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Sample records for membrane protein expression

  1. Membrane protein expression triggers chromosomal locus repositioning in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Libby, Elizabeth A.; Roggiani, Manuela; Goulian, Mark

    2012-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that subcellular positioning of chromosomal loci in bacteria may be influenced by gene function and expression state. Here we provide direct evidence that membrane protein expression affects the position of chromosomal loci in Escherichia coli. For two different membrane proteins, we observed a dramatic shift of their genetic loci toward the membrane upon induction. In related systems in which a cytoplasmic protein was produced, or translation was eliminated by m...

  2. Membrane protein expression triggers chromosomal locus repositioning in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Elizabeth A.; Roggiani, Manuela; Goulian, Mark

    2012-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that subcellular positioning of chromosomal loci in bacteria may be influenced by gene function and expression state. Here we provide direct evidence that membrane protein expression affects the position of chromosomal loci in Escherichia coli. For two different membrane proteins, we observed a dramatic shift of their genetic loci toward the membrane upon induction. In related systems in which a cytoplasmic protein was produced, or translation was eliminated by mutating the start codon, a shift was not observed. Antibiotics that block transcription and translation similarly prevented locus repositioning toward the membrane. We also found that repositioning is relatively rapid and can be detected at positions that are a considerable distance on the chromosome from the gene encoding the membrane protein (>90 kb). Given that membrane protein-encoding genes are distributed throughout the chromosome, their expression may be an important mechanism for maintaining the bacterial chromosome in an expanded and dynamic state. PMID:22529375

  3. Engineering Escherichia coli for Functional Expression of Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Franz Y; Poolman, Bert

    2015-01-01

    A major bottleneck in the characterization of membrane proteins is low yield of functional protein in recombinant expression. Microorganisms are widely used for recombinant protein production, because of ease of cultivation and high protein yield. However, the target proteins do not always obtain

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of latent membrane protein 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded NPC biopsies were evaluated in 23 Moroccan patients for the presence of LMP1 and p53 using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: No LMP1 expression was observed whereas 8 of 23 cases (34. 7%) had detectable p53 protein in the nuclei of tumor cells.

  5. Bacteriophage membrane protein P9 as a fusion partner for the efficient expression of membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuna; Jung, Hyeim; Lim, Dongbin

    2015-12-01

    Despite their important roles and economic values, studies of membrane proteins have been hampered by the difficulties associated with obtaining sufficient amounts of protein. Here, we report a novel membrane protein expression system that uses the major envelope protein (P9) of phage φ6 as an N-terminal fusion partner. Phage membrane protein P9 facilitated the synthesis of target proteins and their integration into the Escherichia coli cell membrane. This system was used to produce various multi-pass transmembrane proteins, including G-protein-coupled receptors, transporters, and ion channels of human origin. Green fluorescent protein fusion was used to confirm the correct folding of the expressed proteins. Of the 14 membrane proteins tested, eight were highly expressed, three were moderately expressed, and three were barely expressed in E. coli. Seven of the eight highly expressed proteins could be purified after extraction with the mild detergent lauryldimethylamine-oxide. Although a few proteins have previously been developed as fusion partners to augment membrane protein production, we believe that the major envelope protein P9 described here is better suited to the efficient expression of eukaryotic transmembrane proteins in E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Heterologous expression of membrane proteins: choosing the appropriate host.

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    Florent Bernaudat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane proteins are the targets of 50% of drugs, although they only represent 1% of total cellular proteins. The first major bottleneck on the route to their functional and structural characterisation is their overexpression; and simply choosing the right system can involve many months of trial and error. This work is intended as a guide to where to start when faced with heterologous expression of a membrane protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of 20 membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, in three prokaryotic (E. coli, L. lactis, R. sphaeroides and three eukaryotic (A. thaliana, N. benthamiana, Sf9 insect cells hosts was tested. The proteins tested were of various origins (bacteria, plants and mammals, functions (transporters, receptors, enzymes and topologies (between 0 and 13 transmembrane segments. The Gateway system was used to clone all 20 genes into appropriate vectors for the hosts to be tested. Culture conditions were optimised for each host, and specific strategies were tested, such as the use of Mistic fusions in E. coli. 17 of the 20 proteins were produced at adequate yields for functional and, in some cases, structural studies. We have formulated general recommendations to assist with choosing an appropriate system based on our observations of protein behaviour in the different hosts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the methods presented here can be quite easily implemented in other laboratories. The results highlight certain factors that should be considered when selecting an expression host. The decision aide provided should help both newcomers and old-hands to select the best system for their favourite membrane protein.

  7. Protein expression profiling of nuclear membrane protein reveals potential biomarker of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rizma; Zahid, Saadia; Wan, Yu-Jui; Forster, Jameson; Karim, A-Bashar; Nawabi, Atta M; Azhar, Abid; Rahman, M; Ahmed, Nikhat

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Complex molecular events lead to development and progression of liver cirrhosis to HCC. Differentially expressed nuclear membrane associated proteins are responsible for the functional and structural alteration during the progression from cirrhosis to carcinoma. Although alterations/ post translational modifications in protein expression have been extensively quantified, complementary analysis of nuclear membrane proteome changes h...

  8. High-yield membrane protein expression from E. coli using an engineered outer membrane protein F fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pin-Chuan; Si, William; Baker, Deidre L; Berger, Bryan W

    2013-04-01

    Obtaining high yields of membrane proteins necessary to perform detailed structural study is difficult due to poor solubility and variability in yields from heterologous expression systems. To address this issue, an Escherichia coli-based membrane protein overexpression system utilizing an engineered bacterial outer membrane protein F (pOmpF) fusion has been developed. Full-length human receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) was expressed using pOmpF, solubilized in FC15 and purified to homogeneity. Using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, purified full-length RAMP1 is composed of approximately 90% α-helix, and retains its solubility and structure in FC15 over a wide range of temperatures (20-60°C). Thus, our approach provides a useful, complementary approach to achieve high-yield, full-length membrane protein overexpression for biophysical studies. Copyright © 2013 The Protein Society.

  9. Green fluorescent protein-based expression screening of membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Louise E; Rada, Heather; Verma, Anil; Gasper, Raphael; Birch, James; Jennions, Matthew; Lӧwe, Jan; Moraes, Isabel; Owens, Raymond J

    2015-01-06

    The production of recombinant membrane proteins for structural and functional studies remains technically challenging due to low levels of expression and the inherent instability of many membrane proteins once solubilized in detergents. A protocol is described that combines ligation independent cloning of membrane proteins as GFP fusions with expression in Escherichia coli detected by GFP fluorescence. This enables the construction and expression screening of multiple membrane protein/variants to identify candidates suitable for further investment of time and effort. The GFP reporter is used in a primary screen of expression by visualizing GFP fluorescence following SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Membrane proteins that show both a high expression level with minimum degradation as indicated by the absence of free GFP, are selected for a secondary screen. These constructs are scaled and a total membrane fraction prepared and solubilized in four different detergents. Following ultracentrifugation to remove detergent-insoluble material, lysates are analyzed by fluorescence detection size exclusion chromatography (FSEC). Monitoring the size exclusion profile by GFP fluorescence provides information about the mono-dispersity and integrity of the membrane proteins in different detergents. Protein: detergent combinations that elute with a symmetrical peak with little or no free GFP and minimum aggregation are candidates for subsequent purification. Using the above methodology, the heterologous expression in E. coli of SED (shape, elongation, division, and sporulation) proteins from 47 different species of bacteria was analyzed. These proteins typically have ten transmembrane domains and are essential for cell division. The results show that the production of the SEDs orthologues in E. coli was highly variable with respect to the expression levels and integrity of the GFP fusion proteins. The experiment identified a subset for further investigation.

  10. Evolved Lactococcus lactis Strains for Enhanced Expression of Recombinant Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Linares, Daniel; Geertsma, Eric R.; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    The production of complex multidomain (membrane) proteins is a major hurdle in structural genomics and a generic approach for optimizing membrane protein expression is still lacking. We have devised a selection method to isolate mutant strains with improved functional expression of recombinant

  11. A New Strain Collection for Improved Expression of Outer Membrane Proteins

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    Ina Meuskens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all integral membrane proteins found in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria belong to the transmembrane β-barrel family. These proteins are not only important for nutrient uptake and homeostasis, but are also involved in such processes as adhesion, protein secretion, biofilm formation, and virulence. As surface exposed molecules, outer membrane β-barrel proteins are also potential drug and vaccine targets. High production levels of heterologously expressed proteins are desirable for biochemical and especially structural studies, but over-expression and subsequent purification of membrane proteins, including outer membrane proteins, can be challenging. Here, we present a set of deletion mutants derived from E. coli BL21(DE3 designed for the over-expression of recombinant outer membrane proteins. These strains harbor deletions of four genes encoding abundant β-barrel proteins in the outer membrane (OmpA, OmpC, OmpF, and LamB, both single and in all combinations of double, triple, and quadruple knock-outs. The sequences encoding these outer membrane proteins were deleted completely, leaving only a minimal scar sequence, thus preventing the possibility of genetic reversion. Expression tests in the quadruple mutant strain with four test proteins, including a small outer membrane β-barrel protein and variants thereof as well as two virulence-related autotransporters, showed significantly improved expression and better quality of the produced proteins over the parent strain. Differences in growth behavior and aggregation in the presence of high salt were observed, but these phenomena did not negatively influence the expression in the quadruple mutant strain when handled as we recommend. The strains produced in this study can be used for outer membrane protein production and purification, but are also uniquely useful for labeling experiments for biophysical measurements in the native membrane environment.

  12. Expression of Trans-Membrane Proteins in vitro Using a Cell Free System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Natalie; Noireaux, Vincent; Chalmeau, Jerome

    2010-10-01

    Trans-membrane proteins represent a significant portion of the proteins expressed by cells. The expression of proteins in vitro, however, remains a challenge. Numerous expression approaches have been developed with cell free expression (CFE) being one of the most promising. CFE is based on a transcription-translation system that has been extracted from E. coli bacteria. Adding the desired DNA allows expression of a selected protein, and in the presence of phospholipids the expression of trans-membrane proteins becomes possible. In order to express trans-membrane proteins in a closed native environment, the cell free system (CFS) is encapsulated with a phospholipid bilayer, creating an artificial cell. To verify protein expression, AquaporinZ (AqpZ), a well-known trans-membrane protein tagged with a green fluorescent protein (eGFP), was used so the expressed proteins could be seen under a fluorescent microscope. These artificial cells will serve as an experimental platform for testing the viability of the expressed trans-membrane proteins. Results from the manipulation of these artificial cells by attaching them to the slide surface through streptavidin-biotin bonding will be presented.

  13. Rational design of a fusion partner for membrane protein expression in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianying; Choulet, Julie; Samuelson, James C

    2009-08-01

    We have designed a novel protein fusion partner (P8CBD) to utilize the co-translational SRP pathway in order to target heterologous proteins to the E. coli inner membrane. SRP-dependence was demonstrated by analyzing the membrane translocation of P8CBD-PhoA fusion proteins in wt and SRP-ffh77 mutant cells. We also demonstrate that the P8CBD N-terminal fusion partner promotes over-expression of a Thermotoga maritima polytopic membrane protein by replacement of the native signal anchor sequence. Furthermore, the yeast mitochondrial inner membrane protein Oxa1p was expressed as a P8CBD fusion and shown to function within the E. coli inner membrane. In this example, the mitochondrial targeting peptide was replaced by P8CBD. Several practical features were incorporated into the P8CBD expression system to aid in protein detection, purification, and optional in vitro processing by enterokinase. The basis of membrane protein over-expression toxicity is discussed and solutions to this problem are presented. We anticipate that this optimized expression system will aid in the isolation and study of various recombinant forms of membrane-associated protein.

  14. High-throughput Cloning and Expression of Integral Membrane Proteins in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several structural genomics centers have been established and a remarkable number of three-dimensional structures of soluble proteins have been solved. For membrane proteins, the number of structures solved has been significantly trailing those for their soluble counterparts, not least because over-expression and purification of membrane proteins is a much more arduous process. By using high throughput technologies, a large number of membrane protein targets can be screened simultaneously and a greater number of expression and purification conditions can be employed, leading to a higher probability of successfully determining the structure of membrane proteins. This unit describes the cloning, expression and screening of membrane proteins using high throughput methodologies developed in our laboratory. Basic Protocol 1 deals with the cloning of inserts into expression vectors by ligation-independent cloning. Basic Protocol 2 describes the expression and purification of the target proteins on a miniscale. Lastly, for the targets that express at the miniscale, basic protocols 3 and 4 outline the methods employed for the expression and purification of targets at the midi-scale, as well as a procedure for detergent screening and identification of detergent(s) in which the target protein is stable. PMID:24510647

  15. In-Situ Observation of Membrane Protein Folding during Cell-Free Expression.

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    Axel Baumann

    Full Text Available Proper insertion, folding and assembly of functional proteins in biological membranes are key processes to warrant activity of a living cell. Here, we present a novel approach to trace folding and insertion of a nascent membrane protein leaving the ribosome and penetrating the bilayer. Surface Enhanced IR Absorption Spectroscopy selectively monitored insertion and folding of membrane proteins during cell-free expression in a label-free and non-invasive manner. Protein synthesis was performed in an optical cell containing a prism covered with a thin gold film with nanodiscs on top, providing an artificial lipid bilayer for folding. In a pilot experiment, the folding pathway of bacteriorhodopsin via various secondary and tertiary structures was visualized. Thus, a methodology is established with which the folding reaction of other more complex membrane proteins can be observed during protein biosynthesis (in situ and in operando at molecular resolution.

  16. A Guide to Transient Expression of Membrane Proteins in HEK-293 Cells for Functional Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Amanda Siok Lee

    2016-07-19

    The human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells are commonly used as host for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins not least because they have a high transfection efficiency and faithfully translate and process proteins. In addition, their cell size, morphology and division rate, and low expression of native channels are traits that are particularly attractive for current-voltage measurements. Nevertheless, the heterologous expression of complex membrane proteins such as receptors and ion channels for biological characterization and in particular for single-cell applications such as electrophysiology remains a challenge. Expression of functional proteins depends largely on careful step-by-step optimization that includes the design of expression vectors with suitable identification tags, as well as the selection of transfection methods and detection parameters appropriate for the application. Here, we use the heterologous expression of a plant potassium channel, the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K+ channel, AtGORK (At5G37500) in HEK-293 cells as an example, to evaluate commonly used transfection reagents and fluorescent detection methods, and provide a detailed methodology for optimized transient transfection and expression of membrane proteins for in vivo studies in general and for single-cell applications in particular. This optimized protocol will facilitate the physiological and cellular characterization of complex membrane proteins.

  17. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of leptospiral outer membrane protein expression in response to temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis affecting millions of people annually. Transcriptional changes in response to temperature were previously investigated using microarrays to identify genes potentially expressed upon host entry. Past studies found that various leptospiral outer membrane proteins are differentially expressed at different temperatures. However, our microarray studies highlighted a divergence between protein abundance and transcript levels for some proteins. Given the abundance of post-transcriptional expression control mechanisms, this finding highlighted the importance of global protein analysis systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To complement our previous transcription study, we evaluated differences in the proteins of the leptospiral outer membrane fraction in response to temperature upshift. Outer membrane protein-enriched fractions from Leptospira interrogans grown at 30 degrees C or overnight upshift to 37 degrees C were isolated and the relative abundance of each protein was determined by iTRAQ analysis coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (2-DLC/MS-MS. We identified 1026 proteins with 99% confidence; 27 and 66 were present at elevated and reduced abundance respectively. Protein abundance changes were compared with transcriptional differences determined from the microarray studies. While there was some correlation between the microarray and iTRAQ data, a subset of genes that showed no differential expression by microarray was found to encode temperature-regulated proteins. This set of genes is of particular interest as it is likely that regulation of their expression occurs post-transcriptionally, providing an opportunity to develop hypotheses about the molecular dynamics of the outer membrane of Leptospira in response to changing environments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to compare transcriptional and translational responses to temperature

  18. Characterization of the ectodomain of the envelope protein of dengue virus type 4: expression, membrane association, secretion and particle formation in the absence of precursor membrane protein.

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    Szu-Chia Hsieh

    Full Text Available The envelope (E of dengue virus (DENV is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development. After biosynthesis E protein forms a heterodimer with precursor membrane (prM protein. Recent reports of infection enhancement by anti-prM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs suggest anti-prM responses could be potentially harmful. Previously, we studied a series of C-terminal truncation constructs expressing DENV type 4 prM/E or E proteins and found the ectodomain of E protein alone could be recognized by all 12 mAbs tested, suggesting E protein ectodomain as a potential subunit immunogen without inducing anti-prM response. The characteristics of DENV E protein ectodomain in the absence of prM protein remains largely unknown.In this study, we investigated the expression, membrane association, glycosylation pattern, secretion and particle formation of E protein ectodomain of DENV4 in the presence or absence of prM protein. E protein ectodomain associated with membrane in or beyond trans-Golgi and contained primarily complex glycans, whereas full-length E protein associated with ER membrane and contained high mannose glycans. In the absence of prM protein, E protein ectodomain can secrete as well as form particles of approximately 49 nm in diameter, as revealed by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation with or without detergent and electron microscopy. Mutational analysis revealed that the secretion of E protein ectodomain was affected by N-linked glycosylation and could be restored by treatment with ammonia chloride.Considering the enhancement of DENV infectivity by anti-prM antibodies, our findings provide new insights into the expression and secretion of E protein ectodomain in the absence of prM protein and contribute to future subunit vaccine design.

  19. Mycorrhizal fungi influence on silver uptake and membrane protein gene expression following silver nanoparticle exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noori, Azam [State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry (United States); White, Jason C. [Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (United States); Newman, Lee A., E-mail: lanewman@esf.edu [State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry (United States)

    2017-02-15

    The rapid growth of nanotechnology and the high demand for nanomaterial use have greatly increased the risk of particle release into the environment. Understanding nanomaterial interactions with crop species and their associated microorganisms is critical to food safety and security. In the current study, tomato was inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi and subsequently exposed to 12, 24, or 36 mg/kg of 2- or 15-nm silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) tomatoes exposed to 36 mg/kg of 2-nm Ag-NPs accumulated 1300 and 1600 μg/g silver in their tissues, respectively. Mycorrhizal plants accumulated 14% less silver compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. To begin to understand the mechanisms by which plants accumulate NPs, the expression of two aquaporin channel genes, the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) and the tonoplast membrane intrinsic protein (TIP), and one potassium channel (KC) gene were studied. In non-mycorrhizal plants, the expression of KC, PIP, and TIP was eight, five, and nine times higher than the control, respectively. These expressions for mycorrhizal plants were 5.8, 3.5, and 2 times higher than controls, respectively. The expression of KC and PIP, which are located on the plasma membrane, was 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, times higher than TIP, which is located on the tonoplast. PIP expression was significantly higher in NM tomatoes exposed to 12 mg/kg of 2-nm Ag-NPs compared to M plants. These results show that mycorrhizal colonization decreases Ag accumulation in NP-exposed plants and also moderates changes in expression level of membrane transport proteins.

  20. Expression and Functions of CreD, an Inner Membrane Protein in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Chen, Wei-Ching; Huang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Shiang-Jiuun; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

    2015-01-01

    CreBC is a highly conserved two-component regulatory system (TCS) in several gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. CreD is a conserved gene that encodes a predicted inner-membrane protein and is located near the creBC loci. Activation of CreBC increases creD expression; therefore, creD expression is generally used as a measure of CreBC activation in E. coli, Aeromonas spp., and P. aeruginosa systems. In th...

  1. Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine S; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Karina G

    2013-01-01

    study was to investigate the presence of lysosomes in astrocytic brain tumors focussing also on the therapy resistant tumor stem cells. Expression of the lysosomal marker LAMP-1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 112 formalin fixed paraffin embedded...... astrocytomas and compared with tumor grade and overall patient survival. Moreover, double immunofluorescence stainings were performed with LAMP-1 and the astrocytic marker GFAP and the putative stem cell marker CD133 on ten glioblastomas. Most tumors expressed the LAMP-1 protein in the cytoplasm of the tumor...... cells, while the blood vessels were positive in all tumors. The percentage of LAMP-1 positive tumor cells and staining intensities increased with tumor grade but variations in tumors of the same grade were also found. No association was found between LAMP-1 expression and patient overall survival...

  2. Expression of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in experimentally infected humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavstsen, Thomas; Magistrado, Pamela; Hermsen, Cornelus C

    2005-01-01

    sporozoites. RESULTS: In cultures representing the first generation of parasites after hepatic release, all var genes were transcribed, but Group A var genes were transcribed at the lowest levels. In cultures established from second or third generation blood stage parasites of volunteers with high in vivo......BACKGROUND: Parasites causing severe malaria in non-immune patients express a restricted subset of variant surface antigens (VSA), which are better recognized by immune sera than VSA expressed during non-severe disease in semi-immune individuals. The most prominent VSA are the var gene......-encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, which is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes where it mediates binding to endothelial receptors. Thus, severe malaria may be caused by parasites expressing PfEMP1 variants that afford parasites optimal sequestration...

  3. Expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) in astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Skov; Christensen, Karina; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    , the aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of LAMP-1, a membrane bound protein in lysosomes, in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor tissue from 23 diffuse astrocytomas, 17 anaplastic astrocytomas and 72 glioblastomas. The LAMP-1 expression was scored and compared...... with both tumor grade and patient survival. Moreover double immunofluorescence stainings with LAMP-1 and the stem cell marker CD133 as well as the macrophage marker CD68 were performed. The results showed that LAMP-1 was expressed in the vast majority of tumors being present in the cytoplasm of single tumor...... cells, cell clusters and in blood vessel endothelial cells. The LAMP-1 expression in glioblastomas was significantly higher than in diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas (pLAMP-1 and patient overall survival was found. Double immunofluorescence staining...

  4. Expression patterns of five polymorphic membrane proteins during the Chlamydia abortus developmental cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Nick; Sait, Michelle; Wilson, Kim; Aitchison, Kevin; McLean, Kevin; Smith, David G E; Longbottom, David

    2012-12-07

    It has been suggested that polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) belonging to the Type V autotransporter protein family play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus; formerly Chlamydophila abortus) infection. In a previous study we demonstrated the expression of all the pmps at the transcriptional level. The purpose of this study was to measure the number of Pmp positive inclusions throughout the C. abortus developmental cycle to investigate heterogeneity in expression patterns. McCoy cells were infected with C. abortus and analysed for Pmp expression over a 72 h period by fluorescent immunocytochemistry. Pmp18D could be detected at all analysed time points, and could only be accurately quantified from 36 hpi while Pmp10G positive inclusions could be visualised from 36hpi. Expression of Pmps 13G, 16G and 17G could only be visualised later in the cycle and within less than half of visualised inclusions. These results indicate that while expression of specific Pmps is constitutive (Pmp18D), the pattern of expression of other Pmps is more variable. This suggests that different members of the Pmp family may play different roles within the developmental cycle of the organism, with some (Pmps10G and 18D) having roles throughout the cycle, while the heterogeneity of expression of others may aid in antigenic variation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of soluble expression and in vivo interactions of the inner membrane protein OppC using green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Q J; Zhai, J F; Zhang, M; Zhang, B

    2015-12-22

    In this study, the in vivo interaction system of oligopeptide permease (Opp) proteins was analyzed, and a high expression system of inner membrane protein OppC was constructed by flexible usage of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The Escherichia coli OppC gene, which encodes a transmembrane component of oligopeptide transporter, was cloned into different vectors. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into different E. coli strains, and the expression conditions were optimized. The effect of plasmids and expression strains on OppC production was evaluated by in-gel and western blot analyses. OppC produced by the pWaldo-GFPe vector, harboring the GFP reporter gene, transformed into E. coli C43(DE3) provided sufficient functional protein for biochemical and biophysical studies. In vivo protein-protein interactions were detected among oligopeptide permease proteins using a GFP fragment reassembly protocol. The substrate binding protein OppA showed no interaction with the other components, while the ATP-binding component OppD did not interact with OppF. OppD and OppF interacted with the transmembrane components OppB and OppC. OppB also showed direct interaction with OppC. In vivo OppC functionality was determined by constructing an OppC gene deletion strain. OppC was shown to be essential for peptide uptake, and non-essential for cell viability. These results could help in elucidating the oligopeptide transport mechanism in bacteria.

  6. Generation and evaluation of mammalian secreted and membrane protein expression libraries for high-throughput target discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panavas, Tadas; Lu, Jin; Liu, Xuesong; Winkis, Ann-Marie; Powers, Gordon; Naso, Michael F; Amegadzie, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Expressed protein libraries are becoming a critical tool for new target discovery in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to get the most meaningful and comprehensive results from protein library screens, it is essential to have library proteins in their native conformation with proper post-translation modifications. This goal is achieved by expressing untagged human proteins in a human cell background. We optimized the transfection and cell culture conditions to maximize protein expression in a 96-well format so that the expression levels were comparable with the levels observed in shake flasks. For detection purposes, we engineered a 'tag after stop codon' system. Depending on the expression conditions, it was possible to express either native or tagged proteins from the same expression vector set. We created a human secretion protein library of 1432 candidates and a small plasma membrane protein set of about 500 candidates. Utilizing the optimized expression conditions, we expressed and analyzed both libraries by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Two thirds of secreted proteins could be detected by Western-blot analyses; almost half of them were visible on Coomassie stained gels. In this paper, we describe protein expression libraries that can be easily produced in mammalian expression systems in a 96-well format, with one protein expressed per well. The libraries and methods described allow for the development of robust, high-throughput functional screens designed to assay for protein specific functions associated with a relevant disease-specific activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Haloarcula marismortui bacteriorhodopsin as a fusion tag for enhancing and visible expression of integral membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Feng Hsu

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins are key targets for pharmacological intervention because of their vital functions. Structural and functional studies of membrane proteins have been severely hampered because of the difficulties in producing sufficient quantities of properly folded and biologically active proteins. Here we generate a high-level expression system of integral membrane proteins in Escherichia coli by using a mutated bacteriorhodopsin (BR from Haloarcula marismortui (HmBRI/D94N as a fusion partner. A purification strategy was designed by incorporating a His-tag on the target membrane protein for affinity purification and an appropriate protease cleavage site to generate the final products. The fusion system can be used to detect the intended target membrane proteins during overexpression and purification either with the naked eye or by directly monitoring their characteristic optical absorption. In this study, we applied this approach to produce two functional integral membrane proteins, undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase and carnitine/butyrobetaine antiporter with significant yield enhancement. This technology could facilitate the development of a high-throughput strategy to screen for conditions that improve the yield of correctly folded target membrane proteins. Other robust BRs can also be incorporated in this system.

  8. Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque 1818, Tetraspanin Membrane Protein Family: Characterization and Expression Analysis of CD81 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD81, also known as the target of an antiproliferative antibody 1 (TAPA-1), is a member of tetraspanin integral membrane protein family. This protein plays many important roles in immune functions. In this report, we characterized and analyzed expression of the channel catfish CD81 transcript. T...

  9. Expression, refolding, and initial structural characterization of the Y. pestis Ail outer membrane protein in lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Leigh A; Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan; Rypien, Candace; Yang, Yuan; Racic, Jasmina; Marassi, Francesca M

    2011-01-01

    Ail is an outer membrane protein and virulence factor of Yersinia pestis, an extremely pathogenic, category A biothreat agent, responsible for precipitating massive human plague pandemics throughout history. Due to its key role in bacterial adhesion to host cells and bacterial resistance to host defense, Ail is a key target for anti-plague therapy. However, little information is available about the molecular aspects of its function and interactions with the human host, and the structure of Ail is not known. Here we describe the recombinant expression, purification, refolding, and sample preparation of Ail for solution and solid-state NMR structural studies in lipid micelles and lipid bilayers. The initial NMR and CD spectra show that Ail adopts a well-defined transmembrane β-sheet conformation in lipids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tumor Suppressor p53 Stimulates the Expression of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianli; Lingel, Amy; Geiser, Vicki; Kwapnoski, Zachary; Zhang, Luwen

    2017-10-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple human malignancies. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is required for the efficient transformation of primary B lymphocytes in vitro and possibly in vivo The tumor suppressor p53 plays a seminal role in cancer development. In some EBV-associated cancers, p53 tends to be wild type and overly expressed; however, the effects of p53 on LMP1 expression is not clear. We find LMP1 expression to be associated with p53 expression in EBV-transformed cells under physiological and DNA damaging conditions. DNA damage stimulates LMP1 expression, and p53 is required for the stimulation. Ectopic p53 stimulates endogenous LMP1 expression. Moreover, endogenous LMP1 blocks DNA damage-mediated apoptosis. Regarding the mechanism of p53-mediated LMP1 expression, we find that interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), a direct target of p53, is associated with both p53 and LMP1. IRF5 binds to and activates a LMP1 promoter reporter construct. Ectopic IRF5 increases the expression of LMP1, while knockdown of IRF5 leads to reduction of LMP1. Furthermore, LMP1 blocks IRF5-mediated apoptosis in EBV-infected cells. All of the data suggest that cellular p53 stimulates viral LMP1 expression, and IRF5 may be one of the factors for p53-mediated LMP1 stimulation. LMP1 may subsequently block DNA damage- and IRF5-mediated apoptosis for the benefits of EBV. The mutual regulation between p53 and LMP1 may play an important role in EBV infection and latency and its related cancers. IMPORTANCE The tumor suppressor p53 is a critical cellular protein in response to various stresses and dictates cells for various responses, including apoptosis. This work suggests that an Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) principal viral oncogene is activated by cellular p53. The viral oncogene blocks p53-mediated adverse effects during viral infection and transformation. Therefore, the induction of the viral oncogene by p53 provides a means for the virus to cope with infection and

  11. Differential expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium of membrane- associated proteins relevant to lignin degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semarjit Shary; Alexander N. Kapich; Ellen A. Panisko; Jon K. Magnuson; Daniel Cullen; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2008-01-01

    Fungal lignin-degrading systems likely include membrane-associated proteins that participate in diverse processes such as uptake and oxidation of lignin fragments, production of ligninolytic secondary metabolites, and defense of the mycelium against ligninolytic oxidants. Little is known about the nature or regulation of these membrane-associated components. We grew...

  12. Isolation and characterization of chimeric human Fc-expressing proteins using protein a membrane adsorbers and a streamlined workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Monica M; Reynolds, Nathan M; Martin, Eric W; Hawes, Jacquelyn V; Carlson, Grady E; Cuckler, Chaz M; Bates, Michael C; Barthel, Steven R; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2014-01-08

    Laboratory scale to industrial scale purification of biomolecules from cell culture supernatants and lysed cell solutions can be accomplished using affinity chromatography. While affinity chromatography using porous protein A agarose beads packed in columns is arguably the most common method of laboratory scale isolation of antibodies and recombinant proteins expressing Fc fragments of IgG, it can be a time consuming and expensive process. Time and financial constraints are especially daunting in small basic science labs that must recover hundreds of micrograms to milligram quantities of protein from dilute solutions, yet lack access to high pressure liquid delivery systems and/or personnel with expertise in bioseparations. Moreover, product quantification and characterization may also excessively lengthen processing time over several workdays and inflate expenses (consumables, wages, etc.). Therefore, a fast, inexpensive, yet effective protocol is needed for laboratory scale isolation and characterization of antibodies and other proteins possessing an Fc fragment. To this end, we have devised a protocol that can be completed by limited-experience technical staff in less than 9 hr (roughly one workday) and as quickly as 4 hr, as opposed to traditional methods that demand 20+ work hours. Most required equipment is readily available in standard biomedical science, biochemistry, and (bio)chemical engineering labs, and all reagents are commercially available. To demonstrate this protocol, representative results are presented in which chimeric murine galectin-1 fused to human Fc (Gal-1hFc) from cell culture supernatant was isolated using a protein A membrane adsorber. Purified Gal-1hFc was quantified using an expedited Western blotting analysis procedure and characterized using flow cytometry. The streamlined workflow can be modified for other Fc-expressing proteins, such as antibodies, and/or altered to incorporate alternative quantification and characterization

  13. Isolation and Characterization Of Chimeric Human Fc-expressing Proteins Using Protein A Membrane Adsorbers And A Streamlined Workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Monica M.; Reynolds, Nathan M.; Martin, Eric W.; Hawes, Jacquelyn V.; Carlson, Grady E.; Cuckler, Chaz M.; Bates, Michael C.; Barthel, Steven R.; Dimitroff, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory scale to industrial scale purification of biomolecules from cell culture supernatants and lysed cell solutions can be accomplished using affinity chromatography. While affinity chromatography using porous protein A agarose beads packed in columns is arguably the most common method of laboratory scale isolation of antibodies and recombinant proteins expressing Fc fragments of IgG, it can be a time consuming and expensive process. Time and financial constraints are especially daunting in small basic science labs that must recover hundreds of micrograms to milligram quantities of protein from dilute solutions, yet lack access to high pressure liquid delivery systems and/or personnel with expertise in bioseparations. Moreover, product quantification and characterization may also excessively lengthen processing time over several workdays and inflate expenses (consumables, wages, etc.). Therefore, a fast, inexpensive, yet effective protocol is needed for laboratory scale isolation and characterization of antibodies and other proteins possessing an Fc fragment. To this end, we have devised a protocol that can be completed by limited-experience technical staff in less than 9 hr (roughly one workday) and as quickly as 4 hr, as opposed to traditional methods that demand 20+ work hours. Most required equipment is readily available in standard biomedical science, biochemistry, and (bio)chemical engineering labs, and all reagents are commercially available. To demonstrate this protocol, representative results are presented in which chimeric murine galectin-1 fused to human Fc (Gal-1hFc) from cell culture supernatant was isolated using a protein A membrane adsorber. Purified Gal-1hFc was quantified using an expedited Western blotting analysis procedure and characterized using flow cytometry. The streamlined workflow can be modified for other Fc-expressing proteins, such as antibodies, and/or altered to incorporate alternative quantification and characterization

  14. Expression of the domain cassette 8 Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 is associated with cerebral malaria in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertin, Gwladys I; Lavstsen, Thomas; Guillonneau, François

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1) is a highly polymorphic adherence receptor expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Based on sequence homology PfEMP-1 variants have been grouped into three major groups A-C, the highly conserved VAR2CSA variants, and semi-c...

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cell Membrane Protein Expression from Phenotypically Diverse Cystic Fibrosis Isolates Demonstrates Host-Specific Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Karthik Shantharam; Pascovici, Dana; Penesyan, Anahit; Goel, Apurv; Venkatakrishnan, Vignesh; Paulsen, Ian T; Packer, Nicolle H; Molloy, Mark P

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, nosocomial, highly adaptable opportunistic pathogen especially prevalent in immuno-compromised cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The bacterial cell surface proteins are important contributors to virulence, yet the membrane subproteomes of phenotypically diverse P. aeruginosa strains are poorly characterized. We carried out mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome analysis of the membrane proteins of three novel P. aeruginosa strains isolated from the sputum of CF patients and compared protein expression to the widely used laboratory strain, PAO1. Microbes were grown in planktonic growth condition using minimal M9 media, and a defined synthetic lung nutrient mimicking medium (SCFM) limited passaging. Two-dimensional LC-MS/MS using iTRAQ labeling enabled quantitative comparisons among 3171 and 2442 proteins from the minimal M9 medium and in the SCFM, respectively. The CF isolates showed marked differences in membrane protein expression in comparison with PAO1 including up-regulation of drug resistance proteins (MexY, MexB, MexC) and down-regulation of chemotaxis and aerotaxis proteins (PA1561, PctA, PctB) and motility and adhesion proteins (FliK, FlgE, FliD, PilJ). Phenotypic analysis using adhesion, motility, and drug susceptibility assays confirmed the proteomics findings. These results provide evidence of host-specific microevolution of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung and shed light on the adaptation strategies used by CF pathogens.

  16. Optimisation of over-expression in E. coli and biophysical characterisation of human membrane protein synaptogyrin 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Löw

    Full Text Available Progress in functional and structural studies of integral membrane proteins (IMPs is lacking behind their soluble counterparts due to the great challenge in producing stable and homogeneous IMPs. Low natural abundance, toxicity when over-expressed and potential lipid requirements of IMPs are only a few reasons for the limited progress. Here, we describe an optimised workflow for the recombinant over-expression of the human tetraspan vesicle protein (TVP synaptogyrin in Escherichia coli and its biophysical characterisation. TVPs are ubiquitous and abundant components of vesicles. They are believed to be involved in various aspects of the synaptic vesicle cycle, including vesicle biogenesis, exocytosis and endocytotic recycling. Even though TVPs are found in most cell types, high-resolution structural information for this class of membrane proteins is still missing. The optimisation of the N-terminal sequence of the gene together with the usage of the recently developed Lemo21(DE3 strain which allows the balancing of the translation with the membrane insertion rate led to a 50-fold increased expression rate compared to the classical BL21(DE3 strain. The protein was soluble and stable in a variety of mild detergents and multiple biophysical methods confirmed the folded state of the protein. Crosslinking experiments suggest an oligomeric architecture of at least four subunits. The protein stability is significantly improved in the presence of cholesteryl hemisuccinate as judged by differential light scattering. The approach described here can easily be adapted to other eukaryotic IMPs.

  17. Tunable Control of an Escherichia coli Expression System for the Overproduction of Membrane Proteins by Titrated Expression of a Mutant lac Repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Keun; Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Oh Cheol; Kim, Jihyun F; Yoon, Sung Ho

    2017-09-15

    Most inducible expression systems suffer from growth defects, leaky basal induction, and inhomogeneous expression levels within a host cell population. These difficulties are most prominent with the overproduction of membrane proteins that are toxic to host cells. Here, we developed an Escherichia coli inducible expression system for membrane protein production based on titrated expression of a mutant lac repressor (mLacI). Performance of the mLacI inducible system was evaluated in conjunction with commonly used lac operator-based expression vectors using a T7 or tac promoter. Remarkably, expression of a target gene can be titrated by the dose-dependent addition of l-rhamnose, and the expression levels were homogeneous in the cell population. The developed system was successfully applied to overexpress three membrane proteins that were otherwise difficult to produce in E. coli. This gene expression control system can be easily applied to a broad range of existing protein expression systems and should be useful in constructing genetic circuits that require precise output signals.

  18. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Outer membrane (OM proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  19. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shi, Yu; Qiu, Hui; Li, Bin; Jabeen, Amara; Li, Liping; Liu, He; Kube, Michael; Xie, Guanlin; Wang, Yanli; Blondel, Carlos; Santiviago, Carlos A; Contreras, Ines; Sun, Guochang

    2012-01-01

    Outer membrane (OM) proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  20. Use of polymeric membranes for purification of an E. coli expressed biotherapeutic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, S; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-01-01

    Polymers have had a significant impact on the field of bioseparations in the past few decades. Most recently, membrane chromatography has emerged as an efficient alternative to the conventional packed-bed chromatography by eliminating the diffusion-related limitations associated with the traditional resin beads. In this article, we examine six membrane adsorbers for purification of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), an Escherichia coli-based biotherapeutic. These adsorbers differ either in their base matrix or in the surface chemistry. The role of interactions between the filter surfaces and the protein molecules in effecting these separations is the focus of the article.

  1. Membrane and envelope virus proteins co-expressed as lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP fused antigens: a potential tool to develop DNA vaccines against flaviviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dhalia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most practical and cost-effective strategy to prevent the majority of the flavivirus infection to which there is an available vaccine. However, vaccines based on attenuated virus can potentially promote collateral side effects and even rare fatal reactions. Given this scenario, the developent of alternative vaccination strategies such as DNA-based vaccines encoding specific flavivirus sequences are being considered. Endogenous cytoplasmic antigens, characteristically plasmid DNA-vaccine encoded, are mainly presented to the immune system through Major Histocompatibility Complex class I - MHC I molecules. The MHC I presentation via is mostly associated with a cellular cytotoxic response and often do not elicit a satisfactory humoral response. One of the main strategies to target DNA-encoded antigens to the MHC II compartment is expressing the antigen within the Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein (LAMP. The flavivirus envelope protein is recognized as the major virus surface protein and the main target for neutralizing antibodies. Different groups have demonstrated that co-expression of flavivirus membrane and envelope proteins in mammalian cells, fused with the carboxyl-terminal of LAMP, is able to induce satisfactory levels of neutralizing antibodies. Here we reviewed the use of the envelope flavivirus protein co-expression strategy as LAMP chimeras with the aim of developing DNA vaccines for dengue, West Nile and yellow fever viruses.A vacinação é a estratégia mais prática e o melhor custo-benefício para prevenir a maioria das infecções dos flavivirus, para os quais existe vacina disponível. Entretanto, as vacinas baseadas em vírus atenuados podem potencialmente promover efeitos colaterais e, mais raramente, reações fatais. Diante deste cenário, o desenvolvimento de estratégias alternativas de vacinação, como vacinas baseadas em DNA codificando seqüências específicas dos flavivirus, está sendo considerado

  2. Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and its surface expression increases during metacyclogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise CS Matos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11, a protein present in all kinetoplastid protozoa, is considered a potential candidate for a leishmaniasis vaccine. A suitable leishmaniasis vaccine candidate molecule must be expressed in amastigotes, the infective stage for mammals. However, the expression of KMP-11 in Leishmania amastigotes has been a subject of controversy. We evaluated the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, of Leishmania amazonensis by immunoblotting, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, using a monoclonal antibody against KMP-11. We found that KMP-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes. In both stages, the protein was found in association with membrane structures (at the cell surface, flagellar pocket and intracellular vesicles. More importantly, its surface expression is higher in amastigotes than in promastigotes and increases during metacyclogenesis. The increased expression of KMP-11 in metacyclic promastigotes, and especially in amastigotes, indicates a role for this molecule in the parasite relationship with the mammalian host. The presence of this molecule in amastigotes is consistent with the previously demonstrated immunoprotective capacity of vaccine prototypes based on the KMP-11-coding gene and the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses to KMP-11 in Leishmania-infected humans and animals.

  3. Mechanisms of multidrug resistance in HL60 cells. Analysis of resistance associated membrane proteins and levels of mdr gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, T; Latoud, C; Arnold, S T; Safa, A R; Felsted, R L; Center, M S

    1989-10-15

    HL60 cells isolated for resistance to Adriamycin do not contain P-glycoprotein, as determined with immunological probes. These cells, however, are multidrug resistant and defective in the cellular accumulation of drug. In view of these findings, we have examined in greater detail certain properties of the HL60/Adr cells and have compared these properties to an HL60 drug-resistant isolate (HL60/Vinc) which contains high levels of P-glycoprotein. The results of these studies demonstrated that verapamil induces a major increase in cellular drug accumulation in both HL60/Adr and HL60/Vinc isolates. An 125I-labeled photoaffinity analog of verapamil labeled P-glycoprotein contained in membranes of HL60/Vinc cells. In contrast, this agent did not label any protein selectively associated with drug resistance in membranes of the HL60/Adr isolate. The photoactive dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker [3H]azidopine and [125I]NASV, a photoaffinity analog of vinblastine, labelled P-glycoprotein in membranes from HL60/Vinc cells, whereas in experiments with the HL60/Adr isolate there was no detectable labeling of a drug resistance associated membrane protein. Additional studies have been carried out to analyze membrane proteins of HL60/Adr cells labeled with the photoaffinity agent 8-azido-alpha-[32P]ATP (AzATP32). The results demonstrate that this agent labeled a resistance associated membrane protein of 190 kilodaltons (P190). P190 is essentially absent in membranes of drug-sensitive cells. Labeling of P190 with AzATP32 in membranes of resistant cells was blocked completely when incubations were carried out in the presence of excess unlabeled ATP. Additional studies were carried out to analyze mdr gene amplification and expression in sensitive and resistant cells. Experiments carried out with human 5',mdr1 (1.1 kb) and mdr3 (1.0 kb) cDNAs demonstrate that both of these sequences were highly amplified in the HL60/Vinc isolate. Only the mrd1 gene sequence however, was

  4. Lactococcus lactis is an Efficient Expression System for Mammalian Membrane Proteins Involved in Liver Detoxification, CYP3A4, and MGST1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Sana; Lembrouk, Mehdi; Sourd, Laura; Ousalem, Fares; André, François; Orlowski, Stéphane; Delaforge, Marcel; Frelet-Barrand, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Despite the great importance of human membrane proteins involved in detoxification mechanisms, their wide use for biochemical approaches is still hampered by several technical difficulties considering eukaryotic protein expression in order to obtain the large amounts of protein required for functional and/or structural studies. Lactococcus lactis has emerged recently as an alternative heterologous expression system to Escherichia coli for proteins that are difficult to express. The aim of this work was to check its ability to express mammalian membrane proteins involved in liver detoxification, i.e., CYP3A4 and two isoforms of MGST1 (rat and human). Genes were cloned using two different strategies, i.e., classical or Gateway-compatible cloning, and we checked the possible influence of two affinity tags (6×-His-tag and Strep-tag II). Interestingly, all proteins could be successfully expressed in L. lactis at higher yields than those previously obtained for these proteins with classical expression systems (E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or those of other eukaryotic membrane proteins expressed in L. lactis. In addition, rMGST1 was fairly active after expression in L. lactis. This study highlights L. lactis as an attractive system for efficient expression of mammalian detoxification membrane proteins at levels compatible with further functional and structural studies.

  5. Effects of Unloading and Reloading on Expressions of Skelatal Muscle Membrane Proteins in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Y.; Ikuta, A.; Goto, A.; Sugiura, T.; Ohira, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Goto, K.

    2013-02-01

    Effects of unloading and reloading on the expression levels of tripartite motif-containing 72 (TRIM72) and caveolin-3 (Cav-3) of soleus muscle in mice were investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice (11-week old) were randomly assigned to control and hindlimb-suspended groups. Some of mice in hindlimb-suspended group were subjected to continuous hindlimb suspension (HS) for 2 weeks with or without 7 days of ambulation recovery. Following HS, the muscle weight and protein expression levels of TRIM72 and Cav-3 in soleus were decreased. On the other hand, the gradual increases in muscle mass, TRIM72 and Cav-3 were observed after reloading following HS. Therefore, it was suggested that mechanical loading played a key role in a regulatory system for protein expressions of TRIM72 and Cav-3.

  6. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the outer membrane protein OmpW from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Reinhard; Zeth, Kornelius; Söding, Johannes; Lupas, Andrei; Linke, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    The outer membrane protein OmpW from E. coli was overexpressed in inclusion bodies and refolded with the help of detergent. The protein has been crystallized and the crystals diffract to 3.5 Å resolution. OmpW is an eight-stranded 21 kDa molecular-weight β-barrel protein from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It is a major antigen in bacterial infections and has implications in antibiotic resistance and in the oxidative degradation of organic compounds. OmpW from Escherichia coli was cloned and the protein was expressed in inclusion bodies. A method for refolding and purification was developed which yields properly folded protein according to circular-dichroism measurements. The protein has been crystallized and crystals were obtained that diffracted to a resolution limit of 3.5 Å. The crystals belong to space group P422, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.5, c = 105.7 Å. A homology model of OmpW is presented based on known structures of eight-stranded β-barrels, intended for use in molecular-replacement trials

  7. Analysis of surface protein expression reveals the growth pattern of the gram-negative outer membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan S Ursell

    Full Text Available The outer membrane (OM of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex bilayer composed of proteins, phospholipids, lipoproteins, and lipopolysaccharides. Despite recent advances revealing the molecular pathways underlying protein and lipopolysaccharide incorporation into the OM, the spatial distribution and dynamic regulation of these processes remain poorly understood. Here, we used sequence-specific fluorescent labeling to map the incorporation patterns of an OM-porin protein, LamB, by labeling proteins only after epitope exposure on the cell surface. Newly synthesized LamB appeared in discrete puncta, rather than evenly distributed over the cell surface. Further growth of bacteria after labeling resulted in divergence of labeled LamB puncta, consistent with a spatial pattern of OM growth in which new, unlabeled material was also inserted in patches. At the poles, puncta remained relatively stationary through several rounds of division, a salient characteristic of the OM protein population as a whole. We propose a biophysical model of growth in which patches of new OM material are added in discrete bursts that evolve in time according to Stokes flow and are randomly distributed over the cell surface. Simulations based on this model demonstrate that our experimental observations are consistent with a bursty insertion pattern without spatial bias across the cylindrical cell surface, with approximately one burst of ≈ 10(-2 µm(2 of OM material per two minutes per µm(2. Growth by insertion of discrete patches suggests that stochasticity plays a major role in patterning and material organization in the OM.

  8. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone.

  9. A cell-free method for expressing and reconstituting membrane proteins enables functional characterization of the plant receptor-like protein kinase FERONIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Benjamin B; Makino, Shin-Ichi; Haruta, Miyoshi; Beebe, Emily T; Wrobel, Russell L; Fox, Brian G; Sussman, Michael R

    2017-04-07

    There are more than 600 receptor-like kinases (RLKs) in Arabidopsis , but due to challenges associated with the characterization of membrane proteins, only a few have known biological functions. The plant RLK FERONIA is a peptide receptor and has been implicated in plant growth regulation, but little is known about its molecular mechanism of action. To investigate the properties of this enzyme, we used a cell-free wheat germ-based expression system in which mRNA encoding FERONIA was co-expressed with mRNA encoding the membrane scaffold protein variant MSP1D1. With the addition of the lipid cardiolipin, assembly of these proteins into nanodiscs was initiated. FERONIA protein kinase activity in nanodiscs was higher than that of soluble protein and comparable with other heterologously expressed protein kinases. Truncation experiments revealed that the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane domain is necessary for maximal FERONIA activity, whereas the transmembrane domain is inhibitory. An ATP analogue that reacts with lysine residues inhibited catalytic activity and labeled four lysines; mutagenesis demonstrated that two of these, Lys-565 and Lys-663, coordinate ATP in the active site. Mass spectrometric phosphoproteomic measurements further identified phosphorylation sites that were examined using phosphomimetic mutagenesis. The results of these experiments are consistent with a model in which kinase-mediated phosphorylation within the C-terminal region is inhibitory and regulates catalytic activity. These data represent a step further toward understanding the molecular basis for the protein kinase catalytic activity of FERONIA and show promise for future characterization of eukaryotic membrane proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Establishment of insect cell lines expressing green fluorescent protein on cell surface based on AcMNPV GP64 membrane fusion characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ben-Xiang; Chen, Ying-Jian; Su, Rui; Li, Yi-Fei; Zheng, Gui-Ling; Li, Chang-You

    2017-10-01

    Displaying a protein on the surface of cells has been provided a very successful strategy to function research of exogenous proteins. Based on the membrane fusion characteristic of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus envelope protein GP64, we amplified and cloned N-terminal signal peptide and C-terminal transmembrane domain as well as cytoplasmic tail domain of gp64 gene into vector pIZ/V5-His with multi-cloning sites to construct the cell surface expression vector pIZ/V5-gp64. To verify that the vector can be used to express proteins on the membrane of insect cells, a recombinant plasmid pIZ/V5-gp64-GFP was constructed by introducing the PCR amplified green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and transfected into insect cell lines Sf9 and H5. The transected cells were screened with zeocin and cell cloning. PCR verification results showed that the GFP gene was successfully integrated into these cells. Green fluorescence in Sf9-GFP and H5-GFP cells was observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunofluorescence detection indicated that GFP protein was located on the cell membrane. Western blot results showed that a fusion protein GP64-GFP of about 40 kDa was expressed on the membrane of Sf9-GFP and H5-GFP cells. The expression system constructed in this paper can be used for localization and continuous expression of exogenous proteins on insect cell membrane.

  11. Revolutionizing membrane protein overexpression in bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, Susan; Klepsch, Mirjam; Gialama, Dimitra; Wickstrom, David; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Wickström, David

    The bacterium Escherichia coli is the most widely used expression host for overexpression trials of membrane proteins. Usually, different strains, culture conditions and expression regimes are screened for to identify the optimal overexpression strategy. However, yields are often not satisfactory,

  12. Expression and deposition of basement membrane proteins by brain capillary endothelial cells in a primary murine model of the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Larsen, Annette Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    of the present study was to create four different in vitro constructs of the murine BBB to characterise if the expression and secretion of basement membrane proteins by the murine brain capillary endothelial cells (mBCECs) was affected by co-culturing with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both. Primary m...... membrane, and astrocyte endfeet. To study the interaction of the different cells of the BBB, construction of in vitro BBB models is valuable. However, the modulation and contribution of the cells of the BBB to the synthesis of basement membrane proteins in vitro is not fully elaborated. Thus, the aim......, and immunofluorescent labelling were used. The mBCECs were found to express major basement membrane proteins in vitro and increased expression of laminin α5 and collagen IV α1 was correlated to the addition of BBB inducing factors (hydrocortisone, Ro20-1724, pCPT-cAMP). Co-culturing of the mBCECs with pericytes, mixed...

  13. Modelling of proteins in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; May, S.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review describes some recent theories and simulations of mesoscopic and microscopic models of lipid membranes with embedded or attached proteins. We summarize results supporting our understanding of phenomena for which the activities of proteins in membranes are expected to be significantly...... oppositely charged lipid membranes, lipid-induced tilting of proteins embedded in lipid bilayers, protein-induced bilayer deformations, protein insertion and assembly, and lipid-controlled functioning of membrane proteins....

  14. Membrane bending by protein-protein crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Schmid, Eva M; Ryan, Christopher J; Ann, Hyoung Sook; Sasaki, Darryl Y; Sherman, Michael B; Geissler, Phillip L; Fletcher, Daniel A; Hayden, Carl C

    2012-09-01

    Curved membranes are an essential feature of dynamic cellular structures, including endocytic pits, filopodia protrusions and most organelles. It has been proposed that specialized proteins induce curvature by binding to membranes through two primary mechanisms: membrane scaffolding by curved proteins or complexes; and insertion of wedge-like amphipathic helices into the membrane. Recent computational studies have raised questions about the efficiency of the helix-insertion mechanism, predicting that proteins must cover nearly 100% of the membrane surface to generate high curvature, an improbable physiological situation. Thus, at present, we lack a sufficient physical explanation of how protein attachment bends membranes efficiently. On the basis of studies of epsin1 and AP180, proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, we propose a third general mechanism for bending fluid cellular membranes: protein-protein crowding. By correlating membrane tubulation with measurements of protein densities on membrane surfaces, we demonstrate that lateral pressure generated by collisions between bound proteins drives bending. Whether proteins attach by inserting a helix or by binding lipid heads with an engineered tag, protein coverage above ~20% is sufficient to bend membranes. Consistent with this crowding mechanism, we find that even proteins unrelated to membrane curvature, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP), can bend membranes when sufficiently concentrated. These findings demonstrate a highly efficient mechanism by which the crowded protein environment on the surface of cellular membranes can contribute to membrane shape change.

  15. Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) expression in Hodgkin lymphoma and its correlation with clinical and histologic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Atif Ali; Hussain, Zubaida Fida; Hashmi, Kashif Ali; Zafar, Muhammad Irfan; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Faridi, Naveen; Khan, Mehmood

    2017-04-20

    Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the most prevalent lymphoproliferative disorders in Pakistan; however, no risk factors for this disease have yet to be established in our population. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-known risk factor for Hodgkin lymphoma in endemic regions of the world; however, frequency of its association in our population has not been widely studied. Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a surrogate marker of EBV in Hodgkin lymphoma. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of expression of LMP1 in cases of Hodgkin lymphoma at our institute and its correlation with other clinical and histologic parameters. The study included 66 cases of Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed at Liaquat National Hospital over a duration of 2 years from January 2014 to December 2015. The slides and blocks of all cases were retrieved, and representative blocks were selected for LMP1 by IHC. LMP1 expression of >10% of cells was considered as positive expression and correlated with histologic subtypes and clinical parameters like age, gender, and site of involvement. The mean age of patients was 35.11 (+20.22). LMP1 expression was found in 68.1% (45/66) of cases of Hodgkin lymphoma. Mean age of the patients with LMP1 expression was 32.04 (+21.02). LMP1 expression was found in 40% cases of lymphocyte-rich, 66.7% of lymphocyte-depleted, 73.9% of mixed cellularity, 66.7% of nodular sclerosis, and 73.7% of classic Hodgkin lymphoma, NOS. No significant correlation of LMP1 expression with any clinical or histological parameter could be established in our studied patient population. A high frequency of expression of LMP1 is seen in cases of Hodgkin lymphoma at our setup comparable to endemic regions of the world; therefore, preventive and treatment protocols should be designed accordingly.

