH, A.; DIASHEV, A.; ENGOY, T.

    2000-01-01

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer

  19. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWGILL,M.G.; MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; CHERNAENKO,L.M.; NAZARIAN,A.; GRIFFITH,A.; DIASHEV,A.; ENGOY,T.

    2000-06-14

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer

  20. Effect of irradiation times on the polymerization depth of contemporary fissure sealants with different opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniek Castillo Dutra Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the depth of curing of 10 contemporary blue light-activated dental flowable materials at several opacities, influenced by different irradiation times using FT-IR spectroscopy. Fifty-five specimens (n = 5 with a 5-mm diameter and 1-mm thickness of translucent (Opallis Flow T, yellowed (Master Flow A2; Opallis Flow A2; Natural Flow A2; Fluroshield Yellowed, and opaque materials (Master Flow OA2; Natural Flow O; Opallis Flow OA3.5; Opallis Flow OP; Fluroshield White were obtained at six curing times (10s, 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60s using a high-intensity LED (Coltolux, Coltène/Whaledent. The degree of conversion (DC (% was obtained using the Nexus 470 FTIR Spectrometer (Nicolet Instruments, USA. The FTIR-ATR spectra for uncured and cured samples were analyzed using a ZnSe crystal. The top and bottom surfaces of the cured specimens were analyzed to obtain the depth of curing. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The highest curing depth was obtained by Natural Flow OA2, while the lowest was shown by Master Flow OA2. The shortest curing time generated similar depths of cure in comparison with the most extensive for Opallis Flow A2 and Fluroshield Yellowed. Therefore, depth of curing, influenced by the irradiation time, was dependent on the materials. Using the Natural Flow OA2 opaque sealant and the 10-s curing time for Opallis Flow A2 and Fluroshield Yellowed may represent alternative approaches to sealing tooth fissures.

  1. Sealing procedures for preterm prelabour rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Adele E; Grivell, Rosalie M; Dodd, Jodie M

    2016-07-07

    Preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes (PPROM) complicates approximately 2% of pregnancies and can be either spontaneous or iatrogenic in nature. Complications of PPROM include prematurity, chorioamnionitis, neonatal sepsis, limb position defects, respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary hypoplasia chronic lung disease, periventricular leukomalacia and intraventricular haemorrhage.A number of different sealing techniques have been employed which aim to restore a physical barrier against infection and encourage the re-accumulation of amniotic fluid. Routine use of sealants is currently not recommended due to a lack of sufficient evidence to support the safety and effectiveness of such interventions. To assess the effects of sealing techniques following PPROM against each other, or versus standard care (including no sealant), on maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 May 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing different techniques for sealing preterm prelabour ruptured membranes. Cluster-randomised trials and trials using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion in this review. We planned to include abstracts when sufficient information was provided. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included two studies (involving 141 women - with data from 124 women). We considered both studies as being at high risk of bias. Meta-analysis was not possible because the included studies examined different interventions (both in comparison with standard care) and reported on few, but different, outcomes. One study compared cervical adapter (mechanical sealing), and the other study examined an immunological membrane sealant. Neither of the included studies reported on this review's primary outcome

  2. Experimental Investigation of Bio-Sealants Used for Pavement Preservation and Development of a New Strength Test for Asphalt Binders at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debaroti

    Surface treatment using sealants as a mean of pavement preservation is an important tool for cost-effectively extending service life of pavement. Sealants have become an important tool for cost-effectively extending the service life pavements. Due to the combined negative effects of asphalt aging and thermal cracking, it is always more challenging to choose an appropriate preservation technique for pavements built in cold-regions. Asphalt aging and thermal cracking negatively affect pavements built in cold climates. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effects of sealants in laboratory conditions before application in the field to ensure effective performance. However, preservation activities cannot effectively address major distresses, such as low-temperature cracking, that can occur when the pavement was built from the very beginning with less durable materials. Therefore, an essential requirement to mitigate low-temperature cracking of pavements for asphalt materials used in the construction of pavement built in cold- regions is ensuring proper fracture properties of the asphalt materials used in construction. This study has two parts. In the first part, a laboratory evaluation of the effects of adding bio-sealants to both asphalt binder and mixture is performed. The goal is to obtain relevant properties of treated asphalt materials to understand the mechanism by which sealants improve pavement performance. For asphalt binders, a dynamic shear rheometer and a bending beam rheometer were used to obtain rheological properties of treated and untreated asphalt binders. For asphalt mixtures, field cores from both untreated and treated sections were collected and thin beam specimens were prepared from the cores to compare the creep and strength properties of the field-treated and laboratory-treated mixture. It is observed that the oil-based sealants have a significant softening effect on the control binder compared to the water-based sealant and traditional

  3. Phase 1 testing of detoxified LPS/group B meningococcal outer membrane protein vaccine with and without synthetic CPG 7909 adjuvant for the prevention and treatment of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Alan S; Greenberg, Nancy; Billington, Melissa; Zhang, Lei; DeFilippi, Christopher; May, Ryan C; Bajwa, Kanwaldeep K

    2015-11-27

    Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are a leading cause of nosocomial infection and sepsis. Increasing multi-antibiotic resistance has left clinicians with fewer therapeutic options. Antibodies to GNB lipopolysaccharide (LPS, or endotoxin) have reduced morbidity and mortality as a result of infection and are not subject to the resistance mechanisms deployed by bacteria against antibiotics. In this phase 1 study, we administered a vaccine that elicits antibodies against a highly conserved portion of LPS with and without a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) TLR9 agonist as adjuvant. A vaccine composed of the detoxified LPS (dLPS) from E. coli O111:B4 (J5 mutant) non-covalently complexed to group B meningococcal outer membrane protein (OMP). Twenty healthy adult subjects received three doses at 0, 29 and 59 days of antigen (10 μg dLPS) with or without CPG 7909 (250 or 500 μg). Subjects were evaluated for local and systemic adverse effects and laboratory findings. Anti-J5 LPS IgG and IgM antibody levels were measured by electrochemiluminesence. Due to premature study termination, not all subjects received all three doses. All vaccine formulations were well-tolerated with no local or systemic events of greater than moderate severity. The vaccine alone group achieved a ≥ 4-fold "responder" response in IgG and IgM antibody in only one of 6 subjects. In contrast, the vaccine plus CPG 7909 groups appeared to have earlier and more sustained (to 180 days) responses, greater mean-fold increases, and a higher proportion of "responders" achieving ≥ 4-fold increases over baseline. Although the study was halted before all enrolled subjects received all three doses, the J5dLPS/OMP vaccine, with or without CpG adjuvant, was safe and well-tolerated. The inclusion of CpG increased the number of subjects with a ≥ 4-fold antibody response, evident even after the second of three planned doses. A vaccine comprising J5dLPS/OMP antigen with CpG adjuvant merits further investigation. Clinical

  4. Fluorides and Other Preventive Strategies for Tooth Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jeremy A; Tanzer, Jason M; Milgrom, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    We focus on scalable public health interventions that prevent and delay the development of caries and enhance resistance to dental caries lesions. These interventions should occur throughout the life cycle, and need to be age appropriate. Mitigating disease transmission and enhancing resistance are achieved through use of various fluorides, sugar substitutes, mechanical barriers such as pit-and-fissure sealants, and antimicrobials. A key aspect is counseling and other behavioral interventions that are designed to promote use of disease transmission-inhibiting and tooth resistance-enhancing agents. Advocacy for public water fluoridation and sugar taxes is an appropriate dental public health activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of surface sealant on the translucency of composite resin: effect of immersion time and immersion media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso Garcia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of surface sealant on the translucency of composite resin immersed in different solutions. The study involved the following materials: Charisma, Fortify and coffee, Coca-Cola®, tea and artificial saliva as solutions. Sixty-four specimens (n = 8 were manufactured and immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ± 1 °C. Samples were immersed in the solutions for three times a day and re-immersed in artificial saliva until the translucency readings. The measurements were carried out at nine times: T1 - 24 hours after specimen preparation, T2 - 24 hours after immersion in the solutions, T3 - 48 hours and T4 to T9 - 7, 14, 21, 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively, after immersion. The translucency values were measured using a JOUAN device. The results were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5%. The surface sealant was not able to protect the composite resin against staining, the coffee showed the strongest staining action, followed by tea and regarding immersion time, a significant alteration was noted in the translucency of composite resin after 21 days.