  16. Alternate phase variation in expression of two major surface membrane proteins (MBA and UU376) of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Stiedl, Thomas; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum are commensals and pathogens of the human urogenital tract and of newborn infants. There are four distinct U. parvum serovars and 10 distinct U. urealyticum serovars. Both species possess a distinct immunodominant variable surface protein, the multiple banded antigen (MBA), which shows size variability among isolates as a result of changes in the number of C-terminal repeating units. Adjacent to the MBA gene (UU375) lies UU376, which was annotated as 'Ureaplasma-specific conserved hypothetical gene'. In four different strains of U. parvum serovar 3, we demonstrated expression of UU376 by Western blot analysis and phase variation between UU376, here designated Upvmp376 (Ureaplasma phase-variable membrane protein 376), and MBA after application of selective pressure with hyperimmune antisera directed against either protein. By Southern blot analysis, we found that the switch between MBA and Upvmp376 expression is associated with a DNA inversion event in which the nonrepetitive region of the MBA gene and its putative promoter region are opposed to either the repetitive region of MBA or UU376. We propose that in U. parvum serovar 3, and presumably in all U. parvum and U. urealyticum, an inversion event at specific sites effects an alternate ON/OFF switching of the genes UU375 and UU376.

  17. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.; (Vanderbilt)

    2010-01-28

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  18. Expression of a Sensory Neuron Membrane Protein SNMP2 in Olfactory Sensilla of Codling Moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinglong; Liu, Lu; Fang, Yiqing; Feng, Jinian

    2016-08-01

    In insects, sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are critical peripheral olfactory proteins and highly promote the sensitivity of pheromone detection. In this study, we cloned an SNMP transcript (CpomSNMP2, GenBank KU302714) from the antennae of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) Its open reading frame is 1,575 bp and it encodes a protein with 524 amino acids. CpomSNMP2 contains two putative transmembrane domains and has a large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CpomSNMP2 is clustered into the group of previously characterized lepidopteron SNMP2s. Expression levels of CpomSNMP2 were significantly higher in antennae of both males and females than in tissues from the thoraxes, abdomens, legs, and wings. CpomSNMP2 was distributed in sensilla trichodea of both males and females, but only in sensilla chaetica of males. This study provides evidence for olfactory roles of CpomSNMP2 in this moth. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Membrane fission by protein crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Wilton T; Hayden, Carl C; Gadok, Avinash K; Zhao, Chi; Lafer, Eileen M; Rangamani, Padmini; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2017-04-18

    Membrane fission, which facilitates compartmentalization of biological processes into discrete, membrane-bound volumes, is essential for cellular life. Proteins with specific structural features including constricting rings, helical scaffolds, and hydrophobic membrane insertions are thought to be the primary drivers of fission. In contrast, here we report a mechanism of fission that is independent of protein structure-steric pressure among membrane-bound proteins. In particular, random collisions among crowded proteins generate substantial pressure, which if unbalanced on the opposite membrane surface can dramatically increase membrane curvature, leading to fission. Using the endocytic protein epsin1 N-terminal homology domain (ENTH), previously thought to drive fission by hydrophobic insertion, our results show that membrane coverage correlates equally with fission regardless of the hydrophobicity of insertions. Specifically, combining FRET-based measurements of membrane coverage with multiple, independent measurements of membrane vesiculation revealed that fission became spontaneous as steric pressure increased. Further, fission efficiency remained equally potent when helices were replaced by synthetic membrane-binding motifs. These data challenge the view that hydrophobic insertions drive membrane fission, suggesting instead that the role of insertions is to anchor proteins strongly to membrane surfaces, amplifying steric pressure. In line with these conclusions, even green fluorescent protein (GFP) was able to drive fission efficiently when bound to the membrane at high coverage. Our conclusions are further strengthened by the finding that intrinsically disordered proteins, which have large hydrodynamic radii yet lack a defined structure, drove fission with substantially greater potency than smaller, structured proteins.

  20. Regulation of gene expression by repressor localization: biochemical evidence that membrane and DNA binding by the PutA protein are mutually exclusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro-Pastor, A M; Ostrovsky, P; Maloy, S

    1997-04-01

    The PutA protein from Salmonella typhimurium is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate, a reaction that is coupled to the transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain in the cytoplasmic membrane. The PutA protein is also a transcriptional repressor that regulates the expression of the put operon in response to the availability of proline. Despite extensive genetic and biochemical studies of the PutA protein, it was not known if the PutA protein carries out both of these two opposing functions while membrane associated or if instead it carries them out in different cellular compartments. To distinguish between these alternatives, we directly assayed the binding of purified PutA protein to DNA and membranes in vitro. The results indicate that wild-type PutA does not simultaneously associate with DNA and membranes. In addition, PutA superrepressor mutants that exhibit increased repression of the put genes show a direct correlation between decreased membrane binding and increased DNA binding. These results support a model in which the PutA protein shuttles between the membrane (where it acts as an enzyme but lacks access to DNA-binding sites) and the cytoplasm (where it binds DNA and acts as a transcriptional repressor), depending on the availability of proline.

  1. Expression of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in experimentally infected humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavstsen, T.; Magistrado, P.; Hermsen, C.C.; Salanti, A.; Jensen, A.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Hviid, L.; Theander, T.G.; Staalsoe, T.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parasites causing severe malaria in non-immune patients express a restricted subset of variant surface antigens (VSA), which are better recognized by immune sera than VSA expressed during non-severe disease in semi-immune individuals. The most prominent VSA are the var gene-encoded

  2. Analyzing Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 gene expression by a next generation sequencing based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob S.; Petersen, Bent; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine

    2013-01-01

    at identifying PfEMP1 features associated with high virulence. Here we present the first effective method for sequence analysis of var genes expressed in field samples: a sequential PCR and next generation sequencing based technique applied on expressed var sequence tags and subsequently on long range PCR......, encoded by ~60 highly variable 'var' genes per haploid genome. PfEMP1 is exported to the surface of infected erythrocytes and is thought to be fundamental to immune evasion by adhesion to host and parasite factors. The highly variable nature has constituted a roadblock in var expression studies aimed...

  3. Methylation and in vivo expression of the surface-exposed Leptospira interrogans outer membrane protein OmpL32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have revealed that bacterial protein methylation is a widespread post-translational modification that is required for virulence in selected pathogenic bacteria. In particular, altered methylation of outer membrane proteins has been shown to modulate the effectiveness of the host immu...

  4. Arabidopsis Tic40 expression in tobacco chloroplasts results in massive proliferation of the inner envelope membrane and upregulation of associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Li, Ming; Lee, Sueng-Bum; Schnell, Danny; Daniell, Henry

    2008-12-01

    The chloroplast inner envelope membrane (IM) plays essential roles in lipid synthesis, metabolite transport, and cellular signaling in plants. We have targeted a model nucleus-encoded IM protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, pre-Tic40-His, by relocating its expression from the nucleus to the chloroplast genome. Pre-Tic40-His was properly targeted, processed, and inserted. It attained correct topology and was folded and assembled into a TIC complex, where it accounted for up to 15% of the total chloroplast protein. These results confirm the existence of a novel pathway for protein targeting to the IM. Tic40-His overexpression resulted in a massive proliferation of the IM (up to 19 layers in electron micrographs) without significant effects on plant growth or reproduction. Consistent with IM proliferation, the expression levels of other endogenous IM proteins (IEP37, PPT, Tic110) were significantly (10-fold) upregulated but those of outer envelope membrane (Toc159), stromal (hsp93, cpn60), or thylakoid (LHCP, OE23) proteins were not increased, suggesting retrograde signal transduction between chloroplast and nuclear genomes to increase lipid and protein components for accommodation of increased accumulation of Tic40. This study opens the door for understanding the regulation of membrane biogenesis within the organelle and the utilization of transgenic chloroplasts as bioreactors for hyperaccumulation of membrane proteins for biotechnological applications.

  5. A role for protein kinase PKR in the mediation of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1-induced IL-6 and IL-10 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, San San; Lee, Davy C W; Law, Anna H Y; Fang, Jun Wei; Chua, Daniel T T; Lau, Allan S Y

    2010-05-01

    Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded oncogenic latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) has been substantially associated with tumorigenic transformation in the virus-infected cells. The pathogenic complexity of LMP1 is partly due to the cytokine dysregulation including IL-6 and IL-10 in perturbing the host immune responses. Here we have identified an important signaling event mediated by a dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, PKR, in regulating LMP1-induced IL-6 and IL-10 expression. We first demonstrated that PKR plays a significant role in mediating LMP1-induced cytokine expression by using a PKR inhibitor 2-aminopurine, and the specific role of PKR involved was confirmed by the use of siRNA oligos targeting PKR and/or a dominant-negative PKR mutant. We next revealed that PKR activity mediates LMP1-enhanced NF-kappaB nuclear translocation resulting in cytokine induction. We further demonstrated at the chromatin level that LMP1 can significantly elevate the phosphorylation of histone H3 on serine 10 (Ser 10), and the process was dependent on PKR activity. Our findings thus suggest that PKR plays an important role in mediating the cytokine gene expression induced by LMP1 through NF-kappaB activation and histone H3 Ser 10 phosphorylation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combinatorial Method for Overexpression of Membrane Proteins in Escherichia coli*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Shani; Sawada, Keisuke; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Nelson, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins constitute 20–30% of all proteins encoded by the genome of various organisms. Large amounts of purified proteins are required for activity and crystallization attempts. Thus, there is an unmet need for a heterologous membrane protein overexpression system for purification, crystallization, and activity determination. We developed a combinatorial method for overexpressing and purifying membrane proteins using Escherichia coli. This method utilizes short hydrophilic bacterial proteins, YaiN and YbeL, fused to the ends of the membrane proteins to serve as facilitating factors for expression and purification. Fourteen prokaryotic and mammalian membrane proteins were expressed using this system. Moderate to high expression was obtained for most proteins, and detergent solubilization combined with a short purification process produced stable, monodispersed membrane proteins. Five of the mammalian membrane proteins, overexpressed using our system, were reconstituted into liposomes and exhibited transport activity comparable with the native transporters. PMID:20525689

  7. Combinatorial method for overexpression of membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Shani; Sawada, Keisuke; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Nelson, Nathan

    2010-07-30

    Membrane proteins constitute 20-30% of all proteins encoded by the genome of various organisms. Large amounts of purified proteins are required for activity and crystallization attempts. Thus, there is an unmet need for a heterologous membrane protein overexpression system for purification, crystallization, and activity determination. We developed a combinatorial method for overexpressing and purifying membrane proteins using Escherichia coli. This method utilizes short hydrophilic bacterial proteins, YaiN and YbeL, fused to the ends of the membrane proteins to serve as facilitating factors for expression and purification. Fourteen prokaryotic and mammalian membrane proteins were expressed using this system. Moderate to high expression was obtained for most proteins, and detergent solubilization combined with a short purification process produced stable, monodispersed membrane proteins. Five of the mammalian membrane proteins, overexpressed using our system, were reconstituted into liposomes and exhibited transport activity comparable with the native transporters.

  8. Lipid Raft-Based Membrane Compartmentation of a Plant Transport Protein Expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grossmann, Q.; Opekarová, Miroslava; Nováková, L.; Stolz, J.; Tanner, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2006), s. 945-953 ISSN 1535-9778 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : saccharomyces cerevisiae * plant transport protein * hup1 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.707, year: 2006

  9. Regulation of gene expression by repressor localization: biochemical evidence that membrane and DNA binding by the PutA protein are mutually exclusive.

    OpenAIRE

    Muro-Pastor, A M; Ostrovsky, P; Maloy, S

    1997-01-01

    The PutA protein from Salmonella typhimurium is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate, a reaction that is coupled to the transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain in the cytoplasmic membrane. The PutA protein is also a transcriptional repressor that regulates the expression of the put operon in response to the availability of proline. Despite extensive genetic and biochemical studies of the PutA protein, it was not known if the PutA protein car...

  10. Differential expression profiling of membrane proteins by quantitative proteomics in a human mesenchymal stem cell line undergoing osteoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Leonard J; Zeemann, Patricia A; Li, Chen

    2005-01-01

    in a cell model of hMSCs established by overexpression of human telomerase reverse-transcriptase gene. We identified 463 unique proteins with extremely high confidence, including all known markers of hMSCs (e.g., SH3 [CD71], SH2 [CD105], CD166, CD44, Thy1, CD29, and HOP26 [CD63]) among 148 integral membrane...

  11. Diffusion of Integral Membrane Proteins in Protein-Rich Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Metzler, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    -like dependence D ∝ 1/R. We propose that this 1/R law mainly arises due to geometrical factors: smaller proteins are able to avoid confinement effects much better than their larger counterparts. The results highlight that the lateral dynamics in the crowded setting found in native membranes is radically different......The lateral diffusion of embedded proteins along lipid membranes in protein-poor conditions has been successfully described in terms of the Saffman-Delbrück (SD) model, which predicts that the protein diffusion coefficient D is weakly dependent on its radius R as D ∝ ln(1/R). However, instead...... of being protein-poor, native cell membranes are extremely crowded with proteins. On the basis of extensive molecular simulations, we here demonstrate that protein crowding of the membrane at physiological levels leads to deviations from the SD relation and to the emergence of a stronger Stokes...

  12. Co-expression of foreign proteins tethered to HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein on the cell surface by introducing an intervening second membrane-spanning domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Wang

    Full Text Available The envelope glycoprotein (Env of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 mediates membrane fusion. To analyze the mechanism of HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion, it is desirable to determine the expression level of Env on the cell surface. However, the quantification of Env by immunological staining is often hampered by the diversity of HIV-1 Env and limited availability of universal antibodies that recognize different Envs with equal efficiency. To overcome this problem, here we linked a tag protein called HaloTag at the C-terminus of HIV-1 Env. To relocate HaloTag to the cell surface, we introduced a second membrane-spanning domain (MSD between Env and HaloTag. The MSD of transmembrane protease serine 11D, a type II transmembrane protein, successfully relocated HaloTag to the cell surface. The surface level of Env can be estimated indirectly by staining HaloTag with a specific membrane-impermeable fluorescent ligand. This tagging did not compromise the fusogenicity of Env drastically. Furthermore, fusogenicity of Env was preserved even after the labeling with the ligands. We have also found that an additional foreign peptide or protein such as C34 or neutralizing single-chain variable fragment (scFv can be linked to the C-terminus of the HaloTag protein. Using these constructs, we were able to determine the required length of C34 and critical residues of neutralizing scFv for blocking membrane fusion, respectively.

  13. The tunable pReX expression vector enables optimizing the T7-based production of membrane and secretory proteins in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Grietje; Karyolaimos, Alexandros; Zhang, Zhe; Ismail, Nurzian; Trinco, Gianluca; Vikström, David; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2017-12-16

    To optimize the production of membrane and secretory proteins in Escherichia coli, it is critical to harmonize the expression rates of the genes encoding these proteins with the capacity of their biogenesis machineries. Therefore, we engineered the Lemo21(DE3) strain, which is derived from the T7 RNA polymerase-based BL21(DE3) protein production strain. In Lemo21(DE3), the T7 RNA polymerase activity can be modulated by the controlled co-production of its natural inhibitor T7 lysozyme. This setup enables to precisely tune target gene expression rates in Lemo21(DE3). The t7lys gene is expressed from the pLemo plasmid using the titratable rhamnose promoter. A disadvantage of the Lemo21(DE3) setup is that the system is based on two plasmids, a T7 expression vector and pLemo. The aim of this study was to simplify the Lemo21(DE3) setup by incorporating the key elements of pLemo in a standard T7-based expression vector. By incorporating the gene encoding the T7 lysozyme under control of the rhamnose promoter in a standard T7-based expression vector, pReX was created (ReX stands for Regulated gene eXpression). For two model membrane proteins and a model secretory protein we show that the optimized production yields obtained with the pReX expression vector in BL21(DE3) are similar to the ones obtained with Lemo21(DE3) using a standard T7 expression vector. For another secretory protein, a c-type cytochrome, we show that pReX, in contrast to Lemo21(DE3), enables the use of a helper plasmid that is required for the maturation and hence the production of this heme c protein. Here, we created pReX, a T7-based expression vector that contains the gene encoding the T7 lysozyme under control of the rhamnose promoter. pReX enables regulated T7-based target gene expression using only one plasmid. We show that with pReX the production of membrane and secretory proteins can be readily optimized. Importantly, pReX facilitates the use of helper plasmids. Furthermore, the use of pReX is

  14. Cell-free expression, purification, and membrane reconstitution for NMR studies of the nonstructural protein 4B from hepatitis C virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogeron, Marie-Laure [Université de Lyon, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, Bases Moléculaires et Structurales des Systèmes Infectieux, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Jirasko, Vlastimil; Penzel, Susanne [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Paul, David [Heidelberg University, Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology (Germany); Montserret, Roland; Danis, Clément; Lacabanne, Denis; Badillo, Aurélie [Université de Lyon, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, Bases Moléculaires et Structurales des Systèmes Infectieux, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Moradpour, Darius [University of Lausanne, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (Switzerland); Bartenschlager, Ralf [Heidelberg University, Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology (Germany); Penin, François [Université de Lyon, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, Bases Moléculaires et Structurales des Systèmes Infectieux, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); and others

    2016-06-15

    We describe the expression of the hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B), which is an integral membrane protein, in a wheat germ cell-free system, the subsequent purification and characterization of NS4B and its insertion into proteoliposomes in amounts sufficient for multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy. First spectra of the isotopically [{sup 2}H,{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N]-labeled protein are shown to yield narrow {sup 13}C resonance lines and a proper, predominantly α-helical fold. Clean residue-selective leucine, isoleucine and threonine-labeling is demonstrated. These results evidence the suitability of the wheat germ-produced integral membrane protein NS4B for solid-state NMR. Still, the proton linewidth under fast magic angle spinning is broader than expected for a perfect sample and possible causes are discussed.

  15. Modelling of proteins in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; May, S.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review describes some recent theories and simulations of mesoscopic and microscopic models of lipid membranes with embedded or attached proteins. We summarize results supporting our understanding of phenomena for which the activities of proteins in membranes are expected to be significantly...

  16. Expression of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis in Escherichia coli using an arabinose-inducible plasmid vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, L E; Hoelzle, K; Wittenbrink, M M

    2003-10-01

    The ompA genes encoding the 40 kDa major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were cloned into the arabinose-inducible plasmid vector pBADMycHis, and recombinant MOMPs (rMOMP) from the three chlamydial species were expressed at high levels in Escherichia (E.) coli. The proteins lacking the 22 aa N-terminal signal peptide were expressed as insoluble cytoplasmic inclusion bodies which were readily purified using immobilized metal-affinity chromatography. The rMOMPs including the N-terminal signal peptide were expressed and translocated as a surface-exposed immunoaccessible protein into the outer membrane of E. coli. Transformants expressing this full-length rMOMP were significantly reduced in viability. Purified native elementary bodies (EB) and rMOMPs of the three chlamydial species purified from the E. coli cytoplasm were used for immunization of rabbits. The resulting sera were analysed for their ability to recognize homologous and heterologous rMOMP and native EB. When testing rMOMP antisera against rMOMP and EB antigens, marked cross-reactivities were detected between the three species. Using EB antisera and rMOMPs as antigens, a significant species-specific reactivity was measured.

  17. Membrane Protein Production in Lactococcus lactis for Functional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigneurin-Berny, Daphne; King, Martin S; Sautron, Emiline; Moyet, Lucas; Catty, Patrice; André, François; Rolland, Norbert; Kunji, Edmund R S; Frelet-Barrand, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Due to their unique properties, expression and study of membrane proteins in heterologous systems remains difficult. Among the bacterial systems available, the Gram-positive lactic bacterium, Lactococcus lactis, traditionally used in food fermentations, is nowadays widely used for large-scale production and functional characterization of bacterial and eukaryotic membrane proteins. The aim of this chapter is to describe the different possibilities for the functional characterization of peripheral or intrinsic membrane proteins expressed in Lactococcus lactis.

  18. Complementation between avirulent Newcastle disease virus and a fusion protein gene expressed from a retrovirus vector: requirements for membrane fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, T; McQuain, C; McGinnes, L

    1991-01-01

    The cDNA derived from the fusion gene of the virulent AV strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was expressed in chicken embryo cells by using a retrovirus vector. The fusion protein expressed in this system was transported to the cell surface and was efficiently cleaved into the disulfide-linked F1-F2 form found in infectious virions. The cells expressing the fusion gene grew normally and could be passaged many times. Monolayers of these cells would plaque, in the absence of trypsin, avirul...

  19. The breast cancer resistance protein transporter ABCG2 is expressed in the human kidney proximal tubule apical membrane.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huls, M.; Brown, C.D.; Windass, A.S.; Sayer, R.; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Heemskerk, S.; Russel, F.G.M.; Masereeuw, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a transporter restricting absorption and enhancing excretion of many compounds including anticancer drugs. This transporter is highly expressed in many tissues; however, in human kidney, only the mRNA was found in contrast to the mouse kidney,

  20. Quantification of detergent using colorimetric methods in membrane protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Chelsy; Jia, Zongchao

    2015-01-01

    Membrane protein crystallography has the potential to greatly aid our understanding of membrane protein biology. Yet, membrane protein crystals remain challenging to produce. Although robust methods for the expression and purification of membrane proteins continue to be developed, the detergent component of membrane protein samples is equally important to crystallization efforts. This chapter describes the development of three colorimetric assays for the quantitation of detergent in membrane protein samples and provides detailed protocols. All of these techniques use small sample volumes and have potential applications in crystallography. The application of these techniques in crystallization prescreening, detergent concentration modification, and detergent exchange experiments is demonstrated. It has been observed that the concentration of detergent in a membrane protein sample can be just as important as the protein concentration when attempting to reproduce crystallization lead conditions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intrinsically disordered proteins drive membrane curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, David J; Houser, Justin R; Hayden, Carl C; Sherman, Michael B; Lafer, Eileen M; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2015-07-24

    Assembly of highly curved membrane structures is essential to cellular physiology. The prevailing view has been that proteins with curvature-promoting structural motifs, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped BAR domains, are required for bending membranes. Here we report that intrinsically disordered domains of the endocytic adaptor proteins, Epsin1 and AP180 are highly potent drivers of membrane curvature. This result is unexpected since intrinsically disordered domains lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. However, in vitro measurements of membrane curvature and protein diffusivity demonstrate that the large hydrodynamic radii of these domains generate steric pressure that drives membrane bending. When disordered adaptor domains are expressed as transmembrane cargo in mammalian cells, they are excluded from clathrin-coated pits. We propose that a balance of steric pressure on the two surfaces of the membrane drives this exclusion. These results provide quantitative evidence for the influence of steric pressure on the content and assembly of curved cellular membrane structures.

  2. Reduced expressions of calmodulin genes and protein and reduced ability of calmodulin to activate plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase in the brain of protein undernourished rats: modulatory roles of selenium and zinc supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Olusegun L; Khera, Alka; Sandhir, Rajat; Adenuga, Gbenga A

    2016-03-01

    The roles of protein undernutrition as well as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) supplementation on the ability of calmodulin (CaM) to activate erythrocyte ghost membrane (EGM) Ca(2+)-ATPase and the calmodulin genes and protein expressions in rat's cortex and cerebellum were investigated. Rats on adequate protein diet and protein-undernourished (PU) rats were fed with diet containing 16% and 5% casein, respectively, for a period of 10 weeks. The rats were then supplemented with Se and Zn at a concentration of 0.15 and 227 mg l(-1), respectively, in drinking water for 3 weeks. The results obtained from the study showed significant reductions in synaptosomal plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) activity, Ca(2+)/CaM activated EGM Ca(2+) ATPase activity and calmodulin genes and protein expressions in PU rats. Se or Zn supplementation improved the ability of Ca(2+)/CaM to activate EGM Ca(2+)-ATPase and protein expressions. Se or Zn supplementation improved gene expression in the cerebellum but not in the cortex. Also, the activity of PMCA was significantly improved by Zn. In conclusion, it is postulated that Se and Zn might be beneficial antioxidants in protecting against neuronal dysfunction resulting from reduced level of calmodulin such as present in protein undernutrition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Heterologous Expression of Membrane and Soluble Proteins Derepresses GCN4 mRNA Translation in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, L.; Pedersen, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    -ATPase also induced GCN4 translation. Derepression of GCN4 translation required phosphorylation of eIF-2 , the tRNA binding domain of Gcn2p, and the ribosome-associated proteins Gcn1p and Gcn20p. The increase in Gcn4p density in response to heterologous expression did not induce transcription from the HIS4...... promoter, a traditional Gcn4p target.......This paper describes the first physiological response at the translational level towards heterologous protein production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast, the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 ) by Gcn2p protein kinase mediates derepression of GCN4 mRNA translation. Gcn4...

  4. A disease-causing mutation illuminates the protein membrane topology of the kidney-expressed prohibitin homology (PHB) domain protein podocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurek, Eva-Maria; Völker, Linus A; Tax, Judit; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Rinschen, Markus M; Ungrue, Denise; Kratz, John E; Sirianant, Lalida; Kunzelmann, Karl; Chalfie, Martin; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Höhne, Martin

    2014-04-18

    Mutations in the NPHS2 gene are a major cause of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, a severe human kidney disorder. The NPHS2 gene product podocin is a key component of the slit diaphragm cell junction at the kidney filtration barrier and part of a multiprotein-lipid supercomplex. A similar complex with the podocin ortholog MEC-2 is required for touch sensation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Although podocin and MEC-2 are membrane-associated proteins with a predicted hairpin-like structure and amino and carboxyl termini facing the cytoplasm, this membrane topology has not been convincingly confirmed. One particular mutation that causes kidney disease in humans (podocin(P118L)) has also been identified in C. elegans in genetic screens for touch insensitivity (MEC-2(P134S)). Here we show that both mutant proteins, in contrast to the wild-type variants, are N-glycosylated because of the fact that the mutant C termini project extracellularly. Podocin(P118L) and MEC-2(P134S) did not fractionate in detergent-resistant membrane domains. Moreover, mutant podocin failed to activate the ion channel TRPC6, which is part of the multiprotein-lipid supercomplex, indicative of the fact that cholesterol recruitment to the ion channels, an intrinsic function of both proteins, requires C termini facing the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the carboxyl terminus of podocin/MEC-2 has to be placed at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane to mediate cholesterol binding and contribute to ion channel activity, a prerequisite for mechanosensation and the integrity of the kidney filtration barrier.

  5. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Michael T; Wilcox, Kyle C; Klein, William L; Sligar, Stephen G

    2013-05-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membrane proteins and have been used to study a wide variety of purified membrane proteins. This report details the incorporation of an unbiased population of membrane proteins from Escherichia coli membranes into Nanodiscs. This solubilized membrane protein library (SMPL) forms a soluble in vitro model of the membrane proteome. Since Nanodiscs contain isolated proteins or small complexes, the SMPL is an ideal platform for interactomics studies and pull-down assays of membrane proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the protein population before and after formation of the Nanodisc library indicates that a large percentage of the proteins are incorporated into the library. Proteomic identification of several prominent bands demonstrates the successful incorporation of outer and inner membrane proteins into the Nanodisc library.

  6. Protein and DNA technologies for functional expression of membrane-associated cytochromes P450 in bacterial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Albacete, Dario

    The heavy dependence and massive consumption of fossil fuels by humans is changing our environment very rapidly. Some of the side effects of industrial activity include the pollution of the natural resources we rely on, and the reduction of biodiversity. Some chemicals found in nature exhibit great....... In most of biosynthetic pathways leading to these chemicals the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (P450s) is responsible for their final functionalization. However, the membrane-bound nature of P450s, makes their expression in microbial hosts a challenge. In order to meet the global demand for these natural......450 engineering guidelines and serves as platform to improve performance of microbial cells, thereby boosting recombinant production of complex plant P450-derived biochemicals. The knowledge generated, could guide future reconstruction of functional plant metabolic pathways leading to high valuable...

  7. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Michael T.; Wilcox, Kyle C.; Klein, William L.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membr...

  8. First study on gene expression of cement proteins and potential adhesion-related genes of a membranous-based barnacle as revealed from Next-Generation Sequencing technology

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Hsiu Chin

    2013-12-12

    This is the first study applying Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to survey the kinds, expression location, and pattern of adhesion-related genes in a membranous-based barnacle. A total of 77,528,326 and 59,244,468 raw sequence reads of total RNA were generated from the prosoma and the basis of Tetraclita japonica formosana, respectively. In addition, 55,441 and 67,774 genes were further assembled and analyzed. The combined sequence data from both body parts generates a total of 79,833 genes of which 47.7% were shared. Homologues of barnacle cement proteins - CP-19K, -52K, and -100K - were found and all were dominantly expressed at the basis where the cement gland complex is located. This is the main area where transcripts of cement proteins and other potential adhesion-related genes were detected. The absence of another common barnacle cement protein, CP-20K, in the adult transcriptome suggested a possible life-stage restricted gene function and/or a different mechanism in adhesion between membranous-based and calcareous-based barnacles. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  9. Quantitative proteomics of fractionated membrane and lumen exosome proteins from isogenic metastatic and non-metastatic bladder cancer cells reveal differential expression of EMT factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Jensen, Steffen Grann

    2014-01-01

    T24 without metastatic capacity and its two isogenic derivate cell lines SLT4 and FL3, which form metastases in the lungs and liver of mice, respectively. Cultivation in CLAD1000 bioreactors rather than conventional culture flasks resulted in a 13-16-fold increased exosome yield and facilitated......, with changes in cellular mRNA expression. Our proteomic approach may help identification of proteins in the membrane and lumen of exosomes potentially involved in the metastatic process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue 2 envelope forms virus-like particles without pre-membrane protein and induces high titer neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Shailendra; Tripathi, Lav; Raut, Rajendra; Tyagi, Poornima; Arora, Upasana; Barman, Tarani; Sood, Ruchi; Galav, Alka; Wahala, Wahala; de Silva, Aravinda; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Khanna, Navin

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease with a global prevalence. It is caused by four closely-related dengue viruses (DENVs 1-4). A dengue vaccine that can protect against all four viruses is an unmet public health need. Live attenuated vaccine development efforts have encountered unexpected interactions between the vaccine viruses, raising safety concerns. This has emphasized the need to explore non-replicating dengue vaccine options. Virus-like particles (VLPs) which can elicit robust immunity in the absence of infection offer potential promise for the development of non-replicating dengue vaccine alternatives. We have used the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris to develop DENV envelope (E) protein-based VLPs. We designed a synthetic codon-optimized gene, encoding the N-terminal 395 amino acid residues of the DENV-2 E protein. It also included 5' pre-membrane-derived signal peptide-encoding sequences to ensure proper translational processing, and 3' 6× His tag-encoding sequences to facilitate purification of the expressed protein. This gene was integrated into the genome of P. pastoris host and expressed under the alcohol oxidase 1 promoter by methanol induction. Recombinant DENV-2 protein, which was present in the insoluble membrane fraction, was extracted and purified using Ni(2+)-affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. Amino terminal sequencing and detection of glycosylation indicated that DENV-2 E had undergone proper post-translational processing. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of discrete VLPs in the purified protein preparation after dialysis. The E protein present in these VLPs was recognized by two different conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibodies. Low doses of DENV-2 E VLPs formulated in alum were immunogenic in inbred and outbred mice eliciting virus neutralizing titers >1,1200 in flow cytometry based assays and protected AG129 mice against lethal challenge (pdengue vaccine.

  11. Investigation of free fatty acid associated recombinant membrane receptor protein expression in HEK293 cells using Raman spectroscopy, calcium imaging, and atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juqiang; Xu, Han; Wu, Yangzhe; Tang, Mingjie; McEwen, Gerald D; Liu, Pin; Hansen, Dane R; Gilbertson, Timothy A; Zhou, Anhong

    2013-02-05

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) is a previously orphaned G-protein-coupled receptor that apparently functions as a sensor for dietary fat in the gustatory and digestive systems. In this study, a cDNA sequence encoding a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible mature peptide of GPR120 was inserted into an expression vector and transfected in HEK293 cells. We measured Raman spectra of single HEK293 cells as well as GPR120-expressing HEK293-GPR120 cells at a 48 h period following the additions of Dox at several concentrations. We found that the spectral intensity of HEK293-GPR120 cells is dependent upon the dose of Dox, which correlates with the accumulation of GPR120 protein in the cells. However, the amount of the fatty acid activated changes in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) as measured by ratiometric calcium imaging was not correlated with Dox concentration. Principal components analysis (PCA) of Raman spectra reveals that the spectra from different treatments of HEK293-GPR120 cells form distinct, completely separated clusters with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area of 1, while those spectra for the HEK293 cells form small overlap clusters with the ROC area of 0.836. It was also found that expression of GPR120 altered the physiochemical and biomechanical properties of the parental cell membrane surface, which was quantitated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These findings demonstrate that the combination of Raman spectroscopy, calcium imaging, and AFM may provide new tools in noninvasive and quantitative monitoring of membrane receptor expression induced alterations in the biophysical and signaling properties of single living cells.

  12. Cloning and Expression of 31kDa Outer Membrane Protein of Brucella melitansis in E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeneh Khodadadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The identification of Brucella spp. antigens with the capacity to elicit a protective immune response is of the great interest for the researchers. So, characterization and assessment of diverse antigens of Brucella need to be evaluated. In this study, we report the cloning and expression of the gene coding for 31 KDa OMP (OMP31 of Brucella melitensis 16M.   Methods: Brucella melitensis Omp31 gene was amplified with specific primers, cloned into pJET1/2 and subsequently subcloned in pET28a (+ vector. Both these recombinant plasmids were sequenced and then after, expression of recombinant protein was induced by 1mM IPTG. Western blot analysis was also performed by polyclonal rabbit antiserum.   Results: Omp31 successfully was cloned in both plasmid vectors. The recombinant Omp31 was expressed in E.coli host and purified with significant yield. Western blot results along with those of sequencing ensured accurate production of recombinant omp31 and retaining of its partial epitopes.   Conclusion: Our results show that, an expression host such as E. coli is suitable for omp31 production.

  13. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3 plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Christian W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes, var1, var2csa and var3 are found conserved in most parasite genomes. The most severe forms of malaria disease are caused by parasites expressing a subset of antigenically conserved PfEMP1 variants. Thus the ubiquitous and conserved VAR3 PfEMP1 is of particular interest to the research field. Evidence of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. Methods In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies and the var transcript and PfEMP1 expression profiles of the generated parasites were investigated. The IgG reactivity by plasma from children living in malaria-endemic Tanzania was tested to parasites and recombinant VAR3 protein. Parasites from hospitalized children were isolated and the transcript level of var3 was investigated. Results Var3 is transcribed and its protein product expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. The VAR3-expressing parasites were better recognized by children´s IgG than a parasite line expressing a Group B var gene. Two in 130 children showed increased recognition of parasites expressing VAR3 and to the recombinant VAR3 protein after a malaria episode and the isolated parasites showed high levels of var3 transcripts. Conclusions Collectively, the presented data suggest that var3 is transcribed and its protein product expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes in the same manner as seen for other var genes both in vitro and in vivo. Only very few children exhibit seroconversion to VAR3 following a malaria episode

  14. The effect of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions on membrane fouling in ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, I.H.; Prádanos, P.; Hernández, A.

    2000-01-01

    It was studied how protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions influence the filtration performance during the ultrafiltration of protein solutions over polymeric membranes. This was done by measuring flux, streaming potential, and protein transmission during filtration of bovine serum albumin

  15. Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue 2 envelope forms virus-like particles without pre-membrane protein and induces high titer neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Mani

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease with a global prevalence. It is caused by four closely-related dengue viruses (DENVs 1-4. A dengue vaccine that can protect against all four viruses is an unmet public health need. Live attenuated vaccine development efforts have encountered unexpected interactions between the vaccine viruses, raising safety concerns. This has emphasized the need to explore non-replicating dengue vaccine options. Virus-like particles (VLPs which can elicit robust immunity in the absence of infection offer potential promise for the development of non-replicating dengue vaccine alternatives. We have used the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris to develop DENV envelope (E protein-based VLPs. We designed a synthetic codon-optimized gene, encoding the N-terminal 395 amino acid residues of the DENV-2 E protein. It also included 5' pre-membrane-derived signal peptide-encoding sequences to ensure proper translational processing, and 3' 6× His tag-encoding sequences to facilitate purification of the expressed protein. This gene was integrated into the genome of P. pastoris host and expressed under the alcohol oxidase 1 promoter by methanol induction. Recombinant DENV-2 protein, which was present in the insoluble membrane fraction, was extracted and purified using Ni(2+-affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. Amino terminal sequencing and detection of glycosylation indicated that DENV-2 E had undergone proper post-translational processing. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of discrete VLPs in the purified protein preparation after dialysis. The E protein present in these VLPs was recognized by two different conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibodies. Low doses of DENV-2 E VLPs formulated in alum were immunogenic in inbred and outbred mice eliciting virus neutralizing titers >1,1200 in flow cytometry based assays and protected AG129 mice against lethal challenge (p<0.05. The formation of immunogenic DENV-2 E

  16. Biopores/membrane proteins in synthetic polymer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garni, Martina; Thamboo, Sagana; Schoenenberger, Cora-Ann; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2017-04-01

    Mimicking cell membranes by simple models based on the reconstitution of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers represents a straightforward approach to understand biological function of these proteins. This biomimetic strategy has been extended to synthetic membranes that have advantages in terms of chemical and mechanical stability, thus providing more robust hybrid membranes. We present here how membrane proteins and biopores have been inserted both in the membrane of nanosized and microsized compartments, and in planar membranes under various conditions. Such bio-hybrid membranes have new properties (as for example, permeability to ions/molecules), and functionality depending on the specificity of the inserted biomolecules. Interestingly, membrane proteins can be functionally inserted in synthetic membranes provided these have appropriate properties to overcome the high hydrophobic mismatch between the size of the biomolecule and the membrane thickness. Functional insertion of membrane proteins and biopores in synthetic membranes of compartments or in planar membranes is possible by an appropriate selection of the amphiphilic copolymers, and conditions of the self-assembly process. These hybrid membranes have new properties and functionality based on the specificity of the biomolecules and the nature of the synthetic membranes. Bio-hybrid membranes represent new solutions for the development of nanoreactors, artificial organelles or active surfaces/membranes that, by further gaining in complexity and functionality, will promote translational applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid order/lipid defects and lipid-control of protein activity edited by Dirk Schneider. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Efficient cellular solid-state NMR of membrane proteins by targeted protein labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Lindsay A.; Daniëls, Mark; Cruijsen, Elwin A. W. van der; Folkers, Gert E.; Baldus, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) has made significant progress towards the study of membrane proteins in their native cellular membranes. However, reduced spectroscopic sensitivity and high background signal levels can complicate these experiments. Here, we describe a method for ssNMR to specifically label a single protein by repressing endogenous protein expression with rifampicin. Our results demonstrate that treatment of E. coli with rifampicin during induction of recombinant membrane protein expression reduces background signals for different expression levels and improves sensitivity in cellular membrane samples. Further, the method reduces the amount of time and resources needed to produce membrane protein samples, enabling new strategies for studying challenging membrane proteins by ssNMR

  18. Partial Characterisation of Salmonella gallinarum Clinical Isolate and Expression of Its Antigenic Outer Membrane Protein C (OmpC Gene In Planta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Leen Pang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fowl typhoid’s epidemiology and disease intervention have been extensively studied since 1950's owing to its high mortality and morbidity rates. Even up-to-date, outbreaks are incessantly haunting poultry industries of major continents. Salmonella gallinarum, the etiologic agent of fowl typhoid, was used to develop a series of vaccination regime. However, treatments are gradually losing effectiveness due to residual virulence from mutated strains and rapid evolution of multi-drug resistance isolates. Hence, in planta subunit vaccine production is proposed to surpass current limitations. The homotrimeric osmoporin (outer membrane protein C is a potent candidate antigen that confers momentous stimulation of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in broilers. This research signified the potential development of a plant-expressed OmpC immunogen. The project scope embarked on the identification of S. gallinarum clinical isolate, construction of expression cassette and delivery of constructs into Nicotiana benthamiana via agroinfiltration. The OmpC transcripts and proteins were detected successfully at the molecular weights of ~1.002 kbp and ~35 kDa, respectively. These preliminary findings pave the feasibility of biomanufacturing a safe and cost-effective fowl typhoid vaccine that would confer multi-protection against other significant Salmonella infections attributed to the high sequence homology of the OmpC gene. Speed improvement is demonstrated and transient expression appears to outperform conventional platforms in expediting vaccine production for an emerging pandemic strain.

  19. The Klebsiella pneumoniae YfgL (BamB) lipoprotein contributes to outer membrane protein biogenesis, type-1 fimbriae expression, anti-phagocytosis, and in vivo virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Hsu, Chun-Ru; Chen, Chun-Tang; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Wang, Jin-Town

    2016-07-03

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that causes several kinds of infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infection and community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Adhesion is the critical first step in the infection process. Our previous work demonstrated that the transcellular translocation is exploited by K. pneumoniae strains to migrate from the gut flora into other tissues, resulting in systemic infections. However, the initial stages of K. pneumoniae infection remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that a K. pneumoniae strain deleted for yfgL (bamB) exhibited reduced adherence to and invasion of host cells; changed biogenesis of major β-barrel outer membrane proteins; decreased transcriptional expression of type-1 fimbriae; and increased susceptibility to vancomycin and erythromycin. The yfgL deletion mutant also had reduced ability to against neutrophil phagocytosis; exhibited decreased induction of host IL-6 production; and was profoundly attenuated for virulence in a K. pneumoniae model of bacteremia. Thus, the K. pneumoniae YfgL lipoprotein mediates in outer membrane proteins biogenesis and is crucial for anti-phagocytosis and survival in vivo. These data provide a new insight for K. pneumoniae attachment and such knowledge could facilitate preventive therapies or alternative therapies against K. pneumoniae.

  20. A framework for protein and membrane interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Bacci

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the BioBeta Framework, a meta-model for both protein-level and membrane-level interactions of living cells. This formalism aims to provide a formal setting where to encode, compare and merge models at different abstraction levels; in particular, higher-level (e.g. membrane activities can be given a formal biological justification in terms of low-level (i.e., protein interactions. A BioBeta specification provides a protein signature together a set of protein reactions, in the spirit of the kappa-calculus. Moreover, the specification describes when a protein configuration triggers one of the only two membrane interaction allowed, that is "pinch" and "fuse". In this paper we define the syntax and semantics of BioBeta, analyse its properties, give it an interpretation as biobigraphical reactive systems, and discuss its expressivity by comparing with kappa-calculus and modelling significant examples. Notably, BioBeta has been designed after a bigraphical metamodel for the same purposes. Hence, each instance of the calculus corresponds to a bigraphical reactive system, and vice versa (almost. Therefore, we can inherith the rich theory of bigraphs, such as the automatic construction of labelled transition systems and behavioural congruences.

  1. Proteomic analysis of membrane microdomain-associated proteins in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder reveals alterations in LAMP, STXBP1 and BASP1 protein expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, A T

    2009-06-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlpfc) is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) and, within this region, abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission and synaptic function have been described. Proteins associated with these functions are enriched in membrane microdomains (MM). In the current study, we used two complementary proteomic methods, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by reverse phase-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-LC-MS\\/MS) (gel separation liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS\\/MS)) to assess protein expression in MM in pooled samples of dlpfc from SCZ, BPD and control cases (n=10 per group) from the Stanley Foundation Brain series. We identified 16 proteins altered in one\\/both disorders using proteomic methods. We selected three proteins with roles in synaptic function (syntaxin-binding protein 1 (STXBP1), brain abundant membrane-attached signal protein 1 (BASP1) and limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP)) for validation by western blotting. This revealed significantly increased expression of these proteins in SCZ (STXBP1 (24% difference; P<0.001), BASP1 (40% difference; P<0.05) and LAMP (22% difference; P<0.01)) and BPD (STXBP1 (31% difference; P<0.001), BASP1 (23% difference; P<0.01) and LAMP (20% difference; P<0.01)) in the Stanley brain series (n=20 per group). Further validation in dlpfc from the Harvard brain subseries (n=10 per group) confirmed increased protein expression in SCZ of STXBP1 (18% difference; P<0.0001), BASP1 (14% difference; P<0.0001) but not LAMP (20% difference; P=0.14). No significant differences in STXBP1, BASP1 or LAMP protein expression in BPD dlpfc were observed. This study, through proteomic assessments of MM in dlpfc and validation in two brain series, strongly implicates LAMP, STXBP1 and BASP1 in SCZ and supports

  2. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  3. Peripheral myelin protein 22 alters membrane architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Marinko, Justin T.; Hampton, Cheri M.; Ke, Zunlong; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Law, Cheryl L.; Li, Jun; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Sanders, Charles R.; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. PMP22 genetic alterations cause the most common forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD), which is characterized by severe dysmyelination in the peripheral nerves. However, the functions of PMP22 in Schwann cell membranes remain unclear. We demonstrate that reconstitution of purified PMP22 into lipid vesicles results in the formation of compressed and cylindrically wrapped protein-lipid vesicles that share common organizational traits with compact myelin of peripheral nerves in vivo. The formation of these myelin-like assemblies depends on the lipid-to-PMP22 ratio, as well as on the PMP22 extracellular loops. Formation of the myelin-like assemblies is disrupted by a CMTD-causing mutation. This study provides both a biochemical assay for PMP22 function and evidence that PMP22 directly contributes to membrane organization in compact myelin. PMID:28695207

  4. Phenotypic effects of membrane protein overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melén, Karin; Blomberg, Anders; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2006-07-01

    Large-scale protein overexpression phenotype screens provide an important complement to the more common gene knockout screens. Here, we have targeted the so far poorly understood Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome and report growth phenotypes for a strain collection overexpressing 600 C-terminally tagged integral membrane proteins grown both under normal and three different stress conditions. Although overexpression of most membrane proteins reduce the growth rate in synthetic defined medium, we identify a large number of proteins that, when overexpressed, confer specific resistance to various stress conditions. Our data suggest that regulation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and the Na+/K+ homeostasis system constitute major downstream targets of the yeast PKA/RAS pathway and point to a possible connection between the early secretory pathway and the cells' response to oxidative stress. We also have quantified the expression levels for >550 membrane proteins, facilitating the choice of well expressing proteins for future functional and structural studies. caffeine | paraquat | salt tolerance | yeast

  5. Polyclonal Antibody Production for Membrane Proteins via Genetic Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Debra T; Robida, Mark D; Craciunescu, Felicia M; Loskutov, Andrey V; Dörner, Katerina; Rodenberry, John-Charles; Wang, Xiao; Olson, Tien L; Patel, Hetal; Fromme, Petra; Sykes, Kathryn F

    2016-02-24

    Antibodies are essential for structural determinations and functional studies of membrane proteins, but antibody generation is limited by the availability of properly-folded and purified antigen. We describe the first application of genetic immunization to a structurally diverse set of membrane proteins to show that immunization of mice with DNA alone produced antibodies against 71% (n = 17) of the bacterial and viral targets. Antibody production correlated with prior reports of target immunogenicity in host organisms, underscoring the efficiency of this DNA-gold micronanoplex approach. To generate each antigen for antibody characterization, we also developed a simple in vitro membrane protein expression and capture method. Antibody specificity was demonstrated upon identifying, for the first time, membrane-directed heterologous expression of the native sequences of the FopA and FTT1525 virulence determinants from the select agent Francisella tularensis SCHU S4. These approaches will accelerate future structural and functional investigations of therapeutically-relevant membrane proteins.

  6. Membrane Protein Mobility and Orientation Preserved in Supported Bilayers Created Directly from Cell Plasma Membrane Blebs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark J; Hsia, Chih-Yun; Singh, Rohit R; Haider, Huma; Kumpf, Julia; Kawate, Toshimitsu; Daniel, Susan

    2016-03-29

    Membrane protein interactions with lipids are crucial for their native biological behavior, yet traditional characterization methods are often carried out on purified protein in the absence of lipids. We present a simple method to transfer membrane proteins expressed in mammalian cells to an assay-friendly, cushioned, supported lipid bilayer platform using cell blebs as an intermediate. Cell blebs, expressing either GPI-linked yellow fluorescent proteins or neon-green fused transmembrane P2X2 receptors, were induced to rupture on glass surfaces using PEGylated lipid vesicles, which resulted in planar supported membranes with over 50% mobility for multipass transmembrane proteins and over 90% for GPI-linked proteins. Fluorescent proteins were tracked, and their diffusion in supported bilayers characterized, using single molecule tracking and moment scaling spectrum (MSS) analysis. Diffusion was characterized for individual proteins as either free or confined, revealing details of the local lipid membrane heterogeneity surrounding the protein. A particularly useful result of our bilayer formation process is the protein orientation in the supported planar bilayer. For both the GPI-linked and transmembrane proteins used here, an enzymatic assay revealed that protein orientation in the planar bilayer results in the extracellular domains facing toward the bulk, and that the dominant mode of bleb rupture is via the "parachute" mechanism. Mobility, orientation, and preservation of the native lipid environment of the proteins using cell blebs offers advantages over proteoliposome reconstitution or disrupted cell membrane preparations, which necessarily result in significant scrambling of protein orientation and typically immobilized membrane proteins in SLBs. The bleb-based bilayer platform presented here is an important step toward integrating membrane proteomic studies on chip, especially for future studies aimed at understanding fundamental effects of lipid interactions

  7. Proteins and Peptides in Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Alfredo Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent advances and the main advantages of block copolymers for functional membrane protein reconstitution in biomimetic polymeric membranes. A rational approach to the reconstitution of membrane proteins in a functional form can be addressed by a more holistic view by using...

  8. The Whitish Inner Mantle of the Giant Clam, Tridacna squamosa, Expresses an Apical Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA Which Displays Light-Dependent Gene and Protein Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen K. Ip

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Giant clams live in symbiosis with extracellular zooxanthellae and display high rates of growth and shell formation (calcification in light. Light-enhanced calcification requires an increase in the supply of Ca2+ to, and simultaneously an augmented removal of H+ from, the extrapallial fluid where shell formation occurs. We have obtained the complete coding cDNA sequence of Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA from the thin and whitish inner mantle, which is in touch with the extrapallial fluid, of the giant clam Tridacna squamosa. The deduced PMCA sequence consisted of an apical targeting element. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that PMCA had an apical localization in the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle, whereby it can actively secrete Ca2+ in exchange for H+. More importantly, the apical PMCA-immunofluorescence of the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle increased significantly after 12 h of exposure to light. The transcript and protein levels of PMCA/PMCA also increased significantly in the inner mantle after 6 or 12 h of light exposure. These results offer insights into a light-dependable mechanism of shell formation in T. squamosa and a novel explanation of light-enhanced calcification in general. As the inner mantle normally lacks light sensitive pigments, our results support a previous proposition that symbiotic zooxanthellae, particularly those in the colorful and extensible outer mantle, may act as light-sensing elements for the host clam.

  9. Analysis of transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of Avicennia marina Plasma Membrane Protein 3 suggests it contributes to Na(+) transport and homoeostasis in A. marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Rajalakshmi; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2015-07-01

    Plasma membrane proteins (PMP3) play a role in cation homoeostasis. The 5' flanking sequence of stress inducible, Avicennia marina PMP3 (AmPMP3prom) was transcriptionally fused to (a) GUS or (b) GFP-AmPMP3 and analyzed in transgenic tobacco. Tissue-histochemical GUS and GFP:AmPMP3 localization are co-incident under basal and stress conditions. AmPMP3prom directed GUS activity is highest in roots. Basal transcription is conferred by a 388bp segment upstream of the translation start site. A 463bp distal enhancer in the AmPMP3prom confers enhanced expression under salinity in all tissues and also responds to increases in salinity. The effect of a central, stem-specific negative regulatory region is suppressed by the distal enhancer. The A. marina rhizosphere encounters dynamic changes in salinity at the inter-tidal interface. The complex, tissue-specific transcriptional responsiveness of AmPMP3 to salinity appears to have evolved in response to these changes. Under salinity, guard cell and phloem-specific expression of GFP:AmPMP3 is highly enhanced. Mesophyll, trichomes, bundle sheath, parenchymatous cortex and xylem parenchyma also show GFP:AmPMP3 expression. Cis-elements conferring stress, root and vascular-specific expression are enriched in the AmPMP3 promoter. Pronounced vascular-specific AmPMP3 expression suggests a role in salinity induced Na(+) transport, storage, and secretion in A. marina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lactococcus lactis as host for overproduction of functional membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunji, ERS; Slotboom, DJ; Poolman, B

    2003-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis has many properties that are ideal for enhanced expression of membrane proteins. The organism is easy and inexpensive to culture, has a single membrane and relatively mild proteolytic activity. Methods for genetic manipulation are fully established and a tightly controlled

  11. Nanoparticle-Based Delivery of Anaplasma marginale Membrane Proteins; VirB9-1 and VirB10 Produced in the Pichia pastoris Expression System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are immunogenic components of the outer membrane type IV secretion system that have been identified as candidate antigens for vaccines targeting of A. marginale. Soluble VirB9-1 and VirB10 were successfully expressed using Pichia pastoris. When formulated with the self-adjuvanting silica vesicles, SV-100 (diameter: 50 nm, and pore entrance size: 6 nm, 200 µg of VirB9-1 and VirB10 were adsorbed per milligram of nanoparticle. The VirB9-1 and VirB10, SV-100 formulations were shown to induce higher antibody responses in mice compared to the QuilA formulations. Moreover, intracellular staining of selected cytokines demonstrated that both VirB9-1 and VirB10 formulations induced cell-mediated immune responses in mice. Importantly, the SV-100 VirB9-1 and VirB10 complexes were shown to specifically stimulate bovine T-cell linages derived from calves immunised with A. marginale outer membrane fractions, suggesting formulations will be useful for bovine immunisation and protection studies. Overall this study demonstrates the potential of self-adjuvanting silica vesicle formulations to address current deficiencies in vaccine delivery applications.

  12. Artificial membranes for membrane protein purification, functionality and structure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Mayuriben J; Lousa, Carine De Marcos; Muench, Stephen P; Goldman, Adrian; Postis, Vincent L G

    2016-06-15

    Membrane proteins represent one of the most important targets for pharmaceutical companies. Unfortunately, technical limitations have long been a major hindrance in our understanding of the function and structure of such proteins. Recent years have seen the refinement of classical approaches and the emergence of new technologies that have resulted in a significant step forward in the field of membrane protein research. This review summarizes some of the current techniques used for studying membrane proteins, with overall advantages and drawbacks for each method. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Membrane Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto A. Roman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding protein folding has been one of the great challenges in biochemistry and molecular biophysics. Over the past 50 years, many thermodynamic and kinetic studies have been performed addressing the stability of globular proteins. In comparison, advances in the membrane protein folding field lag far behind. Although membrane proteins constitute about a third of the proteins encoded in known genomes, stability studies on membrane proteins have been impaired due to experimental limitations. Furthermore, no systematic experimental strategies are available for folding these biomolecules in vitro. Common denaturing agents such as chaotropes usually do not work on helical membrane proteins, and ionic detergents have been successful denaturants only in few cases. Refolding a membrane protein seems to be a craftsman work, which is relatively straightforward for transmembrane β-barrel proteins but challenging for α-helical membrane proteins. Additional complexities emerge in multidomain membrane proteins, data interpretation being one of the most critical. In this review, we will describe some recent efforts in understanding the folding mechanism of membrane proteins that have been reversibly refolded allowing both thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. This information will be discussed in the context of current paradigms in the protein folding field.

  14. Matriptase-2, a membrane-bound mosaic serine proteinase predominantly expressed in human liver and showing degrading activity against extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Gloria; Cal, Santiago; Quesada, Victor; Sánchez, Luis M; López-Otín, Carlos

    2002-10-04

    We have identified and cloned a fetal liver cDNA encoding a new serine proteinase that has been called matriptase-2. This protein exhibits a domain organization similar to other members of an emerging family of membrane-bound serine proteinases known as type II transmembrane serine proteinases. Matriptase-2 contains a short cytoplasmic domain, a type II transmembrane sequence, a central region with several modular structural domains including two CUB (complement factor C1s/C1r, urchin embryonic growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein) domains and three low density lipoprotein receptor tandem repeats, and finally, a C-terminal catalytic domain with all typical features of serine proteinases. The human matriptase-2 gene maps to 22q12-q13, a location that differs from all type II transmembrane serine proteinase genes mapped to date. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of COS-7 cells transfected with the isolated cDNA confirmed that matriptase-2 is anchored to the cell surface. Matriptase-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant protein hydrolyzed synthetic substrates used for assaying serine proteinases and endogenous proteins such as type I collagen, fibronectin, and fibrinogen. Matriptase-2 could also activate single-chain urokinase plasminogen activator, albeit with low efficiency. These activities were abolished by inhibitors of serine proteinases but not by inhibitors of other classes of proteolytic enzymes. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that matriptase-2 transcripts are only detected at significant levels in both fetal and adult liver, suggesting that this novel serine proteinase may play a specialized role in matrix remodeling processes taking place in this tissue during development or in adult tissues.

  15. A cytochrome c fusion protein domain for convenient detection, quantification, and enhanced production of membrane proteins in Escherichia coli--expression and characterization of cytochrome-tagged Complex I subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Tobias; Trane, Maria; Moparthi, Vamsi K; Miklovyte, Egle; Moparthi, Lavanya; Górecki, Kamil; Leiding, Thom; Arsköld, Sindra Peterson; Hägerhäll, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    Overproduction of membrane proteins can be a cumbersome task, particularly if high yields are desirable. NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) contains several very large membrane-spanning protein subunits that hitherto have been impossible to express individually in any appreciable amounts in Escherichia coli. The polypeptides contain no prosthetic groups and are poorly antigenic, making optimization of protein production a challenging task. In this work, the C-terminal ends of the Complex I subunits NuoH, NuoL, NuoM, and NuoN from E. coli Complex I and the bona fide antiporters MrpA and MrpD were genetically fused to the cytochrome c domain of Bacillus subtilis cytochrome c(550). Compared with other available fusion-protein tagging systems, the cytochrome c has several advantages. The heme is covalently bound, renders the proteins visible by optical spectroscopy, and can be used to monitor, quantify, and determine the orientation of the polypeptides in a plethora of experiments. For the antiporter-like subunits NuoL, NuoM, and NuoN and the real antiporters MrpA and MrpD, unprecedented amounts of holo-cytochrome fusion proteins could be obtained in E. coli. The NuoHcyt polypeptide was also efficiently produced, but heme insertion was less effective in this construct. The cytochrome c(550) domain in all the fusion proteins exhibited normal spectra and redox properties, with an E(m) of about +170 mV. The MrpA and MrpD antiporters remained functional after being fused to the cytochrome c-tag. Finally, a his-tag could be added to the cytochrome domain, without any perturbations to the cytochrome properties, allowing efficient purification of the overexpressed fusion proteins.

  16. Eukaryotic membrane protein overproduction in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunji, Edmund R.S.; Chan, Ka Wai; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Floyd, Suzanne; O’Connor, Rosemary; Monné, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    Eukaryotic membrane proteins play many vital roles in the cell and are important drug targets. Approximately 25% of all genes identified in the genome are known to encode membrane proteins, but the vast majority have no assigned function. Although the generation of structures of soluble proteins has

  17. Isomeric Detergent Comparison for Membrane Protein Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Hariharan, Parameswaran; Mortensen, Jonas S.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins encapsulated by detergent micelles are widely used for structural study. Because of their amphipathic property, detergents have the ability to maintain protein solubility and stability in an aqueous medium. However, conventional detergents have serious limitations in their scope...... and utility, particularly for eukaryotic membrane proteins and membrane protein complexes. Thus, a number of new agents have been devised; some have made significant contributions to membrane protein structural studies. However, few detergent design principles are available. In this study, we prepared meta....../stability of the membrane proteins. We propose that interplay between the hydrophile–lipophile balance (HLB) and alkyl chain length is of central importance for high detergent efficacy. In addition, differences in inter-alkyl-chain distance between the isomers influence the ability of the detergents to stabilise membrane...

  18. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MEMBRANE PROTEIN EXPRESSION LEVELS BASED ON LC-MS/MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hynek, R.; Maršálová, L.; Kučková, Š.; Koník, P.; Šantrůček, J.; Martinec, Jan; Novotná, Z.; Kodíček, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 12 (2011), s. 1004-1013 ISSN 1082-6076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0036; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : expression levels * isoxaben * iTRAQ Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.706, year: 2011

  19. Novel Tripod Amphiphiles for Membrane Protein Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Kruse, Andrew C; Gotfryd, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    . The use of a detergent or other amphipathic agents is required to overcome the intrinsic incompatibility between the large lipophilic surfaces displayed by the membrane proteins in their native forms and the polar solvent molecules. Here, we introduce new tripod amphiphiles displaying favourable......Integral membrane proteins play central roles in controlling the flow of information and molecules across membranes. Our understanding of membrane protein structures and functions, however, is seriously limited, mainly due to difficulties in handling and analysing these proteins in aqueous solution...

  20. Defining thermostability of membrane proteins by western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Y; Nanekar, R; Jaakola, V-P

    2015-12-01

    Membrane proteins are relatively challenging targets for structural and other biophysical studies. Insufficient expression in various expression systems, inherent flexibility, and instability in the detergents that are required for membrane extraction are the main reasons for this limited success. Therefore, identification of suitable conditions and membrane protein variants that can help stabilize functional protein for extended periods of time is critical for structural studies. Here, we describe a western blot-based assay that simplifies identification of thermostabilizing conditions for membrane proteins. We show successful testing of a variety of parameters such as additive lipids, ligands and detergents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Current strategies for protein production and purification enabling membrane protein structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aditya; Shin, Kyungsoo; Patterson, Robin E; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Rainey, Jan K

    2016-12-01

    Membrane proteins are still heavily under-represented in the protein data bank (PDB), owing to multiple bottlenecks. The typical low abundance of membrane proteins in their natural hosts makes it necessary to overexpress these proteins either in heterologous systems or through in vitro translation/cell-free expression. Heterologous expression of proteins, in turn, leads to multiple obstacles, owing to the unpredictability of compatibility of the target protein for expression in a given host. The highly hydrophobic and (or) amphipathic nature of membrane proteins also leads to challenges in producing a homogeneous, stable, and pure sample for structural studies. Circumventing these hurdles has become possible through the introduction of novel protein production protocols; efficient protein isolation and sample preparation methods; and, improvement in hardware and software for structural characterization. Combined, these advances have made the past 10-15 years very exciting and eventful for the field of membrane protein structural biology, with an exponential growth in the number of solved membrane protein structures. In this review, we focus on both the advances and diversity of protein production and purification methods that have allowed this growth in structural knowledge of membrane proteins through X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

  2. Immunization with r-Lactococcus lactis expressing outer membrane protein A of Shigella dysenteriae type-1: evaluation of oral and intranasal route of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagnik, B; Sharma, D; Padh, H; Desai, P

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the comparative immunogenic potential of food grade Lactococcus lactis expressing outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Shigella dysenteriae type-1 (SD-1) when administered either orally or intranasally. OmpA of SD-1 was cloned and expressed first in Escherichia coli and then in L. lactis. Presence of recombinant gene was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and immunoblot analysis. Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, OmpA was purified from recombinant E. coliBL21 (DE3) and subcutaneously administered in BALB/c mice. Detection of OmpA-specific IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the immunogenicity of OmpA. In order to establish r-L. lactis as a mucosal delivery vehicle, it was administered orally and nasally in BALB/c mice. Serum IgG and faecal IgA were assessed through ELISA to compare the relative potential of immunization routes and immunogenic potential of r-L. lactis. Immunization via the oral route proved superior to intranasal exposure. Recombinant L. lactis expressing OmpA of SD-1 was found to be immunogenic. Oral administration of r-L. lactis elicited higher systemic and mucosal immune response when compared with the nasal route. Using food grade recombinant L. lactis has implications in the development of a prophylactic against multidrug-resistant Shigella, which can be used as a prospective vaccine candidate. Evaluating mucosal routes of immunization demonstrated that the oral route of administration elicited better immune response against OmpA of Shigella. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. [Construction of epithelial membrane protein 1 eukaryotic expression vector and its influence on migration and invasion of human oral tongue squamous carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohua, Dai; Jun, Zhang; Huiru, Zou; Xiaoli, Lian; Yanni, Li; Guanhua, Wang; Yan, Yan

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to construct a eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1-EMP1 of epithelial mem-brane protein 1 (EMP1) and investigate its influence on migration and invasion of human oral tongue squamous carcinoma cells. The human EMP1 gene was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and then ligated into the pEGFP-N1 vector by double restriction endonuclease digestion to construct pEGFP-N1-EMP1 recombinant plasmid. After sequencing identification, pEGFP-N1-EMP1 recombinant plasmid and pEGFP-N1 plasmid were transfected into human oral tongue squamous carcinoma Tb3.1 cell line. The expression of green fluorescent protein in cells was observed after transfection using an inverted fluorescence microscope. The overexpression of EMP1 mRNA was identified at 24, 48, and 72 h after transfection by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The effect of EMP1 overexpression on migration and invasion of Tb3.1 cells was detected by Transwell assay. The full-length EMP1 gene sequence was successfully obtained. Sequence analysis showed that the EMP1 gene was inserted into the pEGFP-N1 vector correctly. Green fluorescence was observed in the transfected cells under fluorescence microscopy. The results of real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that the expression of EMP1 at 24 h after pEGFP-N1-EMP1 transfection was significantly higher than the other groups. Transwell assays indicated that overexpression of the EMP1 gene could significantly inhibit the migration and invasion ability of Tb3.1 cells. The eukaryotic expression vector of EMP1 was successfully constructed, and EMP1 overexpression was confirmed to inhibit the migration and inva-sion of oral tongue squamous carcinoma cells in vitro. This study laid a foundation for further investigation on the influence of the EMP1 gene on the metastasis of oral tongue squamous carcinoma and its molecular mechanism.
.

  4. Analysis of Protein-Membrane Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmer, Gerdi Christine

    interactions between proteins and lipids. First, interactions of soluble proteins with membranes and specific lipids were studied, using two proteins: Annexin V and Tma1. The protein was first subjected to a lipid/protein overlay assay to identify candidate interaction partners in a fast and efficient way...

  5. A scalable assessment of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the standard membrane-feeding assay, using transgenic parasites expressing green fluorescent protein-luciferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Will J R; Churcher, Thomas S; Graumans, Wouter; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Vos, Martijn W; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga G; Siebelink-Stoter, Rianne; Dechering, Koen J; Vaughan, Ashley M; Camargo, Nelly; Kappe, Stefan H I; Sauerwein, Robert W; Bousema, Teun

    2014-11-01

    The development of drugs and vaccines to reduce malaria transmission is an important part of eradication plans. The transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of these agents is currently determined in the standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA), based on subjective microscopy-based readouts and with limitations in upscaling and throughput. Using a Plasmodium falciparum strain expressing the firefly luciferase protein, we present a luminescence-based approach to SMFA evaluation that eliminates the requirement for mosquito dissections in favor of a simple approach in which whole mosquitoes are homogenized and examined directly for luciferase activity. Analysis of 6860 Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes across 68 experimental feeds shows that the luminescence assay was as sensitive as microscopy for infection detection. The mean luminescence intensity of individual and pooled mosquitoes accurately quantifies mean oocyst intensity and generates comparable TRA estimates. The luminescence assay presented here could increase SMFA throughput so that 10-30 experimental feeds could be evaluated in a single 96-well plate. This new method of assessing Plasmodium infection and transmission intensity could expedite the screening of novel drug compounds, vaccine candidates, and sera from malaria-exposed individuals for TRA. Luminescence-based estimates of oocyst intensity in individual mosquitoes should be interpreted with caution. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Outer membrane protein antigens of Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostle, A G; Rosenbusch, R F

    1986-07-01

    Outer membranes were isolated from bovine isolates and type strains of Moraxella bovis, M phenylpyruvica, M lacunata, and M ovis by sodium N lauroyl sarcosinate extraction and differential centrifugation. Analysis of outer membranes from these organisms by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed that all M bovis isolates shared a common polypeptide pattern that was readily distinguishable from other Moraxella spp. Nine major outer membrane protein bands were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis analysis of M bovis. Immunoblotting of protein antigens of M bovis revealed several outer membrane proteins that seemed to be common antigens of all M bovis isolates.

  7. Lipid Directed Intrinsic Membrane Protein Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper S.; Thompson, James R.; Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new approach for direct reconstitution of membrane proteins during giant vesicle formation. We show that it is straightforward to create a tissue-like giant vesicle film swelled with membrane protein using aquaporin SoPIP2;1 as an illustration. These vesicles can also be easily h...

  8. Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Paul A.; Haake, David A.; Adler, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning bi...

  9. Integral Membrane Proteins and Bilayer Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Whitelegge, Julian P.

    2013-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins reside within the bilayer membranes that surround cells and organelles, playing critical roles in movement of molecules across them and the transduction of energy and signals. While their extreme amphipathicity presents technical challenges, biological mass spectrometry has been applied to all aspects of membrane protein chemistry and biology, including analysis of primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure, as well as the dynamics that accompany function...

  10. Integral membrane proteins and bilayer proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelegge, Julian P

    2013-03-05

    Integral membrane proteins reside within the bilayer membranes that surround cells and organelles, playing critical roles in movement of molecules across them and the transduction of energy and signals. While their extreme amphipathicity presents technical challenges, biological mass spectrometry has been applied to all aspects of membrane protein chemistry and biology, including analysis of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures as well as the dynamics that accompany functional cycles and catalysis.

  11. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes,...

  12. Roles of the outer membrane protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the control of marRAB expression and invasion of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ana I; Hernández, Sara B; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2009-06-01

    A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of approximately 70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA(+) and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro.

  13. Characterising antimicrobial protein-membrane complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Gloria; Dingley, Andrew; Tremouilhac, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) are host defence molecules that protect organisms from microbial infection. A number of hypotheses for AMP activity have been proposed which involve protein membrane interactions. However, there is a paucity of information describing AMP-membrane complexes in detail. The aim of this project is to characterise the interactions of amoebapore-A (APA-1) with membrane models using primarily solution-state NMR spectroscopy. APA-1 is an AMP which is regulated by a pH-dependent dimerisation event. Based on the atomic resolution solution structure of monomeric APA-1, it is proposed that this dimerisation is a prerequisite for ring-like hexameric pore formation. Due to the cytotoxicity of APA-1, we have developed a cell-free system to produce this protein. To facilitate our studies, we have adapted the cell-free system to isotope label APA-1. 13 C /15 N -enriched APA-1 sample was achieved and we have begun characterising APA-1 dimerisation and membrane interactions using NMR spectroscopy and other biochemical/biophysical methods. Neutron reflectometry is a surface-sensitive technique and therefore represents an ideal technique to probe how APA-1 interacts with membranes at the molecular level under different physiological conditions. Using Platypus, the pH-induced APA-1-membrane interactions should be detectable as an increase of the amount of protein adsorbed at the membrane surface and changes in the membrane properties. Specifically, detailed information of the structure and dimensions of the protein-membrane complex, the position and amount of the protein in the membrane, and the perturbation of the membrane phospholipids on protein incorporation can be extracted from the neutron reflectometry measurement. Such information will enable critical assessment of current proposed mechanisms of AMP activity in bacterial membranes and complement our NMR studies

  14. The effect of human factor H on immunogenicity of meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccines with over-expressed factor H binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Beernink

    Full Text Available The binding of human complement inhibitors to vaccine antigens in vivo could diminish their immunogenicity. A meningococcal ligand for the complement down-regulator, factor H (fH, is fH-binding protein (fHbp, which is specific for human fH. Vaccines containing recombinant fHbp or native outer membrane vesicles (NOMV from mutant strains with over-expressed fHbp are in clinical development. In a previous study in transgenic mice, the presence of human fH impaired the immunogenicity of a recombinant fHbp vaccine. In the present study, we prepared two NOMV vaccines from mutant group B strains with over-expressed wild-type fHbp or an R41S mutant fHbp with no detectable fH binding. In wild-type mice in which mouse fH did not bind to fHbp in either vaccine, the NOMV vaccine with wild-type fHbp elicited 2-fold higher serum IgG anti-fHbp titers (P = 0.001 and 4-fold higher complement-mediated bactericidal titers against a PorA-heterologous strain than the NOMV with the mutant fHbp (P = 0.003. By adsorption, the bactericidal antibodies were shown to be directed at fHbp. In transgenic mice in which human fH bound to the wild-type fHbp but not to the R41S fHbp, the NOMV vaccine with the mutant fHbp elicited 5-fold higher serum IgG anti-fHbp titers (P = 0.002, and 19-fold higher bactericidal titers than the NOMV vaccine with wild-type fHbp (P = 0.001. Thus, in mice that differed only by the presence of human fH, the respective results with the two vaccines were opposite. The enhanced bactericidal activity elicited by the mutant fHbp vaccine in the presence of human fH far outweighed the loss of immunogenicity of the mutant protein in wild-type animals. Engineering fHbp not to bind to its cognate complement inhibitor, therefore, may increase vaccine immunogenicity in humans.

  15. Expression and localization of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and 2 and serpine mRNA binding protein 1 in the bovine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression and the localization of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), PGRMC2, and the PGRMC1 partner serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) in the bovine CL on Days 2 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 16, and 17 to 20 of the estrous cycle as well as during Weeks 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 12 of pregnancy (n = 5-6 per each period). The highest levels of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA expression were found on Days 6 to 16 (P cycle and during pregnancy (P cycle compared with the other stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, whereas PGRMC2 protein expression (P cycle and was at its lowest (P cows, the patterns of SERBP1 mRNA and protein expression remained constant and were comparable with those observed during the estrous cycle. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and PGRMC2 localized to both large and small luteal cells, whereas SERBP1 was observed mainly in small luteal cells and much less frequently in large luteal cells. All proteins were also localized in the endothelial cells of blood vessels. The data obtained indicate the variable expression of PGRMC1, PGRMC2, and SERBP1 mRNA and protein in the bovine CL and suggest that progesterone may regulate CL function via its membrane receptors during both the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Intracellular and Membrane Proteins From Voriconazole-Resistant Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Il; Kim, Hwa Su; Choi, Chi Won; Yoo, Jung Sik; Yu, Jae Yon; Lee, Yeong Seon

    2013-12-01

    The proteomic analysis of voriconazole resistant Candida glabrata strain has not yet been investigated. In this study, differentially expressed proteins of intracellular and membrane fraction from voriconazole-susceptible, susceptible dose-dependent (S-DD), resistant C. glabrata strains were compared with each other and several proteins were identified. The proteins of intracellular and membrane were isolated by disrupting cells with glass bead and centrifugation from voriconazole susceptible, S-DD, and resistant C. glabrata strains. The abundance of expressed proteins was compared using two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and proteins showing continuous twofold or more increase or reduction of expression in resistant strains compared to susceptible and S-DD strain were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry method. Of 34 intracellular proteins, 15 proteins showed expression increase or reduction (twofold or more). The identified proteins included regulation, energy production, carbohydrate transport, amino acid transport, and various metabolism related proteins. The increase of expression of heat shock protein 70 was found. Among membrane proteins, 12, 31 proteins showed expression increase or decrease in the order of susceptible, S-DD, and resistant strains. This expression included carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid synthesis, and response to stress-related proteins. In membrane fractions, the change of expression of 10 heat shock proteins was observed, and 9 heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) showed the reduction of expression. The expression of Hsp70 protein in membrane fraction is related to voriconazole resistant C. glabrata strains.

  17. The Protein 4.1 family: hub proteins in animals for organizing membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Anthony J; Lu, Hui-Chun; Bennett, Pauline M

    2014-02-01

    Proteins of the 4.1 family are characteristic of eumetazoan organisms. Invertebrates contain single 4.1 genes and the Drosophila model suggests that 4.1 is essential for animal life. Vertebrates have four paralogues, known as 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G and 4.1B, which are additionally duplicated in the ray-finned fish. Protein 4.1R was the first to be discovered: it is a major mammalian erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein, essential to the mechanochemical properties of red cell membranes because it promotes the interaction between spectrin and actin in the membrane cytoskeleton. 4.1R also binds certain phospholipids and is required for the stable cell surface accumulation of a number of erythrocyte transmembrane proteins that span multiple functional classes; these include cell adhesion molecules, transporters and a chemokine receptor. The vertebrate 4.1 proteins are expressed in most tissues, and they are required for the correct cell surface accumulation of a very wide variety of membrane proteins including G-Protein coupled receptors, voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels, as well as the classes identified in erythrocytes. Indeed, such large numbers of protein interactions have been mapped for mammalian 4.1 proteins, most especially 4.1R, that it appears that they can act as hubs for membrane protein organization. The range of critical interactions of 4.1 proteins is reflected in disease relationships that include hereditary anaemias, tumour suppression, control of heartbeat and nervous system function. The 4.1 proteins are defined by their domain structure: apart from the spectrin/actin-binding domain they have FERM and FERM-adjacent domains and a unique C-terminal domain. Both the FERM and C-terminal domains can bind transmembrane proteins, thus they have the potential to be cross-linkers for membrane proteins. The activity of the FERM domain is subject to multiple modes of regulation via binding of regulatory ligands, phosphorylation of the FERM associated domain and

  18. Membrane Shape Instability Induced by Protein Crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiming; Atefi, Ehsan; Baumgart, Tobias

    2016-11-01

    Peripheral proteins can bend membranes through several different mechanisms, including scaffolding, wedging, oligomerization, and crowding. The crowding effect in particular has received considerable attention recently, in part because it is a colligative mechanism-implying that it could, in principle, be explored by any peripheral protein. Here we sought to clarify to what extent this mechanism is exploited by endocytic accessory proteins. We quantitatively investigate membrane curvature generation by means of a GUV shape stability assay. We found that the amount of crowding required to induce membrane curvature is correlated with membrane tension. Importantly, we also revealed that at the same membrane tension, the crowding mechanism requires far higher protein coverage to induce curvature changes compared to those observed for the endophilin BAR domain, serving here as an example of an endocytic accessory protein. Our results are important for the design of membrane-targeted biosensors as well as the understanding of mechanisms of biological membrane shaping. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, N C; Liyanage, R; Makkar, S K; Lay, J O

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of microbial and environmental origins. As feed supplements, during post hatch growth, the hatchery egg shell membranes (HESM) have shown potential for imparting resistance of chickens to endotoxin stress and exert positive health effects. Considering that these effects are mediated by the bioactive proteins and peptides present in the membrane, the objective of the study was to identify the protein profiles of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM). Hatchery egg shell membranes were extracted with acidified methanol and a guanidine hydrochloride buffer then subjected to reduction/alkylation, and trypsin digestion. The methanol extract was additionally analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The tryptic digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify the proteins. Our results showed the presence of several proteins that are inherent and abundant in egg white such as, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-116, and lysozyme, and several proteins associated with cytoskeletal, cell signaling, antimicrobial, and catalytic functions involving carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. There were some blood derived proteins most likely originating from the embryos and several other proteins identified with different aerobic, anaerobic, gram positive, gram negative, soil, and marine bacterial species some commensals and others zoonotic. The variety of bioactive proteins, particularly the cell signaling and enzymatic proteins along with the diverse microbial proteins, make the HESM suitable for nutritional and biological application to improve post hatch immunity of poultry.

  20. Diffusion of Integral Membrane Proteins in Protein-Rich Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javanainen, M.; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Metzler, R.; Vattulainen, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 17 (2017), s. 4308-4313 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : giant unilamellar vesicles * single-molecule tracking * lipid bilayer membranes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 9.353, year: 2016

  1. MODIFICATION OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE PROTEINS WITH POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 1500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Zemlianskykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the effect of polyethylene glycol PEG-1500 on the Ca2+-ATPase activity and changes in CD44 surface marker expression in human erythrocyte membranes. Determination of the Ca2+-ATPase activity was carried out in sealed erythrocyte ghosts by the level of accumulation of inorganic phosphorus. Changes in the expression of CD44 and amount of CD44+-erythrocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. The inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity and a reduction in the level of CD44 expression and also the decrease in the amount CD44+-cells were found, reflecting a fairly complex restructuring in the membrane-cytoskeleton complex of erythrocytes under the influence of PEG-1500. Effect of PEG-1500 on the surface CD44 marker could be mediated by modification of proteins of membrane-cytoskeleton complex, as indicated by accelerated loss of CD44 in erythrocyte membranes after application of protein cross-linking reagent diamide. Reduced activity of Ca2+-ATPase activity may contribute to the increase in intracellular Ca2+ level and thus leads to a modification of interactions of integral proteins with cytoskeletal components that eventually could result in membrane vesiculation and decreasing in expression of the CD44 marker, which is dynamically linked to the cytoskeleton.

  2. Single channel analysis of membrane proteins in artificial bilayer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Philipp; Harsman, Anke; Wagner, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The planar lipid bilayer technique is a powerful experimental approach for electrical single channel recordings of pore-forming membrane proteins in a chemically well-defined and easily modifiable environment. Here we provide a general survey of the basic materials and procedures required to set up a robust bilayer system and perform electrophysiological single channel recordings of reconstituted proteins suitable for the in-depth characterization of their functional properties.

  3. Efficient preparation and analysis of membrane and membrane protein systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javanainen, M.; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1858, č. 10 (2016), s. 2468-2482 ISSN 0005-2736 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : tools and software * membrane building * protein insertion * molecular dynamics * lipid bilayer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  4. Overcoming barriers to membrane protein structure determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bill, Roslyn M.; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Iwata, So; Kunji, Edmund R. S.; Michel, Hartmut; Neutze, Richard; Newstead, Simon; Poolman, Bert; Tate, Christopher G.; Vogel, Horst

    After decades of slow progress, the pace of research on membrane protein structures is beginning to quicken thanks to various improvements in technology, including protein engineering and microfocus X-ray diffraction. Here we review these developments and, where possible, highlight generic new

  5. Proteins of the kidney microvillar membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, A.G.; Kenny, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Two methods were used to label pig kidney microvillar membrane proteins from the luminal and cytoplasmic surfaces of closed membrane vesicles. The first method was lactoperoxidase-catalysed radioiodination. Lactoperoxidase and glucose oxidase were positioned inside or outside the vesicles, iodination being initiated by adding glucose and 125 I. After electrophoresis of the proteins, asymmetric labelling patterns on radioautographs were observed. However the major disadvantage of this method was the high degree of intramembrane labelling of the fatty acid chains of membrane lipids. The second method overcame this disadvantage. A new hydophilic photoreagent, 3,5-di( 125 I)iodo-4-azidobenzenesulphonate, was transported by a Na + -dependent system into microvillar vesicles, thus permitting labelling from either side of the membrane when the vesicles were photolysed. The activity of several microvillar peptidases survived the labelling reaction and they could be identified in the immunoprecipitates after resolution of the detergent-solubilized membrane proteins by crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Treatment with papain converted the detergent-solubilized form of susceptible enzymes into the proteinase-solubilized form. Radioautography established that aminopeptidases M and A, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and neutral endopeptidase were transmembrane proteins. This novel approach may be applicable to the topological investigation of other complex membranes. (author)

  6. High-level cell-free production of membrane proteins with nanodiscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Christian; Kai, Lei; Haberstock, Stefan; Proverbio, Davide; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Ma, Yi; Filipek, Slawomir; Wang, Xiaoning; Dötsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses two major bottlenecks in cell-free membrane protein production. Firstly, we describe the optimization of expression templates for obtaining membrane proteins in preparative scales. We present details for a newly established tag variation screen providing high success rates in improving expression efficiencies while having only minimal impacts on the target protein structure. Secondly, we present protocols for the efficient co-translational insertion of membrane proteins into defined lipid bilayers. We describe the production of nanodiscs and their implementation into cell-free expression reactions for the co-translational reconstitution of membrane proteins. In addition we give guidelines for the loading of nanodiscs with different lipids in order to systematically analyze effects of lipids on the translocation, functional folding, and stability of cell-free expressed membrane proteins.

  7. Polyunsaturation in cell membranes and lipid bilayers and its effects on membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S J; Kelly, M B; Yeager, M D; Larkin, J; Ho, C; Stubbs, C D

    1996-03-01

    The effect of variation of the degree of cis-unsaturation on cell membrane protein functioning was investigated using a model lipid bilayer system and protein kinase C (PKC). This protein is a key element of signal transduction. Furthermore it is representative of a class of extrinsic membrane proteins that show lipid dependent interactions with cell membranes. To test for dependence of activity on the phospholipid unsaturation, experiments were devised using a vesicle assay system consisting of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in which the unsaturation was systematically varied. Highly purified PKC alpha and epsilon were obtained using the baculovirus-insect cell expression system. It was shown that increased PC unsaturation elevated the activity of PKC alpha. By contrast, increasing the unsaturation of PS decreased the activity of PKC alpha, and to a lesser extent PKC epsilon. This result immediately rules out any single lipid bilayer physical parameter, such as lipid order, underlying the effect. It is proposed that while PC unsaturation effects are explainable on the basis of a contribution to membrane surface curvature stress, the effects of PS unsaturation may be due to specific protein-lipid interactions. Overall, the results indicate that altered phospholipid unsaturation in cell membranes that occurs in certain disease states such as chronic alcoholism, or by dietary manipulations, are likely to have profound effects on signal transduction pathways involving PKC and similar proteins.

  8. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    this challenge by developing membranes in the form of lipid bilayers in which specialized transport proteins are incorporated. This raises the question: is it possible to mimic biological membranes and create a membrane based sensor and/or separation device? In the development of a biomimetic sensor...... or as sensor devices based on e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix...... will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport contribution from both protein and biomimetic support matrix. Also the biomimetic matrix must be encapsulated in order to protect it and make...

  9. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport contribution from both protein and biomimetic support matrix. Also the biomimetic matrix must be encapsulated in order to protect it and make....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...... it sufficiently stable in a final application. Here, I specifically discuss the feasibility of developing osmotic biomimetic MIP membranes, but the technical issues are of general concern in the design of biomimetic membranes capable of supporting selective transmembrane fluxes....

  10. Transmembrane protein sorting driven by membrane curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahl, H.; Ronneau, S.; González, B. Solana; Klutsch, D.; Schaffner-Barbero, C.; Hamoen, L. W.

    2015-11-01

    The intricate structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells depends on the ability to target proteins to specific cellular locations. In most cases, we have a poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms. A typical example is the assembly of bacterial chemoreceptors at cell poles. Here we show that the classical chemoreceptor TlpA of Bacillus subtilis does not localize according to the consensus stochastic nucleation mechanism but accumulates at strongly curved membrane areas generated during cell division. This preference was confirmed by accumulation at non-septal curved membranes. Localization appears to be an intrinsic property of the protein complex and does not rely on chemoreceptor clustering, as was previously shown for Escherichia coli. By constructing specific amino-acid substitutions, we demonstrate that the preference for strongly curved membranes arises from the curved shape of chemoreceptor trimer of dimers. These findings demonstrate that the intrinsic shape of transmembrane proteins can determine their cellular localization.

  11. Membrane alterations induced by nonstructural proteins of human norovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Y Doerflinger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (huNoV are the most frequent cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, particularly genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 variants. The viral nonstructural (NS proteins encoded by the ORF1 polyprotein induce vesical clusters harboring the viral replication sites. Little is known so far about the ultrastructure of these replication organelles or the contribution of individual NS proteins to their biogenesis. We compared the ultrastructural changes induced by expression of norovirus ORF1 polyproteins with those induced upon infection with murine norovirus (MNV. Characteristic membrane alterations induced by ORF1 expression resembled those found in MNV infected cells, consisting of vesicle accumulations likely built from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER which included single membrane vesicles (SMVs, double membrane vesicles (DMVs and multi membrane vesicles (MMVs. In-depth analysis using electron tomography suggested that MMVs originate through the enwrapping of SMVs with tubular structures similar to mechanisms reported for picornaviruses. Expression of GII.4 NS1-2, NS3 and NS4 fused to GFP revealed distinct membrane alterations when analyzed by correlative light and electron microscopy. Expression of NS1-2 induced proliferation of smooth ER membranes forming long tubular structures that were affected by mutations in the active center of the putative NS1-2 hydrolase domain. NS3 was associated with ER membranes around lipid droplets (LDs and induced the formation of convoluted membranes, which were even more pronounced in case of NS4. Interestingly, NS4 was the only GII.4 protein capable of inducing SMV and DMV formation when expressed individually. Our work provides the first ultrastructural analysis of norovirus GII.4 induced vesicle clusters and suggests that their morphology and biogenesis is most similar to picornaviruses. We further identified NS4 as a key factor in the formation of membrane alterations of huNoV and

  12. Facilitation of yeast-lethal membrane protein production by detoxifying with GFP tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikane, Hiroyuki; Watabe, Masahiko; Nakaki, Toshio

    2018-03-27

    Recombinant techniques for target protein production have been rapidly established and widely utilised in today's biological research. Nevertheless, methods for membrane protein production have yet to be developed, since membrane proteins generally tend to be expressed at low levels, easily aggregated, and/or even toxic to their host cells. Here we report that a GFP-tagging technique can be applied for the stable production of membrane proteins that are toxic to their host cells when overexpressed, paving the way for future advances in membrane protein biochemistry and drug development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between ceftriaxone resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and expression of outer membrane proteins OmpW and Ail/OmpX-like protein, which are regulated by BaeR of a two-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wensi S; Li, Pei-Chuan; Cheng, Chao-Yin

    2005-09-01

    Mutant 7F2 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has a transposon inserted in the regulator gene baeR of a two-component system and showed a more-than-fourfold reduction in resistance to ceftriaxone. Complementation analysis suggested an association among the outer membrane proteins OmpW and STM3031, ceftriaxone resistance, and baeR.

  14. Detergent-Mediated Reconstitution of Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J; Sjollema, K.A; Poolman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of reconstitution of the lactose transport protein (LacS) of Streptococcus thermophilus is markedly higher with Triton X-100 than with other detergents commonly employed to mediate the membrane insertion. To rationalize these differences, the lipid/detergent structures that are formed

  15. Engineering Lipid Bilayer Membranes for Protein Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shuja; Dosoky, Noura Sayed; Williams, John Dalton

    2013-01-01

    Lipid membranes regulate the flow of nutrients and communication signaling between cells and protect the sub-cellular structures. Recent attempts to fabricate artificial systems using nanostructures that mimic the physiological properties of natural lipid bilayer membranes (LBM) fused with transmembrane proteins have helped demonstrate the importance of temperature, pH, ionic strength, adsorption behavior, conformational reorientation and surface density in cellular membranes which all affect the incorporation of proteins on solid surfaces. Much of this work is performed on artificial templates made of polymer sponges or porous materials based on alumina, mica, and porous silicon (PSi) surfaces. For example, porous silicon materials have high biocompatibility, biodegradability, and photoluminescence, which allow them to be used both as a support structure for lipid bilayers or a template to measure the electrochemical functionality of living cells grown over the surface as in vivo. The variety of these media, coupled with the complex physiological conditions present in living systems, warrant a summary and prospectus detailing which artificial systems provide the most promise for different biological conditions. This study summarizes the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data on artificial biological membranes that are closely matched with previously published biological systems using both black lipid membrane and patch clamp techniques. PMID:24185908

  16. A novel technique for quantifying changes in vascular density, endothelial cell proliferation and protein expression in response to modulators of angiogenesis using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Elise

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reliable quantitative evaluation of molecular pathways is critical for both drug discovery and treatment monitoring. We have modified the CAM assay to quantitatively measure vascular density, endothelial proliferation, and changes in protein expression in response to anti-angiogenic and pro-angiogenic agents. This improved CAM assay can correlate changes in vascular density with changes seen on a molecular level. We expect that these described modifications will result in a single in vivo assay system, which will improve the ability to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying the angiogenic response.

  17. Chemically Stable Lipids for Membrane Protein Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishchenko, Andrii; Peng, Lingling; Zinovev, Egor; Vlasov, Alexey; Lee, Sung Chang; Kuklin, Alexander; Mishin, Alexey; Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Zhang, Qinghai; Cherezov, Vadim (MIPT); (USC); (Scripps)

    2017-05-01

    The lipidic cubic phase (LCP) has been widely recognized as a promising membrane-mimicking matrix for biophysical studies of membrane proteins and their crystallization in a lipidic environment. Application of this material to a wide variety of membrane proteins, however, is hindered due to a limited number of available host lipids, mostly monoacylglycerols (MAGs). Here, we designed, synthesized, and characterized a series of chemically stable lipids resistant to hydrolysis, with properties complementary to the widely used MAGs. In order to assess their potential to serve as host lipids for crystallization, we characterized the phase properties and lattice parameters of mesophases made of two most promising lipids at a variety of different conditions by polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Both lipids showed remarkable chemical stability and an extended LCP region in the phase diagram covering a wide range of temperatures down to 4 °C. One of these lipids has been used for crystallization and structure determination of a prototypical membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin at 4 and 20 °C.

  18. A positive feedback-based gene circuit to increase the production of a membrane protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennis Robert B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins are an important class of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes, and are a promising target in pharmaceutical development. However, membrane proteins are often difficult to produce in large quantities for the purpose of crystallographic or biochemical analyses. Results In this paper, we demonstrate that synthetic gene circuits designed specifically to overexpress certain genes can be applied to manipulate the expression kinetics of a model membrane protein, cytochrome bd quinol oxidase in E. coli, resulting in increased expression rates. The synthetic circuit involved is an engineered, autoinducer-independent variant of the lux operon activator LuxR from V. fischeri in an autoregulatory, positive feedback configuration. Conclusions Our proof-of-concept experiments indicate a statistically significant increase in the rate of production of the bd oxidase membrane protein. Synthetic gene networks provide a feasible solution for the problem of membrane protein production.

  19. Computational Approaches for Designing Protein/Inhibitor Complexes and Membrane Protein Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayendran, Krishna Gajan

    Drug discovery of small-molecule protein inhibitors is a vast enterprise that involves several scientific disciplines (i.e. genomics, cell biology, x-ray crystallography, chemistry, computer science, statistics), with each discipline focusing on a particular aspect of the process. In this thesis, I use computational and experimental approaches to explore the most fundamental aspect of drug discovery: the molecular interactions of small-molecules inhibitors with proteins. In Part I (Chapters I and II), I describe how computational docking approaches can be used to identify structurally diverse molecules that can inhibit multiple protein targets in the brain. I illustrate this approach using the examples of microtubule-stabilizing agents and inhibitors of cyclooxygenase(COX)-I and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). In Part II (Chapters III and IV), I focus on membrane proteins, which are notoriously difficult to work with due to their low natural abundances, low yields for heterologous over expression, and propensities toward aggregation. I describe a general approach for designing water-soluble variants of membrane proteins, for the purpose of developing cell-free, label-free, detergent-free, solution-phase studies of protein structure and small-molecule binding. I illustrate this approach through the design of a water-soluble variant of the membrane protein Smoothened, wsSMO. This wsSMO stands to serve as a first-step towards developing membrane protein analogs of this important signaling protein and drug target.

  20. Analysis of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Expression in Cultured Cells Identifies PmpA and PmpH of Chlamydia psittaci as Candidate Factors in Pathogenesis and Immunity to Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; De Vos, Winnok H; Huot Creasy, Heather; Marques, Patricia X; Ravel, Jacques; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bavoil, Patrik; Hsia, Ru-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) paralogous families of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus are putative targets for Chlamydia vaccine development. To determine whether this is also the case for Pmp family members of C. psittaci, we analyzed transcription levels, protein production and localization of several Pmps of C. psittaci. Pmp expression profiles were characterized using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence (IF) and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) under normal and stress conditions. We found that PmpA was highly produced in all inclusions as early as 12 hpi in all biological replicates. In addition, PmpA and PmpH appeared to be unusually accessible to antibody as determined by both immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy. Our results suggest an important role for these Pmps in the pathogenesis of C. psittaci, and make them promising candidates in vaccine development.

  1. Dendronic trimaltoside amphiphiles (DTMs) for membrane protein study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadaf, Aiman; Du, Yang; Santillan, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The critical contribution of membrane proteins in normal cellular function makes their detailed structure and functional analysis essential. Detergents, amphipathic agents with the ability to maintain membrane proteins in a soluble state in aqueous solution, have key roles in membrane protein...... alkyl chains by introducing dendronic hydrophobic groups connected to a trimaltoside head group, designated dendronic trimaltosides (DTMs). Representative DTMs conferred enhanced stabilization to multiple membrane proteins compared to the benchmark conventional detergent, DDM. One DTM (i.e., DTM-A6...

  2. Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Paul A; Haake, David A; Adler, Ben

    2004-06-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning biogenesis and structure of OMPs, with particular regard to the atypical signal peptide cleavage sites observed amongst the spirochetes, is discussed. We examine the functions that have been determined for several spirochetal OMPs including those that have been demonstrated to function as adhesins, porins or to have roles in complement resistance. A detailed description of the role of spirochetal OMPs in immunity, including those that stimulate protective immunity or that are involved in antigenic variation, is given. A final section is included which covers experimental considerations in spirochetal outer membrane biology. This section covers contentious issues concerning cellular localization of putative OMPs, including determination of surface exposure. A more detailed knowledge of spirochetal OMP biology will hopefully lead to the design of new vaccines and a better understanding of spirochetal pathogenesis.

  3. Serial Millisecond Crystallography of Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kathrin; Dworkowski, Florian; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Milne, Christopher; Wang, Meitian; Standfuss, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is a powerful method to determine high-resolution structures of pharmaceutically relevant membrane proteins. Recently, the technology has been adapted to carry out serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at synchrotron sources, where beamtime is more abundant. In an injector-based approach, crystals grown in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or embedded in viscous medium are delivered directly into the unattenuated beam of a microfocus beamline. Pilot experiments show the application of microjet-based SMX for solving the structure of a membrane protein and compatibility of the method with de novo phasing. Planned synchrotron upgrades, faster detectors and software developments will go hand-in-hand with developments at free-electron lasers to provide a powerful methodology for solving structures from microcrystals at room temperature, ligand screening or crystal optimization for time-resolved studies with minimal or no radiation damage.

  4. Stochastic single-molecule dynamics of synaptic membrane protein domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Osman; Li, Yiwei; Haselwandter, Christoph A.

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by single-molecule experiments on synaptic membrane protein domains, we use a stochastic lattice model to study protein reaction and diffusion processes in crowded membranes. We find that the stochastic reaction-diffusion dynamics of synaptic proteins provide a simple physical mechanism for collective fluctuations in synaptic domains, the molecular turnover observed at synaptic domains, key features of the single-molecule trajectories observed for synaptic proteins, and spatially inhomogeneous protein lifetimes at the cell membrane. Our results suggest that central aspects of the single-molecule and collective dynamics observed for membrane protein domains can be understood in terms of stochastic reaction-diffusion processes at the cell membrane.

  5. The synthesis of recombinant membrane proteins in yeast for structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Sarah J; Mikaliunaite, Lina; Patel, Anjana; Clare, Michelle; Cartwright, Stephanie P; Bawa, Zharain; Wilks, Martin D B; Low, Floren; Hardy, David; Rothnie, Alice J; Bill, Roslyn M

    2016-02-15

    Historically, recombinant membrane protein production has been a major challenge meaning that many fewer membrane protein structures have been published than those of soluble proteins. However, there has been a recent, almost exponential increase in the number of membrane protein structures being deposited in the Protein Data Bank. This suggests that empirical methods are now available that can ensure the required protein supply for these difficult targets. This review focuses on methods that are available for protein production in yeast, which is an important source of recombinant eukaryotic membrane proteins. We provide an overview of approaches to optimize the expression plasmid, host cell and culture conditions, as well as the extraction and purification of functional protein for crystallization trials in preparation for structural studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Membrane Protein Topology in the Plant Secretory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinya; Miao, Yansong; Cai, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Topology of membrane proteins provides important information for the understanding of protein function and intermolecular associations. Integrate membrane proteins are generally transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and downstream compartments in the plant secretory pathway. Here, we describe a simple method to study membrane protein topology along the plant secretory pathway by transiently coexpressing a fluorescent protein (XFP)-tagged membrane protein and an ER export inhibitor protein, ARF1 (T31N), in tobacco BY-2 protoplast. By fractionation, microsome isolation, and trypsin digestion, membrane protein topology could be easily detected by either direct confocal microscopy imaging or western-blot analysis using specific XFP antibodies. A similar strategy in determining membrane protein topology could be widely adopted and applied to protein analysis in a broad range of eukaryotic systems, including yeast cells and mammalian cells.

  7. Atomic-level Analysis of Membrane Protein Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are substantially more challenging than natively soluble proteins as subjects for structural analysis. Thus, membrane proteins are greatly under-represented in structural databases. Recently, as a consequence of focused attention by consortium efforts and advances in methodology, the pace has accelerated for atomic-level structure determination of membrane proteins. Enabling advances have come in methods for protein production, for crystallographic analysis, and for cryo-EM ...

  8. Critical determinants of the interactions of capsule-expressing Neisseria meningitidis with host cells: the role of receptor density in increased cellular targeting via the outer membrane Opa proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christopher J; Griffiths, Natalie J; Rowe, Helen A; Heyderman, Robert S; Virji, Mumtaz

    2005-10-01

    Neisseria meningitidis capsule is an important virulence determinant required for survival in the blood but is reportedly involved in inhibiting cellular interactions mediated by meningococcal outer membrane adhesins. However, evidence from our previous studies suggested that target receptor density on host cells may determine whether or not capsulate bacteria can adhere via outer membrane proteins such as Opa. To confirm this and evaluate the impact of capsulation on bacterial interactions, we used Opa(+) and Opa(-) derivatives of capsulate and acapsulate meningococcal isolates and transfected cell lines expressing CEACAM1, a receptor targeted by Opa proteins. To assess the extent and rate of cell association, subpopulations of stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells with different receptor levels were derived. A quantitative correlation of CEACAM1 levels and Opa-dependent binding of both capsulate and acapsulate bacteria was demonstrated, which was accelerated at high receptor densities. However, it appears that invasion by Opa(+) capsulate bacteria only occurs when a threshold level of CEACAM density has been reached. Target cells expressing high levels of CEACAM1 (MFI c. 400) bound threefold more, but internalized 20-fold more Opa(+) capsulate bacteria than those with intermediate expression (MFI c. 100). No overall selection of acapsulate phenotype was observed in the internalized population. These observations confirm that capsule may not be an adequate barrier for cellular interactions and demonstrate the role of a host factor that may determine capsulate bacterial invasion potential. Upregulation of CEACAMs, which can occur in response to inflammatory cytokines, could lead to translocation of a small number of fully capsulate bacteria across mucosal epithelium into the bloodstream sufficient to cause a rapid onset of disseminated disease. Thus the data also suggest a novel rationale for the epidemiological observations that individuals with prior

  9. Amphipathic agents for membrane protein study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, Aiman; Cho, Kyung Ho; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs) are insoluble in aqueous media as a result of incompatibility between the hydrophilic property of the solvent molecules and the hydrophobic nature of MP surfaces, normally associated with lipid membranes. Amphipathic compounds are necessary for extraction of these macromolecules from the native membranes and their maintenance in solution. The amphipathic agents surround the hydrophobic segments of MPs, thus serving as a membrane mimetic system. Of the available amphipathic agents, detergents are most widely used for MP manipulation. However, MPs encapsulated by conventional detergent micelles have a tendency to undergo structural degradation, hampering MP advance, and necessitating the development of novel detergents with enhanced efficacy for MP study. In this chapter, we will introduce both conventional and novel classes of detergents and discuss about the chemical structures, design principles, and efficacies of these compounds for MP solubilization and stabilization. The behaviors of those agents toward MP crystallization will be a primary topic in our discussion. This discussion highlights the common features of popular conventional/novel detergents essential for successful MP structural study. The conclusions reached by this discussion would not only enable MP scientists to rationally select a set of detergent candidates among a large number of detergents but also provide detergent inventors with useful guidelines in designing novel amphipathic systems. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extracellular vesicles as a platform for membrane-associated therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoosoo; Hong, Yeonsun; Cho, Eunji; Kim, Gi Beom; Kim, In-San

    2018-01-01

    Membrane proteins are of great research interest, particularly because they are rich in targets for therapeutic application. The suitability of various membrane proteins as targets for therapeutic formulations, such as drugs or antibodies, has been studied in preclinical and clinical studies. For therapeutic application, however, a protein must be expressed and purified in as close to its native conformation as possible. This has proven difficult for membrane proteins, as their native conformation requires the association with an appropriate cellular membrane. One solution to this problem is to use extracellular vesicles as a display platform. Exosomes and microvesicles are membranous extracellular vesicles that are released from most cells. Their membranes may provide a favourable microenvironment for membrane proteins to take on their proper conformation, activity, and membrane distribution; moreover, membrane proteins can cluster into microdomains on the surface of extracellular vesicles following their biogenesis. In this review, we survey the state-of-the-art of extracellular vesicle (exosome and small-sized microvesicle)-based therapeutics, evaluate the current biological understanding of these formulations, and forecast the technical advances that will be needed to continue driving the development of membrane protein therapeutics.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Intracellular and Membrane Proteins From Voriconazole-Resistant Candida glabrata

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Jae Il; Kim, Hwa Su; Choi, Chi Won; Yoo, Jung Sik; Yu, Jae Yon; Lee, Yeong Seon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The proteomic analysis of voriconazole resistant Candida glabrata strain has not yet been investigated. In this study, differentially expressed proteins of intracellular and membrane fraction from voriconazole-susceptible, susceptible dose-dependent (S-DD), resistant C. glabrata strains were compared with each other and several proteins were identified. Methods The proteins of intracellular and membrane were isolated by disrupting cells with glass bead and centrifugation from voric...

  12. Self-assembling peptides form nanodiscs that stabilize membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain

    2014-01-01

    New methods to handle membrane bound proteins, e.g. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), are highly desirable. Recently, apoliprotein A1 (ApoA1) based lipoprotein particles have emerged as a new platform for studying membrane proteins, and it has been shown that they can self-assemble in combinat......New methods to handle membrane bound proteins, e.g. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), are highly desirable. Recently, apoliprotein A1 (ApoA1) based lipoprotein particles have emerged as a new platform for studying membrane proteins, and it has been shown that they can self...

  13. Hematopoietic protein-1 regulates the actin membrane skeleton and membrane stability in murine erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia M Chan

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic protein-1 (Hem-1 is a hematopoietic cell specific member of the WAVE (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome verprolin-homologous protein complex, which regulates filamentous actin (F-actin polymerization in many cell types including immune cells. However, the roles of Hem-1 and the WAVE complex in erythrocyte biology are not known. In this study, we utilized mice lacking Hem-1 expression due to a non-coding point mutation in the Hem1 gene to show that absence of Hem-1 results in microcytic, hypochromic anemia characterized by abnormally shaped erythrocytes with aberrant F-actin foci and decreased lifespan. We find that Hem-1 and members of the associated WAVE complex are normally expressed in wildtype erythrocyte progenitors and mature erythrocytes. Using mass spectrometry and global proteomics, Coomassie staining, and immunoblotting, we find that the absence of Hem-1 results in decreased representation of essential erythrocyte membrane skeletal proteins including α- and β- spectrin, dematin, p55, adducin, ankyrin, tropomodulin 1, band 3, and band 4.1. Hem1⁻/⁻ erythrocytes exhibit increased protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of adducin at Ser724, which targets adducin family members for dissociation from spectrin and actin, and subsequent proteolysis. Increased adducin Ser724 phosphorylation in Hem1⁻/⁻ erythrocytes correlates with decreased protein expression of the regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, which is required for PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation of PKC targets. These results reveal a novel, critical role for Hem-1 in the homeostasis of structural proteins required for formation and stability of the actin membrane skeleton in erythrocytes.

  14. G protein-membrane interactions II: Effect of G protein-linked lipids on membrane structure and G protein-membrane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jesús; Ibarguren, Maitane; Álvarez, Rafael; Terés, Silvia; Lladó, Victoria; Piotto, Stefano P; Concilio, Simona; Busquets, Xavier; López, David J; Escribá, Pablo V

    2017-09-01

    G proteins often bear myristoyl, palmitoyl and isoprenyl moieties, which favor their association with the membrane and their accumulation in G Protein Coupled Receptor-rich microdomains. These lipids influence the biophysical properties of membranes and thereby modulate G protein binding to bilayers. In this context, we showed here that geranylgeraniol, but neither myristate nor palmitate, increased the inverted hexagonal (H II ) phase propensity of phosphatidylethanolamine-containing membranes. While myristate and palmitate preferentially associated with phosphatidylcholine membranes, geranylgeraniol favored nonlamellar-prone membranes. In addition, Gαi 1 monomers had a higher affinity for lamellar phases, while Gβγ and Gαβγ showed a marked preference for nonlamellar prone membranes. Moreover, geranylgeraniol enhanced the binding of G protein dimers and trimers to phosphatidylethanolamine-containing membranes, yet it decreased that of monomers. By contrast, both myristate and palmitate increased the Gαi 1 preference for lamellar membranes. Palmitoylation reinforced the binding of the monomer to PC membranes and myristoylation decreased its binding to PE-enriched bilayer. Finally, binding of dimers and trimers to lamellar-prone membranes was decreased by palmitate and myristate, but it was increased in nonlamellar-prone bilayers. These results demonstrate that co/post-translational G protein lipid modifications regulate the membrane lipid structure and that they influence the physico-chemical properties of membranes, which in part explains why G protein subunits sort to different plasma membrane domains. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A scalable assessment of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the standard membrane-feeding assay, using transgenic parasites expressing green fluorescent protein-luciferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, W.J.R.; Churcher, T.S.; Graumans, W.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Vos, M.W.; Lanke, K.H.W.; Vegte-Bolmer, M.G. van de; Siebelink-Stoter, R.; Dechering, K.J.; Vaughan, A.M.; Camargo, N.; Kappe, S.H.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Bousema, T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development of drugs and vaccines to reduce malaria transmission is an important part of eradication plans. The transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of these agents is currently determined in the standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA), based on subjective microscopy-based readouts

  16. NMR-based screening of membrane protein ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanamala, Naveena; Dutta, Arpana; Beck, Barbara; Van Fleet, Bart; Hay, Kelly; Yazbak, Ahmad; Ishima, Rieko; Doemling, Alexander; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins pose problems for the application of NMR-based ligand-screening methods because of the need to maintain the proteins in a membrane mimetic environment such as detergent micelles: they add to the molecular weight of the protein, increase the viscosity of the solution, interact with

  17. Highly Branched Pentasaccharide-Bearing Amphiphiles for Membrane Protein Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehsan, Muhammad; Du, Yang; Scull, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    Detergents are essential tools for membrane protein manipulation. Micelles formed by detergent molecules have the ability to encapsulate the hydrophobic domains of membrane proteins. The resulting protein-detergent complexes (PDCs) are compatible with the polar environments of aqueous media, maki...

  18. Membrane-mediated interaction between strongly anisotropic protein scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Schweitzer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Specialized proteins serve as scaffolds sculpting strongly curved membranes of intracellular organelles. Effective membrane shaping requires segregation of these proteins into domains and is, therefore, critically dependent on the protein-protein interaction. Interactions mediated by membrane elastic deformations have been extensively analyzed within approximations of large inter-protein distances, small extents of the protein-mediated membrane bending and small deviations of the protein shapes from isotropic spherical segments. At the same time, important classes of the realistic membrane-shaping proteins have strongly elongated shapes with large and highly anisotropic curvature. Here we investigated, computationally, the membrane mediated interaction between proteins or protein oligomers representing membrane scaffolds with strongly anisotropic curvature, and addressed, quantitatively, a specific case of the scaffold geometrical parameters characterizing BAR domains, which are crucial for membrane shaping in endocytosis. In addition to the previously analyzed contributions to the interaction, we considered a repulsive force stemming from the entropy of the scaffold orientation. We computed this interaction to be of the same order of magnitude as the well-known attractive force related to the entropy of membrane undulations. We demonstrated the scaffold shape anisotropy to cause a mutual aligning of the scaffolds and to generate a strong attractive interaction bringing the scaffolds close to each other to equilibrium distances much smaller than the scaffold size. We computed the energy of interaction between scaffolds of a realistic geometry to constitute tens of kBT, which guarantees a robust segregation of the scaffolds into domains.

  19. Pinkbar is an epithelial-specific BAR domain protein that generates planar membrane structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pykäläinen, Anette; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Zhao, Hongxia; Saarikangas, Juha; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Jansen, Maurice; Hakanen, Janne; Koskela, Essi V.; Peränen, Johan; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Salminen, Marjo; Ikonen, Elina; Dominguez, Roberto; Lappalainen, Pekka (Helsinki); (Penn)

    2013-05-29

    Bin/amphipysin/Rvs (BAR)-domain proteins sculpt cellular membranes and have key roles in processes such as endocytosis, cell motility and morphogenesis. BAR domains are divided into three subfamilies: BAR- and F-BAR-domain proteins generate positive membrane curvature and stabilize cellular invaginations, whereas I-BAR-domain proteins induce negative curvature and stabilize protrusions. We show that a previously uncharacterized member of the I-BAR subfamily, Pinkbar, is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, where it localizes to Rab13-positive vesicles and to the plasma membrane at intercellular junctions. Notably, the BAR domain of Pinkbar does not induce membrane tubulation but promotes the formation of planar membrane sheets. Structural and mutagenesis analyses reveal that the BAR domain of Pinkbar has a relatively flat lipid-binding interface and that it assembles into sheet-like oligomers in crystals and in solution, which may explain its unique membrane-deforming activity.