  6. Demonstration and Validation of Reactive Vitreous Coatings to Prevent Corrosion of Steel Fixtures Attached to Masonry Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    delaminate from the steel in as little as five years and con- crete additives have not yet been shown to be effective in preventing the corrosion of...ties were subsequently inspected at various intervals using a borescope at inspection points built into the structures during repair. In addition ...begin the rehabilitation of the wall panels, a waterproof adhesive was applied to the concrete block (Figure 6). The adhesive/sealant was applied

  7. Cell Membrane Coating Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ronnie H; Kroll, Ashley V; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2018-03-27

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutic, prevention, and detection modalities have the potential to greatly impact how diseases are diagnosed and managed in the clinic. With the wide range of nanomaterials available, the rational design of nanocarriers on an application-specific basis has become increasingly commonplace. Here, a comprehensive overview is provided on an emerging platform: cell-membrane-coating nanotechnology. As a fundamental unit of biology, cells carry out a wide range of functions, including the remarkable ability to interface and interact with their surrounding environment. Instead of attempting to replicate such functions via synthetic techniques, researchers are now directly leveraging naturally derived cell membranes as a means of bestowing nanoparticles with enhanced biointerfacing capabilities. This top-down technique is facile, highly generalizable, and has the potential to greatly augment existing nanocarriers. Further, the introduction of a natural membrane substrate onto nanoparticles surfaces has enabled additional applications beyond those traditionally associated with nanomedicine. Despite its relative youth, there exists an impressive body of literature on cell membrane coating, which is covered here in detail. Overall, there is still significant room for development, as researchers continue to refine existing workflows while finding new and exciting applications that can take advantage of this developing technology. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Evaluation of fibrin sealant as a wound closure agent in mandibular third molar surgery--a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogulanathan, M; Elavenil, P; Gnanam, A; Raja, V B Krishnakumar

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of fibrin sealants in achieving haemostasis and wound closure following mandibular third molar extraction, in comparison with conventional suturing. Thirty patients with bilateral mandibular third molar impactions were recruited for the study. Using a split-mouth study design, wound closure following extraction was done using fibrin sealant on the study side and suturing on the control side. Sample allocation was done by simple randomization. The primary outcome measures were (1) the time taken to achieve wound closure and haemostasis and (2) postoperative mouth opening, pain, and swelling. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and paired t-tests (P<0.05). IBM SPSS software (v.20.0) was used for the data analysis. The study group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in duration to achieve haemostasis (1.2 vs. 251.9s; P<0.001) and wound closure (152.8 vs. 328.8s; P<0.001) in comparison with the control group. The study group also exhibited significantly reduced pain scores (2.0 vs. 3.5; P<0.001) and increased post-surgical mouth opening (P<0.001). No adverse effects of fibrin sealant were observed. In conclusion, fibrin sealant is a superior intraoral wound closure and haemostatic agent and a worthy alternative to suturing. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    , Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  10. Estimating the Cost Savings of Preventive Dental Services Delivered to Medicaid-Enrolled Children in Six Southeastern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilbin; Monahan, Sean; Serban, Nicoleta; Griffin, Paul M; Tomar, Scott L

    2017-11-30

    To quantify the impact of multiyear utilization of preventive dental services on downstream dental care utilization and expenditures for children. We followed 0.93 million Medicaid-enrolled children who were 3-6 years old in 2005 from 2005 to 2011. We used Medicaid claims data of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas. We clustered each state's study population into four groups based on utilization of topical fluoride and dental sealants before caries-related treatment using machine learning algorithms. We evaluated utilization rates and expenditures across the four groups and quantified cost savings of preventive care for different levels of penetration. We extracted all dental-related claims using CDT codes. In all states, Medicaid expenditures were much lower for children who received topical fluoride and dental sealants before caries development than for all other children, with a per-member per-year difference ranging from $88 for Alabama to $156 for Mississippi. The cost savings from topical fluoride and sealants across the six states ranged from $1.1M/year in Mississippi to $12.9M/year in Texas at a 10 percent penetration level. Preventive dental care for children not only improves oral health outcomes but is also cost saving. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Effect of platelet rich plasma and fibrin sealant on facial nerve regeneration in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, Tarik Y; Lehar, Mohamed; Verhaegen, Pauline; Carson, Kathryn A; Byrne, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and fibrin sealant (FS) on facial nerve regeneration. Prospective, randomized, and controlled animal study. Experiments involved the transection and repair of facial nerve of 49 male adult rats. Seven groups were created dependant on the method of repair: suture; PRP (with/without suture); platelet poor plasma (PPP) (with/without suture); and FS (with/without suture) groups. Each method of repair was applied immediately after the nerve transection. The outcomes measured were: 1) observation of gross recovery of vibrissae movements within 8-week period after nerve transection and repair using a 5-point scale and comparing the left (test) side with the right (control) side; 2) comparisons of facial nerve motor action potentials (MAP) recorded before and 8 weeks after nerve transection and repair, including both the transected and control (untreated) nerves; 3) histologic evaluation of axons counts and the area of the axons. Vibrissae movement observation: the inclusion of suturing resulted in overall improved outcomes. This was found for comparisons of the suture group with PRP group; PRP with/without suture groups; and PPP with/without suture groups (P .05). The movement recovery of the suture group was significantly better than the FS group (P = .014). The recovery of function of the PRP groups was better than that of the FS groups, although this did not reach statistical significance (P = .09). Electrophysiologic testing: there was a significantly better performance of the suture group when compared with the PRP and PPP without suture groups in nerve conduction velocity (P facial nerve axotomy models occurred when the nerve ends were sutured together. At the same time, the data demonstrated a measurable neurotrophic effect when PRP was present, with the most favorable results seen with PRP added to suture. There was an improved functional outcome with the use of PRP in comparison with FS or no bioactive

  12. Composite hollow fiber gas-liquid membrane contactors for olefin/paraffin separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Visser, Tymen; Assen, R.; Wessling, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Gas¿liquid membrane contactors frequently suffer from undesired wetting of the microporous membrane by the absorption liquid. Stabilization layers at the liquid-side of the microporous membrane potentially prevent this wetting. We apply such stabilized membranes in a membrane contactor using AgNO3

  13. Anticaries effect of atraumatic restorative treatment with fissure sealants in suburban districts of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuĝrul Ercan

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: These results clearly show that the ART-GIS procedure can be used as a preventive method in rural and/or suburban areas where other preventive approaches are neither available nor economical.

  14. Protective effects of resin sealant and flowable composite coatings against erosive and abrasive wear of dental hard tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyi; Pan, Jie; Malmstrom, Hans S; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2016-06-01

    To test the effectiveness of sealant and flowable composite coating on eroded enamel, dentin and cementum under erosive/abrasive challenges in vitro. A total of 108 tissue sections (36 each for enamel, dentin and cementum) from third molars were assigned to three groups: Seal & Protect sealant (S&P), Tetric EvoFlow composite (TEF) and control. Erosive/abrasive lesions were created on each specimen by citric acid and brushing with toothpaste. S&P and TEF were applied to the lesions and subjected to erosive/abrasive cycling included 24 cycles of immersion in citric acid (pH 3.6) for 60min, followed by remineralization for 120min and brushing with toothpastes for 600 strokes at 150g. Erosive wear of materials or dental tissues were measured with 3D scanning microscopy and data were analyzed using ANOVA. Treatments with S&P and TEF created a protective material coating of 42.7±17.8μm and 150.8±9.9μm in thickness, respectively. After 24 cycles of erosive/abrasive challenges, tissue losses were -346.9±37.3μm for enamel, -166.5±26.3μm for dentin and -164.7±18.2μm for cementum in untreated controls, as compared to material losses of -24.4±3.3μm for S&P, and -10.8±4.4μm for TEF, respectively. Both S&P and TEF were effective in protecting enamel, dentin and cementum against erosive tooth wear (pwear than TEF (pabrasive challenges. A thin coating of flowable composite resin 150μm in thickness may provide long-term protection against erosive/abrasive tooth wear. Resin sealant may provide adequate protection for dental hard tissues in short-term and may require repeated applications if long-term protection is desired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A study for the research trends of membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A single PEM fuel cell is comprised of a membrane electrode assembly, two bipolar plates and two fields. Membrane electrode assembly is the basic component of PEM fuel cell due to its cost and function, and it consists a membrane sandwiched between two electrocatalyst layers/electrodes and two gas diffusion layers. Increasing the PEM fuel cell operation temperature from 80 o C to 150-200 o C will prevent electrocatalysts CO poisoning and increase the fuel cell performance. Therefore, membranes must have chemical and mechanical resistance and must keep enough water at high temperatures. The aim of membrane studies through fuel cell commercialization is to produce a less expensive thin membrane with high operation temperature, chemical and mechanical resistance and water adsorption capacity. Within this frame, alternative membrane materials, membrane electrode assembly manufacture and evaluation methods are being studied. In this paper, recent studies are reviewed to give a conclusion for research trends. (author)

  16. Acid neutralizing, mechanical and physical properties of pit and fissure sealants containing melt-derived 45S5 bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Yi; Piao, Yin-Zhu; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) on the acid neutralizing, mechanical and physical properties of pit and fissure sealants. 45S5BAG (glass (180 ± 30 nm) and added into a resin matrix [Bis-GMA/TEGDMA 50/50 (wt%) containing 1% of DMAEMA/CQ 2:1 (wt%)] with varying filler proportions; 0% 45S5BAG+50% glass (BAG0); 12.5% 45S5BAG+37.5% glass (BAG12.5); 25% 45S5BAG+25% glass (BAG25); 37.5% 45S5BAG+12.5% glass (BAG37.5); and 50% 45S5BAG+0% glass (BAG50). To evaluate the acid neutralizing properties, specimens were immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.0). Then, the change in pH and the time required to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.5 were measured. In addition, flexural strength, water sorption and solubility were analyzed. The acid neutralizing properties of each group exhibited increasing pH values as more 45S5BAG was added, and the time required to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.5 became shorter as the proportion of 45S5BAG increased (P0.05), except for BAG50. The novel pit and fissure sealants neutralized the acid solution (pH 4.0) and exhibited appropriate mechanical and physical properties. Therefore, these compounds are suitable candidates for caries-inhibiting dental materials. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Er:YAG laser and air abrasion on the microleakage of a resin-based fissure sealant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancakli, Hande Sar; Erdemir, Ugur; Yildiz, Esra

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different surface pre-treatment techniques on the microleakage of a resin-based fissure sealant material. Thirty-five molars were divided into the following seven groups based on the surface pre-treatment technique used: (a) Erbium: Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG) laser (7 W); (b) Er:YAG laser (7 W)+acid etching (with 37% phosphoric acid); (c) Er:YAG laser (5.5 W); (d) Er:YAG laser (5.5 W)+acid etching; (e) air abrasion+acid etching; (f) air abrasion; and (g) conventional acid etching. The sealant was placed according to the manufacturers' instructions and light-cured for 20 sec. The sealed teeth were thermocycled for 10,000 cycles (5°-55°C), then immersed in 5% methylene blue for 24 h and sectioned mesiodistally. Each section was analyzed and photographed using a light microscope. Microleakage was assessed quantitatively by the degree of dye penetration and also qualitatively, scored on a three-point rating scale. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The level of significance was set at p laser irradiation exhibited significantly higher microleakage than those conditioned with air abrasion followed by acid etching, and those conditioned with conventional acid etching (p Air abrasion followed by acid etching, as well as conventional acid etching, provided a sufficient seal, whereas laser irradiation alone or in combination with acid etching exhibited higher microleakage than did the other groups. Conventional acid etching remains the most effective and the simplest technique.

  18. Comparison of fibrin sealant versus suture for wound closure in Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection ptosis repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Marsha C; Ohr, Matthew P; Czyz, Craig N; Cahill, Kenneth V; Perry, Julian D; Holck, David E E; Foster, Jill A

    2009-01-01

    To compare fibrin sealant (Tisseel) versus suture for wound closure in Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection ptosis repair. The charts of 114 patients (211 eyelids) who had undergone Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection were retrospectively reviewed. Suture versus Tisseel were used for wound closure. Preoperative and postoperative eyelid measurements, postoperative symmetry within 0.5 mm, and complications were compared. Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection ptosis repair was performed on 211 eyelids of 114 patients. Seventeen cases were unilateral and 97 cases were bilateral. Method of wound closure included suture (45 eyelids of 31 patients) versus Tisseel (166 eyelids of 83 patients). For the suture group, the mean preoperative MRD1 was 1.2 mm and the postoperative MRD1 was 3.0 mm; the difference was 1.9. For the Tisseel group, the mean preoperative MRD1 was 1.2 mm and the postoperative MRD1 was 3.0 mm; the difference was 1.8. The 2 groups did not differ statistically in preoperative (p = 0.97) or postoperative MRD1 values (p = 0.53), the difference (p = 0.63), or postoperative symmetry within 0.5 mm (p = 0.39). In the suture group, complications included moderate to severe pain (10%), suture granuloma (6%), corneal abrasion (3%), loose suture (3%), and persistent keratopathy (3%). We found no evidence of keratopathy attributable to the Tisseel (p = 0.0001). This difference in the prevalence of complications was statistically significant (p = 0.0001). Four patients in the suture group (13%) underwent subsequent procedures including suture granuloma removal (2) and suture removal (1); 1 patient (3%) required levator resection. Three patients in the Tisseel group (4%) subsequently underwent levator resection. Müller muscle-conjunctiva resection ptosis repair using fibrin sealant for wound closure offers comparable eyelid position results compared with suture. Use of Tisseel showed fewer postoperative complications and was associated with fewer subsequent surgical

  19. Effectiveness of school-based dental sealant programs among children from low-income backgrounds: a pragmatic randomized clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Bolla, Michèle; Pierre, Audrey; Lupi-Pégurier, Laurence; Velly, Ana M

    2016-10-01

    A split-mouth randomized clinical trial was carried out to assess the effectiveness of a school-based dental sealant (SBDS) program for French children from low-income backgrounds within 3 years of follow-up. The secondary objectives were to determine the risk factors for the occurrence of new carious lesions (ICDAS 3-6) on first permanent molars, to evaluate the effectiveness of the program according to risk factors and to assess sealant retention. The study included 276 6- to 7-year old pupils (457 pairs of first permanent molars) from Nice. The sealing was performed in first- or second-grade children. The first permanent molars were randomized into two groups: One received resin-based sealant and the other formed a nontreatment group. Carious lesions ICDAS 3-6 on permanent and primary teeth, visible plaque, streptococcus mutans and/or lactobacillus counts were recorded at baseline to assess individual caries risk (ICR). The putative confounders recorded at baseline were sex, grade level, and characteristics of first permanent molars. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed, where the study outcome was the occurrence of new carious lesions within 3 years of follow-up. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models (hazard risk, HR) using the procedure PHREG with the option of Covsandwich were performed in SAS to assess the effectiveness of the SBDS program. At 3 years of follow-up, 228 children (378 tooth pairs) remained in the analysis. The survival analysis showed that first permanent molars that received sealants had 67% (adjusted HR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.24-0.46) less risk of developing new carious lesions during all the follow-up than molars without sealant. In addition, children with carious lesions ICDAS 3-6 on permanent and primary teeth, that is, high ICR, had three times the risk of having a new carious lesion than others without, independently of the sealant treatment (adjusted HR: 3.00; 95% CI: 1.55-5.75). Effectiveness of the SBDS program

  20. Evidence-based Update of Pediatric Dental Restorative Procedures: Preventive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinanoff, N; Coll, J A; Dhar, V; Maas, W R; Chhibber, S; Zokaei, L

    2015-01-01

    There has been significant advances in the understanding of preventive restorative procedures regarding the advantages and disadvantages for restorative procedures; the evidence for conservative techniques for deep carious lesions; the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants; and the evidence for use of resin infiltration techniques. The intent of this review is to help practitioners use evidence to make decisions regarding preventive restorative dentistry in children and young adolescents. This evidence-based review appraises the literature, primarily between the years 1995-2013, on preventive restorative strategies. The evidence was graded as to strong evidence, evidence in favor, or expert opinion by consensus of authors Results: The preventive strategy for dental caries includes individualized assessment of disease progression and management with appropriate preventive and restorative therapy. There is strong evidence that restoration of teeth with incomplete caries excavation results in fewer signs and symptoms of pulpal disease than complete excavation. There is strong evidence that sealants should be placed on pit and fissure surfaces judged to be at risk for dental caries, and surfaces that already exhibit incipient, non-cavitated carious lesions. There is evidence in favor for resin infiltration to improve the clinical appearance of white spot lesions. Substantial evidence exists in the literature regarding the value of preventive dental restorative procedures.

  1. The Influence of Barrier Membranes on Autologous Bone Grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, P. F. M.; Schortinghuis, J.; de Jong, J. R.; Paans, A. M. J.; Ruben, J. L.; Raghoebar, G. M.; Stegenga, B.; Bos, R. R. M.