  20. An Integrated Framework Advancing Membrane Protein Modeling and Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca F Alford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins are critical functional molecules in the human body, constituting more than 30% of open reading frames in the human genome. Unfortunately, a myriad of difficulties in overexpression and reconstitution into membrane mimetics severely limit our ability to determine their structures. Computational tools are therefore instrumental to membrane protein structure prediction, consequently increasing our understanding of membrane protein function and their role in disease. Here, we describe a general framework facilitating membrane protein modeling and design that combines the scientific principles for membrane protein modeling with the flexible software architecture of Rosetta3. This new framework, called RosettaMP, provides a general membrane representation that interfaces with scoring, conformational sampling, and mutation routines that can be easily combined to create new protocols. To demonstrate the capabilities of this implementation, we developed four proof-of-concept applications for (1 prediction of free energy changes upon mutation; (2 high-resolution structural refinement; (3 protein-protein docking; and (4 assembly of symmetric protein complexes, all in the membrane environment. Preliminary data show that these algorithms can produce meaningful scores and structures. The data also suggest needed improvements to both sampling routines and score functions. Importantly, the applications collectively demonstrate the potential of combining the flexible nature of RosettaMP with the power of Rosetta algorithms to facilitate membrane protein modeling and design.

  1. The New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS): a high-throughput platform for structural genomics of integral membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, James; Mancia, Filippo; Shapiro, Lawrence; Punta, Marco; Rost, Burkhard; Girvin, Mark; Wang, Da-Neng; Zhou, Ming; Hunt, John F; Szyperski, Thomas; Gouaux, Eric; MacKinnon, Roderick; McDermott, Ann; Honig, Barry; Inouye, Masayori; Montelione, Gaetano; Hendrickson, Wayne A

    2010-09-01

    The New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS) was formed to accelerate the acquisition of structural information on membrane proteins by applying a structural genomics approach. NYCOMPS comprises a bioinformatics group, a centralized facility operating a high-throughput cloning and screening pipeline, a set of associated wet labs that perform high-level protein production and structure determination by x-ray crystallography and NMR, and a set of investigators focused on methods development. In the first three years of operation, the NYCOMPS pipeline has so far produced and screened 7,250 expression constructs for 8,045 target proteins. Approximately 600 of these verified targets were scaled up to levels required for structural studies, so far yielding 24 membrane protein crystals. Here we describe the overall structure of NYCOMPS and provide details on the high-throughput pipeline.

  2. Adamantane-based amphiphiles (ADAs) for membrane protein study: importance of a detergent hydrophobic group in membrane protein solubilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Bae, Hyoung Eun; Das, Manabendra

    2014-10-21

    We prepared adamantane-containing amphiphiles and evaluated them using a large membrane protein complex in terms of protein solubilisation and stabilization efficacy. These agents were superior to conventional detergents, especially in terms of the membrane protein solubilisation efficiency, implying a new detergent structure-property relationship.

  3. The ER membrane protein complex is a transmembrane domain insertase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guna, Alina; Volkmar, Norbert; Christianson, John C.; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2018-01-01

    Insertion of proteins into membranes is an essential cellular process. The extensive biophysical and topological diversity of membrane proteins necessitates multiple insertion pathways that remain incompletely defined. Here, we found that known membrane insertion pathways fail to effectively engage tail-anchored membrane proteins with moderately hydrophobic transmembrane domains. These proteins are instead shielded in the cytosol by calmodulin. Dynamic release from calmodulin allowed sampling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) was shown to be essential for efficient insertion in vitro and in cells. Purified EMC in synthetic liposomes catalyzed insertion of its substrates in a reconstituted system. Thus, EMC is a transmembrane domain insertase, a function that may explain its widely pleiotropic membrane-associated phenotypes across organisms. PMID:29242231

  4. Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane

  5. Discriminating lysosomal membrane protein types using dynamic neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vijay; Gupta, Dwijendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a dynamic artificial neural network methodology, which classifies the proteins into their classes from their sequences alone: the lysosomal membrane protein classes and the various other membranes protein classes. In this paper, neural networks-based lysosomal-associated membrane protein type prediction system is proposed. Different protein sequence representations are fused to extract the features of a protein sequence, which includes seven feature sets; amino acid (AA) composition, sequence length, hydrophobic group, electronic group, sum of hydrophobicity, R-group, and dipeptide composition. To reduce the dimensionality of the large feature vector, we applied the principal component analysis. The probabilistic neural network, generalized regression neural network, and Elman regression neural network (RNN) are used as classifiers and compared with layer recurrent network (LRN), a dynamic network. The dynamic networks have memory, i.e. its output depends not only on the input but the previous outputs also. Thus, the accuracy of LRN classifier among all other artificial neural networks comes out to be the highest. The overall accuracy of jackknife cross-validation is 93.2% for the data-set. These predicted results suggest that the method can be effectively applied to discriminate lysosomal associated membrane proteins from other membrane proteins (Type-I, Outer membrane proteins, GPI-Anchored) and Globular proteins, and it also indicates that the protein sequence representation can better reflect the core feature of membrane proteins than the classical AA composition.

  6. A simple detection method for low-affinity membrane protein interactions by baculoviral display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiko Sakihama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane protein interactions play an important role in cell-to-cell recognition in various biological activities such as in the immune or neural system. Nevertheless, there has remained the major obstacle of expression of the membrane proteins in their active form. Recently, we and other investigators found that functional membrane proteins express on baculovirus particles (budded virus, BV. In this study, we applied this BV display system to detect interaction between membrane proteins important for cell-to-cell interaction in immune system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We infected Sf9 cells with recombinant baculovirus encoding the T cell membrane protein CD2 or its ligand CD58 and recovered the BV. We detected specific interaction between CD2-displaying BV and CD58-displaying BV by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Using this system, we also detected specific interaction between two other membrane receptor-ligand pairs, CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L, and glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR-GITR ligand (GITRL. Furthermore, we observed specific binding of BV displaying CD58, CD40L, or GITRL to cells naturally expressing their respective receptors by flowcytometric analysis using anti-baculoviral gp64 antibody. Finally we isolated CD2 cDNA from a cDNA expression library by magnetic separation using CD58-displaying BV and anti-gp64 antibody. CONCLUSIONS: We found the BV display system worked effectively in the detection of the interaction of membrane proteins. Since various membrane proteins and their oligomeric complexes can be displayed on BV in the native form, this BV display system should prove highly useful in the search for natural ligands or to develop screening systems for therapeutic antibodies and/or compounds.

  7. Regulation of HIV-Gag Expression and Targeting to the Endolysosomal/Secretory Pathway by the Luminal Domain of Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein (LAMP-1) Enhance Gag-Specific Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Carolina Gonçalves de Oliveira; Rigato, Paula Ordonhez; Gonçalves, Jorge Luiz Santos; Sato, Maria Notomi; Maciel, Milton; Peçanha, Ligia Maria Torres; August, J. Thomas; de Azevedo Marques, Ernesto Torres; de Arruda, Luciana Barros

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a DNA vaccine encoding HIV-p55gag in association with the lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) elicited a greater Gag-specific immune response, in comparison to a DNA encoding the native gag. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that LAMP/Gag was highly expressed and was present in MHCII containing compartments in transfected cells. In this study, the mechanisms involved in these processes and the relative contributions of the increased expression and altered traffic for the enhanced immune response were addressed. Cells transfected with plasmid DNA constructs containing p55gag attached to truncated sequences of LAMP-1 showed that the increased expression of gag mRNA required p55gag in frame with at least 741 bp of the LAMP-1 luminal domain. LAMP luminal domain also showed to be essential for Gag traffic through lysosomes and, in this case, the whole sequence was required. Further analysis of the trafficking pathway of the intact LAMP/Gag chimera demonstrated that it was secreted, at least in part, associated with exosome-like vesicles. Immunization of mice with LAMP/gag chimeric plasmids demonstrated that high expression level alone can induce a substantial transient antibody response, but targeting of the antigen to the endolysosomal/secretory pathways was required for establishment of cellular and memory response. The intact LAMP/gag construct induced polyfunctional CD4+ T cell response, which presence at the time of immunization was required for CD8+ T cell priming. LAMP-mediated targeting to endolysosomal/secretory pathway is an important new mechanistic element in LAMP-mediated enhanced immunity with applications to the development of novel anti-HIV vaccines and to general vaccinology field. PMID:24932692

  8. Intermolecular detergent-membrane protein noes for the characterization of the dynamics of membrane protein-detergent complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Cédric; Orts, Julien; Tzitzilonis, Christos; Vögeli, Beat; Smrt, Sean; Lorieau, Justin; Riek, Roland

    2014-12-11

    The interaction between membrane proteins and lipids or lipid mimetics such as detergents is key for the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of membrane proteins. In NMR-based structural studies of membrane proteins, qualitative analysis of intermolecular nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) or paramagnetic resonance enhancement are used in general to identify the transmembrane segments of a membrane protein. Here, we employed a quantitative characterization of intermolecular NOEs between (1)H of the detergent and (1)H(N) of (2)H-perdeuterated, (15)N-labeled α-helical membrane protein-detergent complexes following the exact NOE (eNOE) approach. Structural considerations suggest that these intermolecular NOEs should show a helical-wheel-type behavior along a transmembrane helix or a membrane-attached helix within a membrane protein as experimentally demonstrated for the complete influenza hemagglutinin fusion domain HAfp23. The partial absence of such a NOE pattern along the amino acid sequence as shown for a truncated variant of HAfp23 and for the Escherichia coli inner membrane protein YidH indicates the presence of large tertiary structure fluctuations such as an opening between helices or the presence of large rotational dynamics of the helices. Detergent-protein NOEs thus appear to be a straightforward probe for a qualitative characterization of structural and dynamical properties of membrane proteins embedded in detergent micelles.

  9. Colorectal laterally spreading tumors show characteristic expression of cell polarity factors, including atypical protein kinase C λ/ι, E-cadherin, β-catenin and basement membrane component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yasushi; Nagashima, Yoji; Morioka, Kaori; Akimoto, Kazunori; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Goto, Ayumu; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Fujii, Shoichi; Kawamata, Mayumi; Takagawa, Ryo; Kunizaki, Chikara; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin; Shimada, Hiroshi; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shigeo; Endo, Itaru

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal flat-type tumors include laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) and flat depressed-type tumors. The former of which shows a predominant lateral spreading growth rather than an invasive growth. The present study examined the morphological characteristics of LSTs, in comparison with polypoid- or flat depressed-type tumors, along with the expression of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) λ/ι, a pivotal cell polarity regulator, and the hallmarks of cell polarity, as well as with type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. In total, 37 flat-type (24 LSTs and 13 flat depressed-type tumors) and 20 polypoid-type colorectal tumors were examined. The LSTs were classified as 15 LST adenoma (LST-A) and nine LST cancer in adenoma (LST-CA). An immunohistochemical examination was performed on aPKC λ/ι, type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. The LST-A and -CA showed a superficial replacing growth pattern, with expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin in the basolateral membrane and type IV collagen along the basement membrane. In addition, 86.6% of LST-A and 55.6% of LST-CA showed aPKC λ/ι expression of 1+ (weak to normal intensity staining in the cytoplasm compared with the normal epithelium). Furthermore, ~45% of the polypoid-type adenomas showed 2+ (moderate intensity staining in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus) and 66.7% of the polypoid-type cancer in adenoma were 3+ (strong intensity staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus). A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the expression of aPKC λ/ι and β-catenin (r=0.842; P<0.001), or type IV collagen (r=0.823; P<0.001). The LSTs showed a unique growth pattern, different from the expanding growth pattern presented by a polypoid tumor and invasive cancer. The growth characteristics of LST appear to be caused by adequate coexpression of β-catenin, type IV collagen and aPKC λ/ι.

  10. Effects of Xinfeng Capsules on Expression of Platelet Granule Membrane Protein 140 and Platelet Cluster of Differentiation 40 Ligand in Peripheral Blood of Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Rui-kai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet GMP-140 and CD40L as specific markers of platelet activation play an important role in the morbidity and development of rheumatoid arthritis. The expression of GMP-140, CD40L increases in peripheral blood of AA rats. And they have correlation with voix pedis' swelling, AI. XFC could inhibit the inflammatory response through inhibiting platelet activation of AA rats, which means decreasing the expression of GMP-140, CD40L in peripheral blood. So, the voix pedis' swelling and AI were decreased as the result.

  11. Inhibition of protein kinase CbetaII increases glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through elevated expression of glucose transporter 1 at the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Remko R.; Bazuine, Merlijn; Wake, Michelle M.; Span, Paul N.; Olthaar, André J.; Schürmann, Annette; Maassen, J. Antonie; Hermus, Ad R. M. M.; Willems, Peter H. G. M.; Sweep, C. G. J.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism via which diacylglycerol-sensitive protein kinase Cs (PKCs) stimulate glucose transport in insulin-sensitive tissues is poorly defined. Phorbol esters, such as phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), are potent activators of conventional and novel PKCs. Addition of PMA increases the

  12. Studying Membrane Protein Structure and Function Using Nanodiscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huda, Pie

    The structure and dynamic of membrane proteins can provide valuable information about general functions, diseases and effects of various drugs. Studying membrane proteins are a challenge as an amphiphilic environment is necessary to stabilise the protein in a functionally and structurally relevant...... form. This is most typically achieved through the use of detergent based reconstitution systems. However, time and again such systems fail to provide a suitable environment causing aggregation and inactivation. Nanodiscs are self-assembled lipoproteins containing two membrane scaffold proteins...... and a lipid bilayer in defined nanometer size, which can act as a stabiliser for membrane proteins. This enables both functional and structural investigation of membrane proteins in a detergent free environment which is closer to the native situation. Understanding the self-assembly of nanodiscs is important...

  13. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Nazarul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Room 515, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Hu, Chuan, E-mail: chuan.hu@louisville.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Room 515, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed {beta}1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1, without altering cell surface expression of {alpha}2{beta}1 integrin or {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.

  14. Membrane interaction of retroviral Gag proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Alfred Dick

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembly of an infectious retroviral particle relies on multimerization of the Gag polyprotein at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. The three domains of Gag common to all retroviruses-- MA, CA, and NC-- provide the signals for membrane binding, assembly, and viral RNA packaging, respectively. These signals do not function independently of one another. For example, Gag multimerization enhances membrane binding and is more efficient when NC is interacting with RNA. MA binding to the plasma membrane is governed by several principles, including electrostatics, recognition of specific lipid head groups, hydrophobic interactions, and membrane order. HIV-1 uses many of these principles while Rous sarcoma virus (RSV appears to use fewer. This review describes the principles that govern Gag interactions with membranes, focusing on RSV and HIV-1 Gag. The review also defines lipid and membrane behavior, and discusses the complexities in determining how lipid and membrane behavior impact Gag membrane binding.

  15. Static light scattering to characterize membrane proteins in detergent solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Duurkens, Ria H.; Olieman, Kees; Erkens, Guus B.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of the oligomeric state or the subunit stoichiometry of integral membrane proteins in detergent solution is notoriously difficult, because the amount of detergent (and lipid) associated with the proteins is usually not known. Only two classical methods (sedimentation equilibrium

  16. Consequences of membrane protein overexpression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Samuel; Baars, Louise; Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Klussmeier, Anja; Wagner, Claudia S; Nord, Olof; Nygren, Per-Ake; van Wijk, Klaas J; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2007-09-01

    Overexpression of membrane proteins is often essential for structural and functional studies, but yields are frequently too low. An understanding of the physiological response to overexpression is needed to improve such yields. Therefore, we analyzed the consequences of overexpression of three different membrane proteins (YidC, YedZ, and LepI) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the bacterium Escherichia coli and compared this with overexpression of a soluble protein, GST-GFP. Proteomes of total lysates, purified aggregates, and cytoplasmic membranes were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry complemented with flow cytometry, microscopy, Western blotting, and pulse labeling experiments. Composition and accumulation levels of protein complexes in the cytoplasmic membrane were analyzed with improved two-dimensional blue native PAGE. Overexpression of the three membrane proteins, but not soluble GST-GFP, resulted in accumulation of cytoplasmic aggregates containing the overexpressed proteins, chaperones (DnaK/J and GroEL/S), and soluble proteases (HslUV and ClpXP) as well as many precursors of periplasmic and outer membrane proteins. This was consistent with lowered accumulation levels of secreted proteins in the three membrane protein overexpressors and is likely to be a direct consequence of saturation of the cytoplasmic membrane protein translocation machinery. Importantly accumulation levels of respiratory chain complexes in the cytoplasmic membrane were strongly reduced. Induction of the acetate-phosphotransacetylase pathway for ATP production and a down-regulated tricarboxylic acid cycle indicated the activation of the Arc two-component system, which mediates adaptive responses to changing respiratory states. This study provides a basis for designing rational strategies to improve yields of membrane protein overexpression in E. coli.

  17. Equilibrium fluctuation relations for voltage coupling in membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilsoo; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-11-01

    A general theoretical framework is developed to account for the effects of an external potential on the energetics of membrane proteins. The framework is based on the free energy relation between two (forward/backward) probability densities, which was recently generalized to non-equilibrium processes, culminating in the work-fluctuation theorem. Starting from the probability densities of the conformational states along the "voltage coupling" reaction coordinate, we investigate several interconnected free energy relations between these two conformational states, considering voltage activation of ion channels. The free energy difference between the two conformational states at zero (depolarization) membrane potential (i.e., known as the chemical component of free energy change in ion channels) is shown to be equivalent to the free energy difference between the two "equilibrium" (resting and activated) conformational states along the one-dimensional voltage couplin reaction coordinate. Furthermore, the requirement that the application of linear response approximation to the free energy functionals of voltage coupling should satisfy the general free energy relations, yields a novel closed-form expression for the gating charge in terms of other basic properties of ion channels. This connection is familiar in statistical mechanics, known as the equilibrium fluctuation-response relation. The theory is illustrated by considering the coupling of a unit charge to the external voltage in the two sites near the surface of membrane, representing the activated and resting states. This is done using a coarse-graining (CG) model of membrane proteins, which includes the membrane, the electrolytes and the electrodes. The CG model yields Marcus-type voltage dependent free energy parabolas for the response of the electrostatic environment (electrolytes etc.) to the transition from the initial to the final configuratinal states, leading to equilibrium free energy difference and free

  18. Role of membrane contact sites in protein import into mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Susanne E; Rampelt, Heike; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Warscheid, Bettina; van der Laan, Martin; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondria import more than 1,000 different proteins from the cytosol. The proteins are synthesized as precursors on cytosolic ribosomes and are translocated by protein transport machineries of the mitochondrial membranes. Five main pathways for protein import into mitochondria have been identified. Most pathways use the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) as the entry gate into mitochondria. Depending on specific signals contained in the precursors, the proteins are subsequently transferred to different intramitochondrial translocases. In this article, we discuss the connection between protein import and mitochondrial membrane architecture. Mitochondria possess two membranes. It is a long-standing question how contact sites between outer and inner membranes are formed and which role the contact sites play in the translocation of precursor proteins. A major translocation contact site is formed between the TOM complex and the presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23 complex), promoting transfer of presequence-carrying preproteins to the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix. Recent findings led to the identification of contact sites that involve the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) of the inner membrane. MICOS plays a dual role. It is crucial for maintaining the inner membrane cristae architecture and forms contacts sites to the outer membrane that promote translocation of precursor proteins into the intermembrane space and outer membrane of mitochondria. The view is emerging that the mitochondrial protein translocases do not function as independent units, but are embedded in a network of interactions with machineries that control mitochondrial activity and architecture. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  19. Scaffolding proteins in membrane trafficking : the role of ELKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular membrane trafficking is an essential cellular process that involves cooperation of many factors such as scaffolding proteins, GTPases and SNAREs. These proteins work together to ensure proper delivery of different membrane-enclosed cargoes to specific cellular destinations. In this

  20. Identification and characterization of stable membrane protein complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelbrink, R.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Many membrane proteins exist as oligomers. Such oligomers play an important role in a broad variety of cellular processes such as ion transport, energy transduction, osmosensing and cell wall synthesis. We developed an electrophoresis-based method of identifying oligomeric membrane proteins that are

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of large integral membrane proteins with an implicit membrane model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Seiichiro; Feig, Michael

    2006-01-12

    The heterogeneous dielectric generalized Born (HDGB) methodology is an the extension of the GBMV model for the simulation of integral membrane proteins with an implicit membrane environment. Three large integral membrane proteins, the bacteriorhodopsin monomer and trimer and the BtuCD protein, were simulated with the HDGB model in order to evaluate how well thermodynamic and dynamic properties are reproduced. Effects of the truncation of electrostatic interactions were examined. For all proteins, the HDGB model was able to generate stable trajectories that remained close to the starting experimental structures, in excellent agreement with explicit membrane simulations. Dynamic properties evaluated through a comparison of B-factors are also in good agreement with experiment and explicit membrane simulations. However, overall flexibility was slightly underestimated with the HDGB model unless a very large electrostatic cutoff is employed. Results with the HDGB model are further compared with equivalent simulations in implicit aqueous solvent, demonstrating that the membrane environment leads to more realistic simulations.

  2. The role of antioxidant-protein interactions in biological membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGillivray, Duncan J; Singh, Rachna; Melton, Laurence D.; Worcester, David L.; Gilbert, Elliot P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Oxidative damage of cellular membranes has been linked to a variety of disease pathologies, including cardiac disease, Alzheimer's and complications due to diabetes. The oxidation of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid chains found in cellular membranes leads to significant alteration in membrane physical properties, including lipid orientation and membrane permeability, which ultimately affect biological function. Polyphenols are naturally occurring phytochemicals present in a number of fruit and vegetables that are of interest for their anti-oxidative powers. These polyphenols inhibit lipid oxidation in cellular membrane surfaces, although the mechanism of this inhibition is not entirely clear. Moreover, the polyphenols have significant binding affinity for proteins, which can lead to the formation of soluble and insoluble protein-polyphenol complexes Significantly, in the presence of casein proteins the oxidation inhibition the polyphenols in the membrane is significantly enhanced (as assessed by Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition Capacity assays). Thus the antioxidant pathway appears to involve these protein/polyphenol complexes, as well as direct antioxidant action by the polyphenol. Here we discuss neutron and x-ray scattering results from phospholipid membranes, looking at the positioning of two examples of polyphenolic antioxidants in phospholipid membranes, quercetin and phloretin, the antioxidants' impact on the membrane organisation, and the interaction between antioxidant and extra-membranous protein. This information sheds light on the mechanism of antioxidant protection in these systems, which may be used to understand biological responses to oxidative stress.

  3. Solid-state NMR analysis of membrane proteins and protein aggregates by proton detected spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Donghua H.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Berthold, Deborah A.; Comellas, Gemma; Sperling, Lindsay J.; Tang, Ming; Shah, Gautam J.; Brea, Elliott J.; Lemkau, Luisel R.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state NMR has emerged as an important tool for structural biology and chemistry, capable of solving atomic-resolution structures for proteins in membrane-bound and aggregated states. Proton detection methods have been recently realized under fast magic-angle spinning conditions, providing large sensitivity enhancements for efficient examination of uniformly labeled proteins. The first and often most challenging step of protein structure determination by NMR is the site-specific resonance assignment. Here we demonstrate resonance assignments based on high-sensitivity proton-detected three-dimensional experiments for samples of different physical states, including a fully-protonated small protein (GB1, 6 kDa), a deuterated microcrystalline protein (DsbA, 21 kDa), a membrane protein (DsbB, 20 kDa) prepared in a lipid environment, and the extended core of a fibrillar protein (α-synuclein, 14 kDa). In our implementation of these experiments, including CONH, CO(CA)NH, CANH, CA(CO)NH, CBCANH, and CBCA(CO)NH, dipolar-based polarization transfer methods have been chosen for optimal efficiency for relatively high protonation levels (full protonation or 100 % amide proton), fast magic-angle spinning conditions (40 kHz) and moderate proton decoupling power levels. Each H–N pair correlates exclusively to either intra- or inter-residue carbons, but not both, to maximize spectral resolution. Experiment time can be reduced by at least a factor of 10 by using proton detection in comparison to carbon detection. These high-sensitivity experiments are especially important for membrane proteins, which often have rather low expression yield. Proton-detection based experiments are expected to play an important role in accelerating protein structure elucidation by solid-state NMR with the improved sensitivity and resolution.

  4. Development of immobilized membrane-based affinity columns for use in the online characterization of membrane bound proteins and for targeted affinity isolations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moaddel, Ruin; Wainer, Irving W.

    2006-01-01

    Membranes obtained from cell lines that express or do not express a target membrane bound protein have been immobilized on a silica-based liquid chromatographic support or on the surface of an activated glass capillary. The resulting chromatographic columns have been placed in liquid chromatographic systems and used to characterize the target proteins and to identify small molecules that bind to the target. Membranes containing ligand gated ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and drug transporters have been prepared and characterized. If a marker ligand has been identified for the target protein, frontal or zonal displacement chromatographic techniques can be used to determine binding affinities (K d values) and non-linear chromatography can be used to assess the association (k on ) and dissociation (k off ) rate constants and the thermodynamics of the binding process. Membrane-based affinity columns have been created using membranes from a cell line that does not express the target protein (control) and the same cell line that expresses the target protein (experimental) after genomic transfection. The resulting columns can be placed in a parallel chromatography system and the differential retention between the control and experimental columns can be used to identify small molecules and protein that bind to the target protein. These applications will be illustrated using columns created using cellular membranes containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein

  5. Development of immobilized membrane-based affinity columns for use in the online characterization of membrane bound proteins and for targeted affinity isolations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moaddel, Ruin [Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224-6825 (United States); Wainer, Irving W. [Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224-6825 (United States)]. E-mail: Wainerir@grc.nia.nih.gov

    2006-03-30

    Membranes obtained from cell lines that express or do not express a target membrane bound protein have been immobilized on a silica-based liquid chromatographic support or on the surface of an activated glass capillary. The resulting chromatographic columns have been placed in liquid chromatographic systems and used to characterize the target proteins and to identify small molecules that bind to the target. Membranes containing ligand gated ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and drug transporters have been prepared and characterized. If a marker ligand has been identified for the target protein, frontal or zonal displacement chromatographic techniques can be used to determine binding affinities (K {sub d} values) and non-linear chromatography can be used to assess the association (k {sub on}) and dissociation (k {sub off}) rate constants and the thermodynamics of the binding process. Membrane-based affinity columns have been created using membranes from a cell line that does not express the target protein (control) and the same cell line that expresses the target protein (experimental) after genomic transfection. The resulting columns can be placed in a parallel chromatography system and the differential retention between the control and experimental columns can be used to identify small molecules and protein that bind to the target protein. These applications will be illustrated using columns created using cellular membranes containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein.

  6. Integral and peripheral association of proteins and protein complexes with Yersinia pestis inner and outer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunai Christine L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yersinia pestis proteins were sequentially extracted from crude membranes with a high salt buffer (2.5 M NaBr, an alkaline solution (180 mM Na2CO3, pH 11.3 and membrane denaturants (8 M urea, 2 M thiourea and 1% amidosulfobetaine-14. Separation of proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis was followed by identification of more than 600 gene products by MS. Data from differential 2D gel display experiments, comparing protein abundances in cytoplasmic, periplasmic and all three membrane fractions, were used to assign proteins found in the membrane fractions to three protein categories: (i integral membrane proteins and peripheral membrane proteins with low solubility in aqueous solutions (220 entries; (ii peripheral membrane proteins with moderate to high solubility in aqueous solutions (127 entries; (iii cytoplasmic or ribosomal membrane-contaminating proteins (80 entries. Thirty-one proteins were experimentally associated with the outer membrane (OM. Circa 50 proteins thought to be part of membrane-localized, multi-subunit complexes were identified in high Mr fractions of membrane extracts via size exclusion chromatography. This data supported biologically meaningful assignments of many proteins to the membrane periphery. Since only 32 inner membrane (IM proteins with two or more predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs were profiled in 2D gels, we resorted to a proteomic analysis by 2D-LC-MS/MS. Ninety-four additional IM proteins with two or more TMDs were identified. The total number of proteins associated with Y. pestis membranes increased to 456 and included representatives of all six β-barrel OM protein families and 25 distinct IM transporter families.

  7. Membrane's Eleven: heavy-atom derivatives of membrane-protein crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, Jens Preben; Sørensen, Thomas Lykke-Møller; Nissen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    A database has been assembled of heavy-atom derivatives used in the structure determination of membrane proteins. The database can serve as a guide to the design of experiments in the search for heavy-atom derivatives of new membrane-protein crystals. The database pinpoints organomercurials, plat...

  8. Pattern formation by curvature-inducing proteins on spherical membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo-Canalejo, Jaime; Golestanian, Ramin

    2017-12-01

    Spatial organisation is a hallmark of all living cells, and recreating it in model systems is a necessary step in the creation of synthetic cells. It is therefore of both fundamental and practical interest to better understand the basic mechanisms underlying spatial organisation in cells. In this work, we use a continuum model of membrane and protein dynamics to study the behaviour of curvature-inducing proteins on membranes of spherical shape, such as living cells or lipid vesicles. We show that the interplay between curvature energy, entropic forces, and the geometric constraints on the membrane can result in the formation of patterns of highly-curved/protein-rich and weakly-curved/protein-poor domains on the membrane. The spontaneous formation of such patterns can be triggered either by an increase in the average density of curvature-inducing proteins, or by a relaxation of the geometric constraints on the membrane imposed by the membrane tension or by the tethering of the membrane to a rigid cell wall or cortex. These parameters can also be tuned to select the size and number of the protein-rich domains that arise upon pattern formation. The very general mechanism presented here could be related to protein self-organisation in many biological processes, ranging from (proto)cell division to the formation of membrane rafts.

  9. Pathogenicity of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup O1 strains compared to plasmids, outer membrane protein profiles and siderophore production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K.; Gram, Lone; Austin, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The virulence of 18 strains of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup 01 was compared to plasmid content, expression of siderophores and outer membrane proteins. All strains, irrespective of plasmid content, produced siderophores and inducible outer membrane proteins under iron-limited conditions. Only str...

  10. A cDNA Immunization Strategy to Generate Nanobodies against Membrane Proteins in Native Conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobodies (Nbs are soluble, versatile, single-domain binding modules derived from the VHH variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies naturally occurring in camelids. Nbs hold huge promise as novel therapeutic biologics. Membrane proteins are among the most interesting targets for therapeutic Nbs because they are accessible to systemically injected biologics. In order to be effective, therapeutic Nbs must recognize their target membrane protein in native conformation. However, raising Nbs against membrane proteins in native conformation can pose a formidable challenge since membrane proteins typically contain one or more hydrophobic transmembrane regions and, therefore, are difficult to purify in native conformation. Here, we describe a highly efficient genetic immunization strategy that circumvents these difficulties by driving expression of the target membrane protein in native conformation by cells of the immunized camelid. The strategy encompasses ballistic transfection of skin cells with cDNA expression plasmids encoding one or more orthologs of the membrane protein of interest and, optionally, other costimulatory proteins. The plasmid is coated onto 1 µm gold particles that are then injected into the shaved and depilated skin of the camelid. A gene gun delivers a helium pulse that accelerates the DNA-coated particles to a velocity sufficient to penetrate through multiple layers of cells in the skin. This results in the exposure of the extracellular domains of the membrane protein on the cell surface of transfected cells. Repeated immunization drives somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation of target-specific heavy-chain antibodies. The VHH/Nb coding region is PCR-amplified from B cells obtained from peripheral blood or a lymph node biopsy. Specific Nbs are selected by phage display or by screening of Nb-based heavy-chain antibodies expressed as secretory proteins in transfected HEK cells. Using this strategy, we have successfully

  11. A cDNA Immunization Strategy to Generate Nanobodies against Membrane Proteins in Native Conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Thomas; Menzel, Stephan; Wesolowski, Janusz; Bergmann, Philine; Nissen, Marion; Dubberke, Gudrun; Seyfried, Fabienne; Albrecht, Birte; Haag, Friedrich; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2018-01-01

    Nanobodies (Nbs) are soluble, versatile, single-domain binding modules derived from the VHH variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies naturally occurring in camelids. Nbs hold huge promise as novel therapeutic biologics. Membrane proteins are among the most interesting targets for therapeutic Nbs because they are accessible to systemically injected biologics. In order to be effective, therapeutic Nbs must recognize their target membrane protein in native conformation. However, raising Nbs against membrane proteins in native conformation can pose a formidable challenge since membrane proteins typically contain one or more hydrophobic transmembrane regions and, therefore, are difficult to purify in native conformation. Here, we describe a highly efficient genetic immunization strategy that circumvents these difficulties by driving expression of the target membrane protein in native conformation by cells of the immunized camelid. The strategy encompasses ballistic transfection of skin cells with cDNA expression plasmids encoding one or more orthologs of the membrane protein of interest and, optionally, other costimulatory proteins. The plasmid is coated onto 1 µm gold particles that are then injected into the shaved and depilated skin of the camelid. A gene gun delivers a helium pulse that accelerates the DNA-coated particles to a velocity sufficient to penetrate through multiple layers of cells in the skin. This results in the exposure of the extracellular domains of the membrane protein on the cell surface of transfected cells. Repeated immunization drives somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation of target-specific heavy-chain antibodies. The VHH/Nb coding region is PCR-amplified from B cells obtained from peripheral blood or a lymph node biopsy. Specific Nbs are selected by phage display or by screening of Nb-based heavy-chain antibodies expressed as secretory proteins in transfected HEK cells. Using this strategy, we have successfully generated agonistic

  12. Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) expression and signaling by the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM) protein Gp78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jana L; Zhu, Jianzhong; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2014-01-17

    In a previous study, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Gp78 by RNAi high-throughput screening as a gene whose depletion restricted enterovirus infection. In the current study, we show that Gp78, which localizes to the ER-mitochondria interface, is a regulator of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) antiviral signaling. We show that depletion of Gp78 results in a robust decrease of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection and a corresponding enhancement of type I interferon (IFN) signaling. Mechanistically, we show that Gp78 modulates type I IFN induction by altering both the expression and signaling of the mitochondria-localized RLR adaptor mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). Expression of mutants of Gp78 that abolish its E3 ubiquitin ligase and its participation in ER-associated degradation (ERAD) lost their ability to degrade MAVS, but surprisingly maintained their ability to repress RLR signaling. In contrast, Gp78 lacking its entire C terminus lost both its ability to degrade MAVS and repress RLR signaling. We show that Gp78 interacts with both the N- and C-terminal domains of MAVS via its C-terminal RING domain, and that this interaction is required to abrogate Gp78-mediated attenuation of MAVS signaling. Our data thus implicate two parallel pathways by which Gp78 regulates MAVS signaling; one pathway requires its E3 ubiquitin ligase and ERAD activity to directly degrade MAVS, whereas the other pathway occurs independently of these activities, but requires the Gp78 RING domain and occurs via a direct association between this region and MAVS.

  13. Effects of radiation on the expression of antigens on the membranes of human adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareyama, Masato; Imai, Kozo; Oouchi, Atsushi; Shidou, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Hiroki; Koshiba, Hirohumi; Yachi, Akira; Morita, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of irradiation on the membranes of tumor cells. X-ray irradiation caused remarkable increases in the expression of tumor-associated antigens (YH206, CEA) and c-erbB-2 protein by flow cytometry, whereas IFN had no obvious effect on the expression of tumor-associated antigens and c-erbB-2 protein. On the other hand, the expression of MHC Class I and ICAM-1 antigen on the membrane by flow cytometry was enhanced by both irradiation and IFN. In addition, the irradiated cells, when analyzed using a CEA specific probe, showed remarkable increases in the CEA mRNA compared to IFN-treated cells. It is possible that enhancement of the expression of tumor-associated antigens and c-erbB-2 protein, together with the enhancement of that of MHC-Class I and ICAM-1, would help cytotoxic killer cells recognize the tumor cells. (author)

  14. Nanodisc-based Co-immunoprecipitation for Mass Spectrometric Identification of Membrane-interacting Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Jensen, Jonas; Roepstorff, Peter; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic identification of protein interactions with membrane associated molecules in their native membrane environment pose a challenge because of technical problems of membrane handling. We investigate the possibility of employing membrane nanodiscs for harboring the membrane associated molecu...

  15. A Plasmodium falciparum copper-binding membrane protein with copper transport motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choveaux David L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper is an essential catalytic co-factor for metabolically important cellular enzymes, such as cytochrome-c oxidase. Eukaryotic cells acquire copper through a copper transport protein and distribute intracellular copper using molecular chaperones. The copper chelator, neocuproine, inhibits Plasmodium falciparum ring-to-trophozoite transition in vitro, indicating a copper requirement for malaria parasite development. How the malaria parasite acquires or secretes copper still remains to be fully elucidated. Methods PlasmoDB was searched for sequences corresponding to candidate P. falciparum copper-requiring proteins. The amino terminal domain of a putative P. falciparum copper transport protein was cloned and expressed as a maltose binding fusion protein. The copper binding ability of this protein was examined. Copper transport protein-specific anti-peptide antibodies were generated in chickens and used to establish native protein localization in P. falciparum parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Six P. falciparum copper-requiring protein orthologs and a candidate P. falciparum copper transport protein (PF14_0369, containing characteristic copper transport protein features, were identified in PlasmoDB. The recombinant amino terminal domain of the transport protein bound reduced copper in vitro and within Escherichia coli cells during recombinant expression. Immunolocalization studies tracked the copper binding protein translocating from the erythrocyte plasma membrane in early ring stage to a parasite membrane as the parasites developed to schizonts. The protein appears to be a PEXEL-negative membrane protein. Conclusion Plasmodium falciparum parasites express a native protein with copper transporter characteristics that binds copper in vitro. Localization of the protein to the erythrocyte and parasite plasma membranes could provide a mechanism for the delivery of novel anti-malarial compounds.

  16. Folding Membrane Proteins by Deep Transfer Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Sheng

    2017-08-29

    Computational elucidation of membrane protein (MP) structures is challenging partially due to lack of sufficient solved structures for homology modeling. Here, we describe a high-throughput deep transfer learning method that first predicts MP contacts by learning from non-MPs and then predicts 3D structure models using the predicted contacts as distance restraints. Tested on 510 non-redundant MPs, our method has contact prediction accuracy at least 0.18 better than existing methods, predicts correct folds for 218 MPs, and generates 3D models with root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) less than 4 and 5 Å for 57 and 108 MPs, respectively. A rigorous blind test in the continuous automated model evaluation project shows that our method predicted high-resolution 3D models for two recent test MPs of 210 residues with RMSD ∼2 Å. We estimated that our method could predict correct folds for 1,345–1,871 reviewed human multi-pass MPs including a few hundred new folds, which shall facilitate the discovery of drugs targeting at MPs.

  17. ARAMEMNON, a novel database for Arabidopsis integral membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwacke, Rainer; Schneider, Anja; van der Graaff, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A specialized database (DB) for Arabidopsis membrane proteins, ARAMEMNON, was designed that facilitates the interpretation of gene and protein sequence data by integrating features that are presently only available from individual sources. Using several publicly available prediction programs......, putative integral membrane proteins were identified among the approximately 25,500 proteins in the Arabidopsis genome DBs. By averaging the predictions from seven programs, approximately 6,500 proteins were classified as transmembrane (TM) candidate proteins. Some 1,800 of these contain at least four TM...

  18. Outer Hair Cell Lateral Wall Structure Constrains the Mobility of Plasma Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tetsuji; Hakizimana, Pierre; Wu, Siva; Hassan, Ahmed; Jacob, Stefan; Temirov, Jamshid; Fang, Jie; Mellado-Lagarde, Marcia; Gursky, Richard; Horner, Linda; Leibiger, Barbara; Leijon, Sara; Centonze, Victoria E; Berggren, Per-Olof; Frase, Sharon; Auer, Manfred; Brownell, William E; Fridberger, Anders; Zuo, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Nature's fastest motors are the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). These sensory cells use a membrane protein, Slc26a5 (prestin), to generate mechanical force at high frequencies, which is essential for explaining the exquisite hearing sensitivity of mammalian ears. Previous studies suggest that Slc26a5 continuously diffuses within the membrane, but how can a freely moving motor protein effectively convey forces critical for hearing? To provide direct evidence in OHCs for freely moving Slc26a5 molecules, we created a knockin mouse where Slc26a5 is fused with YFP. These mice and four other strains expressing fluorescently labeled membrane proteins were used to examine their lateral diffusion in the OHC lateral wall. All five proteins showed minimal diffusion, but did move after pharmacological disruption of membrane-associated structures with a cholesterol-depleting agent and salicylate. Thus, our results demonstrate that OHC lateral wall structure constrains the mobility of plasma membrane proteins and that the integrity of such membrane-associated structures are critical for Slc26a5's active and structural roles. The structural constraint of membrane proteins may exemplify convergent evolution of cellular motors across species. Our findings also suggest a possible mechanism for disorders of cholesterol metabolism with hearing loss such as Niemann-Pick Type C diseases.

  19. Outer Hair Cell Lateral Wall Structure Constrains the Mobility of Plasma Membrane Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Yamashita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nature's fastest motors are the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs. These sensory cells use a membrane protein, Slc26a5 (prestin, to generate mechanical force at high frequencies, which is essential for explaining the exquisite hearing sensitivity of mammalian ears. Previous studies suggest that Slc26a5 continuously diffuses within the membrane, but how can a freely moving motor protein effectively convey forces critical for hearing? To provide direct evidence in OHCs for freely moving Slc26a5 molecules, we created a knockin mouse where Slc26a5 is fused with YFP. These mice and four other strains expressing fluorescently labeled membrane proteins were used to examine their lateral diffusion in the OHC lateral wall. All five proteins showed minimal diffusion, but did move after pharmacological disruption of membrane-associated structures with a cholesterol-depleting agent and salicylate. Thus, our results demonstrate that OHC lateral wall structure constrains the mobility of plasma membrane proteins and that the integrity of such membrane-associated structures are critical for Slc26a5's active and structural roles. The structural constraint of membrane proteins may exemplify convergent evolution of cellular motors across species. Our findings also suggest a possible mechanism for disorders of cholesterol metabolism with hearing loss such as Niemann-Pick Type C diseases.

  20. Self-assembling peptide and protein nanodiscs for studies of membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Roi

    investigations of membrane proteins by traditional X-ray crystallography have proved a difficult challenge, and a surprisingly small amount of membrane proteins has been crystalized so far. This implies that development of lipoproteins as a platform for studying membrane proteins is much needed. In this thesis......Particles containing both lipids and proteins (so-called lipoproteins) are vital to study. They are selfassembling particles that, in the human body, are responsible for the transport of lipids and cholesterol. Due to the increasing problems of obesity and related illnesses in the world, obtaining...... for working with lipoprotein particles are their potential in the study membrane proteins. Membrane proteins are responsible for most of the transport in and out of cells and signaling between cells. As an example G-protein coupled receptors, a class of membrane proteins, are the third largest class...

  1. Lipidic cubic phase injector facilitates membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierstall, Uwe; James, Daniel; Wang, Chong; White, Thomas A; Wang, Dingjie; Liu, Wei; Spence, John C H; Bruce Doak, R; Nelson, Garrett; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Liu, Haiguang; Basu, Shibom; Wacker, Daniel; Han, Gye Won; Katritch, Vsevolod; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Koglin, Jason E; Marvin Seibert, M; Klinker, Markus; Gati, Cornelius; Shoeman, Robert L; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Kirian, Richard A; Beyerlein, Kenneth R; Stevens, Raymond C; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T A; Howe, Nicole; Caffrey, Martin; Cherezov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization has proven successful for high-resolution structure determination of challenging membrane proteins. Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10-μm-sized crystals produced with less than 0.5 mg of purified protein yield structural insights regarding cyclopamine binding to the Smoothened receptor.

  2. Improved production of membrane proteins in Escherichia coli by selective codon substitutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten H.H.; Toddo, Stephen; Virkki, Minttu T.I.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins are extremely challenging to produce in sufficient quantities for biochemical and structural analysis and there is a growing demand for solutions to this problem. In this study we attempted to improve expression of two difficult-to-express coding sequences (araH and narK) for me......Membrane proteins are extremely challenging to produce in sufficient quantities for biochemical and structural analysis and there is a growing demand for solutions to this problem. In this study we attempted to improve expression of two difficult-to-express coding sequences (araH and nar......-wired for high-level protein expression by selective engineering of the 5′ coding sequence with synonymous codons, thus circumventing the need to consider whole sequence optimization....

  3. REEPs are membrane shaping adapter proteins that modulate specific g protein-coupled receptor trafficking by affecting ER cargo capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Björk

    Full Text Available Receptor expression enhancing proteins (REEPs were identified by their ability to enhance cell surface expression of a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, specifically GPCRs that have proven difficult to express in heterologous cell systems. Further analysis revealed that they belong to the Yip (Ypt-interacting protein family and that some REEP subtypes affect ER structure. Yip family comparisons have established other potential roles for REEPs, including regulation of ER-Golgi transport and processing/neuronal localization of cargo proteins. However, these other potential REEP functions and the mechanism by which they selectively enhance GPCR cell surface expression have not been clarified. By utilizing several REEP family members (REEP1, REEP2, and REEP6 and model GPCRs (α2A and α2C adrenergic receptors, we examined REEP regulation of GPCR plasma membrane expression, intracellular processing, and trafficking. Using a combination of immunolocalization and biochemical methods, we demonstrated that this REEP subset is localized primarily to ER, but not plasma membranes. Single cell analysis demonstrated that these REEPs do not specifically enhance surface expression of all GPCRs, but affect ER cargo capacity of specific GPCRs and thus their surface expression. REEP co-expression with α2 adrenergic receptors (ARs revealed that this REEP subset interacts with and alter glycosidic processing of α2C, but not α2A ARs, demonstrating selective interaction with cargo proteins. Specifically, these REEPs enhanced expression of and interacted with minimally/non-glycosylated forms of α2C ARs. Most importantly, expression of a mutant REEP1 allele (hereditary spastic paraplegia SPG31 lacking the carboxyl terminus led to loss of this interaction. Thus specific REEP isoforms have additional intracellular functions besides altering ER structure, such as enhancing ER cargo capacity, regulating ER-Golgi processing, and interacting with select cargo

  4. INTERACTION OF ALDEHYDES DERIVED FROM LIPID PEROXIDATION AND MEMBRANE PROTEINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania ePizzimenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of compounds are formed during lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. Among them, bioactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxyalkenals, malondialdehyde (MDA and acrolein, have received particular attention since they have been considered as toxic messengers that can propagate and amplify oxidative injury. In the 4-hydroxyalkenal class, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE is the most intensively studied aldehyde, in relation not only to its toxic function, but also to its physiological role. Indeed, HNE can be found at low concentrations in human tissues and plasma and participates in the control of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, at low doses, HNE exerts an anti-cancer effect, by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and by inducing differentiation and/or apoptosis in various tumor cell lines. It is very likely that a substantial fraction of the effects observed in cellular responses, induced by HNE and related aldehydes, be mediated by their interaction with proteins, resulting in the formation of covalent adducts or in the modulation of their expression and/or activity. In this review we focus on membrane proteins affected by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, under physiological and pathological conditions.

  5. Expression of Caspase Signaling Components in the Outer Membranes of Chronic Subdural Hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuka, Koji; Watanabe, Yasuo; Usuda, Nobuteru; Aoyama, Masahiro; Iwami, Kenichiro; Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Watabe, Takeya; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2017-11-15

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is fundamentally treatable through surgery, although CSDH recurs in some cases. We have observed several cases of spontaneous resolution of CSDH outer membranes, including in trabecular CSDH, after trepanation surgery. In this study, we examined the expression of molecules involved in caspase signaling in CSDH outer membranes. Eight patients whose outer membranes were obtained successfully during trepanation surgery were included in this study. The expression of Fas; Fas-associated death domain (FADD); tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain (TRADD); receptor-interacting protein (RIP); caspases 3, 7, 8, and 9; poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP); DNA fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45) and β-actin was examined by Western blot analysis. The expression levels of PARP, caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-3 were also examined by immunohistochemistry. Fas; FADD; TRADD; RIP; caspases 3, 7, 8, and 9; PARP, and DFF45 were detected in nearly all samples. Caspase-3 and PARP were localized in the endothelial cells of vessels and in fibroblasts in CSDH outer membranes. In addition, cleaved caspase-3 was detected in fibroblasts. We detected molecules of the caspase signaling pathway in CSDH outer membranes. In particular, cleaved caspase-3 was detected, which suggests that apoptosis may occur within these membranes. Thus, during the growth of CSDH outer membranes, the caspase signaling pathway may be restrained. Once the pathway is activated, gradual resolution of CSDH outer membranes may occur. Therefore, these molecules may be novel therapeutic targets for intractable CSDH.

  6. 3D pressure field in lipid membranes and membrane-protein complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O H Samuli; Risselada, H Jelger; Louhivuori, Martti

    2009-01-01

    We calculate full 3D pressure fields for inhomogeneous nanoscale systems using molecular dynamics simulation data. The fields represent systems with increasing level of complexity, ranging from semivesicles and vesicles to membranes characterized by coexistence of two phases, including also...... a protein-membrane complex. We show that the 3D pressure field is distinctly different for curved and planar bilayers, the pressure field depends strongly on the phase of the membrane, and that an integral protein modulates the tension and elastic properties of the membrane....

  7. Proteolytic cleavage of the Chlamydia pneumoniae major outer membrane protein in the absence of Pmp10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nicolai Stefan; Timmerman, E; Gevaert, K

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae contains 21 genes encoding polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmp). While no function has yet been attributed to the Pmps, they may be involved in an antigenic variation of the Chlamydia surface. It has previously been demonstrated...... that Pmp10 is differentially expressed in the C. pneumoniae CWL029 isolate. To evaluate whether the absence of Pmp10 in the outer membrane causes further changes to the C. pneumoniae protein profile, we subcloned the CWL029 isolate and selected a clone with minimal Pmp10 expression. Subsequently, we...

  8. Placenta expresses anti-Müllerian hormone and its receptor: Sex-related difference in fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novembri, R; Funghi, L; Voltolini, C; Belmonte, G; Vannuccini, S; Torricelli, M; Petraglia, F

    2015-07-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, playing a role in sexual differentiation and recruitment. Since a correlation exists between AMH serum levels in cord blood and fetal sex, the present study aimed to identify mRNA and protein expression of AMH and AMHRII in placenta and fetal membranes according to fetal sex. Placenta and fetal membranes samples (n = 40) were collected from women with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies at term. Identification of AMH protein in placenta and fetal membranes was carried out by immunohistochemistry and AMH and AMHRII protein localization by immunofluorescence, while mRNA expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. AMH and AMHRII mRNAs were expressed by placenta and fetal membranes at term, without any significant difference between males and females. Placental immunostaining showed a syncytial localization of AMH without sex-related differences; while fetal membranes immunostaining was significantly more intense in male than in female fetuses (p membranes. The present study for the first time demonstrated that human placenta and fetal membranes expresses and co-localizes AMH and AMHRII. Although no sex-related difference was found for the mRNA expression both in placenta and fetal membranes, a most intense staining for AMH in male fetal membranes supports AMH as a gender specific hormone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Data Mining for Expressivity of Recombinant Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Satoshi; Isoai, Atsushi; Yamamura, Masayuki

    We analyzed the expressivity of recombinant proteins by using data mining methods. The expression technique of recombinant protein is a key step towards elucidating the functions of genes discovered through genomic sequence projects. We have studied the productive efficiency of recombinant proteins in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S.pombe), by mining the expression results. We gathered 57 proteins whose expression levels were known roughly in the host. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and decision tree analysis were applied to these expression data. Analysis featuring codon usage and amino acid composition clarified that the amino acid composition affected to the expression levels of a recombinant protein strongly than the effect of codon usage. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid composition showed that protein solubility and the metabolism cost of amino acids correlated with a protein expressivity. Codon usage was often interesting in the field of recombinant expressions. However, our analysis found the weak correlation codon features with expressivities. These results indicated that ready-made indices of codon bias were irrelevant ones for modeling the expressivities of recombinant proteins. Our data driven approach was an easy and powerful method to improve recombinant protein expression, and this approach should be concentrated attention with the huge amount of expression data accumulating through the post-genome era.

  10. Molecular characterization of a cold-induced plasma membrane protein gene from wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Michiya; Sutoh, Keita; Kawakami, Akira; Torada, Atsushi; Oono, Kiyoharu; Imai, Ryozo

    2005-12-01

    As a means to study the function of plasma membrane proteins during cold acclimation, we have isolated a cDNA clone for wpi6 which encodes a putative plasma membrane protein from cold-acclimated winter wheat. The wpi6 gene encodes a putative 5.9 kDa polypeptide with two predicted membrane-spanning domains, the sequence of which shows high sequence similarity with BLT101-family proteins from plants and yeast. Strong induction of wpi6 mRNA was observed during an early stage of cold acclimation in root and shoot tissues of both winter and spring wheat cultivars. In contrast to blt101 in barley, wpi6 mRNA was also induced by drought and salinity stresses, and exogenous application of ABA. Expression of wpi6 in a Deltapmp3 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is disturbed in plasma membrane potential due to the lack of a BLT101-family protein, partially complemented NaCl sensitivity of the mutant. Transient expression analysis of a WPI6::GFP fusion protein in onion epidermal cells revealed that WPI6 is localized in the plasma membrane. Taken together, these data suggested that WPI6 may have a protective role in maintaining plasma membrane function during cold acclimation in wheat.

  11. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.

  12. Tuning membrane protein mobility by confinement into nanodomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Andreas; Nimmervoll, Benedikt; Plochberger, Birgit; Klotzsch, Enrico; Horner, Andreas; Knyazev, Denis G.; Kuttner, Roland; Winkler, Klemens; Winter, Lukas; Siligan, Christine; Ollinger, Nicole; Pohl, Peter; Preiner, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) can be used to visualize function-related conformational changes of single soluble proteins. Similar studies of single membrane proteins are, however, hampered by a lack of suitable flat, non-interacting membrane supports and by high protein mobility. Here we show that streptavidin crystals grown on mica-supported lipid bilayers can be used as porous supports for membranes containing biotinylated lipids. Using SecYEG (protein translocation channel) and GlpF (aquaglyceroporin), we demonstrate that the platform can be used to tune the lateral mobility of transmembrane proteins to any value within the dynamic range accessible to HS-AFM imaging through glutaraldehyde-cross-linking of the streptavidin. This allows HS-AFM to study the conformation or docking of spatially confined proteins, which we illustrate by imaging GlpF at sub-molecular resolution and by observing the motor protein SecA binding to SecYEG.

  13. Integral membrane protein structure determination using pseudocontact shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, Duncan J.; Wang, Jue X. [University of Cambridge, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Graham, Bim; Swarbrick, James D. [Monash University, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Australia); Mott, Helen R.; Nietlispach, Daniel, E-mail: dn206@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Obtaining enough experimental restraints can be a limiting factor in the NMR structure determination of larger proteins. This is particularly the case for large assemblies such as membrane proteins that have been solubilized in a membrane-mimicking environment. Whilst in such cases extensive deuteration strategies are regularly utilised with the aim to improve the spectral quality, these schemes often limit the number of NOEs obtainable, making complementary strategies highly beneficial for successful structure elucidation. Recently, lanthanide-induced pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) have been established as a structural tool for globular proteins. Here, we demonstrate that a PCS-based approach can be successfully applied for the structure determination of integral membrane proteins. Using the 7TM α-helical microbial receptor pSRII, we show that PCS-derived restraints from lanthanide binding tags attached to four different positions of the protein facilitate the backbone structure determination when combined with a limited set of NOEs. In contrast, the same set of NOEs fails to determine the correct 3D fold. The latter situation is frequently encountered in polytopical α-helical membrane proteins and a PCS approach is thus suitable even for this particularly challenging class of membrane proteins. The ease of measuring PCSs makes this an attractive route for structure determination of large membrane proteins in general.

  14. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. How curved membranes recruit amphipathic helices and protein anchoring motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzakis, Nikos S; Bhatia, Vikram K; Larsen, Jannik; Madsen, Kenneth L; Bolinger, Pierre-Yves; Kunding, Andreas H; Castillo, John; Gether, Ulrik; Hedegård, Per; Stamou, Dimitrios

    2009-11-01

    Lipids and several specialized proteins are thought to be able to sense the curvature of membranes (MC). Here we used quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure curvature-selective binding of amphipathic motifs on single liposomes 50-700 nm in diameter. Our results revealed that sensing is predominantly mediated by a higher density of binding sites on curved membranes instead of higher affinity. We proposed a model based on curvature-induced defects in lipid packing that related these findings to lipid sorting and accurately predicted the existence of a new ubiquitous class of curvature sensors: membrane-anchored proteins. The fact that unrelated structural motifs such as alpha-helices and alkyl chains sense MC led us to propose that MC sensing is a generic property of curved membranes rather than a property of the anchoring molecules. We therefore anticipate that MC will promote the redistribution of proteins that are anchored in membranes through other types of hydrophobic moieties.

  16. Protein-lipid interactions: from membrane domains to cellular networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamm, Lukas K

    2005-01-01

    ... membranes is the lipid bilayer. Embedded in the fluid lipid bilayer are proteins of various shapes and traits. This volume illuminates from physical, chemical and biological angles the numerous - mostly quite weak - interactions between lipids, proteins, and proteins and lipids that define the delicate, highly dynamic and yet so stable fabri...