    2008-01-01

    In implant dentistry, there is continuing debate regarding whether a barrier membrane should be applied to cover autologous bone grafts in jaw augmentation. A membrane would prevent graft remodeling with resorption and enhance graft incorporation. We hypothesized that membrane coverage does not

  2. Avaliação clínica de um cimento de ionômero de vidro utilizado como selante oclusal: a clinical evaluation Use of a glass ionomer cement as an occlusal sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cheque BERNARDO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sabendo-se do papel do flúor na Odontologia Preventiva, cada vez mais procuram-se materiais restauradores com propriedades de liberação deste íon. Dentre os selantes oclusais, grande expectativa existe em relação aos cimentos de ionômero de vidro, particularmente os fotopolimerizáveis, por possuírem melhores propriedades. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar um destes cimentos, Vitremer (3M, aplicado em: combinação ou não com um adesivo. A avaliação foi realizada em 159 dentes, 6 e 12 meses após a aplicação do selante, observando-se sua retenção e a presença ou ausência de lesão de cárie. Concluiu-se que a técnica modificada, com adesivo, propiciou significativamente melhor retenção após 6 e 12 meses que a técnica convencional, não havendo diferença entre molares e pré-molares. Apenas um dente do grupo sem adesivo desenvolveu lesão de cárie após a perda do material.Since fluoride’s properties are widely known in the field of Preventive Dentistry, fluoride-releasing materials have been extensively investigated. Among the occlusal sealants, there is great expectation regarding the results that can be achieved with light-curing glass-ionomer cements due to their excellent properties. The aim of this study was to assess the use of one of these cements, Vitremer (3M as an occlusal sealant. The material was applied using two different techniques; either associated or not with an adhesive system. After 6 and 12 months of observation, an evaluation was performed in 159 teeth to verify its retention as well as the presence of caries lesions. The technique that included the adhesive system showed better retention than the conventional one. Total retention was 84.9% for the experimental technique and 37.2% for the conventional technique after 12 months. There was no difference between bicuspids and molars regarding retention. Caries lesion was observed in a single tooth, for which a total loss of material was observed

  3. A 12-month clinical evaluation of pit-and-fissure sealants placed with and without etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems in newly-erupted teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this one-year clinical study was to investigate the effect of two adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond, a two-step etch-and-rinse and Clearfil SE Bond, a two-step self-etch system on pit-and-fissure sealant retention in newly-erupted teeth. This study compared the success of the sealants in mesial and distopalatal grooves with and without these two adhesive systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a clinical trial, 35 children aged 6-8 years undergoing sealant placement were recruited. This one-year clinical study scored 70 mesial and 70 distopalatal sealants of newly-erupted permanent maxillary first molar, with a split-mouth design. All children received sealant alone in one permanent maxillary molar tooth. Children were randomized into two groups. One group received Self-etch (Se bond plus sealant and the other group received Single Bond plus sealant in another permanent maxillary molar tooth. Clinical evaluation at 3, 6 and 12 months was performed and the retention was studied in terms of the success and failure. RESULTS: The success rate of sealant in the distopalatal groove, using SeB at 3, 6 and 12 months was 93.3% (95% CI: 68.0, 99.8, 73.3% (95% CI: 44.9, 92.2 and 66.7% (95% CI: 38.4, 88.2, respectively. It was greater than that of the distopalatal groove in SB group with a success rate of 62.5% (95% CI: 35.4, 84.8, 31.3% (95% CI: 11.8, 58.7 and 31.3% (95% CI: 11.8, 58.7, at the three evaluation periods. The success rate of sealant in the mesial groove using SeB was 86.6% (95% CI: 59.5, 98.3, 53.3% (95% CI: 26.6, 78.7 and 53.3% (95% CI: 26.6, 78.7, while this was 100% (95% CI: 79.4, 100.0, 81.3% (95% CI: 54.4, 96.0 and 81.3% (95% CI: 54.4, 96.0 using SB, at 3, 6 and 12-month evaluation periods. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the use of these two bonding agents in pit-and-fissure sealants under both isolated and contaminated conditions. Further, Se bond seemed to be less sensitive to moisture contamination.

  4. Assessment of pain and quality of life in Lichtenstein hernia repair using a new monofilament PTFE mesh: comparison of suture vs. fibrin sealant mesh fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René H Fortelny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common operations in general surgery. The Lichtenstein tension-free operation has become the gold standard in open inguinal hernia repair. Despite the low recurrence rates, pain and discomfort remain a problem for a large number of patients. The aim of this study was to compare suture fixation vs. fibrin sealing by using a new monofilament PTFE mesh, i.e. the Infinit® mesh by W. L. Gore & Associates. Methods: This study was designed as a controlled prospective single-centre two cohort study. A total of 38 patients were enrolled and operated in Lichtenstein technique either standard suture mesh fixation or fibrin sealant mesh fixation were used as described in the TIMELI trial. Primary outcome parameters were postoperative complications with the new mesh (i.e. seroma, infection, pain and quality of life evaluated by the VAS and the SF-36 questionnaire. Secondary outcome was recurrence assessed by ultrasound and physical examination. Follow-up time was 1 year.Results: Significantly less postoperative pain was reported in the fibrin sealant group compared to the suture group at 6 weeks (P=0.035, 6 months (P=0.023 and 1 year (P=0.011 postoperatively. Additionally trends towards a higher postoperative quality of life, a faster surgical procedure and a shorter hospital stay were seen in the fibrin sealant group.Conclusion: Fibrin sealant mesh fixation in Lichtenstein hernioplasty effectively reduces acute and chronic postoperative pain. Monofilament, macro-porous, knitted PTFE meshes seem to be a practicable alternative to commonly used polypropylene meshes in open inguinal hernia repair.

  5. Avaliação in vitro da microinfiltração na interface selante/esmalte sob a influência de contaminação, emprego de "primer" e tipo de selante In vitro evaluation of sealant microleakage under the influence of contamination, use of primer and type of sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lídia CIAMPONI

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou, in vitro, a microinfiltração na interface selante/esmalte sob a influência de contaminação do meio (saliva, emprego de "primer" (Tenure - Den-Mat e tipo de selante (Concise Light Cured White Sealant - 3M; Fluroshield - Caulk/Dentsply. Os resultados foram obtidos a partir de medidas lineares, utilizando um sistema computadorizado de imagens digitalizadas (IMAGE PLUS. Pôde-se concluir que a contaminação salivar e a utilização de "primer" atuaram de maneira diversa nas diferentes etapas do procedimento clínico; os selantes comportaram-se de maneira semelhante quando submetidos às mesmas condições; o emprego do "primer" favoreceu o escoamento do selante Fluroshield (Caulk/Dentsply nos sulcos e pôde ser observado maior número de bolhas com esse material.This in vitro study investigated the effect of different types of sealants (Concise Light Cured White Sealant - 3M; Fluroshield - Caulk/Dentsply and the use of primer (Tenure - Den-Mat on the microleakage of saliva-contaminated enamel. Sealants were placed on 360 surfaces (occlusal, buccal and lingual of extracted teeth free of caries. After being prepared according to each experimental group, they were thermocycled (5 and 55ºC for 500 and 2.000 cycles. Then they were immersed in a silver nitrate solution (50% and cut in longitudinal slices. The results were described in linear measurements (mm by means of a digital-image analysis system. Contamination and use of primer had different influences when subjected to the different experimental conditions. Both sealants had the same influence on microleakage. Flow of Fluroshield into pit and fissures was improved by use of the primer, and a greater amount of bubbles could be observed in this material.

  6. Print your own membrane: direct rapid prototyping of polydimethylsiloxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femmer, Tim; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Wessling, Matthias

    2014-08-07

    Polydimethylsiloxane is a translucent and biologically inert silicone material used in sealants, biomedical implants and microscale lab-on-a-chip devices. Furthermore, in membrane technology, polydimethylsiloxane represents a material for separation barriers as it has high permeabilities for various gases. The facile handling of two component formulations with a silicone base material, a catalyst and a small molecular weight crosslinker makes it widely applicable for soft-lithographic replication of two-dimensional device geometries, such as microfluidic chips or micro-contact stamps. Here, we develop a new technique to directly print polydimethylsiloxane in a rapid prototyping device, circumventing the need for masks or sacrificial mold production. We create a three-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane membrane for gas-liquid-contacting based on a Schwarz-P triple-periodic minimal-surface, which is inaccessible with common machining techniques. Direct 3D-printing of polydimethylsiloxane enables rapid production of novel chip geometries for a manifold of lab-on-a-chip applications.

  7. Water desalination using carbon-nanotube-enhanced membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethard, Ken; Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) enhanced membrane distillation is presented for water desalination. It is demonstrated that the immobilization of the CNTs in the pores of a hydrophobic membrane favorably alters the water-membrane interactions to promote vapor permeability while preventing liquid penetration into the membrane pores. For a salt concentration of 34 000 mg L(-1) and at 80 °C, the nanotube incorporation led to 1.85 and 15 times increase in flux and salt reduction, respectively.

  8. From biological membranes to biomimetic model membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes play an essential role in the cellular protection as well as in the control and the transport of nutrients. Many mechanisms such as molecular recognition, enzymatic catalysis, cellular adhesion and membrane fusion take place into the biological membranes. In 1972, Singer et al. provided a membrane model, called fluid mosaic model, in which each leaflet of the bilayer is formed by a homogeneous environment of lipids in a fluid state including globular assembling of proteins and glycoproteins. Since its conception in 1972, many developments were brought to this model in terms of composition and molecular organization. The main development of the fluid mosaic model was made by Simons et al. (1997 and Brown et al. (1997 who suggested that membrane lipids are organized into lateral microdomains (or lipid rafts with a specific composition and a molecular dynamic that are different to the composition and the dynamic of the surrounding liquid crystalline phase. The discovery of a phase separation in the plane of the membrane has induced an explosion in the research efforts related to the biology of cell membranes but also in the development of new technologies for the study of these biological systems. Due to the high complexity of biological membranes and in order to investigate the biological processes that occur on the membrane surface or within the membrane lipid bilayer, a large number of studies are performed using biomimicking model membranes. This paper aims at revisiting the fundamental properties of biological membranes in terms of membrane composition, membrane dynamic and molecular organization, as well as at describing the most common biomimicking models that are frequently used for investigating biological processes such as membrane fusion, membrane trafficking, pore formation as well as membrane interactions at a molecular level.

  9. Pilot demonstration of energy-efficient membrane bioreactor (MBR) using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jaeho; Smith, Shaleena; Patamasank, Jaren; Tontcheva, Petia; Kim, Gyu Dong; Roh, Hyung Keun

    2015-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is becoming popular for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse. Air scouring to "shake" the membrane fibers is most suitable and applicable to maintain filtration without severe and rapidfouling. However, membrane fouling mitigating technologies are energy intensive. The goal of this research is to develop an alternative energy-saving MBR system to reduce energy consumption; a revolutionary system that will directly compete with air scouring technologies currently in the membrane water reuse market. The innovative MBR system, called reciprocation MBR (rMBR), prevents membrane fouling without the use of air scouring blowers. The mechanism featured is a mechanical reciprocating membrane frame that uses inertia to prevent fouling. Direct strong agitation of the fiber is also beneficial for the constant removal of solids built up on the membrane surface. The rMBR pilot consumes less energy than conventional coarse air scouring MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for membrane reciprocation for the pilot rMBR system was 0.072 kWh/m3 permeate produced at 40 LMH, which is 75% less than the conventional air scouring in an MBR system (0.29 kWh/m3). Reciprocation of the hollow-fiber membrane can overcome the hydrodynamic limitations of air scouring or cross-flow membrane systems with less energy consumption and/or higher energy efficiency.

  10. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  11. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    Biological membranes are essential and complex structures in every living cell consisting of a fluid lipid bilayer sheet and membrane proteins. Its significance makes biological membranes not only interesting for medical research, but also has made it a target for toxins in the course of evolution....... Today, we know more than ever before about the properties of biological membranes. Advanced biophysical techniques and sophisticated membrane models allow us to answer specific questions about the structure of the components within membranes and their interactions. However, many detailed structural...... mechanisms of membrane compounds, including compounds associated with membranes, are still unknown due to the challenges that arise when probing the hydrophobic nature of the membrane's interior. For integral membrane proteins that span through the entire membrane, the amphiphilic environment is essential...

  12. Timetable for oral prevention in childhood-a current opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paddy

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries in young children remains a public health problem particularly for children whose families are socioeconomically deprived. A child's first dental visit should be at approximately 12 months of age and this should facilitate the provision of anticipatory guidance concerning oral health and dental development to the child's parents/guardians. Compliance with dietary advice is of key importance and motivational interviewing shows promise in relation to parents adopting good oral health practices for their children. Twice daily toothbrushing using toothpaste that contains in the range of 1000- 1500ppmF is a most important preventive measure. It is important to use a minimal amount of toothpaste, insure that it is not swallowed, have parental or adult supervision during toothbrushing and avoid rinsing with water following brushing with toothpaste. The professional application of topical fluoride varnish twice yearly is a proven caries preventative measure. The application of pit and fissure sealants to teeth with deep pits and fissures is recommended.

  13. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  14. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Bonding Agent on the Tensile Bond Strength of Two Pit and Fissure Sealants Using Invasive and Non-invasive Techniques: An in-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shamsher; Adlakha, Vivek; Babaji, Prashant; Chandna, Preetika; Thomas, Abi M; Chopra, Saroj

    2013-10-01

    Newer technologies and the development of pit and fissure sealants have shifted the treatment philosophy from 'drill and fill' to that of 'seal and heal'. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the effects of bonding agents on the tensile bond strengths of two pit and fissure sealants by using invasive and non-invasive techniques. One hundred and twenty bicuspids were collected and teeth were divided into two groups: Group-I (Clinpro) and Group-II (Conseal f) with 60 teeth in each group. For evaluating tensile bond strengths, occlusal surfaces of all the teeth were flattened by reducing buccal and lingual cusps without disturbing fissures. Standardised polyvinyl tube was bonded to occlusal surfaces with respective materials. Sealants were applied, with or without bonding agents, in increments and they were light cured. Tensile bond strengths were determined by using Universal Testing Machine. Data were then statistically analysed by using Student t-test for comparison. A statistically significant difference was found in tensile bond strength in invasive with bonding agent group than in non-invasive with bonding agent group. This study revealed that invasive techniques increase the tensile bond strengths of sealants as compared to non- invasive techniques and that the use of a bonding agent as an intermediate layer between the tooth and fissure sealant is beneficial for increasing the bond strength.

  15. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  16. Diagnostic Modalities in Premature Rupture of Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Eskicioğlu; Esra Bahar Gur

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labor is known as Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM). Early and correct diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent fetal and maternal risks that can be life threatening. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic ability of the tests in PROM. Materials and Methods: Nitrazine test, fern test, amnio-dye test, biochemical tests (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and placental alpha microglobulin-1) were evaluated in terms of effec...

  17. Free volume of mixed cation borosilicate glass sealants elucidated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and its correlation with glass properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Prasanta K.; Rath, Sangram K.; Sharma, Sandeep K.; Sudarshan, Kathi; Pujari, Pradeep K.; Chongdar, Tapas K.; Gokhale, Nitin M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of La+3/Sr+2 ratios, which is varied from 0.08 to 5.09, on density, molar volume, packing fraction, free volume, thermal and electrical properties in strontium lanthanum aluminoborosilicate based glass sealants intended for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications is evaluated. The studies reveal expansion of the glass network evident from increasing molar volume and decreasing packing fraction of glasses with progressive La+3 substitutions. The molecular origin of these macroscopic structural features can be accounted for by the free volume parameters measured from positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The La+3 induced expanded glass networks show increased number of subnanoscopic voids with larger sizes, as revealed from the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and its intensity. A remarkably direct correspondence between the molar volume and fractional free volume trend is established with progressive La2O3 substitution in the glasses. The effect of these structural changes on the glass transition temperature, softening temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal stability as well as electrical conductivity has been studied.

  18. Synaptic plasticity and sensory-motor improvement following fibrin sealant dorsal root reimplantation and mononuclear cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Ulian Benitez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Root lesions may affect both dorsal and ventral roots. However, due to the possibility of generating further inflammation and neuropathic pain, surgical procedures do not prioritize the repair of the afferent component. The loss of such sensorial input directly disturbs the spinal circuits thus affecting the functionality of the injuried limb. The present study evaluated the motor and sensory improvement following dorsal root reimplantation with fibrin sealant (FS plus bone marrow mononuclear cells (MC after dorsal rhizotomy. MC were used to enhance the repair process. We also analyzed changes in the glial response and synaptic circuits within the spinal cord. Female Lewis rats (6-8 weeks old were divided in three groups: rhizotomy (RZ group, rhizotomy repaired with FS (RZ+FS group and rhizotomy repaired with FS and MC (RZ+FS+MC group. The behavioral tests electronic von-Frey and Walking track test were carried out. For immunohistochemistry we used markers to detect different synapse profiles as well as glial reaction. The behavioral results showed a significant decrease in sensory and motor function after lesion. The reimplantation decreased glial reaction and improved synaptic plasticity of afferent inputs. Cell therapy further enhanced the rewiring process. In addition, both reimplanted groups presented twice as much motor control compared to the non-treated group. In conclusion, the reimplantation with FS and MC is efficient and may be considered an approach to improve sensory-motor recovery following dorsal rhizotomy.

  19. Polymeric Membrane Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Sousa; Luís M. Madeira; João C. Santos; Adélio Mendes

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is the study of membrane reactors with polymeric membranes, particularly catalytic polymeric membranes. After an introduction where the main advantages and disadvantages of the use of polymeric membranes are summarised, a review of the main areas where they have been applied, integrated in chemical reactors, is presented. This excludes the field of bio-membranes processes, which is analysed in a specific chapter of this book. Particular attention is then given to model...