  17. Dynamics of Membrane Proteins within Synthetic Polymer Membranes with Large Hydrophobic Mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itel, Fabian; Najer, Adrian; Palivan, Cornelia G; Meier, Wolfgang

    2015-06-10

    The functioning of biological membrane proteins (MPs) within synthetic block copolymer membranes is an intriguing phenomenon that is believed to offer great potential for applications in life and medical sciences and engineering. The question why biological MPs are able to function in this completely artificial environment is still unresolved by any experimental data. Here, we have analyzed the lateral diffusion properties of different sized MPs within poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-containing amphiphilic block copolymer membranes of membrane thicknesses between 9 and 13 nm, which results in a hydrophobic mismatch between the membrane thickness and the size of the proteins of 3.3-7.1 nm (3.5-5 times). We show that the high flexibility of PDMS, which provides membrane fluidities similar to phospholipid bilayers, is the key-factor for MP incorporation.

  18. Structural Insights into the Yersinia pestis Outer Membrane Protein Ail in Lipid Bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Samit Kumar; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M

    2017-08-17

    Yersinia pestis the causative agent of plague, is highly pathogenic and poses very high risk to public health. The outer membrane protein Ail (Adhesion invasion locus) is one of the most highly expressed proteins on the cell surface of Y. pestis, and a major target for the development of medical countermeasures. Ail is essential for microbial virulence and is critical for promoting the survival of Y. pestis in serum. Structures of Ail have been determined by X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy, but the protein's activity is influenced by the detergents in these samples, underscoring the importance of the surrounding environment for structure-activity studies. Here we describe the backbone structure of Ail, determined in lipid bilayer nanodiscs, using solution NMR spectroscopy. We also present solid-state NMR data obtained for Ail in membranes containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the bacterial outer membranes. The protein in lipid bilayers, adopts the same eight-stranded β-barrel fold observed in the crystalline and micellar states. The membrane composition, however, appears to have a marked effect on protein dynamics, with LPS enhancing conformational order and slowing down the 15 N transverse relaxation rate. The results provide information about the way in which an outer membrane protein inserts and functions in the bacterial membrane.

  19. Chemical synthesis and biophysical applications of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chao; Tang, Shan; Zheng, Ji-Shen

    2015-07-01

    Chemical synthesis or semi-synthesis of membrane proteins can provide unique molecular tools, such as site-specific isotope labeling or post-translationally modified membrane proteins to gain insight into their biophysical and functional characteristics. However, during preparation, purification, and ligation of transmembrane peptides, tremendous challenges are encountered owing to their hydrophobic nature. This review focuses on the recent advances in chemical synthesis strategies of membrane proteins. These strategies help to solubilize the hydrophobic transmembrane peptide sequences under standard purification and chemical ligation conditions to improve their handling properties. Biophysical and functional studies of synthetic membrane proteins are reviewed as well. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Transport proteins of the plant plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, S. M.; Haubrick, L. L.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Recently developed molecular and genetic approaches have enabled the identification and functional characterization of novel genes encoding ion channels, ion carriers, and water channels of the plant plasma membrane.

  1. Structuring detergents for extracting and stabilizing functional membrane proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Matar-Merheb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane proteins are privileged pharmaceutical targets for which the development of structure-based drug design is challenging. One underlying reason is the fact that detergents do not stabilize membrane domains as efficiently as natural lipids in membranes, often leading to a partial to complete loss of activity/stability during protein extraction and purification and preventing crystallization in an active conformation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anionic calix[4]arene based detergents (C4Cn, n=1-12 were designed to structure the membrane domains through hydrophobic interactions and a network of salt bridges with the basic residues found at the cytosol-membrane interface of membrane proteins. These compounds behave as surfactants, forming micelles of 5-24 nm, with the critical micellar concentration (CMC being as expected sensitive to pH ranging from 0.05 to 1.5 mM. Both by 1H NMR titration and Surface Tension titration experiments, the interaction of these molecules with the basic amino acids was confirmed. They extract membrane proteins from different origins behaving as mild detergents, leading to partial extraction in some cases. They also retain protein functionality, as shown for BmrA (Bacillus multidrug resistance ATP protein, a membrane multidrug-transporting ATPase, which is particularly sensitive to detergent extraction. These new detergents allow BmrA to bind daunorubicin with a Kd of 12 µM, a value similar to that observed after purification using dodecyl maltoside (DDM. They preserve the ATPase activity of BmrA (which resets the protein to its initial state after drug efflux much more efficiently than SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate, FC12 (Foscholine 12 or DDM. They also maintain in a functional state the C4Cn-extracted protein upon detergent exchange with FC12. Finally, they promote 3D-crystallization of the membrane protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These compounds seem promising to extract in a functional state

  2. Induction of the lac carrier and an associated membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarias, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Induction of the lac operon in wild type Escherichia coli strains results in synthesis of a 16 kilodalton inner membrane protein in addition to the known products of the lacZ, lacY and lacA genes. Cells carrying the lacY gene on a plasmid over produce this 16 kilodalton polypeptide as well as the Lac carrier, the membrane protein product of the lacY gene. However, [ 35 S]methionine labeling of minicells carrying the lacY plasmid shows that the 16 kDa protein is not synthesized from the plasmid DNA. The 16 kDa protein was purified and partially characterized. It is an acidic membrane protein of apparent molecular weight 15,800 whose amino terminal sequence (NH 2 -Met-Arg-Asn-Phe-Asp-Leu-) does not correspond to any nucleotide sequence known in lac operon DNA. Using antibody prepared to the purified 16 kDa protein, a quantitative analysis of conditions under which this protein is made was accomplished, and reveals that the amount of 16 kDa protein which appears in the membrane is proportional to lac operon expression. Hybridization of a synthetic oligonucleotide probe complementary to the 5' end of 16 kDa protein mRNA shows that its synthesis is regulated at the level of transcription. A description of attempts to clone this gene is given. Possible functional roles for the 16 kDa protein are discussed

  3. Isolation of Protein Storage Vacuoles and Their Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2017-01-01

    Protein-storage vacuoles (PSVs) are specialized vacuoles that sequester large amounts of storage proteins. During seed development, PSVs are formed de novo and/or from preexisting lytic vacuoles. Seed PSVs can be subdivided into four distinct compartments: membrane, globoid, matrix, and crystalloid. In this chapter, we introduce easy methods for isolation of PSVs and their membranes from pumpkin seeds. These methods facilitate the identification and characterization of PSV components.

  4. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundhill, Elizabeth; Turnbull, Doug; Burchill, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of plasma membrane multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) in Ewing's sarcoma (ES) predicts poor outcome. MRP-1 is also expressed in mitochondria, and we have examined the submitochondrial localization of MRP-1 and investigated the mechanism of MRP-1 transport and role of this organelle in the response to doxorubicin. The mitochondrial localization of MRP-1 was examined in ES cell lines by differential centrifugation and membrane solubilization by digitonin. Whether MRP-1 is chaperoned by heat shock proteins (HSPs) was investigated by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and HSP knockout using small hairpin RNA and inhibitors (apoptozole, 17-AAG, and NVPAUY). The effect of disrupting mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux activity on the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin was investigated by counting viable cell number. Mitochondrial MRP-1 is glycosylated and localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it is coexpressed with HSP90. MRP-1 binds to both HSP90 and HSP70, although only inhibition of HSP90β decreases expression of MRP-1 in the mitochondria. Disruption of mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux significantly increases the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (combination index, MRP-1 is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and is a client protein of HSP90β, where it may play a role in the doxorubicin-induced resistance of ES.-Roundhill, E., Turnbull, D., Burchill, S. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β. © FASEB.

  5. Detergent selection for enhanced extraction of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arachea, Buenafe T; Sun, Zhen; Potente, Nina; Malik, Radhika; Isailovic, Dragan; Viola, Ronald E

    2012-11-01

    Generating stable conditions for membrane proteins after extraction from their lipid bilayer environment is essential for subsequent characterization. Detergents are the most widely used means to obtain this stable environment; however, different types of membrane proteins have been found to require detergents with varying properties for optimal extraction efficiency and stability after extraction. The extraction profiles of several detergent types have been examined for membranes isolated from bacteria and yeast, and for a set of recombinant target proteins. The extraction efficiencies of these detergents increase at higher concentrations, and were shown to correlate with their respective CMC values. Two alkyl sugar detergents, octyl-β-d-glucoside (OG) and 5-cyclohexyl-1-pentyl-β-d-maltoside (Cymal-5), and a zwitterionic surfactant, N-decylphosphocholine (Fos-choline-10), were generally effective in the extraction of a broad range of membrane proteins. However, certain detergents were more effective than others in the extraction of specific classes of integral membrane proteins, offering guidelines for initial detergent selection. The differences in extraction efficiencies among this small set of detergents supports the value of detergent screening and optimization to increase the yields of targeted membrane proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytochemicals perturb membranes and promiscuously alter protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Koçer, Armağan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    2014-08-15

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous modifiers of membrane protein function, suggesting that some of their actions may be due to a common, membrane bilayer-mediated mechanism. To test whether bilayer perturbation may underlie this diversity of actions, we examined five bioactive phenols reported to have medicinal value: capsaicin from chili peppers, curcumin from turmeric, EGCG from green tea, genistein from soybeans, and resveratrol from grapes. We find that each of these widely consumed phytochemicals alters lipid bilayer properties and the function of diverse membrane proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these phytochemicals modify bilayer properties by localizing to the bilayer/solution interface. Bilayer-modifying propensity was verified using a gramicidin-based assay, and indiscriminate modulation of membrane protein function was demonstrated using four proteins: membrane-anchored metalloproteases, mechanosensitive ion channels, and voltage-dependent potassium and sodium channels. Each protein exhibited similar responses to multiple phytochemicals, consistent with a common, bilayer-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that many effects of amphiphilic phytochemicals are due to cell membrane perturbations, rather than specific protein binding.

  7. Optimal separation of jojoba protein using membrane processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabetani, Hiroshi; Abbott, T.P.; Kleiman, R. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The efficiency of a pilot-scale membrane system for purifying and concentrating jojoba protein was estimated. In this system, a jojoba extract was first clarified with a microfiltration membrane. The clarified extract was diafiltrated and the protein was purified with an ultrafiltration membrane. Then the protein solution was concentrated with the ultrafiltration membrane. Permeate flux during microfiltration was essentially independent of solids concentration in the feed, in contrast with the permeate flux during ultrafiltration which was a function of protein concentration. Based on these results, a mathematical model which describes the batchwise concentration process with ultrafiltration membranes was developed. Using this model, the combination of batchwise concentration with diafiltration was optimized, and an industrial-scale process was designed. The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the performance of the membrane system was also investigated. The addition of EDTA increased the concentration of protein in the extract and improved the recovery of protein in the final products. The quality of the final product (color and solubility) was also improved. However, EDTA decreased permeate flux during ultrafiltration.

  8. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase expression in colorectal cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongfei; Tatsuguchi, Atsushi; Shinji, Seiichi; Fujimori, Shunji; Tanaka, Shu; Gudis, Katya; Sugisaki, Yuichi; Furukawa, Kiyonori; Tajiri, Takashi; Fukuda, Yuh; Kishida, Teruyuki; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2006-08-01

    Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 has been found in colorectal cancer. One of the mechanisms through which cyclooxygenase-2 affects tumorigenesis is through its overexpression, which leads to increased invasiveness of cancer cells. A crucial step in this pathway is thought to be the induction of membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, which activates matrix metalloproteinase-2. However, to date there have been few clinicopathologic studies concerning cyclooxygenase-2-mediated invasiveness in human colorectal cancer tissues. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of the respective antigens on colorectal cancer specimens obtained by surgical resections from 96 patients with colorectal cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase expression was positive exclusively in cancer cells in 88 cases (92 percent) and 23 cases (24 percent), respectively. All 23 cases expressing membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase also expressed cyclooxygenase-2. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression was positive in cancer cells in 20 cases (21 percent) and stromal cells in 52 cases (54 percent). Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in cancer cells correlated with lymphatic invasion and local recurrence. Statistically, a significant correlation was found between cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase expression, and membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in cancer cells. There was no association between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. However, immunostaining of serial sections revealed that in the majority of cases examined, nearly 100 percent of cancer cells expressing matrix metalloproteinase-2 also coexpressed cyclooxygenase-2. This study indicates strong association between both cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase expression, and membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in colorectal

  9. High-level production of membrane proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3) by omitting the inducer IPTG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kuipers, Grietje; Niemiec, Łukasz; Baumgarten, Thomas; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Hjelm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For membrane protein production, the Escherichia coli T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP)-based protein production strain BL21(DE3) in combination with T7-promoter based expression vectors is widely used. Cells are routinely cultured in Lysogeny broth (LB medium) and expression of the

  10. MEMBRANE LEc EXPRESSION IN BREAST CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. A. Udalova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Affine chromatography was used to isolate Lec antibodies from the sera of a healthy female donor with the high titers of these anti- bodies, which were labeled with biotin. The study enrolled 51 patients with primary breast cancer (BC. Antigen expression was found by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. With these two techniques being used, the detection rate of Lec expression in BC cells was 65% (33/51; the antigen was most frequently found by flow cytometry as compared with immunohistochemistry: 72 and 58% of cases, respectively.

  11. A split ubiquitin system to reveal topology and released peptides of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-Ping; Wang, Shuai; Gou, Jin-Ying

    2017-09-02

    Membrane proteins define biological functions of membranes in cells. Extracellular peptides of transmembrane proteins receive signals from pathogens or environments, and are the major targets of drug developments. Despite of their essential roles, membrane proteins remain elusive in topological studies due to technique difficulties in their expressions and purifications. First, the target gene is cloned into a destination vector to fuse with C terminal ubiquitin at the N or C terminus. Then, Cub vector with target gene and Nub WT or Nub G vectors are transformed into AP4 or AP5 yeast cells, respectively. After mating, the diploid cells are dipped onto selection medium to check the growth. Topology of the target protein is determined according to Table 1. We present a split ubiquitin topology (SUT) analysis system to study the topology and truncation peptide of membrane proteins in a simple yeast experiment. In the SUT system, transcription activator (TA) fused with a nucleo-cytoplasmic protein shows strong auto-activation with both positive and negative control vectors. TA fused with the cytoplasmic end of membrane proteins activates reporter genes only with positive control vector with a wild type N terminal ubiquitin (Nub WT ). However, TA fused with the extracellular termini of membrane proteins can't activate reporter genes even with Nub WT . Interestingly,TA fused with the released peptide of a membrane protein shows autoactivation in the SUT system. The SUT system is a simple and fast experimental procedure complementary to computational predictions and large scale proteomic techniques. The preliminary data from SUT are valuable for pathogen recognitions and new drug developments.

  12. Membrane Protein Properties Revealed through Data-Rich Electrostatics Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoline, Frank V; Bethel, Neville; Guerriero, Christopher J; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Grabe, Michael

    2015-08-04

    The electrostatic properties of membrane proteins often reveal many of their key biophysical characteristics, such as ion channel selectivity and the stability of charged membrane-spanning segments. The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is the gold standard for calculating protein electrostatics, and the software APBSmem enables the solution of the PB equation in the presence of a membrane. Here, we describe significant advances to APBSmem, including full automation of system setup, per-residue energy decomposition, incorporation of PDB2PQR, calculation of membrane-induced pKa shifts, calculation of non-polar energies, and command-line scripting for large-scale calculations. We highlight these new features with calculations carried out on a number of membrane proteins, including the recently solved structure of the ion channel TRPV1 and a large survey of 1,614 membrane proteins of known structure. This survey provides a comprehensive list of residues with large electrostatic penalties for being embedded in the membrane, potentially revealing interesting functional information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression and Distribution of Leptospiral Outer Membrane Components during Renal Infection of Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jeanne K.; Barnett, Dean; Bolin, Carole A.; Summers, Theresa A.; Wagar, Elizabeth A.; Cheville, Norman F.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Haake, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The outer membrane of pathogenic Leptospira species grown in culture media contains lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a porin (OmpL1), and several lipoproteins, including LipL36 and LipL41. The purpose of this study was to characterize the expression and distribution of these outer membrane antigens during renal infection. Hamsters were challenged with host-derived Leptospira kirschneri to generate sera which contained antibodies to antigens expressed in vivo. Immunoblotting performed with sera from animals challenged with these host-derived organisms demonstrated reactivity with OmpL1, LipL41, and several other proteins but not with LipL36. Although LipL36 is a prominent outer membrane antigen of cultivated L. kirschneri, its expression also could not be detected in infected hamster kidney tissue by immunohistochemistry, indicating that expression of this protein is down-regulated in vivo. In contrast, LPS, OmpL1, and LipL41 were demonstrated on organisms colonizing the lumen of proximal convoluted renal tubules at both 10 and 28 days postinfection. Tubular epithelial cells around the luminal colonies had fine granular cytoplasmic LPS. When the cellular inflammatory response was present in the renal interstitium at 28 days postinfection, LPS and OmpL1 were also detectable within interstitial phagocytes. These data establish that outer membrane components expressed during infection have roles in the induction and persistence of leptospiral interstitial nephritis. PMID:9916100

  14. An overview of membrane transport proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, B

    1995-12-01

    All eukaryotic cells contain a wide variety of proteins embedded in the plasma and internal membranes, which ensure transmembrane solute transport. It is now established that a large proportion of these transport proteins can be grouped into families apparently conserved throughout organisms. This article presents the data of an in silicio analysis aimed at establishing a preliminary classification of membrane transport proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was conducted at a time when about 65% of all yeast genes were available in public databases. In addition to approximately 60 transport proteins whose function was at least partially known, approximately 100 deduced protein sequences of unknown function display significant sequence similarity to membrane transport proteins characterized in yeast and/or other organisms. While some protein families have been well characterized by classical genetic experimental approaches, others have largely if not totally escaped characterization. The proteins revealed by this in silicio analysis also include a putative K+ channel, proteins similar to aquaporins of plant and animal origin, proteins similar to Na+-solute symporters, a protein very similar to electroneural cation-chloride cotransporters, and a putative Na+-H+ antiporter. A new research area is anticipated: the functional analysis of many transport proteins whose existence was revealed by genome sequencing.

  15. Alignment of helical membrane protein sequences using AlignMe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Stamm

    Full Text Available Few sequence alignment methods have been designed specifically for integral membrane proteins, even though these important proteins have distinct evolutionary and structural properties that might affect their alignments. Existing approaches typically consider membrane-related information either by using membrane-specific substitution matrices or by assigning distinct penalties for gap creation in transmembrane and non-transmembrane regions. Here, we ask whether favoring matching of predicted transmembrane segments within a standard dynamic programming algorithm can improve the accuracy of pairwise membrane protein sequence alignments. We tested various strategies using a specifically designed program called AlignMe. An updated set of homologous membrane protein structures, called HOMEP2, was used as a reference for optimizing the gap penalties. The best of the membrane-protein optimized approaches were then tested on an independent reference set of membrane protein sequence alignments from the BAliBASE collection. When secondary structure (S matching was combined with evolutionary information (using a position-specific substitution matrix (P, in an approach we called AlignMePS, the resultant pairwise alignments were typically among the most accurate over a broad range of sequence similarities when compared to available methods. Matching transmembrane predictions (T, in addition to evolutionary information, and secondary-structure predictions, in an approach called AlignMePST, generally reduces the accuracy of the alignments of closely-related proteins in the BAliBASE set relative to AlignMePS, but may be useful in cases of extremely distantly related proteins for which sequence information is less informative. The open source AlignMe code is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/alignme/, and at http://www.forrestlab.org, along with an online server and the HOMEP2 data set.

  16. A conserved small RNA promotes silencing of the outer membrane protein YbfM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Aamann; Johansen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jesper S

    2009-01-01

    In the past few years an increasing number of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in enterobacteria have been found to negatively regulate the expression of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) at the post-transcriptional level. These RNAs act under various growth and stress conditions, suggesting that one...

  17. Fast and efficient protein purification using membrane adsorber systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suck, Kirstin; Walter, Johanna; Menzel, Frauke; Tappe, Alexander; Kasper, Cornelia; Naumann, Claudia; Zeidler, Robert; Scheper, Thomas

    2006-02-10

    The purification of proteins from complex cell culture samples is an essential step in proteomic research. Traditional chromatographic methods often require several steps resulting in time consuming and costly procedures. In contrast, protein purification via membrane adsorbers offers the advantage of fast and gentle but still effective isolation. In this work, we present a new method for purification of proteins from crude cell extracts via membrane adsorber based devices. This isolation procedure utilises the membranes favourable pore structure allowing high flow rates without causing high back pressure. Therefore, shear stress to fragile structures is avoided. In addition, mass transfer takes place through convection rather than diffusion, thus allowing very rapid separation processes. Based on this membrane adsorber technology the separation of two model proteins, human serum albumin (HSA) and immungluboline G (IgG) is shown. The isolation of human growth hormone (hGH) from chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture supernatant was performed using a cation exchange membrane. The isolation of the enzyme penicillin acylase from the crude Escherichia coli supernatant was achieved using an anion exchange spin column within one step at a considerable purity. In summary, the membrane adsorber devices have proven to be suitable tools for the purification of proteins from different complex cell culture samples.

  18. Membrane expression of MRP-1, but not MRP-1 splicing or Pgp expression, predicts survival in patients with ESFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundhill, E; Burchill, S

    2013-07-09

    Primary Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFTs) may respond to chemotherapy, although many patients experience subsequent disease recurrence and relapse. The survival of ESFT cells following chemotherapy has been attributed to the development of resistant disease, possibly through the expression of ABC transporter proteins. MRP-1 and Pgp mRNA and protein expression in primary ESFTs was determined by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and alternative splicing of MRP-1 by RT-PCR. We observed MRP-1 protein expression in 92% (43 out of 47) of primary ESFTs, and cell membrane MRP-1 was highly predictive of both overall survival (PMRP-1 was detected in primary ESFTs, although the pattern of splicing variants was not predictive of patient outcome, with the exception of loss of exon 9 in six patients, which predicted relapse (P=0.041). Pgp protein was detected in 6% (38 out of 44) of primary ESFTs and was not associated with patient survival. For the first time we have established that cell membrane expression of MRP-1 or loss of exon 9 is predictive of outcome but not the number of splicing events or expression of Pgp, and both may be valuable factors for the stratification of patients for more intensive therapy.

  19. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  20. Structural adaptations of proteins to different biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogozheva, Irina D.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Mosberg, Henry I.; Lomize, Andrei L.

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight into adaptations of proteins to their membranes, intrinsic hydrophobic thicknesses, distributions of different chemical groups and profiles of hydrogen-bonding capacities (α and β) and the dipolarity/polarizability parameter (π*) were calculated for lipid-facing surfaces of 460 integral α-helical, β-barrel and peripheral proteins from eight types of biomembranes. For comparison, polarity profiles were also calculated for ten artificial lipid bilayers that have been previously studied by neutron and X-ray scattering. Estimated hydrophobic thicknesses are 30-31 Å for proteins from endoplasmic reticulum, thylakoid, and various bacterial plasma membranes, but differ for proteins from outer bacterial, inner mitochondrial and eukaryotic plasma membranes (23.9, 28.6 and 33.5 Å, respectively). Protein and lipid polarity parameters abruptly change in the lipid carbonyl zone that matches the calculated hydrophobic boundaries. Maxima of positively charged protein groups correspond to the location of lipid phosphates at 20-22 Å distances from the membrane center. Locations of Tyr atoms coincide with hydrophobic boundaries, while distributions maxima of Trp rings are shifted by 3-4 Å toward the membrane center. Distributions of Trp atoms indicate the presence of two 5-8 Å-wide midpolar regions with intermediate π* values within the hydrocarbon core, whose size and symmetry depend on the lipid composition of membrane leaflets. Midpolar regions are especially asymmetric in outer bacterial membranes and cell membranes of mesophilic but not hyperthermophilic archaebacteria, indicating the larger width of the central nonpolar region in the later case. In artificial lipid bilayers, midpolar regions are observed up to the level of acyl chain double bonds. PMID:23811361

  1. High-level production of membrane proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3) by omitting the inducer IPTG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kuipers, Grietje; Niemiec, Łukasz; Baumgarten, Thomas; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Hjelm, Anna

    2015-09-16

    For membrane protein production, the Escherichia coli T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP)-based protein production strain BL21(DE3) in combination with T7-promoter based expression vectors is widely used. Cells are routinely cultured in Lysogeny broth (LB medium) and expression of the chromosomally localized t7rnap gene is governed by the isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) inducible lacUV5 promoter. The T7 RNAP drives the expression of the plasmid borne gene encoding the recombinant membrane protein. Production of membrane proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane rather than in inclusion bodies in a misfolded state is usually preferred, but often hampered due to saturation of the capacity of the Sec-translocon, resulting in low yields. Contrary to expectation we observed that omission of IPTG from BL21(DE3) cells cultured in LB medium can lead to significantly higher membrane protein production yields than when IPTG is added. In the complete absence of IPTG cultures stably produce membrane proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane, whereas upon the addition of IPTG membrane proteins aggregate in the cytoplasm and non-producing clones are selected for. Furthermore, in the absence of IPTG, membrane proteins are produced at a lower rate than in the presence of IPTG. These observations indicate that in the absence of IPTG the Sec-translocon capacity is not/hardly saturated, leading to enhanced membrane protein production yields in the cytoplasmic membrane. Importantly, for more than half of the targets tested the yields obtained using un-induced BL21(DE3) cells were higher than the yields obtained in the widely used membrane protein production strains C41(DE3) and C43(DE3). Since most secretory proteins reach the periplasm via the Sec-translocon, we also monitored the production of three secretory recombinant proteins in the periplasm of BL21(DE3) cells in the presence and absence of IPTG. For all three targets tested omitting IPTG led to the highest production levels in the

  2. Overview of electron crystallography of membrane proteins: crystallization and screening strategies using negative stain electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannenga, Brent L; Iadanza, Matthew G; Vollmar, Breanna S; Gonen, Tamir

    2013-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy, or cryoEM, is an emerging technique for studying the three-dimensional structures of proteins and large macromolecular machines. Electron crystallography is a branch of cryoEM in which structures of proteins can be studied at resolutions that rival those achieved by X-ray crystallography. Electron crystallography employs two-dimensional crystals of a membrane protein embedded within a lipid bilayer. The key to a successful electron crystallographic experiment is the crystallization, or reconstitution, of the protein of interest. This unit describes ways in which protein can be expressed, purified, and reconstituted into well-ordered two-dimensional crystals. A protocol is also provided for negative stain electron microscopy as a tool for screening crystallization trials. When large and well-ordered crystals are obtained, the structures of both protein and its surrounding membrane can be determined to atomic resolution.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide Membranes and Membrane Proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Studied by Computer Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatsma, TP

    2006-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental Gram-negative bacterium with high metabolic versatility and an exceptional ability to adapt to a wide range of ecological environments, including soil, marches, coastal habitats, plant and animal tissues. Gram-negative microbes are characterized by the asymmetric lipopolysaccharide outer membrane, the study of which is important for a number of applications. The adhesion to mineral surfaces plays a central role in characterizing their contribution to the fate of contaminants in complex environmental systems by effecting microbial transport through soils, respiration redox chemistry, and ion mobility. Another important application stems from the fact that it is also a major opportunistic human pathogen that can result in life-threatening infections in many immunocompromised patients, such as lung infections in children with cystic fibrosis, bacteraemia in burn victims, urinary-tract infections in catheterized patients, hospital-acquired pneumonia in patients on respirators, infections in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, and keratitis and corneal ulcers in users of extended-wear soft contact lenses. The inherent resistance against antibiotics which has been linked with the specific interactions in the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa makes these infections difficult to treat. Developments in simulation methodologies as well as computer hardware have enabled the molecular simulation of biological systems of increasing size and with increasing accuracy, providing detail that is difficult or impossible to obtain experimentally. Computer simulation studies contribute to our understanding of the behavior of proteins, protein-protein and protein-DNA complexes. In recent years, a number of research groups have made significant progress in applying these methods to the study of biological membranes. However, these applications have been focused exclusively on lipid bilayer membranes and on membrane proteins in lipid

  4. Integral membrane proteins in proteomics. How to break open the black box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vit, O; Petrak, J

    2017-02-05

    Integral membrane proteins (IMPs) are coded by 20-30% of human genes and execute important functions - transmembrane transport, signal transduction, cell-cell communication, cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix, and many other processes. Due to their hydrophobicity, low expression and lack of trypsin cleavage sites in their transmembrane segments, IMPs have been generally under-represented in routine proteomic analyses. However, the field of membrane proteomics has changed markedly in the past decade, namely due to the introduction of filter assisted sample preparation (FASP), the establishment of cell surface capture (CSC) protocols, and the development of methods that enable analysis of the hydrophobic transmembrane segments. This review will summarize the recent developments in the field and outline the most successful strategies for the analysis of integral membrane proteins. Integral membrane proteins (IMPs) are attractive therapeutic targets mostly due to their many important functions. However, our knowledge of the membrane proteome is severely limited to effectively exploit their potential. This is mostly due to the lack of appropriate techniques or methods compatible with the typical features of IMPs, namely hydrophobicity, low expression and lack of trypsin cleavage sites. This review summarizes the most recent development in membrane proteomics and outlines the most successful strategies for their large-scale analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Exocyst complex protein expression in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, I M; Ackerman, W E; Vandre, D D; Robinson, J M

    2014-07-01

    Protein production and secretion are essential to syncytiotrophoblast function and are associated with cytotrophoblast cell fusion and differentiation. Syncytiotrophoblast hormone secretion is a crucial determinant of maternal-fetal health, and can be misregulated in pathological pregnancies. Although, polarized secretion is a key component of placental function, the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. While the octameric exocyst complex is classically regarded as a master regulator of secretion in various mammalian systems, its expression in the placenta remained unexplored. We hypothesized that the syncytiotrophoblast would express all exocyst complex components and effector proteins requisite for vesicle-mediated secretion more abundantly than cytotrophoblasts in tissue specimens. A two-tiered immunobiological approach was utilized to characterize exocyst and ancillary proteins in normal, term human placentas. Exocyst protein expression and localization was documented in tissue homogenates via immunoblotting and immunofluorescence labeling of placental sections. The eight exocyst proteins, EXOC1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, were found in the human placenta. In addition, RAB11, an important exocyst complex modulator, was also expressed. Exocyst and Rab protein expression appeared to be regulated during trophoblast differentiation, as the syncytiotrophoblast expressed these proteins with little, if any, expression in cytotrophoblast cells. Additionally, exocyst proteins were localized at or near the syncytiotrophoblast apical membrane, the major site of placental secretion. Our findings highlight exocyst protein expression as novel indicators of trophoblast differentiation. The exocyst's regulated localization within the syncytiotrophoblast in conjunction with its well known functions suggests a possible role in placental polarized secretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biophysical characterization of membrane protein-small molecule interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are account for up to two thirds of known druggable targets. Traditionally, new drugs against this class of proteins have been discovered through HTS. However, not all GPCRs are amenable to traditional screening methods. Recently, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has emerged as

  7. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis through biotinylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smither, S.J.; Hill, J.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Titball, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains proteins that might be good targets for vaccines, antimicrobials or detection systems. The identification of surface located proteins using traditional methods is often difficult. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, was labelled with

  8. Denaturation of membrane proteins and hyperthermic cell killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgman, Paulus Wilhelmus Johannes Jozef

    1993-01-01

    Summarizing: heat induced denaturation of membrane proteins is probably related to hyperthermic cell killing. Induced resistance of heat sensitive proteins seems to be involved in the development of thermotolerance. Although many questions remain still to be answered, it appears that HSP72, when

  9. Comparative Membrane Proteomics Reveals a Nonannotated E. coli Heat Shock Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peijia; D'Lima, Nadia G; Slavoff, Sarah A

    2018-01-09

    Recent advances in proteomics and genomics have enabled discovery of thousands of previously nonannotated small open reading frames (smORFs) in genomes across evolutionary space. Furthermore, quantitative mass spectrometry has recently been applied to analysis of regulated smORF expression. However, bottom-up proteomics has remained relatively insensitive to membrane proteins, suggesting they may have been underdetected in previous studies. In this report, we add biochemical membrane protein enrichment to our previously developed label-free quantitative proteomics protocol, revealing a never-before-identified heat shock protein in Escherichia coli K12. This putative smORF-encoded heat shock protein, GndA, is likely to be ∼36-55 amino acids in length and contains a predicted transmembrane helix. We validate heat shock-regulated expression of the gndA smORF and demonstrate that a GndA-GFP fusion protein cofractionates with the cell membrane. Quantitative membrane proteomics therefore has the ability to reveal nonannotated small proteins that may play roles in bacterial stress responses.

  10. Chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by the removable backbone modification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shan; Zuo, Chao; Huang, Dong-Liang; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Long-Hua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Liu, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Chemical synthesis can produce membrane proteins bearing specifically designed modifications (e.g., phosphorylation, isotope labeling) that are difficult to obtain through recombinant protein expression approaches. The resulting homogeneously modified synthetic membrane proteins are valuable tools for many advanced biochemical and biophysical studies. This protocol describes the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by condensation of transmembrane peptide segments through native chemical ligation. To avoid common problems encountered due to the poor solubility of transmembrane peptides in almost any solvent, we describe an effective procedure for the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins through the removable-backbone modification (RBM) strategy. Two key steps of this protocol are: (i) installation of solubilizing Arg4-tagged RBM groups into the transmembrane peptides at any primary amino acid through Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl) solid-phase peptide synthesis and (ii) native ligation of the full-length sequence, followed by removal of the RBM tags by TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) cocktails to afford the native protein. The installation of RBM groups is achieved by using 4-methoxy-5-nitrosalicyladehyde by reduction amination to incorporate an activated O-to-N acyl transfer auxiliary. The Arg4-tag-modified membrane-spanning peptide segments behave like water-soluble peptides to facilitate their purification, ligation and mass characterization.

  11. Ultrafast permeation of water through protein-based membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinsheng; Jin, Jian; Nakamura, Yoshimichi; Ohno, Takahisa; Ichinose, Izumi

    2009-06-01

    Pressure-driven filtration by porous membranes is widely used in the production of drinking water from ground and surface water. Permeation theory predicts that filtration rate is proportional to the pressure difference across the filtration membrane and inversely proportional to the thickness of the membrane. However, these membranes need to be able to withstand high water fluxes and pressures, which means that the active separation layers in commercial filtration systems typically have a thickness of a few tens to several hundreds of nanometres. Filtration performance might be improved by the use of ultrathin porous silicon membranes or carbon nanotubes immobilized in silicon nitride or polymer films, but these structures are difficult to fabricate. Here, we report a new type of filtration membrane made of crosslinked proteins that are mechanically robust and contain channels with diameters of less than 2.2 nm. We find that a 60-nm-thick membrane can concentrate aqueous dyes from fluxes up to 9,000 l h(-1) m(-2) bar(-1), which is approximately 1,000 times higher than the fluxes that can be withstood by commercial filtration membranes with similar rejection properties. Based on these results and molecular dynamics simulations, we propose that protein-surrounded channels with effective lengths of less than 5.8 nm can separate dye molecules while allowing the ultrafast permeation of water at applied pressures of less than 1 bar.

  12. Amyloid protein unfolding and insertion kinetics on neuronal membrane mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2010-03-01

    Atomistic details of beta-amyloid (Aβ ) protein unfolding and lipid interaction kinetics mediated by the neuronal membrane surface are important for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. Using all-atom MD simulations, we explored the early unfolding and insertion kinetics of 40 and 42 residue long Aβ in binary lipid mixtures with and without cholesterol that mimic the cholesterol-depleted and cholesterol-enriched lipid nanodomains of neurons. The protein conformational transition kinetics was evaluated from the secondary structure profile versus simulation time plot. The extent of membrane disruption was examined by the calculated order parameters of lipid acyl chains and cholesterol fused rings as well as the density profiles of water and lipid headgroups at defined regions across the lipid bilayer from our simulations. Our results revealed that both the cholesterol content and the length of the protein affect the protein-insertion and membrane stability in our model lipid bilayer systems.

  13. Gene expression profile of collagen types, osteopontin in the tympanic membrane of patients with tympanosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Monika; Kuczkowski, Jerzy; Przybyła, Tomasz; Grdeń, Marzena; Starzyńska, Anna; Pawełczyk, Tadeusz

    2017-09-01

    Tympanosclerosis is a pathological process involving the middle ear. The hallmark of this disease is the formation of calcium deposits. In the submucosal layer, as well as in the right layer of the tympanic membrane, the calcium deposits result in a significant increase in the activity of fibroblasts and deposition of collagen fibers. The aim of our study was to examine the expression level of genes encoding collagen type I, II, III and IV (COL1A1, COL2A1, COL3A1, COL4A1) and osteopontin (SPP1) in the tympanic membrane of patients with tympanosclerosis. The total RNA was isolated from middle ear tissues with tympanosclerosis, received from 25 patients and from 19 normal tympanic membranes. The gene expression level was determined by real-time RT-PCR. The gene expression levels were correlated with clinical Tos classification of tympanosclerosis. We observed that in the tympanic membrane of patients with tympanosclerosis, the expression of type I collagen is decreased, while the expression of type II and IV collagen and osteopontin is increased. Moreover, mRNA levels of the investigated genes strongly correlated with the clinical stages of tympanosclerosis. The strong correlations between the expression of type I, II, IV collagen and osteopontin and the clinical stage of tympanosclerosis indicate the involvement of these proteins in excessive fibrosis and pathological remodeling of the tympanic membrane. In the future, a treatment aiming to modulate these gene expressions and/or regulation of the degradation of their protein products could be used as a new medical approach for patients with tympanosclerosis.

  14. Membrane and Protein Interactions of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lenoir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human genome encodes about 285 proteins that contain at least one annotated pleckstrin homology (PH domain. As the first phosphoinositide binding module domain to be discovered, the PH domain recruits diverse protein architectures to cellular membranes. PH domains constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies, and have diverged to regulate many different signaling proteins and modules such as Dbl homology (DH and Tec homology (TH domains. The ligands of approximately 70 PH domains have been validated by binding assays and complexed structures, allowing meaningful extrapolation across the entire superfamily. Here the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA program is used at a genome-wide level to identify all membrane docking PH structures and map their lipid-binding determinants. In addition to the linear sequence motifs which are employed for phosphoinositide recognition, the three dimensional structural features that allow peripheral membrane domains to approach and insert into the bilayer are pinpointed and can be predicted ab initio. The analysis shows that conserved structural surfaces distinguish which PH domains associate with membrane from those that do not. Moreover, the results indicate that lipid-binding PH domains can be classified into different functional subgroups based on the type of membrane insertion elements they project towards the bilayer.

  15. Membrane and Protein Interactions of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Marc; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Overduin, Michael

    2015-10-23

    The human genome encodes about 285 proteins that contain at least one annotated pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. As the first phosphoinositide binding module domain to be discovered, the PH domain recruits diverse protein architectures to cellular membranes. PH domains constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies, and have diverged to regulate many different signaling proteins and modules such as Dbl homology (DH) and Tec homology (TH) domains. The ligands of approximately 70 PH domains have been validated by binding assays and complexed structures, allowing meaningful extrapolation across the entire superfamily. Here the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA) program is used at a genome-wide level to identify all membrane docking PH structures and map their lipid-binding determinants. In addition to the linear sequence motifs which are employed for phosphoinositide recognition, the three dimensional structural features that allow peripheral membrane domains to approach and insert into the bilayer are pinpointed and can be predicted ab initio. The analysis shows that conserved structural surfaces distinguish which PH domains associate with membrane from those that do not. Moreover, the results indicate that lipid-binding PH domains can be classified into different functional subgroups based on the type of membrane insertion elements they project towards the bilayer.

  16. SV40 late protein VP4 forms toroidal pores to disrupt membranes for viral release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghava, Smita; Giorda, Kristina M; Romano, Fabian B; Heuck, Alejandro P; Hebert, Daniel N

    2013-06-04

    Nonenveloped viruses are generally released from the cell by the timely lysis of host cell membranes. SV40 has been used as a model virus for the study of the lytic nonenveloped virus life cycle. The expression of SV40 VP4 at later times during infection is concomitant with cell lysis. To investigate the role of VP4 in viral release and its mechanism of action, VP4 was expressed and purified from bacteria as a fusion protein for use in membrane disruption assays. Purified VP4 perforated membranes as demonstrated by the release of fluorescent markers encapsulated within large unilamellar vesicles or liposomes. Dynamic light scattering results revealed that VP4 treatment did not cause membrane lysis or change the size of the liposomes. Liposomes encapsulated with 4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-3-indacene-labeled streptavidin were used to show that VP4 formed stable pores in membranes. These VP4 pores had an inner diameter of 1-5 nm. Asymmetrical liposomes containing pyrene-labeled lipids in the outer monolayer were employed to monitor transbilayer lipid diffusion. Consistent with VP4 forming toroidal pore structures in membranes, VP4 induced transbilayer lipid diffusion or lipid flip-flop. Altogether, these studies support a central role for VP4 acting as a viroporin in the disruption of cellular membranes to trigger SV40 viral release by forming toroidal pores that unite the outer and inner leaflets of membrane bilayers.

  17. Plasma Membrane Targeting of Protocadherin 15 Is Regulated by the Golgi-Associated Chaperone Protein PIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocadherin 15 (PCDH15 is a core component of hair cell tip-links and crucial for proper function of inner ear hair cells. Mutations of PCDH15 gene cause syndromic and nonsyndromic hearing loss. At present, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the intracellular transportation of PCDH15 largely remain unknown. Here we show that PIST, a Golgi-associated, PDZ domain-containing protein, interacts with PCDH15. The interaction is mediated by the PDZ domain of PIST and the C-terminal PDZ domain-binding interface (PBI of PCDH15. Through this interaction, PIST retains PCDH15 in the trans-Golgi network (TGN and reduces the membrane expression of PCDH15. We have previously showed that PIST regulates the membrane expression of another tip-link component, cadherin 23 (CDH23. Taken together, our finding suggests that PIST regulates the intracellular trafficking and membrane targeting of the tip-link proteins CDH23 and PCDH15.

  18. Visualization of transfer of a fluorescently-labeled membrane raft protein to T cells using lentivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Byrum, Jennifer; Rodgers, William

    2005-01-01

    Lentivirus vector systems have been developed for the safe delivery of foreign genes to target tissues. However, the use of these systems for delivering specific proteins to target cells has been largely unexplored. To test this concept, the lentivirus expression plasmid pLenti was utilized to overexpress in producer cells a YFP-fusion protein that is specifically targeted to glycolipid-enriched membrane rafts, which is the site of virus assembly. Our data show that virus generated in produce...

  19. Topology of membrane proteins-predictions, limitations and variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigos, Konstantinos D; Govindarajan, Sudha; Bassot, Claudio; Västermark, Åke; Lamb, John; Shu, Nanjiang; Elofsson, Arne

    2017-10-26

    Transmembrane proteins perform a variety of important biological functions necessary for the survival and growth of the cells. Membrane proteins are built up by transmembrane segments that span the lipid bilayer. The segments can either be in the form of hydrophobic alpha-helices or beta-sheets which create a barrel. A fundamental aspect of the structure of transmembrane proteins is the membrane topology, that is, the number of transmembrane segments, their position in the protein sequence and their orientation in the membrane. Along these lines, many predictive algorithms for the prediction of the topology of alpha-helical and beta-barrel transmembrane proteins exist. The newest algorithms obtain an accuracy close to 80% both for alpha-helical and beta-barrel transmembrane proteins. However, lately it has been shown that the simplified picture presented when describing a protein family by its topology is limited. To demonstrate this, we highlight examples where the topology is either not conserved in a protein superfamily or where the structure cannot be described solely by the topology of a protein. The prediction of these non-standard features from sequence alone was not successful until the recent revolutionary progress in 3D-structure prediction of proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. IRES-mediated translation of membrane proteins and glycoproteins in eukaryotic cell-free systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas K Brödel

    Full Text Available Internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements found in the 5' untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established

  1. IRES-Mediated Translation of Membrane Proteins and Glycoproteins in Eukaryotic Cell-Free Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brödel, Andreas K.; Sonnabend, Andrei; Roberts, Lisa O.; Stech, Marlitt; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A.; Kubick, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements found in the 5′ untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR) of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established systems. PMID

  2. IRES-mediated translation of membrane proteins and glycoproteins in eukaryotic cell-free systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brödel, Andreas K; Sonnabend, Andrei; Roberts, Lisa O; Stech, Marlitt; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A; Kubick, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements found in the 5' untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR) of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established systems.

  3. Optimizing E. coli-based membrane protein production using Lemo21(DE3) or pReX and GFP-Fusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Grietje; Peschke, Markus; Ismail, Nurzian Bernsel; Hjelm, Anna; Schlegel, Susan; Vikström, David; Luirink, Joen; de Gier, Jan Willem

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing the conditions for the production of membrane proteins in E. coli is usually a laborious and time-consuming process. Combining the Lemo21(DE3) strain or the pReX T7-based expression vector with membrane proteins C-terminally fused to Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) greatly facilitates the

  4. Lipid nanotechnologies for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Grushin, Kirill; Dalm, Daniela; Miller, Jaimy

    2014-11-01

    We present a methodology of lipid nanotubes (LNT) and nanodisks technologies optimized in our laboratory for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins at close to physiological conditions. The application of these lipid nanotechnologies for structure determination by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is fundamental for understanding and modulating their function. The LNTs in our studies are single bilayer galactosylceramide based nanotubes of ∼20 nm inner diameter and a few microns in length, that self-assemble in aqueous solutions. The lipid nanodisks (NDs) are self-assembled discoid lipid bilayers of ∼10 nm diameter, which are stabilized in aqueous solutions by a belt of amphipathic helical scaffold proteins. By combining LNT and ND technologies, we can examine structurally how the membrane curvature and lipid composition modulates the function of the membrane-associated proteins. As proof of principle, we have engineered these lipid nanotechnologies to mimic the activated platelet's phosphtaidylserine rich membrane and have successfully assembled functional membrane-bound coagulation factor VIII in vitro for structure determination by cryo-EM. The macromolecular organization of the proteins bound to ND and LNT are further defined by fitting the known atomic structures within the calculated three-dimensional maps. The combination of LNT and ND technologies offers a means to control the design and assembly of a wide range of functional membrane-associated proteins and complexes for structural studies by cryo-EM. The presented results confirm the suitability of the developed methodology for studying the functional structure of membrane-associated proteins, such as the coagulation factors, at a close to physiological environment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. On the Spatial Organization of mRNA, Plasmids, and Ribosomes in a Bacterial Host Overexpressing Membrane Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke A van Gijtenbeek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By using fluorescence imaging, we provide a time-resolved single-cell view on coupled defects in transcription, translation, and growth during expression of heterologous membrane proteins in Lactococcus lactis. Transcripts encoding poorly produced membrane proteins accumulate in mRNA-dense bodies at the cell poles, whereas transcripts of a well-expressed homologous membrane protein show membrane-proximal localization in a translation-dependent fashion. The presence of the aberrant polar mRNA foci correlates with cessation of cell division, which is restored once these bodies are cleared. In addition, activation of the heat-shock response and a loss of nucleoid-occluded ribosomes are observed. We show that the presence of a native-like N-terminal domain is key to SRP-dependent membrane localization and successful production of membrane proteins. The work presented gives new insights and detailed understanding of aberrant membrane protein biogenesis, which can be used for strategies to optimize membrane protein production.

  6. Predictable tuning of protein expression in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Pedersen, Margit; Klausen, Michael Schantz

    2016-01-01

    We comprehensively assessed the contribution of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence to protein expression and used the data to develop EMOPEC (Empirical Model and Oligos for Protein Expression Changes; http://emopec.biosustain.dtu.dk). EMOPEC is a free tool that makes it possible to modulate the expressi...

  7. An Improved 2-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Method for Resolving Human Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Rajendra; Meena, Anil; Patidar, Bhagwan S; Prasad, Rajendra; Chhabra, Sunil K; Bansal, Surendra K

    2017-01-01

    The 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) technique is widely used for the analysis of complex protein mixtures extracted from biological samples. It is one of the most commonly used analytical techniques in proteomics to study qualitative and quantitative protein changes between different states of a cell or an organism (eg, healthy and diseased), conditionally expressed proteins, posttranslational modifications, and so on. The 2-DE technique is used for its unparalleled ability to separate thousands of proteins simultaneously. The resolution of the proteins by 2-DE largely depends on the quality of sample prepared during protein extraction which increases results in terms of reproducibility and minimizes protein modifications that may result in artifactual spots on 2-DE gels. The buffer used for the extraction and solubilization of proteins influences the quality and reproducibility of the resolution of proteins on 2-DE gel. The purification by cleanup kit is another powerful process to prevent horizontal streaking which occurs during isoelectric focusing due to the presence of contaminants such as salts, lipids, nucleic acids, and detergents. Erythrocyte membrane proteins serve as prototypes for multifunctional proteins in various erythroid and nonerythroid cells. In this study, we therefore optimized the selected major conditions of 2-DE for resolving various proteins of human erythrocyte membrane. The modification included the optimization of conditions for sample preparation, cleanup of protein sample, isoelectric focusing, equilibration, and storage of immobilized pH gradient strips, which were further carefully examined to achieve optimum conditions for improving the quality of protein spots on 2-DE gels. The present improved 2-DE analysis method enabled better detection of protein spots with higher quality and reproducibility. Therefore, the conditions established in this study may be used for the 2-DE analysis of erythrocyte membrane proteins for

  8. Coevolution of gene expression among interacting proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Wall, Dennis P.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2004-03-01

    Physically interacting proteins or parts of proteins are expected to evolve in a coordinated manner that preserves proper interactions. Such coevolution at the amino acid-sequence level is well documented and has been used to predict interacting proteins, domains, and amino acids. Interacting proteins are also often precisely coexpressed with one another, presumably to maintain proper stoichiometry among interacting components. Here, we show that the expression levels of physically interacting proteins coevolve. We estimate average expression levels of genes from four closely related fungi of the genus Saccharomyces using the codon adaptation index and show that expression levels of interacting proteins exhibit coordinated changes in these different species. We find that this coevolution of expression is a more powerful predictor of physical interaction than is coevolution of amino acid sequence. These results demonstrate previously uncharacterized coevolution of gene expression, adding a different dimension to the study of the coevolution of interacting proteins and underscoring the importance of maintaining coexpression of interacting proteins over evolutionary time. Our results also suggest that expression coevolution can be used for computational prediction of protein protein interactions.

  9. SNARE-fusion mediated insertion of membrane proteins into native and artificial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Gustav; Brzezinski, Peter; von Ballmoos, Christoph

    2014-07-02

    Membrane proteins carry out functions such as nutrient uptake, ATP synthesis or transmembrane signal transduction. An increasing number of reports indicate that cellular processes are underpinned by regulated interactions between these proteins. Consequently, functional studies of these networks at a molecular level require co-reconstitution of the interacting components. Here, we report a SNARE protein-based method for incorporation of multiple membrane proteins into artificial membrane vesicles of well-defined composition, and for delivery of large water-soluble substrates into these vesicles. The approach is used for in vitro reconstruction of a fully functional bacterial respiratory chain from purified components. Furthermore, the method is used for functional incorporation of the entire F1F0 ATP synthase complex into native bacterial membranes from which this component had been genetically removed. The novel methodology offers a tool to investigate complex interaction networks between membrane-bound proteins at a molecular level, which is expected to generate functional insights into key cellular functions.

  10. Dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins: covalently bound spin-labels at protein–protein interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylie, Benjamin J.; Dzikovski, Boris G.; Pawsey, Shane; Caporini, Marc; Rosay, Melanie; Freed, Jack H.; McDermott, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers may be achieved using a novel polarizing agent: pairs of spin labels covalently bound to a protein of interest interacting at an intermolecular interaction surface. For gramicidin A, nitroxide tags attached to the N-terminal intermolecular interface region become proximal only when bimolecular channels forms in the membrane. We obtained signal enhancements of sixfold for the dimeric protein. The enhancement effect was comparable to that of a doubly tagged sample of gramicidin C, with intramolecular spin pairs. This approach could be a powerful and selective means for signal enhancement in membrane proteins, and for recognizing intermolecular interfaces

  11. Major integral membrane protein immunogens of Treponema pallidum are proteolipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, N.R.; Brandt, M.E.; Erwin, A.L.; Radolf, J.D.; Norgard, M.V. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (USA))

    1989-09-01

    A number of the major pathogen-specific immunogens of Treponema pallidum were characterized recently as amphiphilic, integral membrane proteins by phase partitioning with Triton X-114. In the present study, we demonstrated that the same membrane immunogens (designated as detergent phase proteins (DPPs)) become radiolabeled upon in vitro incubation of T. pallidum with various {sup 3}H-labeled fatty acids. Radioimmunoprecipitation with a monoclonal antibody confirmed that the {sup 3}H-labeled 47-kilodalton protein corresponded to the well-characterized treponemal antigen with the identical apparent molecular mass. Failure to detect {sup 3}H-labeled DPPs following incubation with erythromycin confirmed that protein acylation required de novo protein synthesis by the bacteria. When treponemes were incubated with ({sup 3}H)myristate, ({sup 3}H)palmitate, or ({sup 3}H)oleate, radiolabeled proteins corresponding to the DPPs were detected upon autoradiography. Demonstration that a number of the abundant membrane immunogens of T. pallidum are proteolipids provides information to help clarify their membrane association(s) and may serve to explain their extraordinary immunogenicity.

  12. Identification and characterization of GmPDIL7, a soybean ER membrane-bound protein disulfide isomerase family protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Aya; Matsusaki, Motonori; Masuda, Taro; Urade, Reiko

    2017-02-01

    Most proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) possess intramolecular and intermolecular disulfide bonds, which play an important role in the conformational stability and function of proteins. Hence, eukaryotic cells contain protein disulfide bond formation pathways such as the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1) system in the ER lumen. In this study, we identified soybean PDIL7 (GmPDIL7), a novel soybean ER membrane-bound PDI family protein, and determined its enzymatic properties. GmPDIL7 has a putative N-terminal signal sequence, a thioredoxin domain with an active center motif (CGHC), and a putative C-terminal transmembrane region. Likewise, we demonstrated that GmPDIL7 is ubiquitously expressed in soybean tissues and is localized in the ER membrane. Furthermore, GmPDIL7 associated with other soybean PDI family proteins in vivo and GmPDIL7 mRNA was slightly upregulated under ER stress. The redox potential of recombinant GmPDIL7 expressed in Escherichia coli was -187 mV, indicating that GmPDIL7 could oxidize unfolded proteins. GmPDIL7 exhibited a dithiol oxidase activity level that was similar to other soybean PDI family proteins. However, the oxidative refolding activity of GmPDIL7 was lower than other soybean PDI family proteins. GmPDIL7 was well oxidized by GmERO1. Taken together, our results indicated that GmPDIL7 primarily plays a role as a supplier of disulfide bonds in nascent proteins for oxidative folding on the ER membrane. The nucleotide sequence data for the GmPDIL7 cDNA are available in the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) databases under the accession numbers LC158001. Protein disulfide isomerase: EC 5.3.4.1. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Heterologous expression of a deuterated membrane-integrated receptor and partial deuteration in methylotrophic yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massou, S.; Puech, V.; Talmont, F.; Demange, P.; Lindley, N.D.; Tropis, M.; Milon, A.

    1999-01-01

    Methylotrophic yeast has previously been shown to be an excellent system for the cost-effective production of perdeuterated biomass and for the heterologous expression of membrane receptors. A protocol for the expression of 85% deuterated, functional human μ-opiate receptor was established. For partially deuterated biomass, deuteration level and distribution were determined for fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates. It was shown that prior to biosynthesis of lipids and amino acids (and of carbohydrates, to a lower extent), exchange occurs between water and methanol hydrogen atoms, so that 80%-90% randomly deuterated biomass and over-expressed proteins may be obtained using only deuterated water

  14. Prolonged morphine administration alters protein expression in the rat myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drastichova Zdenka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphine is used in clinical practice as a highly effective painkiller as well as the drug of choice for treatment of certain heart diseases. However, there is lack of information about its effect on protein expression in the heart. Therefore, here we aimed to identify the presumed alterations in rat myocardial protein levels after prolonged morphine treatment. Methods Morphine was administered to adult male Wistar rats in high doses (10 mg/kg per day for 10 days. Proteins from the plasma membrane- and mitochondria-enriched fractions or cytosolic proteins isolated from left ventricles were run on 2D gel electrophoresis, scanned and quantified with specific software to reveal differentially expressed proteins. Results Nine proteins were found to show markedly altered expression levels in samples from morphine-treaded rats and these proteins were identified by mass spectrometric analysis. They belong to different cell pathways including signaling, cytoprotective, and structural elements. Conclusions The present identification of several important myocardial proteins altered by prolonged morphine treatment points to global effects of this drug on heart tissue. These findings represent an initial step toward a more complex view on the action of morphine on the heart.