  20. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  1. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  2. Resistência ao cisalhamento de um selante associado a componentes de um sistema adesivo dental Shear bond strength of an enamel sealant using components of a dental adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda Maria MUSSOLINO

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Cilindros de selante, padronizados, foram unidos ao esmalte das superfícies vestibulares de incisivos bovinos, após serem planificadas e condicionadas, com ácido fosfórico a 37%, durante 30 segundos. Foram utilizados 40 dentes, aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos, cujas coroas foram secionadas, de modo a obter-se duas porções, cervical e incisal. No Grupo I, após o condicionamento, aplicou-se o selante Fluroshield; no Grupo II, antes da aplicação do selante, uma camada do "primer" do Probond foi aplicada; no Grupo III, após o "primer", aplicou-se o adesivo do Probond; e no Grupo IV, somente o adesivo foi aplicado antes do selante. Os espécimes foram armazenados em água a 37°C, durante 36 horas, e então submetidos aos ensaios de cisalhamento. A análise estatística revelou significante diminuição na resistência ao cisalhamento, quando o "primer" foi aplicado previamente ao selante, enquanto a resistência ao cisalhamento do selante foi semelhante quando o adesivo do Probond foi aplicado, com ou sem o "primer". A resistência ao cisalhamento do selante ao esmalte é maior no terço incisal que no terço cervical da coroa.Standardized cylinders of sealants were bonded to the flattened labial enamel of bovine incisor teeth that had previously been subjected to 37% phosphoric acid gel for 30 seconds. A total of 40 teeth were tested, randomly divided in four groups of 10 teeth each. In Group I, the sealant Fluroshield was applied after etching; in Group II after etching, the "primer" of Probond was used before the sealant; in Group III after etching, the bond of Probond was used after the "primer"; and in Group IV only the bond was applied before the sealant. Specimens were stored in water at 37°C during 36 hours, before shear testing using a Universal Testing Machine. There was significant reduction in shear bond strength of the sealant when only the "primer" was used previously to the application of the sealant. There were no

  3. The new heterologous fibrin sealant in combination with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the repair of the buccal branch of the facial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro; Buchaim, Rogerio Leone; Barraviera, Benedito; Junior, Rui Seabra Ferreira; Junior, Geraldo Marco Rosa; Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Roque, Domingos Donizeti; Dias, Daniel Ventura; Dare, Leticia Rossi; Andreo, Jesus Carlos

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the repair of the buccal branch of the facial nerve with two surgical techniques: end-to-end epineural suture and coaptation with heterologous fibrin sealant. Forty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group (CG) in which the buccal branch of the facial nerve was collected without injury; (2) experimental group with suture (EGS) and experimental group with fibrin (EGF): The buccal branch of the facial nerve was transected on both sides of the face. End-to-end suture was performed on the right side and fibrin sealant on the left side; (3) Experimental group with suture and laser (EGSL) and experimental group with fibrin and laser (EGFL). All animals underwent the same surgical procedures in the EGS and EGF groups, in combination with the application of LLLT (wavelength of 830 nm, 30 mW optical power output of potency, and energy density of 6 J/cm(2)). The animals of the five groups were euthanized at 5 weeks post-surgery and 10 weeks post-surgery. Axonal sprouting was observed in the distal stump of the facial nerve in all experimental groups. The observed morphology was similar to the fibers of the control group, with a predominance of myelinated fibers. In the final period of the experiment, the EGSL presented the closest results to the CG, in all variables measured, except in the axon area. Both surgical techniques analyzed were effective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, where the use of fibrin sealant allowed the manipulation of the nerve stumps without trauma. LLLT exhibited satisfactory results on facial nerve regeneration, being therefore a useful technique to stimulate axonal regeneration process.

  4. Characterization of Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetric Electrodes Using Paraffin as an Effective Sealant with In Vitro and In Vivo Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsson, Eric S; Cholger, Daniel; Dionise, Albert; Poirier, Nicholas; Andrus, Avery; Curtiss, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a powerful technique for measuring sub-second changes in neurotransmitter levels. A great time-limiting factor in the use of FSCV is the production of high-quality recording electrodes; common recording electrodes consist of cylindrical carbon fiber encased in borosilicate glass. When the borosilicate is heated and pulled, the molten glass ideally forms a tight seal around the carbon fiber cylinder. It is often difficult, however, to guarantee a perfect seal between the glass and carbon. Indeed, much of the time spent creating electrodes is in an effort to find a good seal. Even though epoxy resins can be useful in this regard, they are irreversible (seals are permanent), wasteful (epoxy cannot be reused once hardener is added), hazardous (hardeners are often caustic), and require curing. Herein we characterize paraffin as an electrode sealant for FSCV microelectrodes. Paraffin boasts the advantages of near-immediate curing times, simplicity in use, long shelf-life and stable waterproof seals capable of withstanding extended cycling. Borosilicate electrode tips were left intact or broken and dipped in paraffin embedding wax. Excess wax was removed from the carbon surface with xyelenes or by repeated cycling at an extended waveform (-0.4 to 1.4V, 400 V/s, 60 Hz). Then, the waveform was switched to a standard waveform (-0.4 to 1.3V, 400 V/s, 10 Hz) and cycled until stable. Wax-sealing does not inhibit electrode sensitivity, as electrodes detected linear changes in dopamine before and after wax (then xylenes) exposure. Paraffin seals are intact after 11 days of implantation in the mouse, and still capable of measuring transient changes in in vivo dopamine. From this it is clear that paraffin wax is an effective sealant for FSCV electrodes that provides a convenient substitute to epoxy sealants.

  5. Effect of laser and air abrasion pretreatment on the microleakage of a fissure sealant applied with conventional and self etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirali, R E; Celik, C; Arhun, N; Berk, G; Cehreli, S B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different pretreatment protocols along with different bonding agents on the microleakage of a fissure sealant material. A total of 144 freshly extracted noncarious human third molars were used The teeth were randomly assigned into three groups with respect to the pretreatment protocol employed: A. Air Abrasion B. Er,Cr:YSGG laser C. No pretreatment (Control). In each group specimens were further subjected to one of the following procedures before application of the sealant: 1. %36 Phosphoric acid-etch (AE) (DeTrey Conditioner 36/Denstply, UK) 2.AE+Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply, UK) 3. Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray, Japan) 4. Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Japan). All teeth were sealed with the same fissure sealant material (Conseal F/SDI, Australia). Sealed teeth were further subjected to thermocycling, dye penetration test, sectioning and quantitative image analysis. Statistical evaluation of the microleakage data was performed with two way independent ANOVA and multiple comparisons test at p = 0.05. For qualitative evaluation 2 samples from each group were examined under Scanning Electron Microscopy. Microleakage was affected by both the type of pretreatment and the subsequent bonding protocols employed (p laser pretreated enamel sealed by Acid Etch+Prime&-Bond+Conseal F protocols, respectively (p laser yielded in slightly lower microleakage scores when compared with unpretreated samples and samples pretreated with air abrasion but the statistical significance was not important (p = 0,179). Similarly, when bonding agent is applied following acid-etching procedure, microleakage scores were not affected from pretreatment protocol (p = 0,615) (intact enamel/laser or air-abrasion). For both all-in one and two step self etch adhesive systems, unpretreated samples demonstrated the highest microleakage scores. For the groups in which bonding agent was utilized, pretreatments did not effected microleakage. Both the tested

  6. Implications for high-precision dose radiation therapy planning or limited surgical resection after percutaneous computed tomography-guided lung nodule biopsy using a tract sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M. de Groot, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Precision radiation therapy such as stereotactic body radiation therapy and limited resection are being used more frequently to treat intrathoracic malignancies. Effective local control requires precise radiation target delineation or complete resection. Lung biopsy tracts (LBT on computed tomography (CT scans after the use of tract sealants can mimic malignant tract seeding (MTS and it is unclear whether these LBTs should be included in the calculated tumor volume or resected. This study evaluates the incidence, appearance, evolution, and malignant seeding of LBTs. Methods and materials: A total of 406 lung biopsies were performed in oncology patients using a tract sealant over 19 months. Of these patients, 326 had follow-up CT scans and were included in the study group. Four thoracic radiologists retrospectively analyzed the imaging, and a pathologist examined 10 resected LBTs. Results: A total of 234 of 326 biopsies (72%, including primary lung cancer [n = 98]; metastases [n = 81]; benign [n = 50]; and nondiagnostic [n = 5] showed an LBT on CT. LBTs were identified on imaging 0 to 3 months after biopsy. LBTs were typically straight or serpiginous with a thickness of 2 to 5 mm. Most LBTs were unchanged (92% or decreased (6.3% over time. An increase in LBT thickness/nodularity that was suspicious for MTS occurred in 4 of 234 biopsies (1.7%. MTS only occurred after biopsy of metastases from extrathoracic malignancies, and none occurred in patients with lung cancer. Conclusions: LBTs are common on CT after lung biopsy using a tract sealant. MTS is uncommon and only occurred in patients with extrathoracic malignancies. No MTS was found in patients with primary lung cancer. Accordingly, potential alteration in planned therapy should be considered only in patients with LBTs and extrathoracic malignancies being considered for stereotactic body radiation therapy or wedge resection.

  7. Characterization of Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetric Electrodes Using Paraffin as an Effective Sealant with In Vitro and In Vivo Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Ramsson

    Full Text Available Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV is a powerful technique for measuring sub-second changes in neurotransmitter levels. A great time-limiting factor in the use of FSCV is the production of high-quality recording electrodes; common recording electrodes consist of cylindrical carbon fiber encased in borosilicate glass. When the borosilicate is heated and pulled, the molten glass ideally forms a tight seal around the carbon fiber cylinder. It is often difficult, however, to guarantee a perfect seal between the glass and carbon. Indeed, much of the time spent creating electrodes is in an effort to find a good seal. Even though epoxy resins can be useful in this regard, they are irreversible (seals are permanent, wasteful (epoxy cannot be reused once hardener is added, hazardous (hardeners are often caustic, and require curing. Herein we characterize paraffin as an electrode sealant for FSCV microelectrodes. Paraffin boasts the advantages of near-immediate curing times, simplicity in use, long shelf-life and stable waterproof seals capable of withstanding extended cycling. Borosilicate electrode tips were left intact or broken and dipped in paraffin embedding wax. Excess wax was removed from the carbon surface with xyelenes or by repeated cycling at an extended waveform (-0.4 to 1.4V, 400 V/s, 60 Hz. Then, the waveform was switched to a standard waveform (-0.4 to 1.3V, 400 V/s, 10 Hz and cycled until stable. Wax-sealing does not inhibit electrode sensitivity, as electrodes detected linear changes in dopamine before and after wax (then xylenes exposure. Paraffin seals are intact after 11 days of implantation in the mouse, and still capable of measuring transient changes in in vivo dopamine. From this it is clear that paraffin wax is an effective sealant for FSCV electrodes that provides a convenient substitute to epoxy sealants.

  8. Bone induction by composites of bioresorbable carriers and demineralized bone in rats: a comparative study of fibrin-collagen paste, fibrin sealant, and polyorthoester with gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Solheim, E; Bang, G

    1992-01-01

    Host tissue response and heterotopic osteoinduction by composites of demineralized bone matrix and three different substances used as bioresorbable carriers implanted in the abdominal muscles were evaluated by strontium 85 uptake and histology 4 weeks postoperatively in 60 male Wistar rats. Both...... fibrin-collagen paste and fibrin sealant inhibited bone induction and produced a chronic inflammation; part of the fibrin-collagen paste was still present at 4 weeks. Polyorthoester with gentamicin was almost completely absorbed, induced minimal tissue reaction, and did not inhibit osteoinduction....

  9. Does chlorination of seawater reverse osmosis membranes control biofouling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Hong, Pei-Ying; Nada, Nabil; Croue, Jean Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Biofouling is the major problem of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes used for desalting seawater (SW). The use of chlorine is a conventional and common practice to control/prevent biofouling. Unlike polyamide RO membranes, cellulose triacetate (CTA) RO membranes display a high chlorine tolerance. Due to this characteristic, CTA membranes are used in most of the RO plants located in the Middle East region where the elevated seawater temperature and water quality promote the risk of membrane biofouling. However, there is no detailed study on the investigation/characterization of CTA-RO membrane fouling. In this investigation, the fouling profile of a full-scale SWRO desalination plant operating with not only continuous chlorination of raw seawater but also intermittent chlorination of CTA-RO membranes was studied. Detailed water quality and membrane fouling analyses were conducted. Profiles of microbiological, inorganic, and organic constituents of analysed fouling layers were extensively discussed. Our results clearly identified biofilm development on these membranes. The incapability of chlorination on preventing biofilm formation on SWRO membranes could be assigned to its failure in effectively reaching throughout the different regions of the permeators. This failure could have occurred due to three main factors: plugging of membrane fibers, chlorine consumption by organics accumulated on the front side fibers, or chlorine adaptation of certain bacterial populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Does Chlorination of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Membranes Control Biofouling?

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Muhammad Tariq

    2015-04-01

    Biofouling is the major problem of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes used for desalting seawater (SW). The use of chlorine is a conventional and common practice to control/prevent biofouling. Unlike polyamide RO membranes, cellulose triacetate (CTA) RO membranes display a high chlorine tolerance. Due to this characteristic, CTA membranes are used in most of the RO plants located in the Middle East region where the elevated seawater temperature and water quality promote the risk of membrane biofouling. However, there is no detailed study on the investigation/characterization of CTA-RO membrane fouling. In this investigation, the fouling profile of a full–scale SWRO desalination plant operating with not only continuous chlorination of raw seawater but also intermittent chlorination of CTA-RO membranes was studied. Detailed water quality and membrane fouling analyses were conducted. Profiles of microbiological, inorganic, and organic constituents of analysed fouling layers were extensively discussed. Our results clearly identified biofilm development on these membranes. The incapability of chlorination on preventing biofilm formation on SWRO membranes could be assigned to its failure in effectively reaching throughout the different regions of the permeators. This failure could have occurred due to three main factors: plugging of membrane fibers, chlorine consumption by organics accumulated on the front side fibers, or chlorine adaptation of certain bacterial populations.

  11. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Wai Kit; Jouët, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: ► Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. ► Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. ► Al 2 O 3 and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. ► High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  12. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wai Kit, E-mail: kekyeung@ust.hk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Joueet, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Schrotter, Jean-Christophe [Water Research Center of Veolia, Anjou Recherche, Chemin de la Digue, BP 76. 78603, Maisons Laffitte, Cedex (France)

    2012-05-15

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  13. Hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in the porcine model using gelatin matrix hemostatic sealant without hilar occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Premal J; Maynes, Lincoln J; Zuppan, Craig; Berger, Kenneth A; Torrey, Robert; Baldwin, D Duane

    2005-06-01

    Gelatin matrix hemostatic sealant (GMHS) has been used for hemostasis during partial nephrectomy with hilar clamping. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of GMHS to achieve hemostasis without hilar clamping in the porcine model. In this feasibility study, eight farm pigs underwent a left-hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (HALPN). The lower fourth of the kidney was removed with cold scissors, and GMHS was applied laparoscopically. Samples were collected for measurement of serum hemoglobin (Hb) and creatinine (Cr) prior to surgery and at 4 and 30 days after HALPN. The kidneys were harvested at 30 days, and retrograde pyelograms and pathologic analysis were performed. Application of GMHS achieved complete hemostasis in all eight animals. The mean estimated blood loss was 40 mL, and the operating time was short (mean 92.5 minutes). In three kidneys, a significant collecting system opening was noted but not repaired. At harvest, there were no hematomas, infections, or urine leaks in any animals. In one animal, a 2-cm contained fluid collection was identified. There was no difference in the preoperative and harvest Hb (9.63 v 9.21 g/dL; P = 0.49), but there was a slight increase in Cr (1.21 v 1.46 mg/dL; P = 0.01) possibly because of the decreased renal mass after partial nephrectomy. Even without hilar occlusion, GMHS was 100% safe and effective in controlling bleeding after HALPN in the porcine model. Avoidance of hilar occlusion may reduce the risk associated with warm renal ischemia and the extra dissection required to isolate the hilum in preparation for clamping.

  14. The use of FloSeal haemostatic sealant in the management of epistaxis: a prospective clinical study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakelam, O C; Dimitriadis, P A; Stephens, J

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION It is standard practice in the UK that if conservative measures or chemical cautery fail to control epistaxis, patients receive nasal packing which is often uncomfortable, requires admission and has well documented associated morbidity. Our study aims to evaluate the use of FloSeal haemostatic sealant in managing patients with epistaxis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were identified from those referred with active epistaxis. A successful outcome was defined as complete haemostasis with FloSeal alone, with no further significant bleeding requiring admission or further interventions in the subsequent 7 days. Patients reported satisfaction using a ten-point visual analogue scale. Ear, nose and throat doctors recorded patient demographics, time to prepare FloSeal, length of stay, need for further treatment and adverse events on an electronic database. RESULTS 30 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean time to prepare FloSeal was 5 minutes. The success rate of FloSeal was 90%. The mean length of stay was 2.75 hours. The mean patient satisfaction with FloSeal was 8.4/10. No adverse events occurred. DISCUSSION FloSeal was found to be effective in controlling anterior epistaxis. There was a single case of posterior epistaxis which required operative management. The literature largely supports FloSeal in anterior epistaxis, but indicates sphenopalatine artery ligation as the definitive management of posterior epistaxis. CONCLUSIONS Our data support the use of FloSeal in patients with anterior epistaxis not controlled with conservative measures or chemical cautery. It was found to be easy to use, is well tolerated by patients and is efficient in financial terms.