  15. Solubilization of lipids and membrane proteins into nanodiscs : Mode of action and applications of SMA copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheidelaar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes separate the inside and outside of cells. Membrane proteins in the cell membrane control the traffic of molecules across the membrane and are therefore targets for a lot of drugs: about 50 % of all approved drugs target a membrane protein! Unfortunately, scientists only know little

  16. Identification of glycan structure alterations on cell membrane proteins in desoxyepothilone B resistant leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Miyako; Saldanha, Rohit; Göbel, Anja; Kavallaris, Maria; Packer, Nicolle H

    2011-11-01

    Resistance to tubulin-binding agents used in cancer is often multifactorial and can include changes in drug accumulation and modified expression of tubulin isotypes. Glycans on cell membrane proteins play important roles in many cellular processes such as recognition and apoptosis, and this study investigated whether changes to the glycan structures on cell membrane proteins occur when cells become resistant to drugs. Specifically, we investigated the alteration of glycan structures on the cell membrane proteins of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (CEM) cells that were selected for resistance to desoxyepothilone B (CEM/dEpoB). The glycan profile of the cell membrane glycoproteins was obtained by sequential release of N- and O-glycans from cell membrane fraction dotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride membrane with PNGase F and β-elimination respectively. The released glycan alditols were analyzed by liquid chromatography (graphitized carbon)-electrospray ionization tandem MS. The major N-glycan on CEM cell was the core fucosylated α2-6 monosialo-biantennary structure. Resistant CEM/dEpoB cells had a significant decrease of α2-6 linked sialic acid on N-glycans. The lower α2-6 sialylation was caused by a decrease in activity of β-galactoside α2-6 sialyltransferase (ST6Gal), and decreased expression of the mRNA. It is clear that the membrane glycosylation of leukemia cells changes during acquired resistance to dEpoB drugs and that this change occurs globally on all cell membrane glycoproteins. This is the first identification of a specific glycan modification on the surface of drug resistant cells and the mechanism of this downstream effect on microtubule targeting drugs may offer a route to new interventions to overcome drug resistance.

  17. Annexin A2 Mediates the Localization of Measles Virus Matrix Protein at the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Ritsuko; Kubota, Marie; Hashiguchi, Takao; Yanagi, Yusuke; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-02-28

    Annexins are a family of structurally related proteins that bind negatively charged membrane phospholipids in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a member of the family, has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions including the organization of membrane domains, vesicular trafficking and cell-cell adhesion. AnxA2 generally forms the heterotetrameric complex with a small Ca 2+ -binding protein S100A10. Measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative strand RNA genome. Knockdown of AnxA2 greatly reduced MV growth in cells, without affecting its entry and viral RNA production. In MV-infected, AnxA2-knockdown cells, the expression level of the matrix (M) protein, but not other viral proteins, was reduced compared with that in control cells, and the distribution of the M protein at the plasma membrane was decreased. The M protein lines the inner surface of the envelope and plays an important role in virus assembly by connecting the nucleocapsid to the envelope proteins. The M protein bound to AnxA2 independently of AnxA2's phosphorylation or its association with S100A10, and was co-localized with AnxA2 within cells. Truncation of the N-terminal 10 amino acid residues, but not the N-terminal 5 residues, compromised the ability of the M protein to interact with AnxA2 and localize at the plasma membrane. These results indicate that AnxA2 mediates the localization of the MV M protein at the plasma membrane by interacting with its N-terminal region (especially residues at positions 6-10), thereby aiding in MV assembly. IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MV) is an important human pathogen, still claiming ∼ 100,000 lives per year despite the presence of effective vaccines, and causes occasional outbreaks even in developed countries. Replication of viruses largely relies on the functions of host cells. Our study revealed that the reduction of the host protein annexin A2 compromises the replication of

  18. A unifying mechanism accounts for sensing of membrane curvature by BAR domains, amphipathic helices and membrane-anchored proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller; Hatzakis, Nikos; Stamou, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    itself. We thus anticipate that membrane curvature will promote the redistribution of proteins that are anchored in membranes through any type of hydrophobic moiety, a thesis that broadens tremendously the implications of membrane curvature for protein sorting, trafficking and signaling in cell biology....

  19. Distribution of Flagella Secreted Protein and Integral Membrane Protein Among Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    secreted protein and integral membrane protein among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Thailand Piyarat Pootong 1·, Oralak Serichantalergs...Ladaporn Bodhidatta \\ Frederic Poly2, Patricia Guerry2 and Carl J Mason 1 Abstract Background: Campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative bacterium, is a...groups of integral membrane protein. The significance of these different FspA variants to virulence requires further study. Background Campylobacter

  20. Application of split-green fluorescent protein for topology mapping membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toddo, Stephen; Söderström, Bill; Palombo, Isolde; von Heijne, Gunnar; Nørholm, Morten H H; Daley, Daniel O

    2012-10-01

    A topology map of a membrane protein defines the location of transmembrane helices and the orientation of soluble domains relative to the membrane. In the absence of a high-resolution structure, a topology map is an essential guide for studying structure-function relationships. Although these maps can be predicted directly from amino acid sequence, the predictions are more accurate if combined with experimental data, which are usually obtained by fusing a reporter protein to the C-terminus of the protein. However, as reporter proteins are large, they cannot be used to report on the cytoplasmic/periplasmic location of the N-terminus of a protein. Here, we show that the bimolecular split-green fluorescent protein complementation system can overcome this limitation and can be used to determine the location of both the N- and C-termini of inner membrane proteins in Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  1. Yersinia pestis uses the Ail outer membrane protein to recruit vitronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Sara Schesser; Ding, Yi; Miya Fujimoto, L; Ring, Joshua G; Jain, Vishal; Ram, Sanjay; Marassi, Francesca M; Plano, Gregory V

    2015-11-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, requires the Ail (attachment invasion locus) outer membrane protein to survive in the blood and tissues of its mammalian hosts. Ail is important for both attachment to host cells and for resistance to complement-dependent bacteriolysis. Previous studies have shown that Ail interacts with components of the extracellular matrix, including fibronectin, laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and with the complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein. Here, we demonstrate that Ail-expressing Y. pestis strains bind vitronectin - a host protein with functions in cell attachment, fibrinolysis and inhibition of the complement system. The Ail-dependent recruitment of vitronectin resulted in efficient cleavage of vitronectin by the outer membrane Pla (plasminogen activator protease). Escherichia coli DH5α expressing Y. pestis Ail bound vitronectin, but not heat-treated vitronectin. The ability of Ail to directly bind vitronectin was demonstrated by ELISA using purified refolded Ail in nanodiscs.

  2. Effective high-throughput overproduction of membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, E.; Horsefield, R.; Swarts, H.G.P.; Pont, J.J.H.H.M. de; Neutze, R.; Snijder, A.

    2008-01-01

    Structural biology is increasingly reliant on elevated throughput methods for protein production. In particular, development of efficient methods of heterologous production of membrane proteins is essential. Here, we describe the heterologous overproduction of 24 membrane proteins from the human

  3. The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis outer membrane protein Ail recruits the human complement regulatory protein factor H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Derek K; Riva, Rauna; Skurnik, Mikael; Meri, Seppo

    2012-10-01

    Previous investigations characterizing the mechanism(s) of complement resistance in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis showed that the outer membrane protein Ail can functionally recruit the regulator of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, C4b-binding protein. In this study, we extend these observations and show that Ail can also recruit the regulator of the alternative pathway (AP), factor H (fH). Binding to fH was dependent on Ail expression and observed in the context of full-length LPS. Inactivation of ail resulted in loss of fH binding. Ail expression conferred resistance to AP-mediated killing. Bound fH was functional as a cofactor for factor I-mediated cleavage and inactivation of C3b. Ail alone is sufficient to mediate fH binding and resistance to AP-mediated killing, because Ail expression in a laboratory Escherichia coli strain conferred both of these phenotypes. Binding was specific and inhibited by increasing heparin and NaCl concentrations. Using a panel of fH recombinant fragments, we observed that both short consensus repeats 5-7 and 19-20 regions are responsible for mediating the interaction with Ail. Collectively, these results suggest that fH recruitment is an additional mechanism of complement resistance of Ail. Recruitment of both fH and C4BP by Ail may confer Y. pseudotuberculosis with the ability to resist all pathways of complement activation.

  4. Codon optimizing for increased membrane protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzadeh, K.; Toddo, S.; Nørholm, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Reengineering a gene with synonymous codons is a popular approach for increasing production levels of recombinant proteins. Here we present a minimalist alternative to this method, which samples synonymous codons only at the second and third positions rather than the entire coding sequence...

  5. Membrane protein profiling of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae under various growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ge, Mengyu; Wang, Yanli; Mannan, Shazia; Asif, Muhammad; Sun, Guochang

    2015-06-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs) of plant pathogenic bacteria have been reported to be able to regulate many essential cellular processes associated with plant disease. The aim of the current study was to examine and compare the expression of MPs of the rice bacterial pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 under Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, M9 medium, in vivo rice plant conditions and leaf extract (LE) medium mimicking in vivo plant condition. Proteomic analysis identified 95, 72, 75, and 87 MPs under LB, in vivo, M9 and LE conditions, respectively. Among them, six proteins were shared under all tested growth conditions designated as abundant class of proteins. Twenty-six and 21 proteins were expressed uniquely under in vivo versus LB medium and LE versus M9 medium, respectively, with 17 proteins common among these uniquely induced proteins. Moreover, most of the shared proteins are mainly related to energy metabolism, transport of small molecules, protein synthesis and secretion as well as virulence such as NADH, OmpA, secretion proteins. Therefore, the result of this study not only suggests that it may be an alternate method to analyze the in vivo expression of proteins by using LE medium to mimic plant conditions, but also reveals that the two sets of differentially expressed MPs, in particular the common MPs between them, might be important in energy metabolism, stress response and virulence of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1.

  6. The SV40 late protein VP4 is a viroporin that forms pores to disrupt membranes for viral release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Raghava

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonenveloped viruses are generally released by the timely lysis of the host cell by a poorly understood process. For the nonenveloped virus SV40, virions assemble in the nucleus and then must be released from the host cell without being encapsulated by cellular membranes. This process appears to involve the well-controlled insertion of viral proteins into host cellular membranes rendering them permeable to large molecules. VP4 is a newly identified SV40 gene product that is expressed at late times during the viral life cycle that corresponds to the time of cell lysis. To investigate the role of this late expressed protein in viral release, water-soluble VP4 was expressed and purified as a GST fusion protein from bacteria. Purified VP4 was found to efficiently bind biological membranes and support their disruption. VP4 perforated membranes by directly interacting with the membrane bilayer as demonstrated by flotation assays and the release of fluorescent markers encapsulated into large unilamellar vesicles or liposomes. The central hydrophobic domain of VP4 was essential for membrane binding and disruption. VP4 displayed a preference for membranes comprised of lipids that replicated the composition of the plasma membranes over that of nuclear membranes. Phosphatidylethanolamine, a lipid found at high levels in bacterial membranes, was inhibitory against the membrane perforation activity of VP4. The disruption of membranes by VP4 involved the formation of pores of ∼3 nm inner diameter in mammalian cells including permissive SV40 host cells. Altogether, these results support a central role of VP4 acting as a viroporin in the perforation of cellular membranes to trigger SV40 viral release.

  7. Protein trafficking, ergosterol biosynthesis and membrane physics impact recombinant protein secretion in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattanovich Diethard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing availability of 'omics' databases provide important platforms for yeast engineering strategies since they offer a lot of information on the physiology of the cells under diverse growth conditions, including environmental stresses. Notably, only a few of these approaches have considered a performance under recombinant protein production conditions. Recently, we have identified a beneficial effect of low oxygen availability on the expression of a human Fab fragment in Pichia pastoris. Transcriptional analysis and data mining allowed for the selection of potential targets for strain improvement. A first selection of these candidates has been evaluated as recombinant protein secretion enhancers. Results Based on previous transcriptomics analyses, we selected 8 genes for co-expression in the P. pastoris strain already secreting a recombinant Fab fragment. Notably, WSC4 (which is involved in trafficking through the ER has been identified as a novel potential target gene for strain improvement, with up to a 1.2-fold increase of product yield in shake flask cultures. A further transcriptomics-based strategy to modify the yeast secretion system was focused on the ergosterol pathway, an aerobic process strongly affected by oxygen depletion. By specifically partially inhibiting ergosterol synthesis with the antifungal agent fluconazole (inhibiting Erg11p, we tried to mimic the hypoxic conditions, in which the cellular ergosterol content was significantly decreased. This strategy led to an improved Fab yield (2-fold without impairing cellular growth. Since ergosterol shortage provokes alterations in the plasma membrane composition, an important role of this cellular structure in protein secretion is suggested. This hypothesis was additionally supported by the fact that the addition of non-ionic surfactants also enhanced Fab secretion. Conclusions The current study presents a systems biotechnology-based strategy for the

  8. Application of split-green fluorescent protein for topology mapping membrane proteins in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toddo, Stephen; Soderstrom, Bill; Palombo, Isolde

    2012-01-01

    /periplasmic location of the N-terminus of a protein. Here, we show that the bimolecular split-green fluorescent protein complementation system can overcome this limitation and can be used to determine the location of both the N- and C-termini of inner membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.......A topology map of a membrane protein defines the location of transmembrane helices and the orientation of soluble domains relative to the membrane. In the absence of a high-resolution structure, a topology map is an essential guide for studying structurefunction relationships. Although these maps...... can be predicted directly from amino acid sequence, the predictions are more accurate if combined with experimental data, which are usually obtained by fusing a reporter protein to the C-terminus of the protein. However, as reporter proteins are large, they cannot be used to report on the cytoplasmic...

  9. Promoting Tag Removal of a MBP-Fused Integral Membrane Protein by TEV Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanke; Li, Qichang; Yang, Jun; Xie, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Tag removal is a prerequisite issue for structural and functional analysis of affinity-purified membrane proteins. The present study took a MBP-fused membrane protein, MrpF, as a model to investigate the tag removal by TEV protease. Influences of the linking sequence between TEV cleavage site and MrpF on protein expression and predicted secondary structure were investigated. The steric accessibility of TEV protease to cleavage site of MBP-fused MrpF was explored. It was found that reducing the size of hydrophilic group of detergents and/or extending the linking sequence between cleavage site and target protein can significantly improve the accessibility of the cleavage site and promote tag removal by TEV protease.

  10. Evidence of electroconformational changes in membrane proteins: field-induced reductions in intra membrane nonlinear charge movement currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2004-06-01

    Experimental results are presented to show that a pulsed, intensive membrane potential can reduce intra membrane, nonlinear charge movement currents, which are the voltage-sensors in the voltage-dependent membrane proteins and in the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscle fibers. The results indicate a possible mechanism involved in electrical injury: dysfunctions of the voltage-dependent membrane proteins caused by electroconformational damages in their voltage-sensors.

  11. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  12. Deoxycholate-Based Glycosides (DCGs) for Membrane Protein Stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Gotfryd, Kamil; Thomas, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    reported deoxycholate-based N-oxides (DCAOs). Membrane proteins in these agents, particularly the branched diglucoside-bearing amphiphiles DCG-1 and DCG-2, displayed favourable behaviour compared to previously reported parent compounds (DCAOs) and conventional detergents (LDAO and DDM). Given...

  13. Protein receptor-independent plasma membrane remodeling by HAMLET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadeem, Aftab; Sanborn, Jeremy; Gettel, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    A central tenet of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells is that extra-cellular ligands activate specific cell surface receptors, which orchestrate downstream responses. This "protein-centric" view is increasingly challenged by evidence for the involvement of specialized membrane domains in sig...

  14. Salinity induced changes in cell membrane stability, protein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control), 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS m-1 to determine the effect of salt on vegetative growth, relative water content, cell membrane stability, protein and RNA contents in sand culture experiment. Fresh and dry weights of plants, shoots and roots decreased ...

  15. Identification of a hypothetical membrane protein interactor of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 1. Identification of a hypothetical membrane protein interactor of ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. K Aruna Tirtha Chakraborty Savithri Nambeesan Abdul Baru Mannan Alfica Sehgal Seema R Bhalchandra Shobhona Sharma. Articles Volume 29 Issue 1 March 2004 ...

  16. How curved membranes recruit amphipathic helices and protein anchoring motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatzakis, Nikos; Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller; Larsen, Jannik

    2009-01-01

    Lipids and several specialized proteins are thought to be able to sense the curvature of membranes (MC). Here we used quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure curvature-selective binding of amphipathic motifs on single liposomes 50-700 nm in diameter. Our results revealed that sensing...

  17. Structural investigation of membrane proteins by electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscicka, Katarzyna Beata

    2009-01-01

    Biological membranes are vital components of all living systems, forming the boundaries of cells and their organelles. They consist of a lipid bilayer and embedded proteins, which are nanomachines that fulfill key functions such as energy conversion, solute transport, secretion, and signal

  18. Plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) from Jurkat cells contain STIM1 protein is PAM involved in the capacitative calcium entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Katarzyna; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Onopiuk, Marta; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Wierzbicka, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Grzegorz; Pinton, Paolo; Duszyński, Jerzy; Zabłocki, Krzysztof; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2009-12-01

    A proper cooperation between the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria seems to be essential for numerous cellular processes involved in Ca(2+) signalling and maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis. A presence of microsomal and mitochondrial proteins together with those characteristic for the plasma membrane in the fraction of the plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) indicates a formation of stabile interactions between these three structures. We isolated the plasma membrane associated membranes from Jurkat cells and found its significant enrichment in the plasma membrane markers including plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and CD3 as well as sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. In addition, two proteins involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, Orai1 located in the plasma membrane and an endoplasmic reticulum protein STIM1 were found in this fraction. Furthermore, we observed a rearrangement of STIM1-containing protein complexes isolated from Jurkat cells undergoing stimulation by thapsigargin. We suggest that the inter-membrane compartment composed of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum, and isolated as a stabile plasma membrane associated membranes fraction, might be involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and their formation and rebuilding have an important regulatory role in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  19. A Brief View of the Surface Membrane Proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Canul, Ángel de la Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of Chagas' disease which affects millions of people around the world mostly in Central and South America. T. cruzi expresses a wide variety of proteins on its surface membrane which has an important role in the biology of these parasites. Surface molecules of the parasites are the result of the environment to which the parasites are exposed during their life cycle. Hence, T. cruzi displays several modifications when they move from one host to another. Due to the complexity of this parasite's cell surface, this review presents some membrane proteins organized as large families, as they are the most abundant and/or relevant throughout the T. cruzi membrane. PMID:28656101

  20. A Brief View of the Surface Membrane Proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel de la Cruz Pech-Canul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of Chagas’ disease which affects millions of people around the world mostly in Central and South America. T. cruzi expresses a wide variety of proteins on its surface membrane which has an important role in the biology of these parasites. Surface molecules of the parasites are the result of the environment to which the parasites are exposed during their life cycle. Hence, T. cruzi displays several modifications when they move from one host to another. Due to the complexity of this parasite’s cell surface, this review presents some membrane proteins organized as large families, as they are the most abundant and/or relevant throughout the T. cruzi membrane.

  1. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane proteins from transgenic cloned cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunchao Sui

    Full Text Available The use of transgenic livestock is providing new methods for obtaining pharmaceutically useful proteins. However, the protein expression profiles of the transgenic animals, including expression of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM proteins, have not been well characterized. In this study, we compared the MFGM protein expression profile of the colostrum and mature milk from three lines of transgenic cloned (TC cattle, i.e., expressing recombinant human α-lactalbumin (TC-LA, lactoferrin (TC-LF or lysozyme (TC-LZ in the mammary gland, with those from cloned non-transgenic (C and conventionally bred normal animals (N. We identified 1, 225 proteins in milk MFGM, 166 of which were specifically expressed only in the TC-LA group, 265 only in the TC-LF group, and 184 only in the TC-LZ group. There were 43 proteins expressed only in the transgenic cloned animals, but the concentrations of these proteins were below the detection limit of silver staining. Functional analysis also showed that the 43 proteins had no obvious influence on the bovine mammary gland. Quantitative comparison revealed that MFGM proteins were up- or down-regulated more than twofold in the TC and C groups compared to N group: 126 in colostrum and 77 in mature milk of the TC-LA group; 157 in colostrum and 222 in mature milk of the TC-LF group; 49 in colostrum and 98 in mature milk of the TC-LZ group; 98 in colostrum and 132 in mature milk in the C group. These up- and down-regulated proteins in the transgenic animals were not associated with a particular biological function or pathway, which appears that expression of certain exogenous proteins has no general deleterious effects on the cattle mammary gland.

  2. Comparative Proteomics of Milk Fat Globule Membrane Proteins from Transgenic Cloned Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwu; Zhang, Ran; Guo, Chengdong; Yu, Tian; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The use of transgenic livestock is providing new methods for obtaining pharmaceutically useful proteins. However, the protein expression profiles of the transgenic animals, including expression of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins, have not been well characterized. In this study, we compared the MFGM protein expression profile of the colostrum and mature milk from three lines of transgenic cloned (TC) cattle, i.e., expressing recombinant human α-lactalbumin (TC-LA), lactoferrin (TC-LF) or lysozyme (TC-LZ) in the mammary gland, with those from cloned non-transgenic (C) and conventionally bred normal animals (N). We identified 1, 225 proteins in milk MFGM, 166 of which were specifically expressed only in the TC-LA group, 265 only in the TC-LF group, and 184 only in the TC-LZ group. There were 43 proteins expressed only in the transgenic cloned animals, but the concentrations of these proteins were below the detection limit of silver staining. Functional analysis also showed that the 43 proteins had no obvious influence on the bovine mammary gland. Quantitative comparison revealed that MFGM proteins were up- or down-regulated more than twofold in the TC and C groups compared to N group: 126 in colostrum and 77 in mature milk of the TC-LA group; 157 in colostrum and 222 in mature milk of the TC-LF group; 49 in colostrum and 98 in mature milk of the TC-LZ group; 98 in colostrum and 132 in mature milk in the C group. These up- and down-regulated proteins in the transgenic animals were not associated with a particular biological function or pathway, which appears that expression of certain exogenous proteins has no general deleterious effects on the cattle mammary gland. PMID:25133402

  3. pMD-Membrane: A Method for Ligand Binding Site Identification in Membrane-Bound Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Prakash

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Probe-based or mixed solvent molecular dynamics simulation is a useful approach for the identification and characterization of druggable sites in drug targets. However, thus far the method has been applied only to soluble proteins. A major reason for this is the potential effect of the probe molecules on membrane structure. We have developed a technique to overcome this limitation that entails modification of force field parameters to reduce a few pairwise non-bonded interactions between selected atoms of the probe molecules and bilayer lipids. We used the resulting technique, termed pMD-membrane, to identify allosteric ligand binding sites on the G12D and G13D oncogenic mutants of the K-Ras protein bound to a negatively charged lipid bilayer. In addition, we show that differences in probe occupancy can be used to quantify changes in the accessibility of druggable sites due to conformational changes induced by membrane binding or mutation.

  4. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A

    2016-01-22

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Silica nanoparticles for the oriented encapsulation of membrane proteins into artificial bilayer lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadauer, Florian; Geiss, Andreas F; Srajer, Johannes; Siebenhofer, Bernhard; Frank, Pinar; Reiner-Rozman, Ciril; Ludwig, Bernd; Richter, Oliver-M H; Nowak, Christoph; Naumann, Renate L C

    2015-03-03

    An artificial bilayer lipid membrane system is presented, featuring the oriented encapsulation of membrane proteins in a functionally active form. Nickel nitrilo-triacetic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles, of a diameter of around 25 nm, are used to attach the proteins via a genetically engineered histidine tag in a uniform orientation. Subsequently, the proteins are reconstituted within a phospholipid bilayer, formed around the particles by in situ dialysis to form so-called proteo-lipobeads (PLBs). With a final size of about 50 nm, the PLBs can be employed for UV/vis spectroscopy studies, particularly of multiredox center proteins, because the effects of light scattering are negligible. As a proof of concept, we use cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) from P. denitrificans with the his tag genetically engineered to subunit I. In this orientation, the P side of CcO is directed to the outside and hence electron transfer can be initiated by reduced cytochrome c (cc). UV/vis measurements are used in order to determine the occupancy by CcO molecules encapsulated in the lipid bilayer as well as the kinetics of electron transfer between CcO and cc. The kinetic data are analyzed in terms of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics showing that the turnover rate of CcO is significantly decreased compared to that of solubilized protein, whereas the binding characteristics are improved. The data demonstrate the suitability of PLBs for functional cell-free bioassays of membrane proteins.

  6. A recombinant protein expression system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... Serum free cultivation of Leishmania is cost-effective and improves large scale production of well- defined parasite material. Moreover, the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins requires cultivation of the host in a culture medium free of animal materials, so several culture media for.

  7. Stochastic lattice model of synaptic membrane protein domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwei; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A.

    2017-05-01

    Neurotransmitter receptor molecules, concentrated in synaptic membrane domains along with scaffolds and other kinds of proteins, are crucial for signal transmission across chemical synapses. In common with other membrane protein domains, synaptic domains are characterized by low protein copy numbers and protein crowding, with rapid stochastic turnover of individual molecules. We study here in detail a stochastic lattice model of the receptor-scaffold reaction-diffusion dynamics at synaptic domains that was found previously to capture, at the mean-field level, the self-assembly, stability, and characteristic size of synaptic domains observed in experiments. We show that our stochastic lattice model yields quantitative agreement with mean-field models of nonlinear diffusion in crowded membranes. Through a combination of analytic and numerical solutions of the master equation governing the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains, together with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we find substantial discrepancies between mean-field and stochastic models for the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains. Based on the reaction and diffusion properties of synaptic receptors and scaffolds suggested by previous experiments and mean-field calculations, we show that the stochastic reaction-diffusion dynamics of synaptic receptors and scaffolds provide a simple physical mechanism for collective fluctuations in synaptic domains, the molecular turnover observed at synaptic domains, key features of the observed single-molecule trajectories, and spatial heterogeneity in the effective rates at which receptors and scaffolds are recycled at the cell membrane. Our work sheds light on the physical mechanisms and principles linking the collective properties of membrane protein domains to the stochastic dynamics that rule their molecular components.

  8. Stochastic lattice model of synaptic membrane protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwei; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2017-05-01

    Neurotransmitter receptor molecules, concentrated in synaptic membrane domains along with scaffolds and other kinds of proteins, are crucial for signal transmission across chemical synapses. In common with other membrane protein domains, synaptic domains are characterized by low protein copy numbers and protein crowding, with rapid stochastic turnover of individual molecules. We study here in detail a stochastic lattice model of the receptor-scaffold reaction-diffusion dynamics at synaptic domains that was found previously to capture, at the mean-field level, the self-assembly, stability, and characteristic size of synaptic domains observed in experiments. We show that our stochastic lattice model yields quantitative agreement with mean-field models of nonlinear diffusion in crowded membranes. Through a combination of analytic and numerical solutions of the master equation governing the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains, together with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we find substantial discrepancies between mean-field and stochastic models for the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains. Based on the reaction and diffusion properties of synaptic receptors and scaffolds suggested by previous experiments and mean-field calculations, we show that the stochastic reaction-diffusion dynamics of synaptic receptors and scaffolds provide a simple physical mechanism for collective fluctuations in synaptic domains, the molecular turnover observed at synaptic domains, key features of the observed single-molecule trajectories, and spatial heterogeneity in the effective rates at which receptors and scaffolds are recycled at the cell membrane. Our work sheds light on the physical mechanisms and principles linking the collective properties of membrane protein domains to the stochastic dynamics that rule their molecular components.

  9. Podocyte expression of membrane transporters involved in puromycin aminonucleoside-mediated injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zennaro

    Full Text Available Several complex mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of the intricate ramified morphology of glomerular podocytes and to interactions with neighboring cells and the underlying basement membrane. Recently, components of small molecule transporter families have been found in the podocyte membrane, but expression and function of membrane transporters in podocytes is largely unexplored. To investigate this complex field of investigation, we used two molecules which are known substrates of membrane transporters, namely Penicillin G and Puromycin Aminonucleoside (PA. We observed that Penicillin G pre-administration prevented both in vitro and in vivo podocyte damage caused by PA, suggesting the engagement of the same membrane transporters by the two molecules. Indeed, we found that podocytes express a series of transporters which are known to be used by Penicillin G, such as members of the Organic Anion Transporter Polypeptides (OATP/Oatp family of influx transporters, and P-glycoprotein, a member of the MultiDrug Resistance (MDR efflux transporter family. Expression of OATP/Oatp transporters was modified by PA treatment. Similarly, in vitro PA treatment increased mRNA and protein expression of P-glycoprotein, as well as its activity, confirming the engagement of the molecule upon PA administration. In summary, we have characterized some of the small molecule transporters present at the podocyte membrane, focusing on those used by PA to enter and exit the cell. Further investigation will be needed to understand precisely the role of these transporter families in maintaining podocyte homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of podocyte injury.

  10. A phase 1 study of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a group B strain with deleted lpxL1 and synX, over-expressed factor H binding protein, two PorAs and stabilized OpcA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, P B; Biggs-Cicatelli, S; Moran, E E; Schmiel, D H; Pinto, V B; Burden, R E; Miller, L B; Moon, J E; Bowden, R A; Cummings, J F; Zollinger, W D

    2011-02-04

    This phase I clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from an lpxL1(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 8570(B:4:P1.19,15:L8-5) of Neisseria meningitidis. Additional mutations enhance the expression of factor H binding protein variant 1 (fHbp v.1), stabilize expression of OpcA and introduce a second PorA (P1.22,14). Thirty-six volunteers were assigned to one of four dose groups (10, 25, 50 and 75 mcg, based on protein content) to receive three intramuscular injections at six week intervals with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Specific local and systemic adverse events were solicited by diary and at visits on days 2, 7, and 14 after each vaccination. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again 2 and 14 days later. Blood for ELISA and serum bactericidal assays was drawn two and six weeks after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in bactericidal activity to the wild type parent of the vaccine strain at two weeks after the third dose was 27 out of 34 (0.79, 95% C.I. 0.65-0.93). Against four other group B strains the response rate ranged from 41% to 82% indicating a good cross reactive antibody response. Depletion assays show contributions to bactericidal activity from antibodies to lipooligosaccharide (LOS), fHbp v.1 and OpcA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Identification of membrane proteins associated with phenylpropanoid tolerance and transport in Escherichia coli BL21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Wang, Kui; Xu, Sha; Wu, Junjun; Liu, Peiran; Du, Guocheng; Li, Jianghua; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-15

    Phenylpropanoids are phytochemicals produced by some plants and possess a wide variety of biological activities. These compounds exist in plants in low amounts. Production of them in genetically engineered microorganisms has many advantages. A majority of functional phenylpropanoids are toxic to microbial hosts. Export of these compounds may relieve the cellular toxicity and increase the yield. However, proteins and mechanisms involved in phenylpropanoids transport and tolerance remain poorly understood. In this study, 16 membrane proteins that were differentially expressed in Escherichia coli in response to three typical phenylpropanoids (resveratrol, naringenin and rutin) were identified using a membrane proteomics approach. These proteins included outer membrane proteins OmpA, OmpF, OmpW, FadL, TolC, LamB, and YaeT, peripheral membrane proteins AtpD, AtpH, YgaU, OppA, MalK, and MalE, and cytoplasmic membrane proteins OppD, PotG, and ManX. Functions of these proteins were determined by using gene overexpression and silencing. The results suggest that OmpA and FadL may play important roles in the transmembrane export of phenylpropanoids in E. coli. LamB, MalE, MalK and ManX may participate in phenylpropanoid uptake. The role of YgaU in enhancing the tolerance to phenylpropanoids remains to be determined. These results may assist the engineering of microorganisms with enhanced phenylpropanoid producing capabilities. Phenylpropanoids are phytochemicals produced by some plants and possess a wide variety of biological activities. Both the tolerance and the transport of phenylpropanoids play important roles in systematic metabolic engineering of microorganisms to produce these phytochemicals. Both specific and non-specific transporters are essential for these functions but remain poorly understood. This research utilized membrane proteomics to identify E. coli BL21 (DE3) membrane proteins that may be involved in phenylpropanoid transport and tolerance. These results

  12. Rupturing Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles to Form Micron-sized Supported Cell Plasma Membranes with Native Transmembrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Chieh; Tanady, Kevin; Huang, Ling-Ting; Chao, Ling

    2017-11-09

    Being able to directly obtain micron-sized cell blebs, giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs), with native membrane proteins and deposit them on a planar support to form supported plasma membranes could allow the membrane proteins to be studied by various surface analytical tools in native-like bilayer environments. However, GPMVs do not easily rupture on conventional supports because of their high protein and cholesterol contents. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of using compression generated by the air-water interface to efficiently rupture GPMVs to form micron-sized supported membranes with native plasma membrane proteins. We demonstrated that not only lipid but also a native transmembrane protein in HeLa cells, Aquaporin 3 (AQP3), is mobile in the supported membrane platform. This convenient method for generating micron-sized supported membrane patches with mobile native transmembrane proteins could not only facilitate the study of membrane proteins by surface analytical tools, but could also enable us to use native membrane proteins for bio-sensing applications.

  13. A glutathione redox effect on photosynthetic membrane expression in Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Anke Berit; Henkel, Marius; Grammel, Hartmut

    2011-04-01

    The formation of intracytoplasmic photosynthetic membranes by facultative anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria has become a prime example for exploring redox control of gene expression in response to oxygen and light. Although a number of redox-responsive sensor proteins and transcription factors have been characterized in several species during the last several years in some detail, the overall understanding of the metabolic events that determine the cellular redox environment and initiate redox signaling is still poor. In the present study we demonstrate that in Rhodospirillum rubrum, the amount of photosynthetic membranes can be drastically elevated by external supplementation of the growth medium with the low-molecular-weight thiol glutathione. Neither the widely used reductant dithiothreitol nor oxidized glutathione caused the same response, suggesting that the effect was specific for reduced glutathione. By determination of the extracellular and intracellular glutathione levels, we correlate the GSH/GSSG redox potential to the expression level of photosynthetic membranes. Possible regulatory interactions with periplasmic, membrane, and cytosolic proteins are discussed. Furthermore, we found that R. rubrum cultures excrete substantial amounts of glutathione to the environment.

  14. A Glutathione Redox Effect on Photosynthetic Membrane Expression in Rhodospirillum rubrum▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Anke Berit; Henkel, Marius; Grammel, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    The formation of intracytoplasmic photosynthetic membranes by facultative anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria has become a prime example for exploring redox control of gene expression in response to oxygen and light. Although a number of redox-responsive sensor proteins and transcription factors have been characterized in several species during the last several years in some detail, the overall understanding of the metabolic events that determine the cellular redox environment and initiate redox signaling is still poor. In the present study we demonstrate that in Rhodospirillum rubrum, the amount of photosynthetic membranes can be drastically elevated by external supplementation of the growth medium with the low-molecular-weight thiol glutathione. Neither the widely used reductant dithiothreitol nor oxidized glutathione caused the same response, suggesting that the effect was specific for reduced glutathione. By determination of the extracellular and intracellular glutathione levels, we correlate the GSH/GSSG redox potential to the expression level of photosynthetic membranes. Possible regulatory interactions with periplasmic, membrane, and cytosolic proteins are discussed. Furthermore, we found that R. rubrum cultures excrete substantial amounts of glutathione to the environment. PMID:21317329

  15. CRC 1114 - Report Membrane Deformation by N-BAR Proteins: Extraction of membrane geometry and protein diffusion characteristics from MD simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Jan Henning; Gräser, Carsten; Klein, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    We describe simulations of Proteins and artificial pseudo-molecules interacting and shaping lipid bilayer membranes. We extract protein diffusion Parameters, membrane deformation profiles and the elastic properties of the used membrane models in preparation of calculations based on a large scale continuum model.

  16. Identification of membrane proteins by tandem mass spectrometry of protein ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joe; Altman, Matthew C.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The most common way of identifying proteins in proteomic analyses is to use short segments of sequence (“tags”) determined by mass spectrometric analysis of proteolytic fragments. The approach is effective with globular proteins and with membrane proteins with significant polar segments between membrane-spanning α-helices, but it is ineffective with other hydrophobic proteins where protease cleavage sites are either infrequent or absent. By developing methods to purify hydrophobic proteins in organic solvents and by fragmenting ions of these proteins by collision induced dissociation with argon, we have shown that partial sequences of many membrane proteins can be deduced easily by manual inspection. The spectra from small proteolipids (1–4 transmembrane α-helices) are dominated usually by fragment ions arising from internal amide cleavages, from which internal sequences can be obtained, whereas the spectra from larger membrane proteins (5–18 transmembrane α-helices) often contain fragment ions from N- and/or C-terminal parts yielding sequences in those regions. With these techniques, we have, for example, identified an abundant protein of unknown function from inner membranes of mitochondria that to our knowledge has escaped detection in proteomic studies, and we have produced sequences from 10 of 13 proteins encoded in mitochondrial DNA. They include the ND6 subunit of complex I, the last of its 45 subunits to be analyzed. The procedures have the potential to be developed further, for example by using newly introduced methods for protein ion dissociation to induce fragmentation of internal regions of large membrane proteins, which may remain partially folded in the gas phase. PMID:17720804

  17. Methods of reconstitution to investigate membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Ruth; Iqbal, Shagufta; Callaghan, Richard

    2018-02-16

    Membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to investigate in isolation. The focus of this chapter is the key step following extraction and purification of membrane proteins; namely reconstitution. The process of reconstitution re-inserts proteins into a lipid bilayer that partly resembles their native environment. This native environment is vital to the stability of membrane proteins, ensuring that they undergo vital conformational transitions and maintain optimal interaction with their substrates. Reconstitution may take many forms and these have been classified into two broad categories. Symmetric systems enable unfettered access to both sides of a bilayer. Compartment containing systems contain a lumen and are ideally suited to measurement of transport processes. The investigator is encouraged to ascertain what aspects of protein function will be undertaken and to apply the most advantageous reconstitution system or systems. It is important to note that the process of reconstitution is not subject to defined protocols and requires empirical optimisation to specific targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transport of Proteins Dissolved in Organic Solvents Across Biomimetic Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Lev E.; Klibanov, Alexander M.

    1995-02-01

    Using lipid-impregnated porous cellulose membranes as biomimetic barriers, we tested the hypothesis that to afford effective transmembrane transfer of proteins and nucleic acids, the vehicle solvent should be able to dissolve both the biopolymers and the lipids. While the majority of solvents dissolve one or the other, ethanol and methanol were found to dissolve both, especially if the protein had been lyophilized from an aqueous solution of a pH remote from the protein's isoelectric point. A number of proteins, as well as RNA and DNA, dissolved in these alcohols readily crossed the lipidized membranes, whereas the same biopolymers placed in nondissolving solvents (e.g., hexane and ethyl acetate) or in those unable to dissolve lipids (e.g., water and dimethyl sulfoxide) exhibited little transmembrane transport. The solubility of biopolymers in ethanol and methanol was further enhanced by complexation with detergents and poly(ethylene glycol); significant protein and nucleic acid transport through the lipidized membranes was observed from these solvents but not from water.

  19. Probing protein-lipid interactions by FRET between membrane fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusova, Valeriya M.; Gorbenko, Galyna P.; Deligeorgiev, Todor; Gadjev, Nikolai

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful fluorescence technique that has found numerous applications in medicine and biology. One area where FRET proved to be especially informative involves the intermolecular interactions in biological membranes. The present study was focused on developing and verifying a Monte-Carlo approach to analyzing the results of FRET between the membrane-bound fluorophores. This approach was employed to quantify FRET from benzanthrone dye ABM to squaraine dye SQ-1 in the model protein-lipid system containing a polycationic globular protein lysozyme and negatively charged lipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. It was found that acceptor redistribution between the lipid bilayer and protein binding sites resulted in the decrease of FRET efficiency. Quantification of this effect in terms of the proposed methodology yielded both structural and binding parameters of lysozyme-lipid complexes.

  20. Bcl-2 apoptosis proteins, mitochondrial membrane curvature, and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwee Lai, Ghee; Schmidt, Nathan; Sanders, Lori; Mishra, Abhijit; Wong, Gerard; Ivashyna, Olena; Christenson, Eric; Schlesinger, Paul; Akabori, Kiyotaka; Santangelo, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Critical interactions between Bcl-2 family proteins permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane, a common decision point early in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway that irreversibly commits the cell to death. However, a unified picture integrating the essential non-passive role of lipid membranes with the contested dynamics of Bcl-2 regulation remains unresolved. Correlating results between synchrotron x-ray diffraction and microscopy in cell-free assays, we report activation of pro-apoptotic Bax induces strong pure negative Gaussian membrane curvature topologically necessary for pore formation and membrane remodeling events. Strikingly, Bcl-xL suppresses not only Bax-induced pore formation, but also membrane remodeling by disparate systems including cell penetrating, antimicrobial or viral fusion peptides, and bacterial toxin, none of which have BH3 allosteric domains to mediate direct binding. We propose a parallel mode of Bcl-2 pore regulation in which Bax and Bcl-xL induce antagonistic and mutually interacting Gaussian membrane curvatures. The universal nature of curvature-mediated interactions allows synergy with direct binding mechanisms, and potentially accounts for the Bcl-2 family modulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics.

  1. Enhanced expression of rabies virus surface G-protein in Escherichia coli using SUMO fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankit; Yadav, Dinesh; Rai, Krishan Mohan; Srivastava, Meenal; Verma, Praveen C; Singh, Pradhyumna K; Tuli, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion systems are known to increase the expression of difficult to express recombinant proteins in soluble form to facilitate their purification. Rabies glycoprotein was also tough to express at sufficient level in soluble form in both E. coli and plant. The present work was aimed to over-express and purify this membrane protein from soluble extract of E. coli. Fusion of Small Ubiqutin like Modifier (SUMO) with rabies glycoprotein increased ~1.5 fold higher expression and ~3.0 fold solubility in comparison to non-fused in E. coli. The SUMO fusion also simplified the purification process. Previously engineered rabies glycoprotein gene in tobacco plants provides complete protection to mice, but the expression was very low for purification. Our finding demonstrated that the SUMO-fusion was useful for enhancing expression and solubility of the membrane protein and again proves to be a good alternative technology for applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical research.

  2. The impact of physiological crowding on the diffusivity of membrane bound proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Justin R; Busch, David J; Bell, David R; Li, Brian; Ren, Pengyu; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2016-02-21

    Diffusion of transmembrane and peripheral membrane-bound proteins within the crowded cellular membrane environment is essential to diverse biological processes including cellular signaling, endocytosis, and motility. Nonetheless we presently lack a detailed understanding of the influence of physiological levels of crowding on membrane protein diffusion. Utilizing quantitative in vitro measurements, here we demonstrate that the diffusivities of membrane bound proteins follow a single linearly decreasing trend with increasing membrane coverage by proteins. This trend holds for homogenous protein populations across a range of protein sizes and for heterogeneous mixtures of proteins of different sizes, such that protein diffusivity is controlled by the total coverage of the surrounding membrane. These results demonstrate that steric exclusion within the crowded membrane environment can fundamentally limit the diffusive rate of proteins, regardless of their size. In cells this "speed limit" could be modulated by changes in local membrane coverage, providing a mechanism for tuning the rate of molecular interaction and assembly.

  3. Membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH are major constituents of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Per H; Christiansen, Gunna; Roepstorff, P

    2000-01-01

    The outer membrane complex of Chlamydia is involved in the initial adherence and ingestion of Chlamydia by the host cell. In order to identify novel proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2, proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. By....... By silver staining of the protein profile, a major protein doublet of 100-110 kDa was detected. In-gel tryptic digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry identified these proteins as the putative outer membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH....

  4. Membrane stress is coupled to a rapid translational control of gene expression in chlorpromazine-treated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippi, Loic; Fournier, Margot; Cameroni, Elisabetta; Linder, Patrick; De Virgilio, Claudio; Foti, Michelangelo; Deloche, Olivier

    2007-09-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is a small permeable cationic amphiphilic molecule that inserts into membrane bilayers and binds to anionic lipids such as poly-phosphoinositides (PIs). Since PIs play important roles in many cellular processes, including signaling and membrane trafficking pathways, it has been proposed that CPZ affects cellular growth functions by preventing the recruitment of proteins with specific PI-binding domains. In this study, we have investigated the biological effects of CPZ in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We screened a collection of approximately 4,800 gene knockout mutants, and found that mutants defective in membrane trafficking between the late-Golgi and endosomal compartments are highly sensitive to CPZ. Microscopy and transport analyses revealed that CPZ affects membrane structure of organelles, blocks membrane transport and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). In addition, CPZ-treatment induces phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor (eIF2alpha), which reduces the general rate of protein synthesis and stimulates the production of Gcn4p, a major transcription factor that is activated in response to environmental stresses. Altogether, our results reveal that membrane stress within the cells rapidly activates an important gene expression program, which is followed by a general inhibition of protein synthesis. Remarkably, the increase of phosphorylated eIF2alpha and protein synthesis inhibition were also detected in CPZ-treated NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, suggesting the existence of a conserved mechanism of translational regulation that operates during a membrane stress.

  5. Molecular biology of Neisseria meningitidis class 5 and H. 8 outer membrane proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawula, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    One of the surface structures responsible for inter- and intrastrain antigenic variability in meningococci is the heat-modifiable class 5 (C.5) protein. Neisseria meningitidis strain FAM18 (a meningococcal disease isolate) expressed two different C.5 proteins (C.5a and C.5b) identifiable by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We generated two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), each specific for one of the identified C.5 proteins. The MAbs, which were bactericidal for variants expressing the appropriate C.5 protein, were used to study C.5 expression changes in FAM18. The H.8 protein is an antigenically conserved outer membrane protein expressed almost exclusively by the pathogenic Neisseria. We have cloned and sequenced an H.8 gene from N. meningitidis FAM18. The predicted H.8 amino acid sequence indicated that the most probable signal peptide processing site matched the consensus prokaryotic lipoprotein processing/modification sequence. We then showed that the H.8 protein could be labeled with {sup 14}C-palmitic acid, confirming that H.8 was a lipoprotein. Processing of the H.8 protein was inhibited by globomycin in E. coli indicating that H.8 was modified by the described lipoprotein processing/modifying pathway described in both gram negative and gram positive genera.

  6. Multifunctional Transmembrane Protein Ligands for Cell-Specific Targeting of Plasma Membrane-Derived Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chi; Busch, David J; Vershel, Connor P; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2016-07-01

    Liposomes and nanoparticles that bind selectively to cell-surface receptors can target specific populations of cells. However, chemical conjugation of ligands to these particles is difficult to control, frequently limiting ligand uniformity and complexity. In contrast, the surfaces of living cells are decorated with highly uniform populations of sophisticated transmembrane proteins. Toward harnessing cellular capabilities, here it is demonstrated that plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) derived from donor cells can display engineered transmembrane protein ligands that precisely target cells on the basis of receptor expression. These multifunctional targeting proteins incorporate (i) a protein ligand, (ii) an intrinsically disordered protein spacer to make the ligand sterically accessible, and (iii) a fluorescent protein domain that enables quantification of the ligand density on the PMV surface. PMVs that display targeting proteins with affinity for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) bind at increasing concentrations to breast cancer cells that express increasing levels of EGFR. Further, as an example of the generality of this approach, PMVs expressing a single-domain antibody against green fluorescence protein (eGFP) bind to cells expressing eGFP-tagged receptors with a selectivity of ≈50:1. The results demonstrate the versatility of PMVs as cell targeting systems, suggesting diverse applications from drug delivery to tissue engineering. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Plasma membrane proteome analysis identifies a role of barley Membrane Steroid Binding Protein in root architecture response to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Katja; Matros, Andrea; Møller, Anders L B; Ramireddy, Eswarrayya; Finnie, Christine; Peukert, Manuela; Rutten, Twan; Herzog, Andreas; Kunze, Gotthard; Melzer, Michael; Kaspar-Schoenefeld, Stephanie; Schmülling, Thomas; Svensson, Birte; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2018-01-31

    Although physiological consequences of plant growth under saline conditions have been well described, understanding the core mechanisms conferring plant salt adaptation has only started. We target the root plasma membrane (PM) proteomes of two barley varieties, cvs. Steptoe and Morex, with contrasting salinity tolerance. In total, 588 PM proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, of which 182 were either cultivar- or salinity stress-responsive. Three candidate proteins with increased abundance in the tolerant cv. Morex were involved either in sterol-binding (a GTPase-activating protein for the ADP ribosylation factor, ZIGA2, and a membrane steroid binding protein, MSBP) or in phospholipid synthesis (phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, PEAMT). Overexpression of barley MSBP conferred salinity tolerance to yeast cells, while knock-out of the heterologous AtMSBP1 increased salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis. Atmsbp1 plants showed a reduced number of lateral roots under salinity and root tip-specific expression of barley MSBP in Atmsbp1 complemented this phenotype. In barley, an increased abundance of MSBP correlates with reduced root length and lateral root formation as well as increased levels of auxin under salinity being stronger in the tolerant cv. Morex. Hence, we concluded the involvement of MSBP in phytohormone-directed adaptation of root architecture in response to salinity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Infrared spectroscopic study of photoreceptor membrane and purple membrane. Protein secondary structure and hydrogen deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, N.W.; Bruchman, T.J.; Hazzard, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the interval from 1800 to 1300 cm-1 has been used to investigate the secondary structure and the hydrogen/deuterium exchange behavior of bacteriorhodopsin and bovine rhodopsin in their respective native membranes. The amide I' and amide II' regions from spectra of membrane suspensions in D2O were decomposed into constituent bands by use of a curve-fitting procedure. The amide I' bands could be fit with a minimum of three theoretical components having peak positions at 1664, 1638, and 1625 cm-1 for bacteriorhodopsin and 1657, 1639, and 1625 cm-1 for rhodopsin. For both of these membrane proteins, the amide I' spectrum suggests that alpha-helix is the predominant form of peptide chain secondary structure, but that a substantial amount of beta-sheet conformation is present as well. The shape of the amide I' band was pH-sensitive for photoreceptor membranes, but not for purple membrane, indicating that membrane-bound rhodopsin undergoes a conformation change at acidic pH. Peptide hydrogen exchange of bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin was monitored by observing the change in the ratio of integrated absorbance (Aamide II'/Aamide I') during the interval from 1.5 to 25 h after membranes were introduced into buffered D2O. The fraction of peptide groups in a very slowly exchanging secondary structure was estimated to be 0.71 for bacteriorhodopsin at pD 7. The corresponding fraction in vertebrate rhodopsin was estimated to be less than or equal to 0.60. These findings are discussed in relationship to previous studies of hydrogen exchange behavior and to structural models for both proteins

  9. Engineering membrane proteins for nuclear medicine. Applications for gene therapy and cell tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov Jr, A.A.; Simonova, M.; Weissleder, R.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT imaging are expected to play major roles in evaluating the efficacy of in vivo gene therapy. In particular, the quantification of vector delivery and imaging the efficacy of gene expression are of key interests in testing new treatment paradigms and in designing novel vectors. In this review article it has been illustrated how nuclear imaging can be used to image novel cell-surface expressed fusion proteins and how this strategy can be used to probe for phenotypic changes in genetically manipulated cells. Since the described approach uses new fusion proteins, typically not present on eukaryotic cells, such as artificial receptors can be designed to bind radioisotopes currently in clinical use. The described fusion proteins consists of 1) a binding domain such as a peptide based chelator that binds 99mT c oxotechnetate and 2) a membrane anchoring domain. A variety of fusion proteins have been tested so far and the most promising one to date consists of a metallothionein (MT)-derived C-terminal peptide fused a type II membrane protein markers containing the N-terminal membrane anchoring domain of neutral endopeptidase (PEP). Cell-surface expression of MT in transfected cells has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies in vitro. Both in vitro and in vivo transchelation experiments have confirmed expression of 99mT c-binding sites in eukaryotic cells. It was expected the described approach to evolve into a useful strategy to tag transfected cells with 99mT c and thus assessing efficiency of gene delivery and expression

  10. Quantification of functional dynamics of membrane proteins reconstituted in nanodiscs membranes by single turnover functional readout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moses, Matias Emil; Hedegård, Per; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule measurements are emerging as a powerful tool to study the individual behavior of biomolecules, revolutionizing our understanding of biological processes. Their ability to measure the distribution of behaviors, instead of the average behavior, allows the direct observation and quan......Single-molecule measurements are emerging as a powerful tool to study the individual behavior of biomolecules, revolutionizing our understanding of biological processes. Their ability to measure the distribution of behaviors, instead of the average behavior, allows the direct observation...... and quantification of the activity, abundance, and lifetime of multiple states and transient intermediates in the energy landscape that are typically averaged out in nonsynchronized ensemble measurements. Studying the function of membrane proteins at the single-molecule level remains a formidable challenge......, and to date there is limited number of available functional assays. In this chapter, we describe in detail our recently developed methodology to reconstitute membrane proteins such as the integral membrane protein cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase on membrane systems such as Nanodiscs and study their functional...

  11. F-BAR family proteins, emerging regulators for cell membrane dynamic changes-from structure to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suxuan; Xiong, Xinyu; Zhao, Xianxian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2015-05-09

    Eukaryotic cell membrane dynamics change in curvature during physiological and pathological processes. In the past ten years, a novel protein family, Fes/CIP4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) domain proteins, has been identified to be the most important coordinators in membrane curvature regulation. The F-BAR domain family is a member of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain superfamily that is associated with dynamic changes in cell membrane. However, the molecular basis in membrane structure regulation and the biological functions of F-BAR protein are unclear. The pathophysiological role of F-BAR protein is unknown. This review summarizes the current understanding of structure and function in the BAR domain superfamily, classifies F-BAR family proteins into nine subfamilies based on domain structure, and characterizes F-BAR protein structure, domain interaction, and functional relevance. In general, F-BAR protein binds to cell membrane via F-BAR domain association with membrane phospholipids and initiates membrane curvature and scission via Src homology-3 (SH3) domain interaction with its partner proteins. This process causes membrane dynamic changes and leads to seven important cellular biological functions, which include endocytosis, phagocytosis, filopodium, lamellipodium, cytokinesis, adhesion, and podosome formation, via distinct signaling pathways determined by specific domain-binding partners. These cellular functions play important roles in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. We further summarize F-BAR protein expression and mutation changes observed in various diseases and developmental disorders. Considering the structure feature and functional implication of F-BAR proteins, we anticipate that F-BAR proteins modulate physiological and pathophysiological processes via transferring extracellular materials, regulating cell trafficking and mobility, presenting antigens, mediating extracellular matrix degradation, and transmitting

  12. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Shukla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS: Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS: Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1 expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  13. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  14. Reconstitution of membrane protein complexes involved in pneumococcal septal cell wall assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolaine Noirclerc-Savoye

    Full Text Available The synthesis of peptidoglycan, the major component of the bacterial cell wall, is essential to cell survival, yet its mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present work, we have isolated several membrane protein complexes consisting of the late division proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae: DivIB, DivIC, FtsL, PBP2x and FtsW, or subsets thereof. We have co-expressed membrane proteins from S. pneumoniae in Escherichia coli. By combining two successive affinity chromatography steps, we obtained membrane protein complexes with a very good purity. These complexes are functional, as indicated by the retained activity of PBP2x to bind a fluorescent derivative of penicillin and to hydrolyze the substrate analogue S2d. Moreover, we have evidenced the stabilizing role of protein-protein interactions within each complex. This work paves the way for a complete reconstitution of peptidoglycan synthesis in vitro, which will be critical to the elucidation of its intricate regulation mechanisms.

  15. Monoclonal antibodies against the iron regulated outer membrane Proteins of Acinetobacter baumannii are bactericidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Vikas

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is an important nutrient required by all forms of life.In the case of human hosts,the free iron availability is 10-18M,which is far less than what is needed for the survival of the invading bacterial pathogen.To survive in such conditions, bacteria express new proteins in their outer membrane and also secrete iron chelators called siderophores. Results/ Discussion Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, a nosocomial pathogen which grows under iron restricted conditions, expresses four new outer membrane proteins,with molecular weight ranging from 77 kDa to 88 kDa, that are called Iron Regulated Outer Membrane Proteins (IROMPs. We studied the functional and immunological properties of IROMPs expressed by A.baumanii ATCC 19606.The bands corresponding to IROMPs were eluted from SDS-PAGE and were used to immunize BALB/c mice for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Hybridomas secreting specific antibodies against these IROMPs were selected after screening by ELISA and their reactivity was confirmed by Western Blot. The antibodies then generated belonged to IgM isotype and showed bactericidical and opsonising activities against A.baumanii in vitro.These antibodies also blocked siderophore mediated iron uptake via IROMPs in bacteria. Conclusion This proves that iron uptake via IROMPs,which is mediated through siderophores,may have an important role in the survival of A.baumanii inside the host,and helps establishing the infection.

  16. Accessible Mannitol-Based Amphiphiles (MNAs) for Membrane Protein Solubilisation and Stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Hazrat; Du, Yang; Scull, Nicola J.

    2016-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins are amphipathic molecules crucial for all cellular life. The structural study of these macromolecules starts with protein extraction from the native membranes, followed by purification and crystallisation. Detergents are essential tools for these processes, but detergent...

  17. Novel Xylene-Linked Maltoside Amphiphiles (XMAs) for Membrane Protein Stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Du, Yang; Scull, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are key functional players in biological systems. These biomacromolecules contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and thus amphipathic molecules are necessary to extract membrane proteins from their native lipid environments and stabilise them in aqueous solutions. Conv...

  18. An approach to membrane protein structure without crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgen, Paul L.; Hu, Yonglin; Guan, Lan; Kaback, H. Ronald; Girvin, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    The lactose permease of Escherichia coli catalyzes coupled translocation of galactosides and H+ across the cell membrane. It is the best-characterized member of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, a related group of membrane proteins with 12 transmembrane domains that mediate transport of various substrates across cell membranes. Despite decades of effort and their functional importance in all kingdoms of life, no high-resolution structures have been solved for any member of this family. However, extensive biochemical, genetic, and biophysical studies on lactose permease have established its transmembrane topology, secondary structure, and numerous interhelical contacts. Here we demonstrate that this information is sufficient to calculate a structural model at the level of helix packing or better. PMID:12391320

  19. Sch proteins are localized on endoplasmic reticulum membranes and are redistributed after tyrosine kinase receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, L V; Lanfrancone, L; Migliaccio, E

    1996-01-01

    The intracellular localization of Shc proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy in normal cells and cells expressing the epidermal growth factor receptor or the EGFR/erbB2 chimera. In unstimulated cells, the immunolabeling was localized in the central perinuclear...... and endocytic structures, such as coated pits and endosomes, and with the peripheral cytosol. Receptor activation in cells expressing phosphorylation-defective mutants of Shc and erbB-2 kinase showed that receptor autophosphorylation, but not Shc phosphorylation, is required for redistribution of Shc proteins....... The rough endoplasmic reticulum localization of Shc proteins in unstimulated cells and their massive recruitment to the plasma membrane, endocytic structures, and peripheral cytosol following receptor tyrosine kinase activation could account for multiple putative functions of the adaptor protein....

  20. Major proteins of the goat milk fat globule membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebo, C; Caillat, H; Bouvier, F; Martin, P

    2010-03-01

    Fat is present in milk as droplets of triglycerides surrounded by a complex membrane derived from the mammary epithelial cell called milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Although numerous studies have been published on human or bovine MFGM proteins, to date few studies exist on MFGM proteins from goat milk. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the protein composition of the goat MFGM. Milk fat globule membrane proteins from goat milk were separated by 6% and 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and were Coomassie or periodic acid-Schiff stained. Most of MFGM proteins [mucin-1, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin (MFG EGF-8, MFG-E8), and adipophilin] already described in cow milk were identified in goat milk using peptide mass fingerprinting. In addition, lectin staining provided a preliminary characterization of carbohydrate structures occurring on MFGM proteins from goat milk depending on alpha(S1)-casein genotype and lactation stage. We provide here first evidence of the presence of O-glycans on fatty acid synthase and xanthine oxidase from goat milk. A prominent difference between the cow and the goat species was demonstrated for lactadherin. Indeed, whereas 2 polypeptide chains were easily identified by peptide mass fingerprinting matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis within bovine MFGM proteins, lactadherin from goat milk consisted of a single polypeptide chain. Another striking observation was the presence of caseins associated with MFGM preparations from goat milk, whereas virtually no caseins were found in MFGM extracts from bovine milk. Taken together, these observations strongly support the existence of a singular secretion mode previously hypothesized in the goat.

  1. The E. coli Single Protein Production (cSPP) System for Production and Structural Analysis of Membrane Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Lili; Vaiphei, S. Thangminlal; Shimazu, Tsutomu; Schneider, William M.; Tang, Yuefeng; Mani, Rajeswari; Roth, Monica J.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Inouye, Masayori

    2009-01-01

    At present, only 0.9% of PDB-deposited structures are of membrane proteins in spite of the fact that membrane proteins constitute approximately 30% of total proteins in most genomes from bacteria to humans. Here we address some of the major bottlenecks in the structural studies of membrane proteins and discuss the ability of the new technology, the Single-Protein Production (SPP) system, to help solve these bottlenecks.

  2. The membrane protein LasM Promotes the Culturability of Legionella pneumophila in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laam Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The water-borne pathogen Legionella pneumophila (Lp strongly expresses the lpg1659 gene in water. This gene encodes a hypothetical protein predicted to be a membrane protein using in silico analysis. While no conserved domains were identified in Lpg1659, similar proteins are found in many Legionella species and other aquatic bacteria. RT-qPCR showed that lpg1659 is positively regulated by the alternative sigma factor RpoS, which is essential for Lp to survive in water. These observations suggest an important role of this novel protein in the survival of Lp in water. Deletion of lpg1659 did not affect cell morphology, membrane integrity or tolerance to high temperature. Moreover, lpg1659 was dispensable for growth of Lp in rich medium, and during infection of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and of THP-1 human macrophages. However, deletion of lpg1659 resulted in an early loss of culturability in water, while over-expression of this gene promoted the culturability of Lp. Therefore, these results suggest that lpg1659 is required for Lp to maintain culturability, and possibly long-term survival, in water. Since the loss of culturability observed in the absence of Lpg1659 was complemented by the addition of trace metals into water, this membrane protein is likely a transporter for acquiring essential trace metal for maintaining culturability in water and potentially in other metal-deprived conditions. Given its role in the survival of Lp in water, Lpg1659 was named LasM for Legionella aquatic survival membrane protein.

  3. Multiple gonococcal opacity proteins are expressed during experimental urethral infection in the male

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The opacity (Opa) proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are a family of outer membrane proteins demonstrating phase and antigenic variation. N. gonorrhoeae strain FA0190 has 11 opa loci that encode at least 8 antigenically distinct Opa proteins. To determine if expression of one Opa protein or a subset of them is favored during gonococcal infection, we inoculated Opa-negative variants of strain FA1090 intraurethrally into male volunteers. The Opa phenotype of gonococci isolated from urine and ure...

  4. Ion transport across the biological membrane by computational protein design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Gevorg

    The cellular membrane is impermeable to most of the chemicals the cell needs to take in or discard to survive. Therefore, transporters-a class of transmembrane proteins tasked with shuttling cargo chemicals in and out of the cell-are essential to all cellular life. From existing crystal structures, we know transporters to be complex machines, exquisitely tuned for specificity and controllability. But how could membrane-bound life have evolved if it needed such complex machines to exist first? To shed light onto this question, we considered the task of designing a transporter de novo. As our guiding principle, we took the ``alternating-access model''-a conceptual mechanism stating that transporters work by rocking between two conformations, each exposing the cargo-binding site to either the intra- or the extra-cellular environment. A computational design framework was developed to encode an anti-parallel four-helix bundle that rocked between two alternative states to orchestrate the movement of Zn(II) ions across the membrane. The ensemble nature of both states was accounted for using a free energy-based approach, and sequences were chosen based on predicted formation of the targeted topology in the membrane and bi-stability. A single sequence was prepared experimentally and shown to function as a Zn(II) transporter in lipid vesicles. Further, transport was specific to Zn(II) ions and several control peptides supported the underlying design principles. This included a mutant designed to retain all properties but with reduced rocking, which showed greatly depressed transport ability. These results suggest that early transporters could have evolved in the context of simple topologies, to be later tuned by evolution for improved properties and controllability. Our study also serves as an important advance in computational protein design, showing the feasibility of designing functional membrane proteins and of tuning conformational landscapes for desired function

  5. The impact of hemodialysis on erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton proteins

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    Maria Olszewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis (HD is one of the methods of renal replacement therapy, but it also contributes to an increase in oxidative stress. Hemodialysis leads to changes in the erythrocyte cytoskeleton structure, whilst the presence of glucose in the dialysis fluid which activates the pentose phosphate pathway contributes to the intensification of oxidative stress. Available literature lacks reports on the effect of glucose in the dialytic fluid on the composition of proteins of the cell membrane cytoskeleton.Material/Methods: Red blood cells for this analysis were collected from patients with chronic renal failure treated with hemodialysis using both glucose-containing and glucose-free dialysis fluid. Following the preparation of membranes, the electrophoretic separation of proteins was performed in denaturing conditions according to Laemmli. The level of tryptophan in membranes was determined by spectrofluorimetry, whilst the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was determined by measuring the reduction of oxidated NADP.Results: Hemodialysis in both groups of patients resulted in a statistically significant reduction of tryptophan as an oxidative stress indicator when compared to the control group. Moreover, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the group of patients was higher than in the control group, and following the HD procedure it decreased, which may have been caused by a reduced concentration of dialyzed glucose. The HD procedure affects the structure of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton, which is reflected in the concentration changes in individual proteins and in their mutual relationships corresponding to vertical and horizontal interactions stabilizing the structure of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton. These changes may contribute to the shortening of cell lifespan.

  6. Chapter 15. transforming lepidopteran insect cells for continuous recombinant protein expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is widely used to produce large quantities of recombinant proteins. However, yields of extracellular and membrane-bound proteins obtained with this system often are very low, possibly due to the adverse effects of baculovirus infection on the host ins...

  7. Disrupted yeast mitochondria can import precursor proteins directly through their inner membrane

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Import of precursor proteins into the yeast mitochondrial matrix can occur directly across the inner membrane. First, disruption of the outer membrane restores protein import to mitochondria whose normal import sites have been blocked by an antibody against the outer membrane or by a chimeric, incompletely translocated precursor protein. Second, a potential- and ATP-dependent import of authentic or artificial precursor proteins is observed with purified inner membrane vesicles virtually free ...

  8. Alterations in membrane protein-profile during cold treatment of alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, S.S.; Poole, R.J.; Dhindsa, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in pattern of membrane proteins during cold acclimation of alfalfa have been examined. Cold acclimation for 2 to 3 days increases membrane protein content. Labeling of membrane proteins in vivo with [ 35 S]methionine indicates increases in the rate of incorporation as acclimation progresses. Cold acclimation induces the synthesis of about 10 new polypeptides as shown by SDS-PAGE and fluorography of membrane proteins labeled in vivo

  9. Artificial membranes with selective nanochannels for protein transport

    KAUST Repository

    Sutisna, B.

    2016-09-05

    A poly(styrene-b-tert-butoxystyrene-b-styrene) copolymer was synthesized by anionic polymerization and hydrolyzed to poly(styrene-b-4-hydroxystyrene-b-styrene). Lamellar morphology was confirmed in the bulk after annealing. Membranes were fabricated by self-assembly of the hydrolyzed copolymer in solution, followed by water induced phase separation. A high density of pores of 4 to 5 nm diameter led to a water permeance of 40 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 and molecular weight cut-off around 8 kg mol−1. The morphology was controlled by tuning the polymer concentration, evaporation time, and the addition of imidazole and pyridine to stabilize the terpolymer micelles in the casting solution via hydrogen bond complexes. Transmission electron microscopy of the membrane cross-sections confirmed the formation of channels with hydroxyl groups beneficial for hydrogen-bond forming sites. The morphology evolution was investigated by time-resolved grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering experiments. The membrane channels reject polyethylene glycol with a molecular size of 10 kg mol−1, but are permeable to proteins, such as lysozyme (14.3 kg mol−1) and cytochrome c (12.4 kg mol−1), due to the right balance of hydrogen bond interactions along the channels, electrostatic attraction, as well as the right pore sizes. Our results demonstrate that artificial channels can be designed for protein transport via block copolymer self-assembly using classical methods of membrane preparation.

  10. Split-Doa10: a naturally split polytopic eukaryotic membrane protein generated by fission of a nuclear gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Stuerner

    Full Text Available Large polytopic membrane proteins often derive from duplication and fusion of genes for smaller proteins. The reverse process, splitting of a membrane protein by gene fission, is rare and has been studied mainly with artificially split proteins. Fragments of a split membrane protein may associate and reconstitute the function of the larger protein. Most examples of naturally split membrane proteins are from bacteria or eukaryotic organelles, and their exact history is usually poorly understood. Here, we describe a nuclear-encoded split membrane protein, split-Doa10, in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. In most species, Doa10 is encoded as a single polypeptide with 12-16 transmembrane helices (TMs, but split-KlDoa10 is encoded as two fragments, with the split occurring between TM2 and TM3. The two fragments assemble into an active ubiquitin-protein ligase. The K. lactis DOA10 locus has two ORFs separated by a 508-bp intervening sequence (IVS. A promoter within the IVS drives expression of the C-terminal KlDoa10 fragment. At least four additional Kluyveromyces species contain an IVS in the DOA10 locus, in contrast to even closely related genera, allowing dating of the fission event to the base of the genus. The upstream Kluyveromyces Doa10 fragment with its N-terminal RING-CH and two TMs resembles many metazoan MARCH (Membrane-Associated RING-CH and related viral RING-CH proteins, suggesting that gene splitting may have contributed to MARCH enzyme diversification. Split-Doa10 is the first unequivocal case of a split membrane protein where fission occurred in a nuclear-encoded gene. Such a split may allow divergent functions for the individual protein segments.

  11. Complement inhibitory proteins expression in placentas of thrombophilic women Complement inhibitory proteins expression in placentas of thrombophilic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Krzysztof Wirstlein

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling complement activation appear to exert a protective effect on pregnancy. This is
    particularly important in women with thrombophilia. The aim of this study was to determine the transcript and
    protein levels of complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP in the
    placentas of women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia. Also, we assessed immunohistochemistry staining
    of inhibitors of the complement cascade, DAF and MCP proteins, in the placentas of thrombophilic women.
    Placentas were collected from eight women with inherited thrombophilia and ten with acquired thrombophilia.
    The levels of DAF and MCP transcripts were evaluated by qPCR, the protein level was evaluated by Western
    blot. We observed a higher transcript (p < 0.05 and protein (p < 0.001 levels of DAF and MCP in the placentas
    of thrombophilic women than in the control group. DAF and MCP were localized on villous syncytiotrophoblast
    membranes, but the assessment of staining in all groups did not differ. The observed higher expression level of
    proteins that control activation of complement control proteins is only seemingly contradictory to the changes
    observed for example in the antiphospholipid syndrome. However, given the hitherto known biochemical changes
    associated with thrombophilia, a mechanism in which increased expression of DAF and MCP in the placentas is
    an effect of proinflammatory cytokines, which accompanies thrombophilia, is probable.Factors controlling complement activation appear to exert a protective effect on pregnancy. This is
    particularly important in women with thrombophilia. The aim of this study was to determine the transcript and
    protein levels of complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP in the
    placentas of women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia. Also, we assessed immunohistochemistry

  12. Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus I2 Protein Interrupts Virion Morphogenesis, Leading to Retention of the Scaffold Protein and Mislocalization of Membrane-Associated Entry Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seong-In; Weisberg, Andrea; Moss, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    The I2L open reading frame of vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes a conserved 72-amino-acid protein with a putative C-terminal transmembrane domain. Previous studies with a tetracycline-inducible mutant demonstrated that I2-deficient virions are defective in cell entry. The purpose of the present study was to determine the step of replication or entry that is affected by loss of the I2 protein. Fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that I2 colocalized with a major membrane protein of immature and mature virions. We generated a cell line that constitutively expressed I2 and allowed construction of the VACV I2L deletion mutant vΔI2. As anticipated, vΔI2 was unable to replicate in cells that did not express I2. Unexpectedly, morphogenesis was interrupted at a stage after immature virion formation, resulting in the accumulation of dense spherical particles instead of brick-shaped mature virions with well-defined core structures. The abnormal particles retained the D13 scaffold protein of immature virions, were severely deficient in the transmembrane proteins that comprise the entry fusion complex (EFC), and had increased amounts of unprocessed membrane and core proteins. Total lysates of cells infected with vΔI2 also had diminished EFC proteins due to instability attributed to their hydrophobicity and failure to be inserted into viral membranes. A similar instability of EFC proteins had previously been found with unrelated mutants blocked earlier in morphogenesis that also accumulated viral membranes retaining the D13 scaffold. We concluded that I2 is required for virion morphogenesis, release of the D13 scaffold, and the association of EFC proteins with viral membranes. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses comprise a large family that infect vertebrates and invertebrates, cause disease in both in humans and in wild and domesticated animals, and are being engineered as vectors for vaccines and cancer therapy. In addition, investigations of poxviruses have provided insights into

  13. The Bright Fluorescent Protein mNeonGreen Facilitates Protein Expression Analysis In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Hostettler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP has been tremendously useful in investigating cell architecture, protein localization, and protein function. Recent developments in transgenesis and genome editing methods now enable working with fewer transgene copies and, consequently, with physiological expression levels. However, lower signal intensity might become a limiting factor. The recently developed mNeonGreen protein is a brighter alternative to GFP in vitro. The goal of the present study was to determine how mNeonGreen performs in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans—a model used extensively for fluorescence imaging in intact animals. We started with a side-by-side comparison between cytoplasmic forms of mNeonGreen and GFP expressed in the intestine, and in different neurons, of adult animals. While both proteins had similar photostability, mNeonGreen was systematically 3–5 times brighter than GFP. mNeonGreen was also used successfully to trace endogenous proteins, and label specific subcellular compartments such as the nucleus or the plasma membrane. To further demonstrate the utility of mNeonGreen, we tested transcriptional reporters for nine genes with unknown expression patterns. While mNeonGreen and GFP reporters gave overall similar expression patterns, low expression tissues were detected only with mNeonGreen. As a whole, our work establishes mNeonGreen as a brighter alternative to GFP for in vivo imaging in a multicellular organism. Furthermore, the present research illustrates the utility of mNeonGreen to tag proteins, mark subcellular regions, and describe new expression patterns, particularly in tissues with low expression.

  14. Polyplex exposure inhibits cell cycle, increases inflammatory response, and can cause protein expression without cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Rebecca L; Erickson, Blake; Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta F; Baker, James R; Orr, Bradford G; Banaszak Holl, Mark M

    2013-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between cell division and protein expression when using commercial poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-based polyplexes. The membrane dye PKH26 was used to assess cell division, and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was used to monitor protein expression. When analyzed at the whole population level, a greater number of cells divided than expressed protein, regardless of the level of protein expression observed, giving apparent consistency with the hypothesis that protein expression requires cells to pass through mitosis in order for the transgene to overcome the nuclear membrane. However, when the polyplex-exposed population was evaluated for the amount of division in the protein-expressing subpopulation, it was observed that substantial amounts of expression had occurred in the absence of division. Indeed, in HeLa S3 cells, this represented the majority of expressing cells. Of interest, the doubling time for both cell lines was slowed by ~2-fold upon exposure to polyplexes. This change was not altered by the origin of the plasmid DNA (pDNA) transgene promoter (cytomegalovirus (CMV) or elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α)). Gene expression arrays in polyplex-exposed HeLa S3 cells showed upregulation of cell cycle arrest genes and downregulation of genes related to mitosis. Chemokine, interleukin, and toll-like receptor genes were also upregulated, suggesting activation of proinflammatory pathways. In summary, we find evidence that a cell division-independent expression pathway exists, and that polyplex exposure slows cell division and increases inflammatory response.

  15. Interaction between repressor Opi1p and ER membrane protein Scs2p facilitates transit of phosphatidic acid from the ER to mitochondria and is essential for INO1 gene expression in the presence of choline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Maria L; Chang, Yu-Fang; Jesch, Stephen A; Aregullin, Manuel; Henry, Susan A

    2017-11-10

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the Opi1p repressor controls the expression of INO1 via the Opi1p/Ino2p-Ino4p regulatory circuit. Inositol depletion favors Opi1p interaction with both Scs2p and phosphatidic acid at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Inositol supplementation, however, favors the translocation of Opi1p from the ER into the nucleus, where it interacts with the Ino2p-Ino4p complex, attenuating transcription of INO1 A strain devoid of Scs2p ( scs2 Δ) and a mutant, OPI1FFAT , lacking the ability to interact with Scs2p were utilized to examine the specific role(s) of the Opi1p-Scs2p interaction in the regulation of INO1 expression and overall lipid metabolism. Loss of the Opi1p-Scs2p interaction reduced INO1 expression and conferred inositol auxotrophy. Moreover, inositol depletion in strains lacking this interaction resulted in Opi1p being localized to sites of lipid droplet formation, coincident with increased synthesis of triacylglycerol. Supplementation of choline to inositol-depleted growth medium led to decreased TAG synthesis in all three strains. However, in strains lacking the Opi1p-Scs2p interaction, Opi1p remained in the nucleus, preventing expression of INO1 These data support the conclusion that a specific pool of phosphatidic acid, associated with lipid droplet formation in the perinuclear ER, is responsible for the initial rapid exit of Opi1p from the nucleus to the ER and is required for INO1 expression in the presence of choline. Moreover, the mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin, was significantly reduced in both strains compromised for Opi1p-Scs2p interaction, indicating that this interaction is required for the transfer of phosphatidic acid from the ER to the mitochondria for cardiolipin synthesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Comparison of gene expression profile of epiretinal membranes obtained from eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy to that of secondary epiretinal membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Asato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR is a destructive complication of retinal detachment and vitreoretinal surgery which can lead to severe vision reduction by tractional retinal detachments. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of epiretinal membranes (ERMs associated with a PVR (PVR-ERM and to compare it to the expression profile of less-aggressive secondary ERMs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A PCR-amplified complementary DNA (cDNA library was constructed using the RNAs isolated from ERMs obtained during vitrectomy. The sequence from the 5' end was obtained for randomly selected clones and used to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs. We obtained 1116 nonredundant clusters representing individual genes expressed in PVR-ERMs, and 799 clusters representing the genes expressed in secondary ERMs. The transcriptome of the PVR-ERMs was subdivided by functional subsets of genes related to metabolism, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton, signaling, and other functions, by FatiGo analysis. The genes highly expressed in PVR-ERMs were compared to those expressed in the secondary ERMs, and these were subdivided by cell adhesion, proliferation, and other functions. Querying 10 cell adhesion-related genes against the STRING database yielded 70 possible physical relationships to other genes/proteins, which included an additional 60 genes that were not detected in the PVR-ERM library. Of these, soluble CD44 and soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 were significantly increased in the vitreous of patients with PVR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support an earlier hypothesis that a PVR-ERM, even from genomic points of view, is an aberrant form of wound healing response. Genes preferentially expressed in PVR-ERMs may play an important role in the progression of PVR and could be served as therapeutic targets.

  17. Membrane's Eleven: heavy-atom derivatives of membrane-protein crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, Jens Preben; Sørensen, Thomas Lykke-Møller; Nissen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    A database has been assembled of heavy-atom derivatives used in the structure determination of membrane proteins. The database can serve as a guide to the design of experiments in the search for heavy-atom derivatives of new membrane-protein crystals. The database pinpoints organomercurials......, platinum(II) and trimethyllead compounds as being particularly useful. On the other hand, lanthanide and uranyl compounds are poorly represented, which may be a consequence of these compounds having aggressive effects in crystal-soaking procedures. Furthermore, the database highlights the variety...... of methods applied in the preparation of heavy-atom-derivatized crystals and in phasing. Cocrystallization can be further exploited. Phases have predominantly been obtained by SIRAS/MIRAS methods rather than SAD/MAD in recent structure determinations....

  18. Monoclonal antibody against membrane protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuejiao; Ren, Yudong; Li, Yu; Zhu, Jiayi; Zhu, Weijuan; Ding, Fan; Li, Guangxing; Wang, Chunfeng; Gao, Ming; Gao, Yunhang; Cao, Liyan; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus that can cause piglet diarrhea with high mortality rates. TGEV membrane (M) protein not only plays a vital role in the process of virus assembly and budding, but also induces the production of interferon-α during infection. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) designated 7G7, against the TGEV M protein was generated by inoculating BALB/c mice with TGEV followed by hybridoma technique. Immunofluorescence assays indicated that MAb 7G7 was capable of detecting cell infection by TGEV. Virus-based ELISA demonstrated that MAb 7G7 can be used as a highly specific diagnostic reagent for TGEV.

  19. Nanodisc films for membrane protein studies by neutron reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Nicolas; Laursen, Tomas; Barker, Robert

    2015-01-01

    the increased stability of POR loaded MSP1E3D1 based nanodiscs in comparison to MSP1D1 based nanodiscs, neutron reflection at the silicon-solution interface showed that POR loaded MSP1E3D1 based nanodisc films had poor surface coverage. This was the case, even when incubation was carried out under conditions...... that typically gave high coverage for empty nanodiscs. The low surface coverage affects the embedded POR coverage in the nanodisc film and limits the structural information that can be extracted from membrane bound proteins within them. Thus, nanodisc reconstitution on the smaller scaffold proteins is necessary...

  20. Bacillus Cellulase Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Surface Display on the Outer Membrane of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehwan Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of using recombinant enzymes is that they are derived from genetically-modified microorganisms commonly located in the intracellular region. The use of these recombinant enzymes for commercial purposes requires the additional processes of cell disruption and purification, which may result in enzyme loss, denaturation, and increased total production cost. In this study, the cellulase gene of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 was cloned, over-expressed, and surface displayed in recombinant Escherichia coli using an ice-nucleation protein (INP. INP, an outer membrane-bound protein from Pseudomonas syringae, was utilized as an anchor linker, which was cloned with a foreign cellulase gene into the pET21a vector to develop a surface display system on the outer membrane of E. coli. The resulting strain successfully revealed cellulase on the host cell surface. The over-expressed INP-cellulase fusion protein was confirmed via staining assay for determining the extracellular cellulase and Western blotting method for the molecular weight (MW of cellulase, which was estimated to be around 61.7 kDa. Cell fractionation and localization tests demonstrated that the INP-cellulase fusion protein was mostly present in the supernatant (47.5% and outer membrane (19.4%, while the wild-type strain intracellularly retained enzymes within cytosol (>61%, indicating that the INP gene directed the cellulase expression on the bacteria cell surface. Further studies of the optimal enzyme activity were observed at 60 °C and pH 7.0, and at least 75% of maximal enzyme activity was preserved at 70 °C.

  1. Biomimetic Membranes for Multi-Redox Center Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate L. C. Naumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available His-tag technology was applied for biosensing purposes involving multi-redox center proteins (MRPs. An overview is presented on various surfaces ranging from flat to spherical and modified with linker molecules with nitrile-tri-acetic acid (NTA terminal groups to bind his-tagged proteins in a strict orientation. The bound proteins are submitted to in situ dialysis in the presence of lipid micelles to form a so-called protein-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (ptBLM. MRPs, such as the cytochrome c oxidase (CcO from R. sphaeroides and P. denitrificans, as well as photosynthetic reactions centers (RCs from R. sphaeroides, were thus investigated. Electrochemical and surface-sensitive optical techniques, such as surface plasmon resonance, surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence, surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS, were employed in the case of the ptBLM structure on flat surfaces. Spherical particles ranging from µm size agarose gel beads to nm size nanoparticles modified in a similar fashion were called proteo-lipobeads (PLBs. The particles were investigated by laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSM and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Electron and proton transfer through the proteins were demonstrated to take place, which was strongly affected by the membrane potential. MRPs can thus be used for biosensing purposes under quasi-physiological conditions.

  2. Targeting proteins to liquid-ordered domains in lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Hayden, Carl C; Sanchez, Mari Angelica A; Wang, Julia; Bunker, Bruce C; Voigt, James A; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2011-02-15

    We demonstrate the construction of novel protein-lipid assemblies through the design of a lipid-like molecule, DPIDA, endowed with tail-driven affinity for specific lipid membrane phases and head-driven affinity for specific proteins. In studies performed on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) with varying mole fractions of dipalymitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol, and diphytanoylphosphatidyl choline (DPhPC), DPIDA selectively partitioned into the more ordered phases, either solid or liquid-ordered (L(o)) depending on membrane composition. Fluorescence imaging established the phase behavior of the resulting quaternary lipid system. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy confirmed the fluidity of the L(o) phase containing DPIDA. In the presence of CuCl(2), the iminodiacetic acid (IDA) headgroup of DPIDA forms the Cu(II)-IDA complex that exhibits a high affinity for histidine residues. His-tagged proteins were bound specifically to domains enriched in DPIDA, demonstrating the capacity to target protein binding selectively to both solid and L(o) phases. Steric pressure from the crowding of surface-bound proteins transformed the domains into tubules with persistence lengths that depended on the phase state of the lipid domains.

  3. PIST regulates the intracellular trafficking and plasma membrane expression of Cadherin 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The atypical cadherin protein cadherin 23 (CDH23 is crucial for proper function of retinal photoreceptors and inner ear hair cells. As we obtain more and more information about the specific roles of cadherin 23 in photoreceptors and hair cells, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the transport of this protein to the plasma membrane are largely unknown. Results PIST, a Golgi-associated, PDZ domain-containing protein, interacted with cadherin 23 via the PDZ domain of PIST and the C-terminal PDZ domain-binding interface (PBI of cadherin 23. By binding to cadherin 23, PIST retained cadherin 23 in the trans-Golgi network of cultured cells. The retention was released when either of the two known cadherin 23-binding proteins MAGI-1 and harmonin was co-expressed. Similar to MAGI-1 and harmonin, PIST was detected in mouse inner ear sensory hair cells. Conclusions PIST binds cadherin 23 via its PDZ domain and retains cadherin 23 in trans-Golgi network. MAGI-1 and harmonin can compete with PIST for binding cadherin 23 and release cadherin 23 from PIST's retention. Our finding suggests that PIST, MAGI-1 and harmonin collaborate in intracellular trafficking of cadherin 23 and regulate the plasma membrane expression of cadherin 23.

  4. Leptospiral Outer Membrane Proteins OmpL1 and LipL41 Exhibit Synergistic Immunoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, David A.; Mazel, Mary K.; McCoy, Adam M.; Milward, Frank; Chao, Garlo; Matsunaga, James; Wagar, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    New vaccine strategies are needed for prevention of leptospirosis, a widespread human and veterinary disease caused by invasive spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. We have examined the immunoprotective capacity of the leptospiral porin OmpL1 and the leptospiral outer membrane lipoprotein LipL41 in the Golden Syrian hamster model of leptospirosis. Specialized expression plasmids were developed to facilitate expression of leptospiral proteins in Escherichia coli as the membrane-associated proteins OmpL1-M and LipL41-M. Although OmpL1-M expression is highly toxic in E. coli, this was accomplished by using plasmid pMMB66-OmpL1, which has undetectable background expression without induction. LipL41-M expression and processing were enhanced by altering its lipoprotein signal peptidase cleavage site to mimic that of the murein lipoprotein. Active immunization of hamsters with E. coli membrane fractions containing a combination of OmpL1-M and LipL41-M was found to provide significant protection against homologous challenge with Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. At 28 days after intraperitoneal inoculation, survival in animals vaccinated with both proteins was 71% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53 to 89%), compared with only 25% (95% CI, 8 to 42%) in the control group (P < 0.001). On the basis of serological, histological, and microbiological assays, no evidence of infection was found in the vaccinated survivors. The protective effects of immunization with OmpL1-M and LipL41-M were synergistic, since significant levels of protection were not observed in animals immunized with either OmpL1-M or LipL41-M alone. In contrast to immunization with the membrane-associated forms of leptospiral proteins, hamsters immunized with His6-OmpL1 and His6-LipL41 fusion proteins, either alone or in combination, were not protected. These data indicate that the manner in which OmpL1 and LipL41 associates with membranes is an important determinant of immunoprotection. PMID

  5. A Conserved Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Protein Complex (EMC) Facilitates Phospholipid Transfer from the ER to Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Shabnam; Wong, Andrew K. O.; Choudhary, Vineet; Young, Barry P.; Loewen, Christopher J. R.; Prinz, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and lipid metabolism require phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Transfer is thought to occur at regions of close contact of these organelles and to be nonvesicular, but the mechanism is not known. Here we used a novel genetic screen in S. cerevisiae to identify mutants with defects in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria. We show that a strain missing multiple components of the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) has decreased phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Mitochondria from this strain have significantly reduced levels of PS and its derivative phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Cells lacking EMC proteins and the ER–mitochondria tethering complex called ERMES (the ER–mitochondria encounter structure) are inviable, suggesting that the EMC also functions as a tether. These defects are corrected by expression of an engineered ER–mitochondrial tethering protein that artificially tethers the ER to mitochondria. EMC mutants have a significant reduction in the amount of ER tethered to mitochondria even though ERMES remained intact in these mutants, suggesting that the EMC performs an additional tethering function to ERMES. We find that all Emc proteins interact with the mitochondrial translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex protein Tom5 and this interaction is important for PS transfer and cell growth, suggesting that the EMC forms a tether by associating with the TOM complex. Together, our findings support that the EMC tethers ER to mitochondria, which is required for phospholipid synthesis and cell growth. PMID:25313861

  6. Development of Escherichia coli Strains That Withstand Membrane Protein-Induced Toxicity and Achieve High-Level Recombinant Membrane Protein Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialama, Dimitra; Kostelidou, Kalliopi; Michou, Myrsini; Delivoria, Dafni Chrysanthi; Kolisis, Fragiskos N; Skretas, Georgios

    2017-02-17

    Membrane proteins perform critical cellular functions in all living organisms and constitute major targets for drug discovery. Escherichia coli has been the most popular overexpression host for membrane protein biochemical/structural studies. Bacterial production of recombinant membrane proteins, however, is typically hampered by poor cellular accumulation and severe toxicity for the host, which leads to low final biomass and minute volumetric yields. In this work, we aimed to rewire the E. coli protein-producing machinery to withstand the toxicity caused by membrane protein overexpression in order to generate engineered bacterial strains with the ability to achieve high-level membrane protein production. To achieve this, we searched for bacterial genes whose coexpression can suppress membrane protein-induced toxicity and identified two highly potent effectors: the membrane-bound DnaK cochaperone DjlA, and the inhibitor of the mRNA-degrading activity of the E. coli RNase E, RraA. E. coli strains coexpressing either djlA or rraA, termed SuptoxD and SuptoxR, respectively, accumulated markedly higher levels of final biomass and produced dramatically enhanced yields for a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic recombinant membrane proteins. In all tested cases, either SuptoxD, or SuptoxR, or both, outperformed the capabilities of commercial strains frequently utilized for recombinant membrane protein production purposes.

  7. Developmental regulation of tandem promoters for the major outer membrane protein gene of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, R S; Wagar, E A; Edman, U

    1988-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis has a biphasic developmental cycle which is characterized by qualitative and quantitative changes in protein expression. The molecular mechanisms that mediate these changes are unknown. Evidence for transcriptional regulation of the chlamydial major outer membrane protein gene (omp1) was found by Northern hybridization of RNA isolated sequentially during the chlamydial developmental cycle. Early in the growth cycle a single transcript was detected, which was followed hours later in the cycle by an additional transcript. Mapping of the initiating nucleotide for each transcript suggested that this gene is regulated by differential transcription from tandem promoters. Images PMID:2448291

  8. Overexpression and surface localization of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koehler, JF; Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is the quantitatively predominant surface protein which has important functional, structural and antigenic properties. We have cloned and overexpressed the MOMP in Escherichia coli. The MOMP is surface exposed in C. trachomatis....... The induction of MOMP expression had a rapidly lethal effect on the L2rMOMP E. coli clone. Although no genetic system exists for Chlamydia, development of a stable, inducible E. coli clone which overexpresses the chlamydial MOMP permits a study of the biological properties of the MOMP, including...

  9. Protein-lipid interactions in bilayer membranes: A lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, David A.; Chapman, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    A lattice model has been developed to study the effects of intrinsic membrane proteins upon the thermodynamic properties of a lipid bilayer membrane. We assume that only nearest-neighbor van der Waals and steric interactions are important and that the polar group interactions can be represented by effective pressure—area terms. Phase diagrams, the temperature T0, which locates the gel—fluid melting, the transition enthalpy, and correlations were calculated by mean field and cluster approximations. Average lipid chain areas and chain areas when the lipid is in a given protein environment were obtained. Proteins that have a “smooth” homogeneous surface (“cholesterol-like”) and those that have inhomogeneous surfaces or that bind lipids specifically were considered. We find that T0 can vary depending upon the interactions and that another peak can appear upon the shoulder of the main peak which reflects the melting of a eutectic mixture. The transition enthalpy decreases generally, as was found before, but when a second peak appears departures from this behavior reflect aspects of the eutectic mixture. We find that proteins have significant nonzero probabilities for being adjacent to one another so that no unbroken “annulus” of lipid necessarily exists around a protein. If T0 does not increase much, or decreases, with increasing c, then lipids adjacent to a protein cannot all be all-trans on the time scale (10-7 sec) of our system. Around a protein the lipid correlation depth is about one lipid layer, and this increases with c. Possible consequences of ignoring changes in polar group interactions due to clustering of proteins are discussed. PMID:286996

  10. Analysis of membrane proteome and secretome in cells over-expressing ADAM17 using quantitative proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, R.; Simabuco, F.M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Yokoo, S.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sherman, N. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) protease is involved in proteolytic ectodomain shedding of several membrane-associated proteins and modulation of key cell signaling pathways in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we examined the effect of over-expressing the full length human ADAM17 in membrane and secreted proteins. To this end, we constructed a stable Flp-In T-RExHEK293 cells expressing ADAM17 by tetracycline induction. These cells were grown in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium containing light lysine, arginine or heavy, L-Arg-13C615N4 and L-Lys -13C615N2 (SILAC: stable isotope labeling with amino acid in cell culture) media and they were treated with an ADAM17 activator, phorbolester (PMA). Controls such as Flp-In T-RExHEK293 cell without PMA treatment and without ADAM17 cloned were cultivated in light medium. The ADAM17 overexpression was induced with tetracycline 500 ng/ml for 24 hours. Cells in a heavy condition were treated with PMA 50 ng/ml for 1 hour and vehicle DMSO was used as control in a light cell condition. The extracellular media were collected, concentrated and used to evaluate the secretome and a cell surface biotinylation-based approach was used to capture cell surface-associated proteins. The biotinylated proteins were eluted with dithiothreitol, alkylated with iodoacetamide and then digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis on an ETD enabled Orbitrap Velos instrument. The results showed different proteins up or down regulated in membrane and secretome analysis which might represent potential molecules involved in signaling or ADAM17 regulation events. (author)

  11. Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase is Negatively Regulated Via Prion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Marcio Henrique Mello; Glezer, Isaias; Xavier, Andre Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Alberti Paiva; Pino, Jessica Monteiro Volejnik; Zamith, Thiago Panaro; Vieira, Taynara Fernanda; Antonio, Bruno Brito; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Martins, Vilma Regina; Lee, Kil Sun

    2016-07-01

    Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a glycoprotein of the plasma membrane that plays pleiotropic functions by interacting with multiple signaling complexes at the cell surface. Recently, a number of studies have reported the involvement of PrP(C) in dopamine metabolism and signaling, including its interactions with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine receptors. However, the outcomes reported by independent studies are still debatable. Therefore in this study, we investigated the effects of PrP(C) on the TH expression during the differentiation of N2a cells with dibutyryl-cAMP, a well-known cAMP analog that activates TH transcription. Upon differentiation, TH was induced with concomitant reduction of PrP(C) at protein level, but not at mRNA level. shRNA-mediated PrP(C) reduction increased the basal level of TH at both mRNA and protein levels without dibutyryl-cAMP treatment. This phenotype was reversed by re-expression of PrP(C). PrP(C) knockdown also potentiated the effect of dibutyryl-cAMP on TH expression. Our findings suggest that PrP(C) has suppressive effects on TH expression. As a consequence, altered PrP(C) functions may affect the regulation of dopamine metabolism and related neurological disorders.

  12. Membrane protein damage and repair: selective loss of a quinone-protein function in chloroplast membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, D.J.; Ohad, I.; Arntzen, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A loss of electron transport capacity in chloroplast membranes was induced by high-light intensities (photoinhibition). The primary site of inhibition was at the reducing side of photosystem II (PSII) with little damage to the oxidizing side or to the reaction center core of PSII. Addition of herbicides (atrazine or diuron) partially protected the membrane from photoinhibition; these compounds displace the bound plastoquinone (designated as Q/sub B/), which functions as the secondary electron acceptor on the reducing side of PSII. Loss of function of the 32-kilodalton Q/sub B/ apoprotein was demonstrated by a loss of binding sites for [ 14 C]atraazine. We suggest that quinone anions, which may interact with molecular oxygen to produce an oxygen radical, selectively damage the apoprotein of the secondary acceptor of PSII, thus rendering it inactive and thereby blocking photosynthetic electron flow under conditions of high photon flux densities. 21 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  13. Trichohyalin-like 1 protein, a member of fused S100 proteins, is expressed in normal and pathologic human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakoshi, Takako [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Makino, Teruhiko, E-mail: tmakino@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Ur Rehman, Mati; Yoshihisa, Yoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Sugimori, Michiya [Department of Integrative Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Shimizu, Tadamichi, E-mail: shimizut@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Trichohyalin-like 1 protein is a member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. ► Specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein were generated. ► TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. ► TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in tumor nests of BCC and SCC. ► The expression of TCHHL1 proteins increased in epidermis of psoriasis vulgaris. - Abstract: Trichohyalin-like 1 (TCHHL1) protein is a novel member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence of TCHHL1 contains an EF-hand domain in the N-terminus, one trans-membrane domain and a nuclear localization signal. We generated specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein and examined the expression of TCHHL1 proteins in normal and pathological human skin. An immunohistochemical study showed that TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. In addition, signals of TCHHL1 proteins were observed around the nuclei of cultured growing keratinocytes. Accordingly, TCHHL1 mRNA has been detected in normal skin and cultured growing keratinocytes. Furthermore, TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in the peripheral areas of tumor nests in basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. A dramatic increase in the number of Ki67 positive cells was observed in TCHHL1-expressing areas. The expression of TCHHL1 proteins also increased in non-cancerous hyperproliferative epidermal tissues such as those of psoriasis vulgaris and lichen planus. These findings highlight the possibility that TCHHL1 proteins are expressed in growing keratinocytes of the epidermis and might be associated with the proliferation of keratinocytes.

  14. Trichohyalin-like 1 protein, a member of fused S100 proteins, is expressed in normal and pathologic human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakoshi, Takako; Makino, Teruhiko; Ur Rehman, Mati; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Sugimori, Michiya; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Trichohyalin-like 1 protein is a member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. ► Specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein were generated. ► TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. ► TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in tumor nests of BCC and SCC. ► The expression of TCHHL1 proteins increased in epidermis of psoriasis vulgaris. - Abstract: Trichohyalin-like 1 (TCHHL1) protein is a novel member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence of TCHHL1 contains an EF-hand domain in the N-terminus, one trans-membrane domain and a nuclear localization signal. We generated specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein and examined the expression of TCHHL1 proteins in normal and pathological human skin. An immunohistochemical study showed that TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. In addition, signals of TCHHL1 proteins were observed around the nuclei of cultured growing keratinocytes. Accordingly, TCHHL1 mRNA has been detected in normal skin and cultured growing keratinocytes. Furthermore, TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in the peripheral areas of tumor nests in basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. A dramatic increase in the number of Ki67 positive cells was observed in TCHHL1-expressing areas. The expression of TCHHL1 proteins also increased in non-cancerous hyperproliferative epidermal tissues such as those of psoriasis vulgaris and lichen planus. These findings highlight the possibility that TCHHL1 proteins are expressed in growing keratinocytes of the epidermis and might be associated with the proliferation of keratinocytes

  15. Natural channel protein inserts and functions in a completely artificial, solid-supported bilayer membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fu, Wangyang; Palivan, Cornelia G.; Meier, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Reconstitution of membrane proteins in artificial membrane systems creates a platform for exploring their potential for pharmacological or biotechnological applications. Previously, we demonstrated amphiphilic block copolymers as promising building blocks for artificial membranes with long-term stability and tailorable structural parameters. However, the insertion of membrane proteins has not previously been realized in a large-area, stable, and solid-supported artificial membrane. Here, we s...

  16. Identification of frog photoreceptor plasma and disk membrane proteins by radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, P.L.; Bownds, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several functions have been identified for the plasma membrane of the rod outer segment, including control of light-dependent changes in sodium conductance and a sodium-calcium exchange mechanism. However, little is known about its constituent proteins. Intact rod outer segments substantially free of contaminants were prepared in the dark and purified on a density gradient of Percoll. Surface proteins were then labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination, and intact rod outer segments were reisolated. Membrane proteins were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The surface proteins labeled included rhodopsin, the major membrane protein, and 12 other proteins. To compare the protein composition of plasma membrane with that of the internal disk membrane, purified rod outer segments were lysed by hypotonic disruption or freeze-thawing, and plasma plus disk membranes were radioiodinated. In these membrane preparations, rhodopsin was the major iodinated constituent, with 12 other proteins also labeled. Autoradiographic evidence indicated some differences in protein composition between disk and plasma membranes. A quantitative comparison of the two samples showed that labeling of two proteins, 24 kilodaltons (kDa) and 13 kDa, was enriched in the plasma membrane, while labeling of a 220-kDa protein was enriched in the disk membrane. These plasma membrane proteins may be associated with important functions such as the light-sensitive conductance and the sodium-calcium exchanger

  17. Steric pressure between membrane-bound proteins opposes lipid phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheve, Christine S; Gonzales, Paul A; Momin, Noor; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2013-01-30

    Cellular membranes are densely crowded with a diverse population of integral and membrane-associated proteins. In this complex environment, lipid rafts, which are phase-separated membrane domains enriched in cholesterol and saturated lipids, are thought to organize the membrane surface. Specifically, rafts may help to concentrate proteins and lipids locally, enabling cellular processes such as assembly of caveolae, budding of enveloped viruses, and sorting of lipids and proteins in the Golgi. However, the ability of rafts to concentrate protein species has not been quantified experimentally. Here we show that when membrane-bound proteins become densely crowded within liquid-ordered membrane regions, steric pressure arising from collisions between proteins can destabilize lipid phase separations, resulting in a homogeneous distribution of proteins and lipids over the membrane surface. Using a reconstituted system of lipid vesicles and recombinant proteins, we demonstrate that protein-protein steric pressure creates an energetic barrier to the stability of phase-separated membrane domains that increases in significance as the molecular weight of the proteins increases. Comparison with a simple analytical model reveals that domains are destabilized when the steric pressure exceeds the approximate enthalpy of membrane mixing. These results suggest that a subtle balance of free energies governs the stability of phase-separated cellular membranes, providing a new perspective on the role of lipid rafts as concentrators of membrane proteins.

  18. Investigation of basement membrane proteins in a case of granular cell ameloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapthanasupkul, Puangwan; Poomsawat, Sopee; Chindasombatjaroen, Jira

    2012-01-01

    Granular cell ameloblastoma is a rare, benign neoplasm of the odontogenic epithelium. A case of massive granular cell ameloblastoma in a 44-year-old Thai female is reported. Histopathological features displayed a follicular type of ameloblastoma with an accumulation of granular cells residing within the tumor follicles. After treatment by partial mandibulectomy, the patient showed a good prognosis without recurrence in a 2-year follow-up. To characterize the granular cells in ameloblastoma, we examined the expression of basement membrane (BM) proteins, including collagen type IV, laminins 1 and 5 and fibronectin using immunohistochemistry. Except for the granular cells, the tumor cells demonstrated a similar expression of BM proteins compared to follicular and plexiform ameloblastomas in our previous study, whereas the granular cells showed strong positivity to laminins 1 and 5 and fibronectin. The increased fibronectin expression in granular cells suggests a possibility of age-related transformation of granular cells in ameloblastoma. PMID:22361945

  19. Characterization of auxin-binding proteins from zucchini plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G. R.; Rice, M. S.; Lomax, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    We have previously identified two auxin-binding polypeptides in plasma membrane (PM) preparations from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) (Hicks et al. 1989, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4948-4952). These polypeptides have molecular weights of 40 kDa and 42 kDa and label specifically with the photoaffinity auxin analog 5-N3-7-3H-IAA (azido-IAA). Azido-IAA permits both the covalent and radioactive tagging of auxin-binding proteins and has allowed us to characterize further the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, including the nature of their attachment to the PM, their relationship to each other, and their potential function. The azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides remain in the pelleted membrane fraction following high-salt and detergent washes, which indicates a tight and possibly integral association with the PM. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of partially purified azido-IAA-labeled protein demonstrates that, in addition to the major isoforms of the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, which possess isoelectric points (pIs) of 8.2 and 7.2, respectively, several less abundant isoforms that display unique pIs are apparent at both molecular masses. Tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of the auxin-binding proteins indicates that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are closely related or are modifications of the same polypeptide. Phase extraction with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 results in partitioning of the azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides into the aqueous (hydrophilic) phase. This apparently paradoxical behavior is also exhibited by certain integral membrane proteins that aggregate to form channels. The results of gel filtration indicate that the auxin-binding proteins do indeed aggregate strongly and that the polypeptides associate to form a dimer or multimeric complex in vivo. These characteristics are consistent with the hypothesis that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are subunits of a multimeric integral membrane protein which has an auxin-binding site, and which may

  20. Differentially expressed proteins on postoperative 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialili Ainuer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objectives: Surgical repair of Achilles tendon (AT rupture should immediately be followed by active tendon mobilization. The optimal time as to when the mobilization should begin is important yet controversial. Early kinesitherapy leads to reduced rehabilitation period. However, an insight into the detailed mechanism of this process has not been gained. Proteomic technique can be used to separate and purify the proteins by differential expression profile which is related to the function of different proteins, but research in the area of proteomic analysis of AT 3 days after repair has not been studied so far. Methods: Forty-seven New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups. Group A (immobilization group, n=16 received postoperative cast immobilization; Group B (early motion group, n=16 received early active motion treatments immediately following the repair of AT rupture from tenotomy. Another 15 rabbits served as control group (Group C. The AT samples were prepared 3 days following the microsurgery. The proteins were separated employing twodimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE. PDQuest software version 8.0 was used to identify differentially expressed proteins, followed by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF and tandem mass spectrum analysis, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI protein database retrieval and then for bioinformatics analysis. Results: A mean of 446.33, 436.33 and 462.67 protein spots on Achilles tendon samples of 13 rabbits in Group A, 14 rabbits in Group B and 13 rabbits in Group C were successfully detected in the 2D-PAGE. There were 40, 36 and 79 unique proteins in Groups A, B and C respectively. Some differentially expressed proteins were enzyme with the gel, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. We successfully identified 9 and 11 different proteins in Groups A and B, such as GAPDH, phosphoglycerate kinase 1

  1. A membrane protein / signaling protein interaction network for Arabidopsis version AMPv2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Lalonde

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between membrane proteins and the soluble fraction are essential for signal transduction and for regulating nutrient transport. To gain insights into the membrane-based interactome, 3,852 open reading frames (ORFs out of a target list of 8,383 representing membrane and signaling proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana were cloned into a Gateway compatible vector. The mating-based split-ubiquitin system was used to screen for potential protein-protein interactions (pPPIs among 490 Arabidopsis ORFs. A binary robotic screen between 142 receptor-like kinases, 72 transporters, 57 soluble protein kinases and phosphatases, 40 glycosyltransferases, 95 proteins of various functions and 89 proteins with unknown function detected 387 out of 90,370 possible PPIs. A secondary screen confirmed 343 (of 387 pPPIs between 179 proteins, yielding a scale-free network (r2=0.863. Eighty of 142 transmembrane receptor-like kinases (RLK tested positive, identifying three homomers, 63 heteromers and 80 pPPIs with other proteins. Thirty-one out of 142 RLK interactors (including RLKs had previously been found to be phosphorylated; thus interactors may be substrates for respective RLKs. None of the pPPIs described here had been reported in the major interactome databases, including potential interactors of G protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C, and AMT ammonium transporters. Two RLKs found as putative interactors of AMT1;1 were independently confirmed using a split luciferase assay in Arabidopsis protoplasts. These RLKs may be involved in ammonium-dependent phosphorylation of the C-terminus and regulation of ammonium uptake activity. The robotic screening method established here will enable a systematic analysis of membrane protein interactions in fungi, plants and metazoa.

  2. The role of putrescine in the regulation of proteins and fatty acids of thylakoid membranes under salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Yuan, Yinghui; Chen, Jie; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Wenhua; Tang, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Min; Guo, Shirong

    2015-01-01

    Polyamines can alleviate the inhibitory effects of salinity on plant growth by regulating photosynthetic efficiency. However, little information is available to explain the specific mechanisms underlying the contribution of polyamines to salt tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here, we investigated the role of putrescine (Put) on the photosynthetic apparatus of cucumber seedlings under salt stress. We found that NaCl stress resulted in severe ion toxicity and oxidative stress in cucumber chloroplasts. In addition, salinity caused a significant increase in the saturated fatty acid contents of thylakoid membranes. Put altered unsaturated fatty acid content, thereby alleviating the disintegration of thylakoid grana lamellae and reducing the number of plastoglobuli in thylakoid membranes. BN-PAGE revealed Put up-regulated the expression of ATP synthase, CP47, D1, Qb, and psbA proteins and down-regulated CP24, D2, and LHCII type III in NaCl-stressed thylakoid membranes. qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression was used to compare transcript and protein accumulation among 10 candidate proteins. For five of these proteins, induced transcript accumulation was consistent with the pattern of induced protein accumulation. Our results suggest that Put regulates protein expression at transcriptional and translational levels by increasing endogenous polyamines levels in thylakoid membranes, which may stabilise photosynthetic apparatus under salt stress. PMID:26435404

  3. Comparative transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis cells overproducing either secreted proteins, lipoproteins or membrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak Bogumiła C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus subtilis is a favorable host for the production of industrially relevant proteins because of its capacity of secreting proteins into the medium to high levels, its GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe status, its genetic accessibility and its capacity to grow in large fermentations. However, production of heterologous proteins still faces limitations. Results This study aimed at the identification of bottlenecks in secretory protein production by analyzing the response of B. subtilis at the transcriptome level to overproduction of eight secretory proteins of endogenous and heterologous origin and with different subcellular or extracellular destination: secreted proteins (NprE and XynA of B. subtilis, Usp45 of Lactococcus lactis, TEM-1 β-lactamase of Escherichia coli, membrane proteins (LmrA of L. lactis and XylP of Lactobacillus pentosus and lipoproteins (MntA and YcdH of B. subtilis. Responses specific for proteins with a common localization as well as more general stress responses were observed. The latter include upregulation of genes encoding intracellular stress proteins (groES/EL, CtsR regulated genes. Specific responses include upregulation of the liaIHGFSR operon under Usp45 and TEM-1 β-lactamase overproduction; cssRS, htrA and htrB under all secreted proteins overproduction; sigW and SigW-regulated genes mainly under membrane proteins overproduction; and ykrL (encoding an HtpX homologue specifically under membrane proteins overproduction. Conclusions The results give better insights into B. subtilis responses to protein overproduction stress and provide potential targets for genetic engineering in order to further improve B. subtilis as a protein production host.

  4. Msp1 Is a Membrane Protein Dislocase for Tail-Anchored Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlever, Matthew L; Mateja, Agnieszka; McGilvray, Philip T; Day, Kasey J; Keenan, Robert J

    2017-07-20

    Mislocalized tail-anchored (TA) proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane are cleared by a newly identified quality control pathway involving the conserved eukaryotic protein Msp1 (ATAD1 in humans). Msp1 is a transmembrane AAA-ATPase, but its role in TA protein clearance is not known. Here, using purified components reconstituted into proteoliposomes, we show that Msp1 is both necessary and sufficient to drive the ATP-dependent extraction of TA proteins from the membrane. A crystal structure of the Msp1 cytosolic region modeled into a ring hexamer suggests that active Msp1 contains a conserved membrane-facing surface adjacent to a central pore. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the pore residues shows that they are critical for TA protein extraction in vitro and for functional complementation of an msp1 deletion in yeast. Together, these data provide a molecular framework for Msp1-dependent extraction of mislocalized TA proteins from the outer mitochondrial membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parts Characterization for Tunable Protein Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Michael Schantz; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2018-01-01

    . Constructing targeted genomic variation around genomically integrated fluorescent marker genes enables rapid elucidation of the contribution of specific sequence variants to protein expression. Such an approach can be used to characterize the impact of modifications to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence...

  6. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... [Ganguli P, Chowdhury S, Bhowmick R and Sarkar RR 2015 Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling cascade during T-cell activation: A ... cells and tissues by studying different signalling pathways, such as Hedgehog ...... Murray JD 2003 On the mechanochemical theory of biological.