  15. Synthetic Biological Membrane (SBM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ultimate goal of the Synthetic Biological Membrane project is to develop a new type of membrane that will enable the wastewater treatment system required on...

  16. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  17. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  18. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  19. Transmembrane Signalling: Membrane messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroft, Scott L.

    2017-05-01

    Life has evolved elaborate means of communicating essential chemical information across cell membranes. Inspired by biology, two new artificial mechanisms have now been developed that use synthetic messenger molecules to relay chemical signals into or across lipid membranes.

  20. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roelof; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular membrane that proliferates on the inner surface of the retina at the macular area. Membrane contraction is an important sight-threatening event and is due to fibrotic remodeling. Methods: Analysis of the current literature

  1. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite

    2014-01-01

    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  2. Membrane contactor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a membrane contactor the membrane separation is completely integrated with an extraction or absorption operation in order to exploit the benefits of both technologies fully. Membrane contactor applications that have been developed can be found in both water and gas treatment. Several recently

  3. On "spinning" membrane models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Sezgin, E.; Townsend, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    Several alternative actions for a bosonic membrane have recently been proposed. We show that a linearly realized locally world-volume-supersymmetric (spinning membrane) extension of any of these actions implies an analogous extension of the standard Dirac membrane action. We further show that a

  4. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  5. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  6. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    membrane include ABC transporters, vacuolar (V-type) H+ pumps, and P-type pumps. These pumps all utilize ATP as a fuel for energizing pumping. This review focuses on the physiological roles of plasma membrane P-type pumps, as they represent the major ATP hydrolytic activity in this membrane....

  7. The plant membrane surrounding powdery mildew haustoria shares properties with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J; Nielsen, Mads Eggert; Böhlenius, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Many filamentous plant pathogens place specialized feeding structures, called haustoria, inside living host cells. As haustoria grow, they are believed to manipulate plant cells to generate a specialized, still enigmatic extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) around them. Here, we focused on revealing pr....... This raises the prospect that an unconventional secretory pathway from the ER may provide this membrane's material. Understanding these processes will assist future approaches to providing resistance by preventing EHM generation....

  8. Flux flow and cleaning enhancement in a spiral membrane element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of backpulsing, into the permeate space of a 2.5 inch spiral wrap membrane, on the prevention of fouling (flux enhancement) was investigated experimentally. These experiments were performed using a 500 mg∙ℓ-1 dextrin solution and a 100 000 MCWO polypropylene membrane, with a feed pressure of 100 kPa ...

  9. Dynamic coating of mf/uf membranes for fouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh

    2017-01-19

    A membrane system including an anti-fouling layer and a method of applying an anti-fouling layer to a membrane surface are provided. In an embodiment, the surface is a microfiltration (MF) or an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane surface. The anti-fouling layer can include a stimuli responsive layer and a dynamic protective layer applied over the stimuli responsive layer that can be a coating on a surface of the membrane. The stimuli responsive polymer layer can act as an adhesive prior to coating with the dynamic protective layer to aid in adhering the dynamic protective layer to the membrane surface. The dynamic protective layer can be formed by suitable nanoparticles that can prevent adhesion of foulants directly to the membrane surface. The stimuli responsive layer can be responsive to physio- chemical stimuli to cause a release of the stimuli responsive layer and the dynamic protective layer including foulants from the membrane.

  10. Silk fibroin membrane used for guided bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yurong; Guo, Junmao; Chen, Cen; Yao, Chenxue; Chung, Sung-Min; Yao, Juming; Lee, In-Seop; Kong, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    With the aim to develop a novel membrane with an appropriate mechanical property and degradation rate for guided bone tissue regeneration, lyophilized and densified silk fibroin membrane was fabricated and its mechanical behavior as well as biodegradation property were investigated. The osteoconductive potency of the silk fibroin membranes were evaluated in a defect rabbit calvarial model. Silk fibroin membrane showed the modulated biodegradable and mechanical properties via ethanol treatment with different concentration. The membrane could prevent soft tissue invasion from normal tissue healing, and the amounts of new bone and defect closure with silk fibroin membrane were similar to those of commercially available collagen membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Permanent first molar eruption and caries patterns in American Indian and Alaska Native children: challenging the concept of targeting second grade for school-based sealant programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Kathy R; Ricks, Timothy L; Blahut, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    To describe first permanent molar eruption and caries patterns among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children in order to identify the appropriate target grade for school-based sealant programs. We used data from the 2011-2012 Indian Health Service oral health surveillance survey of AI/AN children in kindergarten through third grade. Children were screened by trained examiners. Cavitated lesions were classified as decayed, and teeth with any portion of the crown exposed were considered erupted. We screened 15,611 AI/AN children in 186 schools. The percentage with four erupted first molars was 27 percent of kindergarten, 76 percent of first, 96 percent of second, and 99 percent of third-grade children. About 7 percent of kindergarteners had decayed, missing, or filled molars compared with 20 percent, 30 percent, and 38 percent of first, second, and third graders, respectively. School-based sealant programs for AI/AN children should target kindergarten and first grade with follow-up programs for second-grade children. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Clinical observation of corneal lamellar debridement combined with sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation for the treatment of superficial fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of corneal lamellar debridement combined with sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation for the treatment of superficial fungal keratitis.METHODS:Totally 22 cases(22 eyeswith superficial fungal keratitis were referred to our hospital from April 2012 to October 2013. The patients with persistent cornea ulcer after treatment of local and systemic antifungal drugs underwent corneal lamellar debridement combined with sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation, and the recipient bed was covered with an amniotic membrane using fibrin sealant during the operation. All patients were still given topical antifungal therapy for 1-2mo after operation. The followed-up time was 3mo or above. We observed the corneal healing and amniotic membrane adhesion by split lamp microscope, and investigated the transformation of amniotic membrane and fungal infection recurrence with confocal microscope. RESULTS: Corneal edema and anterior chamber reaction of 21 patients disappeared gradually, and no amniotic membrane graft dissolved and shed off within 1-2wk postoperatively. Two weeks after operation, the graft integrated into the corneal and the corneal wounds' thickness increased gradually, the corneal epithelium reconstructed and corneas became clear. Four weeks after operation, the corneal scarring developed gradually and fluorescence staining was negative. Nineteen cases' amniotic membranes that adhered with the cornea dissolved 4wk after operation. There were different degrees of corneal nebula or macula remained 3mo postoperatively. All patients' vision improved in varying degrees, except in 1 case with fungal keratitis who had been cured by lamellar keratoplasty.CONCLUSION:Corneal lamellar debridement combined with sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation can effectively remove the foci of inflammation, improve the local efficacy, shorten the operation time, relieve the postoperative reaction, and promote cornea

  13. Behavior of adhesion forces of silicone adhesive sealants and mastic butyl under the influence of ionizing radiation; Comportamento das forcas de adesao do adesivo selante de silicone e do mastic butilico sob o efeito da radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Wanderley da

    2012-07-01

    Adhesives are products that can keep materials together by bonds between the surfaces. Sealants are products that can keep filled a space between two surfaces, through a barrier that is configured as a 'bridge' between the two surfaces. The mastic is a product made of a mixture of substances with the primary butyl polymer, with the consistency of a mass not dried that can be used as a sealant. The polysiloxane, also known as silicone are the most important synthetic polymers with inorganic structure, and are matrices of silicone adhesive sealants. To demonstrate the behavior of the adhesive forces of these products under different conditions, we used five different techniques. These products were subjected to two different conditions to verify the behavior of adhesion, one at the environmental condition and another under the ionizing radiation. The results showed not only differences between products (silicone and mastic), but also that the adhesive forces have different behaviors under the conditions which the samples were subjected. With this was reached the goal of this study that aspired show the differences between the mastic and silicone, this last one is often considered - erroneously - the same as mastic. Thus it was proven that: 1. silicone can be regarded as an adhesive and a sealant at ambient conditions, 2. mastic improves substantially adhesion in an environment of ionizing radiation and this property can be an excellent alternative to the adhesive market. (author)

  14. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....