  7. Quantification of green fluorescent protein-(GFP-) tagged membrane proteins by capillary gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Azeem; Lee, Sang-Yong; Müller, Christa E

    2017-10-07

    A fast and robust procedure for the quantification of GFP-tagged membrane proteins in cell homogenates was developed employing capillary gel electrophoresis coupled to laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF). The new method was found to be highly sensitive and applicable to structurally diverse membrane proteins including synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A AR), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Quantification of SV2A and A 2A AR using radioligand binding assays confirmed the results obtained with CGE-LIF. The CGE-LIF method showed significantly higher sensitivity as compared to fluorimetric measurement in a microplate. Importantly, CGE-LIF involves separation of the target proteins and their degradation products prior to quantification and thereby ensures specificity. We anticipate broad applicability of the method for any fluorophore-tagged protein.

  8. A Class of Rigid Linker-bearing Glucosides for Membrane Protein Structural Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadaf, Aiman; Mortensen, Jonas S; Capaldi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    for structural and functional analysis. Despite the availability of a large number of detergents, only a few agents are sufficiently effective at maintaining the integrity of membrane proteins to allow successful crystallization. In the present study, we describe a novel class of synthetic amphiphiles....... Members of this class conferred enhanced stability on target membrane proteins compared to conventional detergents. Because of straightforward synthesis of the novel agents and their favourable effects on a range of membrane proteins, these agents should be of wide applicability to membrane protein......Membrane proteins are amphipathic bio-macromolecules incompatible with the polar environments of aqueous media. Conventional detergents encapsulate the hydrophobic surfaces of membrane proteins allowing them to exist in aqueous solution. Membrane proteins stabilized by detergent micelles are used...

  9. Expression and processing of fluorescent fusion proteins of amyloid precursor protein (APP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Kathleen; Huang, Xiangping; He, Xiangyuan; Chung, Charlotte H Y; Li, Guangpu; Tang, Jordan

    2013-06-01

    Processing of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases in neurons produces amyloid-β (Aβ), whose excess accumulation leads to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Knowledge on subcellular trafficking pathways of APP and its fragments is important for the understanding of AD pathogenesis. We designed fusion proteins comprising a C-terminal fragment of APP (app) and fluorescent proteins GFP (G) and DsRed (D) to permit the tracking of the fusion proteins and fragments in cells. CAD cells expressing these proteins emitted colocalized green and red fluorescence and produce ectodomains, sGapp and sRapp, and Aβ, whose level was reduced by inhibitors of β- and γ-secretases. The presence of GappR in endosomes was observed via colocalization with Rab5. These observations indicated that the fusion proteins were membrane inserted, transported in vesicles and proteolytically processed by the same mechanism for APP. By attenuating fusion protein synthesis with cycloheximide, individual fluorescent colors from the C-terminus of the fusion proteins appeared in the cytosol which was strongly suppressed by β-secretase inhibitor, suggesting that the ectodomains exit the cell rapidly (t1/2 about 20min) while the C-terminal fragments were retained longer in cells. In live cells, we observed the fluorescence of the ectodomains located between parental fusion proteins and plasma membrane, suggesting that these ectodomain positions are part of their secretion pathway. Our results indicate that the native ectodomain does not play a decisive role for the key features of APP trafficking and processing and the new fusion proteins may lead to novel insights in intracellular activities of APP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Commensal Strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis Overexpresses Membrane Proteins Associated with Pathogenesis When Grown in Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila-Arcos, S; Ding, S; Aloria, K; Arizmendi, J M; Fearnley, I M; Walker, J E; Goñi, F M; Alkorta, I

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of implanted medical devices. The most important factor in the pathogenesis of these infections is the formation of bacterial biofilms. Bacteria grown in biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics and to the immune defence system than planktonic bacteria. In these infections, the antimicrobial therapy usually fails and the removal of the biofilm-coated implanted device is the only effective solution. In this study, three proteomic approaches were performed to investigate membrane proteins associated to biofilm formation: (i) sample fractionation by gel electrophoresis, followed by isotopic labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis, (ii) in-solution sample preparation, followed by isotopic labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis and (iii) in-solution sample preparation and label-free LC-MS/MS analysis. We found that the commensal strain S. epidermidis CECT 231 grown in biofilms expressed higher levels of five membrane and membrane-associated proteins involved in pathogenesis: accumulation-associated protein, staphylococcal secretory antigen, signal transduction protein TRAP, ribonuclease Y and phenol soluble modulin beta 1 when compared with bacteria grown under planktonic conditions. These results indicate that a commensal strain can acquire a pathogenic phenotype depending on the mode of growth.

  11. Membrane-based techniques for the separation and purification of proteins: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Arunima; Tripathi, Bijay P; Kumar, Mahendra; Shahi, Vinod K

    2009-01-30

    Membrane processes are increasingly reported for various applications in both upstream and downstream technology, such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, emerging processes as membrane chromatography, high performance tangential flow filtration and electrophoretic membrane contactor. Membrane-based processes are playing critical role in the field of separation/purification of biotechnological products. Membranes became an integral part of biotechnology and improvements in membrane technology are now focused on high resolution of bioproduct. In bioseparation, applications of membrane technologies include protein production/purification, protein-virus separation. This manuscript provides an overview of recent developments and published literature in membrane technology, focusing on special characteristics of the membranes and membrane-based processes that are now used for the production and purification of proteins.

  12. BAR domains, amphipathic helices and membrane-anchored proteins use the same mechanism to sense membrane curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kenneth Lindegaard; Bhatia, V K; Gether, U

    2010-01-01

    The internal membranes of eukaryotic cells are all twists and bends characterized by high curvature. During recent years it has become clear that specific proteins sustain these curvatures while others simply recognize membrane shape and use it as "molecular information" to organize cellular proc...... on curved membranes instead of higher affinity as assumed so far. Finally, we integrate these new insights into the debate about which motifs are involved in sensing versus induction of membrane curvature and what role MCS proteins may play in biology....

  13. Effect of Adsorbed Protein on the Hydraulic Permeability, Membrane and Streaming Potential Values Measured across a Microporous Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the adsorption of a protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), on the membrane potential, flux reduction and streaming potential measured across a microporous polysulphone membrane with different NaCl solutions and pH values is studied. From electrokinetic phenomena, information about...... as a "composite" or two-layer membrane, and a comparison of the results obtained with both microporous polysulphone and "composite" (microporous + BSA layer) membranes could permit us to determine some parameters related to the protein sublayer. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  14. Prognostic significance of HER3 and HER4 protein expression in colorectal adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Pavlakis, Kitty; Psyrri, Amanda; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Xiros, Nikolaos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Economopoulos, Theofanis

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality in the Western world. A limited number of studies has been conducted in respect of Her-3 and Her-4 expression and their correlation with clinical parameters and prognosis in colorectal carcinomas . In this study we sought to determine the pattern and the prognostic significance of HER-3 and HER-4 in colorectal adenocarcinoma. We studied HER-3 and HER-4 protein expression in106 paraffin embedded specimens of primary colorectal tumors using immunohistochemistry. The pattern and protein expression levels of HER-3 and HER-4 were correlated with several clinical and pathological parameters. HER-3 staining displayed membranous and cytoplasmic expression pattern in 18 (17%) and 30 samples (28,3%), respectively. HER-4 membranous and cytoplasmic expression was found in 20 (18,9%) and 32 samples (30,2%), respectively. Specimens regarded as positive for HER-3 cytoplasmic expression were associated with moderate tumor grade (p = 0,032) and older median age (p = 0,010). Specimens regarded as positive for HER-4 membranous protein expression were associated with involved lymphnodes (p = 0,0003). Similar results were obtained when considering Her-3 and Her-4 protein expression irrespective of their cellular localization. There was no correlation between the expression of HER-3 and HER-4 and patients outcome. HER-4 membranous protein expression was found to predict for lymph nodes positivity in this cohort of patients with colorectal cancer.HER-4 expression status may identify tumors with aggressive biological behavior and increased metastatic potential

  15. Comparison of membrane electroporation and protein denature in response to pulsed electric field with different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feiran; Fang, Zhihui; Mast, Jason; Chen, Wei

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we compared the minimum potential differences in the electroporation of membrane lipid bilayers and the denaturation of membrane proteins in response to an intensive pulsed electric field with various pulse durations. Single skeletal muscle fibers were exposed to a pulsed external electric field. The field-induced changes in the membrane integrity (leakage current) and the Na channel currents were monitored to identify the minimum electric field needed to damage the membrane lipid bilayer and the membrane proteins, respectively. We found that in response to a relatively long pulsed electric shock (longer than the membrane intrinsic time constant), a lower membrane potential was needed to electroporate the cell membrane than for denaturing the membrane proteins, while for a short pulse a higher membrane potential was needed. In other words, phospholipid bilayers are more sensitive to the electric field than the membrane proteins for a long pulsed shock, while for a short pulse the proteins become more vulnerable. We can predict that for a short or ultrashort pulsed electric shock, the minimum membrane potential required to start to denature the protein functions in the cell plasma membrane is lower than that which starts to reduce the membrane integrity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Steric confinement of proteins on lipid membranes can drive curvature and tubulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Hayden, Carl C; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2010-04-27

    Deformation of lipid membranes into curved structures such as buds and tubules is essential to many cellular structures including endocytic pits and filopodia. Binding of specific proteins to lipid membranes has been shown to promote membrane bending during endocytosis and transport vesicle formation. Additionally, specific lipid species are found to colocalize with many curved membrane structures, inspiring ongoing exploration of a variety of roles for lipid domains in membrane bending. However, the specific mechanisms by which lipids and proteins collaborate to induce curvature remain unknown. Here we demonstrate a new mechanism for induction and amplification of lipid membrane curvature that relies on steric confinement of protein binding on membrane surfaces. Using giant lipid vesicles that contain domains with high affinity for his-tagged proteins, we show that protein crowding on lipid domain surfaces creates a protein layer that buckles outward, spontaneously bending the domain into stable buds and tubules. In contrast to previously described bending mechanisms relying on local steric interactions between proteins and lipids (i.e. helix insertion into membranes), this mechanism produces tubules whose dimensions are defined by global parameters: domain size and membrane tension. Our results suggest the intriguing possibility that confining structures, such as lipid domains and protein lattices, can amplify membrane bending by concentrating the steric interactions between bound proteins. This observation highlights a fundamental physical mechanism for initiation and control of membrane bending that may help explain how lipids and proteins collaborate to create the highly curved structures observed in vivo.

  17. Flippase activity in proteoliposomes reconstituted with Spinacea oleracea endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins: evidence of biogenic membrane flippase in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Santosh Kumar; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2008-09-30

    Phospholipid translocation (flip-flop) in biogenic (self-synthesizing) membranes such as the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells (rat liver) and bacterial cytoplasmic membranes is a fundamental step in membrane biogenesis. It is known that flip-flop in these membranes occurs without a metabolic energy requirement, bidirectionally with no specificity for phospholipid headgroup. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time ATP-independent flippase activity in endoplasmic reticulum membranes of plants using spinach as a model system. For this, we generated proteoliposomes from a Triton X-100 extract of endoplasmic reticulum membranes of spinach and assayed them for flippase activity using fluorescently labeled phospholipids. The half-time for flipping was found to be 0.7-1.0 min. We also show that (a) proteoliposomes can flip fluorescently labeled analogues of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, (b) flipping activity is protein-mediated, (c) more than one class of lipid translocator (flippase) is present in spinach membranes, based on the sensitivity to protease and protein-modifying reagents, and (d) translocation of PC and PE is affected differently upon treatment with protease and protein-modifying reagents. Ca (2+)-dependent scrambling activity was not observed in the vesicles reconstituted from plant ER membranes, ruling out the possibility of the involvement of scramblase in translocation of phospholipids. These results suggest the existence of biogenic membrane flippases in plants and that the mechanism of membrane biogenesis is similar to that found in animals.

  18. Proteomic analysis of equine amniotic membrane: characterization of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galera, Paula D; Ribeiro, Cássio R; Sapp, Harold L; Coleman, James; Fontes, Wagner; Brooks, Dennis E

    2015-05-01

    Human amniotic membrane (AM) has been used as a biomaterial for surgical wound skin and ocular surface reconstruction for several years. Currently, equine AM has been used for corneal reconstruction in several animal species, and appears to have the same properties as human AM. Despite the observed positive healing abilities of this tissue in horses with ulcerative keratitis the proteins of equine AM have not been described. To identify proteins known to be associated with corneal healing from frozen equine AM. Placentas were acquired from healthy live foal births from a local Thoroughbred breeding farm. The amnion was removed from the chorion by blunt dissection, washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and treated with 0.05% trypsin and 0.02% ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid in PBS. Amnion was attached to nitrocellulose paper (epithelial side up), and cut into 4 × 4 cm pieces. The sheets were frozen at -80 °C. The protein samples were solubilized, and analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis and shotgun proteomics. A reference identification map of the equine AM proteins was produced and 149 different proteins were identified. From gel-based proteomics, 49 spots were excised and 43 proteins identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Shotgun proteomics identified 116 proteins with an overlap of 10 proteins in both analyses. We have described a reference map for equine AM proteins that may provide a background to explain the positive results found in horses with ulcerative keratopathies using this biomaterial. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 domain cassettes 8 and 13 are associated with severe malaria in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavstsen, Thomas; Turner, Louise; Saguti, Fredy

    2012-01-01

    The clinical outcome of Plasmodium falciparum infections ranges from asymptomatic parasitemia to severe malaria syndromes associated with high mortality. The virulence of P. falciparum infections is associated with the type of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) expressed on the...

  20. The use of outer membrane proteins as an exposure surface for foreign antigens in AIDS vaccine methodology and AIDS diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede WWD; Hegger I

    1992-01-01

    A live recombinant bacteria or virus with HIV determinants exposed at the outermembrane is one strategy for AIDS vaccine development. Two HIV determinants that showed neutralization capacity in in- vitro experiments were tested for their expression in PhoE outer membrane protein of E coli K12.

  1. Hierarchical, domain type-specific acquisition of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in Tanzanian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cham, Gerald K K; Turner, Louise; Kurtis, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a variant antigen expressed on the surface of malaria-infected erythrocytes. PfEMP1 attaches to the vascular lining and allows infected erythrocytes to avoid filtration through the spleen. Each parasite genome encodes about 60 diffe...

  2. Peptide-Conjugated Gold Nanoprobe: Intrinsic Nanozyme-Linked Immunsorbant Assay of Integrin Expression Level on Cell Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Liu, Meiqing; Ma, Guifu; Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Lina; Yuan, Qing; Gao, Fuping; Liu, Ru; Zhai, Jiao; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang; Gao, Xueyun

    2015-11-24

    Precisely quantifying the membrane protein expression level on cell surfaces is of vital importance for early cancer diagnosis and efficient treatment. We demonstrate that gold nanoparticle bioconjugated by a rationally designed peptide as nanoprobe possesses selective labeling and accurate quantification capacity of integrin GPIIb/IIIa on the human erythroleukemia cell line. Through selective recognition and marking of integrin, two-photon photoluminescence of the nanoprobe is exploited for direct observation of protein spatial distribution on cell membrane. More importantly, utilizing intrinsic enzyme-like catalysis property of the nanoprobe, the expression level of integrin on human erythroleukemia cells can be quantitatively counted in an amplified and reliable colorimetric assay without cell lysis and protein extraction process. In addition, the analysis of the correlation between the gold nanoparticle and the membrane protein via relevant inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement verifies the reliability of the new analytical method. It is anticipated that this facile and efficient strategy holds a great promise for a rapid, precise, and reliable quantification of interested functional membrane proteins on the cell surface.

  3. The coronavirus spike protein : mechanisms of membrane fusion and virion incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The coronavirus spike protein is a membrane-anchored glycoprotein responsible for virus-cell attachment and membrane fusion, prerequisites for a successful virus infection. In this thesis, two aspects are described regarding the molecular biology of the coronavirus spike protein: its membrane fusion

  4. Rooster sperm plasma membrane protein and phospholipid organization and reorganization attributed to cooling and cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol to phospholipid ratio is used as a representation for membrane fluidity, and predictor of cryopreservation success but results are not consistent across species and ignore the impact of membrane proteins. Therefore, this research explored the modulation of membrane fluidity and protein ...

  5. New penta-saccharide-bearing tripod amphiphiles for membrane protein structure studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehsan, Muhammad; Ghani, Lubna; Du, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins either alone or as complexes carry out a range of key cellular functions. Detergents are indispensable tools in the isolation of membrane proteins from biological membranes for downstream studies. Although a large number of techniques and tools, including a wide variety...

  6. Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching Analysis of the Diffusional Mobility of Plasma Membrane Proteins: HER3 Mobility in Breast Cancer Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mitul; Koland, John G

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) method is a straightforward means of assessing the diffusional mobility of membrane-associated proteins that is readily performed with current confocal microscopy instrumentation. We describe here the specific application of the FRAP method in characterizing the lateral diffusion of genetically encoded green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged plasma membrane receptor proteins. The method is exemplified in an examination of whether the previously observed segregation of the mammalian HER3 receptor protein in discrete plasma membrane microdomains results from its physical interaction with cellular entities that restrict its mobility. Our FRAP measurements of the diffusional mobility of GFP-tagged HER3 reporters expressed in MCF7 cultured breast cancer cells showed that despite the observed segregation of HER3 receptors within plasma membrane microdomains their diffusion on the macroscopic scale is not spatially restricted. Thus, in FRAP analyses of various HER3 reporters a near-complete recovery of fluorescence after photobleaching was observed, indicating that HER3 receptors are not immobilized by long-lived physical interactions with intracellular species. An examination of HER3 proteins with varying intracellular domain sequence truncations also indicated that a proposed formation of oligomeric HER3 networks, mediated by physical interactions involving specific HER3 intracellular domain sequences, either does not occur or does not significantly reduce HER3 mobility on the macroscopic scale.

  7. Outer membrane proteins analysis of Shigella sonnei and evaluation of their antigenicity in Shigella infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavathy Harikrishnan

    Full Text Available Bacillary dysentery caused by infection with Shigella spp. remains as serious and common health problem throughout the world. It is a highly multi drug resistant organism and rarely identified from the patient at the early stage of infection. S. sonnei is the most frequently isolated species causing shigellosis in industrialized countries. The antigenicity of outer membrane protein of this pathogen expressed during human infection has not been identified to date. We have studied the antigenic outer membrane proteins expressed by S. sonnei, with the aim of identifying presence of specific IgA and IgG in human serum against the candidate protein biomarkers. Three antigenic OMPs sized 33.3, 43.8 and 100.3 kDa were uniquely recognized by IgA and IgG from patients with S. sonnei infection, and did not cross-react with sera from patients with other types of infection. The antigenic proteome data generated in this study are a first for OMPs of S. sonnei, and they provide important insights of human immune responses. Furthermore, numerous prime candidate proteins were identified which will aid the development of new diagnostic tools for the detection of S. sonnei.

  8. Plasma membrane microdomains regulate turnover of transport proteins in yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grossmann, G.; Malínský, Jan; Stahlschmidt, W.; Loibl, M.; Weig-Meckl, I.; Frommer, W.B.; Opekarová, Miroslava; Tanner, W.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 6 (2008), s. 1075-1088 ISSN 0021-9525 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/06/0009; GA ČR GA204/07/0133; GA ČR GC204/08/J024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Lithium acetate * Membrane compartment of Can1 * Monomeric red fluorescent protein Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 9.120, year: 2008

  9. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in human nervous system tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grizzi, Fabio; Baena, Riccardo Rodriguez y; Dioguardi, Nicola; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Gaetani, Paolo; Franceschini, Barbara; Di Ieva, Antonio; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Ceva-Grimaldi, Giorgia; Bollati, Angelo; Frezza, Eldo E; Cobos, E

    2006-01-01

    Human sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved protein that was originally isolated from a rabbit epididymal sperm membrane and testis membrane pellet. It has recently been included in the cancer/testis (CT) antigen family, and shown to be expressed in multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. We investigated its immunolocalisation in specimens of nervous system (NS) malignancies, in order to establish its usefulness as a target for tumour-vaccine strategies. The expression of Sp17 was assessed by means of a standardised immunohistochemical procedure [(mAb/antigen) MF1/Sp17] in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded surgical specimens of NS malignancies, including 28 neuroectodermal primary tumours (6 astrocytomas, 16 glioblastoma multiforme, 5 oligodendrogliomas, and 1 ependymoma), 25 meningeal tumours, and five peripheral nerve sheath tumours (4 schwannomas, and 1 neurofibroma),. A number of neuroectodermal (21%) and meningeal tumours (4%) were found heterogeneously immunopositive for Sp17. None of the peripheral nerve sheath tumours was immunopositive for Sp17. The expression pattern was heterogeneous in all of the positive samples, and did not correlate with the degree of malignancy. The frequency of expression and non-uniform cell distribution of Sp17 suggest that it cannot be used as a unique immunotherapeutic target in NS cancer. However, our results do show the immunolocalisation of Sp17 in a proportion of NS tumour cells, but not in their non-pathological counterparts. The emerging complex function of Sp17 makes further studies necessary to clarify the link between it and immunopositive cells

  10. Transient Expression and Cellular Localization of Recombinant Proteins in Cultured Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Hull, J Joe

    2017-04-20

    Heterologous protein expression systems are used for the production of recombinant proteins, the interpretation of cellular trafficking/localization, and the determination of the biochemical function of proteins at the sub-organismal level. Although baculovirus expression systems are increasingly used for protein production in numerous biotechnological, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications, nonlytic systems that do not involve viral infection have clear benefits but are often overlooked and underutilized. Here, we describe a method for generating nonlytic expression vectors and transient recombinant protein expression. This protocol allows for the efficient cellular localization of recombinant proteins and can be used to rapidly discern protein trafficking within the cell. We show the expression of four recombinant proteins in a commercially available insect cell line, including two aquaporin proteins from the insect Bemisia tabaci, as well as subcellular marker proteins specific for the cell plasma membrane and for intracellular lysosomes. All recombinant proteins were produced as chimeras with fluorescent protein markers at their carboxyl termini, which allows for the direct detection of the recombinant proteins. The double transfection of cells with plasmids harboring constructs for the genes of interest and a known subcellular marker allows for live cell imaging and improved validation of cellular protein localization.

  11. Clusters of proteins in bio-membranes: insights into the roles of interaction potential shapes and of protein diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Meilhac, Nicolas; Destainville, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that proteins embedded in lipidic bio-membranes can spontaneously self-organize into stable small clusters, or membrane nano-domains, due to the competition between short-range attractive and longer-range repulsive forces between proteins, specific to these systems. In this paper, we carry on our investigation, by Monte Carlo simulations, of different aspects of cluster phases of proteins in bio-membranes. First, we compare different long-range potentials (includ...

  12. Immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Yan, F

    2015-10-05

    We examined the immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody. Genomic DNA from the M5 strain of goat Brucella was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1. The expression and immunological characteristics of the fusion protein GST-omp31 were subjected to preliminary western blot detection with goat Brucella rabbit immune serum. The Brucella immunized BALB/c mouse serum was detected using purified protein. The high-potency mouse splenocytes and myeloma Sp2/0 cells were fused. Positive clones were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to establish a hybridoma cell line. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with hybridoma cells to prepare ascites. The mAb was purified using the n-caprylic acid-ammonium sulfate method. The characteristics of mAb were examined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A 680-base pair band was observed after polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme digestion identification and sequencing showed that the pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established; a target band of approximately 57 kDa with an apparent molecular weight consistent with the size of the target fusion protein. At 25°C, the expression of soluble expression increased significantly; the fusion protein GST-omp31 was detected by western blotting. Anti-omp31 protein mAb was obtained from 2 strains of Brucella. The antibody showed strong specificity and sensitivity and did not cross-react with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Bacillus pyocyaneus. The pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established and showed good immunogenicity. The antibody also showed strong specificity and good sensitivity.

  13. Identification of a novel bacterial outer membrane interleukin-1Β-binding protein from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamari Paino

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative opportunistic oral pathogen. It is frequently associated with subgingival biofilms of both chronic and aggressive periodontitis, and the diseased sites of the periodontium exhibit increased levels of the proinflammatory mediator interleukin (IL-1β. Some bacterial species can alter their physiological properties as a result of sensing IL-1β. We have recently shown that this cytokine localizes to the cytoplasm of A. actinomycetemcomitans in co-cultures with organotypic gingival mucosa. However, current knowledge about the mechanism underlying bacterial IL-1β sensing is still limited. In this study, we characterized the interaction of A. actinomycetemcomitans total membrane protein with IL-1β through electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The interacting protein, which we have designated bacterial interleukin receptor I (BilRI, was identified through mass spectrometry and was found to be Pasteurellaceae specific. Based on the results obtained using protein function prediction tools, this protein localizes to the outer membrane and contains a typical lipoprotein signal sequence. All six tested biofilm cultures of clinical A. actinomycetemcomitans strains expressed the protein according to phage display-derived antibody detection. Moreover, proteinase K treatment of whole A. actinomycetemcomitans cells eliminated BilRI forms that were outer membrane specific, as determined through immunoblotting. The protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli in both the outer membrane-associated form and a soluble cytoplasmic form. When assessed using flow cytometry, the BilRI-overexpressing E. coli cells were observed to bind 2.5 times more biotinylated-IL-1β than the control cells, as detected with avidin-FITC. Overexpression of BilRI did not cause binding of a biotinylated negative control protein. In a microplate assay, soluble BilRI bound to IL-1β, but this binding was not specific, as a control

  14. Overexpression of pucC improves the heterologous protein expression level in a Rhodobacter sphaeroides expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Chen, G; Ding, G; Zhao, Z; Dong, T; Hu, Z

    2015-04-27

    The Rhodobacter sphaeroides system has been used to express membrane proteins. However, its low yield has substantially limited its application. In order to promote the protein expression capability of this system, the pucC gene, which plays a crucial role in assembling the R. sphaeroides light-harvesting 2 complex (LH2), was overexpressed. To build a pucC overexpression strain, a pucC overexpression vector was constructed and transformed into R. sphaeroides CQU68. The overexpression efficiency was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A well-used reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) was fusion-expressed with LH2 to evaluate the heterologous protein expression level. As a result, the cell culture and protein in the pucC overexpression strain showed much higher typical spectral absorption peaks at 800 and 850 nm compared with the non-overexpression strain, suggesting a higher expression level of LH2-GUS fusion protein in the pucC overexpression strain. This result was further confirmed by Western blot, which also showed a much higher level of heterologous protein expression in the pucC overexpression strain. We further compared GUS activity in pucC overexpression and non-overexpression strains, the results of which showed that GUS activity in the pucC overexpression strain was approximately ten-fold that in the non-overexpression strain. These results demonstrate that overexpressed pucC can promote heterologous protein expression levels in R. sphaeroides.

  15. Reduced expression of exocytotic proteins caused by anti-cholinesterase pesticides in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Pérez-Legaspi

    Full Text Available AbstractThe organophosphate and carbamate pesticides methyl-parathion and carbaryl have a common action mechanism: they inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses. However, they can alter the expression of exocytotic membrane proteins (SNARE, by modifying release of neurotransmitters and other substances. This study evaluated the adverse effects of the pesticides methyl-parathion and carbaryl on expression of SNARE proteins: Syntaxin-1, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 in freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Protein expression of these three proteins was analyzed before and after exposure to these two pesticides by Western Blot. The expression of Syntaxin-1, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 proteins in B. calyciflorussignificantly decreases with increasing concentration of either pesticides. This suggests that organophosphates and carbamates have adverse effects on expression of membrane proteins of exocytosis by altering the recognition, docking and fusion of presynaptic and vesicular membranes involved in exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Our results demonstrate that the neurotoxic effect of anticholinesterase pesticides influences the interaction of syntaxins and SNAP-25 and the proper assembly of the SNARE complex.

  16. Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 is required for stabilization of Rac1-positive membrane tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Muralidharan; Lee, Unn Hwa; Yoon, Nal Ae; Yoon, Eun Hye; Lee, Byung Ju; Cho, Wha Ja; Park, Jeong Woo

    2017-11-04

    Previously we have reported that developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) localizes on Rab5 endosomes and plays an important role in transferrin (Tfn) recycling. We here identified DRG2 as a key regulator of membrane tubule stability. At 30 min after Tfn treatment, DRG2 localized to membrane tubules which were enriched with phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate [PI(4)P] and did not contain Rab5. DRG2 interacted with Rac1 more strongly with GTP-bound Rac1 and tubular localization of DRG2 depended on Rac1 activity. DRG2 depletion led to destabilization of membrane tubules, while ectopic expression of DRG2 rescued the stability of the membrane tubules in DRG2-depleted cells. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for regulation of membrane tubule stability mediated by DRG2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequential Conformational Changes in the Morbillivirus Attachment Protein Initiate the Membrane Fusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ader-Ebert, Nadine; Khosravi, Mojtaba; Herren, Michael; Avila, Mislay; Alves, Lisa; Bringolf, Fanny; Örvell, Claes; Langedijk, Johannes P.; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plemper, Richard K.; Plattet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Despite large vaccination campaigns, measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) cause major morbidity and mortality in humans and animals, respectively. The MeV and CDV cell entry system relies on two interacting envelope glycoproteins: the attachment protein (H), consisting of stalk and head domains, co-operates with the fusion protein (F) to mediate membrane fusion. However, how receptor-binding by the H-protein leads to F-triggering is not fully understood. Here, we report that an anti-CDV-H monoclonal antibody (mAb-1347), which targets the linear H-stalk segment 126-133, potently inhibits membrane fusion without interfering with H receptor-binding or F-interaction. Rather, mAb-1347 blocked the F-triggering function of H-proteins regardless of the presence or absence of the head domains. Remarkably, mAb-1347 binding to headless CDV H, as well as standard and engineered bioactive stalk-elongated CDV H-constructs treated with cells expressing the SLAM receptor, was enhanced. Despite proper cell surface expression, fusion promotion by most H-stalk mutants harboring alanine substitutions in the 126-138 “spacer” section was substantially impaired, consistent with deficient receptor-induced mAb-1347 binding enhancement. However, a previously reported F-triggering defective H-I98A variant still exhibited the receptor-induced “head-stalk” rearrangement. Collectively, our data spotlight a distinct mechanism for morbillivirus membrane fusion activation: prior to receptor contact, at least one of the morbillivirus H-head domains interacts with the membrane-distal “spacer” domain in the H-stalk, leaving the F-binding site located further membrane-proximal in the stalk fully accessible. This “head-to-spacer” interaction conformationally stabilizes H in an auto-repressed state, which enables intracellular H-stalk/F engagement while preventing the inherent H-stalk’s bioactivity that may prematurely activate F. Receptor-contact disrupts the

  18. [Expression of aquaporin 8 in human fetal membrane and placenta of idiopathic polyhydramnios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Qi, Hong-bo

    2009-01-01

    To determine the expression of Aquaporin 8(AQP8) in the fetal membrane and placenta of idiopathic polyhydramnios. The amnion, chorion and placenta were collected from 12 term pregnancies with idiopathic polyhydramnios( polyhydramnios group) and 12 term pregnancies who were normal (control group). The expression of AQP8 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of AQP8 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of AQP8 mRNA in amnion, chorion and placenta of polyhydramnios group was (0.78 +/- 0.13), (0.58 +/- 0.10), and (0.86 +/- 0.15) respectively, and that of control group was (0. 39 0.07), (0.45 +/- 0.09), and (0.34 +/- 0.09) respectively. The expression of AQP8 protein in amnion, chorion and placenta of polyhydramnios group was (0.195 +/- 0.024), (0.170 +/- 0.028), and (0.193 +/- 0.024) respectively, and that of control group was (0.151 +/- 0.018), (0.156 +/- 0.024), and (0.152 +/- 0.023) respectively. In all 3 types of tissues the expression of AQP8 mRNA of polyhydramnios group was higher than that of control group (P polyhydramnios group was also increased compared to that of control group (P 0.05). The expression of AQP8 mRNA and protein is significantly increased in the amnion and placenta of polyhydramnios, suggesting that AQP8 may play an important role in the regulation of amniotic fluid volume.

  19. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Membranes for Detection of High-Mass Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Park, J.; Aksamija, Z.; Arbulu, M.; Blick, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical resonators realized on the nanoscale by now offer applications in mass sensing of biomolecules with extraordinary sensitivity. The general idea is that perfect mechanical mass sensors should be of extremely small size to achieve zepto- or yoctogram sensitivity in weighing single molecules similar to a classical scale. However, the small effective size and long response time for weighing biomolecules with a cantilever restricts their usefulness as a high-throughput method. Commercial mass spectrometry (MS), on the other hand, such as electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) and their charge-amplifying detectors are the gold standards to which nanomechanical resonators have to live up to. These two methods rely on the ionization and acceleration of biomolecules and the following ion detection after a mass selection step, such as TOF. The principle we describe here for ion detection is based on the conversion of kinetic energy of the biomolecules into thermal excitation of chemical vapor deposition diamond nanomembranes via phonons followed by phonon-mediated detection via field emission of thermally emitted electrons. We fabricate ultrathin diamond membranes with large lateral dimensions for MALDI TOF MS of high-mass proteins. These diamond membranes are realized by straightforward etching methods based on semiconductor processing. With a minimal thickness of 100 nm and cross sections of up to 400 ×400 μ m2 , the membranes offer extreme aspect ratios. Ion detection is demonstrated in MALDI TOF analysis over a broad range from insulin to albumin. The resulting data in detection show much enhanced resolution as compared to existing detectors, which can offer better sensitivity and overall performance in resolving protein masses.

  20. Lipid-protein interactions in plasma membranes of fiber cells isolated from the human eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2014-03-01

    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali, L., Raguz, M., O'Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and network of outer membrane proteins regulating streptomysin resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Xu, Wen-Jiao; Lin, Xiang-Min; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2008-09-01

    Bacterial Outer membrane (OM) proteins involved in antibiotic resistance have been reported. However, little is known about the OM proteins and their interaction network regulating streptomycin (SM) resistance. In the present study, a subproteomic approach was utilized to characterize OM proteins of Escherichia coli with SM resistance. TolC, OmpT and LamB were found to be up-regulated, and FadL, OmpW and a location-unknown protein Dps were down-regulated in the SM-resistant E. coli strain. These changes at the level of protein expression were validated using Western blotting. The possible roles of the altered proteins involved in the SM resistance were investigated using genetic modified strains with the deletion of these altered genes. It is found that decreased and elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations and survival capabilities of the gene deleted strains and their resistant strains, Delta tolC, Delta ompT, Delta dps, Delta tolC-R, Delta ompT-R, Delta dps-R and Delta fadL-R, were correlated with the changes of TolC, OmpT, Dps and FadL at the protein expression levels detected by 2-DE gels, respectively. The results may suggest that these proteins are the key OM proteins and play important roles in the regulation of SM resistance in E. coli. Furthermore, an interaction network of altered OM proteins involved in the SM resistance was proposed in this report. Of the six altered proteins, TolC may play a central role in the network. These findings may provide novel insights into mechanisms of SM resistance in E. coli.

  2. Changes in exposed membrane proteins during in vitro capacitation of boar sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.

    1990-01-01

    Exposed plasma membrane proteins were labeled with 125 I before and after incubation of boar sperm under capacitating conditions. Labeled protein profiles were compared to the ability of the sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster ova. Quantitatively, the labeled sperm membrane proteins were primarily low Mr prior to capacitation. The majority of the labeled seminal plasma protein was also low Mr. After capacitation, two new proteins (64,000 Mr and 78,000 Mr) were labeled. Sperm did not exhibit these exposed membrane proteins when incubated under noncapacitating conditions. Appearance of these proteins was not correlated to the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm. Although the 64,000 Mr protein was not consistently observed, the relative labeling of the 78,000 Mr protein was highly correlated with the ability of sperm to fuse with zona-free hamster ova. The 78,000 Mr protein may be a sperm protein involved in fusion with the egg plasma membrane

  3. High resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yong; Dutta, Samit Kumar; Park, Sang Ho; Rai, Ratan; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Bobkov, Andrey A.; Opella, Stanley J.; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2017-01-01

    The outer membrane protein Ail (Adhesion invasion locus) is one of the most abundant proteins on the cell surface of Yersinia pestis during human infection. Its functions are expressed through interactions with a variety of human host proteins, and are essential for microbial virulence. Structures of Ail have been determined by X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy, but those samples contained detergents that interfere with functionality, thus, precluding analysis of the structural basis for Ail’s biological activity. Here, we demonstrate that high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra can be obtained from samples of Ail in detergent-free phospholipid liposomes, prepared with a lipid to protein molar ratio of 100. The spectra, obtained with 13 C or 1 H detection, have very narrow line widths (0.40–0.60 ppm for 13 C, 0.11–0.15 ppm for 1 H, and 0.46–0.64 ppm for 15 N) that are consistent with a high level of sample homogeneity. The spectra enable resonance assignments to be obtained for N, CO, CA and CB atomic sites from 75 out of 156 residues in the sequence of Ail, including 80% of the transmembrane region. The 1 H-detected solid-state NMR 1 H/ 15 N correlation spectra obtained for Ail in liposomes compare very favorably with the solution NMR 1 H/ 15 N TROSY spectra obtained for Ail in nanodiscs prepared with a similar lipid to protein molar ratio. These results set the stage for studies of the molecular basis of the functional interactions of Ail with its protein partners from human host cells, as well as the development of drugs targeting Ail.

  4. High resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong; Dutta, Samit Kumar; Park, Sang Ho; Rai, Ratan; Fujimoto, L Miya; Bobkov, Andrey A; Opella, Stanley J; Marassi, Francesca M

    2017-03-01

    The outer membrane protein Ail (Adhesion invasion locus) is one of the most abundant proteins on the cell surface of Yersinia pestis during human infection. Its functions are expressed through interactions with a variety of human host proteins, and are essential for microbial virulence. Structures of Ail have been determined by X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy, but those samples contained detergents that interfere with functionality, thus, precluding analysis of the structural basis for Ail's biological activity. Here, we demonstrate that high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra can be obtained from samples of Ail in detergent-free phospholipid liposomes, prepared with a lipid to protein molar ratio of 100. The spectra, obtained with 13 C or 1 H detection, have very narrow line widths (0.40-0.60 ppm for 13 C, 0.11-0.15 ppm for 1 H, and 0.46-0.64 ppm for 15 N) that are consistent with a high level of sample homogeneity. The spectra enable resonance assignments to be obtained for N, CO, CA and CB atomic sites from 75 out of 156 residues in the sequence of Ail, including 80% of the transmembrane region. The 1 H-detected solid-state NMR 1 H/ 15 N correlation spectra obtained for Ail in liposomes compare very favorably with the solution NMR 1 H/ 15 N TROSY spectra obtained for Ail in nanodiscs prepared with a similar lipid to protein molar ratio. These results set the stage for studies of the molecular basis of the functional interactions of Ail with its protein partners from human host cells, as well as the development of drugs targeting Ail.

  5. High resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yong; Dutta, Samit Kumar [Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (United States); Park, Sang Ho; Rai, Ratan [University of California San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Fujimoto, L. Miya; Bobkov, Andrey A. [Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (United States); Opella, Stanley J. [University of California San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Marassi, Francesca M., E-mail: fmarassi@sbp.edu [Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The outer membrane protein Ail (Adhesion invasion locus) is one of the most abundant proteins on the cell surface of Yersinia pestis during human infection. Its functions are expressed through interactions with a variety of human host proteins, and are essential for microbial virulence. Structures of Ail have been determined by X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy, but those samples contained detergents that interfere with functionality, thus, precluding analysis of the structural basis for Ail’s biological activity. Here, we demonstrate that high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra can be obtained from samples of Ail in detergent-free phospholipid liposomes, prepared with a lipid to protein molar ratio of 100. The spectra, obtained with {sup 13}C or {sup 1}H detection, have very narrow line widths (0.40–0.60 ppm for {sup 13}C, 0.11–0.15 ppm for {sup 1}H, and 0.46–0.64 ppm for {sup 15}N) that are consistent with a high level of sample homogeneity. The spectra enable resonance assignments to be obtained for N, CO, CA and CB atomic sites from 75 out of 156 residues in the sequence of Ail, including 80% of the transmembrane region. The {sup 1}H-detected solid-state NMR {sup 1}H/{sup 15}N correlation spectra obtained for Ail in liposomes compare very favorably with the solution NMR {sup 1}H/{sup 15}N TROSY spectra obtained for Ail in nanodiscs prepared with a similar lipid to protein molar ratio. These results set the stage for studies of the molecular basis of the functional interactions of Ail with its protein partners from human host cells, as well as the development of drugs targeting Ail.

  6. An efficient strategy for small-scale screening and production of archaeal membrane transport proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pikyee; Varela, Filipa; Magoch, Malgorzata; Silva, Ana Rita; Rosário, Ana Lúcia; Brito, José; Oliveira, Tânia Filipa; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Pessanha, Miguel; Stelter, Meike; Kletzin, Arnulf; Henderson, Peter J F; Archer, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins play a key role in many fundamental cellular processes such as transport of nutrients, sensing of environmental signals and energy transduction, and account for over 50% of all known drug targets. Despite their importance, structural and functional characterisation of membrane proteins still remains a challenge, partially due to the difficulties in recombinant expression and purification. Therefore the need for development of efficient methods for heterologous production is essential. Fifteen integral membrane transport proteins from Archaea were selected as test targets, chosen to represent two superfamilies widespread in all organisms known as the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) and the 5-Helix Inverted Repeat Transporter superfamily (5HIRT). These proteins typically have eleven to twelve predicted transmembrane helices and are putative transporters for sugar, metabolite, nucleobase, vitamin or neurotransmitter. They include a wide range of examples from the following families: Metabolite-H(+)-symporter; Sugar Porter; Nucleobase-Cation-Symporter-1; Nucleobase-Cation-Symporter-2; and neurotransmitter-sodium-symporter. Overproduction of transporters was evaluated with three vectors (pTTQ18, pET52b, pWarf) and two Escherichia coli strains (BL21 Star and C43 (DE3)). Thirteen transporter genes were successfully expressed; only two did not express in any of the tested vector-strain combinations. Initial trials showed that seven transporters could be purified and six of these yielded quantities of ≥ 0.4 mg per litre suitable for functional and structural studies. Size-exclusion chromatography confirmed that two purified transporters were almost homogeneous while four others were shown to be non-aggregating, indicating that they are ready for up-scale production and crystallisation trials. Here, we describe an efficient strategy for heterologous production of membrane transport proteins in E. coli. Small-volume cultures (10 mL) produced sufficient

  7. Nanoscopic dynamics of bicontinous microemulsions: effect of membrane associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V K; Hayes, Douglas G; Urban, Volker S; O'Neill, Hugh M; Tyagi, M; Mamontov, E

    2017-07-19

    Bicontinous microemulsions (BμE) generally consist of nanodomains formed by surfactant in a mixture of water and oil at nearly equal proportions and are potential candidates for the solubilization and purification of membrane proteins. Here we present the first time report of nanoscopic dynamics of surfactant monolayers within BμEs formed by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) measured on the nanosecond to picosecond time scale using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). BμEs investigated herein consisted of middle phases isolated from Winsor-III microemulsion systems that were formed by mixing aqueous and oil solutions under optimal conditions. QENS data indicates that surfactants undergo two distinct motions, namely (i) lateral motion along the surface of the oil nanodomains and (ii) localized internal motion. Lateral motion can be described using a continuous diffusion model, from which the lateral diffusion coefficient is obtained. Internal motion of surfactant is described using a model which assumes that a fraction of the surfactants' hydrogens undergoes localized translational diffusion that could be considered confined within a spherical volume. The effect of cytochrome c, an archetypal membrane-associated protein known to strongly partition near the surfactant head groups in BμEs (a trend supported by small-angle X-ray scattering [SAXS] analysis), on the dynamics of BμE has also been investigated. QENS results demonstrated that cytochrome c significantly hindered both the lateral and the internal motions of surfactant. The lateral motion was more strongly affected: a reduction of the lateral diffusion coefficient by 33% was measured. This change is mainly attributable to the strong association of cytochrome c with oppositely charged SDS. In contrast, analysis of SAXS data suggested that thermal fluctuations (for a longer length and slower time scale compared to QENS) were increased upon incorporation of cytochrome c. This study

  8. Protein kinase and phosphatase activities of thylakoid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, H.; Shaw, E.K.; Bennett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of the 25 and 27 kDa light-harvesting Chl a/b proteins (LHCII) of the thylakoid membranes is catalyzed by a phosphatase which differs from previously reported thylakoid-bound phosphatases in having an alkaline pH optimum (9.0) and a requirement for Mg 2+ ions. Dephosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa psb H gene product requires a Mg 2+ ion concentration more than 200 fold higher than that for dephosphorylation of LHC II. The 8.3 kDa and 27 kDa proteins appear to be phosphorylated by two distinct kinases, which differ in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors. The plastoquinone antagonist 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB) inhibits phosphorylation of the 27 kDa LHC II much more readily than phosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa protein. A similar pattern of inhibition is seen for two synthetic oligopeptides (MRKSATTKKAVC and ATQTLESSSRC) which are analogs of the phosphorylation sites of the two proteins. Possible modes of action of DBMIB are discussed. 45 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. The expression of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 in fetal membranes and placenta in term pregnancies complicated by idiopathic polyhydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueqiong; Jiang, Shanshan; Hu, Yingchun; Zheng, Xiaoqun; Zou, Shuangwei; Wang, Yuhuan; Zhu, Xuejie

    2010-10-01

    Aquaporins are a family of membrane-bound water channel proteins that regulate the flow of water across a variety of biological membranes. The expression of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 has been demonstrated in human chorioamniotic membrane and placenta. But their roles in the pathophysiology of polyhydramnios are unclear. To study the expression of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 in fetal membranes and placenta in term pregnancies complicated by idiopathic polyhydramnios and to explore the association between aquaporin expressions and polyhydramnios. The placentas were collected from 51 patients who underwent elective Cesarean sections at term, of which 21 cases had idiopathic polyhydramnios and the other 30 had normal amniotic fluid volume. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry techniques were used to determine the expression and localization of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 in the amnion, chorion and placenta. Expression of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 was detected in the amnion, chorion and placenta and located in amnion epithelia, chorion cytotrophoblasts and placental trophoblast. Compared to normal amniotic fluid volume group, the expression of aquaporin 8 in amnion, and aquaporin 9 in amnion and chorion, were significantly increased in idiopathic polyhydramnios group; however, their expression in the placenta was significantly decreased. When polyhydramnios occurs, expression of aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 in fetal membranes and placenta is an adaptive change, which may be involved in the regulation of amniotic fluid volume. However, the modulation factors of the aquaporin 8 and aquaporin 9 expressions need further study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of calcium on direct incorporation of membrane proteins into in-plane lipid bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquand, Alexandre; Levy, Daniel; Gubellini, Francesca; Le Grimellec, Christian; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Reconstitution of transmembrane proteins by direct incorporation into supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) is a new method to provide suitable samples for high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of membrane proteins. First experiments have reported successful incorporation of proteins into detergent-destabilized SLBs. Here, we analyzed by AFM the incorporation of membrane proteins in the presence of calcium, a divalent cation functionally important for several membrane proteins. Using lipid-phase-separated membranes, we first show that calcium strongly stabilizes the SLBs decreasing the insertion of low cmc detergents, dodecyl-β-maltoside, dodecyl-β-thiomaltoside, and N-hexadecylphosphocholine (Fos-Choline-16) and further insertion of proteins. However, high yield of protein insertion is recovered in the presence of calcium by increasing the detergent concentration in the solution. These data revealed the importance of the calcium in the structure of SLBs and provided new insights into the mechanism of protein insertion into these model membranes

  11. The Rh protein family: gene evolution, membrane biology, and disease association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Han; Ye, Mao

    2010-04-01

    The Rh (Rhesus) genes encode a family of conserved proteins that share a structural fold of 12 transmembrane helices with members of the major facilitator superfamily. Interest in this family has arisen from the discovery of Rh factor's involvement in hemolytic disease in the fetus and newborn, and of its homologs widely expressed in epithelial tissues. The Rh factor and Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG), with epithelial cousins RhBG and RhCG, form four subgroups conferring upon vertebrates a genealogical commonality. The past decade has heralded significant advances in understanding the phylogenetics, allelic diversity, crystal structure, and biological function of Rh proteins. This review describes recent progress on this family and the molecular insights gleaned from its gene evolution, membrane biology, and disease association. The focus is on its long evolutionary history and surprising structural conservation from prokaryotes to humans, pointing to the importance of its functional role, related to but distinct from ammonium transport proteins.

  12. Expression and putative role of mitochondrial transport proteins in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytovchenko, Oleksandr; Kunji, Edmund R S

    2017-08-01

    Cancer cells undergo major changes in energy and biosynthetic metabolism. One of them is the Warburg effect, in which pyruvate is used for fermentation rather for oxidative phosphorylation. Another major one is their increased reliance on glutamine, which helps to replenish the pool of Krebs cycle metabolites used for other purposes, such as amino acid or lipid biosynthesis. Mitochondria are central to these alterations, as the biochemical pathways linking these processes run through these organelles. Two membranes, an outer and inner membrane, surround mitochondria, the latter being impermeable to most organic compounds. Therefore, a large number of transport proteins are needed to link the biochemical pathways of the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix. Since the transport steps are relatively slow, it is expected that many of these transport steps are altered when cells become cancerous. In this review, changes in expression and regulation of these transport proteins are discussed as well as the role of the transported substrates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Mitochondria in Cancer, edited by Giuseppe Gasparre, Rodrigue Rossignol and Pierre Sonveaux. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Membrane-protein integration and the role of the translocation channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Tom A; Goder, Veit; Heinrich, Sven U; Matlack, Kent E S

    2004-10-01

    Most eukaryotic membrane proteins are integrated into the lipid bilayer during their synthesis at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Their integration occurs with the help of a protein-conducting channel formed by the heterotrimeric Sec61 membrane-protein complex. The crystal structure of an archaeal homolog of the complex suggests mechanisms that enable the channel to open across the membrane and to release laterally hydrophobic transmembrane segments of nascent membrane proteins into lipid. Many aspects of membrane-protein integration remain controversial and poorly understood, but new structural data provide testable hypotheses. We propose a model of how the channel recognizes transmembrane segments, orients them properly with respect to the plane of the membrane and releases them into lipid. We also discuss how the channel would prevent small molecules from crossing the lipid bilayer while it is integrating proteins.

  14. Heterologous expression of tulip petal plasma membrane aquaporins in Pichia pastoris for water channel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Water channels formed by aquaporins (AQPs) play an important role in the control of water homeostasis in individual cells and in multicellular organisms. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) constitute a subclass of plant AQPs. TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 from tulip petals are members of the PIP family. In this study, we overexpressed TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 in Pichia pastoris and monitored their water channel activity (WCA) either by an in vivo spheroplast-bursting assay performed after hypo-osmotic shock or by growth assay. Osmolarity, pH, and inhibitors of AQPs, protein kinases (PKs), and protein phosphatases (PPs) affect the WCA of heterologous AQPs in this expression system. The WCA of TgPIP2;2-expressing spheroplasts was affected by inhibitors of PKs and PPs, which indicates that the water channel of this homologue is regulated by phosphorylation in P. pastoris. From the results reported herein, we suggest that P. pastoris can be employed as a heterologous expression system to assay the WCA of PIPs and to monitor the AQP-mediated channel gating mechanism, and it can be developed to screen inhibitors/effectors of PIPs.

  15. Heterologous Expression of Tulip Petal Plasma Membrane Aquaporins in Pichia pastoris for Water Channel Analysis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Water channels formed by aquaporins (AQPs) play an important role in the control of water homeostasis in individual cells and in multicellular organisms. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) constitute a subclass of plant AQPs. TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 from tulip petals are members of the PIP family. In this study, we overexpressed TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 in Pichia pastoris and monitored their water channel activity (WCA) either by an in vivo spheroplast-bursting assay performed after hypo-osmotic shock or by growth assay. Osmolarity, pH, and inhibitors of AQPs, protein kinases (PKs), and protein phosphatases (PPs) affect the WCA of heterologous AQPs in this expression system. The WCA of TgPIP2;2-expressing spheroplasts was affected by inhibitors of PKs and PPs, which indicates that the water channel of this homologue is regulated by phosphorylation in P. pastoris. From the results reported herein, we suggest that P. pastoris can be employed as a heterologous expression system to assay the WCA of PIPs and to monitor the AQP-mediated channel gating mechanism, and it can be developed to screen inhibitors/effectors of PIPs. PMID:19251885

  16. High-throughput recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The ease of genetic manipulation, low cost, rapid growth and number of previous studies have made Escherichia coli one of the most widely used microorganism species for producing recombinant proteins. In this post-genomic era, challenges remain to rapidly express and purify large numbers of proteins for academic and commercial purposes in a high-throughput manner. In this review, we describe several state-of-the-art approaches that are suitable for the cloning, expression and purification, conducted in parallel, of numerous molecules, and we discuss recent progress related to soluble protein expression, mRNA folding, fusion tags, post-translational modification and production of membrane proteins. Moreover, we address the ongoing efforts to overcome various challenges faced in protein expression in E. coli, which could lead to an improvement of the current system from trial and error to a predictable and rational design. PMID:27581654

  17. High-throughput recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Baolei; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-08-01

    The ease of genetic manipulation, low cost, rapid growth and number of previous studies have made Escherichia coli one of the most widely used microorganism species for producing recombinant proteins. In this post-genomic era, challenges remain to rapidly express and purify large numbers of proteins for academic and commercial purposes in a high-throughput manner. In this review, we describe several state-of-the-art approaches that are suitable for the cloning, expression and purification, conducted in parallel, of numerous molecules, and we discuss recent progress related to soluble protein expression, mRNA folding, fusion tags, post-translational modification and production of membrane proteins. Moreover, we address the ongoing efforts to overcome various challenges faced in protein expression in E. coli, which could lead to an improvement of the current system from trial and error to a predictable and rational design. © 2016 The Authors.

  18. Specific chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins associate with active Src family kinases in microdomains that interact with the host microtubule network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Jeffrey; Miller, Natalie J; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Hackstadt, Ted

    2010-09-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that cause diseases with significant medical and economic impact. Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a vacuole termed an inclusion, which is extensively modified by the insertion of a number of bacterial effector proteins known as inclusion membrane proteins (Incs). Once modified, the inclusion is trafficked in a dynein-dependent manner to the microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC), where it associates with host centrosomes. Here we describe a novel structure on the inclusion membrane comprised of both host and bacterial proteins. Members of the Src family of kinases are recruited to the chlamydial inclusion in an active form. These kinases display a distinct, localized punctate microdomain-like staining pattern on the inclusion membrane that colocalizes with four chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins (Incs) and is enriched in cholesterol. Biochemical studies show that at least two of these Incs stably interact with one another. Furthermore, host centrosomes associate with these microdomain proteins in C. trachomatis-infected cells and in uninfected cells exogenously expressing one of the chlamydial effectors. Together, the data suggest that a specific structure on the C. trachomatis inclusion membrane may be responsible for the known interactions of chlamydiae with the microtubule network and resultant effects on centrosome stability.

  19. Uterine and placental expression of HPGD in cows during pregnancy and release of fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hof, Jessica; Sprekeler, Nele; Schuler, Gerhard; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2017-01-01

    15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) plays a key role in prostaglandins (PGs) catabolism. Its expression and activity appear to be regulated by progesterone (P4). We investigated the HPGD mRNA-expression and protein localization in placentomes and interplacental uterine sites throughout gestation (Study I), and after fetal membranes retention (RFM) compared with normally delivered fetal membranes (DFM) (Study II). Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of aglepristone (AP), dexamethasone (GC) or cloprostenol (CP), on HPGD expression in bovine placentomes (Study III). Tissues from late gestation (D272) and at normal term (NT) served as controls. HPGD was highest in all sites at the beginning of pregnancy and at (NT). Following induced parturition HPGD was lower after (AP) and (GC) compared with (NT), and was similar in RFM and DFM. Placentomes stained primarily in fetal compartments; interplacentomal signals were observed in endometrial glandular and luminal epithelium. Results indicate that HPGD may play a role during establishment and termination of gestation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Membrane re-modelling by BAR domain superfamily proteins via molecular and non-molecular factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tamako; Morone, Nobuhiro; Suetsugu, Shiro

    2018-03-14

    Lipid membranes are structural components of cell surfaces and intracellular organelles. Alterations in lipid membrane shape are accompanied by numerous cellular functions, including endocytosis, intracellular transport, and cell migration. Proteins containing Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domains (BAR proteins) are unique, because their structures correspond to the membrane curvature, that is, the shape of the lipid membrane. BAR proteins present at high concentration determine the shape of the membrane, because BAR domain oligomers function as scaffolds that mould the membrane. BAR proteins co-operate with various molecular and non-molecular factors. The molecular factors include cytoskeletal proteins such as the regulators of actin filaments and the membrane scission protein dynamin. Lipid composition, including saturated or unsaturated fatty acid tails of phospholipids, also affects the ability of BAR proteins to mould the membrane. Non-molecular factors include the external physical forces applied to the membrane, such as tension and friction. In this mini-review, we will discuss how the BAR proteins orchestrate membrane dynamics together with various molecular and non-molecular factors. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.